Sample records for capsaicin receptor trpv1

  1. Capsaicin Receptor: TRPV1 A Promiscuous TRP Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Pingle; J. A. Matta; G. P. Ahern

    TRPV1, the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent\\u000a ingredient in hot chili peppers. The receptor has a diverse tissue distribution, with high expression in sensory neurons.\\u000a TRPV1 is a nonselective cation channel with significant permeability to calcium, protons, and large polyvalent cations. It\\u000a is the most polymodal TRP channel,

  2. Capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in urothelium of neurogenic human bladders and effect of intravesical resiniferatoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolos Apostolidis; Ciaran M. Brady; Yiangos Yiangou; John Davis; Clare J. Fowler; Praveen Anand

    2005-01-01

    ObjectivesTo study TRPV1 immunoreactivity in the urothelium of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) before and after treatment with resiniferatoxin (RTX) and controls. Functional capsaicin TRPV1 receptors have been demonstrated in urothelial cells of rodent urinary bladder, and TRPV1-knockout mice exhibit diminished nitric oxide and stretch-evoked adenosine triphosphate release from urothelial cells. In patients with NDO, TRPV1 suburothelial nerve density

  3. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 as a novel modulator of neural precursor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Stock, Kristin; Garthe, Alexander; de Almeida Sassi, Felipe; Glass, Rainer; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2014-12-01

    The capsaicin receptor (TRPV1, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) was first discovered in the peripheral nervous system as a detector of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli including the irritant chili pepper. Recently, there has been increasing evidence of TRPV1 expression in the central nervous system. Here, we show that TRPV1 is expressed in neural precursor cells (NPCs) during postnatal development, but not in the adult. However, expression of TRPV1 is induced in the adult in paradigms linked to an increase in neurogenesis, such as spatial learning in the Morris water maze or voluntary exercise. Loss of TRPV1 expression in knockout mice leads to an increase in NPC proliferation. Functional TRPV1 expression has been confirmed in cultured NPCs. Our results indicate that TRPV1 expression influences both postnatal and activity-induced neurogenesis in adulthood. PMID:25092424

  4. Nicotinic Acid Activates the Capsaicin Receptor TRPV1 – A Potential Mechanism for Cutaneous Flushing

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Linlin; Lee, Bo Hyun; Mao, Rongrong; Cai, Anping; Jia, Yunfang; Clifton, Heather; Schaefer, Saul; Xu, Lin; Zheng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nicotinic acid (a.k.a. niacin or vitamin B3), widely used to treat dyslipidemias, represents an effective and safe means to reduce the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, a substantial fraction of patients discontinue treatment due to a strong side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly termed flushing. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that nicotinic acid causes flushing partially by activating the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, a polymodal cellular sensor that mediates the flushing response upon consumption of spicy food. Approach and Results We observed that the nicotinic acid-induced increase in blood flow was substantially reduced in Trpv1?/? knockout mice, indicating involvement of the channel in flushing response. Using exogenously expressed TRPV1, we confirmed that nicotinic acid at sub-millimolar to millimolar concentrations directly and potently activates TRPV1 from the intracellular side. Binding of nicotinic acid to TRPV1 lowers its activation threshold for heat, causing channel opening at physiological temperatures. Activation of TRPV1 by voltage or ligands (capsaicin and 2-APB) is also potentiated by nicotinic acid. We further demonstrated that nicotinic acid does not compete directly with capsaicin but may activate TRPV1 through the 2-APB activation pathway. Using live-cell fluorescence imaging, we observed that nicotinic acid can quickly enter the cell through a transporter-mediated pathway to activate TRPV1. Conclusions Direct activation of TRPV1 by nicotinic acid may lead to cutaneous vasodilation that contributes to flushing, suggesting a potential novel pathway to inhibit flushing and improve compliance. PMID:24675661

  5. From The Cover: Protein kinase C phosphorylation sensitizes but does not activate the capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gautam Bhave; Hui-Juan Hu; Kathi S. Glauner; Weiguo Zhu; Haibin Wang; D. J. Brasier; Gerry S. Oxford; Robert W. Gereau IV

    2003-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) modulates the function of the capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). This modulation manifests as increased current when the channel is activated by capsaicin. In addition, studies have suggested that phosphorylation by PKC might directly gate the channel, because PKC-activating phorbol esters induce TRPV1 currents in the absence of applied ligands. To test whether

  6. ThermoTRP channels in nociceptors: taking a lead from capsaicin receptor TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Mandadi, Sravan; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2008-03-01

    Nociceptors with peripheral and central projections express temperature sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, also called thermoTRP's. Chemosensitivity of thermoTRP's to certain natural compounds eliciting pain or exhibiting thermal properties has proven to be a good tool in characterizing these receptors. Capsaicin, a pungent chemical in hot peppers, has assisted in the cloning of the first thermoTRP, TRPV1. This discovery initiated the search for other receptors encoding the response to a wide range of temperatures encountered by the body. Of these, TRPV1 and TRPV2 encode unique modalities of thermal pain when exposed to noxious heat. The ability of TRPA1 to encode noxious cold is presently being debated. The role of TRPV1 in peripheral inflammatory pain and central sensitization during chronic pain is well known. In addition to endogenous agonists, a wide variety of chemical agonists and antagonists have been discovered to activate and inhibit TRPV1. Efforts are underway to determine conditions under which agonist-mediated desensitization of TRPV1 or inhibition by antagonists can produce analgesia. Also, identification of specific second messenger molecules that regulate phosphorylation of TRPV1 has been the focus of intense research, to exploit a broader approach to pain treatment. The search for a role of TRPV2 in pain remains dormant due to the lack of suitable experimental models. However, progress into TRPA1's role in pain has received much attention recently. Another thermoTRP, TRPM8, encoding for the cool sensation and also expressed in nociceptors, has recently been shown to reduce pain via a central mechanism, thus opening a novel strategy for achieving analgesia. The role of other thermoTRP's (TRPV3 and TRPV4) encoding for detection of warm temperatures and expressed in nociceptors cannot be excluded. This review will discuss current knowledge on the role of nociceptor thermoTRPs in pain and therapy and describes the activator and inhibitor molecules known to interact with them and modulate their activity. PMID:19305786

  7. Is thermal nociception only sensed by the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1?

    PubMed

    Hiura, Akio

    2009-09-01

    Mammalian heat pain perception is well documented as a molecular event in the primary afferent neurons expressing TRPV1. Six types of thermo-TRPs were found, i.e., TRPV1-4, TRPM8 and TRPA1. The former TRPV1, 2 and TRPV3, 4 are sensitive to noxious heat and warmth, and the latter two are sensitive to cool or cold, respectively. We attempted to provide a hypothesis to explain the paradox in which TRPV1 knockout mice and capsaicin-pretreated mice with severe loss of small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons behave normally to noxious heat. From the general view that TRPV1 is preferentially expressed in C-fibers responding to a moderate thermal threshold (>43 degrees C) and TRPV2 in Adelta-fibers to high threshold temperatures (>52 degrees C), the above phenomenon is perplexing. Woodbury et al. (J Neurosci 24:6410-6415, 2004) offered two pain transduction mechanisms, one being TRPV1/2-independent and the other TRPV1-dependent. The former detects noxious heat under normal conditions without the presence of TRPV1 or TRPV2, and the latter requires TRPV1 under pathophysiological conditions. Unidentified isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive but TRPV1-negative small neurons with a higher noxious heat threshold are feasible, because a spliced isoform of TRPV1 responsive to noxious heat (47 degrees C) but not responsive to either proton or capsaicin is present in human and rat sensory neurons. Thus, the IB4-positive but TRPV1-negative small sensory neurons must have a crucial role in the noxious heat response. PMID:19562439

  8. Adlea (ALGRX-4975), an injectable capsaicin (TRPV1 receptor agonist) formulation for longlasting pain relief.

    PubMed

    Remadevi, Radhika; Szallisi, Arpad

    2008-02-01

    Anesiva Inc is developing Adlea (ALRGX-4975) - an injectable preparation of capsaicin, a TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1) receptor agonist - for the potential management of pain associated with osteoarthritis, tendonitiand postsurgical conditions, as well as for neuropathic pain occurring secondary to nerve injury. Adlea functions by desensitizing those neurons that conduct a long-lasting, throbbing form of pain. In phase II clinical trials, a single injection of Adlea significantly reduced pain levels in patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or bunionectomy, and reduced pain in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or Morton's neuroma. Phase II trials are ongoing to test Adlea in patients who are undergoing total hip arthroplasty or arthroscopic shoulder surgery and in patients with knee OA. Phase III clinical trials for the compound have been slated to begin in 2008 in patients following TKA or bunionectomy. Adlea appears to exhibit promise as a new medication in the treatment of conditions of chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:18240098

  9. The TRPV1 receptor and nociception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Immke; Narender R. Gavva

    2006-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is an emerging target for the treatment of pain with a unique expression profile in peripheral nociceptors and the ability to show polymodal activation, TRPV1 is an important integrator of responses to inflammatory mediators. Sensitization of TRPV1 during chronic pain is believed to contribute to the transduction of noxious signaling for normally innocuous stimuli and consequently

  10. A Bivalent Tarantula Toxin Activates the Capsaicin Receptor, TRPV1, by Targeting the Outer Pore Domain

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Christopher J.; Priel, Avi; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Siemens, Jan; Julius, David

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxins have evolved to target regions of membrane ion channels that underlie ligand binding, gating, or ion permeation, and have thus served as invaluable tools for probing channel structure and function. Here we describe a peptide toxin from the Earth Tiger tarantula that selectively and irreversibly activates the capsaicin- and heat-sensitive channel, TRPV1. This high avidity interaction derives from a unique tandem repeat structure of the toxin that endows it with an antibody-like bivalency, illustrating a new paradigm in toxin structure and evolution. The ‘double-knot’ toxin traps TRPV1 in the open state by interacting with residues in the presumptive pore-forming region of the channel, highlighting the importance of conformational changes in the outer pore region of TRP channels during activation. PMID:20510930

  11. Activation of protein kinase C reverses capsaicin-induced calcium-dependent desensitization of TRPV1 ion channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sravan Mandadi; Mitsuko Numazaki; Makoto Tominaga; Manjunatha B Bhat; Patricia J Armati; Basil D Roufogalis

    2004-01-01

    Ca2+ selective ion channels of vanilloid receptor subtype-1 (TRPV1) in capsaicin-sensitive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and TRPV1 transfected Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells are desensitized following calcium-dependent tachyphylaxis induced by successive applications of 100nM capsaicin. Tachyphylaxis of TRPV1 to 100nM capsaicin stimuli was not observed in the absence of extracellular calcium. Capsaicin sensitivity of desensitized TRPV1 ion channels recovered

  12. Burning mouth syndrome as a trigeminal small fibre neuropathy: Increased heat and capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in nerve fibres correlates with pain score

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Yilmaz; T. Renton; Y. Yiangou; J. Zakrzewska; I. P. Chessell; C. Bountra; P. Anand

    2007-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is often an idiopathic chronic and intractable pain condition, affecting 1.5–5.5% of middle-aged and elderly women. We have studied the heat and capsaicin receptor TRPV1, and its regulator nerve growth factor (NGF), in BMS. Patients with BMS (n=10) and controls (n=10) were assessed for baseline and post-topical capsaicin pain scores, and their tongue biopsies immunostained for

  13. Substance MCS-18 isolated from Helleborus purpurascens is a potent antagonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, in rat cultured sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Neacsu, C; Ciobanu, C; Barbu, I; Toader, O; Szegli, G; Kerek, F; Babes, A

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of Helleborus roots were traditionally used in the Balkan area for their analgesic action. We report that the pure natural product MCS-18 isolated from this source is a potent, specific and reversible antagonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, expressed in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. TRPV1 is a non-selective cation channel expressed in a subset of cutaneous and visceral sensory nerve endings and activated by noxious heat, acidity and fatty acid metabolites of arachidonic acid, with a decisive role in inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. MCS-18 inhibited the increase in intracellular calcium concentration evoked in DRG neurons by capsaicin (300 nM) and low pH (5.5) but not by heat (43 degrees C). The substance had no effect on the responses mediated by acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) or the irritant receptor TRPA1. Whole-cell patch-clamp was used to confirm the inhibition of capsaicin-induced currents by MCS-18 which was dose-dependent. The mechanism of inhibition does not require an intact cell, as capsaicin-induced currents were also inhibited in the excised outside-out configuration. The antagonism of the capsaicin and proton action on native TRPV1 by MCS-18 may be of interest for pain therapy. PMID:19537933

  14. Attenuation of natural killer cell functions by capsaicin through a direct and TRPV1-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun Sik; Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Gye Eun; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Davies, Alexander J; Oh, Seog Bae; Lee, Heuiran; Cho, Young Keol; Joo, Chul Hyun; Kwon, Seog Woon; Kim, Sun Chang; Kim, Yoo Kyum

    2014-07-01

    The assessment of the biological activity of capsaicin, the compound responsible for the spicy flavor of chili pepper, produced controversial results, showing either carcinogenicity or cancer prevention. The innate immune system plays a pivotal role in cancer pathology and prevention; yet, the effect of capsaicin on natural killer (NK) cells, which function in cancer surveillance, is unclear. This study found that capsaicin inhibited NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production (interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-?). Capsaicin impaired the cytotoxicity of NK cells, thereby inhibiting lysis of standard target cells and gastric cancer cells by modulating calcium mobilization in NK cells. Capsaicin also induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells, but that effect required higher concentrations and longer exposure times than those required to trigger NK cell dysfunction. Furthermore, capsaicin inhibited the cytotoxicity of isolated NK cells and of an NK cell line, suggesting a direct effect on NK cells. Antagonists of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), a cognate capsaicin receptor, or deficiency in TRPV1 expression failed to prevent the defects induced by capsaicin in NK cells expressing functional TRPV1. Thus, the mechanism of action of capsaicin on NK cells is largely independent of TRPV1. Taken together, capsaicin may have chemotherapeutic potential but may impair NK cell function, which plays a central role in tumor surveillance. PMID:24743513

  15. The role of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor (TRPV1) in physiology and pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    István Nagy; Péter Sántha; Gábor Jancsó; László Urbán

    2004-01-01

    The cloning of the vanilloid receptor 1 opened a floodgate for discoveries regarding the function of this complex molecule. It has been found that, in addition to heat, protons and vanilloids, this receptor also responds to various endogenous ligands. Furthermore, it has been also emerged that, through associations with other molecules, the vanilloid receptor 1 plays an important role in

  16. Capsaicin Interaction with TRPV1 Channels in a Lipid Bilayer: Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Sonya M.; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J.; Sansom, Mark S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is a heat-sensitive ion channel also involved in pain sensation, and is the receptor for capsaicin, the active ingredient of hot chili peppers. The recent structures of TRPV1 revealed putative ligand density within the S1 to S4 voltage-sensor-like domain of the protein. However, questions remain regarding the dynamic role of the lipid bilayer in ligand binding to TRPV1. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore behavior of capsaicin in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer and with the target S1–S4 transmembrane helices of TRPV1. Equilibrium simulations reveal a preferred interfacial localization for capsaicin. We also observed a capsaicin molecule flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular leaflet, and subsequently able to access the intracellular TRPV1 binding site. Calculation of the potential of mean force (i.e., free energy profile) of capsaicin along the bilayer normal confirms that it prefers an interfacial localization. The free energy profile indicates that there is a nontrivial but surmountable barrier to the flipping of capsaicin between opposing leaflets of the bilayer. Molecular dynamics of the S1–S4 transmembrane helices of the TRPV1 in a lipid bilayer confirm that Y511, known to be crucial to capsaicin binding, has a distribution along the bilayer normal similar to that of the aromatic group of capsaicin. Simulations were conducted of the TRPV1 S1–S4 transmembrane helices in the presence of capsaicin placed in the aqueous phase, in the lipid, or docked to the protein. No stable interaction between ligand and protein was seen for simulations initiated with capsaicin in the bilayer. However, interactions were seen between TRPV1 and capsaicin starting from the cytosolic aqueous phase, and capsaicin remained stable in the majority of simulations from the docked pose. We discuss the significance of capsaicin flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular leaflet and mechanisms of binding site access by capsaicin. PMID:25809255

  17. TRPV1 activation and induction of nociceptive response by a non-pungent capsaicin-like compound, capsiate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Iida; T. Moriyama; K. Kobata; A. Morita; N. Murayama; S. Hashizume; T. Fushiki; S. Yazawa; T. Watanabe; M. Tominaga

    2003-01-01

    Capsiate is a capsaicin-like ingredient of a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, CH-19 sweet. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the non-pungency of capsiate, we investigated whether capsiate activates the cloned capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 (VR1). In patch-clamp experiments, capsiate was found to activate TRPV1 expressed transiently in HEK293 cells with a similar potency as capsaicin. Capsiate induced nociceptive responses in mice

  18. Design and synthesis of conformationally restricted capsaicin analogues based in the 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole heterocycle reveal a novel family of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Carolyne Lespay; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Pamela; Brauchi, Sebastián; Olavarría, Miguel Zárraga

    2013-08-01

    4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde was used as starting material to obtain a number of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole alkylamide derivatives. The pharmacological properties of these conformationally restricted capsaicin analogues were evaluated on HEK-293T cells transiently expressing TRPV1 receptor. By means of a highthroughput calcium imaging assay we find that 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (compounds 8-15) act as potent antagonists of the capsaicin receptor, inhibiting both, the capsaicin- and temperature-dependent activation. Docking studies suggested a different binding orientation on the vanilloid binding site when compared with capsaicin analogues, such as 5-iodononivamide. Overall, our studies suggest that 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles interact with capsaicin's binding region of the receptor, although using a different set of interactions within the vanilloid binding pocket. PMID:23796768

  19. Characterization of SB-705498, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1/TRPV1) antagonist that inhibits the capsaicin-, acid-, and heat-mediated activation of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Gunthorpe, Martin J; Hannan, Sara Luis; Smart, Darren; Jerman, Jeffrey C; Arpino, Sandra; Smith, Graham D; Brough, Stephen; Wright, Jim; Egerton, Julie; Lappin, Sarah C; Holland, Vicky A; Winborn, Kim; Thompson, Mervyn; Rami, Harshad K; Randall, Andrew; Davis, John B

    2007-06-01

    Vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel, predominantly expressed by sensory neurons, which plays a key role in the detection of noxious painful stimuli such as capsaicin, acid, and heat. TRPV1 antagonists may represent novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of a range of conditions including chronic pain, migraine, and gastrointestinal disorders. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of N-(2-bromophenyl)-N'-[((R)-1-(5-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)]urea (SB-705498), a novel TRPV1 antagonist identified by lead optimization of N-(2-bromophenyl)-N'-[2-[ethyl(3-methylphenyl)amino]ethyl]urea (SB-452533), which has now entered clinical trials. Using a Ca(2+)-based fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR) assay, SB-705498 was shown to be a potent competitive antagonist of the capsaicin-mediated activation of the human TRPV1 receptor (pK(i) = 7.6) with activity at rat (pK(i) = 7.5) and guinea pig (pK(i) = 7.3) orthologs. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to confirm and extend these findings, demonstrating that SB-705498 can potently inhibit the multiple modes of receptor activation that may be relevant to the pathophysiological role of TRPV1 in vivo: SB-705498 caused rapid and reversible inhibition of the capsaicin (IC(50) = 3 nM)-, acid (pH 5.3)-, or heat (50 degrees C; IC(50) = 6 nM)-mediated activation of human TRPV1 (at -70 mV). Interestingly, SB-705498 also showed a degree of voltage dependence, suggesting an effective enhancement of antagonist action at negative potentials such as those that might be encountered in neurons in vivo. The selectivity of SB-705498 was defined by broad receptor profiling and other cellular assays in which it showed little or no activity versus a wide range of ion channels, receptors, and enzymes. SB-705498 therefore represents a potent and selective multimodal TRPV1 antagonist, a pharmacological profile that has contributed to its definition as a suitable drug candidate for clinical development. PMID:17392405

  20. A proinflammatory chemokine, CCL3, sensitizes the heat- and capsaicin-gated ion channel TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Zhang; Saadet Inan; Alan Cowan; Ronghua Sun; Ji Ming Wang; Thomas J. Rogers; Michael Caterina; Joost J. Oppenheim

    2005-01-01

    Pain, a critical component of host defense, is one hallmark of the inflammatory response. We therefore hypothesized that pain might be exacerbated by proinflammatory chemokines. To test this hypothesis, CCR1 was cotransfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells together with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a cation channel required for certain types of thermal hyperalgesia. In these cells, capsaicin

  1. Ca 2 ? \\/Calmodulin Modulates TRPV1 Activation by Capsaicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara Rosenbaum; Ariela Gordon-Shaag; Mika Munari; Sharona E. Gordon

    cells, Ca 2 ? \\/calmodulin decreased the capsaicin-activated current. This inhibition was not mimicked by Mg 2 ? , re- flected a decrease in open probability, and was slowly reversible. Furthermore, increasing the calmodulin concen- tration in our patches by coexpression of wild-type calmodulin with TRPV1 produced inhibition by Ca 2 ? alone. In contrast, patches excised from cells coexpressing

  2. Acetylsalicylic acid enhances tachyphylaxis of repetitive capsaicin responses in TRPV1-GFP expressing HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Kristina; Binzen, Uta; Mörz, Handan; Bugert, Peter; Schedel, Angelika; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Greffrath, Wolfgang

    2014-03-20

    Since many years acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is known for its antithrombotic, antiphlogistic and analgesic effects caused by irreversible acetylation of cyclooxygenase. ASA also inhibits capsaicin- and heat-induced responses in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, suggesting TRPV1 (transient receptor potential channel of the vanilloid receptor family, subtype 1) to be an additional target of ASA. We now studied the effect of ASA on heterologously expressed rat TRPV1 using calcium microfluorimetry. Capsaicin dose-dependently increased intracellular calcium with an EC50 of 0.29 ?M in rTRPV1 expressing HEK293 cells. During repetitive stimulation the second response to capsaicin was reduced (53.4 ± 8.3% compared to vehicle control; p<0.005; Student's unpaired t-test) by 1?M ASA, a concentration much below the one needed to inhibit cyclooxygenase (IC50 of 35 ?M in thromboxane B2 production assay). In contrast, calcium transients induced by a single stimulus of 0.3 or 1 ?M capsaicin were not significantly reduced by 0.3 or 1 ?M ASA. These data suggest that ASA increases the tachyphylaxis of rTRPV1 channel activation. Mechanisms are unknown and may be direct by e.g. stabilization of the desensitized state or indirect via inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways e.g. of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK/ERK). PMID:24495935

  3. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats affects TRPV1-related noxious heat sensation and circadian body temperature rhythm.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-06-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel that serves as a polymodal detector of noxious stimuli such as capsaicin. Therefore, capsaicin treatment has been used to investigate the physiological function of TRPV1. Here, we report physiological changes induced by treating neonatal rats with capsaicin. Capsaicin (50mg/kg) (cap-treated) or vehicle (vehicle-treated) was systemically administered to newborn SD rat pups within 48 h after birth. TRPV1 expression, intake volume of capsaicin water, and noxious heat sensation were measured 6 weeks after capsaicin treatment. Circadian body temperature and locomotion were recorded by biotelemetry. Expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Hsf1 (clock genes) was also investigated. Neonatal capsaicin treatment not only decreased TRPV1 expression but also induced desensitization to noxious heat stimuli. Circadian body temperature of cap-treated rats increased significantly compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Additionally, the amplitude of the circadian body temperature was reversed in cap-treated rats. Expression of the hypothalamic Hsf1 and liver Per2 clock genes followed a similar trend. Therefore, we suggest that these findings will be useful in studying various physiological mechanisms related to TRPV1. PMID:24746025

  4. TRPV1 (vanilloid receptor) in the urinary tract: expression, function and clinical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    António Avelino; Francisco Cruz

    2006-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel activated by capsaicin, heat, protons and endogenous ligands such as anandamide. It is largely expressed in the urinary tract of mammals. Structures in which the receptor expression is firmly established include sensory fibers and urothelial cells, although the presence of TRPV1 in other cell types has been reported.

  5. Expression and distribution of vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) in the adult rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attila Tóth; Judit Boczán; Noémi Kedei; Erzsébet Lizanecz; Zsolt Bagi; Zoltán Papp; István Édes; László Csiba; Peter M. Blumberg

    2005-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor (TRPV1 or VR1) is a molecular integrator of various painful stimuli, including capsaicin, acid, and high temperature. It can also be activated by endogenous ligands, like the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) agonist anandamide. TRPV1 is well characterized at the terminals of sensory nerves involved in the pain pathway. There is also evidence that TRPV1 is expressed in

  6. Therapeutic potential of vanilloid receptor TRPV1 agonists and antagonists as analgesics: Recent advances and setbacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert Y. Wong; Narender R. Gavva

    2009-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is a homotetrameric, non-selective cation channel abundantly expressed in the nociceptors (c-fibers). TRPV1 is considered as a highly validated pain target because, i) its agonists such as capsaicin cause desensitization of TRPV1 channels that relieves pain behaviors in preclinical species, and ii) its antagonists relieve pain behaviors in rodent models of inflammation, osteoarthritis, and cancer. Hence,

  7. Functional study on TRPV1-mediated signalling in the mouse small intestine: involvement of tachykinin receptors.

    PubMed

    de Man, J G; Boeckx, S; Anguille, S; de Winter, B Y; de Schepper, H U; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A

    2008-05-01

    Afferent nerves in the gut not only signal to the central nervous system but also provide a local efferent-like effect. This effect can modulate intestinal motility and secretion and is postulated to involve the transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). By using selective TRPV1 agonist and antagonists, we studied the efferent-like effect of afferent nerves in the isolated mouse jejunum. Mouse jejunal muscle strips were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recordings. Jejunal strips contracted to the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. Contractions to capsaicin showed rapid tachyphylaxis and were insensitive to tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium, atropine or L-nitroarginine. Capsaicin did not affect contractions to electrical stimulation of enteric motor nerves and carbachol. Tachykinin NK1, NK2 and NK3 receptor blockade by RP67580, nepadutant plus SR-142801 reduced contractions to capsaicin to a similar degree as contractions to substance P. The effect of the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, SB-366791, iodo-resiniferatoxin (iodo-RTX) and N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorphyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carbox-amide (BCTC) was studied. Capsazepine inhibited contractions not only to capsaicin but also those to carbachol. SB-366791 reduced contractions both to capsaicin and carbachol. Iodo-RTX partially inhibited the contractions to capsaicin without affecting contractions to carbachol. BCTC concentration-dependently inhibited and at the highest concentration used, abolished the contractions to capsaicin without affecting those to carbachol. From these results, we conclude that activation of TRPV1 in the mouse intestine induces a contraction that is mediated by tachykinins most likely released from afferent nerves. The TRPV1-mediated contraction does not involve activation of intrinsic enteric motor nerves. Of the TRPV1 antagonists tested, BCTC combined strong TRPV1 antagonism with TRPV1 selectivity. PMID:18194153

  8. Activation of bronchopulmonary vagal afferent nerves with bradykinin, acid and vanilloid receptor agonists in wild-type and TRPV1-\\/- mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kollarik; B. J. Undem

    2003-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 (formerly VR1) has been implicated in the activation of nociceptive sensory nerves by capsaicin, noxious heat, protons, bradykinin, cannabinoids such as anandamide, and certain metabolites of arachidonic acid. Using TRPV1 knockout mouse (TRPV1-\\/-) we address the question of whether TRPV1 is obligatory for action potential discharge in vagal C-fibre terminals evoked by capsaicin, anandamide, acid and

  9. Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (TRPV1).

    PubMed

    McNamara, Fergal N; Randall, Andrew; Gunthorpe, Martin J

    2005-03-01

    1. We have characterised the effects of piperine, a pungent alkaloid found in black pepper, on the human vanilloid receptor TRPV1 using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. 2. Piperine produced a clear agonist activity at the human TRPV1 receptor yielding rapidly activating whole-cell currents that were antagonised by the competitive TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and the non-competitive TRPV1 blocker ruthenium red. 3. The current-voltage relationship of piperine-activated currents showed pronounced outward rectification (25+/-4-fold between -70 and +70 mV) and a reversal potential of 0.0+/-0.4 mV, which was indistinguishable from that of the prototypical TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. 4. Although piperine was a less potent agonist (EC50=37.9+/-1.9 microM) than capsaicin (EC50=0.29+/-0.05 microM), it demonstrated a much greater efficacy (approximately two-fold) at TRPV1. 5. This difference in efficacy did not appear to be related to the proton-mediated regulation of the receptor since a similar degree of potentiation was observed for responses evoked by piperine (230+/-20%, n=11) or capsaicin (284+/-32%, n=8) upon acidification to pH 6.5. 6. The effects of piperine upon receptor desensitisation were also unable to explain this effect since piperine resulted in more pronounced macroscopic desensitisation (t(1/2)=9.9+/-0.7 s) than capsaicin (t(1/2)>20 s) and also caused greater tachyphylaxis in response to repetitive agonist applications. 7. Overall, our data suggest that the effects of piperine at human TRPV1 are similar to those of capsaicin except for its propensity to induce greater receptor desensitisation and, rather remarkably, exhibit a greater efficacy than capsaicin itself. These results may provide insight into the TRPV1-mediated effects of piperine on gastrointestinal function. PMID:15685214

  10. Presynaptic TRPV1 vanilloid receptor function is age- but not CB1 cannabinoid receptor-dependent in the rodent forebrain.

    PubMed

    Köles, László; Garçăo, Pedro; Zádori, Zoltán S; Ferreira, Samira G; Pinheiro, Bárbara S; da Silva-Santos, Carla S; Ledent, Catherine; Köfalvi, Attila

    2013-08-01

    Neocortical and striatal TRPV1 (vanilloid or capsaicin) receptors (TRPV1Rs) are excitatory ligand-gated ion channels, and are implicated in psychiatric disorders. However, the purported presynaptic neuromodulator role of TRPV1Rs in glutamatergic, serotonergic or dopaminergic terminals of the rodent forebrain remains little understood. With the help of patch-clamp electrophysiology and neurochemical approaches, we mapped the age-dependence of presynaptic TRPV1R function, and furthermore, we aimed at exploring whether the presence of CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) influences the function of the TRPV1Rs, as both receptor types share endogenous ligands. We found that the major factor which affects presynaptic TRPV1R function is age: by post-natal day 13, the amplitude of capsaicin-induced release of dopamine and glutamate is halved in the rat striatum, and two weeks later, capsaicin already loses its effect. However, TRPV1R receptor function is not enhanced by chemical or genetic ablation of the CB1Rs in dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic terminals of the mouse brain. Altogether, our data indicate a possible neurodevelopmental role for presynaptic TRPV1Rs in the rodent brain, but we found no cross-talk between TRPV1Rs and CB1Rs in the same nerve terminal. PMID:23831917

  11. Investigation of the role of TRPV1 receptors in acute and chronic nociceptive processes using gene-deficient mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kata Bölcskei; Zsuzsanna Helyes; Árpád Szabó; Katalin Sándor; Krisztián Elekes; József Németh; Róbert Almási; Erika Pintér; Gábor Peth?; János Szolcsányi

    2005-01-01

    Capsaicin-sensitive, TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) receptor-expressing primary sensory neurons exert local and systemic efferent effects besides the classical afferent function. The TRPV1 receptor is considered a molecular integrator of various physico-chemical noxious stimuli. In the present study its role was analysed in acute nociceptive tests and chronic neuropathy models by comparison of wild-type (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO)

  12. The effect of neurotrophic factors on morphology, TRPV1 expression and capsaicin responses of cultured human DRG sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Anand, U; Otto, W R; Casula, M A; Day, N C; Davis, J B; Bountra, C; Birch, R; Anand, P

    2006-05-15

    We have studied the effect of key neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on morphology, levels of the vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) and responses to capsaicin in adult human sensory neurons in vitro. Avulsed dorsal root ganglia (DRG, n = 5) were cultured with or without a combination of nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell (line)-derived growth factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin3 (NT3) for 5 days. In the absence of NTFs, the diameter of neurons ranged from 20 to 100 microm (mean 42 +/- 4 microm). Adding NTFs caused a significant increase in neuronal sizes, up to 120 microm (mean diameter 62 +/- 5 microm, P < 0.01, t-test), an overall 35% increase of TRPV1-positive neurons (P < 0.003), and notably of large TRPV1-positive neurons > 80 microm (P < 0.05). Responses to capsaicin were significantly enhanced with calcium ratiometry (P < 0.0001). Short duration (1h) exposure of dissociated sensory neurons to NTFs increased numbers of TRPV1-positive neurons, but not of TRPV3, Nav 1.8 and IK1 and the morphological size-distribution remained similar to intact post-mortem DRG neurons. NTFs thus increase size, elevate TRPV1 levels and enhance capsaicin responses in cultured human DRG neurons; these changes may relate to pathophysiology in disease states, and provide an in vitro model to study novel analgesics. PMID:16481104

  13. The effect of neurotrophic factors on morphology, TRPV1 expression and capsaicin responses of cultured human DRG sensory neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Anand; W. R. Otto; M. A. Casula; N. C. Day; J. B. Davis; C. Bountra; R. Birch; P. Anand

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the effect of key neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on morphology, levels of the vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) and responses to capsaicin in adult human sensory neurons in vitro. Avulsed dorsal root ganglia (DRG, n=5) were cultured with or without a combination of nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell (line)-derived growth factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin3 (NT3) for 5 days. In

  14. Effects of the novel TRPV1 receptor antagonist SB366791 in vitro and in vivo in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Varga; József Németh; Árpád Szabó; Jason J. McDougall; Chunfen Zhang; Krisztián Elekes; Erika Pintér; János Szolcsányi; Zsuzsanna Helyes

    2005-01-01

    The TRPV1 capsaicin receptor is a non-selective cation channel localized in the cell membrane of a subset of primary sensory neurons and functions as an integrator molecule in nociceptive\\/inflammatory processes. The present paper characterizes the effects of SB366791, a novel TRPV1 antagonist, on capsaicin-evoked responses both in vitro and in vivo using rat models. SB366791 (100 and 500nM) significantly inhibited

  15. Lipids as regulators of the activity of transient receptor potential type V1 (TRPV1) channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano De Petrocellis; Vincenzo Di Marzo

    2005-01-01

    After 7 years from its cloning, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel remains the sole membrane receptor mediating the pharmacological effects of the hot chilli pepper pungent component, capsaicin, and of the Euphorbia toxin, resiniferatoxin. Yet, this ion channel represents one of the most complex examples of how the activity of a protein can be regulated. Among the

  16. Therapeutic potential of vanilloid receptor TRPV1 agonists and antagonists as analgesics: Recent advances and setbacks.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gilbert Y; Gavva, Narender R

    2009-04-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is a homotetrameric, non-selective cation channel abundantly expressed in the nociceptors (c-fibers). TRPV1 is considered as a highly validated pain target because, i) its agonists such as capsaicin cause desensitization of TRPV1 channels that relieves pain behaviors in preclinical species, and ii) its antagonists relieve pain behaviors in rodent models of inflammation, osteoarthritis, and cancer. Hence, both agonists and antagonists of TRPV1 are being evaluated as potential analgesics in clinical trials. Clinical trial results of TRPV1 agonists such as resiniferatoxin in interstitial cystitis, NGX 4010 in post-herpetic neuralgia, and 4975 (Adlea) in osteoarthritis, bunionectomy, and Morton's neuroma have been reported. Similarly, clinical trial results of TRPV1 antagonists such as SB-705498 and AMG 517 have also been published recently. Overall, some molecules (e.g., capsaicin) demonstrated potential analgesia in certain conditions (postsurgical pain, postherpetic neuralgia, pain in diabetic neuropathy, osteoarthritis, bunionectomy, and Morton's neuroma), whereas others fell out of the clinic due to on-target liabilities or failed to demonstrate efficacy. This review summarizes recent advances and setbacks of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists in the clinic and predicts future directions. PMID:19150372

  17. Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Du, Junhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Shentai; Yu, Weihua; Du, Guangwei; Clark, Richard B.; Walters, Edgar T.; Carlton, Susan M.; Hu, Hongzhen

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers. Application of retinoids evokes substantial irritating side effects, including pain and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. Here we show that both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids activate recombinant or native transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), an irritant receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers. In vivo, retinoids produced pain-related behaviors that were either eliminated or significantly reduced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 function. These findings identify TRPV1 as an ionotropic receptor for retinoids and provide cellular and molecular insights into retinoid-evoked hypersensitivity. These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity. PMID:23925292

  18. Functional Recovery from Desensitization of Vanilloid Receptor TRPV1 Requires Resynthesis of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beiying Liu; Chunguang Zhang; Feng Qin

    2005-01-01

    Capsaicin and other naturally occurring pungent molecules have long been used as topical analgesics to treat a variety of chronic pain conditions. The analgesic effects of these compounds involve long-term desensitization of nociceptors after strong stimulation. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we studied the recovery from desensitization of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1.We showed that prolonged applications of capsaicin led to

  19. Pungency of TRPV1 agonists is directly correlated with kinetics of receptor activation and lipophilicity.

    PubMed

    Ursu, Daniel; Knopp, Kelly; Beattie, Ruth E; Liu, Bin; Sher, Emanuele

    2010-09-01

    TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed predominantly in nociceptive primary afferents that plays a key role in pain processing. In vivo activation of TRPV1 receptors by natural agonists like capsaicin is associated with a sharp and burning pain, frequently described as pungency. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying pungency we investigated a series of TRPV1 agonists that included both pungent and non-pungent compounds covering a large range of potencies. Pungency of capsaicin, piperine, arvanil, olvanil, RTX (resiniferatoxin) and SDZ-249665 was evaluated in vivo, by determining the increase in the number of eye wipes caused by direct instillation of agonist solutions into the eye. Agonist-induced calcium fluxes were recorded using the FLIPR technique in a recombinant, TRPV1-expressing cell line. Current-clamp recordings were performed in rat DRG (dorsal root ganglia) neurons in order to assess the consequences of TRPV1 activation on neuronal excitability. Using the eye wipe assay the following rank of pungency was obtained: capsaicin>piperine>RTX>arvanil>olvanil>SDZ-249665. We found a strong correlation between kinetics of calcium flux, pungency and lipophilicity of TRPV1 agonists. Current-clamp recordings confirmed that the rate of receptor activation translates in the ability of agonists to generate action potentials in sensory neurons. We have demonstrated that the lipophilicity of the compounds is directly related to the kinetics of TRPV1 activation and that the latter influences their ability to trigger action potentials in sensory neurons and, ultimately, pungency. PMID:20576527

  20. Differential expression of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and related novel receptors TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPM8 in normal human tissues and changes in traumatic and diabetic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Facer; Maria A Casula; Graham D Smith; Christopher D Benham; Iain P Chessell; Chas Bountra; Marco Sinisi; Rolfe Birch; Praveen Anand

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors expressed by primary sensory neurons mediate thermosensitivity, and may play a role in sensory pathophysiology. We previously reported that human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons co-expressed TRPV1 and TRPV3, and that these were increased in injured human DRG. Related receptors TRPV4, activated by warmth and eicosanoids, and TRPM8, activated by cool and menthol,

  1. Inhibition of capsaicin-driven nasal hyper-reactivity by SB-705498, a TRPV1 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Carlijn; Drunen, Cornelis Van; Denyer, Jane; Smart, Kevin; Segboer, Christine; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Newlands, Amy; Beerahee, Misba; Fokkens, Wytske; Tsitoura, Daphne C

    2014-01-01

    AIMS To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of intranasal SB-705498, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. METHODS Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical studies were performed: (i) an intranasal SB-705498 first time in human study to examine the safety and PK of five single escalating doses from 0.5 to 12?mg and of repeat dosing with 6?mg and 12?mg twice daily for 14 days and (ii) a PD efficacy study in subjects with non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) to evaluate the effect of 12?mg intranasal SB-705498 against nasal capsaicin challenge. RESULTS Single and repeat dosing with intranasal SB-705498 was safe and well tolerated. The overall frequency of adverse events was similar for SB-705498 and placebo and no dose-dependent increase was observed. Administration of SB-705498 resulted in less than dose proportional AUC(0,12?h) and Cmax, while repeat dosing from day 1 to day 14 led to its accumulation. SB-705498 receptor occupancy in nasal tissue was estimated to be high (>80%). Administration of 12?mg SB-705498 to patients with NAR induced a marked reduction in total symptom scores triggered by nasal capsaicin challenge. Inhibition of rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion and burning sensation was associated with 2-to 4-fold shift in capsaicin potency. CONCLUSIONS Intranasal SB-705498 has an appropriate safety and PK profile for development in humans and achieves clinically relevant attenuation of capsaicin-provoked rhinitis symptoms in patients with NAR. The potential impact intranasal SB-705498 may have in rhinitis treatment deserves further evaluation. PMID:23909699

  2. Capsaicin Regulates Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels by Altering Lipid Bilayer Elasticity

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Sol M.

    the TRPV1 receptor involved in nociception. At micro- to millimolar concentrations, commonly used research. At submi- cromolar concentrations, capsaicin specifically activates the TRPV1 receptor involved

  3. Attenuated fever response in mice lacking TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohko Iida; Isao Shimizu; Michele L. Nealen; Ashley Campbell; Michael Caterina

    2005-01-01

    TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor, is expressed not only in nociceptive neurons, but also in other locations, including the hypothalamus. Studies involving systemic or intrahypothalamic capsaicin administration have suggested a role for TRPV1 in body temperature control. To explore this possibility, we examined thermoregulatory responses in TRPV1?\\/? mice. These mutant animals exhibited no obvious changes in circadian body temperature fluctuation, tolerance

  4. COOL (TRPM8) AND HOT (TRPV1) RECEPTORS IN THE BLADDER AND MALE GENITAL TRACT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT J. STEIN; SOLEDAD SANTOS; JIRO NAGATOMI; YUKIO HAYASHI; BRANDON S. MINNERY; MACRINA XAVIER; ANKUR S. PATEL; JOEL B. NELSON; WILLIAM J. FUTRELL; NAOKI YOSHIMURA; MICHAEL B. CHANCELLOR; FERNANDO DE MIGUEL

    2004-01-01

    Purpose:Overactive bladder symptoms due to various etiologies have been successfully treated with capsaicin by desensitization of the temperature sensitive vanilloid receptor TRPV1. Recently another temperature sensitive receptor, TRPM8, activated by menthol and cool temperatures (8C to 28C) was described that may be the proposed cool receptor, at least in part mediating the bladder response in the diagnostic ice water test.

  5. Vanilloid receptors – Do they have a role in whole body metabolism? Evidence from TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zsombok, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    With increasing lifespan, therapeutic interventions for the treatment of disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are in great demand. Despite billions of dollars invested to reduce the symptoms and complications due to diabetes mellitus, current treatments (e.g., insulin replacements, sensitization) remain inadequate, justifying the search for novel therapeutic approaches or alternative solutions, including dietary supplementation, for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in every age group. The involvement of the vanilloid system in the regulation of metabolism has been identified, and the emerging role of its receptors, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), in diabetes was recently demonstrated. Indeed, beneficial effects of dietary capsaicin, an agonist of TRPV1 receptors, were identified for improving glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels. Recent findings regarding TRPV1 receptors in association with whole body metabolism including glucose homeostasis will be reviewed in this article. PMID:23332888

  6. Functional and biochemical interaction between PPAR? receptors and TRPV1 channels: Potential role in PPAR? agonists-mediated analgesia.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Paolo; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; De Maria, Michela; Russo, Claudio; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in primary afferent neurons play a critical role in nociception triggered by endogenous and exogenous compounds. In the present study, the functional and biochemical interaction between TRPV1 channels and type-? peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR?) has been investigated. In TRPV1-expressing CHO cells, patch-clamp studies revealed that acute application of the PPAR? agonists clofibrate (CLO; 0.1-100 ?M), WY14643 (1-300 ?M), or GW7647 (0.1-100 nM) activated TRPV1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with EC50s of 5.3 ± 0.8 ?M, 13.0 ± 1.2 ?M, and 12.7 ± 0.3 nM, respectively. The role of PPAR? in these pharmacological responses was confirmed by the ability of the PPAR? antagonist GW6471 (10 ?M) to block CLO-, WY14643- and GW7647-induced TRPV1 activation, and by the observation that modulation of PPAR? levels via siRNA-mediated suppression or PPAR? over-expression affected TRPV1 channel activation by PPAR? agonists accordingly. In cells cotransfected with PPAR? and TRPV1, PPAR? receptors were detected in TRPV1-immunoprecipitated fractions. When compared to capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 currents activated by PPAR? agonists showed a higher degree of acute desensitization and tachyphylaxis; moreover, GW7647, when pre-incubated at a concentration (1nM) unable to activate TRPV1 currents per se, desensitized CAP-induced TRPV1 currents. Finally, a sub-effective concentration of each PPAR? agonist inhibited TRPV1-dependent bradykinin-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients in sensory neurons. Collectively, these results provide evidence for a PPAR?-mediated pathway triggering TRPV1 channel activation and desensitization, and highlight a novel mechanism which might contribute to the analgesic effects shown by PPAR? agonists in vivo. PMID:25014183

  7. Identification and characterisation of SB366791, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor (VR1\\/TRPV1) antagonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gunthorpe; H. K. Rami; J. C. Jerman; D. Smart; C. H. Gill; E. M. Soffin; S. Luis Hannan; S. C. Lappin; J. Egerton; G. D. Smith; A. Worby; L. Howett; D. Owen; S. Nasir; C. H. Davies; M. Thompson; P. A. Wyman; A. D. Randall; J. B. Davis

    2004-01-01

    Vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel, predominantly expressed by peripheral sensory neurones, which is known to play a key role in the detection of noxious painful stimuli, such as capsaicin, acid and heat. To date, a number of antagonists have been used to study the physiological role of TRPV1; however, antagonists such as capsazepine are somewhat compromised by

  8. Expression and functionality of TRPV1 receptor in human MCF-7 and canine CF.41 cells.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, C; Barbero, R; Cuniberti, B; Odore, R; Re, G

    2015-06-01

    As canine mammary tumours (CMT) and human breast cancer share clinical and prognostic features, the former have been proposed as a model to study carcinogenesis and improved therapeutic treatment in human breast cancer. In recent years, it has been shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is expressed in different neoplastic tissues and its activation has been associated with regulation of cancer growth and progression. The aim of the present research was to demonstrate the presence of TRPV1 in human and canine mammary cancer cells, MCF-7 and CF.41, respectively, and to study the role of TRPV1 in regulating cell proliferation. The images obtained by Western blot showed a signal at 100 kDa corresponding to the molecular weight of TRPV1 receptor. All tested TRPV1 agonists and antagonists caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) of cell growth rate in MCF-7 cells. By contrast, in CF.41 cells capsaicin and capsazepine induced a significant increase (P < 0.05) in cell proliferation, whereas resiniferatoxin (RTX) and 5-iodo-resiniferatoxin (5-I-RTX) had no influence on CF.41 cell proliferation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the different effects evoked by TRPV1 activation in MCF-7 and CF.41 cells. PMID:23510405

  9. Structural mechanism underlying capsaicin binding and activation of the TRPV1 ion channel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Xiao, Xian; Cheng, Wei; Yang, Wei; Yu, Peilin; Song, Zhenzhen; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Capsaicin bestows spiciness by activating TRPV1 channel with exquisite potency and selectivity. Although a capsaicin-bound channel structure was previously resolved by cryo-EM at 4.2- to 4.5-Ĺ resolution, capsaicin was registered as a small electron density, reflecting neither its chemical structure nor specific ligand-channel interactions-important details required for mechanistic understanding. We obtained the missing atomic-level details by iterative computation and confirmed them by systematic site-specific functional tests. We observed that the bound capsaicin takes a 'tail-up, head-down' configuration. The vanillyl and amide groups form specific interactions to anchor its bound position, while the aliphatic tail may sample a range of conformations, making it invisible in cryo-EM images. Capsaicin stabilizes TRPV1's open state by 'pull-and-contact' interactions between the vanillyl group and the S4-S5 linker. Our study provides a structural mechanism for the agonistic function of capsaicin and its analogs, and demonstrates an effective approach to obtain atomic-level information from cryo-EM structures. PMID:26053297

  10. Thermal Nociception and TRPV1 Function are Attenuated in Mice Lacking the Nucleotide Receptor P2Y2

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Sacha A.; Davis, Brian M.; Koerber, H. Richard; Reynolds, Ian J.; Albers, Kathryn M.; Molliver, Derek C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that ATP and UTP act at G protein-coupled (P2Y) nucleotide receptors to excite nociceptive sensory neurons; nucleotides also potentiate signaling through the pro-nociceptive capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. We demonstrate here that P2Y2 is the principal UTP receptor in somatosensory neurons: P2Y2 is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia and P2Y2(?/?) mice showed profound deficits in UTP-evoked calcium transients and potentiation of capsaicin responses. P2Y2(?/?) mice were also deficient in the detection of painful heat: baseline thermal response latencies were increased and mutant mice failed to develop thermal hypersensitivity in response to inflammatory injury (injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant into the hindpaw). P2Y2 was the only Gq-coupled P2Y receptor examined that showed an increase in DRG mRNA levels in response to inflammation. Surprisingly, TRPV1 function was also attenuated in P2Y2(?/?) mice, as measured by the frequency and magnitude of capsaicin responses in vitro and behavioral responses to capsaicin administration in vivo. However, TRPV1 mRNA levels and immunoreactivity were not reduced, and behavioral sensitivity to capsaicin could be largely restored in P2Y2(?/?) mice by pretreatment with bradykinin, suggesting that normal function of TRPV1 requires ongoing modulation by G protein-coupled receptors. These results indicate that nucleotide signaling through P2Y2 plays a key role in thermal nociception. PMID:18343036

  11. Anxiogenic-like effect induced by TRPV1 receptor activation within the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter in mice.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Diego Cardozo; Gomes, Karina Santos; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2013-08-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of TRPV1 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type-1) receptors has been emerging as a novel target in the investigation of anxiety states. Here, we attempt to show the role played by the TRPV1 receptors within the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), a midbrain structure strongly involved in the modulation of anxiety. Anxiety was assessed by recording spatiotemporal [percent open arm entries (%OE) and percent open arm time (%OT)] and ethological [e.g., head dipping (HD), stretched-attend postures (SAP)] measures in mice exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Mice received an intra-dPAG injection of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0nmol/0.2?L; Experiment 1) or antagonist capsazepine (0, 10, 30 or 60nmol/0.2?L; Experiment 2), or combined injections of capsazepine (30nmol) and capsaicin (1.0nmol) (Experiment 3), and were exposed to the EPM to record spatiotemporal and ethological measures. While capsaicin produced an anxiogenic-like effect (it reduced %OE and %OT and frequency of SAP and HD in the open arms), capsazepine did not change any behavior in the EPM. However, when injected before capsaicin (1.0nmol), intra-dPAG capsazepine (30nmol-a dose devoid of intrinsic effects) antagonized completely the anxiogenic-like effect of the TRPV1 agonist. These results suggest that the anxiogenic-like effect produced by capsaicin is primarily due to TRPV1 activation within the dPAG in mice, but that dPAG TRPV1 receptors do not exert a tonic control over defensive behavior in mice exposed to the EPM. PMID:23707246

  12. Direct evidence for functional TRPV1/TRPA1 heteromers.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J M; Balasuriya, Dilshan; Jeggle, Pia; Goetze, Tom A; McNaughton, Peter A; Reeh, Peter W; Edwardson, J Michael

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) plays a key role in sensing environmental hazards and in enhanced pain sensation following inflammation. A considerable proportion of TRPV1-expressing cells also express transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1). There is evidence for a TRPV1-TRPA1 interaction that is predominantly calcium-dependent, and it has been suggested that the two proteins might form a heteromeric channel. Here, we constructed subunit concatemers to search for direct evidence for such an interaction. We found that a TRPV1::TRPV1 concatemer and TRPV1 formed channels with similar properties. A TRPV1::TRPA1 concatemer was responsive to TRPV1 agonists capsaicin, acidic pH and ethanol, but not to TRPA1 agonists. Isolated TRPV1 and TRPV1::TRPA1 imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) both had molecular volumes consistent with the formation of tetrameric channels. Antibodies decorated epitope tags on TRPV1 with a four-fold symmetry, as expected for a homotetramer. In contrast, pairs of antibodies decorated tags on TRPV1::TRPA1 predominantly at 180°, indicating the formation of a channel consisting of two TRPV1::TRPA1 concatemers arranged face to face. TRPV1::TRPA1 was sensitized by PKC activation and could be inhibited by a TRPV1 antagonist. TRPV1::TRPA1 was activated by heat and displayed a threshold and temperature coefficient similar to TRPV1. However, the channel formed by TRPV1::TRPA1 has only two binding sites for capsaicin and shows less total current and a smaller capsaicin-induced shift in voltage-dependent gating than TRPV1::TRPV1 or TRPV1. We conclude that the presence of TRPA1 exerts a functional inhibition on TRPV1. PMID:24643480

  13. Regulation of leptin receptor?expressing neurons in the brainstem by TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zsombok, Andrea; Jiang, Yanyan; Gao, Hong; Anwar, Imran J.; Rezai?Zadeh, Kavon; Enix, Courtney L.; Münzberg, Heike; Derbenev, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The central nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of feeding behavior and whole?body metabolism via controlling the autonomic output to the visceral organs. Activity of the parasympathetic neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) determines the vagal tone and thereby modulates the function of the subdiaphragmatic organs. Leptin is highly involved in the regulation of food intake and alters neuronal excitability of brainstem neurons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has also been shown to increase neurotransmission in the brainstem and we tested the hypothesis that TRPV1 regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release to leptin receptor?expressing (LepRbEGFP) DMV neurons. Whole?cell patch?clamp recordings were performed to determine the effect of TRPV1 activation on excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSC, IPSC) of LepRbEGFP neurons in the DMV. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in 50% of LepRbEGFP neurons without altering the frequency of miniature IPSCs in the DMV. Stomach?projecting LepRbEGFP neurons were identified in the DMV using the transsynaptic retrograde viral tracer PRV?614. Activation of TRPV1 increased the frequency of mEPSC in ~50% of stomach?related LepRbEGFP DMV neurons. These data demonstrate that TRPV1 increases excitatory neurotransmission to a subpopulation of LepRbEGFP DMV neurons via presynaptic mechanisms and suggest a potential interaction between TRPV1 and leptin signaling in the DMV. PMID:25263209

  14. Targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) assembly domain attenuates inflammation-induced hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Iftinca, Mircea; Aboushousha, Reem; Varela, Diego; Altier, Christophe

    2014-06-13

    The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel expressed in sensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. TRPV1 is a polymodal channel activated by noxious heat, capsaicin, and protons. As a sensor for noxious stimuli, TRPV1 channel has been described as a key contributor to pain signaling. To form a functional channel, TRPV1 subunits must assemble into tetramers, and several studies have identified the TRPV1 C terminus as an essential element in subunit association. Here we combined biochemical assays with electrophysiology and imaging-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in live cells to identify a short motif in the C-terminal tail of the TRPV1 subunit that governs channel assembly. Removing this region through early truncation or targeted deletion results in loss of subunit association and channel function. Importantly, we found that interfering with TRPV1 subunit association using a plasma membrane-tethered peptide attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in two mouse models of inflammatory hyperalgesia. This represents a novel mechanism to disrupt TRPV1 subunit assembly and hence may offer a new analgesic tool for pain relief. PMID:24808184

  15. Binding Mode Prediction of Evodiamine within Vanilloid Receptor TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanli; Sun, Lidan; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Yanhui; Gong, Wuzhuang; Jin, Hongwei; Zhang, Liangren; Liang, Huaping

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the potential binding mode of drugs is crucial to computer-aided drug design paradigms. It has been reported that evodiamine acts as an agonist of the vanilloid receptor Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). However, the precise interaction between evodiamine and TRPV1 was still not fully understood. In this perspective, the homology models of TRPV1 were generated using the crystal structure of the voltage-dependent shaker family K+ channel as a template. We then performed docking and molecular dynamics simulation to gain a better understanding of the probable binding modes of evodiamine within the TRPV1 binding pocket. There are no significant interspecies differences in evodiamine binding in rat, human and rabbit TRPV1 models. Pharmacophore modeling further provided confidence for the validity of the docking studies. This study is the first to shed light on the structural determinants required for the interaction between TRPV1 and evodiamine, and gives new suggestions for the rational design of novel TRPV1 ligands. PMID:22942745

  16. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by resiniferatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Raisinghani, Manish; Pabbidi, Reddy M; Premkumar, Louis S

    2005-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a Ca2+ permeable non-selective cation channel activated by physical and chemical stimuli. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent agonist of TRPV1, is under investigation for treatment of urinary bladder hyper-reflexia and chronic pain conditions. Here, we have determined the characteristics of RTX-induced responses in cells expressing native and cloned rat TRPV1. Whole-cell currents increase with repeated application of submaximal concentrations of RTX until a maximal response is attained and do not deactivate even after prolonged washout. Interestingly, the rate of activation and block by capsazepine of RTX-induced currents are significantly slower than for capsaicin-induced currents. RTX-induced whole-cell currents are outwardly rectifying, but to a lesser extent than capsaicin-induced currents. RTX-induced single channel currents exhibit multiple conductance states and outward rectification. The open probability (Po) of RTX-induced currents is higher at all potentials as compared to capsaicin-induced currents, which showed a strong voltage-dependent decrease at negative potentials. Single-channel kinetic analyses reveal that open-time distribution of RTX-induced currents can be fitted with three exponential components at negative and positive potentials. The areas of distribution of the longer open time constants are significantly larger than capsaicin-induced currents. The closed-time distribution of RTX-induced currents can be fitted with three exponential components as compared to capsaicin-induced currents, which require four exponential components. Current-clamp experiments reveal that low concentrations of RTX caused a slow and sustained depolarization beyond threshold while generating few action potentials. Concentrations of capsaicin required for the same extent of depolarization generated a significantly greater number of action potentials. These properties of RTX may play a role in its clinical usefulness. PMID:16037081

  17. [Activation and regulation of nociceptive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, TRPV1 and TRPA1].

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    TRP channels are well recognized for their contributions to sensory transduction, responding to a wide variety of stimuli including temperature, nociceptive stimuli, touch, osmolarity and pheromones. In particular, the involvement of TRP channels in nociception has been extensively studied following the cloning of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy is described as a superficial burning pain, and it is one of the most commonly encountered neuropathic pain syndromes in clinical practice. We found that hypoxic and high glucose conditions commonly observed in diabetes potentiate TRPV1 activity without affecting TRPV1 expression both in native rat sensory neurons and HEK293 cells expressing rat TRPV1. The potentiation seems to be caused by phosphorylation of the serine residues of TRPV1 by PKC. These data indicate that PKC-dependent potentiation of TRPV1 activities under hypoxia and hyperglycemia might be involved in early diabetic neuropathy. Mechanisms for the detection of alkaline pH by sensory neurons are not well understood, although it is well accepted that acidic pH monitoring can be attributed to several ion channels, including TRPV1 and ASICs. We found that alkaline pH activates TRPA1 and that the TRPA1 activation is involved in nociception, using Ca(2+)-imaging and patch-clamp methods. In addition, intracellular alkalization activated TRPA1 at the whole-cell level, and single-channel openings were observed in the inside-out configuration. Furthermore, intraplantar injection of ammonium chloride into the mouse hind paw caused pain-related behaviors, which were not observed in TRPA1-deficient mice. These results suggest that alkaline pH causes pain sensation through activation of TRPA1. PMID:20190512

  18. Agonist- and Ca2+-dependent Desensitization of TRPV1 Channel Targets the Receptor to Lysosomes for Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Salvador, Lucía; Andrés-Borderia, Amparo; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Planells-Cases, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    TRPV1 receptor agonists such as the vanilloid capsaicin and the potent analog resiniferatoxin are well known potent analgesics. Depending on the vanilloid, dose, and administration site, nociceptor refractoriness may last from minutes up to months, suggesting the contribution of different cellular mechanisms ranging from channel receptor desensitization to Ca2+ cytotoxicity of TRPV1-expressing neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying agonist-induced TRPV1 desensitization and/or tachyphylaxis are still incompletely understood. Here, we report that prolonged exposure of TRPV1 to agonists induces rapid receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation in both sensory neurons and recombinant systems. Agonist-induced receptor internalization followed a clathrin- and dynamin-independent endocytic route, triggered by TRPV1 channel activation and Ca2+ influx through the receptor. This process appears strongly modulated by PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Taken together, these findings indicate that TRPV1 agonists induce long-term receptor down-regulation by modulating the expression level of the channel through a mechanism that promotes receptor endocytosis and degradation and lend support to the notion that cAMP signaling sensitizes nociceptors through several mechanisms. PMID:22493457

  19. ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature12823 TRPV1structuresindistinctconformations

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature12823 TRPV1structuresindistinctconformations reveal activation mechanisms of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. A domain (consisting of transmembrane segments 1­4) that moves during acti- vation of voltage-gated channels remains stationary in TRPV1, highlighting differences in gating

  20. Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Hill, Charlotte L; Leo, Antonio; Alhusaini, Ahlam; Soubrane, Camille; Mazzarella, Enrico; Russo, Emilio; Whalley, Benjamin J; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Stephens, Gary J

    2014-11-19

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder, with over 50 million people worldwide affected. Recent evidence suggests that the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) may contribute to the onset and progression of some forms of epilepsy. Since the two nonpsychotropic cannabinoids cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD) exert anticonvulsant activity in vivo and produce TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation in vitro, we evaluated the effects of these two compounds on TRPV1 channel activation and desensitization and in an in vitro model of epileptiform activity. Patch clamp analysis in transfected HEK293 cells demonstrated that CBD and CBDV dose-dependently activate and rapidly desensitize TRPV1, as well as TRP channels of subfamily V type 2 (TRPV2) and subfamily A type 1 (TRPA1). TRPV1 and TRPV2 transcripts were shown to be expressed in rat hippocampal tissue. When tested on epileptiform neuronal spike activity in hippocampal brain slices exposed to a Mg(2+)-free solution using multielectrode arrays (MEAs), CBDV reduced both epileptiform burst amplitude and duration. The prototypical TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, produced similar, although not identical effects. Capsaicin, but not CBDV, effects on burst amplitude were reversed by IRTX, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. These data suggest that CBDV antiepileptiform effects in the Mg(2+)-free model are not uniquely mediated via activation of TRPV1. However, TRPV1 was strongly phosphorylated (and hence likely sensitized) in Mg(2+)-free solution-treated hippocampal tissue, and both capsaicin and CBDV caused TRPV1 dephosphorylation, consistent with TRPV1 desensitization. We propose that CBDV effects on TRP channels should be studied further in different in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy. PMID:25029033

  1. TRPV1 receptors mediate particulate matter-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agopyan, N; Head, J; Yu, S; Simon, S A

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a world-wide health problem mainly because it produces adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects that frequently result in morbidity. Despite many years of epidemiological and basic research, the mechanisms underlying PM toxicity remain largely unknown. To understand some of these mechanisms, we measured PM-induced apoptosis and necrosis in normal human airway epithelial cells and sensory neurons from both wild-type mice and mice lacking TRPV1 receptors using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide labeling, respectively. Exposure of environmental PMs containing residual oil fly ash and ash from Mount St. Helens was found to induce apoptosis, but not necrosis, as a consequence of sustained calcium influx through TRPV1 receptors. Apoptosis was completely prevented by inhibiting TRPV1 receptors with capsazepine or by removing extracellular calcium or in sensory neurons from TRPV1(-/-) mice. Binding of either one of the PMs to the cell membrane induced a capsazepine-sensitive increase in cAMP. PM-induced apoptosis was augmented upon the inhibition of PKA. PKA inhibition on its own also induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting that this pathway may be endogenously protective against apoptosis. In summary, it was found that inhibiting TRPV1 receptors prevents PM-induced apoptosis, thereby providing a potential mechanism to reduce their toxicity. PMID:14633515

  2. Altered urinary bladder function in mice lacking the vanilloid receptor TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nakamura; S. Kiss; M. L. Nealen; S. Barrick; A. J. Kanai; E. Wang; G. Ruiz; W. C. de Groat; G. Apodaca; S. Watkins; M. J. Caterina; L. A. Birder

    2002-01-01

    In the urinary bladder, the capsaicin-gated ion channel TRPV1 is expressed both within afferent nerve terminals and within the epithelial cells that line the bladder lumen. To determine the significance of this expression pattern, we analyzed bladder function in mice lacking TRPV1. Compared with wild-type littermates, trpv1?\\/? mice had a higher frequency of low-amplitude, non-voiding bladder contractions. This alteration was

  3. Structure and function of TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Tominaga; Tomoko Tominaga

    2005-01-01

    Capsaicin, the main ingredient in hot chili peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. The capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), is predicted to have six transmembrane (TM) domains and a short, pore-forming hydrophobic stretch between the fifth and sixth TM domains,

  4. The effects of the TRPV1 antagonist SB705498 on TRPV1 receptor-mediated activity and inflammatory hyperalgesia in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris A. Chizh; Mary B. O’Donnell; Antonella Napolitano; Jie Wang; Allison C. Brooke; Mike C. Aylott; Jonathan N. Bullman; Emily J. Gray; Robert Y. Lai; Pauline M. Williams; Jonathan M. Appleby

    2007-01-01

    TRPV1 is a cation channel activated by a range of noxious stimuli and highly expressed in nociceptive fibres. TRPV1 receptors are involved in pain and sensitisation associated with tissue injury and inflammation; hence, TRPV1 antagonists are potentially useful for the treatment of such pain states. SB-705498 is a potent, selective and orally bioavailable TRPV1 antagonist with demonstrated efficacy in a

  5. TRPV1 receptor inhibition decreases CCL2-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Spicarova, Diana; Adamek, Pavel; Kalynovska, Nataliia; Mrozkova, Petra; Palecek, Jiri

    2014-06-01

    Modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the spinal cord is implicated in the development and maintenance of several pathological pain states. The chemokine CCL2 (C-C motif ligand 2) was shown to be an important factor in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. In our experiments we have studied the effect of CCL2 application and TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) receptor activation on nociceptive signaling and the modulation of synaptic transmission. Intrathecal drug application in behavioral experiments and patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous, miniature and dorsal root stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, mEPSCs, eEPSCs) from superficial dorsal horn neurons in acute rat spinal cord slices were used. The intrathecal application of CCL2 induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, while pretreatment with the TRPV1 receptor antagonist SB366791 diminished the thermal but not the mechanical hypersensitivity. Patch-clamp experiments showed an increase of sEPSC and mEPSC (124.5 ± 12.8% and 161.2 ± 17.3%, respectively) frequency in dorsal horn neurons after acute CCL2 application. This CCL2-induced increase was prevented by SB366791 pretreatment (89.4 ± 6.0%, 107.5 ± 14.2%). CCL2 application increased the amplitude of eEPSCs (188.1 ± 32.1%); this increase was significantly lower in experiments with SB366791 pretreatment (120.8 ± 17.2%). Our results demonstrate that the activation of spinal TRPV1 receptors plays an important role in the modulation of nociceptive signaling induced by CCL2 application. The mechanisms of cooperation between the CCL2 activated receptors and TRPV1 receptors on the central branches of primary afferent fibers may be especially important during different pathological pain states and need to be further investigated. PMID:24495396

  6. CONSTITUTIVE ACTIVITY AT THE CANNABINOID CB1 RECEPTOR IS REQUIRED FOR BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE TO NOXIOUS CHEMICAL STIMULATION OF TRPV1: ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIONS OF CB1 INVERSE AGONISTS

    PubMed Central

    Fioravanti, Beatriz; De Felice, Milena; Stucky, Cheryl L.; Medler, Karen A.; Luo, Miaw-Chyi; Gardell, Luis R.; Ibrahim, Mohab; Malan, T. Phil; Yamamura, Henry I.; Ossipov, Michael H.; King, Tamara; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W.

    2009-01-01

    The potential modulation of TRPV1 nociceptive activity by the CB1 receptor was investigated here using CB1 wildtype (WT) and knock-out (KO) mice as well as selective CB1 inverse agonists. No significant differences were detected in baseline thermal thresholds of ICR, CB1WT or CB1KO mice. Intraplantar capsaicin produced dose- and time-related paw flinch responses in ICR and CB1WT mice and induced plasma extravasation yet minimal responses were seen in CB1KO animals with no apparent differences in TRPV1 channel expression. Capsaicin-evoked CGRP release from spinal cord tissue and capsaicin-evoked action potentials on isolated skin-nerve preparation were significantly decreased in CB1KO mice. Pretreatment with intraplantar galanin and bradykinin, compounds known to sensitize TRPV1 receptors, restored capsaicin-induced flinching in CB1KO mice. The possibility that constitutive activity at the CB1 receptor is required to maintain the TRPV1 receptor in a “sensitized” state was tested using CB1 inverse agonists. The CB1 inverse agonists elicited concentration-related inhibition of capsaicin-induced calcium influx in F-11 cells and produced dose-related inhibition of capsaicin-induced flinching in ICR mice. These data suggest that constitutive activity at the CB1 receptor maintains the TRPV1 channel in a sensitized state responsive to noxious chemical stimuli. Treatment with CB1 inverse agonists may promote desensitization of the channel resulting in antinociceptive actions against chemical stimulus modalities. These studies propose possible therapeutic exploitation of a novel mechanism providing pain relief by CB1 inverse agonists. PMID:18987195

  7. Pharmacological blockade of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 elicits marked hyperthermia in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narender R. Gavva; James J. S. Treanor; Andras Garami; Liang Fang; Sekhar Surapaneni; Anna Akrami; Francisco Alvarez; Annette Bak; Mary Darling; Anu Gore; Graham R. Jang; James P. Kesslak; Liyun Ni; Mark H. Norman; Gabrielle Palluconi; Mark J. Rose; Margaret Salfi; Edward Tan; Andrej A. Romanovsky; Christopher Banfield; Gudarz Davar

    2008-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 has been identified as a molecular target for the treatment of pain associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. Hence, TRPV1 antagonists have been considered for therapeutic evaluation in such diseases. During Phase I clinical trials with AMG 517, a highly selective TRPV1 antagonist, we found that TRPV1 blockade elicited marked, but reversible, and generally plasma concentration-dependent

  8. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1? upregulation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Feng, Xiaoli; Ma, Shuangtao; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Tianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Nilius, Bernd; Huang, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Zhu, Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents, but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown. The capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle, the role of which remains unclear. Here we report the function of TRPV1 in cultured C2C12 myocytes and the effect of TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin on energy metabolism and exercise endurance of skeletal muscles in mice. In vitro, capsaicin increased cytosolic free calcium and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) expression in C2C12 myotubes through activating TRPV1. In vivo, PGC-1? in skeletal muscle was upregulated by capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation or genetic overexpression of TRPV1 in mice. TRPV1 activation increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration, promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxidative fibers, enhanced exercise endurance and prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. Importantly, these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1? in skeletal muscles. The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance. PMID:22184011

  9. Capsaicin, nonivamide and trans-pellitorine decrease free fatty acid uptake without TRPV1 activation and increase acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rohm, Barbara; Riedel, Annett; Ley, Jakob P; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Red pepper and its major pungent component, capsaicin, have been associated with hypolipidemic effects in rats, although mechanistic studies on the effects of capsaicin and/or structurally related compounds on lipid metabolism are scarce. In this work, the effects of capsaicin and its structural analog nonivamide, the aliphatic alkamide trans-pellitorine and vanillin as the basic structural element of all vanilloids on the mechanisms of intestinal fatty acid uptake in differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells were studied. Capsaicin and nonivamide were found to reduce fatty acid uptake, with IC50 values of 0.49 ?M and 1.08 ?M, respectively. trans-Pellitorine was shown to reduce fatty acid uptake by 14.0±2.14% at 100 ?M, whereas vanillin was not effective, indicating a pivotal role of the alkyl chain with the acid amide group in fatty acid uptake by Caco-2 cells. This effect was associated neither with the activation of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) nor with effects on paracellular transport or glucose uptake. However, acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity increased (p<0.05) in the presence of 10 ?M capsaicin, nonivamide or trans-pellitorine, pointing to an increased fatty acid biosynthesis that might counteract the decreased fatty acid uptake. PMID:25422952

  10. The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes by dephosphorylating and desensitizing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) via a calcium calcineurin, dephosphorylated TRPV1. The WIN-induced desensitization of TRPV1 was mediated by calcineurin, because

  11. Prolonged exposure to bradykinin and prostaglandin E2 increases TRPV1 mRNA but does not alter TRPV1 and TRPV1b protein expression in cultured rat primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Shilpa; Paule, Cleoper C; Varga, Angelika; Photiou, Andy; Jenes, Agnes; Avelino, Antonio; Buluwela, Laki; Nagy, Istvan

    2014-04-01

    Sensitisation of the capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) ion channel in nociceptive primary sensory neurons (PSN) underlies the development of inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. Removal of the negative-dominant splice variant of the TRPV1 molecule, TRPV1b from TRPV1/TRPV1b heterotetrameric channels, which should be associated with changes in the expression of TRPV1 and TRPV1b transcripts and proteins, has been suggested to contribute to that sensitisation. Respective reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western-blotting revealed that both TRPV1 and TRPV1b mRNA, and their encoded proteins are expressed in rat cultured PSN. Sequencing of the RT-PCR products showed that TRPV1b mRNA lacks the entire exon 7. Further, growing PSN for 2 days in the presence of 10?M bradykinin (BK) and 10?M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly increases TRPV1 responsiveness and TRPV1 mRNA expression, without producing any changes in TRPV1b mRNA, and TRPV1 and TRPV1b protein expression. These data challenge the hypothesis that alterations in the composition of the TRPV1 ion channel contributes to the sensitisation. PMID:24525250

  12. Epithelial TRPV1 signaling accelerates gingival epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Matsuda, Y; Yamada, H; Tabeta, K; Nakajima, T; Murakami, S; Yamazaki, K

    2014-11-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a member of the calcium-permeable thermosensitive transient receptor potential superfamily, is a sensor of thermal and chemical stimuli. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat (> 43°C), acidic conditions (pH < 6.6), capsaicin, and endovanilloids. This pain receptor was discovered on nociceptive fibers in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 was recently found to be expressed by non-neuronal cells, such as epithelial cells. The oral gingival epithelium is exposed to multiple noxious stimuli, including heat and acids derived from endogenous and exogenous substances; however, whether gingival epithelial cells (GECs) express TRPV1 is unknown. We show that both TRPV1 mRNA and protein are expressed by GECs. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in the gingival epithelial cell line, epi 4. Moreover, TRPV1 activation in epi 4 cells accelerated proliferation. These responses to capsaicin were inhibited by a specific TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366791. We also observed GEC proliferation in capsaicin-treated mice in vivo. No effects were observed on GEC apoptosis by epithelial TRPV1 signaling. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying this proliferative effect, we performed complementary (c)DNA microarray analysis of capsaicin-stimulated epi 4 cells. Compared with control conditions, 227 genes were up-regulated and 232 genes were down-regulated following capsaicin stimulation. Several proliferation-related genes were validated by independent experiments. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-17 and neuregulin 2 were significantly up-regulated in capsaicin-treated epi 4 cells. Our results suggest that functional TRPV1 is expressed by GECs and contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25266715

  13. Novel agonistic action of mustard oil on recombinant and endogenous porcine transient receptor potential V1 (pTRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Toshio; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Ito, Shigeo

    2007-05-15

    Neurogenic components play a crucial role in inflammation and nociception. Mustard oil (MO) is a pungent plant extract from mustard seed, horseradish and wasabi, the main constituent of which is allylisothiocyanate. We have characterized the action of MO on transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1), a key receptor of signal transduction pathways in the nociceptive system, using fura-2-based [Ca(2+)](i) imaging and the patch-clamp technique in a heterologous expression system and sensory neurons. In human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing porcine TRPV1 (pTRPV1), MO evoked increases of [Ca(2+)](i) in a concentration-dependent manner. A high concentration of MO elicited irreversible cell swelling. Capsazepine, ruthenium red and iodoresiniferatoxin dose-dependently suppressed the MO-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase. MO elicited outward rectified currents in pTRPV1-expressing HEK 293 cells with a reversal potential similar to that of capsaicin. [Ca(2+)](i) responses to MO were completely abolished by the removal of external Ca(2+). MO simultaneously elicited an inward current and increase of [Ca(2+)](i) in the same cells, indicating that MO promoted Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 channels. In cultured porcine dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, MO elicited a [Ca(2+)](i) increase and inward current. Among DRG neurons responding to MO, 85% were also sensitive to capsaicin. The present data indicate that MO is a novel agonist of TRPV1 channels, and suggest that the action of MO in vivo may be partly mediated via TRPV1. These results provide an insight into the TRPV1-mediated effects of MO on inflammation and hyperalgesia. PMID:17328867

  14. TRPV1 shows dynamic ionic selectivity during agonist stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man-Kyo Chung; Ali D Güler; Michael J Caterina

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel that is gated by noxious heat, capsaicin and other diverse stimuli. It is a nonselective cation channel that prefers Ca2+ over Na+. These permeability characteristics, as in most channels, are widely presumed to be static. On the contrary, we found that activation of native or recombinant rat TRPV1 leads to

  15. Temperature-induced opening of TRPV1 ion channel is stabilized by the pore domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Grandl; Sung Eun Kim; Valerie Uzzell; Badry Bursulaya; Matt Petrus; Michael Bandell; Ardem Patapoutian

    2010-01-01

    TRPV1 is the founding and best-studied member of the family of temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels (thermoTRPs). Voltage, chemicals and heat allosterically gate TRPV1. Molecular determinants of TRPV1 activation by capsaicin, allicin, acid, ammonia and voltage have been identified. However, the structures and mechanisms mediating TRPV1's pronounced temperature sensitivity remain unclear. Recent studies of the related channel TRPV3 identified

  16. Carboxyl-terminal domain of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 contains distinct segments differentially involved in capsaicin- and heat-induced desensitization.

    PubMed

    Joseph, John; Wang, Sen; Lee, Jongseok; Ro, Jin Y; Chung, Man-Kyo

    2013-12-13

    Multiple Ca(2+)-dependent processes are involved in capsaicin-induced desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), but desensitization of TRPV1 by heat occurs even in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that capsaicin and heat desensitize TRPV1 through distinct mechanisms involving distinct structural segments of TRPV1. In HEK293 cells that heterologously express TRPV1, we found that heat-induced desensitization was not affected by the inclusion of intracellular ATP or alanine mutation of Lys(155), both of which attenuate capsaicin-induced desensitization, suggesting that heat-induced desensitization occurs through mechanisms distinct from capsaicin-induced desensitization. To determine protein domains involved in heat-induced desensitization, we generated chimeric proteins between TRPV1 and TRPV3, a heat-gated channel lacking heat-induced desensitization. We found that TRPV1 with the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of TRPV3 retained heat activation but was impaired in heat-induced desensitization. Further experiments using chimeric or deletion mutants within TRPV1 CTD indicated that the distal half of CTD regulates the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 in modality-specific manners. Within the distal CTD, we identified two segments that distinctly regulated capsaicin- and heat-induced desensitization. The results suggest that the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 by capsaicin and heat can be modulated differentially and disproportionally through different regions of TRPV1 CTD. Identifying the domains involved in thermal regulation of TRPV1 may facilitate the development of novel anti-hyperalgesic approaches aimed at attenuating activation and enhancing desensitization of TRPV1 by thermal stimuli. PMID:24174527

  17. Analgesic Compound from Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa Is the First Polypeptide Inhibitor of Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1)*

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Monastyrnaya, Margarita M.; Kozlovskaya, Emma P.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2008-01-01

    Venomous animals from distinct phyla such as spiders, scorpions, snakes, cone snails, or sea anemones produce small toxic proteins interacting with a variety of cell targets. Their bites often cause pain. One of the ways of pain generation is the activation of TRPV1 channels. Screening of 30 different venoms from spiders and sea anemones for modulation of TRPV1 activity revealed inhibitors in tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa venom. Several separation steps resulted in isolation of an inhibiting compound. This is a 56-residue-long polypeptide named APHC1 that has a Bos taurus trypsin inhibitor (BPTI)/Kunitz-type fold, mostly represented by serine protease inhibitors and ion channel blockers. APHC1 acted as a partial antagonist of capsaicin-induced currents (32 ± 9% inhibition) with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) 54 ± 4 nm. In vivo, a 0.1 mg/kg dose of APHC1 significantly prolonged tail-flick latency and reduced capsaicin-induced acute pain. Therefore, our results can make an important contribution to the research into molecular mechanisms of TRPV1 modulation and help to solve the problem of overactivity of this receptor during a number of pathological processes in the organism. PMID:18579526

  18. The vanilloid receptor TRPV1: 10 years from channel cloning to antagonist proof-of-concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel N. Cortright; Charles A. Blum; Samer R. Eid; Arpad Szallasi

    2007-01-01

    The clinical use of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1; also known as VR1) antagonists is based on the concept that endogenous agonists acting on TRPV1 might provide a major contribution to certain pain conditions. Indeed, a number of small-molecule TRPV1 antagonists are already undergoing Phase I\\/II clinical trials for the indications of chronic inflammatory pain and migraine.

  19. Structural determinant of TRPV1 desensitization interacts with calmodulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuko Numazaki; Tomoko Tominaga; Kumiko Takeuchi; Namie Murayama; Hidenori Toyooka; Makoto Tominaga

    2003-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 (VR1), is a sensory neuron-specific ion channel that serves as a polymodal detector of pain-producing chemical and physical stimuli. Extracellular Ca2+-dependent desensitization of TRPV1 observed in patch-clamp experiments when using both heterologous expression systems and native sensory ganglia is thought to be one mechanism underlying the paradoxical effectiveness of capsaicin as an analgesic therapy. Here, we

  20. The role of endogenous molecules in modulating pain through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Simon, Sidney A; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a physiological response to a noxious stimulus that decreases the quality of life of those sufferring from it. Research aimed at finding new therapeutic targets for the treatment of several maladies, including pain, has led to the discovery of numerous molecular regulators of ion channels in primary afferent nociceptive neurons. Among these receptors is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), a member of the TRP family of ion channels. TRPV1 is a calcium-permeable channel, which is activated or modulated by diverse exogenous noxious stimuli such as high temperatures, changes in pH, and irritant and pungent compounds, and by selected molecules released during tissue damage and inflammatory processes. During the last decade the number of endogenous regulators of TRPV1's activity has increased to include lipids that can negatively regulate TRPV1, as is the case for cholesterol and PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate) while, in contrast, other lipids produced in response to tissue injury and ischaemic processes are known to positively regulate TRPV1. Among the latter, lysophosphatidic acid activates TRPV1 while amines such as N-acyl-ethanolamines and N-acyl-dopamines can sensitize or directly activate TRPV1. It has also been found that nucleotides such as ATP act as mediators of chemically induced nociception and pain and gases, such as hydrogen sulphide and nitric oxide, lead to TRPV1 activation. Finally, the products of lipoxygenases and omega-3 fatty acids among other molecules, such as divalent cations, have also been shown to endogenously regulate TRPV1 activity. Here we provide a comprehensive review of endogenous small molecules that regulate the function of TRPV1. Acting through mechanisms that lead to sensitization and desensitization of TRPV1, these molecules regulate pathways involved in pain and nociception. Understanding how these compounds modify TRPV1 activity will allow us to comprehend how some pathologies are associated with its deregulation. PMID:23613529

  1. The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes peripheral antihyperalgesia via calcineurin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amol M. Patwardhan; Nathaniel A. Jeske; Theodore J. Price; Nikita Gamper; Armen N. Akopian; Kenneth M. Hargreaves

    2006-01-01

    Cannabinoids can evoke antihyperalgesia and antinociception at a peripheral site of action. However, the signaling pathways mediating these effects are not clearly understood. We tested the hypothesis that certain cannabinoids directly inhibit peripheral capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive neurons by dephosphorylating and desensitizing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) via a calcium calcineurin-dependent mechanism. Application of the cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) to cultured

  2. Supraspinal TRPV1 modulates the emotional expression of abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Jurik, Angela; Ressle, Andrea; Schmid, Roland M; Wotjak, Carsten T; Thoeringer, Christoph K

    2014-10-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type-1 (TRPV1) is critically involved in peripheral nociceptive processes of somatic and visceral pain. However, the role of the capsaicin receptor in the brain regarding visceral pain remains elusive. Here, we studied the contribution of TRPV1 to abdominal pain transmission at different nociceptive pathway levels using TRPV1 knock-out mice, resiniferatoxin-mediated deletion of TRPV1-positive primary sensory neurons, and intracerebral TRPV1 antagonism. We found that constitutive genetic TRPV1 deletion or peripheral TRPV1 deletion reduced acetic acid-evoked abdominal constrictions, without affecting referred abdominal hyperalgesia or allodynia in an acute pancreatitis model of visceral pain. Notably, intracerebral TRPV1 antagonism by SB 366791 significantly reduced chemical and inflammatory spontaneous abdominal nocifensive responses, as observed by reduced expressions of nociceptive facial grimacing, illustrating the affective component of pain. In addition to the established role of cerebral TRPV1 in anxiety, fear, or emotional stress, we demonstrate here for the first time that TRPV1 in the brain modulates visceral nociception by interfering with the affective component of abdominal pain. PMID:25139591

  3. Streptozotocin-Induced Early Thermal Hyperalgesia is independent of Glycemic State of Rats: Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1(TRPV1) and Inflammatory mediators

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptozotocin (STZ) is used as a common tool to induce diabetes and to study diabetes-induced complications including diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Previously, we have reported that STZ induces a direct effect on neurons through expression and function of the Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in sensory neurons resulting in thermal hyperalgesia, even in non-diabetic STZ-treated mice. In the present study, we investigated the role of expression and function of TRPV1 in the central sensory nerve terminals in the spinal cord in STZ-induced hyperalgesia in rats. Results We found that a proportion of STZ-treated rats were normoglycemic but still exhibited thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Immunohistochemical data show that STZ treatment, irrespective of glycemic state of the animal, caused microglial activation and increased expression of TRPV1 in spinal dorsal horn. Further, there was a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) in spinal cord tissue, irrespective of the glycemic state. Capsaicin-stimulated release of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) was significantly higher in the spinal cord of STZ-treated animals. Intrathecal administration of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a potent TRPV1 agonist, significantly attenuated STZ-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. RTX treatment also prevented the increase in TRPV1-mediated neuropeptide release in the spinal cord tissue. Conclusions From these results, it is concluded that TRPV1 is an integral component of initiating and maintaining inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia, which can be alleviated by intrathecal administration of RTX. Further, the results suggest that enhanced expression and inflammation-induced sensitization of TRPV1 at the spinal cord may play a role in central sensitization in STZ-induced neuropathy. PMID:21794120

  4. TRPV1 Marks Synaptic Segregation of Multiple Convergent Afferents at the Rat Medial Solitary Tract Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Peters, James H.; McDougall, Stuart J.; Fawley, Jessica A.; Andresen, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    TRPV1 receptors are expressed on most but not all central terminals of cranial visceral afferents in the caudal solitary tract nucleus (NTS). TRPV1 is associated with unmyelinated C-fiber afferents. Both TRPV1+ and TRPV1- afferents enter NTS but their precise organization remains poorly understood. In horizontal brainstem slices, we activated solitary tract (ST) afferents and recorded ST-evoked glutamatergic excitatory synaptic currents (ST-EPSCs) under whole cell voltage clamp conditions from neurons of the medial subnucleus. Electrical shocks to the ST produced fixed latency EPSCs (jitter<200 µs) that identified direct ST afferent innervation. Graded increases in shock intensity often recruited more than one ST afferent and ST-EPSCs had consistent threshold intensity, latency to onset, and unique EPSC waveforms that characterized each unitary ST afferent contact. The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (100 nM) blocked the evoked TRPV1+ ST-EPSCs and defined them as either TRPV1+ or TRPV1- inputs. No partial responses to capsaicin were observed so that in NTS neurons that received one or multiple (2–5) direct ST afferent inputs – all were either blocked by capsaicin or were unaltered. Since TRPV1 mediates asynchronous release following TRPV1+ ST-evoked EPSCs, we likewise found that recruiting more than one ST afferent further augmented the asynchronous response and was eliminated by capsaicin. Thus, TRPV1+ and TRPV1- afferents are completely segregated to separate NTS neurons. As a result, the TRPV1 receptor augments glutamate release only within unmyelinated afferent pathways in caudal medial NTS and our work indicates a complete separation of C-type from A-type afferent information at these first central neurons. PMID:21949835

  5. Furanocoumarins are a novel class of modulators for the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingjuan; Sun, Weiyang; Gianaris, Nicholas G; Riley, Ashley M; Cummins, Theodore R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C; Obukhov, Alexander G

    2014-04-01

    Furanocoumarin imperatorin is the major active component of Angelica dahurica root extracts, widely used in traditional medicine to treat headache, toothache, and orbital eye pain. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms that may underlie the pain-relieving effects of the compound. We found that imperatorin significantly inhibited formalin- and capsaicin-induced nocifensive responses but did not alter baseline thermal withdrawal thresholds in the rat. We established that imperatorin is a weak agonist of TRPV1, a channel implicated in detecting several noxious stimuli, exhibiting a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 12.6 ± 3.2 ?M. A specific TRPV1 antagonist, JNJ-17203212 (0.5 ?M), potently inhibited imperatorin-induced TRPV1 activation. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that imperatorin most likely acted via a site adjacent to or overlapping with the TRPV1 capsaicin-binding site. TRPV1 recovery from desensitization was delayed in the presence of imperatorin. Conversely, imperatorin sensitized TRPV1 to acid activation but did not affect the current amplitude and/or the activation-inactivation properties of Na(v)1.7, a channel important for transmission of nociceptive information. Thus, our data indicate that furanocoumarins represent a novel group of TRPV1 modulators that may become important lead compounds in the drug discovery process aimed at developing new treatments for pain management. PMID:24569998

  6. Pharmacodynamics of TRPV1 Agonists in a Bioassay Using Human PC-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Marcel; Clavé, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. TRPV1 is a multimodal channel mainly expressed in sensory neurons. We aimed to explore the pharmacodynamics of the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin, natural capsaicinoids, and piperine in an in vitro bioassay using human PC-3 cells and to examine desensitization and the effect of the specific antagonist SB366791. Methods. PC-3 cells expressing TRPV1 were incubated with Fluo-4. Fluorescence emission changes following exposition to agonists with and without preincubation with antagonists were assessed and referred to maximal fluorescence following the addition of ionomycin. Concentration-response curves were fitted to the Hill equation. Results. Capsaicin and piperine had similar pharmacodynamics (Emax 204.8 ± 184.3% piperine versus 176.6 ± 35.83% capsaicin, P = 0.8814, Hill coefficient 0.70 ± 0.50 piperine versus 1.59 ± 0.86 capsaicin, P = 0.3752). In contrast, capsaicinoids had lower Emax (40.99 ± 6.14% capsaicinoids versus 176.6 ± 35.83% capsaicin, P < 0.001). All the TRPV1 agonists showed significant desensitization after the second exposition and their effects were strongly inhibited by SB366791. Conclusion. TRPV1 receptor is successfully stimulated by capsaicin, piperine, and natural capsaicinoids. These agonists present desensitization and their effect is significantly reduced by a TRPV1-specific antagonist. In addition, PC-3 cell bioassays proved useful in the study of TRPV1 pharmacodynamics. PMID:24688365

  7. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation by dietary capsaicin promotes urinary sodium excretion by inhibiting epithelial sodium channel ? subunit-mediated sodium reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Fei; Wei, Xing; Liang, Yi; Cui, Yuanting; Gao, Feng; Zhong, Jian; Pu, Yunfei; Zhao, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Arendshorst, William J; Nilius, Bernd; Chen, Jing; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2014-08-01

    High salt (HS) intake contributes to the development of hypertension. Epithelial sodium channels play crucial roles in regulating renal sodium reabsorption and blood pressure. The renal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel can be activated by its agonist capsaicin. However, it is unknown whether dietary factors can act on urinary sodium excretion and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function. Here, we report that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin increased urinary sodium excretion through reducing sodium reabsorption in wild-type (WT) mice on a HS diet but not in TRPV1(-/-) mice. The effect of capsaicin on urinary sodium excretion was involved in inhibiting ?ENaC and its related with-no-lysine kinase 1/serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase 1 pathway in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Dietary capsaicin further reduced the increased ?ENaC activity in WT mice attributed to the HS diet. In contrast, this capsaicin effect was absent in TRPV1(-/-) mice. Immunoprecipitation study indicated ?ENaC specifically coexpressed and functionally interact with TRPV1 in renal cortical collecting ducts of WT mice. Additionally, ENaC activity and expression were suppressed by capsaicin-mediated TRPV1 activation in cultured M1-cortical collecting duct cells. Long-term dietary capsaicin prevented the development of high blood pressure in WT mice on a HS diet. It concludes that TRPV1 activation in the cortical collecting ducts by capsaicin increases urinary sodium excretion and avoids HS diet-induced hypertension through antagonizing ?ENaC-mediated urinary sodium reabsorption. Dietary capsaicin may represent a promising lifestyle intervention in populations exposed to a high dietary salt intake. PMID:24890824

  8. Oleoylethanolamide reduces L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia via TRPV1 receptor in a mouse model of Parkinson´s disease.

    PubMed

    González-Aparicio, Ramiro; Moratalla, Rosario

    2014-02-01

    The long-term use of levodopa (L-DOPA) in Parkinson's disease (PD) results in the development of abnormal involuntary movements called L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. Increasing evidences suggest that the endocannabinoid system may play a role in the modulation of dyskinesias. In this work, we assessed the antidyskinetic effect of the endocannabinoid analog oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an agonist of PPAR? and antagonist of TRPV1 receptors. We used a hemiparkinsonian model of PD in mice with 6-OHDA striatal lesion. The chronic L-DOPA treatment developed intense axial, forelimb and orolingual dyskinetic symptoms, as well as contralateral rotations. Treatment with OEA reduced all these symptoms without reducing motor activity or the therapeutic motor effects of L-DOPA. Moreover, the OEA-induced reduction in dyskinetic behavior correlated with a reduction in molecular correlates of dyskinesia. OEA reduced FosB striatal overexpression and phosphoacetylation of histone 3, both molecular markers of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. We found that OEA antidyskinetic properties were mediated by TRPV1 receptor, as pretreatment with capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, blocked OEA antidyskinetic actions, as well as the reduction in FosB- and pAcH3-overexpression induced by L-DOPA. This study supports the hypothesis that the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the development and expression of dyskinesias and might be an effective target for the treatment of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. Importantly, there was no development of tolerance to OEA in any of the parameters we examined, which has important implications for the therapeutic potential of drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system. PMID:24140894

  9. Polypeptide Modulators of TRPV1 Produce Analgesia without Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Korolkova, Yuliya V.; Dyachenko, Igor A.; Bondarenko, Dmitrii A.; Skobtsov, Denis I.; Murashev, Arkadii N.; Kotova, Polina D.; Rogachevskaja, Olga A.; Kabanova, Natalia V.; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors (TRPV1) play a significant physiological role. The study of novel TRPV1 agonists and antagonists is essential. Here, we report on the characterization of polypeptide antagonists of TRPV1 based on in vitro and in vivo experiments. We evaluated the ability of APHC1 and APHC3 to inhibit TRPV1 using the whole-cell patch clamp approach and single cell Ca2+ imaging. In vivo tests were performed to assess the biological effects of APHC1 and APHC3 on temperature sensation, inflammation and core body temperature. In the electrophysiological study, both polypeptides partially blocked the capsaicin-induced response of TRPV1, but only APHC3 inhibited acid-induced (pH 5.5) activation of the receptor. APHC1 and APHC3 showed significant antinociceptive and analgesic activity in vivo at reasonable doses (0.01–0.1 mg/kg) and did not cause hyperthermia. Intravenous administration of these polypeptides prolonged hot-plate latency, blocked capsaicin- and formalin-induced behavior, reversed CFA-induced hyperalgesia and produced hypothermia. Notably, APHC3’s ability to inhibit the low pH-induced activation of TRPV1 resulted in a reduced behavioural response in the acetic acid-induced writhing test, whereas APHC1 was much less effective. The polypeptides APHC1 and APHC3 could be referred to as a new class of TRPV1 modulators that produce a significant analgesic effect without hyperthermia. PMID:24351908

  10. Sumatriptan Inhibits TRPV1 Channels in Trigeminal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M. Steven; Cheng, Xiangying; Jeffry, Joseph A.; Disney, Kimberly E.; Premkumar, Louis S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand a possible role for transient potential receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channels in sumatriptan relief of pain mediated by trigeminal nociceptors. Background TRPV1 channels are expressed in small nociceptive sensory neurons. In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), TRPV1-containing nociceptors mediate certain types of inflammatory pain. Neurogenic inflammation of cerebral dura and blood vessels in the trigeminal nociceptive system is thought to be important in migraine pain, but the ion channels important in transducing migraine pain are not known. Sumatriptan is an agent effective in treatment of migraine and cluster headache. We hypothesized that sumatriptan might modulate activity of TRPV1 channels found in the trigeminal nociceptive system. Methods We used immunohistochemistry to detect the presence of TRPV1 channel protein, whole cell recording in acutely dissociated trigeminal ganglia (TG) to detect functionality of TRPV1 channels, and whole cell recording in trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) to detect effects on release of neurotransmitters from trigeminal neurons onto second order sensory neurons. Effects specifically on TG neurons that project to cerebral dura were assessed by labeling dural nociceptors with DiI. Results Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that TRPV1 channels are present in cerebral dura, trigeminal ganglion, and in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, produced depolarization and repetitive action potential firing in current clamp recordings and large inward currents in voltage clamp recordings from acutely dissociated TG neurons, demonstrating that TRPV1 channels are functional in trigeminal neurons. Capsaicin increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in neurons of layer II in TNC slices, showing that these channels have a physiological effect on central synaptic transmission. Sumatriptan (10 ?M), a selective anti-migraine drug inhibited TRPV1-mediated inward currents in TG. and capsaicin-elicited sEPSCs in TNC slices. The same effects of capsaicin and sumatriptan were found in acutely dissociated DiI-labeled TG neurons innervating cerebral dura. Conclusion Our results build on previous work indicating that TRPV1 channels in trigeminal nociceptors play a role in craniofacial pain. Our findings that TRPV1 is inhibited by the specific antimigraine drug sumatriptan, and that TRPV1 channels are functional in neurons projecting to cerebral dura suggests a specific role for these channels in migraine or cluster headache. PMID:22289052

  11. Sensitization by pulmonary reactive oxygen species of rat vagal lung C-fibers: the roles of the TRPV1, TRPA1, and P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ting; Lin, Yu-Jung; Hsu, Tien-Huan; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Jow, Guey-Mei; Kou, Yu Ru

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization of vagal lung C-fibers (VLCFs) induced by mediators contributes to the pathogenesis of airway hypersensitivity, which is characterized by exaggerated sensory and reflex responses to stimulants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mediators produced during airway inflammation. However, the role of ROS in VLCF-mediated airway hypersensitivity has remained elusive. Here, we report that inhalation of aerosolized 0.05% H2O2 for 90 s potentiated apneic responses to intravenous capsaicin (a TRPV1 receptor agonist), ?,?-methylene-ATP (a P2X receptor agonist), and phenylbiguanide (a 5-HT3 receptor agonist) in anesthetized rats. The apneic responses to these three stimulants were abolished by vagatomy or by perivagal capsaicin treatment, a procedure that blocks the neural conduction of VLCFs. The potentiating effect of H2O2 on the apneic responses to these VLCF stimulants was prevented by catalase (an enzyme that degrades H2O2) and by dimethylthiourea (a hydroxyl radical scavenger). The potentiating effect of H2O2 on the apneic responses to capsaicin was attenuated by HC-030031 (a TRPA1 receptor antagonist) and by iso-pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',5'-disulphonate (a P2X receptor antagonist). The potentiating effect of H2O2 on the apneic responses to ?,?-methylene-ATP was reduced by capsazepine (a TRPV1 receptor antagonist), and by HC-030031. The potentiating effect of H2O2 on the apneic responses to phenylbiguanide was totally abolished when all three antagonists were combined. Consistently, our electrophysiological studies revealed that airway delivery of aerosolized 0.05% H2O2 for 90 s potentiated the VLCF responses to intravenous capsaicin, ?,?-methylene-ATP, and phenylbiguanide. The potentiating effect of H2O2 on the VLCF responses to phenylbiguanide was totally prevented when all antagonists were combined. Inhalation of 0.05% H2O2 indeed increased the level of ROS in the lungs. These results suggest that 1) increased lung ROS sensitizes VLCFs, which leads to exaggerated reflex responses in rats and 2) the TRPV1, TRPA1, and P2X receptors are all involved in the development of this airway hypersensitivity. PMID:24699274

  12. The proportion of TRPV1 protein-positive lumbar DRG neurones does not increase in the course of acute and chronic antigen-induced arthritis in the knee joint of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Jürgen Bär; Hans-Georg Schaible; Rolf Bräuer; Karl-Jürgen Halbhuber; Gisela Segond von Banchet

    2004-01-01

    The TRPV1 receptor, previously called VR1 receptor, is a non-selective cation channel gated by capsaicin, noxious heat, protons and anandamide. The TRPV1 receptor is essential for the development of thermal hyperalgesia. The present study investigated whether the proportion of neurones with TRPV1 receptor increases in lumbar DRG neurones in the course of an antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) of one knee joint

  13. TRPV1 stimulation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, Hisashi; Yamaoka, Tomoko; Sanpei, Kazuaki; Sasaoka, Hirotoshi; Nakagawa, Takayuki [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kaneko, Shuji [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: skaneko@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-26

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) functions as a polymodal nociceptor and is activated by several vanilloids, including capsaicin, protons and heat. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the brain, their roles remain unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of TRPV1 in cytotoxic processes using TRPV1-expressing cultured rat cortical neurons. Capsaicin induced severe neuronal death with apoptotic features, which was completely inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and was dependent on extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx. Interestingly, nifedipine, a specific L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity, even when applied 2-4 h after the capsaicin. ERK inhibitor PD98059 and several antioxidants, but not the JNK and p38 inhibitors, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity. Together, these data indicate that TRPV1 activation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical cultures via L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel opening, Ca{sup 2+} influx, ERK phosphorylation, and reactive oxygen species production.

  14. A novel human volunteer pain model using contact heat evoked potentials (CHEP) following topical skin application of transient receptor potential agonists capsaicin, menthol and cinnamaldehyde

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Roberts; R. Shenoy; P. Anand

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors has advanced understanding of temperature sensation, and pre-clinical studies have identified TRP as major novel analgesic targets in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. We systematically investigated the sensory effects and interactions of TRP agonists capsaicin (TRPV1), menthol (TRPM8) and cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1) applied topically to the skin in 14 healthy human participants. Capsaicin

  15. "Hotheaded": the role OF TRPV1 in brain functions.

    PubMed

    Martins, D; Tavares, I; Morgado, C

    2014-10-01

    The TRPV1 (vanilloid 1) channel is best known for its role in sensory transmission in the nociceptive neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Although first studied in the dorsal root ganglia as the receptor for capsaicin, TRPV1 has been recently recognized to have a broader distribution in the central nervous system, where it is likely to constitute an atypical neurotransmission system involved in several functions through modulation of both neuronal and glial activities. The endovanilloid-activated brain TRPV1 channels seem to be involved in somatosensory, motor and visceral functions. Recent studies suggested that TRPV1 channels also account for more complex functions, as addiction, anxiety, mood and cognition/learning. However, more studies are needed before the relevance of TRPV1 in brain activity can be clearly stated. This review highlights the increasing importance of TRPV1 as a regulator of brain function and discusses possible bases for the future development of new therapeutic approaches that by targeting brain TRPV1 receptors might be used for the treatment of several neurological disorders. PMID:24887171

  16. TRPV1 structures in distinct conformations reveal mechanisms of activation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Erhu; Liao, Maofu; Cheng, Yifan; Julius, David

    2014-01-01

    TRP channels are polymodal signal detectors that respond to a wide range of physical and chemical stimuli. Elucidating how these channels integrate and convert physiological signals into channel opening is essential to understanding how they regulate cell excitability under normal and pathophysiological conditions. Here we exploit pharmacological probes (a peptide toxin and small vanilloid agonists) to determine structures of two activated states of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. A domain (S1-S4) that moves during activation of voltage-gated channels remains stationary in TRPV1, highlighting differences in gating mechanisms for these structurally related channel superfamilies. TRPV1 opening is associated with major structural rearrangements in the outer pore, including the pore helix and selectivity filter, as well as pronounced dilation of a hydrophobic constriction at the lower gate, suggesting a dual gating mechanism. Allosteric coupling between upper and lower gates may account for rich physiologic modulation exhibited by TRPV1 and other TRP channels. PMID:24305161

  17. Lighting a backfire to quench the blaze: a combined drug approach targeting the vanilloid receptor TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Peter M

    2007-12-01

    Drug interactions and drug specificity are core themes for the pharmacologist. The paper discussed in this Viewpoint exploits the former to attain the latter. How can one improve local anesthetics so that they block pain but permit normal sensation? QX-314 is a charged derivative of lidocaine without anesthetic activity because it cannot diffuse across the cell membrane to access the neuronal voltage-dependent sodium channel. Capsaicin is a selective activator of the TRPV1 channel, the localization of which is restricted to sensory C-fiber neurons involved in nociception. Because the large pore size of the activated TRPV1 allows passage of large cations such as QX-314, combined treatment with capsaicin and QX-314 puts QX-314 uniquely into that subclass of neurons mediating pain, thereby achieving sensational specificity. PMID:18199852

  18. Compartment-Specific Modulation of GABAergic Synaptic Transmission by TRPV1 Channels in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Vivian M.; Rodenas-Ruano, Alma; Chan, C. Savio

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential TRPV1 or vanilloid receptor is a nonselective ligand-gated channel highly expressed in primary sensory neurons where it mediates nociception. TRPV1 is also expressed in the brain where its activation depresses excitatory synaptic transmission. Whether TRPV1 also regulates inhibitory synapses in the brain is unclear. Here, using a combination of pharmacology, electrophysiology, and an in vivo knockdown strategy, we report that TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or by the endocannabinoid anandamide depresses somatic, but not dendritic inhibitory transmission in both rat and mouse dentate gyrus. The effect on somatic inhibition was absent in TRPV1 knock-out mice and was also eliminated by two different TRPV1 shRNAs expressed in dentate granule cells, strongly supporting a functional role for TRPV1 in modulating GABAergic synaptic function. Moreover, TRPV1-mediated depression occurs independently of GABA release, requires postsynaptic Ca2+ rise and activation of calcineurin, and is likely due to clathrin-dependent internalization of GABA receptors. Altogether, these findings reveal a novel form of compartment-specific regulation whereby TRPV1 channels can modify synaptic function in the brain. PMID:25505315

  19. TRPV1 sensitization mediates postinflammatory visceral pain following acute colitis.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Tamia K; Basso, Lilian; Iftinca, Mircea C; Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Dietrich, Gilles; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Altier, Christophe

    2015-07-15

    Quiescent phases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are often accompanied by chronic abdominal pain. Although the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel has been postulated as an important mediator of visceral hypersensitivity, its functional role in postinflammatory pain remains elusive. This study aimed at establishing the role of TRPV1 in the peripheral sensitization underlying chronic visceral pain in the context of colitis. Wild-type and TRPV1-deficient mice were separated into three groups (control, acute colitis, and recovery), and experimental colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Recovery mice showed increased chemically and mechanically evoked visceral hypersensitivity 5 wk post-DSS discontinuation, at which point inflammation had completely resolved. Significant changes in nonevoked pain-related behaviors could also be observed in these animals, indicative of persistent discomfort. These behavioral changes correlated with elevated colonic levels of substance P (SP) and TRPV1 in recovery mice, thus leading to the hypothesis that SP could sensitize TRPV1 function. In vitro experiments revealed that prolonged exposure to SP could indeed sensitize capsaicin-evoked currents in both cultured neurons and TRPV1-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, a mechanism that involved TRPV1 ubiquitination and subsequent accumulation at the plasma membrane. Importantly, although TRPV1-deficient animals experienced similar disease severity and pain as wild-type mice in the acute phase of colitis, TRPV1 deletion prevented the development of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity and pain-associated behaviors. Collectively, our results suggest that chronic exposure of colon-innervating primary afferents to SP could sensitize TRPV1 and thus participate in the establishment of persistent abdominal pain following acute inflammation. PMID:26021808

  20. Involvement of TRPV1-dependent and -independent components in the regulation of vagally induced contractions in the mouse esophagus.

    PubMed

    Boudaka, Ammar; Wörl, Jürgen; Shiina, Takahiko; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Kobayashi, Haruo; Shimizu, Yasutake; Takewaki, Tadashi

    2007-02-01

    Transient receptor potential ion channel of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1)-dependent pathway, consisting of capsaicin-sensitive tachykininergic primary afferent and myenteric nitrergic neurons, has been suggested to mediate the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on vagally mediated striated muscle contractions in the rat esophagus. In a recent study, similar but also different effects of capsaicin and piperine on TRPV1 were demonstrated. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of these two drugs on vagally induced contractions in the mouse esophagus. Capsaicin and piperine inhibited vagally induced contractions of a thoracic esophageal segment in a concentration-dependent manner. Ruthenium red (10 microM; a non-selective blocker of transient receptor potential cation channels) and SB-366791 (10 microM; a novel selective antagonist of TRPV1) blocked the inhibitory effect of capsaicin but not that of piperine. Piperine inhibited the vagally mediated contractions in esophagi of adult mice neonatally injected with capsaicin, while capsaicin failed to do so. Desensitization of TRPV1 in the mouse esophagus by in vitro pretreatment with capsaicin failed to affect the inhibitory effect of piperine, whereas the piperine effect was cross-desensitized by capsaicin pretreatment in rat and hamster esophagi. Additionally, a tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist, L-732,138 (1 microM), as well as a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 200 microM), blocked the inhibitory effect of capsaicin but not that of piperine. Taken together, the results suggest that piperine inhibits the vagally mediated striated muscle contraction in the mouse esophagus through its action on a TRPV1-dependent pathway as well as a TRPV1-independent site. PMID:17156774

  1. TRPV1: A Potential Drug Target for Treating Various Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rafael; Sheth, Sandeep; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel present on sensory neurons which is activated by heat, protons, capsaicin and a variety of endogenous lipids termed endovanilloids. As such, TRPV1 serves as a multimodal sensor of noxious stimuli which could trigger counteractive measures to avoid pain and injury. Activation of TRPV1 has been linked to chronic inflammatory pain conditions and peripheral neuropathy, as observed in diabetes. Expression of TRPV1 is also observed in non-neuronal sites such as the epithelium of bladder and lungs and in hair cells of the cochlea. At these sites, activation of TRPV1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystitis, asthma and hearing loss. Therefore, drugs which could modulate TRPV1 channel activity could be useful for the treatment of conditions ranging from chronic pain to hearing loss. This review describes the roles of TRPV1 in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of selected organs of the body and highlights how drugs targeting this channel could be important clinically. PMID:24861977

  2. TRPV1: A Potential Drug Target for Treating Various Diseases.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rafael; Sheth, Sandeep; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel present on sensory neurons which is activated by heat, protons, capsaicin and a variety of endogenous lipids termed endovanilloids. As such, TRPV1 serves as a multimodal sensor of noxious stimuli which could trigger counteractive measures to avoid pain and injury. Activation of TRPV1 has been linked to chronic inflammatory pain conditions and peripheral neuropathy, as observed in diabetes. Expression of TRPV1 is also observed in non-neuronal sites such as the epithelium of bladder and lungs and in hair cells of the cochlea. At these sites, activation of TRPV1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystitis, asthma and hearing loss. Therefore, drugs which could modulate TRPV1 channel activity could be useful for the treatment of conditions ranging from chronic pain to hearing loss. This review describes the roles of TRPV1 in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of selected organs of the body and highlights how drugs targeting this channel could be important clinically. PMID:24861977

  3. POTENTIATION OF PULMONARY REFLEX RESPONSE TO CAPSAICIN 24 HOURS FOLLOWING WHOLE-BODY ACROLEIN EXPOSURE IS MEDIATED BY TRPV1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary C-fibers are stimulated by irritant air pollutants producing apnea, bronchospasm, and decrease in HR. C-fiber chemoreflex activation is mediated by TRPV1 and release of substance P. While acrolein has been shown to stimulate C-fibers, the persistence of acrolein effect...

  4. Integrin ?6?4 and TRPV1 channel coordinately regulate directional keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Ayako; Ohkubo, Tsuyako; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Jun

    2015-02-27

    The directional migration of epithelial cells is crucial for wound healing. Among integrins, a family of cell adhesion receptors, integrin ?4 has been assumed to be a promigratory factor, in addition to its role in stable adhesion. In turn, Ca(2+) signaling is also a key coordinator of migration. Keratinocytes reportedly express transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1); however, the function of these channels as a regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) level in cell migration has remained uncharacterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in directional migration related to integrin ?4 using a scratch wound assay on a confluent monolayer sheet of murine keratinocytes (Pam212 cells). Double immunofluorescence staining revealed the de novo expression of integrin ?4 and TRPV1 in migrating cells at the wound edge in response to scratch wounding, and both expression levels were almost matched. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) not only promoted keratinocyte migration, but also caused the further up-regulation of both integrin ?4 and TRPV1. In addition, the knockdown of the integrin ?4 or TRPV1 gene significantly impeded wound closure. The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin significantly promoted migration, while a selective TRPV1 antagonist inhibited it. The gene knockdown of TRPV1 inhibited the expression of the integrin ?4 gene and that of ?4 protein in migrating cells. These findings suggest that TRPV1 may stimulate directional migration directly by eliciting a Ca(2+) signal or indirectly via integrin ?4 expression. PMID:25637531

  5. 6,6-Fused heterocyclic ureas as highly potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Kim, Hyo-Shin; Lee, Sunho; Jung, Aeran; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ann, Jihyae; Yoon, Suyoung; Choi, Sun; Lee, Jin Hee; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Schiene, Klaus; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-02-15

    A series of N-[{2-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-pyridin-3-yl}methyl] N'-(6,6-fused heterocyclic) ureas have been investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. Among them, compound 15 showed highly potent TRPV1 antagonism to capsaicin, with Ki(ant)=0.2nM, as well as antagonism to other activators, and it was efficacious in a pain model. A docking study of 15 with our hTRPV1 homology model indicates that there is crucial hydrogen bonding between the ring nitrogen and the receptor, contributing to its potency. PMID:25597011

  6. TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca2+]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca2+]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

  7. Effects of TRPV1 on the hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the epileptic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, Fatemeh; Eslamizade, Mohammad J; Ghadiri, Tahereh; Modarres Mousavi, Sayed Mostafa; Hadjighassem, Mahmoudreza; Gorji, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is often presented by medically intractable recurrent seizures due to dysfunction of temporal lobe structures, mostly the temporomesial structures. The role of transient receptor potential vaniloid 1 (TRPV1) activity on synaptic plasticity of the epileptic brain tissues was investigated. We studied hippocampal TRPV1 protein content and distribution in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. Furthermore, the effects of pharmacologic modulation of TRPV1 receptors on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials have been analyzed after induction of long term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas after 1 day (acute phase) and 3 months (chronic phase) of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). A higher expression of TRPV1 protein in the hippocampus as well as a higher distribution of this channel in CA1 and CA3 areas in both acute and chronic phases of pilocarpine-induced SE was observed. Activation of TRPV1 using capsaicin (1 µM) enhanced LTP induction in CA1 region in non-epileptic rats. Inhibition of TRPV1 by capsazepine (10 µM) did not affect LTP induction in non-epileptic rats. In acute phase of SE, activation of TRPV1 enhanced LTP in both CA1 and CA3 areas but TRPV1 inhibition did not affect LTP. In chronic phase of SE, application of TRPV1 antagonist enhanced LTP induction in CA1 and CA3 regions but TRPV1 activation had no effect on LTP. These findings indicate that a higher expression of TRPV1 in epileptic conditions is accompanied by a functional impact on the synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. This suggests TRPV1 as a potential target in treatment of seizure attacks. Synapse 69:375-383, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25967571

  8. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Is a Mediator of Lung Toxicity for Coal Fly Ash Particulate Material

    PubMed Central

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E.; Johansen, Mark E.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Thomas, Karen C.; Romero, Erin G.; Lee, Jeewoo; Yost, Garold S.; Veranth, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental particulate matter (PM) pollutants adversely affect human health, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been implicated as a sensor for environmental PM and a mediator of adverse events in the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TRPV1 can distinguish chemically and physically unique PM that represents important sources of air pollution; to elucidate the molecular basis of TRPV1 activation by PM; and to ascertain the contributions of TRPV1 to human lung cell and mouse lung tissue responses exposed to an insoluble PM agonist, coal fly ash (CFA1). The major findings of this study are that TRPV1 is activated by some, but not all of the prototype PM materials evaluated, with rank-ordered responses of CFA1 > diesel exhaust PM > crystalline silica; TRP melastatin-8 is also robustly activated by CFA1, whereas other TRP channels expressed by airway sensory neurons and lung epithelial cells that may also be activated by CFA1, including TRPs ankyrin 1 (A1), canonical 4? (C4?), M2, V2, V3, and V4, were either slightly (TRPA1) or not activated by CFA1; activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 occurs via cell surface interactions between the solid components of CFA1 and specific amino acid residues of TRPV1 that are localized in the putative pore-loop region; and activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 is not exclusive in mouse lungs but represents a pathway by which CFA1 affects the expression of selected genes in lung epithelial cells and airway tissue. PMID:22155782

  9. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is a mediator of lung toxicity for coal fly ash particulate material.

    PubMed

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Johansen, Mark E; Roberts, Jessica K; Thomas, Karen C; Romero, Erin G; Lee, Jeewoo; Yost, Garold S; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2012-03-01

    Environmental particulate matter (PM) pollutants adversely affect human health, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been implicated as a sensor for environmental PM and a mediator of adverse events in the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TRPV1 can distinguish chemically and physically unique PM that represents important sources of air pollution; to elucidate the molecular basis of TRPV1 activation by PM; and to ascertain the contributions of TRPV1 to human lung cell and mouse lung tissue responses exposed to an insoluble PM agonist, coal fly ash (CFA1). The major findings of this study are that TRPV1 is activated by some, but not all of the prototype PM materials evaluated, with rank-ordered responses of CFA1 > diesel exhaust PM > crystalline silica; TRP melastatin-8 is also robustly activated by CFA1, whereas other TRP channels expressed by airway sensory neurons and lung epithelial cells that may also be activated by CFA1, including TRPs ankyrin 1 (A1), canonical 4? (C4?), M2, V2, V3, and V4, were either slightly (TRPA1) or not activated by CFA1; activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 occurs via cell surface interactions between the solid components of CFA1 and specific amino acid residues of TRPV1 that are localized in the putative pore-loop region; and activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 is not exclusive in mouse lungs but represents a pathway by which CFA1 affects the expression of selected genes in lung epithelial cells and airway tissue. PMID:22155782

  10. TRPV1 and the gut: from a tasty receptor for a painful vanilloid to a key player in hyperalgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Holzer

    2004-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in red pepper, has been used since ancient times as a spice, despite the burning sensation associated with its intake. More than 50 years ago, Nikolaus Jancsó discovered that capsaicin can selectively stimulate nociceptive primary afferent neurons. The ensuing research established that the neuropharmacological properties of capsaicin are due to its activation of the transient receptor

  11. Investigation of TRPV1 loss-of-function phenotypes in transgenic shRNA expressing and knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Thomas; Bahrenberg, Gregor; De Vry, Jean; Englberger, Werner; Erdmann, Volker A; Frech, Moritz; Kögel, Babette; Röhl, Thomas; Schiene, Klaus; Schröder, Wolfgang; Seibler, Jost; Kurreck, Jens

    2008-03-01

    The function of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel was analyzed with RNA interference technologies and compared to TRPV1 knockout mice. Expression of shRNAs targeting TRPV1 in transgenic (tg) mice was proven by RNase protection assays, and TRPV1 downregulation was confirmed by reduced expression of TRPV1 mRNA and lack of receptor agonist binding in spinal cord membranes. Unexpectedly, TRPV3 mRNA expression was upregulated in shRNAtg but downregulated in knockout mice. Capsaicin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) changes in small diameter DRG neurons were significantly diminished in TRPV1 shRNAtg mice, and administration of capsaicin hardly induced hypothermia or nocifensive behaviour in vivo. Likewise, sensitivity towards noxious heat was reduced. Interestingly, spinal nerve injured TRPV1 knockout but not shRNAtg animals developed mechanical allodynia and hypersensitivity. The present study provides further evidence for the relevance of TRPV1 in neuropathic pain and characterizes RNA interference as valuable technique for drug target validation in pain research. PMID:18249134

  12. Effect of TRPV1 channel on proliferation and apoptosis of airway smooth muscle cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-min; Kuang, Hong-yan; Zhang, Luo-xian; Wu, Ji-zhen; Chen, Xian-liang; Zhang, Xiao-yu; Ma, Li-jun

    2014-08-01

    Airway remodeling is an important pathological feature of asthma and the basis of severe asthma. Proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) is a major contributor to airway remodeling. As an important Ca(2+) channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) plays the key role in the cell pathological and physiological processes. This study investigated the expression and activity of TRPV1 channel, and further clarified the effect of TRPV1 channel on the ASMCs proliferation and apoptosis in order to provide the scientific basis to treat asthmatic airway remodeling in clinical practice. Immunofluorescence staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of TRPV1 in rat ASMCs. Intracellular Ca(2+) was detected using the single cell confocal fluorescence microscopy measurement loaded with Fluo-4/AM. The cell cycles were observed by flow cytometry. MTT assay and Hoechst 33258 staining were used to detect the proliferation and apoptosis of ASMCs in rats respectively. The data showed that: (1) TRPV1 channel was present in rat ASMCs. (2) TRPV1 channel agonist, capsaicin, increased the Ca(2+) influx in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50=284.3±58 nmol/L). TRPV1 channel antagonist, capsazepine, inhibited Ca(2+) influx in rat ASMCs. (3) Capsaicin significantly increased the percentage of S+G2M ASMCs and the absorbance of MTT assay. Capsazepine had the opposite effect. (4) Capsaicin significantly inhibited the apoptosis, whereas capsazepine had the opposite effect. These results suggest that TRPV1 is present and mediates Ca(2+) influx in rat ASMCs. TRPV1 activity stimulates proliferation of ASMCs in rats. PMID:25135718

  13. Femoral artery occlusion augments TRPV1-mediated sympathetic responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jihong; Gao, Zhaohui; Lu, Jian; Sinoway, Lawrence I.; Li, Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Muscle metabolic by-products stimulate thin fiber muscle afferent nerves and evoke reflex increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Previous studies reported that chemically sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels present on sensory muscle afferent neurons have an important impact on sympathetically mediated cardiovascular responses. The reflex-mediated reduction in blood flow to skeletal muscle leads to limited exercise capacity in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Thus, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that the expression of enhanced TRPV1 receptor and its responsiveness in primary afferent neurons innervating muscles initiate exaggerated reflex sympathetic responses after vascular insufficiency to the muscle. Muscle vascular insufficiency was induced by the femoral artery ligation in rats for 24 h. Our data show that 1) the ligation surgery leads to the upregulation of TRPV1 expression in the dorsal root ganglion; 2) the magnitude of the dorsal root ganglion neuron TRPV1 response induced by capsaicin is greater in vascular insufficiency (4.0 ± 0.31 nA, P < 0.05 vs. sham-operated control) than that in sham-operated control (2.9 ± 0.23 nA); and 3) renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure responses to capsaicin (0.5 ?g/kg body wt) are also enhanced by vascular insufficiency (54 ± 11%, 9 ± 2 mmHg in sham-operated controls vs. 98 ± 13%, 33 ± 5 mmHg after vascular insufficiency, P < 0.05). In conclusion, sympathetic nerve responses to the activation of metabolite-sensitive TRPV1 receptors are augmented in rats with the femoral artery occlusion compared with sham-operated control animals, due to alterations in the expression of TRPV1 receptor and its responsiveness in sensory neurons. PMID:18660449

  14. TRPV1 channels are involved in niacin-induced cutaneous vasodilation in mice.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Heather L; Inceoglu, Bora; Ma, Linlin; Zheng, Jie; Schaefer, Saul

    2015-02-01

    Niacin is effective in treating dyslipidemias but causes cutaneous vasodilation or flushing, a side effect that limits its clinical use. Blocking prostaglandins in humans reduces but does not consistently eliminate flushing, indicating additional mechanisms may contribute to flushing. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, when activated, causes cutaneous vasodilation and undergoes tachyphylaxis similar to that seen with niacin. Using a murine model, early phase niacin-induced flushing was examined and TRPV1 channel involvement demonstrated using pharmacologic blockade, desensitization, and genetic knockouts (TRPV1 KO). The TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 reduced the magnitude of the initial and secondary peaks and the rapidity of the vasodilatory response (slope). TRPV1 desensitization by chronic capsaicin reduced the initial peak and slope. TRPV1 KO mice had a lower initial peak, secondary peak, and slope compared with wild-type mice. Chronic niacin reduced the initial peak, secondary peak, and slope in wild-type mice but had no effect in knockout mice. Furthermore, chronic niacin diminished the response to capsaicin in wild-type mice. Overall, these data demonstrate an important role for TRPV1 channels in niacin-induced flushing, both in the acute response and with chronic administration. That niacin-induced flushing is a complex cascade of events, which should inform pharmacological intervention against this side effect. PMID:25387247

  15. The General Anesthetic Propofol Excites Nociceptors by Activating TRPV1 and TRPA1 Rather than GABAA Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J. M.; Leffler, Andreas; Niedermirtl, Florian; Kistner, Katrin; Eberhardt, Mirjam; Reeh, Peter W.; Nau, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Anesthetic agents can induce a paradox activation and sensitization of nociceptive sensory neurons and, thus, potentially facilitate pain processing. Here we identify distinct molecular mechanisms that mediate an activation of sensory neurons by 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol), a commonly used intravenous anesthetic known to elicit intense pain upon injection. Clinically relevant concentrations of propofol activated the recombinant transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors TRPA1 and TRPV1 heterologously expressed in HEK293t cells. In dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, propofol-induced activation correlated better to expression of TRPA1 than of TRPV1. However, pretreatment with the protein kinase C activator 4?-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) resulted in a significantly sensitized propofol-induced activation of TRPV1 in DRG neurons as well as in HEK293t cells. Pharmacological and genetic silencing of both TRPA1 and TRPV1 only partially abrogated propofol-induced responses in DRG neurons. The remaining propofol-induced activation was abolished by the selective ?-aminobutyric acid, type A (GABAA) receptor antagonist picrotoxin. Propofol but not GABA evokes a release of calcitonin gene-related peptide, a key component of neurogenic inflammation, from isolated peripheral nerves of wild-type but not TRPV1 and TRPA1-deficient mice. Moreover, propofol but not GABA induced an intense pain upon intracutaneous injection. As both the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and injection pain by propofol seem to be independent of GABAA receptors, our data identify TRPV1 and TRPA1 as key molecules for propofol-induced excitation of sensory neurons. This study warrants further investigations into the role of anesthetics to induce nociceptor sensitization and to foster postoperative pain. PMID:20826794

  16. Antinociceptive activity of transient receptor potential channel TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 antagonists in neurogenic and neuropathic pain models in mice*

    PubMed Central

    Sa?at, Kinga; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the antinociceptive activity of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 antagonists in neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain models in mice. For this purpose, TRP channel antagonists were administered into the dorsal surface of a hind paw 15 min before capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), or formalin. Their antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic efficacies after intraperitoneal administration were also assessed in a paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain model. Motor coordination of paclitaxel-treated mice that received these TRP channel antagonists was investigated using the rotarod test. TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and SB-366791, attenuated capsaicin-induced nociceptive reaction in a concentration-dependent manner. At 8 ?g/20 ?l, this effect was 51% (P<0.001) for capsazepine and 37% (P<0.05) for SB-366791. A TRPA1 antagonist, A-967079, reduced pain reaction by 48% (P<0.05) in the AITC test and by 54% (P<0.001) in the early phase of the formalin test. The test compounds had no influence on the late phase of the formalin test. In paclitaxel-treated mice, they did not attenuate heat hyperalgesia but N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-{[(3-methylphenyl)methyl]oxy}-N-(2-thienylmethyl) benzamide hydrochloride salt (AMTB), a TRPM8 antagonist, reduced cold hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia by 31% (P<0.05) and 51% (P<0.01), respectively. HC-030031, a TRPA1 channel antagonist, attenuated tactile allodynia in the von Frey test (62%; P<0.001). In conclusion, distinct members of TRP channel family are involved in different pain models in mice. Antagonists of TRP channels attenuate nocifensive responses of neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain, but their efficacies strongly depend on the pain model used. PMID:25743118

  17. Antinociceptive activity of transient receptor potential channel TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 antagonists in neurogenic and neuropathic pain models in mice.

    PubMed

    Sa?at, Kinga; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the antinociceptive activity of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 antagonists in neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain models in mice. For this purpose, TRP channel antagonists were administered into the dorsal surface of a hind paw 15 min before capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), or formalin. Their antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic efficacies after intraperitoneal administration were also assessed in a paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain model. Motor coordination of paclitaxel-treated mice that received these TRP channel antagonists was investigated using the rotarod test. TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and SB-366791, attenuated capsaicin-induced nociceptive reaction in a concentration-dependent manner. At 8 µg/20 µl, this effect was 51% (P<0.001) for capsazepine and 37% (P<0.05) for SB-366791. A TRPA1 antagonist, A-967079, reduced pain reaction by 48% (P<0.05) in the AITC test and by 54% (P<0.001) in the early phase of the formalin test. The test compounds had no influence on the late phase of the formalin test. In paclitaxel-treated mice, they did not attenuate heat hyperalgesia but N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-{[(3-methylphenyl)methyl]oxy}-N-(2-thienylmethyl) benzamide hydrochloride salt (AMTB), a TRPM8 antagonist, reduced cold hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia by 31% (P<0.05) and 51% (P<0.01), respectively. HC-030031, a TRPA1 channel antagonist, attenuated tactile allodynia in the von Frey test (62%; P<0.001). In conclusion, distinct members of TRP channel family are involved in different pain models in mice. Antagonists of TRP channels attenuate nocifensive responses of neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain, but their efficacies strongly depend on the pain model used. PMID:25743118

  18. High concentrations of morphine sensitize and activate mouse dorsal root ganglia via TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Alexander B; Reeh, Peter W; Messlinger, Karl; Fischer, Michael JM

    2009-01-01

    Background Morphine and its derivatives are key drugs in pain control. Despite its well-known analgesic properties morphine at high concentrations may be proalgesic. Particularly, short-lasting painful sensations have been reported upon dermal application of morphine. To study a possible involvement of TRP receptors in the pro-nociceptive effects of morphine (0.3 – 10 mM), two models of nociception were employed using C57BL/6 mice and genetically related TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals, which were crossed and generated double knockouts. Hindpaw skin flaps were used to investigate the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide indicative of nociceptive activation. Results Morphine induced release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and sensitized the release evoked by heat or the TRPA1 agonist acrolein. Morphine activated HEK293t cells transfected with TRPV1 or TRPA1. Activation of C57BL/6 mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture was investigated with calcium imaging. Morphine induced a dose-dependent rise in intracellular calcium in neurons from wild-type animals. In neurons from TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals activation by morphine was markedly reduced, in the TRPV1/A1 double knockout animals this morphine effect was abrogated. Naloxone induced an increase in calcium levels similar to morphine. The responses to both morphine and naloxone were sensitized by bradykinin. Conclusion Nociceptor activation and sensitization by morphine is conveyed by TRPV1 and TRPA1. PMID:19371406

  19. Novel therapeutics in the field of capsaicin and pain.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Capsaicin, a pharmacologically active agent found in chili peppers, causes burning and itching sensation due to binding at the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV-1) receptor, a polymodal receptor critical to the sensing of a variety of stimuli (e.g., noxious heat, bidirectional pH), and subsequent activation of polymodal C and A-? nociceptive fibers. Acutely, TRPV-1 activation with peripheral capsaicin produces pronociceptive effects, which extends to the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia. However, capsaicin has been reported to display antinociceptive properties as well, largely through TRPV-1-dependent mechanisms. Local application of high concentration of capsaicin is used for neuropathic pain and repeated stimulation of TRPV-1 induced an improvement of epigastric pain in irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia patients by desensitization of nociceptive pathways. New TRPV-1 agonists are currently under preclinical study and TRPV-1 antagonists are in early clinical development as analgesics. The TRPV-1 pathway might be a novel target for therapeutics in pain sensitivity. PMID:25959004

  20. Anionic linear aliphatic surfactants activate TRPV1: a possible endpoint for estimation of detergent induced eye nociception?

    PubMed

    Lindegren, H; Mogren, H; El Andaloussi-Lilja, J; Lundqvist, J; Forsby, A

    2009-12-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been reported as one of the key components in the pain pathway. Activation of the receptor causes a Ca(2+) influx in sensory C-fibres with secondary effects leading to neurogenic inflammation in the surrounding tissue. We have earlier reported specific activation of TRPV1 by surfactant-containing hygiene products. We have continued this project by investigating activation of the TRPV1 by shampoo and soap ingredients in low concentrations measured as intracellular Ca(2+) influxes in stably TRPV1-expressing neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. As a TRPV1 specific control, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine was used. The response was quantified as the product induced Ca(2+) influx during 2 min in relation to the maximum response induced by the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. The results show that anionic alkyl linear surfactant ingredients such as sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium laureth sulphate, ammonium lauryl sulphate, sodium C12-15 pareth sulphate and N-lauroylsarcosine concentration-dependently induced Ca(2+) influx that could be addressed to TRPV1. The cationic surfactants benzalkonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride induced a Ca(2+) influx that was not TRPV1 mediated as well as the zwitterionic surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine, the non-linear anionic surfactant sodium deoxycholate and the non-ionic surfactant Triton-X. These results reveal a new mechanistic pathway for surfactant-induced nociception. PMID:19540328

  1. Cannabidiol reduced the striatal atrophy caused 3-nitropropionic acid in vivo by mechanisms independent of the activation of cannabinoid, vanilloid TRPV1 and adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Sagredo, Onintza; Ramos, José A; Decio, Alessandra; Mechoulam, Raphael; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier

    2007-08-01

    The neuroprotective potential of cannabinoids has been examined in rats with striatal lesions caused by 3-nitropropionic acic (3NP), an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex II. We used the CB1 agonist arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA), the CB2 agonist HU-308, and cannabidiol (CBD), an antioxidant phytocannabinoid with negligible affinity for cannabinoid receptors. The administration of 3NP reduced GABA contents and also mRNA levels for several markers of striatal GABAergic projection neurons, including proenkephalin (PENK), substance P (SP) and neuronal-specific enolase (NSE). We also found reductions in mRNA levels for superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and -2 (SOD-2), which indicated that 3NP reduced the endogenous antioxidant defences. The administration of CBD, but not ACEA or HU-308, completely reversed 3NP-induced reductions in GABA contents and mRNA levels for SP, NSE and SOD-2, and partially attenuated those found in SOD-1 and PENK. This indicates that CBD is neuroprotective but acted preferentially on striatal neurons that project to the substantia nigra. The effects of CBD were not reversed by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716. The same happened with the TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine, in concordance with the observation that capsaicin, a TRPV1 receptor agonist, failed to reproduce the CBD effects. The effects of CBD were also independent of adenosine signalling as they were not attenuated by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3. In summary, this study demonstrates that CBD provides neuroprotection against 3NP-induced striatal damage, which may be relevant for Huntington's disease, a disorder characterized by the preferential loss of striatal projection neurons. This capability seems to be based exclusively on the antioxidant properties of CBD. PMID:17672854

  2. Interference of TRPV1 function altered the susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Li, Ying-Chao; Tang, Yan-Ping; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) including hippocampus, and regulates the balance of excitation and inhibition in CNS, which imply its important role in epilepsy. We used both pharmacological manipulations and transgenic mice to disturb the function of TRPV1 and then studied the effects of these alterations on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Our results showed that systemic administration of TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP, 40 mg/kg) directly induced tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) without PTZ induction. The severity of seizure was increased in lower doses of CAP groups (5 and 10 mg/kg), although the latency to TCS was delayed. On the other hand, systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg) and TRPV1 knockout mice exhibited delayed latency to TCS and reduced mortality. Furthermore, hippocampal administration of CPZ (10 and 33 nmol/?L/side) was firstly reported to increase the latency to TCS, decrease the maximal grade of seizure and mortality. It is worth noting that decreased susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures was observed in hippocampal TRPV1 overexpression mice and hippocampal CAP administration (33 nmol/?L/side), which is opposite from results of systemic agonist CAP. Our findings suggest that the systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist may be a novel therapeutic target for epilepsy, and alteration of hippocampal TRPV1 function exerts a critical role in seizure susceptibility. PMID:25713512

  3. Multisteric TRPV1 nocisensor: a target for analgesics.

    PubMed

    Szolcsányi, János; Sándor, Zoltán

    2012-12-01

    Cloning of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), the heat-gated cation channel/capsaicin receptor expressed by sensory neurons, has opened the door for development of new types of analgesics that selectively act on nociceptors. Here we summarize mutagenetic evidence for selective loss of responsiveness to vanilloids, protons, and heat stimuli to provide clues for avoiding on-target side effects of hyperthermia and burn risk. It is suggested that the complex chemoceptive thermosensor function of TRPV1 (which is modulated by depolarizing stimuli) can be attributed to multisteric gating functions. In this way, it forms the prototype of a new class of ion channels different from the canonical voltage-gated and ligand-gated ones. Several endogenous lipid ligands activate and inhibit TRPV1 and its gating initiates sensory transducer and mediator-releasing functions. Second generation TRPV1 antagonists that do not induce hyperthermia are under development, and a dermal capsaicin patch is already on the market for long-term treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:23068431

  4. Persistent Nociception Triggered by Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Is Mediated by TRPV1 and Oxidative Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Michael A; Ruparel, Shivani; Green, Dustin P; Chen, Paul B; Por, Elaine D; Jeske, Nathaniel A; Gao, Xiaoli; Flores, Eric R; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2015-06-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is elevated in certain chronic pain conditions and is a sufficient stimulus to cause lasting pain in humans, but the actual mechanisms underlying the persistent effects of NGF remain incompletely understood. We developed a rat model of NGF-induced persistent thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia to determine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and oxidative mechanisms in the persistent effects of NGF. Persistent thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia require de novo protein translation and are mediated by TRPV1 and oxidative mechanisms. By comparing effects after systemic (subcutaneous), spinal (intrathecal) or hindpaw (intraplantar) injections of test compounds, we determined that TRPV1 and oxidation mediate persistent thermal hypersensitivity via peripheral and spinal sites of action and mechanical allodynia via only a spinal site of action. Therefore, NGF-evoked thermal and mechanical allodynia are mediated by spatially distinct mechanisms. NGF treatment evoked sustained increases in peripheral and central TRPV1 activity, as demonstrated by increased capsaicin-evoked nocifensive responses, increased calcitonin gene-related peptide release from hindpaw skin biopsies, and increased capsaicin-evoked inward current and membrane expression of TRPV1 protein in dorsal root ganglia neurons. Finally, we showed that NGF treatment increased concentrations of linoleic and arachidonic-acid-derived oxidized TRPV1 agonists in spinal cord and skin biopsies. Furthermore, increases in oxidized TRPV1-active lipids were reduced by peripheral and spinal injections of compounds that completely blocked persistent nociception. Collectively, these data indicate that NGF evokes a persistent nociceptive state mediated by increased TRPV1 activity and oxidative mechanisms, including increased production of oxidized lipid TRPV1 agonists. PMID:26041925

  5. Actions of 3-methyl- N-oleoyldopamine, 4-methyl- N-oleoyldopamine and N-oleoylethanolamide on the rat TRPV1 receptor in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Róbert Almási; Éva Sz?ke; Kata Bölcskei; Angelika Varga; Zsuzsanna Riedl; Zoltán Sándor; János Szolcsányi; Gábor Peth?

    2008-01-01

    N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA) has been identified as an agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. A related fatty acid amide, N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA), was found to excite sensory neurons and produce visceral hyperalgesia via activation of the TRPV1 receptor, however, a recent study described this agent as an antinociceptive one. The aim of the present paper was to

  6. TRPV1: Contribution to Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis and Increased Intracellular Ca2+ with Exposure to Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sappington, Rebecca M.; Sidorova, Tatiana; Long, Daniel J.; Calkins, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Elevated hydrostatic pressure induces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis in culture. The authors investigated whether the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, which contributes to pressure sensing and Ca2+-dependent cell death in other systems, also contributes to pressure-induced RGC death and whether this contribution involves Ca2+. Methods trpv1 mRNA expression in RGCs was probed with the use of PCR and TRPV1 protein localization through immunocytochemistry. Subunit-specific antagonism (iodo-resiniferatoxin) and agonism (capsaicin) were used to probe how TRPV1 activation affects the survival of isolated RGCs at ambient and elevated hydrostatic pressure (+70 mm Hg). Finally, for RGCs under pressure, the authors tested whether EGTA chelation of Ca2+ improves survival and whether, with the Ca2+ dye Fluo-4 AM, TRPV1 contributes to increased intracellular Ca2+. Results RGCs express trpv1 mRNA, with robust TRPV1 protein localization to the cell body and axon. For isolated RGCs under pressure, TRPV1 antagonism increased cell density and reduced apoptosis to ambient levels (P ? 0.05), whereas for RGCs at ambient pressure, TRPV1 agonism reduced density and increased apoptosis to levels for elevated pressure (P ? 0.01). Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ reduced RGC apoptosis at elevated pressure by nearly twofold (P ? 0.01). Exposure to elevated hydrostatic pressure induced a fourfold increase in RGC intracellular Ca2+ that was reduced by half with TRPV1 antagonism. Finally, in the DBA/2 mouse model of glaucoma, levels of TRPV1 in RGCs increased with elevated IOP. Conclusions RGC apoptosis induced by elevated hydrostatic pressure arises substantially through TRPV1, likely through the influx of extracellular Ca2+. PMID:18952924

  7. The anticancer antibiotic mithramycin-A inhibits TRPV1 expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Zavala, K; Lee, J; Chong, J; Sharma, M; Eilers, H; Schumacher, M A

    2014-08-22

    Activation of peripheral nociceptors by products of inflammation has been shown to be dependent on specific sensory transducing elements such as the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. The development of high-affinity antagonists to TRPV1 as well as to other receptors capable of detecting noxious stimuli has now become a major focus in analgesic development. Another critical feature of nociception is the relative abundance of a particular pain transducing receptor under normal or pathophysiologic conditions. Increases in expression and/or changes in distribution of nociceptive receptors such as TRPV1 have been correlated with progression of tissue injury and persistence of pain behaviors. Although some details are emerging as to what regulates nociceptor-specific gene expression, compounds that could potentially be used to block or reverse over-expression of nociceptive gene expression are essentially absent. In our efforts to better understand the transcriptional regulation of TRPV1 in sensory neurons, we identified an anticancer agent, mithramycin-A, that decreased TRPV1 expression in primary rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Mithramycin-A dose-dependently (10-50 nM) decreased endogenous TRPV1 mRNA content and appeared to decrease TRPV1-like protein expression in DRG neurons. We also observed that mithramycin-A directed a decrease in the number of capsaicin-responsive DRG neurons without a significant change in the capsaicin-response magnitudes. Interestingly, mithramycin-A also reduced the mRNA encoding Sp1 and Sp4 in DRG neurons, transcription factors previously found to positively regulate TRPV1 expression in sensory neurons. Taken together, we propose that mithramycin-A directs an inhibitory effect on a subpopulation of capsaicin-responsive DRG neurons that utilize Sp1-like factors for TRPV1 expression. Given the therapeutic correlate of mithramycin-A effectiveness in the treatment of certain cancers, small molecule transcriptional inhibitors such as mithramycin-A may serve as useful tools of discovery in pain transduction and possibly future analgesic development. PMID:24468003

  8. TRPV1-mediated UCP2 upregulation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic cardiovascular complications are characterised by oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a regulator of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and can antagonise oxidative stress, but approaches that enhance the activity of UCP2 to inhibit ROS are scarce. Our previous studies show that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin can prevent cardiometabolic disorders. In this study, we conducted experiments in vitro and in vivo to investigate the effect of capsaicin treatment on endothelial UCP2 and oxidative stress. We hypothesised that TRPV1 activation by capsaicin attenuates hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction through a UCP2-mediated antioxidant effect. Methods TRPV1-/-, UCP2 -/- and db/db mice, as well as matched wild type (WT) control mice, were included in this study. Some mice were subjected to dietary capsaicin for 14 weeks. Arteries isolated from mice and endothelial cells were cultured. Endothelial function was examined, and immunohistological and molecular analyses were performed. Results Under high-glucose conditions, TRPV1 expression and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation were found to be decreased in the cultured endothelial cells, and the effects of high-glucose on these molecules were reversed by the administration of capsaicin. Furthermore, high-glucose exposure increased ROS production and reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels both in endothelial cells and in arteries that were evaluated respectively by dihydroethidium (DHE) and DAF-2 DA fluorescence. Capsaicin administration decreased the production of ROS, restored high-glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction through the activation of TRPV1 and acted in a UCP2-dependent manner in vivo. Administration of dietary capsaicin for 14 weeks increased the levels of PKA phosphorylation and UCP2 expression, ameliorated the vascular oxidative stress and increased NO levels observed in diabetic mice. Prolonged dietary administration of capsaicin promoted endothelium-dependent relaxation in diabetic mice. However, the beneficial effect of capsaicin on vasorelaxation was absent in the aortas of UCP2 -/- mice exposed to high-glucose levels. Conclusion TRPV1 activation by capsaicin might protect against hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction through a mechanism involving the PKA/UCP2 pathway. PMID:23607427

  9. Resolving TRPV1- and TNF-?-mediated spinal cord synaptic plasticity and inflammatory pain with neuroprotectin D1.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Kyu; Lü, Ning; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Tong; Serhan, Charles N; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2011-10-19

    Mechanisms of inflammatory pain are not fully understood. We investigated the role of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential subtype V1) and TNF-?, two critical mediators for inflammatory pain, in regulating spinal cord synaptic transmission. We found in mice lacking Trpv1 the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in lamina II neurons of spinal cord slices is reduced. Further, C-fiber-induced spinal long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo is abolished in Trpv1 knock-out mice. TNF-? also increases sEPSC frequency but not amplitude in spinal outer lamina II (lamina IIo) neurons, and this increase is abolished in Trpv1 knock-out mice. Single-cell PCR analysis revealed that TNF-?-responding neurons in lamina IIo are exclusively excitatory (vGluT2(+)) neurons. Notably, neuroprotectin-1 (NPD1), an anti-inflammatory lipid mediator derived from ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid), blocks TNF-?- and capsaicin-evoked sEPSC frequency increases but has no effect on basal synaptic transmission. Strikingly, NPD1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 current (IC(50) = 0.4 nm) in dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons, and this IC(50) is ? 500 times lower than that of AMG9810, a commonly used TRPV1 antagonist. NPD1 inhibition of TRPV1 is mediated by GPCRs, since the effects were blocked by pertussis toxin. In contrast, NPD1 had no effect on mustard oil-induced TRPA1 currents. Spinal injection of NPD1, at very low doses (0.1-10 ng), blocks spinal LTP and reduces TRPV1-dependent inflammatory pain, without affecting baseline pain. NPD1 also reduces TRPV1-independent but TNF-?-dependent pain hypersensitivity. Our findings demonstrate a novel role of NPD1 in regulating TRPV1/TNF-?-mediated spinal synaptic plasticity and identify NPD1 as a novel analgesic for treating inflammatory pain. PMID:22016541

  10. Involvement of apoptosis and calcium accumulation through TRPV1 channels in neurobiology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Naz?ro?lu, M; Övey, ? S

    2015-05-01

    Calcium ion accumulation into the cytosol of the hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) are main reasons in etiology of epilepsy. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel is a cation-permeable calcium channel found in the DRG and hippocampus. Although previous studies implicate TRPV1 channels in the generation of epilepsy, suppression of ongoing seizures by TRPV1 antagonists has not yet been investigated. We tested the effects of TRPV1-specific antagonists, capsazepine (CPZ) and 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX) on the modulation of calcium accumulation, apoptosis and anticonvulsant properties in the hippocampus and DRG of pentylentetrazol (PTZ) and capsaicin (CAP) administrated rats. Forty rats were divided into five groups as follows; control, PTZ, CAP+PTZ, IRTX, and IRTX+PTZ. Fura-2 and patch-clamp experiments were performed on neurons dissected from treated animals by CAP and CPZ. PTZ and CAP+PTZ administrations increased intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations, TRPV1 current densities, apoptosis, caspase 3 and 9 values although the values were reduced by IRTX and CPZ treatments. Latency time was extended by application CPZ and IRTX although CAP produced acceleration of epileptic seizures. Taken together, these results support a role for TRPV1 channels in the inhibition of apoptosis, epileptic seizures and calcium accumulation, indicating that TRPV1 inhibition may possibly be a novel target in the DRG and hippocampus for prevention of epileptic seizures and peripheral pain. PMID:25743251

  11. TRPV1 and Endocannabinoids: Emerging Molecular Signals that Modulate Mammalian Vision.

    PubMed

    Ryskamp, Daniel A; Redmon, Sarah; Jo, Andrew O; Križaj, David

    2014-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) subunits form a polymodal cation channel responsive to capsaicin, heat, acidity and endogenous metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids. While originally reported to serve as a pain and heat detector in the peripheral nervous system, TRPV1 has been implicated in the modulation of blood flow and osmoregulation but also neurotransmission, postsynaptic neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity within the central nervous system. In addition to its central role in nociception, evidence is accumulating that TRPV1 contributes to stimulus transduction and/or processing in other sensory modalities, including thermosensation, mechanotransduction and vision. For example, TRPV1, in conjunction with intrinsic cannabinoid signaling, might contribute to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal transport and excitability, cytokine release from microglial cells and regulation of retinal vasculature. While excessive TRPV1 activity was proposed to induce RGC excitotoxicity, physiological TRPV1 activity might serve a neuroprotective function within the complex context of retinal endocannabinoid signaling. In this review we evaluate the current evidence for localization and function of TRPV1 channels within the mammalian retina and explore the potential interaction of this intriguing nociceptor with endogenous agonists and modulators. PMID:25222270

  12. Sensitization of TRPV1 by EP1 and IP reveals peripheral nociceptive mechanism of prostaglandins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Moriyama; Tomohiro Higashi; Kazuya Togashi; Tohko Iida; Eri Segi; Yukihiko Sugimoto; Tomoko Tominaga; Shuh Narumiya; Makoto Tominaga

    2005-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) are major inflammatory mediators that play important roles in pain sensation and hyperalgesia. The role of their receptors (EP and IP, respectively) in inflammation has been well documented, although the EP receptor subtypes involved in this process and the underlying cellular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a nonselective

  13. TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine suppresses 4-AP-induced epileptiform activity in vitro and electrographic seizures in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Reyes, Luis E.; Ladas, Thomas P.; Chiang, Chia-Chu; Durand, Dominique M.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation-permeable ion channel found in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The membrane surface expression of TRPV1 is known to occur in neuronal cell bodies and sensory neuron axons. TRPV1 receptors are also expressed in the hippocampus, the main epileptogenic region in the brain. Although, previous studies implicate TRPV1 channels in the generation of epilepsy, suppression of ongoing seizures by TRPV1 antagonists has not yet been attempted. Here, we evaluate the role of TRPV1 channels in the modulation of epileptiform activity as well as the anti-convulsant properties of capsazepine (CZP), an established TRPV1 competitive antagonist, using in vitro and in vivo models. To this end, we used 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to trigger seizure-like activity. We found that CZP suppressed 4-AP induced epileptiform activity in vitro (10–100 µM) and in vivo (50 mg/kg s.c.). In contrast, capsaicin enhanced 4-AP induced epileptiform activity in vitro (1–100 µM) and triggered bursting activity in vivo (100 µM dialysis perfusion), which was abolished by the TRPV1 antagonist CZP. To further investigate the mechanisms of TRPV1 modulation, we studied the effect in capcaisin and CPZ on evoked potentials. Capsaicin (1–100 µM) and CZP (10–100 µM) increased and decreased, respectively, the amplitude of extracellular field evoked potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. Additional in vitro studies showed that the effect of the TRPV1 blocker on evoked potentials was similar whether the response was orthodromic or antidromic, suggesting that the effect involves interference with membrane depolarization on cells bodies and axons. The fact that CPZ could act directly on axons was confirmed by decreased amplitude of the compound action potential and by an increased delay of both the antidromic potentials and the axonal response. Histological studies using transgenic mice also show that, in addition to the known neural expression, TRPV1 channels are widely expressed in alvear oligodendrocytes in the hippocampus. Taken together, these results indicate that activation of TRPV1 channels leads to enhanced excitability, while their inhibition can effectively suppress ongoing electrographic seizures. These results support a role for TRPV1 channels in the suppression of convulsive activity, indicating that antagonism of TRPV1 channels particularly in axons may possibly be a novel target for effective acute suppression of seizures. PMID:24145133

  14. Electroacupuncture Stimulation at CV12 Inhibits Gastric Motility via TRPV1 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhi; Cao, Xin; Xia, Youbing; Ren, Binbin; Feng, Hong; Wang, Yali; Jiang, Jingfeng; Xu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Gastric dysmotility is one of the major pathophysiological factors in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Acupuncture, as one of the alternative approaches, is efficacious in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders; however, the mechanism underlying its action is unclear. In the present study, we used both capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, and TRPV1 knockout mice. Animals were divided into wild-type group (WT), capsazepine injection group (CZP, 0.5?mg/kg, i.p.), and TRPV1 knockout mice group (TRPV1?/?). Each of these three groups was divided into three subgroups, which were subjected to EA stimulation at acupoint Zhongwan (CV12) at a different intensity (1, 2, or 4?mA). We demonstrated that electroacupuncture at Zhongwan (CV12) markedly inhibited gastric motility at 2 and 4?mA in an intensity-dependent manner in wild-type mice. The inhibitory effect was also observed in capsazepine-injected and TRPV1?/? mice but was no longer intensity dependent, indicating that TRPV1 is partially involved in the electroacupuncture-mediated modulation of gastric motility. PMID:24106521

  15. TRPV1: a stress response protein in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Karen W; Ward, Nicholas J; Calkins, David J

    2012-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) family comprises a diverse group of cation channels that regulate a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. The TRPV1 (vanilloid 1) channel is best known for its role in nociception and sensory transmission. First studied in the dorsal root ganglia as the receptor for capsaicin, TRPV1 is now recognized to have a broader distribution and function within the central nervous system (CNS). Because it can be activated by a range of potentially noxious stimuli, TRPV1’s polymodal nature and ability to interact with other receptor pathways make it a candidate for a stress response protein. As a result, TRPV1 is emerging as a key mediator of CNS function through modulation of both glial and neuronal activity. Growing evidence has suggested that TRPV1 can mediate a variety of pathways from glial reactivity and cytokine release to synaptic transmission and plasticity. This review highlights the increasing importance of TRPV1 as a regulator of CNS function in response to stress. PMID:22737633

  16. HCl-induced and ATP-dependent upregulation of TRPV1 receptor expression and cytokine production by human esophageal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Altomare, Annamaria; Guarino, Michele; Cicala, Michele; Rieder, Florian; Fiocchi, Claudio; Li, Dan; Cao, Weibiao; Behar, Jose; Biancani, Piero

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains elusive, but recent evidence suggests that early secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by the mucosa leads to influx of immune cells followed by tissue damage. We previously showed that exposure of esophageal mucosa to HCl causes ATP release, resulting in activation of acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF AT), the enzyme responsible for the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF). In addition, HCl causes release of IL-8 from the esophageal mucosa. We demonstrate that esophageal epithelial cells secrete proinflammatory mediators in response to HCl and that this response is mediated by ATP. Monolayers of the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A were exposed to acidified cell culture medium (pH 5) for 12 min, a total of seven times over 48 h, to simulate the recurrent acid exposure clinically occurring in GERD. HCl upregulated mRNA and protein expression for the acid-sensing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily vanilloid member 1 (TRPV1), lyso-PAF AT, IL-8, eotaxin-1, -2, and -3, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The chemokine profile secreted by HET-1A cells in response to repeated HCl exposure parallels similar findings in erosive esophagitis patients. In HET-1A cells, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin reproduced these findings for mRNA of the inflammatory mediators lyso-PAF AT, IL-8, and eotaxin-1. These effects were blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists iodoresiniferatoxin and JNJ-17203212. These effects were imitated by direct application of ATP and blocked by the nonselective ATP antagonist suramin. We conclude that HCl/TRPV-induced ATP release upregulated secretion of various chemoattractants by esophageal epithelial cells. These chemoattractants are selective for leukocyte subsets involved in acute inflammatory responses and allergic inflammation. The data support the validity of HET-1A cells as a model of the response of the human esophageal mucosa in GERD. PMID:22790593

  17. Spicing up the sensation of stretch: TRPV1 controls mechanosensitive Piezo channels.

    PubMed

    Altier, Christophe

    2015-02-10

    Piezo proteins--a family of mammalian cation-selective ion channels that respond to mechanical stretch--are molecular mediators of biological processes, including vascular tone, hearing, touch, and pain. In this issue of Science Signaling, Rohacs and colleagues demonstrate that activation of the heat-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), another cation channel, inhibits Piezo channels through a calcium-induced depletion of phosphoinositides. This regulation could contribute to the cellular mechanisms by which the TRPV1 activator capsaicin mitigates mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:25670201

  18. Opposite effect of capsaicin and capsazepine on behavioral thermoregulation in insects.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Justyna; T?gowska, Eugenia

    2011-10-01

    Transient receptor potential channels are implicated in thermosensation both in mammals and insects. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mammalian vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) agonist (capsaicin) and antagonist (capsazepine) on insect behavioral thermoregulation. We tested behavioral thermoregulation of mealworms larvae intoxicated with capsaicin and capsazepine in two concentrations (10(-7) and 10(-4) M) in a thermal gradient system for 3 days. Our results revealed that in low concentration, capsaicin induces seeking lower temperatures than the ones selected by the insects that were not intoxicated. After application of capsazepine in the same concentration, the mealworms prefer higher temperatures than the control group. The observed opposite effect of TRPV1 agonist and antagonist on insect behavioral thermoregulation, which is similar to the effect of these substances on thermoregulation in mammals, indicates indirectly that capsaicin may act on receptors in insects that are functionally similar to TRPV1. PMID:21667066

  19. Potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission by protein kinase C-mediated sensitization of TRPV1 at the first sensory synapse

    PubMed Central

    Sikand, Parul; Premkumar, Louis S

    2007-01-01

    Sensory input from the periphery to the CNS is critically dependent on the strength of synaptic transmission at the first sensory synapse formed between primary afferent dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and superficial dorsal horn (DH) neurons of the spinal cord. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) expressed on a subset of sensory neurons plays an important role in chronic inflammatory thermal nociception. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) sensitizes TRPV1, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of chronic pain conditions. In this study, we have examined the modulation of TRPV1-mediated enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in response to PKC activation. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) from embryonic rat DRG–DH neuronal cocultures were recorded by patch clamping DH neurons. Capsaicin potently increased the frequency but not the amplitude of mEPSCs in a calcium-dependent manner, suggesting TRPV1-mediated glutamate release from presynaptic terminals of sensory neurons. Continued or repeated applications of capsaicin reduced the frequency of mEPSCs over time. The PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) alone increased mEPSC events to a certain extent in a reversible manner but capsaicin further synergistically enhanced the frequency of mEPSCs. The PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM) abolished PDBu-mediated potentiation of TRPV1-dependent increases in mEPSC frequency, suggesting modulation of TRPV1 by PKC-induced phosphorylation. In addition, at normal body temperatures (?37°C) PKC-mediated enhancement of mEPSC frequency is significantly decreased by a specific TRPV1 antagonist, suggesting a physiological role of TRPV1 at the central terminals. Furthermore, bradykinin (BK) significantly potentiated TRPV1-modulated synaptic responses by activating the PLC-PKC pathway. Our results indicate that TRPV1 activation can modulate excitatory synaptic transmission at the first sensory synapse and its effects can further be augmented by activation of PKC. Increased gain of sensory input by TRPV1-induced enhancement of glutamate release and its potentiation by various inflammatory mediators may contribute to persistent pain conditions. Selective targeting of TRPV1 expressed on the central terminals of sensory neurons may serve as a strategy to alleviate chronic intractable pain conditions. PMID:17363391

  20. Lipopolysaccharide fever is initiated via a capsaicin-sensitive mechanism independent of the subtype-1 vanilloid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, M Devrim; Patel, Shreya; Rudaya, Alla Y; Steiner, Alexandre A; Székely, Miklós; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2004-01-01

    As pretreatment with intraperitoneal capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, CAP), an agonist of the vanilloid receptor known as VR1 or transient receptor potential channel-vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV-1), has been shown to block the first phase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fever in rats, this phase is thought to depend on the TRPV-1-bearing sensory nerve fibers originating in the abdominal cavity. However, our recent studies suggest that CAP blocks the first phase via a non-neural mechanism. In the present work, we studied whether this mechanism involves the TRPV-1. Adult Long–Evans rats implanted with chronic jugular catheters were used. Pretreatment with CAP (5 mg kg?1, i.p.) 10 days before administration of LPS (10 ?g kg?1, i.v.) resulted in the loss of the entire first phase and a part of the second phase of LPS fever. Pretreatment with the ultrapotent TRPV-1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX; 2, 20, or 200 ?g kg?1, i.p.) 10 days before administration of LPS had no effect on the first and second phases of LPS fever, but it exaggerated the third phase at the highest dose. The latter effect was presumably due to the known ability of high doses of TRPV-1 agonists to cause a loss of warm sensitivity, thus leading to uncontrolled, hyperpyretic responses. Pretreatment with the selective competitive TRPV-1 antagonist capsazepine (N-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-2H-2-benzazepine-2-carbothioamidem, CPZ; 40 mg kg?1, i.p.) 90 min before administration of LPS (10 ?g kg?1, i.v.) or CAP (1 mg kg?1, i.p.) did not affect LPS fever, but blocked the immediate hypothermic response to acute administration of CAP. It is concluded that LPS fever is initiated via a non-neural mechanism, which is CAP-sensitive but RTX- and CPZ-insensitive. The action of CAP on this mechanism is likely TRPV-1-independent. It is speculated that this mechanism may be the production of prostaglandin E2 by macrophages in LPS-processing organs. PMID:15492017

  1. Developing piperine towards TRPV1 and GABAA receptor ligands--synthesis of piperine analogs via Heck-coupling of conjugated dienes.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Laurin; Schönbauer, David; Pakfeifer, Peter; Schöffmann, Angela; Khom, Sophia; Hering, Steffen; Mihovilovic, Marko D

    2015-01-28

    Piperine, the pungent alkaloid of black pepper, and several of its derivatives are modulators of ?-amino butyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Concomitantly, this natural product has also been reported to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. We have developed a Heck cross-coupling reaction of conjugated dienamides enabling the rapid assembly of piperine derivatives containing a modified aromatic core. Upon assessment of a focussed compound library, key aromatic substituents were identified selectively affecting either the GABAA or the TRPV1 receptor. PMID:25438036

  2. Consequences of activating the calcium-permeable ion channel TRPV1 in breast cancer cells with regulated TRPV1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tina T L; Peters, Amelia A; Tan, Ping T; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2014-08-01

    Increased expression of specific calcium channels in some cancers and the role of calcium signaling in proliferation and invasion have led to studies assessing calcium channel inhibitors as potential therapies for some cancers. The use of channel activators to promote death of cancer cells has been suggested, but the risk of activators promoting cancer cell proliferation and the importance of the degree of channel over-expression is unclear. We developed an MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with inducible TRPV1 overexpression and assessed the role of TRPV1 levels on cell death mediated by the TRPV1 activator capsaicin and the potential for submaximal activation to promote proliferation. The TRPV1 level was a determinant of cell death induced by capsaicin. A concentration response curve with varying TRPV1 expression levels identified the minimum level of TRPV1 required for capsaicin induced cell death. At no level of TRPV1 over-expression or capsaicin concentration did TRPV1 activation enhance proliferation. Cell death induced by capsaicin was necrotic and associated with up-regulation of c-Fos and RIP3. These studies suggest that activators of specific calcium channels may be an effective way to induce necrosis and that this approach may not always be associated with enhancement of cancer cell proliferation. PMID:24889371

  3. TRPV1 Activation Exacerbates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis in H9C2 Cells via Calcium Overload and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zewei; Han, Jie; Zhao, Wenting; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuai; Ye, Lifang; Liu, Tingting; Zheng, Liangrong

    2014-01-01

    Transient potential receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, which are expressed on sensory neurons, elicit cardioprotective effects during ischemia reperfusion injury by stimulating the release of neuropeptides, namely calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Recent studies show that TRPV1 channels are also expressed on cardiomyocytes and can exacerbate air pollutant-induced apoptosis. However, whether these channels present on cardiomyocytes directly modulate cell death and survival pathways during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in H/R induced apoptosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes. We demonstrated that TRPV1 was indeed expressed in H9C2 cells, and activated by H/R injury. Although neuropeptide release caused by TRPV1 activation on sensory neurons elicits a cardioprotective effect, we found that capsaicin (CAP; a TRPV1 agonist) treatment of H9C2 cells paradoxically enhanced the level of apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium and mitochondrial superoxide levels, attenuating mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis (measured by the expression of ATP synthase ?). In contrast, treatment of cells with capsazepine (CPZ; a TRPV1 antagonist) or TRPV1 siRNA attenuated H/R induced-apoptosis. Furthermore, CAP and CPZ treatment revealed a similar effect on cell viability and mitochondrial superoxide production in primary cardiomyocytes. Finally, using both CGRP8–37 (a CGRP receptor antagonist) and RP67580 (a SP receptor antagonist) to exclude the confounding effects of neuropeptides, we confirmed aforementioned detrimental effects as TRPV1?/? mouse hearts exhibited improved cardiac function during ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, direct activation of TRPV1 in myocytes exacerbates H/R-induced apoptosis, likely through calcium overload and associated mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study provides a novel understanding of the role of myocyte TRPV1 channels in ischemia/reperfusion injury that sharply contrasts with its known extracardiac neuronal effects. PMID:25314299

  4. Temperature-induced opening of TRPV1 ion channel is stabilized by the pore domain.

    PubMed

    Grandl, Jörg; Kim, Sung Eun; Uzzell, Valerie; Bursulaya, Badry; Petrus, Matt; Bandell, Michael; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2010-06-01

    TRPV1 is the founding and best-studied member of the family of temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels (thermoTRPs). Voltage, chemicals and heat allosterically gate TRPV1. Molecular determinants of TRPV1 activation by capsaicin, allicin, acid, ammonia and voltage have been identified. However, the structures and mechanisms mediating TRPV1's pronounced temperature sensitivity remain unclear. Recent studies of the related channel TRPV3 identified residues in the pore region that are required for heat activation. We used both random and targeted mutagenesis screens of rat TRPV1 and identified point mutations in the outer pore region that specifically impair temperature activation. Single-channel analysis indicated that TRPV1 mutations disrupted heat sensitivity by ablating long channel openings, which are part of the temperature-gating pathway. We propose that sequential occupancy of short and long open states on activation provides a mechanism for enhancing temperature sensitivity. Our results suggest that the outer pore is important for the heat sensitivity of thermoTRPs. PMID:20414199

  5. A painful link between the TRPV1 channel and lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2015-03-15

    The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is expressed mainly by sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli from the environment such as high temperatures and pungent compounds (such as allicin and capsaicin) and has been extensively linked to painful and inflammatory processes. This extraordinary protein also responds to endogenous stimuli among which we find molecules of a lipidic nature. We recently described that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid linked to the generation and maintenance of pain, can directly activate TRPV1 and produce pain by binding to the channels' C-terminal region, specifically to residue K710. In an effort to further understand how activation of TRPV1 is achieved by this negatively-charged lipid, we used several synthetic and naturally-occurring lipids to determine the structural requirements that need to be met by these charged lipids in order to produce the activation of TRPV1. In this review, we detail the findings obtained by other research groups and our own on the field of TRPV1-regulation by negatively-charged lipids and discuss the possible therapeutic relevance of these findings on the basis of the role of TRPV1 in pathophysiological processes. PMID:25445434

  6. Osmoregulatory thirst in mice lacking the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and/or type 4 (TRPV4) receptor.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, Brian; Cowles, James; Lay, Jennifer; Simmonds, Sarah S; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies suggest the ability of the central nervous system to detect changes in osmolality is mediated by products of the genes encoding the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) or vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) channel. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether deletion of TRPV1 and/or TRPV4 channels altered thirst responses to cellular dehydration in mice. Injection of 0.5 or 1.0 M NaCl produced dose-dependent increases in cumulative water intakes of wild-type (WT), TRPV1-/-, TRPV4-/-, and TRPV1-/-V4-/- mice. However, there were no differences in cumulative water intakes between WT versus any other strain despite similar increases in plasma electrolytes and osmolality. Similar results were observed after injection of hypertonic mannitol. This was a consistent finding regardless of the injection route (intraperitoneal vs. subcutaneous) or timed access to water (delayed vs. immediate). There were also no differences in cumulative intakes across strains after injection of 0.15 M NaCl or during a time-controlled period (no injection). Chronic hypernatremia produced by sole access to 2% NaCl for 48 h also produced similar increases in water intake across strains. In a final set of experiments, subcutaneous injection of 0.5 M NaCl produced similar increases in the number of Fos-positive nuclei within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median preoptic nucleus across strains but significantly smaller number in the subfornical organ of WT versus TRPV1-/-V4-/- mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that TRPV1 and/or TRPV4 channels are not the primary mechanism by which the central nervous system responds to cellular dehydration during hypernatremia or hyperosmolality to increase thirst. PMID:25100078

  7. Activation of CB1 inhibits NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 in adult mouse afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z-Y; McDowell, T; Wang, P; Alvarez, R; Gomez, T; Bjorling, D E

    2014-09-26

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-containing afferent neurons convey nociceptive signals and play an essential role in pain sensation. Exposure to nerve growth factor (NGF) rapidly increases TRPV1 activity (sensitization). In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with the selective cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) affects NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 in adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) afferent neurons. We found that CB1, NGF receptor tyrosine kinase A (trkA), and TRPV1 are present in cultured adult mouse small- to medium-sized afferent neurons and treatment with NGF (100ng/ml) for 30 min significantly increased the number of neurons that responded to capsaicin (as indicated by increased intracellular Ca(2 +) concentration). Pretreatment with the CB1 agonist ACEA (10nM) inhibited the NGF-induced response, and this effect of ACEA was reversed by a selective CB1 antagonist. Further, pretreatment with ACEA inhibited NGF-induced phosphorylation of AKT. Blocking PI3 kinase activity also attenuated the NGF-induced increase in the number of neurons that responded to capsaicin. Our results indicate that the analgesic effect of CB1 activation may in part be due to inhibition of NGF-induced sensitization of TRPV1 and also that the effect of CB1 activation is at least partly mediated by attenuation of NGF-induced increased PI3 signaling. PMID:25088915

  8. Breathtaking TRP Channels: TRPA1 and TRPV1 in Airway Chemosensation and Reflex Control

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bret Bessac (Yale University School of Medicine Pharmacology)

    2008-12-01

    New studies have revealed an essential role for TRPA1, a sensory neuronal TRP ion channel, in airway chemosensation and inflammation. TRPA1 is activated by chlorine, reactive oxygen species, and noxious constituents of smoke and smog, initiating irritation and airway reflex responses. Together with TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor, TRPA1 may contribute to chemical hypersensitivity, chronic cough, and airway inflammation in asthma, COPD, and reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

  9. Involvement of peripheral TRPV1 channels in the analgesic effects of thalidomide.

    PubMed

    Song, Tieying; Wang, Liwen; Gu, Kunfeng; Yang, Yunliang; Yang, Lijun; Ma, Pengyu; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jianhui; Yan, Ruyv; Guan, Jiao; Wang, Chunping; Qi, Yan; Ya, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Thalidomide was introduced to the market in 1957 as a sedative and antiemetic agent, and returned to the market for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and multiple myeloma. There are reports and studies of thalidomide as an analgesic or analgesic adjuvant in clinic. However, the underlying mechanism is quite elusive. Many studies suggest that the analgesic effect of thalidomide may be due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties as it suppresses the production of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) selectively. However, it is not clear whether any other mechanisms are implicated in the pain relief. In this study, we demonstrated that the peripheral vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel was also involved in the analgesic effect of thalidomide in different cell and animal models. During the activation by its agonist capsaicin, the cation inward influx through TRPV1 channels and the whole-cell current significantly decreased after TRPV1-overexpressed HEK293 cells or dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were pre-treated with thalidomide for 20 minutes. And such attenuation in the TRPV1 activity was in a dose-dependent manner of thalidomide. In an acetic acid writhing test, pre-treatment of thalidomide decreased the writhing number in the wild type mice, while it did not happen in TRPV1 knockout mice, suggesting that the TRPV1 channel was involved in the pain relief by thalidomide. Taken together, the study showed that TRPV1 channels were involved in the analgesic effects of thalidomide. Such alteration in the action of TRPV1 channels by thalidomide may help understand how thalidomide takes analgesic effect in the body in addition to its selective inhibition of TNF-? production. PMID:25929448

  10. ?-arrestin-2-biased agonism of delta opioid receptors sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Matthew P; Szteyn, Kalina; Doyle, Allison P; Gomez, Ruben; Henry, Michael A; Jeske, Nathaniel A

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in understanding the signaling mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of chronic pain, the pharmacologic treatment of chronic pain has seen little advancement. Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOPr) continue to be vital in the treatment of many forms of chronic pain, but side-effects limit their clinical utility and range from relatively mild, such as constipation, to major, such as addiction and dependence. Additionally, chronic activation of MOPr results in pain hypersensitivity known as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), and we have shown recently that recruitment of ?-arrestin2 to MOPr, away from transient potential vanilloid eceptor type 1 (TRPV1) in primary sensory neurons contributes to this phenomenon. The delta opioid receptor (DOPr) has become a promising target for the treatment of chronic pain, but little is known about the effects of chronic activation of DOPr on nociceptor sensitivity and OIH. Here we report that chronic activation of DOPr by the DOPr-selective agonist, SNC80, results in the sensitization of TRPV1 and behavioral signs of OIH via ?-arrestin2 recruitment to DOPr and away from TRPV1. Conversely, chronic treatment with ARM390, a DOPr-selective agonist that does not recruit ?-arrestin2, neither sensitized TRPV1 nor produced OIH. Interestingly, the effect of SNC80 to sensitize TRPV1 is species-dependent, as rats developed OIH but mice did not. Taken together, the reported data identify a novel side-effect of chronic administration of ?-arrestin2-biased DOPr agonists and highlight the importance of potential species-specific effects of DOPr agonists. PMID:25085415

  11. Activation of the TRPV1 channel attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal injury in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kenji; Kuroki, Taiyo; Okuno, Yui; Sekiya, Haruna; Watanabe, Akihiro; Sagawa, Tomonori; Ito, Hiroko; Mizuta, Aya; Mori, Asami; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2014-06-15

    Capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid type1 (TRPV1) agonist, has been reported to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in various organs, including the brain, heart, and kidney, whereas activation of TRPV1 was also reported to contribute to neurodegeneration, including pressure-induced retinal ganglion cell death in vitro. We histologically investigated the effects of capsaicin and SA13353, TRPV1 agonists, on retinal injury induced by intravitreal N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA; 200 nmol/eye) in rats in vivo. Under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to intravitreal NMDA injection. Capsaicin (5.0 nmol/eye) was intravitreally admianeously with NMDA injection. SA13353 (10mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered 15 min before NMDA injection. Morphometric evaluation at 7 days after NMDA injection showed that intravitreal NMDA injection resulted in ganglion cell loss. Capsaicin and SA13353 almost completely prevented this damage. Treatment with capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist, 0.5 nmol/eye), CGRP (8-37) (calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, 0.5 pmol/eye), or RP67580 (tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, 0.5 nmol/eye) almost completely negated the protective effect of capsaicin in the NMDA-injected rats. Seven days after intravitreal NMDA injection, the cell number of retinal ganglion cell was significantly smaller than in the eye that had received capsaicin in B6.Cg-TgN(Thy1-CFP)23Jrs/J transgenic mice that express the enhanced cyan fluorescent protein in retinal ganglion cells in the retina. These results suggested that activation of TRPV1 protects retinal neurons from the injury induced by intravitreal NMDA in rats in vivo. Activation of CGRP and tachykinin NK1 receptors is possibly involved in underlying protective mechanisms. PMID:24704373

  12. Transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 activated currents in TRPV1 and cholecystokinin-sensitive cranial visceral afferent neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung-Jin Choi; Zhenhua Jin; Yong Seek Park; Young Kyoung Rhee; Young-Ho Jin

    2011-01-01

    Culinary use of the pungent spices has potential health benefits including a reduction in food intake. Pungent spices often contain ingredients that activate members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family A1 and evoke pain from capsaicin-sensitive somatosensory neurons. TRPA1 channel have also been identified on cranial visceral afferent neurons but their distribution and functional contributions are poorly understood. Visceral

  13. TRPA1 contributes to capsaicin-induced facial cold hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kuniya; Shinoda, Masamichi; Furukawa, Akihiko; Kita, Kozue; Noma, Noboru; Iwata, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    Orofacial cold hyperalgesia is known to cause severe persistent pain in the face following trigeminal nerve injury or inflammation, and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankylin 1 (TRPA1) are thought to be involved in cold hyperalgesia. However, how these two receptors are involved in cold hyperalgesia is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanisms underlying facial cold hyperalgesia, nocifensive behaviors to cold stimulation, the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, and TG neuronal excitability to cold stimulation following facial capsaicin injection were examined in rats. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWRT) to cold stimulation of the lateral facial skin was significantly decreased following facial capsaicin injection. This reduction of HWRT was significantly recovered following local injection of TRPV1 antagonist as well as TRPA1 antagonist. Approximately 30% of TG neurons innervating the lateral facial skin expressed both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and about 64% of TRPA1-positive neurons also expressed TRPV1. The TG neuronal excitability to noxious cold stimulation was significantly increased following facial capsaicin injection and this increase was recovered by pretreatment with TRPA1 antagonist. These findings suggest that TRPA1 sensitization via TRPV1 signaling in TG neurons is involved in cold hyperalgesia following facial skin capsaicin injection. PMID:25371244

  14. Central terminal sensitization of TRPV1 by descending serotonergic facilitation modulates chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Shin; Chu, Yuxia; Han, Liang; Li, Man; Li, Zhe; Lavinka, Pamela Colleen; Sun, Shuohao; Tang, Zongxiang; Park, Kyoungsook; Caterina, Michael J; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald; Wei, Feng; Dong, Xinzhong

    2014-02-19

    The peripheral terminals of primary nociceptive neurons play an essential role in pain detection mediated by membrane receptors like TRPV1, a molecular sensor of heat and capsaicin. However, the contribution of central terminal TRPV1 in the dorsal horn to chronic pain has not been investigated directly. Combining primary sensory neuron-specific GCaMP3 imaging with a trigeminal neuropathic pain model, we detected robust neuronal hyperactivity in injured and uninjured nerves in the skin, soma in trigeminal ganglion, and central terminals in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Extensive TRPV1 hyperactivity was observed in central terminals innervating all dorsal horn laminae. The central terminal TRPV1 sensitization was maintained by descending serotonergic (5-HT) input from the brainstem. Central blockade of TRPV1 or 5-HT/5-HT3A receptors attenuated central terminal sensitization, excitatory primary afferent inputs, and mechanical hyperalgesia in the territories of injured and uninjured nerves. Our results reveal central mechanisms facilitating central terminal sensitization underlying chronic pain. PMID:24462040

  15. ?-Substituted 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonamidophenyl)acetamides as potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong-Thao; Kim, Ho Shin; Ann, Jihyae; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Changhoon; Hong, Mannkyu; Hoang, Van-Hai; Ngo, Van T H; Hong, Sunhye; Cui, Minghua; Choi, Sun; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Christoph, Thomas; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-06-01

    A series of ?-substituted acetamide derivatives of previously reported 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonamidophenyl)propanamide leads (1, 2) were investigated for antagonism of hTRPV1 activation by capsaicin. Compound 34, which possesses an ?-m-tolyl substituent, showed highly potent and selective antagonism of capsaicin with Ki(CAP)=0.1nM. It thus reflected a 3-fold improvement in potency over parent 1. Docking analysis using our homology model indicated that the high potency of 34 might be attributed to a specific hydrophobic interaction of the m-tolyl group with the receptor. PMID:25937016

  16. Activation of transient receptor potential A1 by a non-pungent capsaicin-like compound, capsiate

    PubMed Central

    Shintaku, Kenji; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Zhou, Yiming; Fushiki, Tohru; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu; Tominaga, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Capsiate is produced by ‘CH-19 Sweet’ (Capsicum annuun L.), a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper. Like capsaicin, capsiate is thought to enhance energy metabolism by activating the sympathetic nervous system and suppressing inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms for this are uncertain. We previously reported that capsiate could activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a capsaicin receptor. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether capsinoids activate other TRP channels. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using Ca2+ imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp methods, we analysed the response of TRP channels to three kinds of capsinoids, capsiate, dihydrocapsiate and nordihydrocapsiate, in HEK293T cells expressing TRP channels or in primary cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons. KEY RESULTS We found that in both cell types TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) had a slightly weaker response to capsinoids compared with TRPV1, with the capsiate EC50 for TRPA1 activation being more than that for TRPV1 activation, and that the capsinoid-evoked action was blocked by a specific TRPA1 antagonist. TRPA1 was activated by capsinoids, but not by their degradation products. Amino acids known to participate in TRPA1 activation following cysteine covalent modification or zinc treatment were not involved in the activation of TRPA1 by capsinoid. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Taken together, these results indicate that capsinoids activate TRPA1 by an as yet unknown mechanism, and TRPA1 could be involved in physiological phenomena associated with capsinoid treatment. PMID:21883144

  17. Pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 receptors modulates the effects of 6-OHDA on motor and cognitive functions in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Shabani, Mohammad; Nazeri, Masoud; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Esmaeli-Mahani, Saeed; Sheibani, Vahid

    2013-12-01

    TRPV1 receptors and cannabinoid system are considered as important modulators of basal ganglia functions, and their pharmacologic manipulation represents a promising therapy to alleviate Parkinson-induced hypokinesia. Recent evidence suggests that the blockade of cannabinoid receptors might be beneficial to alleviate motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of AMG9810 , a selective antagonist of TRPV1 receptors, on the motor and cognitive functions in a rat model of Parkinson's disease generated by an intracerebroventricular injection of 6- hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (200 ?g per animal). The injection of 10 nmol of AMG9810 for a single dose (AMG1) and for 2 weeks (AMG14) partially attenuated the hypokinesia shown by these animals in motor function evaluation tests, whereas chronic administration of AMG had destructive effects on learning and memory in 6-OHDA-treated rats. Animals in the AMG 1 and AMG 14 groups showed an increased latency to fall in rotarod and grasping tests in each trials compared with 6-OHDA-treated rats (P < 0.01) and DMSO 1 and 14 groups (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 receptors by AMG 9810 attenuates the hypokinetic effects of 6-OHDA and that TRPV1 receptors play an important role in 6-OHDA-induced hypokinesia, although elucidation of the neurochemical substrate involved in this process remains a major challenge for the future. PMID:23216087

  18. Capsaicin may have important potential for promoting vascular and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, the phytochemical responsible for the spiciness of peppers, has the potential to modulate metabolism via activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors, which are found not only on nociceptive sensory neurons, but also in a range of other tissues. TRPV1 activation induces calcium influx, and in certain tissues this is associated with increased activation or expression of key proteins such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), KLF2, PPARdelta, PPARgamma, and LXR?. The calcium influx triggered by TRPV1 activation in endothelial cells mimics the impact of shear stress in this regard, activating and increasing the expression of eNOS-but also increasing expression of cox-2, thrombomodulin, and nrf2-responsive antioxidant enzymes, while decreasing expression of proinflammatory proteins. Hence, dietary capsaicin has favourably impacted endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rodents. TRPV1-mediated induction of LXR? in foam cells promotes cholesterol export, antagonising plaque formation. Capsaicin-mediated activation of TRPV1-expressing neurons in the gastrointestinal tract promotes sympathetically mediated stimulation of brown fat, raising metabolic rate. The increased expression of UCP2 induced by TRPV1 activation exerts a protective antioxidant effect on the liver in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and on vascular endothelium in the context of hyperglycaemia. In rodent studies, capsaicin-rich diets have shown favourable effects on atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and stroke risk. Clinically, ingestion of capsaicin-or its less stable non-pungent analogue capsiate-has been shown to boost metabolic rate modestly. Topical application of capsaicin via patch was found to increase exercise time to ischaemic threshold in patients with angina. Further clinical studies with capsaicin administered in food, capsules, or via patch, are needed to establish protocols that are tolerable for most patients, and to evaluate the potential of capsaicin for promoting vascular and metabolic health. PMID:26113985

  19. Capsaicin may have important potential for promoting vascular and metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, the phytochemical responsible for the spiciness of peppers, has the potential to modulate metabolism via activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors, which are found not only on nociceptive sensory neurons, but also in a range of other tissues. TRPV1 activation induces calcium influx, and in certain tissues this is associated with increased activation or expression of key proteins such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), KLF2, PPARdelta, PPARgamma, and LXR?. The calcium influx triggered by TRPV1 activation in endothelial cells mimics the impact of shear stress in this regard, activating and increasing the expression of eNOS—but also increasing expression of cox-2, thrombomodulin, and nrf2-responsive antioxidant enzymes, while decreasing expression of proinflammatory proteins. Hence, dietary capsaicin has favourably impacted endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rodents. TRPV1-mediated induction of LXR? in foam cells promotes cholesterol export, antagonising plaque formation. Capsaicin-mediated activation of TRPV1-expressing neurons in the gastrointestinal tract promotes sympathetically mediated stimulation of brown fat, raising metabolic rate. The increased expression of UCP2 induced by TRPV1 activation exerts a protective antioxidant effect on the liver in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and on vascular endothelium in the context of hyperglycaemia. In rodent studies, capsaicin-rich diets have shown favourable effects on atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and stroke risk. Clinically, ingestion of capsaicin—or its less stable non-pungent analogue capsiate—has been shown to boost metabolic rate modestly. Topical application of capsaicin via patch was found to increase exercise time to ischaemic threshold in patients with angina. Further clinical studies with capsaicin administered in food, capsules, or via patch, are needed to establish protocols that are tolerable for most patients, and to evaluate the potential of capsaicin for promoting vascular and metabolic health. PMID:26113985

  20. Reciprocal changes in vanilloid (TRPV1) and endocannabinoid (CB1) receptors contribute to visceral hyperalgesia in the water avoidance stressed rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Hong; J Fan; E S Kemmerer; S Evans; Y Li; J W Wiley

    2009-01-01

    Background:Increasing evidence suggests that chronic stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several functional gastrointestinal disorders. We investigated whether cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1; transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) are involved in stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia.Methods:Male rats were exposed to 1 h water avoidance (WA) stress daily for 10 consecutive days. The visceromotor response (VMR)

  1. Mediator mechanisms involved in TRPV1, TRPA1 and P2X receptor-mediated sensory transduction of pulmonary ROS by vagal lung C-fibers in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Jung; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Ruan, Ting; Kou, Yu Ru

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the mediator mechanisms involved in the sensory transduction of pulmonary reactive oxygen species (ROS) by vagal lung C-fibers in anesthetized rats. Airway challenge of aerosolized H?O? (0.4%) stimulated these afferent fibers. The H?O?-induced responses were reduced by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor or ATP scavengers and also attenuated by an antagonist of TRPV1, TRPA1 or P2X receptors. The suppressive effect of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor was not affected by a combined treatment with the TRPV1 or TRPA1 antagonist, but was amplified by a combined treatment with the P2X antagonists. The suppressive effect of ATP scavengers was not affected by a combined treatment with the P2X antagonist, but was amplified by a combined treatment with the TRPV1 or TRPA1 antagonist. Thus, the actions of cyclooxygenase metabolites are mediated through the functioning of the TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors, whereas the action of ATP is mediated through the functioning of P2X receptors. PMID:23832015

  2. Photoswitchable fatty acids enable optical control of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Frank, James Allen; Moroni, Mirko; Moshourab, Rabih; Sumser, Martin; Lewin, Gary R; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are not only essential components of cellular energy storage and structure, but play crucial roles in signalling. Here we present a toolkit of photoswitchable FA analogues (FAAzos) that incorporate an azobenzene photoswitch along the FA chain. By modifying the FAAzos to resemble capsaicin, we prepare a series of photolipids targeting the Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel known for its role in nociception. Several azo-capsaicin derivatives (AzCAs) emerge as photoswitchable agonists of TRPV1 that are relatively inactive in the dark and become active on irradiation with ultraviolet-A light. This effect can be rapidly reversed by irradiation with blue light and permits the robust optical control of dorsal root ganglion neurons and C-fibre nociceptors with precision timing and kinetics not available with any other technique. More generally, we expect that photolipids will find many applications in controlling biological pathways that rely on protein-lipid interactions. PMID:25997690

  3. Photoswitchable fatty acids enable optical control of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Frank, James Allen; Moroni, Mirko; Moshourab, Rabih; Sumser, Martin; Lewin, Gary R.; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are not only essential components of cellular energy storage and structure, but play crucial roles in signalling. Here we present a toolkit of photoswitchable FA analogues (FAAzos) that incorporate an azobenzene photoswitch along the FA chain. By modifying the FAAzos to resemble capsaicin, we prepare a series of photolipids targeting the Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel known for its role in nociception. Several azo-capsaicin derivatives (AzCAs) emerge as photoswitchable agonists of TRPV1 that are relatively inactive in the dark and become active on irradiation with ultraviolet-A light. This effect can be rapidly reversed by irradiation with blue light and permits the robust optical control of dorsal root ganglion neurons and C-fibre nociceptors with precision timing and kinetics not available with any other technique. More generally, we expect that photolipids will find many applications in controlling biological pathways that rely on protein–lipid interactions. PMID:25997690

  4. Plasticity of TRPV1-Expressing Sensory Neurons Mediating Autonomic Dysreflexia Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ramer, Leanne M.; van Stolk, A. Peter; Inskip, Jessica A.; Ramer, Matt S.; Krassioukov, Andrei V.

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers profound changes in visceral and somatic targets of sensory neurons below the level of injury. Despite this, little is known about the influence of injury to the spinal cord on sensory ganglia. One of the defining characteristics of sensory neurons is the size of their cell body: for example, nociceptors are smaller in size than mechanoreceptors or proprioceptors. In these experiments, we first used a comprehensive immunohistochemical approach to characterize the size distribution of sensory neurons after high- and low-thoracic SCI. Male Wistar rats (300?g) received a spinal cord transection (T3 or T10) or sham-injury. At 30?days post-injury, dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cords were harvested and analyzed immunohistochemically. In a wide survey of primary afferents, only those expressing the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) exhibited somal hypertrophy after T3 SCI. Hypertrophy only occurred caudal to SCI and was pronounced in ganglia far distal to SCI (i.e., in L4-S1 DRGs). Injury-induced hypertrophy was accompanied by a small expansion of central territory in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and by evidence of TRPV1 upregulation. Importantly, hypertrophy of TRPV1-positive neurons was modest after T10 SCI. Given the specific effects of T3 SCI on TRPV1-positive afferents, we hypothesized that these afferents contribute to autonomic dysreflexia (AD). Rats with T3 SCI received vehicle or capsaicin via intrathecal injection at 2 or 28?days post-SCI; at 30?days, AD was assessed by recording intra-arterial blood pressure during colo-rectal distension (CRD). In both groups of capsaicin-treated animals, the severity of AD was dramatically reduced. While AD is multi-factorial in origin, TRPV1-positive afferents are clearly involved in AD elicited by CRD. These findings implicate TRPV1-positive afferents in the initiation of AD and suggest that TRPV1 may be a therapeutic target for amelioration or prevention of AD after high SCI. PMID:22934013

  5. ?,?-Unsaturated aldehyde pollutant acrolein suppresses cardiomyocyte contractile function: Role of TRPV1 and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenbiao; He, Emily Y; Scott, Glenda I; Ren, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Air pollution is associated with an increased prevalence of heart disease and is known to trigger a proinflammatory response via stimulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid cation channels (TRPV1, also known as the capsaicin receptor). This study was designed to examine the effect of acrolein, an essential ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde pollutant, on myocardial contractile function and the underlying mechanism involved with a focus on TRPV1 and oxidative stress. Cardiomyocyte mechanical and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated using an IonOptix MyoCam® system including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (± dL/dt), time-to-PS (TPS), time-to-90% relengthening (TR90 ), fura-2 fluorescence intensity (FFI) and intracellular Ca(2+) decay. Changes in apoptosis and TRPV1 were evaluated using Western blot analysis. The degree of oxidative stress was assessed using the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione. Results obtained revealed that exposure of cardiomyocytes to acrolein acutely compromised contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties including depressed PS,?±?dL/dt and ?FFI, as well as prolonged TR90 and intracellular Ca(2+) decay. In addition, acrolein exposure upregulated TRPV1 associated with an increase in both apoptosis and oxidative stress. However, the acrolein-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies, as well as apoptosis (as evidenced by Bcl-2, Bax, FasL, Caspase-3 and -8), were negated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger glutathione or the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Collectively these data suggest that the ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde pollutant acrolein may play a role in the pathogenesis and sequelae of air pollution-induced heart disease via a TRPV1- and oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 638-647, 2015. PMID:24376112

  6. Capsaicin Pretreatment Provides Neurovascular Protection Against Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikan H. Khatibi; Vikram Jadhav; Shelton Charles; Jeffrey Chiu; John Buchholz; Jiping Tang; John H. Zhang

    \\u000a Capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist, has recently been shown to provide neuroprotection\\u000a against brain injury in experimental adult models of cerebral ischemia. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the way\\u000a in which capsaicin-mediated TRPV1 modulation could attenuate damage in an experimental hypoxic-ischemic (HI) neonatal brain\\u000a injury model. The Rice-Vannucci method was used in 10-day-old rat pups

  7. SNP variants within the vanilloid TRPV1 and TRPV3 receptor genes are associated with migraine in the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Carreńo, Oriel; Corominas, Roser; Fernández-Morales, Jessica; Camińa, Montserrat; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Fernández-Fernández, José Manuel; Pozo-Rosich, Patricia; Cormand, Bru; Macaya, Alfons

    2012-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of non-selective cationic channels are involved in several processes plausibly relevant to migraine pathophysiology, including multimodal sensory and pain perception, central and peripheral sensitization, and regulation of calcium homeostasis. With the aim of identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TRP genes that may confer increased genetic susceptibility to migraine, we carried out a case-control genetic association study with replication, including a total of 1,040 cases and 1,037 controls. We genotyped 149 SNPs covering 14 TRP genes with known brain expression. The two-stage study comprised samples of 555 and 485 Spanish, Caucasian patients, selected according to the ICHD-II criteria for the diagnosis of migraine without aura (MO) or migraine with aura (MA). In the discovery sample, 19 SNPs in ten TRP genes showed nominal association (P?TRPV1 rs222741 in the overall migraine group. Risk haplotypes were identified for seven of the genes showing nominal association in the discovery set, but none of them was replicated. The present findings suggest that members of the vanilloid TRPV subfamily of receptors contribute to the genetic susceptibility to migraine in the Spanish population. PMID:22162417

  8. Role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Hepatitis Following Activation of TRPV1 Receptors by Cannabidiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkatesh L. Hegde; Prakash S. Nagarkatti; Mitzi Nagarkatti

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundMyeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are getting increased attention as one of the main regulatory cells of the immune system. They are induced at sites of inflammation and can potently suppress T cell functions. In the current study, we demonstrate how activation of TRPV1 vanilloid receptors can trigger MDSCs, which in turn, can inhibit inflammation and hepatitis.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsPolyclonal activation of T

  9. DECREASED SENSORY RECEPTORS P2X 3 AND TRPV1 IN SUBUROTHELIAL NERVE FIBERS FOLLOWING INTRADETRUSOR INJECTIONS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN FOR HUMAN DETRUSOR OVERACTIVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. APOSTOLIDIS; R. POPAT; Y. YIANGOU; D. COCKAYNE; A. P. D. W. FORD; J. B. DAVIS; P. DASGUPTA; C. J. FOWLER; P. ANAND

    2005-01-01

    PurposeBotulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT\\/A) is effective in the treatment of intractable detrusor overactivity (DO). In addition to its known inhibitory effect on presynaptic release of acetylcholine by motor terminals, there is increasing evidence that BoNT\\/A may affect sensory fibers. We investigated a possible effect of BoNT\\/A on human bladder afferent mechanisms by studying the sensory receptors P2X3 and TRPV1

  10. Acid evoked thermal hyperalgesia involves peripheral P2Y1 receptor mediated TRPV1 phosphorylation in a rodent model of thrombus induced ischemic pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously developed a thrombus-induced ischemic pain (TIIP) animal model, which was characterized by chronic bilateral mechanical allodynia without thermal hyperalgesia (TH). On the other hand we had shown that intraplantar injection of acidic saline facilitated ATP-induced pain, which did result in the induction of TH in normal rats. Because acidic pH and increased ATP are closely associated with ischemic conditions, this study is designed to: (1) examine whether acidic saline injection into the hind paw causes the development of TH in TIIP, but not control, animals; and (2) determine which peripheral mechanisms are involved in the development of this TH. Results Repeated intraplantar injection of pH 4.0 saline, but not pH 5.5 and 7.0 saline, for 3 days following TIIP surgery resulted in the development of TH. After pH 4.0 saline injections, protein levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) were elevated in the plantar muscle indicating that acidic stimulation intensified ischemic insults with decreased tissue acidity. At the same time point, there were no changes in the expression of TRPV1 in hind paw skin, whereas a significant increase in TRPV1 phosphorylation (pTRPV1) was shown in acidic saline (pH 4.0) injected TIIP (AS-TIIP) animals. Moreover, intraplantar injection of chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor) and AMG9810 (a TRPV1 antagonist) effectively alleviated the established TH. In order to investigate which proton- or ATP-sensing receptors contributed to the development of TH, amiloride (an ASICs blocker), AMG9810, TNP-ATP (a P2Xs antagonist) or MRS2179 (a P2Y1 antagonist) were pre-injected before the pH 4.0 saline. Only MRS2179 significantly prevented the induction of TH, and the increased pTRPV1 ratio was also blocked in MRS2179 injected animals. Conclusion Collectively these data show that maintenance of an acidic environment in the ischemic hind paw of TIIP rats results in the phosphorylation of TRPV1 receptors via a PKC-dependent pathway, which leads to the development of TH mimicking what occurs in chronic ischemic patients with severe acidosis. More importantly, peripheral P2Y1 receptors play a pivotal role in this process, suggesting a novel peripheral mechanism underlying the development of TH in these patients. PMID:24401144

  11. Differential regulation of proton-sensitive ion channels by phospholipids: a comparative study between ASICs and TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Hae-Jin; Yu, Soo-Young; Kim, Dong-Il; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Protons are released in pain-generating pathological conditions such as inflammation, ischemic stroke, infection, and cancer. During normal synaptic activities, protons are thought to play a role in neurotransmission processes. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are typical proton sensors in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In addition to ASICs, capsaicin- and heat-activated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels can also mediate proton-mediated pain signaling. In spite of their importance in perception of pH fluctuations, the regulatory mechanisms of these proton-sensitive ion channels still need to be further investigated. Here, we compared regulation of ASICs and TRPV1 by membrane phosphoinositides, which are general cofactors of many receptors and ion channels. We observed that ASICs do not require membrane phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) for their function. However, TRPV1 currents were inhibited by simultaneous breakdown of PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. By using a novel chimeric protein, CF-PTEN, that can specifically dephosphorylate at the D3 position of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3), we also observed that neither ASICs nor TRPV1 activities were altered by depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3 in intact cells. Finally, we compared the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) on two proton-sensitive ion channels. We observed that AA potentiates the currents of both ASICs and TRPV1, but that they have different recovery aspects. In conclusion, ASICs and TRPV1 have different sensitivities toward membrane phospholipids, such as PI(4)P, PI(4,5)P2, and AA, although they have common roles as proton sensors. Further investigation about the complementary roles and respective contributions of ASICs and TRPV1 in proton-mediated signaling is necessary. PMID:25781982

  12. ?,?-Unsaturated aldehyde crotonaldehyde triggers cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction: role of TRPV1 and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhaohui; Zhuang, Zhiqiang; Sang, Hanfei; Wu, Zhenbiao; Meng, Rongsen; He, Emily Y; Scott, Glenda I; Maris, Jackie R; Li, Ruiman; Ren, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that cigarette smoking is associated with an increased prevalence of heart diseases. Given that cigarette smoking triggers proinflammatory response via stimulation of the capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential cation channel TRPV1, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of an essential ?,?-unsaturated aldehyde from cigarette smoke crotonaldehyde on myocardial function and the underlying mechanism with a focus on TRPV1 and mitochondria. Cardiomyocyte mechanical and intracellular Ca2+ properties were evaluated including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt), time-to-PS (TPS), time-to-90% relengthening (TR90), fura-2 fluorescence intensity (FFI), intracellular Ca2+ decay and SERCA activity. Apoptosis and TRPV1 were evaluated using Western blot analysis. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage were measured using the intracellular fluoroprobe 5-(6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), respectively. Our data revealed that crotonaldehyde interrupted cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ property including depressed PS, ±dL/dt, ?FFI and SERCA activity, as well as prolonged TR90 and intracellular Ca2+ decay. Crotonaldehyde exposure increased TRPV1 and NADPH oxidase levels, promoted apoptosis, mitochondrial injury (decreased aconitase activity, PGC-1? and UCP-2) as well as production of ROS and 8-OHdG. Interestingly, crotonaldehyde-induced cardiac defect was obliterated by the ROS scavenger glutathione and the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine. Capsazepine (not glutathione) ablated crotonaldehyde-induced mitochondrial damage. Capsazepine, glutathione and the NADPH inhibitor apocynin negated crotonaldehyde-induced ROS accumulation. Our data suggest a role of crotonaldehyde compromises cardiomyocyte mechanical function possibly through a TRPV1- and mitochondria-dependent oxidative stress mechanism. PMID:24705155

  13. Molecular determinants of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) binding to transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Poblete, Horacio; Oyarzún, Ingrid; Olivero, Pablo; Comer, Jeffrey; Zuńiga, Matías; Sepulveda, Romina V; Báez-Nieto, David; González Leon, Carlos; González-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramón

    2015-01-23

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been recognized as an important activator of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. More specifically, TRPV1 is a pain receptor activated by a wide range of stimuli. However, whether or not PI(4,5)P2 is a TRPV1 agonist remains open to debate. Utilizing a combined approach of mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we identified a PI(4,5)P2 binding site located between the TRP box and the S4-S5 linker. At this site, PI(4,5)P2 interacts with the amino acid residues Arg-575 and Arg-579 in the S4-S5 linker and with Lys-694 in the TRP box. We confirmed that PI(4,5)P2 behaves as a channel agonist and found that Arg-575, Arg-579, and Lys-694 mutations to alanine reduce PI(4,5)P2 binding affinity. Additionally, in silico mutations R575A, R579A, and K694A showed that the reduction in binding affinity results from the delocalization of PI(4,5)P2 in the binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that PI(4,5)P2 binding induces conformational rearrangements of the structure formed by S6 and the TRP domain, which cause an opening of the lower TRPV1 channel gate. PMID:25425643

  14. The TRPV1\\/2\\/3 activator 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate sensitizes native nociceptive neurons to heat in wildtype but not TRPV1 deficient mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Zimmermann; A. Leffler; M. M. J. Fischer; K. Messlinger; C. Nau; P. W. Reeh

    2005-01-01

    TRPV1 gene disruption results in a loss of capsaicin and proton responsiveness, but has minimal effects on heat-induced nocifensive behavior, suggesting that sensory transduction of heat is independent of TRPV1. TRPV3, another heat-activated ion channel but insensitive to capsaicin, was shown to be expressed in keratinocytes as well as in sensory neurons projecting to the skin. Recently, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate was

  15. Unravelling the Mystery of Capsaicin: A Tool to Understand and Treat Pain

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Nilsson, Matias; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of pharmacological studies have used capsaicin as a tool to activate many physiological systems, with an emphasis on pain research but also including functions such as the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, and the urinary tract. Understanding the actions of capsaicin led to the discovery its receptor, transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), part of the superfamily of TRP receptors, sensing external events. This receptor is found on key fine sensory afferents, and so the use of capsaicin to selectively activate pain afferents has been exploited in animal studies, human psychophysics, and imaging studies. Its effects depend on the dose and route of administration and may include sensitization, desensitization, withdrawal of afferent nerve terminals, or even overt death of afferent fibers. The ability of capsaicin to generate central hypersensitivity has been valuable in understanding the consequences and mechanisms behind enhanced central processing of pain. In addition, capsaicin has been used as a therapeutic agent when applied topically, and antagonists of the TRPV1 receptor have been developed. Overall, the numerous uses for capsaicin are clear; hence, the rationale of this review is to bring together and discuss the different types of studies that exploit these actions to shed light upon capsaicin working both as a tool to understand pain but also as a treatment for chronic pain. This review will discuss the various actions of capsaicin and how it lends itself to these different purposes. PMID:23023032

  16. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-02-10

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] from the plasma membrane through Ca(2+)-induced phospholipase C? (PLC?) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLC? indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25670203

  17. Contribution of TRPV1 receptor-expressing fibers to spinal ventral root after-discharges and mechanical hyperalgesia in a spared nerve injury (SNI) rat model.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shohei; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Ono, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain induces allodynia and hyperalgesia. In the spared nerve injury (SNI) model, marked mechanical hyperalgesia is manifested as prolongation of the duration of paw withdrawal after pin stimulation. We have previously reported that spinal ventral root discharges (after-discharges) after cessation of noxious mechanical stimulation applied to the corresponding hindpaw were prolonged in anesthetized spinalized rats. Since these after-discharges occurred through transient receptor potential (TRP) V1-positive fibers, these fibers could contribute to mechanical hyperalgesia. Therefore, we examined whether selective deletion of TRPV1-positive fibers by resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent TRPV1 agonist, would affect the behavioral changes and ventral root discharges in SNI rats. Mechanical allodynia in the von Frey test, mechanical hyperalgesia after pin stimulation, and enhancement of ventral root discharges, but not thermal hyperalgesia in the plantar test, appeared in Wistar rats with SNI. Mechanical hyperalgesia was abolished by treatment with resiniferatoxin, whereas mechanical allodynia was not affected. Moreover, resiniferatoxin eliminated after-discharges completely. These results show that TRPV1-positive fibers do not participate in the mechanical allodynia caused by sensitization of A?-fibers, but contribute to the enhancement of after-discharges and mechanical hyperalgesia following SNI. It is suggested that the mechanisms responsible for generating mechanical allodynia differ from those for prolongation of mechanical hyperalgesia. PMID:23238537

  18. Phenylarsine oxide as a redox modulator of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel function.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Kevin P; Wu, Gang; Patel, Aniket; Crumley, Gregg; Ilyin, Victor I

    2015-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels are capable of detecting and integrating noxious stimuli and play an important role in nociceptor activation and sensitization. It has been demonstrated that oxidizing agents are capable of positively modulating (sensitizing) the TRPV1 channel. The present study investigates the ability of the thiol-oxidizing agent phenylarsine oxide (PAO) to modulate TRPV1 currents under voltage-clamp conditions. We assessed the ability of PAO to modulate both proton- and capsaicin-activated currents mediated by recombinant human TRPV1 channels as well as native rat and human TRPV1 channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Experiments with other oxidizing and reducing agents having various membrane-permeating properties supported the intracellular oxidizing mechanism of PAO modulation. The PAO modulation of proton-activated currents was consistent across the cell types studied, with an increase in current across the proton concentrations studied. PAO modulation of the capsaicin-activated current in hTRPV1/Chinese hamster ovary cells consisted of potentiation of the current elicited with low capsaicin concentrations and inhibition of the current at higher concentrations. This same effect was seen with these recombinant cells in calcium imaging experiments and with native TRPV1 channels in rat DRG neurons. Contrary to this, currents in human DRG neurons were potentiated at all capsaicin concentrations tested after PAO treatment. These results could indicate important differences in the reduction-oxidation modulation of human TRPV1 channels in a native cellular environment. PMID:25250537

  19. Pharmacologic antagonism of the oral aversive taste-directed response to capsaicin in a mouse brief access taste aversion assay.

    PubMed

    Long, Daniel J; Devantier, Heather R; Brennan, Francis X; Bryant, Robert W; Salemme, F Raymond; Palmer, R Kyle

    2010-02-01

    Chemosensory signaling by the tongue is a primary determinant of ingestive behavior and is mediated by specific interactions between tastant molecules and G protein-coupled and ion channel receptors. The functional relationship between tastant and receptor should be amenable to pharmacologic methods and manipulation. We have performed a pharmacologic characterization of the taste-directed licking of mice presented with solutions of capsaicin and other transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) agonists using a brief access taste aversion assay. Dose-response functions for lick-rate suppression were established for capsaicin (EC(50) = 0.5 microM), piperine (EC(50) = 2 muM), and resiniferatoxin (EC(50) = 0.02 microM). Little or no effect on lick rate was observed in response to the full TRPV1 agonist olvanil. Capsaicin lick rates of wild-type and transient receptor potential melastatin-5 (TRPM5) knockout mice were equivalent, indicating that TRPM5, a critical component of aversive signaling for many bitter tastants, did not contribute to the capsaicin taste response. The selective TRPV1 antagonists N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carbox-amide (10 microM) and (E)-3-(4-t-butylphenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)acrylamide (AMG9810) (10 microM) effectively blocked capsaicin- and piperine-mediated lick suppression. However, (E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-N-phenylprop-2-enamide (SB 366791) and capsazepine, also TRPV1 antagonists, were without effect at test concentrations of up to 30 and 100 microM, respectively. Our results demonstrate that TRPV1-mediated oral aversiveness presents a pharmacologic profile differing from what has been reported previously for TRPV1 pain signaling and, furthermore, that aversive tastes can be evaluated and controlled pharmacologically. PMID:19903834

  20. Capsaicin, transient receptor potential (trp) protein subfamilies and the particular relationship between capsaicin receptors and small primary sensory neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Nakagawa; Akio Hiura

    2006-01-01

    A number of subfamilies of the capsaicin receptor, collectively called TRP, have been reported since the discovery of vanilloid\\u000a receptor 1 (VR1). The term ‘TRP’ is derived from ‘transient receptor potential’, which means the transient and rapid defect\\u000a of reaction following long stimulation with light in the photoreceptor cells of mutant Drosophila. The common features of\\u000a TRP family members are

  1. TRPV1 expression level in isolectin B?-positive neurons contributes to mouse strain difference in cutaneous thermal nociceptive sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kentaro; Ye, Yi; Viet, Chi T; Dang, Dongmin; Schmidt, Brian L

    2015-05-01

    Differential thermal nociception across inbred mouse strains has genetic determinants. Thermal nociception is largely attributed to the heat/capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1); however, the contribution of this channel to the genetics of thermal nociception has not been revealed. In this study we compared TRPV1 expression levels and electrophysiological properties in primary sensory neurons and thermal nociceptive behaviors between two (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) inbred mouse strains. Using immunofluorescence and patch-clamp physiology methods, we demonstrated that TRPV1 expression was significantly higher in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive trigeminal sensory neurons of C57BL/6 relative to BALB/c; the expression in IB4-negative neurons was similar between the strains. Furthermore, using electrophysiological cell classification (current signature method), we showed differences between the two strains in capsaicin sensitivity in IB4-positive neuronal cell types 2 and 13, which were previously reported as skin nociceptors. Otherwise electrophysiological membrane properties of the classified cell types were similar in the two mouse strains. In publicly available nocifensive behavior data and our own behavior data from the using the two mouse strains, C57BL/6 exhibited higher sensitivity to heat stimulation than BALB/c, independent of sex and anatomical location of thermal testing (the tail, hind paw, and whisker pad). The TRPV1-selective antagonist JNJ-17203212 inhibited thermal nociception in both strains; however, removing IB4-positive trigeminal sensory neurons with IB4-conjugated saporin inhibited thermal nociception on the whisker pad in C57BL/6 but not in BALB/c. These results suggest that TRPV1 expression levels in IB4-positive type 2 and 13 neurons contributed to differential thermal nociception in skin of C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c. PMID:25787958

  2. Structure-activity relationship studies and discovery of a potent transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) antagonist 4-[3-chloro-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-2-pyridyl]-N-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyridine-1-carboxamide (V116517) as a clinical candidate for pain management.

    PubMed

    Tafesse, Laykea; Kanemasa, Toshiyuki; Kurose, Noriyuki; Yu, Jianming; Asaki, Toshiyuki; Wu, Gang; Iwamoto, Yuka; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Ni, Chiyou; Engel, John; Tsuno, Naoki; Patel, Aniket; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shintani, Takuya; Brown, Kevin; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Shet, Manjunath; Iso, Yasuyoshi; Kato, Akira; Kyle, Donald J

    2014-08-14

    A series of novel tetrahydropyridinecarboxamide TRPV1 antagonists were prepared and evaluated in an effort to optimize properties of previously described lead compounds from piperazinecarboxamide series. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to block capsaicin and acid-induced calcium influx in CHO cells expressing human TRPV1. The most potent of these TRPV1 antagonists were further characterized in pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and body temperature studies. On the basis of its pharmacokinetic, in vivo efficacy, safety, and toxicological properties, compound 37 was selected for further evaluation in human clinical trials. PMID:25057800

  3. Characterization of functional TRPV1 channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Lotteau, Sabine; Ducreux, Sylvie; Romestaing, Caroline; Legrand, Claude; Van Coppenolle, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    TRPV1 represents a non-selective cation channel activated by capsaicin, acidosis and high temperature. In the central nervous system where TRPV1 is highly expressed, its physiological role in nociception is clearly identified. In skeletal muscle, TRPV1 appears implicated in energy metabolism and exercise endurance. However, how as a Ca(2+) channel, it contributes to intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) maintenance and muscle contraction remains unknown. Here, as in rats, we report that TRPV1 is functionally expressed in mouse skeletal muscle. In contrast to earlier reports, our analysis show TRPV1 presence only at the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane (preferably at the longitudinal part) in the proximity of SERCA1 pumps. Using intracellular Ca(2+) imaging, we directly accessed to the channel functionality in intact FDB mouse fibers. Capsaicin and resiniferatoxin, both agonists as well as high temperature (45°C) elicited an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. TRPV1-inhibition by capsazepine resulted in a strong inhibition of TRPV1-mediated functional responses and abolished channel activation. Blocking the SR release (with ryanodine or dantrolene) led to a reduced capsaicin-induced Ca(2+) elevation suggesting that TRPV1 may participate to a secondary SR Ca(2+) liberation of greater amplitude. In conclusion, our experiments point out that TRPV1 is a functional SR Ca(2+) leak channel and may crosstalk with RyR1 in adult mouse muscle fibers. PMID:23536811

  4. Insulin-secreting INS-1E cells express functional TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Fĺgelskiöld, Amanda Jabin; Kannisto, Kristina; Boström, Anna; Hadrovic, Banina; Farre, Cecilia; Eweida, Mohamed; Wester, Kenneth; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2012-01-01

    We have studied whether functional TRPV1 channels exist in the INS-1E cells, a cell type used as a model for ?-cells, and in primary ?-cells from rat and human. The effects of the TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and AM404 on the intracellular free Ca (2+) concentration ([Ca (2+)]i) in the INS-1E cells were studied by fura-2 based microfluorometry. Capsaicin increased [Ca (2+)]i in a concentration-dependent manner, and the [Ca (2+)]i increase was dependent on extracellular Ca (2+). AM404 also increased [Ca (2+)]i in the INS-1E cells. Capsazepine, a specific antagonist of TRPV1, completely blocked the capsaicin- and AM404-induced [Ca (2+)]i increases. Capsaicin did not increase [Ca (2+)]i in the primary ?-cells from rat and human. Whole cell patch clamp configuration was used to record currents across the plasma membrane in the INS-1E cells. Capsaicin elicited inward currents that were inhibited by capsazepine. Western blot analysis detected TRPV1 proteins in the INS-1E cells and the human islets. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the expression of TRPV1, but no TRPV1 protein immunoreactivity was detected in the human islet cells and the human insulinoma cells. We conclude that the INS-1E cells, but not the primary ?-cells, express functional TRPV1 channels. PMID:22274646

  5. Comparison of TRPA1-versus TRPV1-mediated cough in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Brozmanova, Mariana; Mazurova, Lenka; Ru, Fei; Tatar, Milos; Kollarik, Marian

    2012-08-15

    TRPA1 receptor is activated by endogenous inflammatory mediators and exogenous pollutant molecules relevant to respiratory diseases. Previous studies have implicated TRPA1 as a drug target for antitussive therapy. Here we evaluated the relative efficacy of TRPA1 activation to evoke cough. In conscious guinea pigs the TRPA1 agonist allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) evoked cough with a maximally effective concentration of 10mM that was abolished by the selective TRPA1 antagonist AP-18. AITC (10mM) was approximately 3-times less effective in inducing cough than capsaicin (50 ?M). Ex vivo single fiber extracellular recordings revealed that, similarly to capsaicin, AITC evoked activation in airway jugular C-fibers, but not in airway nodose A?-fibers. Consistent with the cough studies, AITC was approximately 3-times less effective than capsaicin in evoking sustained activation of the jugular C-fibers. Another TRPA1 agonist, cinnamaldehyde, was approximately twofold more effective than AITC in inducing cough. However, the cinnamaldehyde (10mM)-induced cough was only partially inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist AP-18, and was abolished by combination of AP-18 and the TRPV1 antagonist I-RTX. We conclude that in naďve guinea pigs, TRPA1 activation initiates cough that is relatively modest compared to the cough initiated by TRPV1, likely due to lower efficacy of TRPA1 stimulation to induce sustained activation of airway C-fibers. PMID:22683866

  6. Cough Sensors. II. Transient Receptor Potential Membrane Receptors on Cough Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Materazzi; R. Nassini; R. Gatti; M. Trevisani; P. Geppetti

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) family of channels is represented by at least six members in primary sensory neurons.\\u000a These include the TRP vanilloid subtypes 1 (TRPV1), 2, 3, and 4, the cold and menthol receptor TRPM8, and TRPA1. Much interest\\u000a has been directed to the study of the TRPV1, because capsaicin has been instrumental in discovering the unique role

  7. Investigation of TRPV1 loss-of-function phenotypes in transgenic shRNA expressing and knockout mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Christoph; Gregor Bahrenberg; Jean De Vry; Werner Englberger; Volker A. Erdmann; Moritz Frech; Babette Kögel; Thomas Röhl; Klaus Schiene; Wolfgang Schröder; Jost Seibler; Jens Kurreck

    2008-01-01

    The function of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel was analyzed with RNA interference technologies and compared to TRPV1 knockout mice. Expression of shRNAs targeting TRPV1 in transgenic (tg) mice was proven by RNase protection assays, and TRPV1 downregulation was confirmed by reduced expression of TRPV1 mRNA and lack of receptor agonist binding in spinal cord membranes.

  8. A Randomised Trial Evaluating the Effects of the TRPV1 Antagonist SB705498 on Pruritus Induced by Histamine, and Cowhage Challenge in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Rachel A.; Robertson, Jon; Mistry, Harshna; McCallum, Stewart; Fernando, Disala; Wyres, Melody; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Background Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel widely expressed in skin tissues, and peripheral sensory nerve fibres. Activation of TRPV1 releases neuropeptides; the resulting neurogenic inflammation is believed to contribute to the development of pruritus. A TRPV1 antagonist has the potential to perform as an anti-pruritic agent. SB705498 is a TRPV1 antagonist that has demonstrated in vitro activity against cloned TRPV1 human receptors and when orally administered has demonstrated pharmacodynamic activity in animal models and clinical studies. Objectives To select a topical dose of SB705498 using the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin; to confirm engagement of the TRPV1 antagonistic action of SB705498 and assess whether the dose selected has an effect on itch induced by two challenge agents. Methods A clinical study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers to assess the effects of 3 doses of SB705498 on skin flare induced by capsaicin. Subjects with a robust capsaicin response were chosen to determine if the selected topical formulation of SB705498 had an effect on challenge agent induced itch. Results Following capsaicin challenge the greatest average reduction in area of flare was seen for the 3% formulation. This dose was selected for further investigation. Itch intensity induced by two challenge agents (cowhage and histamine) was assessed on the Computerised Visual Analogue Scale. The difference in average itch intensity (Weighted Mean Over 15 Mins) between the 3% dose of SB705498 and placebo for the cowhage challenge was ?0.64, whilst the histamine challenge showed on average a ?4.65 point change. Conclusions The 3% topical formulation of SB705498 cream was clinically well tolerated and had target specific pharmacodynamic activity. However there were no clinically significant differences on pruritus induced by either challenge agent in comparison to placebo. SB705498 is unlikely to be of symptomatic benefit for histaminergic or non-histaminergic induced itch. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01673529 PMID:25047038

  9. TLR4 enhances histamine-mediated pruritus by potentiating TRPV1 activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have indicated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pathogen-recognition receptor that triggers inflammatory signals in innate immune cells, is also expressed on sensory neurons, implicating its putative role in sensory signal transmission. However, the possible function of sensory neuron TLR4 has not yet been formally addressed. In this regard, we investigated the role of TLR4 in itch signal transmission. Results TLR4 was expressed on a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons that express TRPV1. In TLR4-knockout mice, histamine-induced itch responses were compromised while TLR4 activation by LPS did not directly elicit an itch response. Histamine-induced intracellular calcium signals and inward currents were comparably reduced in TLR4-deficient sensory neurons. Reduced histamine sensitivity in the TLR4-deficient neurons was accompanied by a decrease in TRPV1 activity. Heterologous expression experiments in HEK293T cells indicated that TLR4 expression enhanced capsaicin-induced intracellular calcium signals and inward currents. Conclusions Our data show that TLR4 on sensory neurons enhances histamine-induced itch signal transduction by potentiating TRPV1 activity. The results suggest that TLR4 could be a novel target for the treatment of enhanced itch sensation. PMID:25139109

  10. Sphingosine 1-phosphate to p38 signaling via S1P1 receptor and G?i/o evokes augmentation of capsaicin-induced ionic currents in mouse sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Langeslag, Michiel; Quarta, Serena; Leitner, Michael G; Kress, Michaela; Mair, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The perception of painful thermal stimuli by sensory neurons is largely mediated by TRPV1. Upon tissue injury or inflammation, S1P is secreted by thrombocytes as part of an inflammatory cocktail, which sensitizes nociceptive neurons towards thermal stimuli. S1P acts on G-protein coupled receptors that are expressed in sensory neurons and sensitize TRPV1 channels towards thermal stimuli. In this study, the S1P mediated signaling pathway required for sensitization of TRPV1 channels was explored.The capsaicin induced peak inward current (ICAPS) of sensory neurons was significantly increased after S1P stimulation within minutes after application. The potentiation of ICAPS resulted from activation of G?i through G-protein coupled receptors for S1P. Consequently, G?i led to a signaling cascade, involving phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C, which augmented ICAPS in nociceptive neurons. The S1P1 receptor agonist SEW2871 resulted in activation of the same signaling pathway and potentiation of ICAPS. Furthermore, the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 was phosphorylated after S1P stimulation and inhibition of p38 signaling by SB203580 prevented the S1P-induced ICAPS potentiation. The current data suggest that S1P sensitized ICAPS through G-protein coupled S1P1 receptor activation of G?i-PI3K-PKC-p38 signaling pathway in sensory neurons. PMID:25431213

  11. Nicotinic acid is a common regulator of heat-sensing TRPV1-4 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Linlin; Lee, Bo Hyun; Clifton, Heather; Schaefer, Saul; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA, a.k.a. vitamin B3 or niacin) can reduce blood cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins whereas increase high-density lipoproteins. However, when NA is used to treat dyslipidemias, it causes a strong side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly called flushing. A recent study showed that NA may cause flushing by lowering activation threshold temperature of the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel, leading to its activation at body temperature. The finding calls into question whether NA might also interact with the homologous heat-sensitive TRPV2-4 channels, particularly given that TRPV3 and TRPV4 are abundantly expressed in keratinocytes of the skin where much of the flushing response occurs. We found that NA indeed potentiated TRPV3 while inhibited TRPV2 and TRPV4. Consistent with these gating effects, NA lowered the heat-activation threshold of TRPV3 but elevated that of TRPV4. We further found that activity of TRPV1 was substantially prolonged by extracellular NA, which may further enhance the direct activation effect. Consistent with the broad gating effect on TRPV1-4 channels, evidence from the present study hints that NA may share the same activation pathway as 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common agonist for these TRPV channels. These findings shed new light on the molecular mechanism underlying NA regulation of TRPV channels. PMID:25752528

  12. Functional expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in rat vestibular ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Takefumi; Ishida, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yukiko; Yamada, Takahiro; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takimoto, Yasumitsu; Horii, Arata; Uno, Atsuhiko; Imai, Takao; Okazaki, Suzuyo; Inohara, Hidenori; Shimada, Shoichi

    2013-09-27

    Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are non-selective cation channels. They are co-expressed, and interact in sensory neurons such as dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG), and are involved in nociception, being activated by nociceptive stimuli. Immunohistological localization of TRPV1 in vestibular ganglion (VG) neurons has been reported. Although TRPA1 is co-expressed with TRPV1 in DRG and TG neurons, it is unclear whether TRPA1 channels are expressed in VG neurons. Moreover, it is unknown whether TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are functional in VG neurons. We investigated the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in rat VG neurons by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Ca(2+) imaging experiments. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 RT-PCR products were amplified from the mRNA of rat VG neurons. In situ hybridization experiments showed TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA expression in the majority of VG neurons. Immunohistochemistry experiments confirmed TRPV1 protein expression. In Ca(2+) imaging experiments, capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, induced a significant increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in rat primary cultured VG neurons, which was almost completely blocked by capsazepine, a TRPV1-specific antagonist. Cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)]i, which was completely inhibited by HC030031, a TRPA1-specific antagonist. Moreover, in some VG neurons, a [Ca(2+)]i increase was evoked by both capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde in the same neuron. In summary, our histological and physiological studies reveal that TRPV1 and TRPA1 are expressed in VG neurons. It is suggested that TRPV1 and TRPA1 in VG neurons might participate in vestibular function and/or dysfunction such as vertigo. PMID:23916509

  13. Different types of toxins targeting TRPV1 in pain.

    PubMed

    Min, Jia-Wei; Liu, Wan-Hong; He, Xiao-Hua; Peng, Bi-Wen

    2013-09-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV1) channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. Members of this family are expressed in primary sensory neurons and are best known for their role in nociception and sensory transmission. Multiple painful stimuli can activate these channels. In this review, we discussed the mechanisms of different types of venoms that target TRPV1, such as scorpion venom, botulinum neurotoxin, spider toxin, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). Some of these toxins activate TRPV1; however, some do not. Regardless of TRPV1 inhibition or activation, they occur through different pathways. For example, BoNT/A decreases TRPV1 expression levels by blocking TRPV1 trafficking to the plasma membrane, although the exact mechanism is still under debate. Vanillotoxins from tarantula (Psalmopoeus cambridgei) are proposed to activate TRPV1 via interaction with a region of TRPV1 that is homologous to voltage-dependent ion channels. Here, we offer a description of the present state of knowledge for this complex subject. PMID:23732125

  14. Role of calcium ions in the positive interaction between TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in bronchopulmonary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Chun; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2015-06-15

    Both transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are abundantly expressed in bronchopulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves and can be activated by a number of endogenous inflammatory mediators. A recent study has reported a synergistic effect of simultaneous TRPA1 and TRPV1 activations in vagal pulmonary C-fiber afferents in anesthetized rats, but its underlying mechanism was not known. This study aimed to characterize a possible interaction between these two TRP channels and to investigate the potential role of Ca(2+) as a mediator of this interaction in isolated rat vagal pulmonary sensory neurons. Using the perforated patch-clamp recording technique, our study demonstrated a distinct positive interaction occurring abruptly between TRPA1 and TRPV1 when they were activated simultaneously by their respective agonists, capsaicin (Cap) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), at near-threshold concentrations in these neurons. AITC at this low concentration evoked only minimal or undetectable responses, but it markedly amplified the Cap-evoked current in the same neurons. This potentiating effect was eliminated when either AITC or Cap was replaced by non-TRPA1 and non-TRPV1 chemical activators of these neurons, demonstrating the selectivity of the interaction between these two TRP channels. Furthermore, when Ca(2+) was removed from the extracellular solution, the synergistic effect of Cap and AITC on pulmonary sensory neurons was completely abrogated, clearly indicating a critical role of Ca(2+) in mediating the action. These results suggest that this TRPA1-TRPV1 interaction may play a part in regulating the sensitivity of pulmonary sensory neurons during airway inflammatory reaction. PMID:25858491

  15. Vitexin inhibits inflammatory pain in mice by targeting TRPV1, oxidative stress, and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Sergio M; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-06-28

    The flavonoid vitexin (1) is a flavone C-glycoside (apigenin-8-C-?-D-glucopyranoside) present in several medicinal and other plants. Plant extracts containing 1 are reported to possess antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, the only evidence that 1 exhibits antinociceptive activity was demonstrated in the acetic acid-induced writhing model. Therefore, the analgesic effects and mechanisms of 1 were evaluated. In the present investigation, intraperitoneal treatment with 1 dose-dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing. Furthermore, treatment with 1 also inhibited pain-like behavior induced by phenyl-p-benzoquinone, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), capsaicin (an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, TRPV1), and both phases of the formalin test. It was also observed that inhibition of carrageenan-, capsaicin-, and chronic CFA-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia occurred. Regarding the antinociceptive mechanisms of 1, it prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione levels, ferric-reducing ability potential, and free-radical scavenger ability, inhibited the production of hyperalgesic cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-33, and up-regulated the levels of the anti-hyperalgesic cytokine IL-10. These results demonstrate that 1 exhibits an analgesic effect in a variety of inflammatory pain models by targeting TRPV1 and oxidative stress and by modulating cytokine production. PMID:23742617

  16. Trigeminal nociceptors express prostaglandin receptors.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, A M; Vela, J; Farugia, J; Vela, K; Hargreaves, K M

    2008-03-01

    Orofacial inflammation is associated with prostaglandin release and the sensitization of nociceptive receptors such as the transient receptor potential subtype V(1) (TRPV(1)). We hypothesized that certain PGE(2) receptor subtypes (EP1-EP4) are co-expressed with TRPV(1) in trigeminal nociceptors and sensitize responses to a TRPV(1) agonist, capsaicin. Accordingly, combined in situ hybridization was performed with immunohistochemistry on rat trigeminal ganglia. We next evaluated the effects of specific EP2 and EP3 agonists (butaprost and sulprostone) in cultured trigeminal ganglia neurons. The results showed that EP2 and EP3 are expressed in trigeminal neurons (58% and 53% of total neurons, respectively) and are co-expressed in TRPV(1)-positive neurons (64% and 67 % of TRPV(1)-positive neurons, respectively). Moreover, most of the cells expressing EP2 or EP3 mRNA were of small to medium diameter (< 30 microm). The application of butaprost and sulprostone triggered neuropeptide exocytosis, and butaprost sensitized capsaicin responses. Analysis of these data, collectively, supports the hypothesis that prostaglandins regulate trigeminal TRPV(1) nociceptors via activation of the EP2 and EP3 receptors. PMID:18296611

  17. Novel endogenous N-acyl amides activate TRPV1-4 receptors, BV-2 microglia, and are regulated in brain in an acute model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Raboune, Siham; Stuart, Jordyn M.; Leishman, Emma; Takacs, Sara M.; Rhodes, Brandon; Basnet, Arjun; Jameyfield, Evan; McHugh, Douglas; Widlanski, Theodore; Bradshaw, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    A family of endogenous lipids, structurally analogous to the endogenous cannabinoid, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (Anandamide), and called N-acyl amides have emerged as a family of biologically active compounds at TRP receptors. N-acyl amides are constructed from an acyl group and an amine via an amide bond. This same structure can be modified by changing either the fatty acid or the amide to form potentially hundreds of lipids. More than 70 N-acyl amides have been identified in nature. We have ongoing studies aimed at isolating and characterizing additional members of the family of N-acyl amides in both central and peripheral tissues in mammalian systems. Here, using a unique in-house library of over 70 N-acyl amides we tested the following three hypotheses: (1) Additional N-acyl amides will have activity at TRPV1-4, (2) Acute peripheral injury will drive changes in CNS levels of N-acyl amides, and (3) N-acyl amides will regulate calcium in CNS-derived microglia. Through these studies, we have identified 20 novel N-acyl amides that collectively activate (stimulating or inhibiting) TRPV1-4. Using lipid extraction and HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry we showed that levels of at least 10 of these N-acyl amides that activate TRPVs are regulated in brain after intraplantar carrageenan injection. We then screened the BV2 microglial cell line for activity with this N-acyl amide library and found overlap with TRPV receptor activity as well as additional activators of calcium mobilization from these lipids. Together these data provide new insight into the family of N-acyl amides and their roles as signaling molecules at ion channels, in microglia, and in the brain in the context of inflammation. PMID:25136293

  18. [Capsaicin in treatment of neuropathic pain].

    PubMed

    Kamchatnov, P R; Evzelman, M A; Abusueva, B A; Volkov, A I

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of neuropathic pain (NP) is a serious medical problem. Antiepileptic drugs and antidepressants, used to relief pain, act on the central pain mechanisms and cause several side-effects, thus substantially restricting possibilities of their clinical application.At the same time, NP often has a peripheral component. Ligand-associated channels, including vanilloid receptors TRPV1, play a key role in the development of regional NP syndromes. Capsaicin, a component of chili pepper and several other plants, is a highly selective ligand of TRPV1 receptors and has long been used in treatment of pain syndromes. However, its using is limited by short-term action and relatively low efficacy. Recently it has been shown that the local use of single high doses of capsaicin during 30-60 min causes a marked stable(> 12 weeks) effect. The decrease in NP (>50%) is seen in about half of patients. Current studies will allow to single out groups of patients with the maximal treatment effect of capsaicin. PMID:25629137

  19. Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Fumio; Aono, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel, is a receptor activated by high temperatures and chemical agonists such as the vanilloids and protons. Because of these properties, TRPV1 has emerged as a polymodal nocisensor of nociceptive afferent neurons. TRPV1 is thought to be a central transducer of hyperalgesia and a prime target for controlling pain pharmacologically because it is a point where many proalgesic pathways converge and it is upregulated and sensitized by inflammation and injury. However, whether TRPV1 agonists promote or inhibit inflammation remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that SA13353 (1-[2-(1-adamantyl)ethyl]-1-pentyl-3-[3-(4-pyridyl)propyl]urea), a novel TRPV1 agonist, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-a production by the activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons and reduces the severity of symptoms in kidney injury, lung inflammation, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis. These results suggest that TRPV1 agonists may act as anti-inflammatories in certain inflammatory and autoimmune conditions in vivo. Given the potential deleterious effects of inhibiting the population of channels with a protective function, caution should be taken in the use of potent TRPV1 antagonists as a general strategy to treat inflammation. Further studies are required to clarify the role of TRPV1 and neuropeptides, which are released because of TRPV1 activation in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24280677

  20. Allyl isothiocyanate sensitizes TRPV1 to heat stimulation.

    PubMed

    Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Gees, Maarten; Sanchez, Alicia; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2014-03-01

    The powerful plant-derived irritant allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, aka mustard oil) induces hyperalgesia to heat in rodents and humans through mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. It is generally believed that AITC activates the broadly tuned chemosensory cation channel transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1), triggering an inflammatory response that sensitizes the heat sensor transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). In the view of recent data demonstrating that AITC can directly activate TRPV1, we here explored the possibility that this compound sensitizes TRPV1 to heat stimulation in a TRPA1-independent manner. Patch-clamp recordings and intracellular Ca(2+) imaging experiments in HEK293T cells over-expressing mouse TRPV1 revealed that the increase in channel activation induced by heating is larger in the presence of AITC than in control conditions. The analysis of the effects of AITC and heat on the current-voltage relationship of TRPV1 indicates that the mechanism of sensitization is based on additive shifts of the voltage dependence of activation towards negative voltages. Finally, intracellular Ca(2+) imaging experiments in mouse sensory neurons isolated from Trpa1 KO mice yielded that AITC enhances the response to heat, specifically in the subpopulation expressing TRPV1. Furthermore, this effect was strongly reduced by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine and virtually absent in neurons isolated from double Trpa1/Trpv1 KO mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TRPV1 is a locus for cross sensitization between AITC and heat in sensory neurons and may help explaining, at least in part, the role of this channel in AITC-induced hyperalgesia to heat. PMID:23955021

  1. Jellyfish and other cnidarian envenomations cause pain by affecting TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Karlsson, Evert; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarian envenomations cause a burning-pain sensation of which the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Activation of TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, leads to cell depolarisation and pain. Here, we show in vitro and in vivo evidence for desensitization-dependent TRPV1 activation in cnidarian envenomations. Cnidarian venom induced a nociceptive reactivity, comparable to capsaicin, in laboratory rats, which could be reduced by the selective TRPV1 antagonist, BCTC. These findings are the first to explain at least part of the symptomology of cnidarian envenomations and provide insights into the design of more effective treatments for this global public health problem. PMID:17010344

  2. Synthesis and structural optimization of multiple H-bonding region of diarylalkyl (thio)amides as novel TRPV1 antagonists

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    )amides as novel TRPV1 antagonists Fu-Nan Li a , Nam-Jung Kim a , Dong-Jo Chang a , Jaebong Jang a , Hannah Jang­activity relationship of diarylalkyl amides/thioamides as novel TRPV1 antagonists are described. In particular, we. The nerve damage and analgesic effect of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1) agonist

  3. DOI: 10.1002/asia.201200730 Heterocycle-linked Phenylbenzyl Amides as Novel TRPV1 Antagonists and

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    DOI: 10.1002/asia.201200730 Heterocycle-linked Phenylbenzyl Amides as Novel TRPV1 Antagonists and Their TRPV1 Binding Modes: Constraint-Induced Enhancement of In Vitro and In Vivo Activities Nam-Jung Kim,[a] Sun Choi,[c] and Young-Ger Suh*[a] Introduction Research on TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation

  4. Wu-Tou Decoction Inhibits Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice: Participation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Chunfang; Wan, Hongye; Sun, Danni; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yue; Qu, Yakun; Xu, Ying; Jing, Xianghong; Liu, Junling; Chen, Shuping; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula and has been used effectively to treat joint diseases clinically. Previous reports indicated that WTD possesses anti-inflammatory activity; however, its actions on pain have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive activity of WTD in CFA-induced mice, and its possible mechanism of the action associated with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels was also explored. Our results showed that 1.58, 3.15, and 6.30?g/kg WTD significantly attenuated mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. Moreover, WTD effectively inhibited spontaneous nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. WTD also effectively suppressed jumping and wet-dog-shake behaviors to intraperitoneal injection of icilin. Additionally, WTD significantly reduced protein expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglia and skins of injured paw. Collectively, our data demonstrate firstly that WTD exerts antinociceptive activity in inflammatory conditions by attenuating mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. This antinociceptive effect may result in part from inhibiting the activities of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, and the suppression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 protein by WTD was also highly effective. These findings suggest that WTD might be an attractive and suitable therapeutic agent for the management of chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:25839032

  5. Wu-tou decoction inhibits chronic inflammatory pain in mice: participation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Chunfang; Wan, Hongye; Wang, Danhua; Sun, Danni; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yue; Qu, Yakun; Xu, Ying; Jing, Xianghong; Liu, Junling; Chen, Shuping; Liu, Zhiqiang; Lin, Na

    2015-01-01

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula and has been used effectively to treat joint diseases clinically. Previous reports indicated that WTD possesses anti-inflammatory activity; however, its actions on pain have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive activity of WTD in CFA-induced mice, and its possible mechanism of the action associated with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels was also explored. Our results showed that 1.58, 3.15, and 6.30?g/kg WTD significantly attenuated mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. Moreover, WTD effectively inhibited spontaneous nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. WTD also effectively suppressed jumping and wet-dog-shake behaviors to intraperitoneal injection of icilin. Additionally, WTD significantly reduced protein expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglia and skins of injured paw. Collectively, our data demonstrate firstly that WTD exerts antinociceptive activity in inflammatory conditions by attenuating mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. This antinociceptive effect may result in part from inhibiting the activities of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, and the suppression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 protein by WTD was also highly effective. These findings suggest that WTD might be an attractive and suitable therapeutic agent for the management of chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:25839032

  6. Nitro-oleic acid desensitizes TRPA1 and TRPV1 agonist responses in adult rat DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiulin; Koronowski, Kevin B; Li, Lu; Freeman, Bruce A; Woodcock, Stephen; de Groat, William C

    2014-01-01

    Nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2), an electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkene byproduct of redox reactions, activates transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPA1 and TRPV1) in primary sensory neurons. To test the possibility that signaling actions of OA-NO2 might modulate TRP channels, we examined: (1) interactions between OA-NO2 and other agonists for TRPA1 (allyl-isothiocyanate, AITC) and TRPV1 (capsaicin) in rat dissociated dorsal root ganglion cells using Ca(2+) imaging and patch clamp techniques and (2) interactions between these agents on sensory nerves in the rat hindpaw. Ca(2+) imaging revealed that brief application (15-30 s) of each of the three agonists induced homologous desensitization. Heterologous desensitization also occurred when one agonist was applied prior to another agonist. OA-NO2 was more effective in desensitizing the response to AITC than the response to capsaicin. Prolonged exposure to OA-NO2 (20 min) had a similar desensitizing effect on AITC or capsaicin. Homologous and heterologous desensitizations were also demonstrated with patch clamp recording. Deltamethrin, a phosphatase inhibitor, reduced the capsaicin or AITC induced desensitization of OA-NO2 but did not suppress the OA-NO2 induced desensitization of AITC or capsaicin, indicating that heterologous desensitization induced by either capsaicin or AITC occurs by a different mechanism than the desensitization produced by OA-NO2. Subcutaneous injection of OA-NO2 (2.5mM, 35 ?l) into a rat hindpaw induced delayed and prolonged nociceptive behavior. Homologous desensitization occurred with AITC and capsaicin when applied at 15 minute intervals, but did not occur with OA-NO2 when applied at a 30 min interval. Pretreatment with OA-NO2 reduced AITC-evoked nociceptive behaviors but did not alter capsaicin responses. These results raise the possibility that OA-NO2 might be useful clinically to reduce neurogenic inflammation and certain types of painful sensations by desensitizing TRPA1 expressing nociceptive afferents. PMID:24212047

  7. Contractile mechanisms coupled to TRPA1 receptor activation in rat urinary bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edinéia Lemos Andrade; Juliano Ferreira; Eunice André; Joăo B. Calixto

    2006-01-01

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family present in sensory neurons. Here we show that vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) stimulation with capsaicin and activation of TRPA1 with allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde cause a graded contraction of the rat urinary bladder in vitro. Repeated applications of maximal concentrations of the agonists produce desensitization to their contractile effects.

  8. The ion channel TRPV1 regulates the activation and proinflammatory properties of CD4? T cells.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Samuel; Aoki-Nonaka, Yukari; de Jong, Petrus Rudolf; Nohara, Lilian L; Xu, Hongjian; Stanwood, Shawna R; Srikanth, Sonal; Lee, Jihyung; To, Keith; Abramson, Lior; Yu, Timothy; Han, Tiffany; Touma, Ranim; Li, Xiangli; González-Navajas, José M; Herdman, Scott; Corr, Maripat; Fu, Guo; Dong, Hui; Gwack, Yousang; Franco, Alessandra; Jefferies, Wilfred A; Raz, Eyal

    2014-11-01

    TRPV1 is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel studied mostly as a pain receptor in sensory neurons. However, its role in other cell types is poorly understood. Here we found that TRPV1 was functionally expressed in CD4(+) T cells, where it acted as a non-store-operated Ca(2+) channel and contributed to T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-induced Ca(2+) influx, TCR signaling and T cell activation. In models of T cell-mediated colitis, TRPV1 promoted colitogenic T cell responses and intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 in human CD4(+) T cells recapitulated the phenotype of mouse Trpv1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. Our findings suggest that inhibition of TRPV1 could represent a new therapeutic strategy for restraining proinflammatory T cell responses. PMID:25282159

  9. Ablation of rat TRPV1-expressing Adelta\\/C-fibers with resiniferatoxin: analysis of withdrawal behaviors, recovery of function and molecular correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendall Mitchell; Brian D Bates; Jason M Keller; Matthew Lopez; Lindsey Scholl; Julia Navarro; Nicholas Madian; Gal Haspel; Michael I Nemenov; Michael J Iadarola

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ablation of TRPV1-expressing nociceptive fibers with the potent capsaicin analog resiniferatoxin (RTX) results in long lasting pain relief. RTX is particularly adaptable to focal application, and the induced chemical axonopathy leads to analgesia with a duration that is influenced by dose, route of administration, and the rate of fiber regeneration. TRPV1 is expressed in a subpopulation of unmyelinated C-

  10. Analgesic effects of botulinum neurotoxin type A in a model of allyl isothiocyanate- and capsaicin-induced pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Luvisetto, Siro; Vacca, Valentina; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    We evaluate analgesic effects of BoNT/A in relation to the two main transient receptor potentials (TRP), the vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and the ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), having a role in migraine pain. BoNT/A (15 pg/mouse) was injected in the inner side of the medial part of hindlimb thigh of mice, where the superficial branch of femoral artery is located. We chosen this vascular structure because it is similar to other vascular structures, such as the temporal superficial artery, whose perivascular nociceptive fibres probably contributes to migraine pain. After an interval, ranging from 7 to 30 days, capsaicin (agonist of TRPV1) or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; agonist of TRPA1) were injected in the same region previously treated with BoNT/A and nocifensive response to chemicals-induced pain was recorded. In absence of BoNT/A, capsaicin and AITC induced extensive nocifensive response, with a markedly different temporal profile: capsaicin induced maximal pain during the first 5 min, while AITC induced maximal pain at 15-30 min after injection. Pretreatment with BoNT/A markedly reduced both the capsaicin- and AITC-induced pain for at least 21 days. These data suggest a long lasting analgesic effect of BoNT/A exerted via prevention of responsiveness of TRPV1 and TRPA1 toward their respective agonists. PMID:25529549

  11. Role of pre-junctional CB1, but not CB2 , TRPV1 or GPR55 receptors in anandamide-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2014-03-01

    Stimulation of the perivascular sensory outflow in pithed rats produces vasodepressor responses mediated by CGRP release. Interestingly, endocannabinoids such as anandamide (which interacts with CB1 , CB2 , TRPV1 and GPR55 receptors) can regulate the activity of perivascular sensory nerves in dural blood vessels by modulating CGRP release. Yet, as no publication has reported whether this mechanism is operative in the healthy systemic vasculature, this study has specifically analysed the receptors mediating the potential inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists anandamide (non-selective), JWH-015 (CB2 ) and lysophosphatidylinositol (GPR55) on the rat vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow (an index of systemic vasodilatation). Healthy pithed rats were pre-treated with consecutive i.v. continuous infusions of hexamethonium, methoxamine and the above agonists. Electrical spinal (T9 -T12 ) stimulation of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow or i.v. injections of ?-CGRP produced frequency-dependent or dose-dependent vasodepressor responses. The infusions of anandamide in a dose-dependent manner inhibited the vasodepressor responses by electrical stimulation (remaining unaffected by JWH-015 or lysophosphatidylinositol), but not those by ?-CGRP. After i.v. administration of antagonists, the inhibition by 3.1 ?g/kg min anandamide was: (i) potently blocked by 31-100 ?g/kg NIDA41020 (CB1 ), (ii) unaffected by 180 ?g/kg AM630 (CB2 ), 31 ?g/kg cannabidiol (GPR55) or 31-100 ?g/kg capsazepine (TRPV1) and (iii) slightly blocked by 310 ?g/kg AM630. The above doses of antagonists were enough to block their respective receptors. These results suggest that anandamide-induced inhibition of the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic outflow is mainly mediated by pre-junctional activation of CB1 receptors, with no pharmacological evidence for the role of CB2 , TRPV1 or GPR55 receptors. PMID:24118786

  12. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Junying, E-mail: jyli04@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  13. Coarse Architecture of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Ion Channel Determined by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer*

    PubMed Central

    De-la-Rosa, Víctor; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Ladrón-de-Guevara, Ernesto; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D.

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel is responsible for the perception of high temperatures and low extracellular pH, and it is also involved in the response to some pungent compounds. Importantly, it is also associated with the perception of pain and noxious stimuli. Here, we attempt to discern the molecular organization and location of the N and C termini of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel by measuring FRET between genetically attached enhanced yellow and cyan fluorescent protein to the N or C terminus of the channel protein, expressed in transfected HEK 293 cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes. The static measurements of the domain organization were mapped into an available cryo-electron microscopy density of the channel with good agreement. These measurements also provide novel insights into the organization of terminal domains and their proximity to the plasma membrane. PMID:23965996

  14. High concentrations of morphine sensitize and activate mouse dorsal root ganglia via TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander B Forster; Peter W Reeh; Karl Messlinger; Michael JM Fischer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine and its derivatives are key drugs in pain control. Despite its well-known analgesic properties morphine at high concentrations may be proalgesic. Particularly, short-lasting painful sensations have been reported upon dermal application of morphine. To study a possible involvement of TRP receptors in the pro-nociceptive effects of morphine (0.3 – 10 mM), two models of nociception were employed using

  15. Cinnamaldehyde up-regulates the mRNA expression level of TRPV1 receptor potential ion channel protein and its function in primary rat DRG neurons in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Sui; Na Lin; Jian-You Guo; Chang-Bin Zhang; Xin-Liang Du; Bao-Sheng Zhao; Hong-Bin Liu; Na Yang; Lan-Fang Li; Shu-Ying Guo; Hai-Ru Huo; Ting-Liang Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (1) is a pharmacologically active ingredient isolated from cassia twig (Ramulus Cinnamomi), which is commonly used in herbal remedies to treat fever-related diseases. Both TRPV1 and TRPM8 ion channel proteins are abundantly expressed in sensory neurons, and are assumed to act as a thermosensor, with the former mediating the feeling of warmth and the latter the feeling of cold

  16. 2-Aryl substituted pyridine C-region analogues of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as highly potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ryu, HyungChul; Seo, Sejin; Kim, Myeong Seop; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Ho Shin; Ann, Jihyae; Tran, Phuong-Thao; Hoang, Van-Hai; Byun, Jieun; Cui, Minghua; Son, Karam; Sharma, Pankaz Kumar; Choi, Sun; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Koegel, Babette-Yvonne; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2014-08-15

    A series of 2-aryl pyridine C-region derivatives of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides were investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. Multiple compounds showed highly potent TRPV1 antagonism toward capsaicin comparable to previous lead 7. Among them, compound 9 demonstrated anti-allodynia in a mouse neuropathic pain model and blocked capsaicin-induced hypothermia in a dose-dependent manner. Docking analysis of 9 with our hTRPV1 homology model provided insight into its specific binding mode. PMID:25011915

  17. Increased sensitivity of desensitized TRPV1 by PMA occurs through PKC?-mediated phosphorylation at S800

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sravan Mandadi; Tomoko Tominaga; Mitsuko Numazaki; Namie Murayama; Naoaki Saito; Patricia J. Armati; Basil D. Roufogalis; Makoto Tominaga

    2006-01-01

    Important mechanisms that regulate inhibitory and facilitatory effects on TRPV1-mediated nociception are desensitization and phosphorylation, respectively. Using Ca2+-imaging, we have previously shown that desensitization of TRPV1 upon successive capsaicin applications was reversed by protein kinase C activation in dorsal root ganglion neurons and CHO cells. Here, using both Ca2+-imaging and patch-clamp methods, we show that PMA-induced activation of PKC? is

  18. A synergistic effect of simultaneous TRPA1 and TRPV1 activations on vagal pulmonary C-fiber afferents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Jung; Lin, Ruei-Lung; Ruan, Ting; Khosravi, Mehdi; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors are coexpressed in vagal pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. Because both these receptors are sensitive to a number of endogenous inflammatory mediators, it is conceivable that they can be activated simultaneously during airway inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether there is an interaction between these two polymodal transducers upon simultaneous activation, and how it modulates the activity of vagal pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. In anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats, the reflex-mediated apneic response to intravenous injection of a combined dose of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, a TRPA1 activator) and capsaicin (Cap, a TRPV1 activator) was ?202% greater than the mathematical sum of the responses to AITC and Cap when they were administered individually. Similar results were also observed in anesthetized mice. In addition, the synergistic effect was clearly demonstrated when the afferent activity of single vagal pulmonary C-fiber afferents were recorded in anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats; C-fiber responses to AITC, Cap and AITC + Cap (in combination) were 0.6 ± 0.1, 0.8 ± 0.1, and 4.8 ± 0.6 impulses/s (n = 24), respectively. This synergism was absent when either AITC or Cap was replaced by other chemical activators of pulmonary C-fiber afferents. The pronounced potentiating effect was further demonstrated in isolated vagal pulmonary sensory neurons using the Ca(2+) imaging technique. In summary, this study showed a distinct positive interaction between TRPA1 and TRPV1 when they were activated simultaneously in pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. PMID:25414245

  19. Modulation by 17?-estradiol of anandamide vasorelaxation in normotensive and hypertensive rats: a role for TRPV1 but not fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Ho, W-S V

    2013-02-15

    Recent studies suggest that endocannabinoid signaling is modulated by 17?-estradiol (17E?) however it is unclear if this applies to the cardiovascular actions of anandamide, a major endocannabinoid. This study examined the in vitro effects of 17E? on vasorelaxation to anandamide in myograph-mounted small mesenteric arteries obtained from Wistar rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs) of both sexes. Treatment with 1?M 17E? but not its enantiomer 17E? significantly enhanced relaxation to anandamide in male Wistar rats. This effect was independent of a functional endothelium but was blocked by the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor antagonist SB366791 (2?M) or prolonged treatment with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (10?M). A TRPV1-dependent potentiation by 17E? was also observed in male SHRs, but not in female Wistar rats or female SHRs. Whilst inhibition of anandamide hydrolysis by 1?M URB597 (an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase; FAAH) similarly augmented anandamide relaxation in male, but not female, Wistar rats and SHRs, URB597 did not affect the 17E?-induced potentiation. Female SHRs displayed a larger maximal relaxation to anandamide; however sex difference was not found in Wistar rats. We conclude that pharmacological levels of 17E? potentiate mesenteric relaxation to anandamide through mechanisms dependent on TRPV1 receptors but not FAAH-mediated hydrolysis in male Wistar rats and male SHRs. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the modulatory effects of 17E? and URB597, which does not necessarily lead to a greater anandamide response in female rats. PMID:23340220

  20. The basal thermal sensitivity of the TRPV1 ion channel is determined by PKC?II.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Hasan, Raquibul; Zhang, Xuming

    2014-06-11

    Peripheral nociceptors are excited by the activation of membrane receptors and ion channels. The heat-sensitive TRPV1 ion channel responds to various noxious chemical and thermal stimuli, causing pain and itch. Here, we show that TRPV1 is coexpressed with PKC?II in a subset of mouse sensory neurons and that, in these neurons, TRPV1 binds directly to PKC?II, leading to the activation and translocation of PKC?II. Activated PKC?II, in turn, significantly increases the responsiveness of TRPV1 by phosphorylating Thr705. The heat sensitivity of TRPV1 is almost eliminated by either knocking down PKC?II or mutating Thr705; however, neither of these manipulations affects the potentiation of TRPV1 caused by the activation of PKC?. PKC?II thus acts as an auxiliary subunit of TRPV1 by forming a population-dependent TRPV1 ion channel complex controlling the sensitivity of TRPV1 and setting the threshold for pain and itch. PMID:24920628

  1. Iron overload causes osteoporosis in thalassemia major patients through interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Francesca; Perrotta, Silverio; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Tortora, Chiara; Siniscalco, Dario; Francese, Matteo; Torella, Marco; Nobili, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Maione, Sabatino

    2014-12-01

    The pathogenesis of bone resorption in ?-thalassemia major is multifactorial and our understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remains incomplete. Considering the emerging importance of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system in bone metabolism, it may be instructive to examine a potential role for this system in the development of osteoporosis in patients with ?-thalassemia major and its relationship with iron overload and iron chelation therapy. This study demonstrates that, in thalassemic-derived osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression inversely correlates with femoral and lumbar bone mineral density, and directly correlates with ferritin levels and liver iron concentration. The vanilloid agonist resiniferatoxin dramatically reduces cathepsin K levels and osteoclast numbers in vitro, without affecting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression. The iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox decrease both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K expression, as well as osteoclast activity. Taken together, these data show that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 activation/desensitization influences tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression and activity, and this effect is dependent on iron, suggesting a pivotal role for iron overload in the dysregulation of bone metabolism in patients with thalassemia major. Our applied pharmacology provides evidence for the potential of iron chelators to abrogate these effects by reducing osteoclast activity. Whether iron chelation therapy is capable of restoring bone health in humans requires further study, but the potential to provide dual benefits for patients with ?-thalassemia major -preventing iron-overload and alleviating associated osteoporotic changes - is exciting. PMID:25216685

  2. Iron overload causes osteoporosis in thalassemia major patients through interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Francesca; Perrotta, Silverio; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Tortora, Chiara; Siniscalco, Dario; Francese, Matteo; Torella, Marco; Nobili, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Maione, Sabatino

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bone resorption in ?-thalassemia major is multifactorial and our understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remains incomplete. Considering the emerging importance of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system in bone metabolism, it may be instructive to examine a potential role for this system in the development of osteoporosis in patients with ?-thalassemia major and its relationship with iron overload and iron chelation therapy. This study demonstrates that, in thalassemic-derived osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression inversely correlates with femoral and lumbar bone mineral density, and directly correlates with ferritin levels and liver iron concentration. The vanilloid agonist resiniferatoxin dramatically reduces cathepsin K levels and osteoclast numbers in vitro, without affecting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression. The iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox decrease both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K expression, as well as osteoclast activity. Taken together, these data show that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 activation/desensitization influences tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression and activity, and this effect is dependent on iron, suggesting a pivotal role for iron overload in the dysregulation of bone metabolism in patients with thalassemia major. Our applied pharmacology provides evidence for the potential of iron chelators to abrogate these effects by reducing osteoclast activity. Whether iron chelation therapy is capable of restoring bone health in humans requires further study, but the potential to provide dual benefits for patients with ?-thalassemia major –preventing iron-overload and alleviating associated osteoporotic changes – is exciting. PMID:25216685

  3. Interleukin-6-mediated functional upregulation of TRPV1 receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons through the activation of JAK/PI3K signaling pathway: roles in the development of bone cancer pain in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Fang, Dong; Kong, Ling-Yu; Cai, Jie; Li, Song; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Han, Ji-Sheng; Xing, Guo-Gang

    2015-06-01

    Primary and metastatic cancers that affect bone are frequently associated with severe and intractable pain. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of bone cancer pain still remain largely unknown. Previously, we have reported that sensitization of primary sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contributes to the pathogenesis of bone cancer pain in rats. In addition, numerous preclinical and clinical studies have revealed the pathological roles of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in inflammatory and neuropathic hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the role and the underlying mechanisms of IL-6 in the development of bone cancer pain using in vitro and in vivo approaches. We first demonstrated that elevated IL-6 in DRG neurons plays a vital role in the development of nociceptor sensitization and bone cancer-induced pain in a rat model through IL-6/soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) trans-signaling. Moreover, we revealed that functional upregulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid channel type 1 (TRPV1) in DRG neurons through the activation of Janus kinase (JAK)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway contributes to the effects of IL-6 on the pathogenesis of bone cancer pain. Therefore, suppression of functional upregulation of TRPV1 in DRG neurons by the inhibition of JAK/PI3K pathway, either before surgery or after surgery, reduces the hyperexcitability of DRG neurons and pain hyperalgesia in bone cancer rats. We here disclose a novel intracellular pathway, the IL-6/JAK/PI3K/TRPV1 signaling cascade, which may underlie the development of peripheral sensitization and bone cancer-induced pain. PMID:25775359

  4. DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF TRPV1, TRPV3 AND TRPV4 SENSITIVITY THROUGH A CONSERVED BINDING SITE ON THE ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAIN

    E-print Network

    Gaudet, Rachelle

    1 DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF TRPV1, TRPV3 AND TRPV4 SENSITIVITY THROUGH A CONSERVED BINDING SITE Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which include the thermosensitive TRPV1-V4, have large show that a multiligand binding site for ATP and calmodulin previously identified in TRPV1-ARD

  5. [ 3H]Resiniferatoxin autoradiography in the CNS of wild-type and TRPV1 null mice defines TRPV1 (VR1) protein distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer C Roberts; John B Davis; Christopher D Benham

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution and function of the vanilloid receptor (VR-1 or TRPV1) in the CNS lacks the detailed appreciation of its role in the peripheral nervous system. The radiolabelled vanilloid agonist [3H]resiniferatoxin (RTX) has been used to indicate the presence of TRPV1 receptor protein in the brain but low specific binding has complicated interpretation of this data. Recently, support

  6. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) and Ankyrin1 (TRPA1) Participate in Visceral Hyperalgesia in Chronic Water Avoidance Stress Rat Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Bo YuJing; Jing Yang; Xiu-Li Zuo; Li-Jun Gao; Peng Wang; Yan-Qing Li

    2010-01-01

    Stressfull life events have powerful influences on visceral perception of certain IBS patients. In the present study, we aimed\\u000a to examine the involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in the stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Rats were exposed to 1-h water\\u000a avoidance stress (WAS) daily for 10 consecutive days. The abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) to colorectal distension was assessed\\u000a at the end of

  7. Optical stimulation in mice lacking the TRPV1 channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Eul; Izzo Matic, Agnella; Otting, Margarete; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Lasers can be used to stimulate neural tissue, including the sciatic nerve or auditory neurons. Wells and coworkers suggested that neural tissue is likely stimulated by heat.[1,2] Ion channels that can be activated by heat are the TRPV channels, a subfamily of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels. TRPV channels are nonselective cation channels found in sensory neurons involved in nociception. In addition to various chemicals, TRPV channels can also be thermally stimulated. The activation temperature for the different TRPV channels varies and is 43°C for TRPV1 and 39°C for TRPV3. By performing an immunohistochemical staining procedure on frozen 20 ?m cochlear slices using a primary TRPV1 antibody, we observed specific immunostaining of the spiral ganglion cells. Here we show that in mice that lack the gene for the TRPV1 channel optical radiation cannot evoke action potentials on the auditory nerve.

  8. Allosteric binding of capsaicin by a bis(?-cyclodextrin)-2,2'-bipyridine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Christopher; Lützen, Arne

    2014-07-14

    A new ?-cyclodextrin-based receptor that showed allosteric binding behavior towards capsaicin in aqueous solution was prepared. By NMR titration and nonlinear regression, we obtained binding constants, which increased more than fivefold when an effector (Zn(2+)) was bound to a central 2,2'-bipyridine that acts as the allosteric center. PMID:24953045

  9. Respiratory action of capsaicin microinjected into the nucleus of the solitary tract: involvement of vanilloid and tachykinin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Stuart B; Geraghty, Dominic P

    1999-01-01

    The respiratory response to microinjection of capsaicin into the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) of urethane-anaesthetized rats was investigated in the absence and presence of the competitive vanilloid (capsaicin) antagonist, capsazepine, and selective tachykinin NK1, NK2 and NK3 antagonists (RP?67580, SR?48968 and SR?142801, respectively).Microinjection of capsaicin reduced respiratory frequency but not tidal volume (VT), leading to an overall reduction in minute ventilation (V{dot above]E). The effect was dose-dependent between 0.5 and 2?nmol capsaicin. Doses greater than 2?nmol produced apnoea. Tachyphylaxis was observed following repeated injection of capsaicin (1?nmol, 30?min apart).Capsazepine (1?nmol) had no effect on frequency or VT when injected alone but completely blocked the respiratory response to capsaicin (1?nmol).RP?67580 (1 but not 5?nmol) alone depressed frequency and VT slightly. Moreover, RP?67580 appeared to potentiate the bradypnoeic effect of capsaicin. In contrast, SR?48968 and SR?142801 (1 and 5?nmol) alone had no significant effect on respiration. However, both agents significantly attenuated the reduction in frequency produced by capsaicin.In conclusion, microinjection of capsaicin into the cNTS decreases overall ventilation, primarily by reducing frequency. The action of capsaicin appears from the data to be mediated by vanilloid receptors since it is blocked by the competitive vanilloid antagonist capsazepine and is subject to tachyphylaxis. However, since NK2 (SR?48968) and NK3 (SR?142801) receptor antagonists block the actions of capsaicin, we propose that capsaicin acts also by releasing tachykinins from central afferent terminals in the cNTS. PMID:10385248

  10. Influence of TRPV1 on diabetes-induced alterations in thermal pain sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pabbidi, Reddy M; Yu, Shuang-Quan; Peng, Siying; Khardori, Romesh; Pauza, Mary E; Premkumar, Louis S

    2008-01-01

    A common complication associated with diabetes is painful or painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The mechanisms and determinants responsible for these peripheral neuropathies are poorly understood. Using both streptozotocin (STZ)-induced and transgene-mediated murine models of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we demonstrate that Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) expression varies with the neuropathic phenotype. We have found that both STZ- and transgene-mediated T1D are associated with two distinct phases of thermal pain sensitivity that parallel changes in TRPV1 as determined by paw withdrawal latency (PWL). An early phase of hyperalgesia and a late phase of hypoalgesia are evident. TRPV1-mediated whole cell currents are larger and smaller in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons collected from hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) binding, a measure of TRPV1 expression is increased and decreased in DRG and paw skin of hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice, respectively. Immunohistochemical labeling of spinal cord lamina I and II, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and paw skin from hyperalgesic and hypoalgesic mice reveal increased and decreased TRPV1 expression, respectively. A role for TRPV1 in thermal DPN is further suggested by the failure of STZ treatment to influence thermal nociception in TRPV1 deficient mice. These findings demonstrate that altered TRPV1 expression and function contribute to diabetes-induced changes in thermal perception. PMID:18312687

  11. Modulation of transient receptor vanilloid 1 activity by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Viola; Stein, Christoph; Zöllner, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel responding to noxious heat, protons, and chemicals such as capsaicin. TRPV1 is expressed in sensory neurons and plays a critical role in pain associated with tissue injury, inflammation, and nerve lesions. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is coexpressed with TRPV1. It is activated by compounds that cause a burning sensation (e.g., mustard oil) and, indirectly, by components of the inflammatory milieu eliciting nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Previous studies indicate an interaction of TRPV1 and TRPA1 signaling pathways. Here we sought to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions in nociceptive neurons. We first excluded physical interactions of both channels using radioligand binding studies. By microfluorimetry, electrophysiological experiments, cAMP measurements, and site-directed mutagenesis we found a sensitization of TRPV1 after TRPA1 stimulation with mustard oil in a calcium and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. TRPA1 stimulation enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation via the putative PKA phosphorylation site serine 116. We also detected calcium-sensitive increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 activation in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The inhibition of TRPA1 by HC-030031 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1,3-dimethyl-N-[4-(1-methylethyl)phenyl]-2,6-dioxo-7H-purine-7-acetamide, 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide) after its initial stimulation (and the calcium-insensitive TRPA1 mutant D477A) still showed increased capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity. This excludes a calcium-induced additive TRPA1 current after TRPV1 stimulation. Our study shows sensitization of TRPV1 via activation of TRPA1, which involves adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP, subsequent translocation and activation of PKA, and phosphorylation of TRPV1 at PKA phosphorylation residues. This suggests that cross-sensitization of TRP channels contributes to enhanced pain sensitivity in inflamed tissues. PMID:24275229

  12. Increased capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in skin nerve fibres and related vanilloid receptors TRPV3 and TRPV4 in keratinocytes in human breast pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preethi Gopinath; Elaine Wan; Anita Holdcroft; Paul Facer; John B Davis; Graham D Smith; Chas Bountra; Praveen Anand

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast pain and tenderness affects 70% of women at some time. These symptoms have been attributed to stretching of the nerves with increase in breast size, but tissue mechanisms are poorly understood. METHODS: Eighteen patients (n = 12 breast reduction and n = 6 breast reconstruction) were recruited and assessed for breast pain by clinical questionnaire. Breast skin biopsies

  13. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 controls TRPV1 membrane trafficking and the heat sensitivity of nociceptors through KIF13B.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bao-Ming; Yang, Yan-Rui; Du, Jun-Xia; Chen, Hai-Jing; Qi, Cai; Huang, Zhi-Hua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun

    2012-10-17

    The number of functional transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels at the surface, especially at the peripheral terminals of primary sensory neurons, regulates heat sensitivity, and increased surface localization of TRPV1s contributes to heat hyperalgesia. However, the mechanisms for regulating TRPV1 surface localization are essentially unknown. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), a new player in thermal pain sensation, positively regulates TRPV1 surface localization. Active Cdk5 was found to promote TRPV1 anterograde transport in vivo, suggesting a regulatory role of Cdk5 in TRPV1 membrane trafficking. TRPV1-containing vesicles bind to the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain of the KIF13B (kinesin-3 family member 13B) and are thus delivered to the cell surface. Overexpression of Cdk5 or its activator p35 promoted and inhibition of Cdk5 activity prevented the KIF13B-TRPV1 association, indicating that Cdk5 promotes TRPV1 anterograde transport by mediating the motor-cargo association. Cdk5 phosphorylates KIF13B at Thr-506, a residue located in the FHA domain. T506A mutation reduced the motor-cargo interaction and the cell-permeable TAT-T506 peptide, targeting to the Thr-506, decreased TRPV1 surface localization, demonstrating the essential role of Thr-506 phosphorylation in TRPV1 transport. Moreover, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection-induced activation of Cdk5 increased the anterograde transport of TRPV1s, contributing to the development and possibly the maintenance of heat hyperalgesia, whereas intrathecal delivery of the TAT-T506 peptide alleviated CFA-induced heat hyperalgesia in rats. Thus, Cdk5 regulation of TRPV1 membrane trafficking is a fundamental mechanism controlling the heat sensitivity of nociceptors, and moderate inhibition of Thr-506 phosphorylation during inflammation might be helpful for the treatment of inflammatory thermal pain. PMID:23077056

  14. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 - a polymodal nociceptive receptor - plays a crucial role in formaldehyde-induced skin inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Haruki; Endo, Takumi; Shimouchi, Ayumi; Saito, Asaka; Tominaga, Makoto; Yamashita, Hirotaka; Nagai, Hiroichi; Inagaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is irritating to the skin and is the main cause of sick building syndrome. However, the cutaneous reaction induced by long-term FA exposure has not been fully investigated. In our previous study, we demonstrated that repeated painting of 2% - 10% FA on mouse ears caused marked ear swelling and increased mRNA expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and neurotrophins in the ear. TRPV1 is reported to be involved in neurogenic inflammation; therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in FA-induced skin inflammation using TRPV1 gene-knockout mice. Mice were painted with 5% FA once a week for 5 weeks, and ear swelling and mRNA expression were investigated. Ear swelling and increased expression of neurotrophins mRNA by FA provocation in wild-type mice were attenuated by disruption of the TRPV1 gene. Furthermore, painting with a threshold dose of capsaicin, which does not induce ear swelling in intact mice, caused marked ear swelling after painting the ear 5 times with FA, indicating that inflamed tissues after FA application are hypersensitive to various ligands of TRPV1 in mice. These results demonstrated that neurogenic inflammation via TRPV1 and neurotrophins could be involved in FA-induced dermatitis. PMID:22302023

  15. Positive allosteric modulation of TRPV1 as a novel analgesic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of long-term opiate use in treating chronic non-cancer pain is increasing, and prescription opioid abuse and dependence are a major public health concern. To explore alternatives to opioid-based analgesia, the present study investigates a novel allosteric pharmacological approach operating through the cation channel TRPV1. This channel is highly expressed in subpopulations of primary afferent unmyelinated C- and lightly-myelinated A?-fibers that detect low and high rates of noxious heating, respectively, and it is also activated by vanilloid agonists and low pH. Sufficient doses of exogenous vanilloid agonists, such as capsaicin or resiniferatoxin, can inactivate/deactivate primary afferent endings due to calcium overload, and we hypothesized that positive allosteric modulation of agonist-activated TRPV1 could produce a selective, temporary inactivation of nociceptive nerve terminals in vivo. We previously identified MRS1477, a 1,4-dihydropyridine that potentiates vanilloid and pH activation of TRPV1 in vitro, but displays no detectable intrinsic agonist activity of its own. To study the in vivo effects of MRS1477, we injected the hind paws of rats with a non-deactivating dose of capsaicin, MRS1477, or the combination. An infrared diode laser was used to stimulate TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals and the latency and intensity of paw withdrawal responses were recorded. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed on dorsal root ganglia to examine changes in gene expression and the cellular specificity of such changes following treatment. Results Withdrawal responses of the capsaicin-only or MRS1477-only treated paws were not significantly different from the untreated, contralateral paws. However, rats treated with the combination of capsaicin and MRS1477 exhibited increased withdrawal latency and decreased response intensity consistent with agonist potentiation and inactivation or lesion of TRPV1-containing nerve terminals. The loss of nerve endings was manifested by an increase in levels of axotomy markers assessed by qRT-PCR and colocalization of ATF3 in TRPV1+ cells visualized via immunohistochemistry. Conclusions The present observations suggest a novel, non-narcotic, selective, long-lasting TRPV1-based approach for analgesia that may be effective in acute, persistent, or chronic pain disorders. PMID:22998799

  16. A role for TRPV1 in influencing the onset of cardiovascular disease in obesity.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Nichola J; Liang, Lihuan; Bodkin, Jennifer; Dessapt-Baradez, Cecile; Nandi, Manasi; Collot-Teixeira, Sophie; Smillie, Sarah-Jane; Lalgi, Kamal; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Gnudi, Luigi; Brain, Susan D

    2013-01-01

    Obesity induced by Western diets is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, although underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated a murine model of diet-induced obesity to determine the effect of transient potential receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) deletion on hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Wild-type and TRPV1 knockout mice were fed normal or high-fat diet from 3 to 15 weeks. High-fat diet-fed mice from both genotypes became obese, with similar increases in body and adipose tissue weights. High-fat diet-fed TRPV1 knockout mice showed significantly improved handling of glucose compared with high-fat diet-fed wild-type mice. Hypertension, vascular hypertrophy, and altered nociception were observed in high-fat diet-fed wild-type but not high-fat diet-fed TRPV1 knockout mice. Wild-type, but not high-fat diet-fed TRPV1 knockout, mice demonstrated remodeling in terms of aortic vascular hypertrophy and increased heart and kidney weight, although resistance vessel responses were similar in each. Moreover, the wild-type mice had significantly increased plasma levels of leptin, interleukin 10 and interleukin 1?, whereas samples from TRPV1 knockout mice did not show significant increases. Our results do not support the concept that TRPV1 plays a major role in influencing weight gain. However, we identified a role of TRPV1 in the deleterious effects observed with high-fat feeding in terms of inducing hypertension, impairing thermal nociception sensitivity, and reducing glucose tolerance. The observation of raised levels of adipokines in wild-type but not TRPV1 knockout mice is in keeping with TRPV1 involvement in stimulating the proinflammatory network that is central to obesity-induced hypertension and sensory neuronal dysfunction. PMID:23150506

  17. NOCICEPTORS AND THE PERCEPTION OF PAIN Alan Fein, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    IN DROSOPHILA PHOTORECEPTORS MAMMALIAN TRP CHANNELS TASTE AND CHEMESTHESIS CAPSAICIN TRPV1 TRPV1 EXPRESSING THE MRGPRD RECEPTOR NOCICEPTORS EXPRESSING TRPV1 NOCICEPTORS EXPRESSING THE VOLTAGE GATED SODIUM

  18. Short-term increases in transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 mediate stress-induced enhancement of neuronal excitation.

    PubMed

    Weitlauf, Carl; Ward, Nicholas J; Lambert, Wendi S; Sidorova, Tatiana N; Ho, Karen W; Sappington, Rebecca M; Calkins, David J

    2014-11-12

    Progression of neurodegeneration in disease and injury is influenced by the response of individual neurons to stressful stimuli and whether this response includes mechanisms to counter declining function. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels transduce a variety of disease-relevant stimuli and can mediate diverse stress-dependent changes in physiology, both presynaptic and postsynaptic. Recently, we demonstrated that knock-out or pharmacological inhibition of the TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) capsaicin-sensitive subunit accelerates degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons and their axons with elevated ocular pressure, the critical stressor in the most common optic neuropathy, glaucoma. Here we probed the mechanism of the influence of TRPV1 on ganglion cell survival in mouse models of glaucoma. We found that induced elevations of ocular pressure increased TRPV1 in ganglion cells and its colocalization at excitatory synapses to their dendrites, whereas chronic elevation progressively increased ganglion cell Trpv1 mRNA. Enhanced TRPV1 expression in ganglion cells was transient and supported a reversal of the effect of TRPV1 on ganglion cells from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing, which was also transient. Short-term enhancement of TRPV1-mediated activity led to a delayed increase in axonal spontaneous excitation that was absent in ganglion cells from Trpv1(-/-) retina. In isolated ganglion cells, pharmacologically activated TRPV1 mobilized to discrete nodes along ganglion cell dendrites that corresponded to sites of elevated Ca(2+). These results suggest that TRPV1 may promote retinal ganglion cell survival through transient enhancement of local excitation and axonal activity in response to ocular stress. PMID:25392504

  19. P2X3 and TRPV1 functionally interact and mediate sensitization of trigeminal sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Saloman, Jami L.; Chung, Man-Kyo; Ro, Jin Y.

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, particularly those associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMD) affect a large percentage of the population. Identifying mechanisms underlying hyperalgesia could contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for the management of TMD and other muscle pain conditions. In this study, we provide evidence of functional interactions between two ligand-gated channels, P2X3 and TRPV1, in trigeminal sensory neurons, and propose that the interactions serve as an underlying mechanism for the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. Mechanical sensitivity of the masseter muscle was assessed in lightly anesthetized rats via an electronic anesthesiometer (Ro et al., 2009). Direct intramuscular injection of a selective P2X3 agonist, ??meATP, induced a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia. Mechanical sensitivity in the contralateral muscle was unaffected suggesting local P2X3 mediate the hyperalgesia. Anesthetizing the overlying skin had no effect on ??meATP-induced hyperalgesia confirming the contribution of P2X3 from muscle. Importantly, the ??meATP-induced hyperalgesia was prevented by pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810. P2X3 was co-expressed with TRPV1 in masseter muscle afferents confirming the possibility for intracellular interactions. Additionally, in a subpopulation of P2X3/TRPV1 positive neurons, capsaicin-induced Ca2+ transients were significantly amplified following P2X3 activation. Finally, activation of P2X3 induced phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine, residues in TRPV1 in trigeminal ganglia cultures. Significant phosphorylation was observed at 15 min, the time point at which behavioral hyperalgesia was prominent. Previously, activation of either P2X3 or TRPV1 had been independently implicated in the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. Our data propose P2X3 and TRPV1 interact in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization known to underlie masseter hyperalgesia. PMID:23201260

  20. Peripheral capsaicin receptors increase in the inflamed rat hindpaw: a possible mechanism for peripheral sensitization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan M Carlton; Richard E Coggeshall

    2001-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin, heat and protons and is localized on primary sensory neurons. The present study investigates whether VR1 increases in the inflamed hindpaw thereby contributing to the peripheral sensitization and heat hyperalgesia that characterizes the inflamed state. Forty-eight hours after intraplantar injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into one hindpaw, there is a significant increase

  1. Botulinum toxin type A selectivity for certain types of pain is associated with capsaicin-sensitive neurons.

    PubMed

    Matak, Ivica; Rossetto, Ornella; Lackovi?, Zdravko

    2014-08-01

    Unlike most classical analgesics, botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) does not alter acute nociceptive thresholds, and shows selectivity primarily for allodynic and hyperalgesic responses in certain pain conditions. We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be explained by characterizing the sensory neurons targeted by BoNT/A in the central nervous system after its axonal transport. BoNT/A's central antinociceptive activity following its application into the rat whisker pad was examined in trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) and higher-level nociceptive brain areas using BoNT/A-cleaved synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Occurrence of cleaved SNAP-25 in TNC was examined after nonselective ganglion ablation with formalin or selective denervation of capsaicin-sensitive (vanilloid receptor-1 or TRPV1-expressing) neurons, and in relation to different cellular and neuronal markers. Regional c-Fos activation and effect of TRPV1-expressing afferent denervation on toxin's antinociceptive action were studied in formalin-induced orofacial pain. BoNT/A-cleaved SNAP-25 was observed in TNC, but not in higher-level nociceptive nuclei. Cleaved SNAP-25 in TNC disappeared after formalin-induced trigeminal ganglion ablation or capsaicin-induced sensory denervation. Occurrence of cleaved SNAP-25 in TNC and BoNT/A antinociceptive activity in formalin-induced orofacial pain were prevented by denervation with capsaicin. Cleaved SNAP-25 localization demonstrated toxin's presynaptic activity in TRPV1-expressing neurons. BoNT/A reduced the c-Fos activation in TNC, locus coeruleus, and periaqueductal gray. Present experiments suggest that BoNT/A alters the nociceptive transmission at the central synapse of primary afferents. Targeting of TRPV1-expressing neurons might be associated with observed selectivity of BoNT/A action only in certain types of pain. PMID:24793910

  2. Influence of influenza A infection on capsaicin-induced responses in murine airways.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Samuel J; Mann, Tracy S; Henry, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    The principal aim of the study was to determine the influence of influenza A virus infection on capsaicin-induced relaxation responses in mouse isolated tracheal segments and clarify the underlying mechanisms. Anesthetized mice were intranasally inoculated with influenza A/PR-8/34 virus (VIRUS) or vehicle (SHAM), and 4 days later tracheal segments were harvested for isometric tension recording and biochemical and histologic analyses. Capsaicin induced dose-dependent relaxation responses in carbachol-contracted SHAM trachea (e.g., 10 ?M capsaicin produced 66 ± 4% relaxation; n = 11), which were significantly inhibited by capsazepine [transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist], (2S,3S)-3-{[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methoxy}-2-phenylpiperidine hydrochloride (L-733,060) [neurokinin 1 (NK?) receptor antagonist], indomethacin [cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor], and the combination of 6-isopropoxy-9-oxoxanthene-2-carboxylic acid (AH6809) and 7-[5?-([1S,1?(Z)-biphenyl]-4-ylmethoxy)-2?-(4-morpholinyl)-3-oxocyclopentyl]-4-heptenoic acid, calcium salt, hydrate (AH23848) [E-prostanoid (EP)? and EP? receptor antagonists, respectively], indicating that capsaicin-induced relaxation involved the TRPV1-mediated release of substance P (SP), activation of epithelial NK? receptors, and production of COX products capable of activating relaxant EP?/EP? receptors. Consistent with this postulate, capsaicin-induced relaxation was associated with the significant release of SP and prostaglandin E? (PGE?) from mouse tracheal segments. As expected, influenza A virus infection was associated with widespread disruption of the tracheal epithelium. Tracheal segments from VIRUS mice responded weakly to capsaicin (7 ± 3% relaxation) and were 25-fold less responsive to SP than tracheas from SHAM mice. In contrast, relaxation responses to exogenous PGE? and the ?-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline were not inhibited in VIRUS trachea. Virus infection was associated with impaired capsaicin-induced release of PGE?, but the release of SP was not affected. In summary, influenza A virus infection profoundly inhibits capsaicin- and SP-induced relaxation responses, most likely by inhibiting the production of PGE?. PMID:22062353

  3. 2-Alkyl/alkenyl substituted pyridine C-region analogues of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as highly potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ryu, HyungChul; Seo, Sejin; Cho, Seong-Hee; Kim, Ho Shin; Jung, Aeran; Kang, Dong Wook; Son, Karam; Cui, Minghua; Hong, Sun-hye; Sharma, Pankaz Kumar; Choi, Sun; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Schiene, Klaus; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2014-08-15

    A series of 2-alkyl/alkenyl pyridine C-region derivatives of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides were investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. Multiple compounds showed excellent and stereospecific TRPV1 antagonism with better potency than previous lead 2. Among them, compound 15f demonstrated a strong analgesic profile in a rat neuropathic pain model and blocked capsaicin-induced hypothermia in a dose-dependent manner. Docking analysis of (S)-15f with our hTRPV1 homology model provided insight into its specific binding mode. PMID:24948568

  4. Propofol restores TRPV1 sensitivity via a TRPA1-, nitric oxide synthase-dependent activation of PKC?

    PubMed Central

    Sinharoy, Pritam; Zhang, Hongyu; Sinha, Sayantani; Prudner, Bethany C; Bratz, Ian N; Damron, Derek S

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the intravenous anesthetic, propofol, restores the sensitivity of transient receptor potential vanilloid channel subtype-1 (TRPV1) receptors via a protein kinase C epsilon (PKC?)-dependent and transient receptor potential ankyrin channel subtype-1 (TRPA1)-dependent pathway in sensory neurons. The extent to which the two pathways are directly linked or operating in parallel has not been determined. Using a molecular approach, our objectives of the current study were to confirm that TRPA1 activation directly results in PKC? activation and to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which this occurs. F-11 cells were transfected with complimentary DNA (cDNA) for TRPV1 only or both TRPV1 and TRPA1. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured in individual cells via fluorescence microscopy. An immunoblot analysis of the total and phosphorylated forms of PKC?, nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and TRPV1 was also performed. In F-11 cells containing both channels, PKC? inhibition prevented the propofol- and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity to agonist stimulation as well as increased phosphorylation of PKC? and TRPV1. In cells containing TRPV1 only, neither agonist induced PKC? or TRPV1 phosphorylation. Moreover, NOS inhibition blocked propofol-and AITC-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity and PKC? phosphorylation, and PKC? inhibition prevented the nitric oxide donor, SNAP, from restoring TRPV1 sensitivity. Also, propofol-and AITC-induced phosphorylation of nNOS and nitric oxide (NO) production were blocked with the TRPA1-antagonist, HC-030031. These data indicate that the AITC- and propofol-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity is mediated by a TRPA1-dependent, nitric oxide synthase-dependent activation of PKC?. PMID:26171233

  5. Modulation of the TRPV1 channel: current clinical trials and recent patents with focus on neurological conditions.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Moriello, Aniello S

    2013-12-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 cat ion channel (TRPV1) is a nonspecific cation channel that can be activated by multiple endogenous stimuli and is expressed predominantly in sensory neurons, where it serves as a key nodal point in pain transmission pathways. In mammals, TRPV1 displays a wide tissue and cellular expression including both the peripheral and central nervous system, and in the latter it is now recognized to have a broader distribution and function. The pharmacological modulation of TRPV1 represents a strategy for the treatment of a variety of disease states, particularly those requiring chronic pain management. The validation of the TRPV1 channel as a therapeutic target for the control of pain and inflammatory conditions in a variety of diseases and injury states, has prompted the development of several TRPV1 agonists and antagonists that have entered clinical trials. Studies comparing the analgesic effects of TRPV1 antagonists with and without significant CNS penetration demonstrated that a dual (both peripheral and central) action is required to produce broad-spectrum analgesia. TRPV1 can be considered as a target for next generation analgesics. However, although a number of compounds are in clinical trials, the therapeutic utility of TRPV1 agonist and antagonists is yet to be validated unequivocally. This review summarizes current clinical trials and recent patents with small molecule TRPV1 agonists and antagonists with a focus on neurological conditions. PMID:24330123

  6. TRPV1 Gates Tissue Access and Sustains Pathogenicity in Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Paltser, Geoffrey; Liu, Xue Jun; Yantha, Jason; Winer, Shawn; Tsui, Hubert; Wu, Ping; Maezawa, Yuko; Cahill, Lindsay S; Laliberté, Christine L; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Astsaturov, Igor; Ebers, George C; Henkelman, R Mark; Salter, Michael W; Dosch, H-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive, demyelinating condition whose therapeutic needs are unmet, and whose pathoetiology is elusive. We report that transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) expressed in a major sensory neuron subset, controls severity and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice and likely in primary progressive MS. TRPV1?/? B6 congenics are protected from EAE. Increased survival reflects reduced central nervous systems (CNS) infiltration, despite indistinguishable T cell autoreactivity and pathogenicity in the periphery of TRPV1-sufficient and -deficient mice. The TRPV1+ neurovascular complex defining the blood-CNS barriers promoted invasion of pathogenic lymphocytes without the contribution of TRPV1-dependent neuropeptides such as substance P. In MS patients, we found a selective risk-association of the missense rs877610 TRPV1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in primary progressive disease. Our findings indicate that TRPV1 is a critical disease modifier in EAE, and we identify a predictor of severe disease course and a novel target for MS therapy. PMID:23689362

  7. Auto-oxidation products of epigallocatechin gallate activate TRPA1 and TRPV1 in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Mako; Kawai, Yasushi; Nagatomo, Katsuhiro; Tateyama, Michihiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The sensation of astringency is elicited by catechins and their polymers in wine and tea. It has been considered that catechins in green tea are unstable and auto-oxidized to induce more astringent taste. Here, we examined how mammalian transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1, which are nociceptive sensors, are activated by green tea catechins during the auto-oxidation process. Neither TRPV1 nor TRPA1 could be activated by any of the freshly prepared catechin. When one of the major catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), was preincubated for 3h in Hank's balanced salt solution, it significantly activated both TRP channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Even after incubation, other catechins showed much less effects. Results suggest that only oxidative products of EGCG activate both TRPV1 and TRPA1. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons were also activated by the incubated EGCG through TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that theasinensins A and D are formed during incubation of EGCG. We found that purified theasinensin A activates both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and that it stimulates DRG neurons through TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. Results suggested a possibility that TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are involved in the sense of astringent taste of green tea. PMID:25422365

  8. Unveiling TRPV1 Spatio-Temporal Organization in Live Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Barbara; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Cardarelli, Francesco; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Beltram, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that integrates several stimuli into nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Here we investigated the subtle TRPV1 interplay with candidate membrane partners in live cells by a combination of spatio-temporal fluctuation techniques and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We show that TRPV1 is split into three populations with fairly different molecular properties: one binding to caveolin-1 and confined into caveolar structures, one actively guided by microtubules through selective binding, and one which diffuses freely and is not directly implicated in regulating receptor functionality. The emergence of caveolin-1 as a new interactor of TRPV1 evokes caveolar endocytosis as the main desensitization pathway of TRPV1 receptor, while microtubule binding agrees with previous data suggesting the receptor stabilization in functional form by these cytoskeletal components. Our results shed light on the hitherto unknown relationships between spatial organization and TRPV1 function in live-cell membranes. PMID:25764349

  9. Unveiling TRPV1 spatio-temporal organization in live cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Storti, Barbara; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Cardarelli, Francesco; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Beltram, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that integrates several stimuli into nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Here we investigated the subtle TRPV1 interplay with candidate membrane partners in live cells by a combination of spatio-temporal fluctuation techniques and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We show that TRPV1 is split into three populations with fairly different molecular properties: one binding to caveolin-1 and confined into caveolar structures, one actively guided by microtubules through selective binding, and one which diffuses freely and is not directly implicated in regulating receptor functionality. The emergence of caveolin-1 as a new interactor of TRPV1 evokes caveolar endocytosis as the main desensitization pathway of TRPV1 receptor, while microtubule binding agrees with previous data suggesting the receptor stabilization in functional form by these cytoskeletal components. Our results shed light on the hitherto unknown relationships between spatial organization and TRPV1 function in live-cell membranes. PMID:25764349

  10. Impact of central and peripheral TRPV1 and ROS levels on proinflammatory mediators and nociceptive behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin N Westlund; Mikhail Y Kochukov; Ying Lu; Terry A McNearney

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are important membrane sensors on peripheral nerve endings and on supportive non-neuronal synoviocytes in the knee joint. TRPV 1 ion channels respond with activation of calcium and sodium fluxes to pH, thermal, chemical, osmotic, mechanical and other stimuli abundant in inflamed joints. In the present study, the kaolin\\/carrageenan (k\\/c) induced knee joint

  11. Diallyl sulfides in garlic activate both TRPA1 and TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanako Koizumi; Yusaku Iwasaki; Masataka Narukawa; Yuji Iitsuka; Tomomi Fukao; Taiichiro Seki; Toyohiko Ariga; Tatsuo Watanabe

    2009-01-01

    We searched for novel agonists of TRP receptors especially for TRPA1 and TRPV1 in foods. We focused attention on garlic compounds, diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS). In TRPA1 or TRPV1 heterogeneously expressed CHO cells, all of those compounds increased [Ca2+]i in concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 values of DADS and DATS were similar to that of

  12. Peripheral inflammation selectively increases TRPV1 function in IB4-positive sensory neurons from adult mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole M. Breese; Annette C. George; Laura E. Pauers; Cheryl L. Stucky

    2005-01-01

    C-fiber nociceptors can be divided into two groups based on growth factor dependency and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding. IB4-negative nociceptors have been proposed to contribute to inflammatory pain. Since the TRPV1 receptor is critical for inflammatory heat hyperalgesia, we hypothesized that inflammation would sensitize IB4 negative but not IB4-positive small-diameter neurons to TRPV1 stimuli. Two days after complete Freund's adjuvant

  13. Transient Receptor Potential Channels on Sensory Nerves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Eid; D. N. Cortright

    \\u000a The somatosensory effects of natural products such as capsaicin, mustard oil, and menthol have been long recognized. Over\\u000a the last decade, the identification of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in primary sensory neurons as the targets\\u000a for these agents has led to an explosion of research into the roles of “thermoTRPs” TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and\\u000a TRPM8 in nociception.

  14. Zingerone enhances glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission by activating TRPA1 but not TRPV1 channels in the adult rat substantia gelatinosa.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Jiang, Chang-Yu; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-08-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are thought to play a role in regulating nociceptive transmission to spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons. It remains to be unveiled whether the TRP channels in the central nervous system are different in property from those involved in receiving nociceptive stimuli in the peripheral nervous system. We examined the effect of the vanilloid compound zingerone, which activates TRPV1 channels in the cell body of a primary afferent neuron, on glutamatergic excitatory transmission in the SG neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices by using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Bath-applied zingerone reversibly and concentration-dependently increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) frequency. This effect was accompanied by an inward current at -70 mV that was resistant to glutamate receptor antagonists. These zingerone effects were repeated and persisted in Na(+)-channel blocker tetrodotoxin-, La(3+)-, or IP3-induced Ca(2+)-release inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate-containing or Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Zingerone activity was resistant to the selective TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine but sensitive to the nonselective TRP antagonist ruthenium red, the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031, and the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release inhibitor dantrolene. TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate but not capsaicin inhibited the facilitatory effect of zingerone. On the other hand, zingerone reduced monosynaptically evoked EPSC amplitudes, as did TRPA1 agonists. Like allyl isothiocyanate, zingerone enhanced GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory transmission in a manner sensitive to tetrodotoxin. We conclude that zingerone presynaptically facilitates spontaneous excitatory transmission, probably through Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release mechanisms, and produces a membrane depolarization in SG neurons by activating TRPA1 but not TRPV1 channels. PMID:23657286

  15. Mechanisms of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation and sensitization by allyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Sanchez, Alicia; Everaerts, Wouter; Segal, Andrei; Xue, Fenqin; Janssens, Annelies; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; aka, mustard oil) is a powerful irritant produced by Brassica plants as a defensive trait against herbivores and confers pungency to mustard and wasabi. AITC is widely used experimentally as an inducer of acute pain and neurogenic inflammation, which are largely mediated by the activation of nociceptive cation channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Although it is generally accepted that electrophilic agents activate these channels through covalent modification of cytosolic cysteine residues, the mechanism underlying TRPV1 activation by AITC remains unknown. Here we show that, surprisingly, AITC-induced activation of TRPV1 does not require interaction with cysteine residues, but is largely dependent on S513, a residue that is involved in capsaicin binding. Furthermore, AITC acts in a membrane-delimited manner and induces a shift of the voltage dependence of activation toward negative voltages, which is reminiscent of capsaicin effects. These data indicate that AITC acts through reversible interactions with the capsaicin binding site. In addition, we show that TRPV1 is a locus for cross-sensitization between AITC and acidosis in nociceptive neurons. Furthermore, we show that residue F660, which is known to determine the stimulation by low pH in human TRPV1, is also essential for the cross-sensitization of the effects of AITC and low pH. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that not all reactive electrophiles stimulate TRPV1 via cysteine modification and help understanding the molecular bases underlying the surprisingly large role of this channel as mediator of the algesic properties of AITC. PMID:23757176

  16. Interaction between protein kinase D1 and transient receptor potential V1 in primary sensory neurons is involved in heat hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haihao; Yang, Yanrui; Zhang, Hua; Han, Yan; Li, Yafang; Zhang, Ying; Yin, Dongmin; He, Qihua; Zhao, Zhiqi; Blumberg, Peter M; Han, Jisheng; Wang, Yun

    2008-07-31

    In previous studies we demonstrated that protein kinase D1 (PKD1/PKCmu) could directly phosphorylate the transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) at its N-terminal region and enhance the function of TRPV1 in CHO cells stably transfected with TRPV1. In the current study we assessed the involvement of PKD1 in pain modulation and explored the possible interaction between PKD1 and TRPV1 in rat inflammatory heat hypersensitivity. PKD1 was translocated to cytoplasmic membrane fraction and was trans-phosphorylated only in membrane fraction but not in cytoplasmic fraction of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at 2 and 6h after Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) treatment. Pre i.t. injection of PKD1 antisense for 4 d or post-i.t. injection for 4 d both alleviated CFA-induced thermal hypersensitivity. Likewise, overexpression of PKD1 in DRG significantly enhanced, while dominant negative PKD1 (DN-PKD1) partly attenuated, heat hypersensitivity. Both PKD1 and TRPV1 were translocated to the cytoplasmic membrane in DRG 6 h after CFA treatment and, at that time, PKD1 interacted with TRPV1 by co-immunoprecipitation in DRG. Electrophysiological measurements indicated that DRG with overexpression of PKD1 were more sensitive to low dose capsaicin than those expressing DN-PKD1. The average magnitude of the peak inward current evoked by capsaicin was greater in the DRG overexpressing PKD1 than in those expressing DN-PKD1. Furthermore, overexpressed PKD1 could up regulate, whereas PKD1 antisense could knock down TRPV1 content in DRG through posttranscriptional regulation manner. We concluded that PKD1 in DRG, through interaction with TRPV1, is involved in developing and maintaining inflammatory heat hypersensitivity. PMID:18063480

  17. Vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors influence inflammatory sensitivity in response to particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, B; Oortgiesen, M; Roy, J; Carter, J D; Simon, S A; Gavett, S H

    2000-11-15

    The signs of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness that occur in animals exposed to air pollutants are often strain- and species-specific. To investigate the underlying causes of this phenomenon, BALB/c and C57bl/6 mice were exposed intratracheally to residual oil fly ash (ROFA, 3 mg/kg) and examined after 24 h for signs of airway inflammation. BALB/c showed significantly higher numbers of neutrophils and increased airway hyperresponsiveness in response to methacholine challenge, whereas B6 mice showed no significant change in either inflammatory endpoint. To determine the underlying cause of this strain specificity, cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons, which innervate the upper airways in situ, were explanted from both BALB/c and B6 fetal mice. After 5-7 days in culture, they were exposed to ROFA, other urban and industrial particulate matter (PM; e.g., oil fly ash, woodstove, Mt. St. Helen, St. Louis, Ottawa, coal fly ash) or to prototype irritants (e.g., capsaicin 3-10 microM, pH 5.0 and 6.5). In all instances (except for woodstove), DRG neurons from BALB/c mice released significantly higher levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 into their nutrient media relative to neurons from B6 mice. This cytokine release could be significantly reduced for all PM treated cultures (except woodstove) by pretreatment of cultures with capsazepine (CPZ), a competitive antagonist of vanilloid receptors. DRG neurons, cultured from BALB/c and B6 neonates, were loaded with Fluo-3 AM and exposed to the prototype irritants, acid pH (5.0, 6.5), or capsaicin (3, 10 microM). Analysis of their increases in intracellular calcium showed that significantly higher numbers of BALB/c neurons responded to these prototype irritants, relative to B6 neurons. Morphometric analysis of BALB/c neurons, histochemically stained with cobalt to label neurons bearing capsaicin-sensitive receptors, showed a significantly higher level of stained neurons relative to B6 neurons. Finally, semiquantitative RT-PCR showed a higher expression of VR1 receptor mRNA in DRG and spinal cord taken from neonatal BALB/c mice relative to B6 mice. Taken together, these data suggest that capsaicin and acid-sensitive irritant receptors, located on somatosensory cell bodies and their nerve fiber terminals, subserve PM-induced airway inflammation and are quantitatively different in responsive and nonresponsive mouse strains. PMID:11076698

  18. Intragastric administration of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1 agonists modulates autonomic thermoregulation in different manners in mice.

    PubMed

    Masamoto, Yukiko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Fushiki, Tohru

    2009-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to elucidate whether thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (thermoTRPs) play a role in controlling autonomic thermoregulation. We investigated whether the activation of certain thermoTRPs, TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1, would induce autonomic thermoregulation by administering chemical agonists derived from spices and aroma chemicals of these channels to anesthetized mice. We discovered the following: Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, enhanced thermogenesis and heat diffusion; thymol and ethyl vanillin, TRPV3 agonists, did not have any effect on thermogenesis or heat diffusion; menthol and 1,8-cineole, TRPM8 agonists, enhanced thermogenesis; and allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde, TRPA1 agonists, enhanced thermogenesis and inhibited heat diffusion. These results suggest that these thermoTRP agonists derived from spices and aroma chemicals modulate autonomic thermoregulation, except for TRPV3 agonists. Our findings suggest the possibility that each thermoTRP is a key sensor inducing reasonable autonomic thermoregulation according to its own activated temperature range. PMID:19420725

  19. Cannabinoid type 1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels in fear and anxiety-two sides of one coin?

    PubMed

    Moreira, F A; Aguiar, D C; Terzian, A L B; Guimarăes, F S; Wotjak, C T

    2012-03-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1; originally vanilloid receptor VR1) is activated in peripheral terminals of nociceptive fibers by noxious heat, low pH, and natural products such as capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red-hot chilli peppers. Evidence has been accumulating that TRPV1 is expressed also in the brain, where it seems to be involved in antinociception, locomotor control, and regulation of affective behaviors. This ion channel might be activated by arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide), the endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor. However, while CB(1) activation leads to a decrease in intracellular calcium and attenuation of synaptic transmission, anandamide binding to TRPV1 results in elevated calcium levels and potentiated synaptic transmission. This suggests a tripartite regulatory system with antagonistic effects of CB(1) and TRPV1, which are tied together by the same endogenous ligand. Such a system may have important implication for the modulation of behavioral responses. The present commentary elaborates on this interplay between CB(1) receptors and TRPV1 channels in the context of fear- and anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:21906661

  20. Capsaicin stimulates the non-store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry but inhibits the store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry in neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-P. [Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Sec. 3, Chung Kang Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China) and Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: w1994@vghtc.gov.tw; Tseng, C.-S. [Department of Anesthesiology, and Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Sun, S.-P. [Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Sec. 3, Chung Kang Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-S. [Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Sec. 3, Chung Kang Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C.-R. [Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, M.-F. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2005-12-01

    Rat neutrophils express the mRNA encoding for transient receptor potential (TRP) V1. However, capsaicin-stimulated [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation occurred only at high concentrations ({>=}100 {mu}M). This response was substantially decreased in a Ca{sup 2+}-free medium. Vanilloids displayed similar patterns of Ca{sup 2+} response with the rank order of potency as follows: scutigeral>resiniferatoxin>capsazepine>capsaicin=olvanil>isovelleral. Arachidonyl dopamine (AAD), an endogenous ligand for TRPV1, failed to desensitize the subsequent capsaicin challenge. Capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} response was not affected by 8-bromo-cyclic ADP-ribose (8-Br-cADPR), the ryanodine receptor blocker, but was slightly attenuated by 1-[6-[17{beta}-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,= 5-dione (U-73122), the inhibitor of phospholipase C-coupled processes, 1-[{beta}-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole (SKF-96365), the blocker of receptor-gated and store-operated Ca{sup 2+} (SOC) channels, 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate (2-APB), the blocker of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphospahte (IP{sub 3}) receptor and Ca{sup 2+} influx, and by ruthenium red, a blocker of TRPV channels, and enhanced by the Ca{sup 2+} channels blocker, cis-N-(2-phenylcyclopentyl)azacyclotridec-1-en-2-amine (MDL-12330A) and Na{sup +}-deprivation. In addition, capsaicin had no effect on the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity or the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) or on the total thiols content. Capsaicin ({>=}100 {mu}M) inhibited the cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-induced store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE). In the absence of external Ca{sup 2+}, the robust Ca{sup 2+} entry after subsequent addition of Ca{sup 2+} was decreased by capsaicin in CPA-activated cells. Capsaicin alone increased the actin cytoskeleton, and also increased the actin filament content in cell activation with CPA. These results indicate that capsaicin activates a TRPV1-independent non-SOCE pathway in neutrophils. The reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is probably involved in the capsaicin inhibition of SOCE.

  1. TRPV1 mediates cellular uptake of anandamide and thus promotes endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Nicole A; Barth, Sonja; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Klec, Christiane; Strunk, Dirk; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F

    2014-01-01

    Anandamide (N-arachidonyl ethanolamide, AEA) is an endogenous cannabinoid that is involved in various pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and tumor-angiogenesis. Herein, we tested the involvement of classical cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) and the Ca(2+)-channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on cellular AEA uptake and its effect on endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation. Uptake of the fluorescence-labeled anandamide (SKM4-45-1) was monitored in human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and a human endothelial-vein cell line (EA.hy926). Involvement of the receptors during AEA translocation was determined by selective pharmacological inhibition (AM251, SR144528, CID16020046, SB366791) and molecular interference by TRPV1-selective siRNA-mediated knock-down and TRPV1 overexpression. We show that exclusively TRPV1 contributes essentially to AEA transport into endothelial cells in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. This TRPV1 function is a prerequisite for AEA-induced endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation. Our findings point to a so far unknown moonlighting function of TRPV1 as Ca(2+)-independent contributor/regulator of AEA uptake. We propose TRPV1 as representing a promising target for development of pharmacological therapies against AEA-triggered endothelial cell functions, including their stimulatory effect on tumor-angiogenesis. PMID:25395667

  2. TRPV1 mediates cellular uptake of anandamide and thus promotes endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Nicole A.; Barth, Sonja; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Klec, Christiane; Strunk, Dirk; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anandamide (N-arachidonyl ethanolamide, AEA) is an endogenous cannabinoid that is involved in various pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and tumor-angiogenesis. Herein, we tested the involvement of classical cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) and the Ca2+-channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on cellular AEA uptake and its effect on endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation. Uptake of the fluorescence-labeled anandamide (SKM4-45-1) was monitored in human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and a human endothelial-vein cell line (EA.hy926). Involvement of the receptors during AEA translocation was determined by selective pharmacological inhibition (AM251, SR144528, CID16020046, SB366791) and molecular interference by TRPV1-selective siRNA-mediated knock-down and TRPV1 overexpression. We show that exclusively TRPV1 contributes essentially to AEA transport into endothelial cells in a Ca2+-independent manner. This TRPV1 function is a prerequisite for AEA-induced endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation. Our findings point to a so far unknown moonlighting function of TRPV1 as Ca2+-independent contributor/regulator of AEA uptake. We propose TRPV1 as representing a promising target for development of pharmacological therapies against AEA-triggered endothelial cell functions, including their stimulatory effect on tumor-angiogenesis. PMID:25395667

  3. Anionic linear aliphatic surfactants activate TRPV1: A possible endpoint for estimation of detergent induced eye nociception?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lindegren; H. Mogren; J. El Andaloussi-Lilja; J. Lundqvist; A. Forsby

    2009-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been reported as one of the key components in the pain pathway. Activation of the receptor causes a Ca2+ influx in sensory C-fibres with secondary effects leading to neurogenic inflammation in the surrounding tissue. We have earlier reported specific activation of TRPV1 by surfactant-containing hygiene products. We have continued this project

  4. Brief Communications A Transient Receptor Potential-Like Channel Mediates

    E-print Network

    Heimel, Jan-Alexander

    or glutamate. The transduction current was suppressed by ruthenium red and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and SB-366791. Furthermore, focal application of the TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and anandamide evoked1channel.To test the possibility that the transduction channel is TRPV1, we measured rod bipolar

  5. Role of the outer pore domain in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 dynamic permeability to large cations.

    PubMed

    Munns, Clare H; Chung, Man-Kyo; Sanchez, Yuly E; Amzel, L Mario; Caterina, Michael J

    2015-02-27

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) has been shown to alter its ionic selectivity profile in a time- and agonist-dependent manner. One hallmark of this dynamic process is an increased permeability to large cations such as N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). In this study, we mutated residues throughout the TRPV1 pore domain to identify loci that contribute to dynamic large cation permeability. Using resiniferatoxin (RTX) as the agonist, we identified multiple gain-of-function substitutions within the TRPV1 pore turret (N628P and S629A), pore helix (F638A), and selectivity filter (M644A) domains. In all of these mutants, maximum NMDG permeability was substantially greater than that recorded in wild type TRPV1, despite similar or even reduced sodium current density. Two additional mutants, located in the pore turret (G618W) and selectivity filter (M644I), resulted in significantly reduced maximum NMDG permeability. M644A and M644I also showed increased and decreased minimum NMDG permeability, respectively. The phenotypes of this panel of mutants were confirmed by imaging the RTX-evoked uptake of the large cationic fluorescent dye YO-PRO1. Whereas none of the mutations selectively altered capsaicin-induced changes in NMDG permeability, the loss-of-function phenotypes seen with RTX stimulation of G618W and M644I were recapitulated in the capsaicin-evoked YO-PRO1 uptake assay. Curiously, the M644A substitution resulted in a loss, rather than a gain, in capsaicin-evoked YO-PRO1 uptake. Modeling of our mutations onto the recently determined TRPV1 structure revealed several plausible mechanisms for the phenotypes observed. We conclude that side chain interactions at a few specific loci within the TRPV1 pore contribute to the dynamic process of ionic selectivity. PMID:25568328

  6. Fufang Kushen injection inhibits sarcoma growth and tumor-induced hyperalgesia via TRPV1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizheng; Fan, Huiting; Higgins, Tim; Qi, Jia; Haines, Diana; Trivett, Anna; Oppenheim, Joost J; Wei, Hou; Li, Jie; Lin, Hongsheng; Howard, O M Zack

    2014-12-28

    Cancer pain is a deleterious consequence of tumor growth and related inflammation. Opioids and anti-inflammatory drugs provide first line treatment for cancer pain, but both are limited by side effects. Fufang Kushen injection (FKI) is GMP produced, traditional Chinese medicine used alone or with chemotherapy to reduce cancer-associated pain. FKI limited mouse sarcoma growth both in vivo and in vitro, in part, by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT kinases and BAD. FKI inhibited TRPV1 mediated capsaicin-induced ERK phosphorylation and reduced tumor-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Thus, FKI limited cancer pain both directly by blocking TRPV1 signaling and indirectly by reducing tumor growth. PMID:25242356

  7. Protective effects of the flavonoid hesperidin methyl chalcone in inflammation and pain in mice: role of TRPV1, oxidative stress, cytokines and NF-?B.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Borghi, Sergio M; Zarpelon, Ana C; Guazelli, Carla F S; Manchope, Marilia F; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-02-25

    Cytokines and reactive oxygen species are inflammatory mediators that lead to increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, and their inhibition represents a therapeutic approach in controlling acute and chronic pain. The water-soluble flavonone hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) is used in the treatment of venous diseases, but its bioactivity as anti-inflammatory and analgesic is poorly understood. The present study evaluated the protective effects of HMC in widely used mouse models of acute and prolonged inflammation and pain. Male Swiss mice were treated with HMC (3-100 or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle (saline) 1h before inflammatory stimuli. In overt pain-like behavior tests, HMC inhibited acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone-induced writhing, and capsaicin-, Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)- and formalin-induced paw flinching and licking. HMC also inhibited carrageenan-, capsaicin- and CFA-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanistically, HMC inhibited carrageenan-induced cytokine (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10) production, oxidative stress and NF-?B activation. Furthermore, HMC did not cause gastric or hepatic injury in a 7 days treatment protocol. Thus, this is the first report that HMC reduces inflammation and inflammatory pain by targeting TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) receptor activity, oxidative stress, cytokine production, and NF-?B activity, which suggests its potential applicability in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25617481

  8. NK-3 receptors mediate enhancement of substance P release from capsaicin-sensitive spinal cord afferent terminals

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Giovanna; Caritŕ, Francesca; Bonanno, Giambattista; Raiteri, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The effects of NK-3 receptor agonists on the release of substance P-immunoreactivity (SP-LI) have been investigated using superfused rat spinal cord synaptosomes.The Ca2+-dependent overflow of SP-LI evoked by 35?mM KCl was concentration-dependently enhanced by senktide (EC50=52?nM; maximal effect=70%) or [MePhe7]NKB (EC50=5.5?nM; maximal effect=125%), both selective agonists at receptors of the NK-3 type.The potentiation of the SP-LI overflow elicited by 100?nM senktide or [MePhe7]NKB was prevented by the NK-3 receptor antagonist (+)-SR142801. The antagonist halved, at 10?nM, and almost abolished, at 100?nM, the effect of both agonists. The effect of senktide or [MePhe7]NKB was insensitive to antagonists at NK-1 or NK-2 receptors.Capsaicin (0.1–1??M) stimulated SP-LI release in a concentration-dependent manner from spinal cord synaptosomes. The SP-LI overflow elicited by 1??M capsaicin was completely dependent on external Ca2+. Senktide could not affect the capsaicin-evoked release of SP-LI.Senktide failed to potentiate the K+-evoked overflow of SP-LI from synaptosomes previously exposed for 15?min in superfusion to capsaicin.The results show that release-enhancing NK-3 receptors are located on axon terminals of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurones in the spinal cord. Antagonists at NK-3 receptors might help controlling pain transmission. PMID:9831894

  9. Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits TRPV1 in trigeminal ganglion neurons via PKA and PKC pathways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wang; Xuehong Cao; Changjin Liu; Lieju Liu

    Although the inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel may explain the\\u000a efficacy of peripheral cannabinoids in antihyperalgesia and antinociceptive actions, the mechanism for cannabinoid-induced\\u000a inhibition of TRPV1 in primary sensory neurons is not understood. Therefore, we explored how WIN55,212-2 (WIN, a synthetic\\u000a cannabinoid) inhibited TRPV1 in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. A “bell”-shaped concentration-dependent curve

  10. Transient receptor potential V2 expressed in sensory neurons is activated by probenecid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangsu Bang; Kyung Yoon Kim; Sungjae Yoo; Sang-Heon Lee; Sun Wook Hwang

    2007-01-01

    Temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels (thermoTRPs) are known to function as ambient temperature sensors and are also involved in peripheral pain sensation. The thermoTRPs are activated by a variety of chemicals, of which specific activators have been utilized to explore the physiology of particular channels and sensory nerve subtypes. The use of capsaicin for TRPV1 is an exemplary case

  11. Astrocytic TRPV1 ion channels detect blood-borne signals in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse brains.

    PubMed

    Mannari, Tetsuya; Morita, Shoko; Furube, Eriko; Tominaga, Makoto; Miyata, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    The circumventricular organs (CVOs), including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO), and area postrema (AP) sense a variety of blood-borne molecules because they lack typical blood-brain barrier. Though a few signaling pathways are known, it is not known how endogenous ligands for transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 ion channel (TRPV1) are sensed in the CVOs. In this study, we aimed to examine whether or not astrocytic TRPV1 senses directly blood-borne molecules in the OVLT, SFO, and AP of adult mice. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western analysis revealed the expression of TRPV1 in the CVOs. Confocal microscopic immunohistochemistry further showed that TRPV1 was localized prominently at thick cellular processes of astrocytes rather than fine cellular processes and cell bodies. TRPV1-expressing cellular processes of astrocytes surrounded the vasculature to constitute dense networks. The expression of TRPV1 was also found at neuronal dendrites but not somata in the CVOs. The intravenous administration of a TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) prominently induced Fos expression at astrocytes in the OVLT, SFO, and AP and neurons in adjacent related nuclei of the median preoptic nuclei (MnPO) and nucleus of the solitary tract (Sol) of wild-type but not TRPV1-knockout mice. The intracerebroventricular infusion of RTX induced Fos expression at both astrocytes and neurons in the CVOs, MnPO, and Sol. Thus, this study demonstrates that blood-borne molecules are sensed directly by astrocytic TRPV1 of the CVOs in adult mammalians. PMID:23468425

  12. Capsaicin receptors are colocalized with sweet/bitter receptors in the taste sensing cells of circumvallate papillae

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Wha; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Sang Bae

    2009-01-01

    We examined co-localization of vanilloid receptor (VR1) with sweet receptors T1R2, T1R3, or bitter receptor T2R6 in taste receptor cells of rat circumvallate papillae. Tissue sections of rat circumvallate papillae were doubly reacted with anti-VR1 antibodies and anti-T1R2, anti-T1R3 or anti-T2R6 antibodies, using double-immunofluorescence histochemistry technique. Localizations of VR1, T1Rs and T2R6 in the vallate taste cells containing ?-gustducin were also examined. VR1 immunoreactivities (-ir) were observed in subsets of taste cells in the circumvallate papillae, and 96–99% of the vallate taste cells exhibiting T1R2-, T1R3- or T2R6-ir co-exhibited VR1-ir. Approximately half of T2R6-ir cells (~49%), and 50–58% of T1Rs-ir cells, co-exhibited ?-gustducin-ir in the vallate taste buds. About 58% of VR1-ir cells in the vallate exhibited ?-gustducin-ir as well. Results support the idea that capsaicin may interact with the transduction pathways of sweet and bitter taste stimuli, possibly in mediation of its receptor VR1 localized in taste receptor cells. Additionally, the partial co-localization of ?-gustducin with VR1 suggests that a tentative modulatory function of capsaicin in sweet and bitter transductions in the rat circumvallate comprises of both ?-gustducin-mediated and non-mediated transduction pathways. PMID:20016958

  13. Microtopographical features generated by photopolymerization recruit RhoA/ROCK through TRPV1 to direct cell and neurite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufeng; Tuft, Bradley W; Xu, Linjing; Polacco, Marc A; Clarke, Joseph C; Guymon, C Allan; Hansen, Marlan R

    2015-06-01

    Cell processes, including growth cones, respond to biophysical cues in their microenvironment to establish functional tissue architecture and intercellular networks. The mechanisms by which cells sense and translate biophysical cues into directed growth are unknown. We used photopolymerization to fabricate methacrylate platforms with patterned microtopographical features that precisely guide neurite growth and Schwann cell alignment. Pharmacologic inhibition of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) or reduced expression of TRPV1 by RNAi significantly disrupts neurite guidance by these microtopographical features. Exogenous expression of TRPV1 induces alignment of NIH3T3 fibroblasts that fail to align in the absence of TRPV1, further implicating TRPV1 channels as critical mediators of cellular responses to biophysical cues. Microtopographic features increase RhoA activity in growth cones and in TRPV1-expressing NIH3T3 cells. Further, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) phosphorylation is elevated in growth cones and neurites on micropatterned surfaces. Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK by pharmacological compounds or reduced expression of either ROCKI or ROCKII isoforms by RNAi abolishes neurite and cell alignment, confirming that RhoA/ROCK signaling mediates neurite and cell alignment to microtopographic features. These studies demonstrate that microtopographical cues recruit TRPV1 channels and downstream signaling pathways, including RhoA and ROCK, to direct neurite and cell growth. PMID:25890710

  14. Conformationally Constrained Analogues of N'-(4-t-Butylbenzyl)-N-(4-Methylsulfonylaminobenzyl)Thiourea as TRPV1 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, HyungChul; Lim, Ju-Ok; Kang, Dong Wook; Pearce, Larry V.; Tran, Richard; Toth, Attila; Lee, Jeewoo; Blumberg, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of bicyclic analogues having indan and tetrahydronaphthalene templates in the A-region were designed as conformationally constrained analogues of our previously reported potent TRPV1 antagonists (1, 3). The activities for rat TRPV1 of the conformationally restricted analogues were moderately or markedly diminished, particularly in the case of the tetrahydronaphthalene analogues. The analysis indicated that steric constraints at the benzylic position in the bicyclic analogues were an important factor for their unfavorable interaction with the receptor. PMID:18406014

  15. Acute heat-evoked temperature sensation is impaired but not abolished in mice lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels.

    PubMed

    Marics, Irčne; Malapert, Pascale; Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation. PMID:24925072

  16. Neuronal Osmotransduction: Push-Activating TRPV1 with Microtubules

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    Neuronal Osmotransduction: Push-Activating TRPV1 with Microtubules Marta Andre´ s1 and Martin C. Go channel TRPV1 and microtubules, which seem to directly push open the channel. Mammals employ sophisticated in ONs is medi- ated by the TRPV1 channel (Sharif Naeini et al., 2006), whose carboxy terminus was found

  17. Oleanolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene attenuates capsaicin-induced nociception in mice: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Maia, Juliana L; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Melo, Caroline M; David, Juceni P; David, Jorge M; Campos, Adriana R; Santos, Flávia A; Rao, Vietla S N

    2006-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory pentacyclic triterpene, oleanolic acid (OA) was examined on acute nociception induced by intraplantar injection of capsaicin in mice. OA administered orally to mice at 10, 30 and 100 mgkg(-1), significantly attenuated the paw-licking response to capsaicin (1.6 microg/paw) by 53%, 68.5% and 36.6%, respectively. Ruthenium red (3 mgkg(-1), s.c.), a non-competitive vanilloid receptor (V1, TRPV1)-antagonist also suppressed the capsaicin nociception by 38.6%. The maximal antinociception produced by 30 mgkg(-1) OA was significantly blocked in animals pre-treated with naloxone (2 mgkg(-1), i.p.), the opioid antagonist; l-arginine (600 mgkg(-1), i.p.), the substrate for nitric oxide synthase; or glibenclamide (2 mgkg(-1), i.p.), the K(ATP)-channel blocker, but was unaffected by yohimbine (2 mgkg(-1), i.p.), an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist. In open-field and rota-rod tests that detect motor deficits, mice received 30 mgkg(-1) OA did not manifest any effect per se, indicating that the observed antinociception is not a consequence of motor abnormality. These data suggest that OA inhibits capsaicin-evoked acute nociception due to mechanisms possibly involving endogenous opioids, nitric oxide, and K(ATP)-channel opening. PMID:16879974

  18. Attenuation of capsaicin-induced acute and visceral nociceptive pain by alpha- and beta-amyrin, a triterpene mixture isolated from Protium heptaphyllum resin in mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Francisco A; Costa, Charllynton L S; Chaves, Mariana H; Almeida, Fernanda R C; Cavalcante, Italo J M; Lima, Alana F; Lima, Roberto C P; Silva, Regilane M; Campos, Adriana Rolim; Santos, Flavia A; Rao, Vietla S N

    2005-10-21

    The triterpene mixture, alpha- and beta-amyrin, isolated from Protium heptaphyllum resin was evaluated on capsaicin-evoked nociception in mice. Orally administered alpha- and beta-amyrin (3 to 100 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the nociceptive behaviors--evoked by either subplantar (1.6 microg) or intracolonic (149 microg) application of capsaicin. The antinociception produced by alpha- and beta-amyrin against subplantar capsaicin-induced paw-licking behavior was neither potentiated nor attenuated by ruthenium red (1.5 mg/kg, s.c.), a non-specific antagonist of vanilloid receptor (TRPV1), but was greatly abolished in animals pretreated with naloxone (2 mg/kg, s.c.), suggesting an opioid mechanism. However, participation of alpha2-adrenoceptor involvement was unlikely since yohimbine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment failed to block the antinociceptive effect of alpha- and beta-amyrin in the experimental model of visceral nociception evoked by intracolonic capsaicin. The triterpene mixture (3 to 30 mg/kg, p.o.) neither altered significantly the pentobarbital sleeping time, nor impaired the ambulation or motor coordination in open-field and rota-rod tests, respectively, indicating the absence of sedative or motor abnormality that could account for its antinociception. Nevertheless, alpha- and beta-amyrin could significantly block the capsaicin (10 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced hyperthermic response but not the initial hypothermia. These results suggest that the triterpene mixture, alpha- and beta-amyrin has an analgesia inducing effect, possibly involving vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) and an opioid mechanism. PMID:15964027

  19. Involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in incisional intraoral and extraoral pain.

    PubMed

    Urata, K; Shinoda, M; Honda, K; Lee, J; Maruno, M; Ito, R; Gionhaku, N; Iwata, K

    2015-03-01

    Thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured region is a common complication. Although it is well known clinically that thermal and mechanical sensitivity of the oral mucosa is different from that of the skin, the mechanisms underlying injured pain of the oral mucosa remain poorly understood. The transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in primary afferent neurons are known to contribute to pathological pain. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPV1 and/or TRPA1 contribute to thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity following oral mucosa or whisker pad skin incision. Strong heat and mechanical and cold hypersensitivity was caused in the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin following incisions. On day 3 after the incisions, the number of TRPV1-immunoreactive (IR) and TRPA1-IR trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin was significantly increased, and the number of TRPV1/TRPA1-IR TG neurons innervating whisker pad skin, but not the buccal mucosa, was significantly increased. Administration of the TRPV1 antagonist, SB366791, to the incised site produced a significant suppression of heat hyperalgesia in both the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin, as well as mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin. Administration of the TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031, to the incised site suppressed mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in both the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin, as well as heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin. These findings indicate that altered expressions of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in TG neurons are involved in thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity following the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin incision. Moreover, diverse changes in the number of TRPV1 and TRPA1 coexpressed TG neurons in whisker pad skin-incised rats may contribute to the intracellular interactions of TRPV1 and TRPA1 associated with whisker pad skin incision, whereas TRPV1 and TRPA1 expression in individual TG neurons is involved in buccal mucosa-incised pain. PMID:25576470

  20. ?CGRP is essential for algesic exocytotic mobilization of TRPV1 channels in peptidergic nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Devesa, Isabel; Ferrándiz-Huertas, Clotilde; Mathivanan, Sakthikumar; Wolf, Christoph; Luján, Rafael; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Proalgesic sensitization of peripheral nociceptors in painful syndromes is a complex molecular process poorly understood that involves mobilization of thermosensory receptors to the neuronal surface. However, whether recruitment of vesicular thermoTRP channels is a general mechanism underlying sensitization of all nociceptor types or is subtype-specific remains controversial. We report that sensitization-induced Ca2+-dependent exocytotic insertion of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors to the neuronal plasma membrane is a mechanism specifically used by peptidergic nociceptors to potentiate their excitability. Notably, we found that TRPV1 is present in large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) that were mobilized to the neuronal surface in response to a sensitizing insult. Deletion or silencing of calcitonin-gene–related peptide alpha (?CGRP) gene expression drastically reduced proalgesic TRPV1 potentiation in peptidergic nociceptors by abrogating its Ca2+-dependent exocytotic recruitment. These findings uncover a context-dependent molecular mechanism of TRPV1 algesic sensitization and a previously unrecognized role of ?CGRP in LDCV mobilization in peptidergic nociceptors. Furthermore, these results imply that concurrent secretion of neuropeptides and channels in peptidergic C-type nociceptors facilitates a rapid modulation of pain signaling. PMID:25489075

  1. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2-expressing primary afferents stimulates synaptic transmission in the deep dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord and elicits mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, Hugues; Hugel, Sylvain; Barthas, Florent; Bohren, Yohann; Barrot, Michel; Yalcin, Ipek; Schlichter, Rémy

    2014-10-01

    Probenecid, an agonist of transient receptor vanilloid (TRPV) type 2, was used to evaluate the effects of TRPV2 activation on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn (DH) of the rat spinal cord and on nociceptive reflexes induced by thermal heat and mechanical stimuli. The effects of probenecid were compared with those of capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. Calcium imaging experiments on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and DH cultures indicated that functional TRPV2 and TRPV1 were expressed by essentially non-overlapping subpopulations of DRG neurons, but were absent from DH neurons and DH and DRG glial cells. Pretreatment of DRG cultures with small interfering RNAs against TRPV2 suppressed the responses to probenecid. Patch-clamp recordings from spinal cord slices showed that probenecid and capsaicin increased the frequencies of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a subset of laminae III-V neurons. In contrast to capsaicin, probenecid failed to stimulate synaptic transmission in lamina II. Intrathecal or intraplantar injections of probenecid induced mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia without affecting nociceptive heat responses. Capsaicin induced both mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Activation of TRPV1 or TRPV2 in distinct sets of primary afferents increased the sEPSC frequencies in a largely common population of DH neurons in laminae III-V, and might underlie the development of mechanical hypersensitivity following probenecid or capsaicin treatment. However, only TRPV1-expressing afferents facilitated excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in a subpopulation of lamina II neurons, and this phenomenon might be correlated with the induction of thermal heat hyperalgesia. PMID:25104469

  2. NK1 tachykinin receptor treatment is superior to capsaicin pre-treatment in improving functional outcome following acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Turner, Renée J; Vink, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Previous results from our laboratory have shown that blockade of the substance P (SP) pathway with an NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist significantly reduces blood brain barrier breakdown, cerebral edema and functional deficits following ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear whether removal of all neuropeptides is more efficacious than blocking SP alone. As such, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of neuropeptide depletion with capsaicin pre-treatment on functional outcome following acute ischemic stroke in rats. Animals received 125 mg/kg of capsaicin or equal volume of saline vehicle, administered subcutaneously over a 3-day period. At 14 days following treatment animals were subject to 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. A subset of animals was treated with an NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist (NAT) or vehicle at 4h after the onset of stroke only. The functional outcome of animals was assessed for a 7-day period following stroke using a rotarod device, the bilateral asymmetry test, modified neurological severity score, open field and angleboard. Although capsaicin pre-treatment improved outcome, treatment with an NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist was superior in improving post-stroke functional outcome. This data suggests that some neuropeptides may play a beneficial role following stroke, whilst others such as SP are deleterious. PMID:25151181

  3. Characterization of mouse orofacial pain and the effects of lesioning TRPV1-expressing neurons on operant behavior

    PubMed Central

    Neubert, John K; King, Christopher; Malphurs, Wendi; Wong, Fong; Weaver, James P; Jenkins, Alan C; Rossi, Heather L; Caudle, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    Background Rodent models of orofacial pain typically use methods adapted from manipulations to hind paw; however, limitations of these models include animal restraint and subjective assessments of behavior by the experimenter. In contrast to these methods, assessment of operant responses to painful stimuli has been shown to overcome these limitations and expand the breadth of interpretation of the behavioral responses. In the current study, we used an operant model based on a reward-conflict paradigm to assess nociceptive responses in three strains of mice (SKH1-Hrhr, C57BL/6J, TRPV1 knockout). We previously validated this operant model in rats and hypothesized in this study that wild-type mice would demonstrate a similar thermal stimulus-dependent response and similar operant pain behaviors. Additionally, we evaluated the effects on operant behaviors of mice manipulated genetically (e.g., TRPV1 k.o.) or pharmacologically with resiniferatoxin (RTX), a lesioning agent for TRPV1-expressing neurons. During the reward-conflict task, mice accessed a sweetened milk reward solution by voluntarily position their face against a neutral or heated thermode (37–55°C). Results As the temperature of the thermal stimulus became noxiously hot, reward licking events in SKH1-Hrhr and C57BL/6J mice declined while licking events in TRPV1 k.o. mice were insensitive to noxious heat within the activation range of TRPV1 (37–52°C). All three strains displayed nocifensive behaviors at 55°C, as indicated by a significant decrease in reward licking events. Induction of neurogenic inflammation by topical application of capsaicin reduced licking events in SKH1-Hrhr mice, and morphine rescued this response. Again, these results parallel what we previously documented using rats in this operant system. Following intracisternal treatment with RTX, C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a block of noxious heat at both 48 and 55°C. RTX-treated TRPV1 k.o. mice and all vehicle-treated mice displayed similar reward licking events as compared to the pre-treatment baseline levels. Both TRPV1 k.o. and RTX-treated C57BL/6J had complete abolishment of eye-wipe responses following corneal application of capsaicin. Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate the benefits of using the operant test system to investigate pain sensitivity in mice. This ability provides an essential step in the development of new treatments for patients suffering from orofacial pain disorders. PMID:18828909

  4. No requirement of TRPV1 in long-term potentiation or long-term depression in the anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One major interest in the study of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in sensory system is that it may serve as a drug target for treating chronic pain. While the roles of TRPV1 in peripheral nociception and sensitization have been well documented, less is known about its contribution to pain-related cortical plasticity. Here, we used 64 multi-electrode array recording to examine the potential role of TRPV1 in two major forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We found that pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 with either [(E)-3-(4-t-Butylphenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)acrylamide] (AMG9810, 10 ?M) or N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide (SB366791, 20 ?M) failed to affect LTP induced by strong theta burst stimulation in the ACC of adult mice. Similarly, neither AMG9810 nor SB366791 blocked the cingulate LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation. Analysis of the results from different layers of the ACC obtained the same conclusions. Spatial distribution of LTP or LTD-showing channels among the ACC network was also unaltered by the TRPV1 antagonists. Since cortical LTP and LTD in the ACC play critical roles in chronic pain triggered by inflammation or nerve injury, our findings suggest that TRPV1 may not be a viable target for treating chronic pain, especially at the cortical level. PMID:24708859

  5. Conserved residues within the putative S4-S5 region serve distinct functions among thermosensitive vanilloid transient receptor potential (TRPV) channels.

    PubMed

    Boukalova, Stepana; Marsakova, Lenka; Teisinger, Jan; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2010-12-31

    The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is a tetrameric six-transmembrane segment (S1-S6) channel that can be synergistically activated by various proalgesic agents such as capsaicin, protons, heat, or highly depolarizing voltages, and also by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common activator of the related thermally gated vanilloid TRP channels TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3. In these channels, the conserved charged residues in the intracellular S4-S5 region have been proposed to constitute part of a voltage sensor that acts in concert with other stimuli to regulate channel activation. The molecular basis of this gating event is poorly understood. We mutated charged residues all along the S4 and the S4-S5 linker of TRPV1 and identified four potential voltage-sensing residues (Arg(557), Glu(570), Asp(576), and Arg(579)) that, when specifically mutated, altered the functionality of the channel with respect to voltage, capsaicin, heat, 2-APB, and/or their interactions in different ways. The nonfunctional charge-reversing mutations R557E and R579E were partially rescued by the charge-swapping mutations R557E/E570R and D576R/R579E, indicating that electrostatic interactions contribute to allosteric coupling between the voltage-, temperature- and capsaicin-dependent activation mechanisms. The mutant K571E was normal in all aspects of TRPV1 activation except for 2-APB, revealing the specific role of Lys(571) in chemical sensitivity. Surprisingly, substitutions at homologous residues in TRPV2 or TRPV3 had no effect on temperature- and 2-APB-induced activity. Thus, the charged residues in S4 and the S4-S5 linker contribute to voltage sensing in TRPV1 and, despite their highly conserved nature, regulate the temperature and chemical gating in the various TRPV channels in different ways. PMID:21044960

  6. Hydrogen sulfide induces hypersensitivity of rat capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal neurons: role of TRPA1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chun-Chun; Lin, Ruei-Lung; Lee, Lu-Yuan; Lin, You Shuei

    2013-10-01

    The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive lung vagal (CSLV) afferents by inflammatory mediators is important in the development of airway hypersensitivity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous mediator inducing hyperalgesia through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors located on nociceptors. We conducted this study to determine whether H2S elevates the sensitivity of rat CSLV afferents. In anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats, the inhalation of aerosolized sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor) caused no significant changes in the baseline activity of CSLV afferents. However, the afferent responses to right atrial injection of capsaicin or phenylbiguanide and to lung inflation were all markedly potentiated after NaHS inhalation. By contrast, the inhalation of its vehicle or NaOH (with a similar pH to NaHS) failed to enhance the afferent responses. Additionally, the potentiating effect on the afferent responses was found in rats inhaling L-cysteine (a substrate of H2S synthase) that slowly releases H2S. The potentiating effect of NaHS on the sensitivity of CSLV afferents was completely blocked by pretreatment of HC-030031 (a TRPA1 receptor antagonist) but was unaffected by its vehicle. In isolated rat CSLV neurons, the perfusion of NaHS alone did not influence the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration but markedly potentiated the Ca(2+) transients evoked by capsaicin. The NaHS-caused effect was totally abolished by HC-030031 pretreatment. These results suggest that H2S induces a nonspecific sensitizing effect on CSLV fibers to both chemical and mechanical stimulation in rat lungs, which appears mediated through an action on the TRPA1 receptors expressed on the nerve endings of CSLV afferents. PMID:23842678

  7. Suppression of network activity in dorsal horn by gabapentin permeation of TRPV1 channels: implications for drug access to cytoplasmic targets.

    PubMed

    Biggs, James E; Stemkowski, Patrick L; Knaus, Edward E; Chowdhury, Morshed A; Ballanyi, Klaus; Smith, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of gabapentin (GBP) in the treatment of neuropathic pain depends on access to the ?2?-1 accessory subunit of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Access may be limited by its rate of entry via the neuronal system L-neutral amino acid transporter. The open pore of capsaicin-activated TRPV1 channel admits organic molecules such as local anesthetics and we calculated that GBP entry via this route would be 500× more rapid than via the transporter. Capsaicin should therefore increase GBP effectiveness. We used a quaternary GBP derivative (Q-GBP) as sole charge carrier in whole-cell recording experiments on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Under these conditions, capsaicin produced a capsazepine-sensitive inward current thereby confirming Q-GBP permeation of TRPV1 channels. We have previously established that 5-6 days exposure to 100 ?M GBP decreases excitability of dorsal horn neurons whereas 10 ?M is ineffective. Excitability was monitored using confocal Ca(2+) imaging of rat spinal cord slices in organotypic culture. GBP effectiveness was augmented by transient exposures of cultures to capsaicin and robust suppression of excitability was seen with 10 ?M GBP. Experiments with an inhibitor of the neutral amino acid transporter, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH 300 ?M), showed the actions of GBP seen in the presence of capsaicin were independent of its entry by this route. Capsaicin potentiation of GBP depression of dorsal horn activity may therefore reflect drug permeation of TRPV1 channels. Agonist activation of TRP channels may provide a means for improving drug access to cytoplasmic targets in selective neuronal populations defined on the basis of type of TRP channel expressed. PMID:25079903

  8. Hypoxic preconditioning protects rat hearts against ischemia-reperfusion injury via the arachidonate12-lipoxygenase/transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Jen; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) protects rat hearts against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in HPC-mediated cardioprotection remains unknown. TRPV1 is activated by endovanilloid 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [12(S)-HETE], which is synthesized by arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12). Therefore, we examined whether HPC protects the myocardium against IR via the ALOX12/TRPV1 pathway. Compared to hearts of rats kept in room air, the hearts of rats kept in air with 10 % oxygen for 4 weeks had better post-ischemic recovery and less tissue damage when subjected to 30-min global ischemia and 4-h reflow in a Langendorff apparatus. Capsazepine, a specific TRPV1 blocker, administered 5 min before reperfusion markedly attenuated the effects of HPC, confirming that TRPV1 is a downstream effector in HPC-mediated cardioprotection. HPC resulted in the upregulation of ALOX12 and myocardial 12(S)-HETE, and prevented IR-induced 12(S)-HETE reduction. In addition, sarcolemmal ALOX12 expression in HPC hearts mainly co-localized with TRPV1 expression. Blockade of ALOX12 by cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-?-cyanocinnamate or baicalein abrogated the effects of HPC, baicalein also decreased 12(S)-HETE expression. Mimicking HPC by given 12(S)-HETE or capsaicin to baicalien-treated hearts enhanced cardiac recovery during reperfusion. The cardiac protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms ?, ?, ?, and ? were preferentially expressed in the sarcolemmal membrane of HPC-treated hearts, indicating their high intrinsic activation state. Capsazepine or co-treatment with baicalein attenuated translocation of PKC?, PKC? and PKC?, but not that of PKC?. We conclude that HPC reduces heart susceptibly to IR via ALOX12/TRPV1/PKC pathway, as shown by increased 12(S)-HETE expression in HPC hearts. PMID:24816396

  9. Loss of interneuron LTD and attenuated pyramidal cell LTP in Trpv1 and Trpv3 KO mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Travis E; Chirila, Anda M; Schrank, Benjamin R; Kauer, Julie A

    2013-08-01

    TRPV (transient receptor potential, vanilloid) channels are a family of nonselective cation channels that are activated by a wide variety of chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV1 channels are highly expressed in sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system. However, a number of studies have also reported TRPV channels in the brain, though their functions are less well understood. In the hippocampus, the TRPV1 channel is a novel mediator of long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory synapses on interneurons. Here we tested the role of other TRPV channels in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, using hippocampal slices from Trpv1, Trpv3 and Trpv4 knockout (KO) mice. LTD at excitatory synapses on s. radiatum hippocampal interneurons was attenuated in slices from Trpv3 KO mice (as well as in Trpv1 KO mice as previously reported), but not in slices from Trpv4 KO mice. A previous study found that in hippocampal area CA1, slices from Trpv1 KO mice have reduced tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) following high-frequency stimulation; here we confirmed this and found a similar reduction in Trpv3 KO mice. We hypothesized that the loss of LTD at the excitatory synapses on local inhibitory interneurons caused the attenuated LTP in the mutants. Consistent with this idea, blocking GABAergic inhibition rescued LTP in slices from Trpv1 KO and Trpv3 KO mice. Our findings suggest a novel role for TRPV3 channels in synaptic plasticity and provide a possible mechanism by which TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels modulate hippocampal output. PMID:23536486

  10. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia via TRPV1 channel agonism provides neuroprotection following ischemic stroke when initiated 90 min after reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhijuan; Balasubramanian, Adithya

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of therapeutic hypothermia show promise for neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), however, with limitations. We examined effectiveness and specificity of pharmacological hypothermia (PH) by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonism in the treatment of focal cerebral I/R. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured after subcutaneous infusion of TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in conscious C57BL/6 WT and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Acute measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion were measured before and after DHC treatment. Focal cerebral I/R (1 h ischemia + 24 h reperfusion) was induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Hypothermia (>8 h) was initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion by DHC infusion (osmotic pump). Neurofunction (behavioral testing) and infarct volume (TTC staining) were measured at 24 h. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) produced a stable drop in Tcore (33°C) in naive and I/R mouse models but not in TRPV1 KO mice. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) had no measurable effect on HR and cerebral perfusion but produced a slight transient drop in MAP (<6 mmHg). In stroke mice, DHC infusion produced hypothermia, decreased infarct volume by 87%, and improved neurofunctional score. The hypothermic and neuroprotective effects of DHC were absent in TRPV1 KO mice or mice maintained normothermic with heat support. PH via TRPV1 agonist appears to be a well-tolerated and effective method for promoting mild hypothermia in the conscious mouse. Furthermore, TRPV1 agonism produces effective hypothermia in I/R mice and significantly improves outcome when initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion. PMID:24305062

  11. Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in a Mouse Fibromyalgia Model: Roles of TRPV1, TRPV4, and pERK

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is among the most common chronic pain syndromes encountered in clinical practice, but there is limited understanding of FM pathogenesis. We examined the contribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPV4 channels to chronic pain in the repeated acid injection mouse model of FM and the potential therapeutic efficacy of electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture (EA) at the bilateral Zusanli (ST36) acupoint reduced the long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia induced by repeated acid saline (pH 4) injection in mouse hindpaw. Isolated L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from FM model mice (FM group) were hyperexcitable, an effect reversed by EA pretreatment (FM + EA group). The increase in mechanical hyperalgesia was also accompanied by upregulation of TRPV1 expression and phosphoactivation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) in the DRG, whereas DRG expression levels of TRPV4, p-p38, and p-JNK were unaltered. Blockade of TRPV1, which was achieved using TRPV1 knockout mice or via antagonist injection, and pERK suppressed development of FM-like pain. Both TRPV1 and TRPV4 protein expression levels were increased in the spinal cord (SC) of model mice, and EA at the ST36 acupoint decreased overexpression. This study strongly suggests that DRG TRPV1 overexpression and pERK signaling, as well as SC TRPV1 and TRPV4 overexpression, mediate hyperalgesia in a mouse FM pain model. The therapeutic efficacy of EA may result from the reversal of these changes in pain transmission pathways. PMID:26043006

  12. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia via TRPV1 channel agonism provides neuroprotection following ischemic stroke when initiated 90 min after reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhijuan; Balasubramanian, Adithya; Marrelli, Sean P

    2014-01-15

    Traditional methods of therapeutic hypothermia show promise for neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), however, with limitations. We examined effectiveness and specificity of pharmacological hypothermia (PH) by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonism in the treatment of focal cerebral I/R. Core temperature (T(core)) was measured after subcutaneous infusion of TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in conscious C57BL/6 WT and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Acute measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion were measured before and after DHC treatment. Focal cerebral I/R (1 h ischemia + 24 h reperfusion) was induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Hypothermia (>8 h) was initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion by DHC infusion (osmotic pump). Neurofunction (behavioral testing) and infarct volume (TTC staining) were measured at 24 h. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) produced a stable drop in T(core) (33°C) in naive and I/R mouse models but not in TRPV1 KO mice. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) had no measurable effect on HR and cerebral perfusion but produced a slight transient drop in MAP (<6 mmHg). In stroke mice, DHC infusion produced hypothermia, decreased infarct volume by 87%, and improved neurofunctional score. The hypothermic and neuroprotective effects of DHC were absent in TRPV1 KO mice or mice maintained normothermic with heat support. PH via TRPV1 agonist appears to be a well-tolerated and effective method for promoting mild hypothermia in the conscious mouse. Furthermore, TRPV1 agonism produces effective hypothermia in I/R mice and significantly improves outcome when initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion. PMID:24305062

  13. Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in a Mouse Fibromyalgia Model: Roles of TRPV1, TRPV4, and pERK.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is among the most common chronic pain syndromes encountered in clinical practice, but there is limited understanding of FM pathogenesis. We examined the contribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPV4 channels to chronic pain in the repeated acid injection mouse model of FM and the potential therapeutic efficacy of electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture (EA) at the bilateral Zusanli (ST36) acupoint reduced the long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia induced by repeated acid saline (pH 4) injection in mouse hindpaw. Isolated L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from FM model mice (FM group) were hyperexcitable, an effect reversed by EA pretreatment (FM + EA group). The increase in mechanical hyperalgesia was also accompanied by upregulation of TRPV1 expression and phosphoactivation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) in the DRG, whereas DRG expression levels of TRPV4, p-p38, and p-JNK were unaltered. Blockade of TRPV1, which was achieved using TRPV1 knockout mice or via antagonist injection, and pERK suppressed development of FM-like pain. Both TRPV1 and TRPV4 protein expression levels were increased in the spinal cord (SC) of model mice, and EA at the ST36 acupoint decreased overexpression. This study strongly suggests that DRG TRPV1 overexpression and pERK signaling, as well as SC TRPV1 and TRPV4 overexpression, mediate hyperalgesia in a mouse FM pain model. The therapeutic efficacy of EA may result from the reversal of these changes in pain transmission pathways. PMID:26043006

  14. Loosening pain's grip by tightening TRPV1-TRPA1 interactions.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Andy D; Stucky, Cheryl L

    2015-02-18

    TRPA1 and TRPV1 are ion channels crucial for pain sensation. In this issue of Neuron, Weng et al. (2015) demonstrate that the activity of TRPA1-TRPV1 heteromers is governed by Tmem100 and that disabling Tmem100 may be a novel pharmacologic strategy to combat pain. PMID:25695265

  15. Transient receptor potential channels on sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Eid, S R; Cortright, D N

    2009-01-01

    The somatosensory effects of natural products such as capsaicin, mustard oil, and menthol have been long recognized. Over the last decade, the identification of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in primary sensory neurons as the targets for these agents has led to an explosion of research into the roles of "thermoTRPs" TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in nociception. In concert, through the efforts of many industrial and academic teams, a number of agonists and antagonists of these channels have been discovered, paving the way for a better understanding of sensory biology and, potentially, for novel treatments for diseases. PMID:19655110

  16. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for the Differential Functions of TRPV1 at Early and Late Stages of Chronic Inflammatory Nociception in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Luo; Isabella Shi Xu; Yi Chen; Fei Yang; Lu Yu; Guang-Xin Li; Feng-Yu Liu; Guo-Gang Xing; Yu-Shun Shi; Tan Li; Ji-Sheng Han; You Wan

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1, or TRPV1) was up-regulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the\\u000a spinal dorsal horn after chronic inflammatory pain produced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) injection into the plantar\\u000a of rat hind paw. In the present study, we found that subcutaneous or intrathecal application of capsazepine (CPZ), a TRPV1\\u000a competitive antagonist, could

  17. The genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 signalling is beneficial for the restoration of quiescent osteoclast activity in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, F; Bellini, G; Torella, M; Tortora, C; Manzo, I; Giordano, C; Guida, F; Luongo, L; Papale, F; Rosso, F; Nobili, B; Maione, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in bone density, which decreases its strength and results in fragile bones. The endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system has been shown to be involved in the regulation of skeletal remodelling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible modulation of bone mass mediated by the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) in vivo and in vitro. Experimental Approach A multidisciplinary approach, including biomolecular, biochemical and morphological analysis, was used to investigate the involvement of TRPV1 in changes in bone density in vivo and osteoclast activity in vitro, in wild-type and Trpv1?/? mice, that had undergone ovariectomy or had a sham operation. Key Results Genetic deletion of Trpv1 as well as pharmacological inhibition/desensitization of TRPV1 signalling dramatically reduced the osteoclast activity in vitro and prevented the ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo, whereas the expression of cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors was increased. Conclusions and Implications These findings highlight the pivotal role TRPV1 channels play in bone resorption and suggest a possible cross-talk between TRPV1 and CB2 receptors. Based on these results, hybrid compounds acting on both TRPV1 and CB2 receptors in an opposite manner could provide a future pharmacological tool for the treatment of diseases associated with disturbances in the bone remodelling process. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24308803

  18. An exploration of the estrogen receptor transcription activity of capsaicin analogues via an integrated approach based on in silico prediction and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Ma, Duo; Lin, Yuan; Fu, Jianjie; Zhang, Aiqian

    2014-06-16

    Capsaicin has been considered as an alternative template of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) in antifouling paint. However, information regarding the estrogenic activity of capsaicin analogues is rather limited in comparison to that of DDT analogues and their metabolites. We here explore the ER transcription activity of selected capsaicin analogues via an integrated approach based on in silico prediction and in vitro assays. Molecular simulation and the agonist/antagonist differential-docking screening identified 6-iodonordihydrocapsaicin (6-I-CPS) as a weak ER? agonist, while anti-estrogenicity was expected for N-arachidonoyldopamine, capsazepine, dihydrocapsaicin, trichostatin A, and capsaicin. On the contrary, the large volume of analogues, such as phorbol 12-phenylacetate 13-acetate 20-homovanillate and phorbol 12,13-dinonanoate 20-homovanillate, cannot fit well with the ER cavity. The result of MVLN assay was in accord with the in silico prediction. 6-I-CPS was demonstrated to induce luciferase gene expression, while the other analogues of relatively small molecular volume reduced luciferase gene expression in MVLN cells, both in the absence and presence of estradiol. This finding suggested that the ER transcription activity of capsaicin analogues is generated at least partly through the ER?-mediated pathway. Moreover, receptor polymorphism analysis indicated that capsaicin analogues may exhibit diverse species selectivity for human beings and marine species. PMID:24747365

  19. Capsaicin causes inactivation and degradation of the androgen receptor by inducing the restoration of miR-449a in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long; Chen, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhenkun; Liu, Wei; Yang, Fei; Yang, Zhao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Capsaicin, a novel antitumor agent extracted from chili peppers, has been proven to induce growth inhibition in various types of cancer including prostate cancer. However, the detailed mechanisms remain largely undiscovered. In the present study, we explored the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) by capsaicin and further researched the mechanisms of their interaction in AR-positive prostate cancer cells. In the present study, cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. Expression levels of cyclin D1, miR-449a, AR and prostate?specific antigen (PSA) were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis. To further confirm the relationship among miR-449a, AR and prostate cancer proliferation, miR-449a was overexpressed by a lentivirus in prostate cancer cells. We discovered that capsaicin prevented tumor proliferation and cell cycle progression through inactivation and degradation of AR. We also found that restoration of miR-449a induced by capsaicin treatment resulted in the inhibition of AR signaling. Finally, we demonstrated that increased expression of miR-449a sensitized prostate cancer to capsaicin treatment. Finally, our experimental results indicated that capsaicin negatively modulates the activity of AR at the mRNA and protein levels by restoring miR-449a profiling in prostate cancer. In addition, increased expression of miR-449a may facilitate the sensitivity of prostate cancer to capsaicin treatment. Thus, capsaicin may be developed as a novel anti-AR drug for the therapy of prostate cancer. PMID:26081756

  20. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl Borate as a Common Activator of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3 Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Colton; M. X. Zhu

    2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) had been depicted as a universal blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels.\\u000a While evidence has accumulated showing that some TRP channels are indeed inhibited by 2APB, especially in heterologous expression\\u000a systems, there are other TRP channels that are unaffected or affected very little by this compound. More interestingly, the\\u000a thermosensitive TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3 channels are

  1. Nociceptors Lacking TRPV1 and TRPV2 Have Normal Heat Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jeffery Woodbury; Melissa Zwick; Shuying Wang; Jeffrey J. Lawson; Michael J. Caterina; Martin Koltzenburg; Kathryn M. Albers; H. Richard Koerber; Brian M. Davis

    2004-01-01

    Vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) has been proposed to be the principal heat-responsive channel for nociceptive neurons. The skin of both rat and mouse receives major projections from primary sensory afferents that bind the plant lectin isolectin B4 (IB4). The majority of IB4-positive neurons are known to be heat-responsive nociceptors. Previous studies suggested that, unlike rat, mouse IB4-positive cutaneous afferents did

  2. Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Stephanie C; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1-3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin. PMID:18461159

  3. Citral Sensing by TRANSient Receptor Potential Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Stephanie C.; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1–3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin. PMID:18461159

  4. Sigma1 receptors are essential for capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity: Studies with selective sigma-1 ligands and sigma-1 knockout mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Manuel Entrena; Enrique José Cobos; Francisco Rafael Nieto; Cruz Miguel Cendán; Georgia Gris; Esperanza Del Pozo; Daniel Zamanillo; José Manuel Baeyens

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the role of ?1 receptors on capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and on nociceptive pain induced by punctate mechanical stimuli, using wild-type and ?1 receptor knockout (?1-KO) mice and selective ?1 receptor-acting drugs. Mutation in ?1-KO mice was confirmed by PCR analysis of genomic DNA and, at the protein level, by [3H](+)-pentazocine binding assays. Both wild-type and ?1-KO mice not

  5. Axon reflexes evoked by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation are mediated by tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated Na+ channels in intestinal afferent nerves.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Morales, M; Ochoa-Cortes, F; Stern, E; Lomax, A E; Vanner, S

    2010-08-01

    Capsaicin-sensitive nerves mediate axon vasodilator reflexes in the intestine, but the ion channels underlying action potential (AP) propagation are poorly understood. To examine the role of voltage-gated Na(+) channels underlying these reflexes, we measured vasomotor and electrophysiological responses elicited by capsaicin in guinea pig and mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, submucosal arterioles, and mesenteric arteries in vitro. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonists dilated guinea pig ileal submucosal arterioles and were blocked by capsazepine and ruthenium red. In double-chamber baths, capsaicin-evoked activation of TRPV1 on proximal perivascular nerves in the left chamber evoked dilations of the distal segment of the submucosal arteriole in the right chamber. Dilations were tetrodotoxin (TTX) (1 microM)-resistant, but reducing extracellular Na(+) (10% solution) or applying the Na(v) 1.8 antagonist A-803467 [5-(4-chlorophenyl-N-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)furan-2-carboxamide] (1 microM) in the proximal chamber blocked capsaicin-evoked dilations in the distal chamber (88%; P = 0.01 and 75% and P < 0.02, respectively). In mouse mesenteric arteries, electrical field stimulation and capsaicin (2 microM) evoked dilations that were also TTX-resistant. In perforated patch-clamp recordings, APs in mouse and guinea pig capsaicin-sensitive DRG neurons were TTX-resistant but blocked by 10% extracellular Na(+). When capsaicin-evoked AP conduction was studied in in vitro ileal multiunit afferent nerve preparations, capsaicin responses were elicited in the presence of TTX, whereas distention-evoked responses were almost completely blocked by TTX. Together, these data provide evidence for TTX-resistant AP conduction in extrinsic sensory neurons that innervate guinea pig and mouse intestine and suggest this neural propagation is sufficient to mediate axon reflexes in the intestine. PMID:20439439

  6. Selective Targeting of TRPV1 Expressing Sensory Nerve Terminals in the Spinal Cord for Long Lasting Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Sikand, Parul; Parihar, Arti; Evans, M. Steven; Premkumar, Louis S.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major clinical problem and opiates are often the only treatment, but they cause significant problems ranging from sedation to deadly respiratory depression. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), a potent agonist of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), causes a slow, sustained and irreversible activation of TRPV1 and increases the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, but causes significant depression of evoked EPSCs due to nerve terminal depolarization block. Intrathecal administration of RTX to rats in the short-term inhibits nociceptive synaptic transmission, and in the long-term causes a localized, selective ablation of TRPV1-expressing central sensory nerve terminals leading to long lasting analgesia in behavioral models. Since RTX actions are selective for central sensory nerve terminals, other efferent functions of dorsal root ganglion neurons can be preserved. Preventing nociceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord can be a useful strategy to treat chronic, debilitating and intractable pain. PMID:19753113

  7. Blocking PAR2 attenuates oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain via TRPV1 and releases of substance P and CGRP in superficial dorsal horn of spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Zhang, Zhi-Fa; Liao, Ming-Feng; Yao, Wen-Long; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xue-Ren

    2015-05-15

    Oxaliplatin (OXL) is a third-generation chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat metastatic digestive tumors; however, neuropathic pain is one of the main limiting complications of OXL. The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying mechanisms by which neuropathic pain is induced by OXL in a rat model. Our results demonstrated that blocking spinal proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) attenuated pain responses evoked by mechanical stimulation and decreased the releases of substance P and CGRP in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The attenuating effect on mechanical pain was significantly smaller in OXL-rats than that in control rats. Blocking PAR2 also attenuated a heightened cold sensitivity evoked by OXL; whereas blocking TRPV1 had little effects on OXL-evoked hypersensitive cold response. Our data also showed that OXL increased the protein expressions of PAR2 and TRPV1 in the superficial dorsal horn. In addition, blocking PAR2 decreased TRPV1 expression in OXL-rats. Overall, our data suggest that upregulated expression of PAR2 in the superficial dorsal horn contributes to mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity; whereas amplified TRPV1 plays a role in regulating mechanical hyperalgesia, but not cold hypersensitivity after administration of OXL. We further suggest that TRPV1 is likely one of the signaling pathways for PAR2 to play a role in regulating OXL-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:25829079

  8. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate as a common activator of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3 channels.

    PubMed

    Colton, C K; Zhu, M X

    2007-01-01

    2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) had been depicted as a universal blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. While evidence has accumulated showing that some TRP channels are indeed inhibited by 2APB, especially in heterologous expression systems, there are other TRP channels that are unaffected or affected very little by this compound. More interestingly, the thermosensitive TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3 channels are activated by 2APB. This has been demonstrated both in heterologous systems and in native tissues that express these channels. A number of 2APB analogs have been examined for their effects on native store-operated channels and heterologously expressed TRPV3. These studies revealed a complex mechanism of action for 2APB and its analogs on ion channels. In this review, we have summarized the current results on 2APB-induced activation of TRPV1-3 and discussed the potential mechanisms by which 2APB may regulate TRP channels. PMID:17217057

  9. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl Borate as a Common Activator of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Colton, C. K.; Zhu, M. X.

    2015-01-01

    2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) had been depicted as a universal blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. While evidence has accumulated showing that some TRP channels are indeed inhibited by 2APB, especially in heterologous expression systems, there are other TRP channels that are unaffected or affected very little by this compound. More interestingly, the thermosensitive TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3 channels are activated by 2APB. This has been demonstrated both in heterologous systems and in native tissues that express these channels. A number of 2APB analogs have been examined for their effects on native store-operated channels and heterologously expressed TRPV3. These studies revealed a complex mechanism of action for 2APB and its analogs on ion channels. In this review, we have summarized the current results on 2APB-induced activation of TRPV1–3 and discussed the potential mechanisms by which 2APB may regulate TRP channels. PMID:17217057

  10. Thermo-Sensitive Receptor Protein: Role of TRPVs in Control of Body Temperature under Heat Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Kusuno, Tomoyuki; Hanada, Tsunehisa; Tominaga, Makoto; Tominaga, Tomoko; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamada, Hisao; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-01

    In vertebrate peripheral nervous system, skin heating and cooling are detected by thermo-sensitive neurons tuned to respond over distinct temperature ranges. TRP-family is thermo-sensitive receptor protein which is Ca2+-permeable ion channels expressing in cellular membrane. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat above 42 °C, whereas TRPV3 and TRPV4 are sensitive to moderate temperatures (<34 °C). Although the amino acid sequence and the channel properties have been characterized, the molecular mechanism of temperature sensation remains poorly understood. In environment, mid and far infrared radiation act as physical stimuli. Here we examined the role of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in regulation of body temperature (BT) by using infrared laser as mild heat stimuli. In wild type mouse, the laser irradiation which caused the increase in skin temperature up to 55 °C did not induce the change in BT without any treatment of TRPVs. However, desensitization of TRPV1 with capsaicin resulted in the increase in BT by laser irradiation. On the other hand, in TRPV4-knockout mouse, moderate thermal stimulus (skin surface temperature <43 °C) caused the increase in the BT. These results suggest that the processing of noxious and moderate thermal radiation stimuli may depend on the TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively.

  11. LASSBio-1135: A Dual TRPV1 Antagonist and Anti-TNF-Alpha Compound Orally Effective in Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Cleverton K. F.; Silva, Rafael M.; Lacerda, Renata B.; Santos, Bruna L. R.; Silva, Rafaela V.; Amaral, Luciana S.; Quintas, Luís E. M.; Fraga, Carlos A. M.; Barreiro, Eliezer J.; Guimaraes, Marília Z. P.; Miranda, Ana L. P.

    2014-01-01

    LASSBio-1135 is an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivative with high efficacy in screening models of nociception and inflammation, presumed as a weak COX-2 inhibitor. In order to tease out its mechanism of action, we investigated others possible target for LASSBio-1135, such as TNF-? and TRPV1, to better characterize it as a multitarget compound useful in the treatment of chronic pain. TRPV1 modulation was assessed in TRPV1-expressing Xenopus oocytes against capsaicin and low pH-induced current. Modulation of TNF-? production was evaluated in culture of macrophages stimulated with LPS. In vivo efficacy of LASSBio-1135 was investigated in carrageenan and partial sciatic ligation-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Corroborating its previous demonstration of efficacy in a model of capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia, LASSBio-1135 blocks capsaicin-elicited currents in a non-competitive way with an IC50 of 580 nM as well as low pH-induced current at 50 µM. As an additional action, LASSBio-1135 inhibited TNF-? release in these cells stimulated by LPS with an IC50 of 546 nM by reducing p38 MAPK phosphorilation. Oral administration of 100 µmol.Kg?1 LASSBio-1135 markedly reduced thermal hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, however at 10 µmol.Kg?1 only a partial reduction was observed at the 4th h. Neutrophil recruitment and TNF-? production after carrageenan stimulus was also inhibited by the treatment with LASSBio-1135. Modulating TRPV1 and TNF-? production, two key therapeutic targets of neuropathic pain, 100 µmol.Kg?1 LASSBio-1135 was orally efficacious in reversing thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia produced by partial sciatic ligation 7–11 days after surgery without provoking hyperthermia, a common side effect of TRPV1 antagonists. In conclusion LASSBio-1135, besides being a weak COX-2 inhibitor, is a non-competitive TRPV1 antagonist and a TNF-? inhibitor. As a multitarget compound, LASSBio-1135 is orally efficacious in a model of neuropathic pain without presenting hyperthermia. PMID:24941071

  12. A multi-target approach for pain treatment: dual inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase and TRPV1 in a rat model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek, Natalia; Mrugala, Monika; Makuch, Wioletta; Kolosowska, Natalia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Binkowski, Marcin; Czaja, Martyna; Morera, Enrico; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Starowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    The pharmacological inhibition of anandamide (AEA) hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) attenuates pain in animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) but has failed in clinical trials. This may have occurred because AEA also activates transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), which contributes to pain development. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of the dual FAAH-TRPV1 blocker OMDM-198 in an MIA-model of osteoarthritic pain. We first investigated the MIA-induced model of OA by (1) characterizing the pain phenotype and degenerative changes within the joint using X-ray microtomography and (2) evaluating nerve injury and inflammation marker (ATF-3 and IL-6) expression in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia of osteoarthritic rats and differences in gene and protein expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptors FAAH and TRPV1. Furthermore, we compared OMDM-198 with compounds acting exclusively on FAAH or TRPV1. Osteoarthritis was accompanied by the fragmentation of bone microstructure and destroyed cartilage. An increase of the mRNA levels of ATF3 and IL-6 and an upregulation of AEA receptors and FAAH in the dorsal root ganglia were observed. OMDM-198 showed antihyperalgesic effects in the OA model, which were comparable with those of a selective TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366,791, and a selective FAAH inhibitor, URB-597. The effect of OMDM-198 was attenuated by the CB1 receptor antagonist, AM-251, and by the nonpungent TRPV1 agonist, olvanil, suggesting its action as an "indirect" CB1 agonist and TRPV1 antagonist. These results suggest an innovative strategy for the treatment of OA, which may yield more satisfactory results than those obtained so far with selective FAAH inhibitors in human OA. PMID:25719612

  13. Different uptake of gentamicin through TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels determines cochlear hair cell vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Han; Park, Channy; Kim, Se-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Shen, AiHua; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

    2013-01-01

    Hair cells at the base of the cochlea appear to be more susceptible to damage by the aminoglycoside gentamicin than those at the apex. However, the mechanism of base-to-apex gradient ototoxicity by gentamicin remains to be elucidated. We report here that gentamicin caused rodent cochlear hair cell damages in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Hair cells at the basal turn were more vulnerable to gentamicin than those at the apical turn. Gentamicin-conjugated Texas Red (GTTR) uptake was predominant in basal turn hair cells in neonatal rats. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and 4 (TRPV4) expression was confirmed in the cuticular plate, stereocilia and hair cell body of inner hair cells and outer hair cells. The involvement of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in gentamicin trafficking of hair cells was confirmed by exogenous calcium treatment and TRPV inhibitors, including gadolinium and ruthenium red, which resulted in markedly inhibited GTTR uptake and gentamicin-induced hair cell damage in rodent and zebrafish ototoxic model systems. These results indicate that the cytotoxic vulnerability of cochlear hair cells in the basal turn to gentamicin may depend on effective uptake of the drug, which was, in part, mediated by the TRPV1 and TRPV4 proteins. PMID:23470714

  14. Structure of the TRPV1 ion channel determined by electron cryo-microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Maofu; Cao, Erhu; Julius, David; Cheng, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are sensors for a wide range of cellular and environmental signals, but elucidating how these channels respond to physical and chemical stimuli has been hampered by a lack of detailed structural information. Here, we exploit advances in electron cryo-microscopy to determine the structure of a mammalian TRP channel, TRPV1, at 3.4Ĺ resolution, breaking the side-chain resolution barrier for membrane proteins without crystallization. Like voltage-gated channels, TRPV1 exhibits four-fold symmetry around a central ion pathway formed by transmembrane helices S5–S6 and the intervening pore loop, which is flanked by S1–S4 voltage sensor-like domains. TRPV1 has a wide extracellular ‘mouth’ with short selectivity filter. The conserved ‘TRP domain’ interacts with the S4–S5 linker, consistent with its contribution to allosteric modulation. Subunit organization is facilitated by interactions among cytoplasmic domains, including N-terminal ankyrin repeats. These observations provide a structural blueprint for understanding unique aspects of TRP channel function. PMID:24305160

  15. GABAB receptor modulation of the release of substance P from capsaicin-sensitive neurones in the rat trachea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ray, N J; Jones, A J; Keen, P

    1991-04-01

    1. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as an inhibitory transmitter in the central nervous system is well documented. Recently, GABAA and GABAB receptors have been identified in the peripheral nervous system, notably on primary afferent neurones (PAN). We have utilised a multi-superfusion system to investigate the effect of selective GABA receptor agonists and antagonists on the release of substance P (SP) from the rat trachea in vitro. 2. GABA (1-100 microM) did not affect spontaneous release of SP-like immunoreactivity (LI) but caused dose-related inhibition of calcium-dependent potassium (60 mM)-stimulated SP-LI release. The greatest inhibition of 77.7 +/- 18.8% was observed at 100 microM. 3. The inhibitory effect of GABA was mimicked by the GABAB receptor agonist, (+/-)-baclofen (1-100 microM), but not the GABAA receptor agonist, 3-amino-1-propane-sulphonic acid (3-APS, 1-100 microM). Baclofen (100 microM) had no effect on SP-LI release stimulated by capsaicin (1 microM). 4. The inhibitory effect of baclofen (30 microM) was significantly reduced by prior and concomitant exposure to the GABAB receptor antagonist, phacolofen (100 microM) but not the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline (10 microM). Neither antagonist, alone, affected spontaneous or potassium-stimulated SP-LI release. 5. We conclude that activation of pre-synaptic GABAB receptors on the peripheral termini of PANs in the rat trachea inhibits SP-LI release and suggest that GABAB receptor agonists may be of value in the therapeutic treatment of asthma. PMID:1713105

  16. Ganglion-specific splicing of TRPV1 underlies infrared sensation in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Gracheva, Elena O; Cordero-Morales, Julio F; González-Carcacía, José A; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Manno, Carlo; Aranguren, Carla I; Weissman, Jonathan S; Julius, David

    2011-08-01

    Vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are obligate blood feeders that have evolved specialized systems to suit their sanguinary lifestyle. Chief among such adaptations is the ability to detect infrared radiation as a means of locating hotspots on warm-blooded prey. Among vertebrates, only vampire bats, boas, pythons and pit vipers are capable of detecting infrared radiation. In each case, infrared signals are detected by trigeminal nerve fibres that innervate specialized pit organs on the animal's face. Thus, vampire bats and snakes have taken thermosensation to the extreme by developing specialized systems for detecting infrared radiation. As such, these creatures provide a window into the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying evolutionary tuning of thermoreceptors in a species-specific or cell-type-specific manner. Previously, we have shown that snakes co-opt a non-heat-sensitive channel, vertebrate TRPA1 (transient receptor potential cation channel A1), to produce an infrared detector. Here we show that vampire bats tune a channel that is already heat-sensitive, TRPV1, by lowering its thermal activation threshold to about 30?°C. This is achieved through alternative splicing of TRPV1 transcripts to produce a channel with a truncated carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain. These splicing events occur exclusively in trigeminal ganglia, and not in dorsal root ganglia, thereby maintaining a role for TRPV1 as a detector of noxious heat in somatic afferents. This reflects a unique organization of the bat Trpv1 gene that we show to be characteristic of Laurasiatheria mammals (cows, dogs and moles), supporting a close phylogenetic relationship with bats. These findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism for physiological tuning of thermosensory nerve fibres. PMID:21814281

  17. Fetal ethanol exposure attenuates aversive oral effects of TrpV1, but not TrpA1 agonists in rats.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Simons, Yael M; Youngentob, Lisa; Youngentob, Steven L

    2012-03-01

    In humans, fetal ethanol exposure is highly predictive of adolescent ethanol use and abuse. Prior work in our labs indicated that fetal ethanol exposure results in stimulus-induced chemosensory plasticity in the taste and olfactory systems of adolescent rats. In particular, we found that increased ethanol acceptability could be attributed, in part, to an attenuated aversion to ethanol's aversive odor and quinine-like bitter taste quality. Here, we asked whether fetal ethanol exposure also alters the oral trigeminal response of adolescent rats to ethanol. We focused on two excitatory ligand-gated ion channels, TrpV1 and TrpA1, which are expressed in oral trigeminal neurons and mediate the aversive orosensory response to many chemical irritants. To target TrpV1, we used capsaicin, and to target TrpA1, we used allyl isothiocyanate (or mustard oil). We assessed the aversive oral effects of ethanol, together with capsaicin and mustard oil, by measuring short-term licking responses to a range of concentrations of each chemical. Experimental rats were exposed in utero by administering ethanol to dams through a liquid diet. Control rats had ad libitum access to an iso-caloric iso-nutritive liquid diet. We found that fetal ethanol exposure attenuated the oral aversiveness of ethanol and capsaicin, but not mustard oil, in adolescent rats. Moreover, the increased acceptability of ethanol was directly related to the reduced aversiveness of the TrpV1-mediated orosensory input. We propose that fetal ethanol exposure increases ethanol avidity not only by making ethanol smell and taste better, but also by attenuating ethanol's capsaicin-like burning sensations. PMID:22378825

  18. Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons of Mice Show Intracellular Chloride Accumulation and Chloride-Dependent Amplification of Capsaicin-Induced Responses

    PubMed Central

    Schöbel, Nicole; Radtke, Debbie; Lübbert, Matthias; Gisselmann, Günter; Lehmann, Ramona; Cichy, Annika; Schreiner, Benjamin S. P.; Altmüller, Janine; Spector, Alan C.; Spehr, Jennifer; Hatt, Hanns; Wetzel, Christian H.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Cl? concentrations ([Cl?]i) of sensory neurons regulate signal transmission and signal amplification. In dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), Cl? is accumulated by the Na+-K+-2Cl? cotransporter 1 (NKCC1), resulting in a [Cl?]i above electrochemical equilibrium and a depolarizing Cl? efflux upon Cl? channel opening. Here, we investigate the [Cl?]i and function of Cl? in primary sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG) of wild type (WT) and NKCC1?/? mice using pharmacological and imaging approaches, patch-clamping, as well as behavioral testing. The [Cl?]i of WT TG neurons indicated active NKCC1-dependent Cl? accumulation. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor activation induced a reduction of [Cl?]i as well as Ca2+ transients in a corresponding fraction of TG neurons. Ca2+ transients were sensitive to inhibition of NKCC1 and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). Ca2+ responses induced by capsaicin, a prototypical stimulus of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1) were diminished in NKCC1?/? TG neurons, but elevated under conditions of a lowered [Cl?]o suggesting a Cl?-dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses. Using next generation sequencing (NGS), we found expression of different Ca2+-activated Cl? channels (CaCCs) in TGs of mice. Pharmacological inhibition of CaCCs reduced the amplitude of capsaicin-induced responses of TG neurons in Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiological recordings. In a behavioral paradigm, NKCC1?/? mice showed less avoidance of the aversive stimulus capsaicin. In summary, our results strongly argue for a Ca2+-activated Cl?-dependent signal amplification mechanism in TG neurons that requires intracellular Cl? accumulation by NKCC1 and the activation of CaCCs. PMID:23144843

  19. Modulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4-mediated membrane currents and synaptic transmission by protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Cao, De-Shou; Yu, Shuang-Quan; Premkumar, Louis S

    2009-01-01

    Background Transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV) receptors are involved in nociception and are expressed predominantly in sensory neurons. TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel has been extensively studied and is responsible for inflammatory thermal hypersensitivity. In this study, the expression and function of TRPV4 have been characterized and compared with those of TRPV1. Results Immunohistochemical studies revealed that both TRPV1 and TRPV4 were co-expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cell bodies and in the central terminals of laminae I and II of the spinal dorsal horn (DH). In Ca2+ fluorescence imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, TRPV1- and TRPV4-mediated responses were observed in a population of the same DRG neurons. Sensitization of TRPV1 has been shown to be involved in inflammatory pain conditions. Incubation with phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu), a PKC activator, resulted in a significant potentiation of TRPV4 currents in DRG neurons. In TRPV4 expressing HEK 293T cells, PDBu increased 4?-phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (4?-PDD)-induced single-channel activity in cell-attached patches, which was abrogated by bisindolylmaleimide (BIM), a selective PKC inhibitor. TRPV4 is also expressed at the central terminals of sensory neurons. Activation of TRPV4 by 4?-PDD increased the frequency of miniature excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs) in DRG-DH neuronal co-cultures. 4?-PDD-induced increase in the frequency of mEPSCs was further enhanced by PDBu. The expression of TRP channels has been shown in other areas of the CNS; application of 4?-PDD significantly increased the mEPSC frequency in cultured hippocampal neurons, which was further potentiated by PDBu, whereas, TRPV1 agonist capsaicin did not modulate synaptic transmission. Conclusion These results indicate that TRPV4 and TRPV1 are co-expressed in certain DRG neurons and TRPV4 can be sensitized by PKC not only in DRG neuronal cell bodies, but also in the central sensory and non-sensory nerve terminals. Co-expression of TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels, their modulation of synaptic transmission and their sensitization by PKC may synergistically play a role in nociception. PMID:19208258

  20. The Pore Loop Domain of TRPV1 Is Required for Its Activation by the Volatile Anesthetics Chloroform and Isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Corinna; Luo, Jialie; Yin, Shijin; Hu, Hongzhen; Dhaka, Ajay

    2015-07-01

    The environmental irritant chloroform, a naturally occurring small volatile organohalogen, briefly became the world's most popular volatile general anesthetic (VGA) before being abandoned because of its low therapeutic index. When chloroform comes in contact with skin or is ingested, it causes a painful burning sensation. The molecular basis for the pain associated with chloroform remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family members in mediating chloroform activation and the molecular determinants of VGA activation of TRPV1. We identified the subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that are activated by chloroform. Additionally, we transiently expressed wild-type or specifically mutated TRP channels in human embryonic kidney cells and used calcium imaging or whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to assess the effects of chloroform or the VGA isoflurane on TRP channel activation. The results revealed that chloroform activates DRG neurons via TRPV1 activation. Furthermore, chloroform activates TRPV1, and it also activates TRPM8 and functions as a potent inhibitor of the noxious chemical receptor TRPA1. The results also indicate that residues in the outer pore region of TRPV1 previously thought to be required for either proton or heat activation of the channel are also required for activation by chloroform and isoflurane. In addition to identifying the molecular basis of DRG neuron activation by chloroform and the opposing effects chloroform has on different TRP channel family members, the findings of this study provide novel insights into the structural basis for the activation of TRPV1 by VGAs. PMID:25953616

  1. VGLUT2 controls heat and punctuate hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury via TRPV1-Cre primary afferents

    PubMed Central

    Rogoz, Katarzyna; Stjärne, Ludvig; Kullander, Klas; Lagerström, Malin C.

    2015-01-01

    Nerve injury induces a state of prolonged thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the innervated area, causing distress in affected individuals. Nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity is partially due to increased activity and thereby sustained release of neurotransmitters from the injured fibers. Glutamate, a prominent neurotransmitter in primary afferents, plays a major role in development of hypersensitivity. Glutamate is packed in vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) to enable controlled release upon depolarization. While a role for peripheral VGLUTs in nerve injury-induced pain is established, their contribution in specific peripheral neuronal populations is unresolved. We investigated the role of VGLUT2, expressed by transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) fibers, in nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity. Our data shows that removal of Vglut2 from Trpv1-Cre neurons using transgenic mice abolished both heat and punctuate hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury. In contrast, the development of cold hypersensitivity after nerve injury was unaltered. Here, we show that, VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission from Trpv1-Cre neurons selectively mediates heat and mechanical hypersensitivity associated with nerve injury. Our data clarifies the role of the Trpv1-Cre population and the dependence of VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission in nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:25615623

  2. Postsynaptic TRPV1 triggers cell type-specific long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Grueter, Brad A; Brasnjo, Gabor; Malenka, Robert C

    2010-12-01

    Synaptic modifications in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are important for adaptive and pathological reward-dependent learning. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the major cell type in the NAc, participate in two parallel circuits that subserve distinct behavioral functions, yet little is known about differences in their electrophysiological and synaptic properties. Using bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, we found that synaptic activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in NAc MSNs in the indirect, but not direct, pathway led to the production of endocannabinoids, which activated presynaptic CB1 receptors to trigger endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression (eCB-LTD) as well as postsynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels to trigger a form of LTD resulting from endocytosis of AMPA receptors. These results reveal a previously unknown action of TRPV1 channels and indicate that the postsynaptic generation of endocannabinoids can modulate synaptic strength in a cell type-specific fashion by activating distinct pre- and postsynaptic targets. PMID:21076424

  3. Double peak sensory responses: effects of capsaicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Aprile; P. Tonali; E. Stalberg; E. Di Stasio; P. Caliandro; M. Foschini; G. Vergili; L. Padua

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify whether degeneration of skin receptors or intradermal nerve endings by topical application\\u000a of capsaicin modifies the double peak response obtained by submaximal anodal stimulation. Five healthy volunteers topically\\u000a applied capsaicin to the finger-tip of digit III (on the distal phalanx) four times daily for 4–5 weeks. Before and after\\u000a local capsaicin applications,

  4. The response of PKD1L3?/?PKD2L1 to acid stimuli is inhibited by capsaicin and its pungent analogs

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Sho; Kurokawa, Azusa; Kishi, Mikiya; Yamagami, Keigo; Okada, Shinji; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) 2L1 protein is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family. In circumvallate and foliate papillae, PKD2L1 is coexpressed with PKD1L3. PKD2L1 and PKD1L3 interact through their transmembrane domain and the resulting heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 owns a unique channel property called ‘off-responses’ to acid stimulation, although PKD2L1 does not own this property by itself. To define the pharmacological properties of the PKD1L3/PKD2L1 channel, we developed a new method to effectively evaluate channel activity using human embryonic kidney 293T cells in which the channel was heterologously expressed. This method was applied to screen substances that potentially regulate it. We found that capsaicin and its analogs, which are TRPV1 agonists, inhibited the response to acid stimuli and that the capsaicin inhibition was reversible with an IC50 of 32.5 ?m. Capsaicin and its analogs are thus useful tools for physiological analysis of PKD1L3/PKD2L1 function. Database Nucleotide sequence data are available in the GenBank database under the accession numbers hTRPA1, BC148423 and hTRPV3, BC104866. PMID:22420714

  5. TRPV1 Potentiates TGF?-Induction of Corneal Myofibroblast Development through an Oxidative Stress-Mediated p38-SMAD2 Signaling Loop

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuanquan; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Hua; Wang, Lingyan; Gillespie, Stephanie R.; Wolosin, J. Mario; Bernstein, Audrey M.; Reinach, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Injuring mouse corneas with alkali causes myofibroblast expression leading to tissue opacification. However, in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel (TRPV1-/-) knockout mice healing results in transparency restoration. Since TGF? is the primary inducer of the myofibroblast phenotype, we examined the mechanism by which TRPV1 affects TGF?-induced myofibroblast development. Experiments were performed in pig corneas and human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs). Immunohistochemical staining of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) stress fibers was used to visualize myofibroblasts. Protein and phosphoprotein were determined by Western blotting. siRNA transfection silenced TRPV1 gene expression. Flow cytometry with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) reporting dye analyzed intracellular ROS. [Ca2+]I was measured by loading HCF with fura2. In organ cultured corneas, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine drastically reduced by 75% wound-induced myofibroblast development. In HCF cell culture, TGF-?1 elicited rapid increases in Ca2+ influx, phosphorylation of SMAD2 and MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38), ROS generation and, after 72 hrs myofibroblast development. SMAD2 and p38 activation continued for more than 16 h, whereas p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 waned within 90 min. The long-lived SMAD2 activation was dependent on activated p38 and vice versa, and it was essential to generate a > 13-fold increase in ?-SMA protein and a fully developed myofibroblast phenotype. These later changes were markedly reduced by inhibition of TRPV1 or reduction of the ROS generation rate. Taken together our results indicate that in corneal derived fibroblasts, TGF?- induced myofibroblast development is highly dependent on a positive feedback loop where p-SMAD2-induced ROS activates TRPV1, TRPV1 causes activation of p38, the latter in turn further enhances the activation of SMAD2 to establish a recurrent loop that greatly extends the residency of the activated state of SMAD2 that drives myofibroblast development. PMID:24098582

  6. A combined coarse-grained and all-atom simulation of TRPV1 channel gating and heat activation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjun; Qin, Feng

    2015-05-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels act as key sensors of various chemical and physical stimuli in eukaryotic cells. Despite years of study, the molecular mechanisms of TRP channel activation remain unclear. To elucidate the structural, dynamic, and energetic basis of gating in TRPV1 (a founding member of the TRPV subfamily), we performed coarse-grained modeling and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based on the recently solved high resolution structures of the open and closed form of TRPV1. Our coarse-grained normal mode analysis captures two key modes of collective motions involved in the TRPV1 gating transition, featuring a quaternary twist motion of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) relative to the intracellular domains (ICDs). Our transition pathway modeling predicts a sequence of structural movements that propagate from the ICDs to the TMDs via key interface domains (including the membrane proximal domain and the C-terminal domain), leading to sequential opening of the selectivity filter followed by the lower gate in the channel pore (confirmed by modeling conformational changes induced by the activation of ICDs). The above findings of coarse-grained modeling are robust to perturbation by lipids. Finally, our MD simulation of the ICD identifies key residues that contribute differently to the nonpolar energy of the open and closed state, and these residues are predicted to control the temperature sensitivity of TRPV1 gating. These computational predictions offer new insights to the mechanism for heat activation of TRPV1 gating, and will guide our future electrophysiology and mutagenesis studies. PMID:25918362

  7. The stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive neurones in a vanilloid receptor-mediated fashion by pungent terpenoids possessing an unsaturated 1,4-dialdehyde moiety.

    PubMed Central

    Szallasi, A.; Jonassohn, M.; Acs, G.; Bíró, T.; Acs, P.; Blumberg, P. M.; Sterner, O.

    1996-01-01

    1. The irritant fungal terpenoid isovelleral caused protective eye-wiping movements in the rat upon intraocular instillation and showed cross-tachyphylaxis with capsaicin, the pungent principle in hot pepper. 2. Isovelleral induced a dose-dependent calcium uptake by rat dorsal root ganglion neurones cultured in vitro with an EC50 of 95 nM, which was fully inhibited by the competitive vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine. 3. Isovelleral inhibited specific binding of [3H]-resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent capsaicin analogue, to rat trigeminal ganglion or spinal cord preparations with an IC50 of 5.2 microM; in experiments in which the concentration of [3H]-RTX was varied, isovelleral changed both the apparent affinity (from 16 pM to 37 pM) and the co-operativity index (from 2.1 to 1.5), but not the Bmax. 4. The affinity of isovelleral for inducing calcium uptake or inhibiting RTX binding was in very good agreement with the threshold dose (2.2. nmol) at which it provoked pungency on the human tongue. 5. For a series of 14 terpenoids with an unsaturated 1,4-dialdehyde, a good correlation was found between pungency on the human tongue and affinity for vanilloid receptors on the rat spinal cord. 6. The results suggest that isovelleral-like compounds produce their irritant effect by interacting with vanilloid receptors on capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurones. Since these pungent diterpenes are structurally distinct from the known classes of vanilloids, these data provide new insights into structure-activity relations and may afford new opportunities for the development of drugs targeting capsaicin-sensitive pathways. PMID:8886410

  8. [Advance in studies on TRPV1 and analgesic effect of traditional Chinese medicines].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Lv, Cui; Zhang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective positive ion channel that is mainly expressed in sensory neurons and a member of transient receptor potential (TRP) family. The receptor could be activated by mechanical irritation, chemical irritation or endogenous ligand to mediate pains and cause injury to body functions. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that the mechanism of pain is that "stagnation leads to pain". Specifically, both of the contracture and tautness caused by cold and the blood stasis could result in blood impassability and pain. Most of traditional Chinese medicines for clearing heat and removing toxicity have the anti-inflammatory effect, while those for warming interior, and promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis have the effect in smoothening blood vessels. Therefore, either with the anti-inflammatory effect or the effect in smoothening blood vessels, traditional Chinese medicines for clearing heat and removing toxicity, warming interior, and promoting blood circulation have the analgesic effect In this paper, the authors summarize the analgesic effect of the above three traditional Chinese medicines, with TRPV1 as the target. PMID:25282877

  9. Critical Evaluation of the Colocalization Between Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide, Substance P, Transient Receptor Potential

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    and the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily type 1 (TRPV1) channel and to compare this colocalization fewer CGRP-immunoreactive neurons in the DRG colocalized TRPV1 immunoreactivity (49.2%) compared

  10. Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers

    E-print Network

    Kharasch, Evan

    LETTERS Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers lidocaine derivative QX-314 through the pore of the noxious-heat-sensitive TRPV1 channel. Here we show that charged sodium-channel blockers can be targeted into nociceptors by the application of TRPV1 agonists

  11. Silicon switch approach in TRPV1 antagonist MK-056 and its analogues Minsun Chang b

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    Silicon switch approach in TRPV1 antagonist MK-056 and its analogues Minsun Chang b , Seol-Rin Park switch TRPV1 Antagonist 1,3-Dibenzylthiourea a b s t r a c t In searching for opportunities to exploit the benefits of silicon in TRPV1 research, we tried to investigate the pharmacological effects of sila

  12. A role for the anandamide membrane transporter in TRPV1-mediated neurosecretion from

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    A role for the anandamide membrane transporter in TRPV1-mediated neurosecretion from trigeminal neurons transported AEA in a FAAH- and AMT-inhibitable fashion. Although TRPV1-positive TG neurons were for the pharmacological action of AEA and NADA at native TRPV1 channels. Ó 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  13. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel diarylalkyl amides as TRPV1 antagonists

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel diarylalkyl amides as TRPV1 antagonists Fu 2009 Available online 11 April 2009 Keywords: Diarylalkyl amides TRPV1 antagonists a b s t r a c t We have developed a new class of diarylalkyl amides as novel TRPV1 antagonists. They exhibited potent 45

  14. TRPV1 activation is involved in the cardioprotection of remote limb ischemic postconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion injury rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanfeng; Song, Junxian; Chen, Hong; Cao, Chengfu; Lee, Chongyou

    2015-08-01

    Limb remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) has been proved to be a safe and effective measurement of cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. But what bridges the remote organ insult and the cardioprotective effect in heart remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to found that whether TRPV1 may mediate the cardioprotective effect from remote organ to heart and the role of CGRP and SP in this process. We found that RIPostC effectively ameliorated cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in terms of limiting infarct size, lowering CK and cTnI release and improving cardiac function. In addition, these cardioprotective effects could be significantly abolished by inhibition of either CGRP or SP receptors with corresponding antagonists (CGRP8-37 for CGRP and RP-67580 for SP) injected before reperfusion. Besides, RIPostC resulted in significantly increase in the levels of CGRP and SP in plasma and hearts, as well as the levels and mRNA expression of CGRP and SP in DRG. The increase in CGRP and SP levels in plasma and hearts were markedly inhibited by TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. These findings indicate that limb remote ischemic postconditioning could attenuate cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, and the cardioprotective mechanism is via TRPV1-mediated upregulation of CGRP and SP, which could subsequently act on their corresponding receptors in heart tissue. PMID:26079883

  15. Differences in the Chemesthetic Subqualities of Capsaicin, Ibuprofen, and Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Samantha M.

    2012-01-01

    Chemesthetic sensations elicited by ibuprofen, extra-virgin olive oil, and capsaicin were compared to quantify perceptual differences between known agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Extra virgin olive oil contains a phenolic compound, oleocanthal, which is thought to share unique chemesthetic qualities with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen. Pilot work suggested participants had difficulty distinguishing between multiple chemesthetic subqualities (e.g., burn, sting, itch, tickle, etc.) in a multiattribute rating task. Here, we assessed overall irritation via direct scaling, and a check all that apply task was used to collect information about chemesthetic subqualities over time. Replicated ratings were collected at discrete intervals using the generalized labeled magnitude scale to generate time-intensity curves; maximum intensity (Imax) and area under the curve were extracted for each participant. Intensity responses varied substantially across participants, and within a participant, the relationship was strongest between ibuprofen and olive oil. However, there were also positive, albeit weaker, correlations between capsaicin and ibuprofen and capsaicin and olive oil. The correlation found between olive oil and capsaicin may suggest the presence of unknown TRPV1 agonists in olive oil. This view was also supported by the qualitative data: Capsaicin was described most often as burning and warm/hot, whereas ibuprofen was numbing and tickling. Olive oil shared characteristics with both capsaicin (warm/hot) and ibuprofen (tickle). PMID:22281531

  16. Differences in the chemesthetic subqualities of capsaicin, ibuprofen, and olive oil.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Samantha M; Hayes, John E

    2012-06-01

    Chemesthetic sensations elicited by ibuprofen, extra-virgin olive oil, and capsaicin were compared to quantify perceptual differences between known agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Extra virgin olive oil contains a phenolic compound, oleocanthal, which is thought to share unique chemesthetic qualities with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen. Pilot work suggested participants had difficulty distinguishing between multiple chemesthetic subqualities (e.g., burn, sting, itch, tickle, etc.) in a multiattribute rating task. Here, we assessed overall irritation via direct scaling, and a check all that apply task was used to collect information about chemesthetic subqualities over time. Replicated ratings were collected at discrete intervals using the generalized labeled magnitude scale to generate time-intensity curves; maximum intensity (Imax) and area under the curve were extracted for each participant. Intensity responses varied substantially across participants, and within a participant, the relationship was strongest between ibuprofen and olive oil. However, there were also positive, albeit weaker, correlations between capsaicin and ibuprofen and capsaicin and olive oil. The correlation found between olive oil and capsaicin may suggest the presence of unknown TRPV1 agonists in olive oil. This view was also supported by the qualitative data: capsaicin was described most often as burning and warm/hot, whereas ibuprofen was numbing and tickling. Olive oil shared characteristics with both capsaicin (warm/hot) and ibuprofen (tickle). PMID:22281531

  17. In vitro TRPV1 activity of piperine derived amides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Andrés Correa; Edward D. Högestätt; Olov Sterner; Fernando Echeverri; Peter M. Zygmunt

    2010-01-01

    A series of natural and synthetic piperine amides were evaluated for activity on the human TRPV1 expressed in HEK293 cells. The agonistic effect of piperine amides was mainly dependent on the length of the carbon chain. Structural changes of double bonds and stereochemistry in the aliphatic chain of these compounds did not change their potency or efficacy, indicating that increased

  18. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 by eugenol.

    PubMed

    Chung, G; Im, S T; Kim, Y H; Jung, S J; Rhyu, M-R; Oh, S B

    2014-03-01

    Eugenol is a bioactive plant extract used as an analgesic agent in dentistry. The structural similarity of eugenol to cinnamaldehyde, an active ligand for transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), suggests that eugenol might produce its effect via TRPA1, in addition to TRPV1 as we reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effect of eugenol on TRPA1, by fura-2-based calcium imaging and patch clamp recording in trigeminal ganglion neurons and in a heterologous expression system. As the result, eugenol induced robust calcium responses in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons that responded to a specific TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), and not to capsaicin. Capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist failed to inhibit eugenol-induced calcium responses in AITC-responding neurons. In addition, eugenol response was observed in trigeminal ganglion neurons from TRPV1 knockout mice and human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines that express human TRPA1, which was inhibited by TRPA1-specific antagonist HC-030031. Eugenol-evoked TRPA1 single channel activity and eugenol-induced TRPA1 currents were dose-dependent with EC50 of 261.5?M. In summary, these results demonstrate that the activation of TRPA1 might account for another molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of eugenol. PMID:24384226

  19. Lessons from peppers and peppermint: the molecular logic of thermosensation

    E-print Network

    Jordt, Sven-Eric

    transient receptor potential TRPV1 capsaicin receptor Introduction At any given moment we can experience]. The cloning and functional analysis of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 (also known as vanilloid receptor 1; VR1 temperature at the molecular level [6]. When expressed in heterologous systems, TRPV1 can be activated

  20. Pungent qualities of sanshool-related compounds evaluated by a sensory test and activation of rat TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Etsuko; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Morita, Akihito; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Kubota, Kikue

    2005-10-01

    The detection threshold and taste characteristics of sanshools were examined by sensory evaluation, after isolating four sanshools (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-), and two hydroxy sanshools (alpha- and beta-) from the pericarp of Japanese pepper. The Scoville unit (SU) values of the four sanshools were in the range of 80,000-110,000, while those of hydroxy sanshools were 3-5 fold lower than corresponding sanshools. The pungent qualities of each sanshool were different. Burning and tingling were predominantly perceived and lasted for the longest time with alpha-sanshool. Burning and fresh for gamma-sanshool, and tingling and numbing for hydroxy alpha-sanshool were perceived. Tests on the activation of rat TRPV1 were also performed. All of them were weak agonists. Among them, gamma-sanshool was the most potent agonist, although its EC50 value of 5.3 microM was 230 fold higher than that of capsaicin. These results indicate that it would be difficult to explain the pungent quality of each sanshool simply in terms of TRPV1 activation. PMID:16244447

  1. Role of CXCR2 and TRPV1 in functional, inflammatory and behavioural changes in the rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced haemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Dornelles, Fabiana N; Andrade, Edinéia L; Campos, Maria M; Calixto, Joăo B

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose:?Cyclophosphamide induces urotoxicity characterized by the development of cystitis, which involves bladder overactivity and inflammation. Here, we investigated the roles of chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Experimental Approach:?Cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide in rats was assessed by gross morphology, histology and immunohistochemistry of bladder tissue. mRNA for CXCR2 and TRPV1 channels were measured by RT-PCR. Nociceptive responses in paw and abdomen, along with cystometric measures were recorded. Key Results:?Cyclophosphamide, i.p., induced pain behaviour, bladder inflammation and voiding dysfunction. The CXCR2 antagonist, SB225002, the TRPV1 channel antagonist, SB366791 or their combination reduced the mechanical hypersensitivity of paw and abdominal area and nociceptive behaviour after cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis was characterized by haemorrhage, oedema, neutrophil infiltration and other inflammatory changes, which were markedly decreased by the antagonists. Up-regulation of CXCR2 and TRPV1 mRNA in the bladder after cyclophosphamide was inhibited by SB225002, SB366791 or their combination. Expression of CXCR2 and TRPV1 channels was increased in the urothelium after cyclophosphamide. Bladder dysfunction was shown by increased number of non-voiding contractions (NVCs) and bladder pressures and a reduction in bladder capacity (BC), voided volume (VV) and voiding efficiency (VE). SB225002 or its combination with SB366791 reduced bladder pressures, whereas SB225002, SB366791 or their combination increased BC, VV and VE, and also reduced the number of NVCs. Conclusions and Implications:?CXCR2 and TRPV1 channels play important roles in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats and could provide potential therapeutic targets for cystitis. PMID:24117268

  2. Cannabinoid receptor-independent actions of the aminoalkylindole WIN 55,212-2 on trigeminal sensory neurons

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    ruthenium red but not by the vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine, suggesting that, unlike certain endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids, WIN-2 is not a TRPV1 agonist but rather acts1, CB2 or TRPV1 receptors, but by a novel calcium- dependent mechanism. The ramifications

  3. Photochemical gating of heterologous ion channels: Remote control over genetically designated

    E-print Network

    Nesnas, Nasri

    the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, the menthol receptor, TRPM8, or the ionotropic purinergic receptor P2X2 pharmacologically or, in the cases of TRPV1 and P2X2, optically, through photorelease of the active compounds from

  4. Peripheral Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Orofacial Muscle Pain and Hyperalgesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloman, Jami L.

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, particularly those associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMD) are severely debilitating and affect approximately 12% of the population. Identifying peripheral nociceptive mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia, a prominent feature of persistent muscle pain, could contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for the management of TMD and other muscle pain conditions. This study provides evidence of functional interactions between ligand-gated channels, P2X3 and TRPV1/TRPA1, in trigeminal sensory neurons, and proposes that these interactions underlie the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. In the masseter muscle, direct P2X3 activation, via the selective agonist ??meATP, induced a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia. Importantly, the ??meATP-induced hyperalgesia was prevented by pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, or the TRPA1 antagonist, AP18. P2X3 was co-expressed with both TRPV1 and TRPA1 in masseter muscle afferents confirming the possibility for intracellular interactions. Moreover, in a subpopulation of P2X3 /TRPV1 positive neurons, capsaicin-induced Ca2+ transients were significantly potentiated following P2X3 activation. Inhibition of Ca2+-dependent kinases, PKC and CaMKII, prevented P2X3-mechanical hyperalgesia whereas blockade of Ca2+-independent PKA did not. Finally, activation of P2X3 induced phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine, residues in TRPV1 in trigeminal sensory neurons. Significant phosphorylation was observed at 15 minutes, the time point at which behavioral hyperalgesia was prominent. Similar data were obtained regarding another nonselective cation channel, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Our data propose P2X3 and NMDARs interact with TRPV1 in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization underlying masseter hyperalgesia. This study offers novel mechanisms by which individual pro-nociceptive ligand gated ion channels form functional complexes in nociceptors. It is also important to further elucidate peripheral anti-nociceptive mechanisms to improve clinical utilization of currently available analgesics and uncover additional therapeutic targets. A side project examined the mechanisms underlying sex differences in the anti-hyperalgesic effects of delta opioid receptors (DORs). This study provides evidence of a sex difference in the potency at DORs that is mediated by differences in the expression of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Collectively, understanding detailed molecular events that underlie the development of pathological pain conditions could benefit future pharmacotherapies.

  5. The induction of long-term potentiation in spinal dorsal horn after peripheral nociceptive stimulation and contribution of spinal TRPV1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Guo, J; Sun, W-L; Liu, F-Y; Cai, J; Xing, G-G; Wan, Y

    2014-06-01

    During chronic pain states, peripheral nociceptive stimulation can induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in the spinal dorsal horn, but it is not clear how quickly spinal LTP develops after peripheral noxious stimulation. Furthermore, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors are abundant in spinal cord dorsal horn, especially in the superficial layers, and are thought to be involved in synaptic plasticity. In this study, we investigated the time frame of LTP induction after inflammatory insult and electrical stimulation and the involvement of TRPV1 receptors. By using extracellular recordings of C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the superficial spinal dorsal horn and teased fiber recording in vivo, we found that subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or 5% formalin induced low-frequency, irregular discharges of C-fibers and LTP of the C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the spinal dorsal horn within 3h. Topical application of the TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine onto the spinal cord inhibited the induction of spinal LTP by CFA or formalin. Furthermore, capsazepine and another TRPV1 antagonist, (E)-3-(4-t-butylphenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)acrylamide, partially or completely blocked the LTP induced by conditioning stimulation with high- and low-frequency electrical stimulation. These results suggest that acute peripheral inflammatory stimulation by CFA or 5% formalin can induce spinal LTP very early after stimulation onset and that TRPV1 receptors in the spinal dorsal horn might contribute to this LTP induction. PMID:24680883

  6. Epidermal keratinocyte polarity and motility require Ca2+ influx through TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David M.; Huang, Ling; Robinson, Kenneth R.; Messerli, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ca2+ has long been known to play an important role in cellular polarity and guidance. We studied the role of Ca2+ signaling during random and directed cell migration to better understand whether Ca2+ directs cell motility from the leading edge and which ion channels are involved in this function by using primary zebrafish keratinocytes. Rapid line-scan and time-lapse imaging of intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i) during migration and automated image alignment enabled us to characterize and map the spatiotemporal changes in Ca2+i. We show that asymmetric distributions of lamellipodial Ca2+ sparks are encoded in frequency, not amplitude, and that they correlate with cellular rotation during migration. Directed migration during galvanotaxis increases the frequency of Ca2+ sparks over the entire lamellipod; however, these events do not give rise to asymmetric Ca2+i signals that correlate with turning. We demonstrate that Ca2+-permeable channels within these cells are mechanically activated and include several transient receptor potential family members, including TRPV1. Last, we demonstrate that cell motility and Ca2+i activity are affected by pharmacological agents that target TRPV1, indicating a novel role for this channel during cell migration. PMID:23943873

  7. Effect of capsaicin and analogues on potassium and calcium currents and vanilloid receptors in Xenopus embryo spinal neurones.

    PubMed

    Kuenzi, F M; Dale, N

    1996-09-01

    1. The potassium current in embryo spinal neurones of Xenopus consists of at least two kinetically distinct components with overlapping voltage-dependencies of activation. We investigated whether capsaicin might specifically block these components in acutely dissociated neurones from stage 37/38 embryos by use of standard patch clamp techniques. 2. Capsaicin caused a time-dependent block of both the slow and fast components of the potassium current. The concentration-dependence was described by the Hill equation with a KD of 21 microM and a coefficient of 1.5 (n = 9-11 at each concentration). Differences between the observed and fitted values were not significant at the 5% level (chi(2) = 2.80, 6 degrees of freedom). 3. Capsaicin did not affect the time course or voltage-sensitivity of activation, but the steady-state block was voltage-dependent. The block could be relieved by hyperpolarization, and the rate of the removal of block was voltage- and time-dependent. The time constant for the blocking reaction was also voltage-dependent for voltage steps below +30 mV, but above this level it was voltage-independent. These results suggest that capsaicin blocks potassium channels by an open channel mechanism. 4. Other derivatives of vanillin, such as capsazepine, resiniferatoxin, and piperine also blocked potassium channels. Capsazepine and resiniferatoxin caused a greater block than similar concentrations of capsaicin, and in the case of capsazepine, the block was also clearly time-dependent. 5. Capsaicin and capsazepine also blocked calcium currents in a time-dependent manner. Fitting the Hill equation to the averaged data gave a KD of 43.5 microM, and a coefficient of 1.35 (n = 11 at each concentration). The fitted values were not significantly different from the observed means at the 5% level (chi(2) = 12.1, 6 degrees of freedom). 6. Six out of 29 Rohon-Beard sensory neurones responded to capsaicin with an inward current that appeared to be similar to the capsaicin activation of mammalian C sensory neurones. This response saturated at 10 microM capsaicin. PMID:8872360

  8. Role of capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber afferents in neuropathic pain-induced synaptic potentiation in the nociceptive amygdala

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurons in the capsular part of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeC), a region also called "nociceptive amygdala," receive nociceptive information from the dorsal horn via afferent pathways relayed from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB). As the central amygdala is known to be involved in the acquisition and expression of emotion, this pathway is thought to play central roles in the generation of affective responses to nociceptive inputs. Excitatory synaptic transmission between afferents arising from the LPB and these CeC neurons is potentiated in arthritic, visceral, neuropathic, inflammatory and muscle pain models. In neuropathic pain models following spinal nerve ligation (SNL), in which we previously showed a robust LPB-CeC potentiation, the principal behavioral symptom is tactile allodynia triggered by non-C-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptor afferents. Conversely, recent anatomical studies have revealed that most of the spinal neurons projecting to the LPB receive C-fiber afferent inputs. Here, we examined the hypothesis that these C-fiber-mediated inputs are necessary for the full establishment of robust synaptic potentiation of LPB-CeC transmission in the rats with neuropathic pain. Results Postnatal capsaicin treatment, which has been shown to denervate the C-fibers expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels, completely abolished eye-wiping responses to capsaicin eye instillation in rats, but this treatment did not affect mechanical allodynia in the nerve-ligated animals. However, the postnatal capsaicin treatment prevented LPB-CeC synaptic potentiation after SNL, unlike in the vehicle-treated rats, primarily due to the decreased incidence of potentiated transmission by elimination of TRPV1-expressing C-fiber afferents. Conclusions C-fiber-mediated afferents in the nerve-ligated animals may be a required facilitator of the establishment of nerve injury-evoked synaptic potentiation in the CeC. These inputs might play essential roles in the chronic pain-induced plastic changes in the central network linking nociception and negative emotion. PMID:22776418

  9. Transient receptor potential V2 expressed in sensory neurons is activated by probenecid.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sangsu; Kim, Kyung Yoon; Yoo, Sungjae; Lee, Sang-Heon; Hwang, Sun Wook

    2007-09-25

    Temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels (thermoTRPs) are known to function as ambient temperature sensors and are also involved in peripheral pain sensation. The thermoTRPs are activated by a variety of chemicals, of which specific activators have been utilized to explore the physiology of particular channels and sensory nerve subtypes. The use of capsaicin for TRPV1 is an exemplary case for nociceptor studies. In contrast, specific agents for another vanilloid subtype channel, TRPV2 have been lacking. Here, we show that probenecid is able to activate TRPV2 using electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques with TRPV2-expressing HEK293T cells. Five other sensory thermoTRPs-TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1-failed to show a response to this drug in the same heterologous expression system, suggesting that probenecid is a specific activator for TRPV2. Probenecid-evoked responses were also reproduced in a distinct subset of cultured trigeminal neurons that were responsive to 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a TRPV1-3 activator. The probenecid-sensitive neurons were mainly distributed in a medium to large-diameter population, in agreement with previous observations with TRPV2 immunolocalization. Under inflammation, probenecid elicited nociceptive behaviors in in vivo assays. These results suggest that TRPV2 is specifically activated by probenecid and that this chemical might be useful for investigation of pain-related TRPV2 function. PMID:17850966

  10. Antagonism by haloperidol and its metabolites of mechanical hypersensitivity induced by intraplantar capsaicin in mice: role of sigma-1 receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Entrena; Enrique J. Cobos; Francisco R. Nieto; Cruz M. Cendán; José M. Baeyens; Esperanza Del Pozo

    2009-01-01

    Rationale  We evaluated the effects of haloperidol and its metabolites on capsaicin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) and\\u000a on nociceptive pain induced by punctate mechanical stimuli in mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Subcutaneous administration of haloperidol or its metabolites I or II (reduced haloperidol) dose-dependently reversed capsaicin-induced\\u000a (1??g, intraplantar) mechanical hypersensitivity of the hind paw (stimulated with a nonpainful, 0.5-g force, punctate stimulus).\\u000a The order of potency

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ATP release from the human ureter on distension and P2X3

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    . Sections of ureter were stained using antibodies against P2X3 and capsaicin receptors (TRPV1). [ATP] rose TRPV1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 Introduction Pain due to a calculus causing an acute

  12. Full inhibition of spinal FAAH leads to TRPV1-mediated analgesic effects in neuropathic rats and possible lipoxygenase-mediated remodeling of anandamide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Among those tested, the 200 µg/rat dose of URB597 was the only one that elevated the levels of the FAAH non-endocannabinoid and anti-inflammatory substrates, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and of the endocannabinoid FAAH substrate, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and fully inhibited thermal and tactile nociception, although in a manner blocked almost uniquely by TRPV1 antagonism. Surprisingly, this dose of URB597 decreased spinal AEA levels. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses demonstrated altered spinal expression of lipoxygenases (LOX), and baicalein, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX, significantly reduced URB597 analgesic effects, suggesting the occurrence of alternative pathways of AEA metabolism. Using immunofluorescence techniques, FAAH, 15-LOX and TRPV1 were found to co-localize in dorsal spinal horn neurons of CCI rats. Finally, 15-hydroxy-AEA, a 15-LOX derivative of AEA, potently and efficaciously activated the rat recombinant TRPV1 channel. We suggest that intrathecally injected URB597 at full analgesic efficacy unmasks a secondary route of AEA metabolism via 15-LOX with possible formation of 15-hydroxy-AEA, which, together with OEA and PEA, may contribute at producing TRPV1-mediated analgesia in CCI rats. PMID:23573230

  13. Full Inhibition of Spinal FAAH Leads to TRPV1-Mediated Analgesic Effects in Neuropathic Rats and Possible Lipoxygenase-Mediated Remodeling of Anandamide Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Starowicz, Katarzyna; Makuch, Wioletta; Korostynski, Michal; Malek, Natalia; Slezak, Michal; Zychowska, Magdalena; Petrosino, Stefania; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Cristino, Luigia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathecal URB597 is only partially effective at counteracting neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of high doses of intrathecal URB597 on allodynia and hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Among those tested, the 200 µg/rat dose of URB597 was the only one that elevated the levels of the FAAH non-endocannabinoid and anti-inflammatory substrates, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), and of the endocannabinoid FAAH substrate, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and fully inhibited thermal and tactile nociception, although in a manner blocked almost uniquely by TRPV1 antagonism. Surprisingly, this dose of URB597 decreased spinal AEA levels. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses demonstrated altered spinal expression of lipoxygenases (LOX), and baicalein, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX, significantly reduced URB597 analgesic effects, suggesting the occurrence of alternative pathways of AEA metabolism. Using immunofluorescence techniques, FAAH, 15-LOX and TRPV1 were found to co-localize in dorsal spinal horn neurons of CCI rats. Finally, 15-hydroxy-AEA, a 15-LOX derivative of AEA, potently and efficaciously activated the rat recombinant TRPV1 channel. We suggest that intrathecally injected URB597 at full analgesic efficacy unmasks a secondary route of AEA metabolism via 15-LOX with possible formation of 15-hydroxy-AEA, which, together with OEA and PEA, may contribute at producing TRPV1-mediated analgesia in CCI rats. PMID:23573230

  14. Differential regulation of TRPV1, TRPV3, and TRPV4 sensitivity through a conserved binding site on the ankyrin repeat domain.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Christopher B; Wang, Ruiqi R; Choo, Shelly S; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which include the thermosensitive TRPV1-V4, have large cytoplasmic regions flanking the transmembrane domain, including an N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain. We show that a multiligand binding site for ATP and calmodulin previously identified in the TRPV1 ankyrin repeat domain is conserved in TRPV3 and TRPV4, but not TRPV2. Accordingly, TRPV2 is insensitive to intracellular ATP, while, as previously observed with TRPV1, a sensitizing effect of ATP on TRPV4 required an intact binding site. In contrast, ATP reduced TRPV3 sensitivity and potentiation by repeated agonist stimulations. Thus, ATP and calmodulin, acting through this conserved binding site, are key players in generating the different sensitivity and adaptation profiles of TRPV1, TRPV3, and TRPV4. Our results suggest that competing interactions of ATP and calmodulin influence channel sensitivity to fluctuations in calcium concentration and perhaps even metabolic state. Different feedback mechanisms likely arose because of the different physiological stimuli or temperature thresholds of these channels. PMID:19864432

  15. Promiscuous gating modifiers target the voltage sensor of K(v)7.2, TRPV1, and H(v)1 cation channels.

    PubMed

    Kornilov, Polina; Peretz, Asher; Lee, Yoonji; Son, Karam; Lee, Jin Hee; Refaeli, Bosmat; Roz, Netta; Rehavi, Moshe; Choi, Sun; Attali, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    Some of the fascinating features of voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) in voltage-gated cation channels (VGCCs) are their modular nature and adaptability. Here we examined the VSD sensitivity of different VGCCs to 2 structurally related nontoxin gating modifiers, NH17 and NH29, which stabilize K(v)7.2 potassium channels in the closed and open states, respectively. The effects of NH17 and NH29 were examined in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) or K(v)7.2 channels, as well as in dorsal root ganglia neurons, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. NH17 and NH29 exert opposite effects on TRPV1 channels, operating, respectively, as an activator and a blocker of TRPV1 currents (EC50 and IC50 values ranging from 4 to 40 ?M). Combined mutagenesis, electrophysiology, structural homology modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation indicate that both compounds target the VSDs of TRPV1 channels, which, like vanilloids, are involved in ?-? stacking, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. Reflecting their promiscuity, the drugs also affect the lone VSD proton channel mVSOP. Thus, the same gating modifier can promiscuously interact with different VGCCs, and subtle differences at the VSD-ligand interface will dictate whether the gating modifier stabilizes channels in either the closed or the open state. PMID:24599966

  16. In vitro TRPV1 activity of piperine derived amides.

    PubMed

    Correa, Edwin Andrés; Högestätt, Edward D; Sterner, Olov; Echeverri, Fernando; Zygmunt, Peter M

    2010-05-01

    A series of natural and synthetic piperine amides were evaluated for activity on the human TRPV1 expressed in HEK293 cells. The agonistic effect of piperine amides was mainly dependent on the length of the carbon chain. Structural changes of double bonds and stereochemistry in the aliphatic chain of these compounds did not change their potency or efficacy, indicating that increased rigidity or planarity of the piperine structure does not affect the activity. The opening of the methylenedioxy ring or changes in the heterocyclic ring of the piperine molecule reduced or abolished activity. Furthermore, inactive compounds did not display functional antagonistic activity. PMID:20381363

  17. Purinoceptor-mediated, capsaicin-resistant excitatory effect of allyl isothiocyanate on neurons of the guinea-pig small intestine.

    PubMed

    Bartho, Lorand; Nordtveit, Elin; Szombati, Veronika; Benko, Rita

    2013-08-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; 200 ?M) caused atropine- and tetrodotoxin-sensitive longitudinal muscle contraction on the guinea-pig small intestine. The response was not influenced by hexamethonium, a functional blockade of capsaicin-sensitive neurons or by antagonists acting at TRPV1 or TRPA1, but was abolished by the P2 purinoceptor antagonist PPADS (50 ?M). It is concluded that cholinergic motoneurons are activated by a purinergic mechanism in the course of the AITC response, independently of capsaicin-sensitive processes or even TRPA1. PMID:23438208

  18. Activation characteristics of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and its role in nociception

    PubMed Central

    Raisinghani, Manish; Zhong, Linlin; Jeffry, Joseph A.; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Pabbidi, Reddy M.; Pimentel, Fátima; Cao, De-Shou; Steven Evans, M.

    2011-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a Ca2+-permeant, nonselective cationic channel. It is predominantly expressed in the C afferent sensory nerve fibers of trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion neurons and is highly coexpressed with the nociceptive ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Several physical and chemical stimuli have been shown to activate the channel. In this study, we have used electrophysiological techniques and behavioral models to characterize the properties of TRPA1. Whole cell TRPA1 currents induced by brief application of lower concentrations of N-methyl maleimide (NMM) or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) can be reversed readily by washout, whereas continuous application of higher concentrations of NMM or AITC completely desensitized the currents. The deactivation and desensitization kinetics differed between NMM and AITC. TRPA1 current amplitude increased with repeated application of lower concentrations of AITC, whereas saturating concentrations of AITC induced tachyphylaxis, which was more pronounced in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. The outward rectification exhibited by native TRPA1-mediated whole cell and single-channel currents was minimal as compared with other TRP channels. TRPA1 currents were negatively modulated by protons and polyamines, both of which activate the heat-sensitive channel, TRPV1. Interestingly, neither protein kinase C nor protein kinase A activation sensitized AITC-induced currents, but each profoundly sensitized capsaicin-induced currents. Current-clamp experiments revealed that AITC produced a slow and sustained depolarization as compared with capsaicin. TRPA1 is also expressed at the central terminals of nociceptors at the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus. Activation of TRPA1 in this area increases the frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic currents. In behavioral studies, intraplantar and intrathecal administration of AITC induced more pronounced and prolonged changes in nociceptive behavior than those induced by capsaicin. In conclusion, the characteristics of TRPA1 we have delineated suggest that it might play a unique role in nociception. PMID:21653898

  19. 2012NatureAmerica,Inc.Allrightsreserved. nAture methods | ADVANCEONLINEPUBLICATION |

    E-print Network

    Trauner, Dirk

    to noxious stimuli7. For example, the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, which is sensitive to noxious heat, protons elsewhere in the nervous system8. TRPV1 enters into a pore-dilated state upon prolonged agonist activation

  20. Shugan-decoction relieves visceral hyperalgesia and reduces TRPV1 and SP colon expression

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jing-Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ye; Xu, Hui; Tang, Rong-Zhu; Dong, Yue-Bin; Xie, Jian-Qun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Shugan-decoction (SGD) on visceral hyperalgesia and colon gene expressions using a rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six adult male Wistar rats were randomized into six equal groups for assessment of SGD effects on psychological stress-induced changes using the classic water avoidance stress (WAS) test. Untreated model rats were exposed to chronic (1 h/d for 10 d consecutive) WAS conditions; experimental treatment model rats were administered with intragastric SGD at 1 h before WAS on consecutive days 4-10 (low-dose: 0.1 g/mL; mid-dose: 0.2 g/mL; high-dose: 0.4 g/mL); control treatment model rats were similarly administered with the irritable bowel syndrome drug, dicetel (0.0042 g/mL); untreated normal control rats received no drug and were not subjected to the WAS test. At the end of the 10-d WAS testing period, a semi-quantitative measurement of visceral sensitivity was made by assessing the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) to colorectal balloon-induced distension (at 5 mmHg increments) to determine the pain pressure threshold (PPT, evidenced by pain behavior). Subsequently, the animals were sacrificed and colonic tissues collected for assessment of changes in expressions of proteins related to visceral hypersensitivity (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, TRPV1) and sustained visceral hyperalgesia (substance P, SP) by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Inter-group differences were assessed by paired t test or repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: The WAS test successfully induced visceral hypersensitivity, as evidenced by a significantly reduced AWR pressure in the untreated model group as compared to the untreated normal control group (190.4 ± 3.48 mmHg vs 224.0 ± 4.99 mmHg, P < 0.001). SGD treatments at mid-dose and high-dose and the dicetel treatment significantly increased the WAS-reduced PPT (212.5 ± 2.54, 216.5 ± 3.50 and 217.7 ± 2.83 mmHg respectively, all P < 0.001); however, the low-dose SGD treatment produced no significant effect on the WAS-reduced PPT (198.3 ± 1.78 mmHg, P > 0.05). These trends corresponded to the differential expressions observed for both TRPV1 protein (mid-dose: 1.64 ± 0.08 and high-dose: 1.69 ± 0.12 vs untreated model: 3.65 ± 0.32, P < 0.001) and mRNA (0.44 ± 0.16 and 0.15 ± 0.03 vs 1.39 ± 0.15, P < 0.001) and SP protein (0.99 ± 0.20 and 1.03 ± 0.23 vs 2.03 ± 0.12, P < 0.01) and mRNA (1.64 ± 0.19 and 1.32 ± 0.14 vs 2.60 ± 0.33, P < 0.05). These differential expressions of TRPV1 and SP related to mid- and high-dose SGD treatments were statistically similar to the changes induced by dicetel treatment. No signs of overt damage to the rat system were observed for any of the SGD dosages. CONCLUSION: Shugan-decoction can reduce chronic stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in rats, and the regulatory mechanism may involve mediating the expressions of TRPV1 and SP in colon tissues. PMID:24307802

  1. Tmem100 Is a Regulator of TRPA1-TRPV1 Complex and Contributes to Persistent Pain.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hao-Jui; Patel, Kush N; Jeske, Nathaniel A; Bierbower, Sonya M; Zou, Wangyuan; Tiwari, Vinod; Zheng, Qin; Tang, Zongxiang; Mo, Gary C H; Wang, Yan; Geng, Yixun; Zhang, Jin; Guan, Yun; Akopian, Armen N; Dong, Xinzhong

    2015-02-18

    TRPA1 and TRPV1 are crucial pain mediators, but how their interaction contributes to persistent pain is unknown. Here, we identify Tmem100 as a potentiating modulator of TRPA1-V1 complexes. Tmem100 is coexpressed and forms a complex with TRPA1 and TRPV1 in DRG neurons. Tmem100-deficient mice show a reduction in inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia and TRPA1- but not TRPV1-mediated pain. Single-channel recording in a heterologous system reveals that Tmem100 selectively potentiates TRPA1 activity in a TRPV1-dependent manner. Mechanistically, Tmem100 weakens the association of TRPA1 and TRPV1, thereby releasing the inhibition of TRPA1 by TRPV1. A Tmem100 mutant, Tmem100-3Q, exerts the opposite effect; i.e., it enhances the association of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and strongly inhibits TRPA1. Strikingly, a cell-permeable peptide (CPP) containing the C-terminal sequence of Tmem100-3Q mimics its effect and inhibits persistent pain. Our study unveils a context-dependent modulation of the TRPA1-V1 complex, and Tmem100-3Q CPP is a promising pain therapy. PMID:25640077

  2. The Zebrafish Ortholog of TRPV1 Is Required for Heat-Induced Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Gau, Philia; Poon, Jason; Ufret-Vincenty, Carmen; Snelson, Corey D.; Gordon, Sharona E.; Raible, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect hot temperatures is critical to maintaining body temperature and avoiding injury in diverse animals from insects to mammals. Zebrafish embryos, when given a choice, actively avoid hot temperatures and display an increase in locomotion similar to that seen when they are exposed to noxious compounds such as mustard oil. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the single zebrafish ortholog of TRPV1/2 may have arisen from an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian TRPV1 and TRPV2. As opposed to TRPV2, mammalian TRPV1 is essential for environmentally relevant heat sensation. In the present study, we provide evidence that the zebrafish TRPV1 ion channel is also required for the sensation of heat. Contrary to development in mammals, zebrafish TRPV1+ neurons arise during the first wave of somatosensory neuron development, suggesting a vital importance of thermal sensation in early larval survival. In vitro analysis showed that zebrafish TRPV1 acts as a molecular sensor of environmental heat (?25°C) that is distinctly lower than the sensitivity of the mammalian form (?42°C) but consistent with thresholds measured in behavioral assays. Using in vivo calcium imaging with the genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP3, we show that TRPV1-expressing trigeminal neurons are activated by heat at behaviorally relevant temperatures. Using knock-down studies, we also show that TRPV1 is required for normal heat-induced locomotion. Our results demonstrate for the first time an ancient role for TRPV1 in the direct sensation of environmental heat and show that heat sensation is adapted to reflect species-dependent requirements in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:23516290

  3. Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca2+-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1–3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

  4. Shivering and tachycardic responses to external cooling in mice are substantially suppressed by TRPV1 activation but not by TRPM8 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Feketa, Viktor V.; Balasubramanian, Adithya; Flores, Christopher M.; Player, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Mild decrease of core temperature (32–34°C), also known as therapeutic hypothermia, is a highly effective strategy of neuroprotection from ischemia and holds significant promise in the treatment of stroke. However, induction of hypothermia in conscious stroke patients is complicated by cold-defensive responses, such as shivering and tachycardia. Although multiple thermoregulatory responses may be altered by modulators of thermosensitive ion channels, TRPM8 (transient receptor potential melastatin 8) and TRPV1 (TRP vanilloid 1), it is unknown whether these agents affect cold-induced shivering and tachycardia. The current study aimed to determine the effects of TRPM8 inhibition and TRPV1 activation on the shivering and tachycardic responses to external cooling. Conscious mice were treated with TRPM8 inhibitor compound 5 or TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) and exposed to cooling at 10°C. Shivering was measured by electromyography using implanted electrodes in back muscles, tachycardic response by electrocardiography, and core temperature by wireless transmitters in the abdominal cavity. The role of TRPM8 was further determined using TRPM8 KO mice. TRPM8 ablation had no effect on total electromyographic muscle activity (vehicle: 24.0 ± 1.8; compound 5: 23.8 ± 2.0; TRPM8 KO: 19.7 ± 1.9 V·s/min), tachycardia (?HR = 124 ± 31; 121 ± 13; 121 ± 31 beats/min) and drop in core temperature (?3.6 ± 0.1; ?3.4 ± 0.4; ?3.6 ± 0.5°C) during cold exposure. TRPV1 activation substantially suppressed muscle activity (vehicle: 25.6 ± 3.0 vs. DHC: 5.1 ± 2.0 V·s/min), tachycardia (?HR = 204 ± 25 vs. 3 ± 35 beats/min) and produced a profound drop in core temperature (?2.2 ± 0.6 vs. ?8.9 ± 0.6°C). In conclusion, external cooling-induced shivering and tachycardia are suppressed by TRPV1 activation, but not by TRPM8 inhibition. This suggests that TRPV1 agonists may be combined with external physical cooling to achieve more rapid and effective hypothermia. PMID:24005250

  5. Heteromeric heat-sensitive transient receptor potential channels exhibit distinct temperature and chemical response.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Yang, Fan; Liu, Shuang; Colton, Craig K; Wang, Chunbo; Cui, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xu; Zhu, Michael X; Sun, Changsen; Wang, KeWei; Zheng, Jie

    2012-03-01

    TRPV1 and TRPV3 are two heat-sensitive ion channels activated at distinct temperature ranges perceived by human as hot and warm, respectively. Compounds eliciting human sensations of heat or warmth can also potently activate these channels. In rodents, TRPV3 is expressed predominantly in skin keratinocytes, whereas in humans TRPV1 and TRPV3 are co-expressed in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglion and are known to form heteromeric channels with distinct single channel conductances as well as sensitivities to TRPV1 activator capsaicin and inhibitor capsazepine. However, how heteromeric TRPV1/TRPV3 channels respond to heat and other stimuli remains unknown. In this study, we examined the behavior of heteromeric TRPV1/TRPV3 channels activated by heat, capsaicin, and voltage. Our results demonstrate that the heteromeric channels exhibit distinct temperature sensitivity, activation threshold, and heat-induced sensitization. Changes in gating properties apparently originate from interactions between TRPV1 and TRPV3 subunits. Our results suggest that heteromeric TRPV1/TRPV3 channels are unique heat sensors that may contribute to the fine-tuning of sensitivity to sensory inputs. PMID:22184123

  6. Activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 leads to muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Y. Ro; Jong-Seok Lee; Youping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in mediating craniofacial muscle nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia was investigated in male Sprague–Dawley rats. First, we confirmed the expression of TRPV1 in masseter afferents in rat trigeminal ganglia (TG), and provided new data that TRPA1 is also expressed in primary afferents innervating masticatory muscles in double-labeling immunohistochemistry experiments. We then examined whether the activation

  7. Alterations in serotonin, transient receptor potential channels and protease-activated receptors in rats with irritable bowel syndrome attenuated by Shugan decoction

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hai-Lian; Liu, Chu-Hsuan; Ding, Li-Li; Zheng, Yu; Fei, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Lu; Zhou, Xue-Ming; Yuan, Jian-Ye; Xie, Jian-Qun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the molecular mechanisms of Shugan decoction (SGD) in the regulation of colonic motility and visceral hyperalgesia (VHL) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: The chemical compounds contained in SGD were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A rat model of IBS was induced by chronic water avoidance stress (WAS). The number of fecal pellets was counted after WAS and the pain pressure threshold was measured by colorectal distension. Morphological changes in colonic mucosa were detected by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The contents of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in colonic tissue and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) in serum were measured by ELISA. The protein expression of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamide (5-HT)], serotonin transporter (SERT), chromogranin A (CgA) and CGRP in colon tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: SGD inhibited colonic motility dysfunction and VHL in rats with IBS. Blockers of transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) (Ruthenium Red) and TRP ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) (HC-030031) and activator of protease-activated receptor (PAR)4 increased the pain pressure threshold, whereas activators of PAR2 and TRPV4 decreased the pain pressure threshold in rats with IBS. The effect of SGD on pain pressure threshold in these rats was abolished by activators of TRPV1 (capsaicin), TRPV4 (RN1747), TRPA1 (Polygodial) and PAR2 (AC55541). In addition, CGRP levels in serum and colonic tissue were both increased in these rats. TNF-? level in colonic tissue was also significantly upregulated. However, the levels of 5-HT, SERT and CgA in colonic tissue were decreased. All these pathological changes in rats with IBS were attenuated by SGD. CONCLUSION: SGD alleviated VHL and attenuated colon motility in IBS, partly by regulating TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPA1, PAR2, 5-HT, CgA and SERT, and reducing CGRP and TNF-? level. PMID:25944998

  8. Roles of ASIC3, TRPV1, and NaV1.8 in the transition from acute to chronic pain in a mouse model of fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tissue acidosis is effective in causing chronic muscle pain. However, how muscle nociceptors contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain is largely unknown. Results Here we showed that a single intramuscular acid injection induced a priming effect on muscle nociceptors of mice. The primed muscle nociceptors were plastic and permitted the development of long-lasting chronic hyperalgesia induced by a second acid insult. The plastic changes of muscle nociceptors were modality-specific and required the activation of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) or transient receptor potential cation channel V1 (TRPV1). Activation of ASIC3 was associated with increased activity of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels but not protein kinase C? (PKC?) in isolectin B4 (IB4)-negative muscle nociceptors. In contrast, increased activity of TTX-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels with ASIC3 or TRPV1 activation in NaV1.8-positive muscle nociceptors was required for the development of chronic hyperalgesia. Accordingly, compared to wild type mice, NaV1.8-null mice showed briefer acid-induced hyperalgesia (5 days vs. >27 days). Conclusion ASIC3 activation may manifest a new type of nociceptor priming in IB4-negative muscle nociceptors. The activation of ASIC3 and TRPV1 as well as enhanced NaV1.8 activity are essential for the development of long-lasting hyperalgesia in acid-induced, chronic, widespread muscle pain. PMID:24957987

  9. Cough and ventilatory adjustments evoked by aerosolised capsaicin and distilled water (fog) in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Lavorini; Tito Pantaleo; Pietro Geri; Donatella Mutolo; Massimo Pistolesi; Giovanni A. Fontana

    2007-01-01

    Airway receptors mediate cough and ventilatory adjustments. Simultaneous assessment of cough sensory-motor components and changes in breathing pattern may provide insights into the receptor(s) prevailingly stimulated by inhaled irritants. Nineteen subjects inhaled capsaicin and fog up to threshold concentrations for cough. Cough intensity, respiratory sensations and changes in breathing pattern induced by the two irritants were compared. Capsaicin and fog

  10. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 localisation and agonist-mediated inhibition of capsaicin responses in human sensory neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma Anand; William R. Otto; Daniel Sanchez-Herrera; Paul Facer; Yiangos Yiangou; Yuri Korchev; Rolfe Birch; Christopher Benham; Chas Bountra; Iain P. Chessell; Praveen Anand

    2008-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists provide the potential for treating chronic pain states without CNS effects associated with CB1 receptor activation. Animal models suggest that they act mainly via non-neuronal cells, possibly inhibition of inflammatory cells in the periphery or CNS, or via release of ?-endorphin; however, the clinical relevance and mechanism of analgesic action is uncertain. Here, we demonstrate

  11. Identification of a Tetramerization Domain in the C Terminus of the Vanilloid Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuria Garcia-Sanz; Asia Fernandez-Carvajal; Cruz Morenilla-Palao; Rosa Planells-Cases; Emmanuel Fajardo-Sanchez; Gregorio Fernandez-Ballester; Antonio Ferrer-Montiel

    2004-01-01

    TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype 1) is a member of the TRP channel family gated by vanilloids, protons, and heat. Structurally, TRPV1 appears to be a tetramer formed by the assembly of four identical subunits around a central aqueous pore. The molecular determinants that govern its subunit oligomerization remain elusive. Here, we report the identification of a segment

  12. TRPA1 receptors in cough.

    PubMed

    Grace, Megan S; Belvisi, Maria G

    2011-06-01

    In the early 1990's ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) class were implicated in the afferent sensory loop of the cough reflex and in the heightened cough sensitivity seen in disease. Agonists of the TRPV1 capsaicin receptor such as vanilloids and protons were demonstrated to be amongst the most potent chemical stimuli which cause cough. However, more recently, the TRPA1 receptor (not activated by capsaicin) has become of interest in the cough field because it is known to be activated by ligands such as acrolein which is present in air pollution and the acrid smoke from organic material. TRPA1 is a Ca(2+)-permeant non-selective cation channel with 14 ankyrin repeats in its amino terminus which belongs to the larger TRP family. TRPA1 has been characterised as a thermoreceptor which is activated by cold temperature, environmental irritants and reactive electrophilic molecules which can be generated by oxidant stress and inflammation. TRPA1 is primarily expressed in small diameter, nociceptive neurons where its activation probably contributes to the perception of noxious stimuli and the phenomena known as inflammatory hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation. The respiratory tract is innervated by primary sensory afferent nerves which are activated by mechanical and chemical stimuli. Activation of these vagal sensory afferents leads to central reflexes including dyspnoea, changes in breathing pattern and cough. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimulating TRPA1 channels activates vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibres in the guinea pig and rodent lung, and recent data have shown that TRPA1 ligands cause cough in both animal models and normal volunteers. In summary, due to their activation by a wide range of irritant and chemical substances, either by exogenous agents, endogenously produced mediators during inflammation or by oxidant stress, we suggest TRPA1 channels should be considered as one of the most promising targets currently identified for the development of novel anti-tussive drugs. PMID:21074632

  13. TRPV1 modulators: Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 1-heteroaryl piperidinecarboxamide and piperazinylurea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Balboni, Gianfranco; Schiano-Moriello, Aniello; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; De Petrocellis, Luciano

    2015-07-15

    A series of new 1-heteroaryl piperidinecarboxamide and piperazinylurea derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as TRPV1 modulators in a Ca(2+) channel assay in HEK-293 cells overexpressing the human recombinant TRPV1 channel. Structural variations in the putative key portions of the molecules afforded several compounds endowed with agonist and/or antagonist/desensitizing activity at low micromolar concentration. As promising examples from this series, the piperidine-3-carboxamide derivative 31 exerts agonist/desensitizing activity at low micromolar concentration, while piperazinylurea derivatives 39 and 41 act as antagonists with sub-micromolar potency. PMID:26079089

  14. Nociception and inflammatory hyperalgesia evaluated in rodents using infrared laser stimulation after Trpv1 gene knockout or resiniferatoxin lesion.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kendall; Lebovitz, Evan E; Keller, Jason M; Mannes, Andrew J; Nemenov, Michael I; Iadarola, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    TRPV1 is expressed in a subpopulation of myelinated A? and unmyelinated C-fibers. TRPV1+ fibers are essential for the transmission of nociceptive thermal stimuli and for the establishment and maintenance of inflammatory hyperalgesia. We have previously shown that high-power, short-duration pulses from an infrared diode laser are capable of predominantly activating cutaneous TRPV1+ A?-fibers. Here we show that stimulating either subtype of TRPV1+ fiber in the paw during carrageenan-induced inflammation or following hind-paw incision elicits pronounced hyperalgesic responses, including prolonged paw guarding. The ultrapotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) dose-dependently deactivates TRPV1+ fibers and blocks thermal nociceptive responses in baseline or inflamed conditions. Injecting sufficient doses of RTX peripherally renders animals unresponsive to laser stimulation even at the point of acute thermal skin damage. In contrast, Trpv1-/- mice, which are generally unresponsive to noxious thermal stimuli at lower power settings, exhibit withdrawal responses and inflammation-induced sensitization using high-power, short duration A? stimuli. In rats, systemic morphine suppresses paw withdrawal, inflammatory guarding, and hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent fashion using the same A? stimuli. The qualitative intensity of A? responses, the leftward shift of the stimulus-response curve, the increased guarding behaviors during carrageenan inflammation or after incision, and the reduction of A? responses with morphine suggest multiple roles for TRPV1+ A? fibers in nociceptive processes and their modulation of pathological pain conditions. PMID:24434730

  15. Quantitative immunohistochemical co-localization of TRPV1 and CGRP in varicose axons of the murine oesophagus, stomach and colorectum.

    PubMed

    Sharrad, D F; Hibberd, T J; Kyloh, M A; Brookes, S J H; Spencer, N J

    2015-07-10

    In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mammals, endings of spinal afferent neurons with cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) detect many stimuli, including those that give rise to pain. Many of these sensory neurons express calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and TRPV1 in their cell bodies and axons. Indeed, CGRP and TRPV1 have been widely used as immunohistochemical markers of nociceptive spinal afferent axons. Although CGRP and TRPV1 often coexist in the same axons in the GI tract, their degree of coexistence along its length has yet to be quantified. In this study, we used double-labeling immunohistochemistry to quantify the coexistence of CGRP and TRPV1 in varicose axons of the murine oesophagus, stomach and colorectum. The great majority of CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) varicosities in myenteric ganglia of the lower esophagus (97±1%) and stomach (95±1%) were also TRPV1-immunoreactive. Similarly, the majority of TRPV1-IR varicosities in myenteric ganglia of the lower esophagus (95±1%) and stomach (91±1%) were also CGRP-IR. In the colorectum similar observations were made for an intensely immunoreactive population of CGRP-IR axons, of which most (91±1%) were also TRPV1-IR. Of the TRPV1-IR axons in the colorectum, most (96±1%) contained intense CGRP-IR. Another population of axons in myenteric ganglia of the colorectum had low intensity CGRP immunoreactivity; these showed negligible co-existence with TRPV1. Our observations reveal that in the myenteric plexus of murine oesophagus, stomach and colorectum, CGRP and TRPV1 are largely expressed together. PMID:25980991

  16. Discovery of Novel TRPV1 Ligands Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2010, Vol. 31, No. 6 1501 DOI 10.5012/bkcs.2010.31.6.1501

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    Discovery of Novel TRPV1 Ligands Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2010, Vol. 31, No. 6 1501 DOI 10.5012/bkcs.2010.31.6.1501 Discovery of Novel TRPV1 Ligands through Rational Approach Based on Its Putative, Accepted March 31, 2010 We report design and synthesis of the novel TRPV1 ligands through a rational

  17. Epithelial transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1)-dependent adrenomedullin upregulates blood flow in rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kono, Toru; Kaneko, Atsushi; Omiya, Yuji; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Ohno, Nagisa; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2013-02-15

    The functional roles of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the gastrointestinal tract have garnered considerable attention in recent years. We previously reported that daikenchuto (TU-100), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) via adrenomedullin (ADM) release from intestinal epithelial (IE) cells (Kono T et al. J Crohns Colitis 4: 161-170, 2010). TU-100 contains multiple TRP activators. In the present study, therefore, we examined the involvement of TRP channels in the ADM-mediated vasodilatatory effect of TU-100. Rats were treated intraduodenally with the TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin (CAP), the TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonist allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), or TU-100, and jejunum IBF was evaluated using laser-Doppler blood flowmetry. All three compounds resulted in vasodilatation, and the vasodilatory effect of TU-100 was abolished by a TRPA1 antagonist but not by a TRPV1 antagonist. Vasodilatation induced by AITC and TU-100 was abrogated by anti-ADM antibody treatment. RT-PCR and flow cytometry revealed that an IEC-6 cell line originated from the small intestine and purified IE cells expressed ADM and TRPA1 but not TRPV1. AITC increased ADM release in IEC cells remarkably, while CAP had no effect. TU-100 and its ingredient 6-shogaol (6SG) increased ADM release dose-dependently, and the effects were abrogated by a TRPA1 antagonist. 6SG showed similar TRPA1-dependent vasodilatation in vivo. These results indicate that TRPA1 in IE cells may play an important role in controlling bowel microcirculation via ADM release. Epithelial TRPA1 appears to be a promising target for the development of novel strategies for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:23275609

  18. Epithelial transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1)-dependent adrenomedullin upregulates blood flow in rat small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Atsushi; Omiya, Yuji; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Ohno, Nagisa; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    The functional roles of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the gastrointestinal tract have garnered considerable attention in recent years. We previously reported that daikenchuto (TU-100), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) via adrenomedullin (ADM) release from intestinal epithelial (IE) cells (Kono T et al. J Crohns Colitis 4: 161–170, 2010). TU-100 contains multiple TRP activators. In the present study, therefore, we examined the involvement of TRP channels in the ADM-mediated vasodilatatory effect of TU-100. Rats were treated intraduodenally with the TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin (CAP), the TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonist allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), or TU-100, and jejunum IBF was evaluated using laser-Doppler blood flowmetry. All three compounds resulted in vasodilatation, and the vasodilatory effect of TU-100 was abolished by a TRPA1 antagonist but not by a TRPV1 antagonist. Vasodilatation induced by AITC and TU-100 was abrogated by anti-ADM antibody treatment. RT-PCR and flow cytometry revealed that an IEC-6 cell line originated from the small intestine and purified IE cells expressed ADM and TRPA1 but not TRPV1. AITC increased ADM release in IEC cells remarkably, while CAP had no effect. TU-100 and its ingredient 6-shogaol (6SG) increased ADM release dose-dependently, and the effects were abrogated by a TRPA1 antagonist. 6SG showed similar TRPA1-dependent vasodilatation in vivo. These results indicate that TRPA1 in IE cells may play an important role in controlling bowel microcirculation via ADM release. Epithelial TRPA1 appears to be a promising target for the development of novel strategies for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:23275609

  19. Development/Plasticity/Repair Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Activates ERK in Primary

    E-print Network

    Clapham, David E.

    Neurons and Mediates Inflammatory Heat Hyperalgesia through TRPV1 Sensitization Zhi-Ye Zhuang,1 Haoxing Xu and NGF produce heat hyperalgesia by activating their respective TRPV1 (transient receptor potential early induction of hyperalgesia. In acutely dissociated DRG neurons, the capsaicin- induced TRPV1

  20. ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature12822 Structure of the TRPV1 ion channel

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    -selective cation channels that respond to a wide range of chemical and physical stimuli1,2 . Genetic neurons, or other cell types, to detect changes in ambient temperature. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat detector and new image- processing algorithms to correct motion-induced image blurring

  1. TRPV1 and TRPA1 Mediate Peripheral Nitric Oxide-Induced Nociception in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Miyamoto; Adrienne E. Dubin; Matt J. Petrus; Ardem Patapoutian; Louis S. Premkumar

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can induce acute pain in humans and plays an important role in pain sensitization caused by inflammation and injury in animal models. There is evidence that NO acts both in the central nervous system via a cyclic GMP pathway and in the periphery on sensory neurons through unknown mechanisms. It has recently been suggested that TRPV1 and

  2. Exploiting Nanotechnologies and TRPV1 Channels to Investigate the Putative Anandamide Membrane Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Hernán Pérez de la Ossa, Dolores; Aberturas, Rosario; Cristino, Luigia; Moriello, Aniello Schiano; Finizio, Andrea; Gil, MŞ.Esther; Torres, Ana-Isabel; Molpeceres, Jesús; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Background Considerable efforts have been made to characterize the pathways regulating the extracellular levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide. However, none of such pathways has been so argued as the existence of a carrier-mediated transport of anandamide across the membrane. Apart from the lack of molecular evidence for such a carrier, the main reasons of this controversy lie in the methodologies currently used to study anandamide cellular uptake. Furthermore, the main evidence in favor of the existence of an “anandamide transporter” relies on synthetic inhibitors of this process, the selectivity of which has been questioned. Methodology/Principal Findings We used the cytosolic binding site for anandamide on TRPV1 channels as a biosensor to detect anandamide entry into cells, and exploited nanotechnologies to study anandamide membrane transport into intact TRPV1-overexpressing HEK-293 cells. Both fluorescence and digital holographic (DH) quantitative phase microscopy were used to study TRPV1 activation. Poly-?-caprolactone nanoparticles (PCL-NPs) were used to incorporate anandamide, which could thus enter the cell and activate TRPV1 channels bypassing any possible specific protein(s) involved in the uptake process. We reasoned that in the absence of such protein(s), pharmacological tools previously shown to inhibit the “anandamide transporter” would affect in the same way the uptake of anandamide and PCL-NP-anandamide, and hence the activation of TRPV1. However, when masked into PCL-NPs, anandamide cellular uptake became much less sensitive to these agents, although it maintained the same pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics as that of “free” anandamide. Conclusions We found here that several agents previously reported to inhibit anandamide cellular uptake lose their efficacy when anandamide is prevented from interacting directly with plasma membrane proteins, thus arguing in favor of the specificity of such agents for the putative “anandamide transporter”, and of the existence of such mechanism. PMID:20422025

  3. Isolation of TRPV1 independent mechanisms of spontaneous and asynchronous glutamate release at primary afferent to NTS synapses.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Axel J; Wu, Shaw-Wen; Peters, James H

    2014-01-01

    Cranial visceral afferents contained within the solitary tract (ST) contact second-order neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and release the excitatory amino acid glutamate via three distinct exocytosis pathways; synchronous, asynchronous, and spontaneous release. The presence of TRPV1 in the central terminals of a majority of ST afferents conveys activity-dependent asynchronous glutamate release and provides a temperature sensitive calcium conductance which largely determines the rate of spontaneous vesicle fusion. TRPV1 is present in unmyelinated C-fiber afferents and these facilitated forms of glutamate release may underlie the relative strength of C-fibers in activating autonomic reflex pathways. However, pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 signaling eliminates only ~50% of the asynchronous profile and attenuates the temperature sensitivity of spontaneous release indicating additional thermosensitive calcium influx pathways may exist which mediate these forms of vesicle release. In the present study we isolate the contribution of TRPV1 independent forms of glutamate release at ST-NTS synapses. We found ST afferent innervation at NTS neurons and synchronous vesicle release from TRPV1 KO mice was not different to control animals; however, only half of TRPV1 KO ST afferents completely lacked asynchronous glutamate release. Further, temperature driven spontaneous rates of vesicle release were not different from 33 to 37°C between control and TRPV1 KO afferents. These findings suggest additional temperature dependent mechanisms controlling asynchronous and thermosensitive spontaneous release at physiological temperatures, possibly mediated by additional thermosensitive TRP channels in primary afferent terminals. PMID:24550768

  4. Isolation of TRPV1 independent mechanisms of spontaneous and asynchronous glutamate release at primary afferent to NTS synapses

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Axel J.; Wu, Shaw-wen; Peters, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Cranial visceral afferents contained within the solitary tract (ST) contact second-order neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and release the excitatory amino acid glutamate via three distinct exocytosis pathways; synchronous, asynchronous, and spontaneous release. The presence of TRPV1 in the central terminals of a majority of ST afferents conveys activity-dependent asynchronous glutamate release and provides a temperature sensitive calcium conductance which largely determines the rate of spontaneous vesicle fusion. TRPV1 is present in unmyelinated C-fiber afferents and these facilitated forms of glutamate release may underlie the relative strength of C-fibers in activating autonomic reflex pathways. However, pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 signaling eliminates only ~50% of the asynchronous profile and attenuates the temperature sensitivity of spontaneous release indicating additional thermosensitive calcium influx pathways may exist which mediate these forms of vesicle release. In the present study we isolate the contribution of TRPV1 independent forms of glutamate release at ST-NTS synapses. We found ST afferent innervation at NTS neurons and synchronous vesicle release from TRPV1 KO mice was not different to control animals; however, only half of TRPV1 KO ST afferents completely lacked asynchronous glutamate release. Further, temperature driven spontaneous rates of vesicle release were not different from 33 to 37°C between control and TRPV1 KO afferents. These findings suggest additional temperature dependent mechanisms controlling asynchronous and thermosensitive spontaneous release at physiological temperatures, possibly mediated by additional thermosensitive TRP channels in primary afferent terminals. PMID:24550768

  5. Expression of Pattern Recognition Receptors by Nociceptive Metasympathetic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Filippova, L V; Bystrova, E Yu; Malyshev, F S; Platonova, O N; Nozdrachev, A D

    2015-06-01

    Immunohistochemical assay with double label and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that innate immunity receptor TLR4 is expressed predominantly in neurons of the intestinal Auerbach (myenteric) plexus, while vanilloid nociceptive receptor TRPV1 is expressed by neurons of Meissner (submucous) plexus. Immunohistochemical analysis with triple labeling revealed coexpression of TLR4 and TRPV1 in enteric neurons of rat colon. The results attest to a possibility of functional interaction between Toll-like and vanilloid receptors in the neuron level. PMID:26085359

  6. Modulatory effect of two novel CGRP receptor antagonists on nasal vasodilatatory responses to exogenous CGRP, capsaicin, bradykinin and histamine in anaesthetised pigs.

    PubMed

    Malis, D D; Rist, B; Nicoucar, K; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Morel, D R; Lacroix, J S

    2001-09-15

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid peptide and potent vasodilatator agent located in sensory C fibres. Several functional studies suggest that CGRP could be involved in the vasodilatation of different vascular beds during neurogenic inflammation. We have studied, in pentobarbital anaesthetised pigs, the antagonistic effect of local intra-arterial (i.a.) pretreatment with the analogues CGRP 8-37, [D31, P34, F35]CGRP 27-37 and [N31, P34, F35]CGRP 27-37 on the vasodilatation of the nasal vascular bed induced by exogenous CGRP, capsaicin, bradykinin (BK) and histamine. The attenuating effect of CGRP 8-37 analogue on exogenous CGRP-induced vasodilatation, previously described in other in vivo animal models, was confirmed in the pig nasal mucosa. It also interfered with BK-and, to a lesser extent, with capsaicin-and histamine-induced decrease in vascular resistance. CGRP 27-37 analogues reduced the duration of CGRP-, capsaicin- and BK-induced vasodilatation by more than 50%. Peak values of vasodilatation were attenuated by more than 25% overall. Attenuation of histamine-induced decrease in vascular resistance was less pronounced. It is concluded that CGRP 27-37 analogues antagonise the action of exogenous CGRP, capsaicin, BK and histamine by attenuating their vasodilatation effect, both in intensity and duration. These results strongly suggest that BK- and histamine-induced vasodilatation is partly mediated by CGRP. CGRP 8-37 and 27-37 appear to be potential contributors to the study of CGRP and its physiological role in neurogenic inflammation. In addition, they may have putative therapeutic applications in the treatment of rhinitic patients suffering from chronic nasal obstruction. PMID:11495685

  7. Optical stimulation in mice lacking the TRPV1 channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eul Suh; Agnella Izzo Matic; Margarete Otting; Joseph T. Walsh Jr.; Claus-Peter Richter

    2009-01-01

    Lasers can be used to stimulate neural tissue, including the sciatic nerve or auditory neurons. Wells and coworkers suggested that neural tissue is likely stimulated by heat.[1,2] Ion channels that can be activated by heat are the TRPV channels, a subfamily of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels. TRPV channels are nonselective cation channels found in sensory neurons involved

  8. Lipoic-based TRPA1/TRPV1 antagonist to treat orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Gualdani, Roberta; Ceruti, Stefania; Magni, Giulia; Merli, Davide; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Francesconi, Oscar; Richichi, Barbara; la Marca, Giancarlo; Ghelardini, Carla; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Nativi, Cristina

    2015-03-18

    Inflammation of the trigeminal nerve is considered one of the most painful conditions known to humankind. The diagnosis is often difficult; moreover, safe and effective pharmacological treatments are lacking. A new molecule, ADM_12, formed by a lipoic and omotaurine residues covalently linked, is here reported. In vitro and in vivo tests showed that ADM_12 is a very attractive original compound presenting (i) a remarkable safety profile; (ii) a high binding constant versus TRPA1; (iii) an intriguing behavior versus TRPV1; and (iv) the ability to significantly and persistently reduce mechanical facial allodynia in rats. Noteworthy, by testing ADM_12, we shed light on the unprecedented involvement of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in orofacial pain. PMID:25546551

  9. Structure–activity studies of a novel series of 5,6-fused heteroaromatic ureas as TRPV1 antagonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Drizin; Arthur Gomtsyan; Erol K. Bayburt; Robert G. Schmidt; Guo Zhu Zheng; Richard J. Perner; Stanley DiDomenico; John R. Koenig; Sean C. Turner; Tammie K. Jinkerson; Brian S. Brown; Ryan G. Keddy; Heath A. McDonald; Prisca Honore; Carol T. Wismer; Kennan C. Marsh; Jill M. Wetter; James S. Polakowski; Jason A. Segreti; Michael F. Jarvis; Connie R. Faltynek; Chih-Hung Lee

    2006-01-01

    Novel 5,6-fused heteroaromatic ureas were synthesized and evaluated for their activity as TRPV1 antagonists. It was found that 4-aminoindoles and indazoles are the preferential cores for the attachment of ureas. Bulky electron-withdrawing groups in the para-position of the aromatic ring of the urea substituents imparted the best in vitro potency at TRPV1. The most potent derivatives were assessed in in

  10. Differential effects of TRPV channel block on polymodal activation of rat cutaneous nociceptors in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael St. Pierre; Peter W. Reeh; Katharina Zimmermann

    2009-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a polymodal sensory transducer molecule in the pain pathway. TRPV1 integrates noxious heat,\\u000a tissue acidosis and chemical stimuli which are all known to cause pain. Studies on TRPV1-deficient mice suggest that TRPV1\\u000a is essential for acid sensing by nociceptors and for thermal hyperalgesia in inflammation of the skin, but not for transducing\\u000a noxious heat. After

  11. TRP channel antagonists for pain--opportunities beyond TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Stuart; Andersson, David A

    2009-07-01

    There is emerging evidence that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels expressed in sensory neurons are important for the transduction of chemical, thermal and mechanical signals. Increasing research efforts are directed at understanding the roles of sensory TRP channels in acute and chronic pain. Studies using RNAi techniques to reduce the levels of individual TRP channels or genetically modified mice lacking specific channels are being complemented with pharmacological studies using newly discovered investigational compounds. These studies are providing evidence that drugs that interfere with the function of TRPA1, TRPM8, TRPV4 or TRPV3 may be useful in treating pain. PMID:19579171

  12. Single residues in the outer pore of TRPV1 and TRPV3 have temperature-dependent conformations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Patapoutian, Ardem; Grandl, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Thermosensation is mediated by ion channels that are highly temperature-sensitive. Several members of the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are activated by cold or hot temperatures and have been shown to function as temperature sensors in vivo. The molecular mechanism of temperature-sensitivity of these ion channels is not understood. A number of domains or even single amino acids that regulate temperature-sensitivity have been identified in several TRP channels. However, it is unclear what precise conformational changes occur upon temperature activation. Here, we used the cysteine accessibility method to probe temperature-dependent conformations of single amino acids in TRP channels. We screened over 50 amino acids in the predicted outer pore domains of the heat-activated ion channels TRPV1 and TRPV3. In both ion channels we found residues that have temperature-dependent accessibilities to the extracellular solvent. The identified residues are located within the second predicted extracellular pore loop. These residues are identical or proximal to residues that were shown to be specifically required for temperature-activation, but not chemical activation. Our data precisely locate conformational changes upon temperature-activation within the outer pore domain. Collectively, this suggests that these specific residues and the second predicted pore loop in general are crucial for the temperature-activation mechanism of these heat-activated thermoTRPs. PMID:23555720

  13. Divalent cations activate TRPV1 through promoting conformational change of the extracellular region

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Ma, Linlin; Cao, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Divalent cations Mg2+ and Ba2+ selectively and directly potentiate transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 heat activation by lowering the activation threshold into the room temperature range. We found that Mg2+ potentiates channel activation only from the extracellular side; on the intracellular side, Mg2+ inhibits channel current. By dividing the extracellularly accessible region of the channel protein into small segments and perturbing the structure of each segment with sequence replacement mutations, we observed that the S1–S2 linker, the S3–S4 linker, and the pore turret are all required for Mg2+ potentiation. Sequence replacements at these regions substantially reduced or eliminated Mg2+-induced activation at room temperature while sparing capsaicin activation. Heat activation was affected by many, but not all, of these structural alternations. These observations indicate that extracellular linkers and the turret may interact with each other. Site-directed fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements further revealed that, like heat, Mg2+ also induces structural changes in the pore turret. Interestingly, turret movement induced by Mg2+ precedes channel activation, suggesting that Mg2+-induced conformational change in the extracellular region most likely serves as the cause of channel activation instead of a coincidental or accommodating structural adjustment. PMID:24344245

  14. Reactive oxygen species enhance excitatory synaptic transmission in rat spinal dorsal horn neurons by activating TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Nishio, N; Taniguchi, W; Sugimura, Y K; Takiguchi, N; Yamanaka, M; Kiyoyuki, Yasukuni; Yamada, H; Miyazaki, N; Yoshida, M; Nakatsuka, T

    2013-09-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) in the spinal cord, such as chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI), is an incurable ailment. However, little is known about the spinal cord mechanisms underlying CNP. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized to play an important role in CNP of the spinal cord. However, it is unclear how ROS affect synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To clarify how ROS impact on synaptic transmission, we investigated the effects of ROS on synaptic transmission in rat spinal cord substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), an ROS donor, into the spinal cord markedly increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in SG neurons. This t-BOOH-induced enhancement was not suppressed by the Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin. However, in the presence of a non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, t-BOOH did not generate any sEPSCs. Furthermore, in the presence of a transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel antagonist (HC-030031) or a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonist (capsazepine or AMG9810), the t-BOOH-induced increase in the frequency of sEPSCs was inhibited. These results indicate that ROS enhance the spontaneous release of glutamate from presynaptic terminals onto SG neurons through TRPA1 and TRPV1 channel activation. Excessive activation of these ion channels by ROS may induce central sensitization in the spinal cord and result in chronic pain such as that following SCI. PMID:23707800

  15. Cannabinoid receptor-independent actions of the aminoalkylindole WIN 55,212-2 on trigeminal sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Price, Theodore J; Patwardhan, Amol; Akopian, Armen N; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Flores, Christopher M

    2004-01-01

    The prototypical aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-2) has been shown to produce antihyperalgesia through a peripheral mechanism of action. However, it is not known whether WIN-2 exerts this action directly via cannabinoid receptors located on primary afferents or if other, perhaps indirect or noncannabinoid, mechanisms are involved. To address this question, we have examined the specific actions of WIN-2 on trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in vitro by quantifying its ability to modulate the evoked secretion of the proinflammatory neuropeptide CGRP as well as the inflammatory mediator-induced generation of cAMP. WIN-2 evoked CGRP release from TG neurons in vitro (EC50=26 ?M) in a concentration- and calcium-dependent manner, which was mimicked by the cannabinoid receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN 55,212-3 (WIN-3). Moreover, WIN-2-evoked CGRP release was attenuated by the nonselective cation channel blocker ruthenium red but not by the vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine, suggesting that, unlike certain endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids, WIN-2 is not a TRPV1 agonist but rather acts at an as yet unidentified cation channel. The inhibitory effects of WIN-2 on TG neurons were also examined. WIN-2 neither inhibited capsaicin-evoked CGRP release nor did it inhibit forskolin-, isoproteranol- or prostaglandin E2-stimulated cAMP accumulation. On the other hand, WIN-2 significantly inhibited (EC50=1.7 ?M) 50 mM K+-evoked CGRP release by approximately 70%. WIN-2 inhibition of 50 mM K+-evoked CGRP release was not reversed by antagonists of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor, but was mimicked in magnitude and potency (EC50=2.7 ?M) by its cannabinoid-inactive enantiomer WIN-3. These findings indicate that WIN-2 exerts both excitatory and inhibitory effects on TG neurons, neither of which appear to be mediated by CB1, CB2 or TRPV1 receptors, but by a novel calcium-dependent mechanism. The ramifications of these results are discussed in relation to our current understanding of cannabinoid/vanilloid interactions with primary sensory neurons. PMID:15155534

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of piperazinyl carbamates and ureas as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel dual ligands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Morera; Luciano De Petrocellis; Ludovica Morera; Aniello Schiano Moriello; Alessia Ligresti; Marianna Nalli; David F. Woodward; Vincenzo Di Marzo; Giorgio Ortar

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of a series of piperazinyl carbamates and ureas, designed on the basis of previously reported TRPV1 antagonists and FAAH inhibitors, led to the identification of some ‘dual-action’ compounds targeting both FAAH and TRPV1 or TRPA1 receptors.

  17. The expression and functionality of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in ovarian endometriomas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Xishi; Duan, Kaizheng; Zhang, Yuqiu; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2012-10-01

    Pains of various kinds--dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, and dyspareunia--are the major complaints from women with endometriosis, representing the most debilitating nature of the disease. Despite extensive research, our understanding as how endometriosis causes pain is still fragmentary. In this study, we examined transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-positive nerve fibers in ectopic endometrium from women with ovarian endometriomas and in endometrium from women without endometriosis and correlated the density with the severity of dysmenorrhea in cases. We also performed an immunohistochemistry analysis of TRPV1 in ectopic and control endometrium. After finding TRPV1 immunoreactivity in ectopic endometrial cells, we further examined whether TRPV1 is functional in ectopic endometrial stromal cells (EESCs). We found that the density of TRPV1-positive nerve fibers in ectopic endometrial implants is higher than that in control endometrium and correlates positively with the severity of dysmenorrhea in women with endometriosis. In addition, TRPV1 expression was also found to be elevated significantly in EESCs when stimulated with inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2) ) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Finally, we found that TRPV1 activation can induce the release of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 1? (IL-1?) in EESCs. The latter finding appears to be consistent with the reports of increased TRPV1 protein expression following peripheral inflammation. Our results suggest that the increased TRPV1-positive nerve fibers may integrate various stimuli on peripheral terminals or primary sensory neurons and generate hyperalgesia in endometriosis. The expression and functionality of TRPV1 in EESCs also suggest that TRPV1 may have neurosecretory functions that are yet to be elucidated. PMID:22556011

  18. Implication of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 in 14,15-Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid-induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kuo-Hui; Lee, Kuan-I; Shyue, Song-Kun; Chen, Hsiang-Ying; Wei, Jeng; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2014-01-01

    14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET) is implicated in regulating physiological functions of endothelial cells (ECs), yet the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects in ECs are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) is involved in 14,15-EET-mediated Ca2+ influx, nitric oxide (NO) production and angiogenesis. In human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs), 14,15-EET time-dependently increased the intracellular level of Ca2+. Removal of extracellular Ca2+, pharmacological inhibition or genetic disruption of TRPV1 abrogated 14,15-EET-mediated increase of intracellular Ca2+ level in HMECs or TRPV1-transfected HEK293 cells. Furthermore, removal of extracellular Ca2+ or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 decreased 14,15-EET-induced NO production. 14,15-EET-mediated tube formation was abolished by TRPV1 pharmacological inhibition. In an animal experiment, 14,15-EET-induced angiogenesis was diminished by inhibition of TRPV1 and in TRPV1-deficient mice. TRPV1 may play a crucial role in 14,15-EET-induced Ca2+ influx, NO production and angiogenesis. PMID:25210497

  19. Capsaicin, from Hot to Not; Can New Pain-Relieving Drugs Be Derived from This Substance Known to Cause Pain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusterholz, David B.

    2006-01-01

    The systematic developments of synthetically modified structures related to capsaicin known to have pungent properties found in chili peppers that could be useful as analgesic drug are described. It is found that identification of the receptor for capsaicin and the mechanism of its action greatly contributed to an understanding of the role…

  20. TRP channels as targets for therapeutic intervention in obesity: focus on TRPV1 and TRPM5.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R Kyle; Lunn, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    The disease of obesity is one of the greatest healthcare challenges of our time. The increasing urgency for effective treatment is driving an intensive search for new targets for anti-obesity drug discovery. The TRP channel super family represents a class of proteins now recognized to serve many functions in physiology related to maintenance of health and the development of diseases. A few of these might offer new potential for therapeutic intervention in obesity. Among the TRP channels, TRPV1 appears most closely associated with body weight homeostasis through its influence on energy expenditure. TRPM5 has been thoroughly characterized as a critical component of taste signaling and recently has been implicated in insulin release. Because of its role in taste signaling, we argue that drugs designed to modulate TRPM5 could be useful in controlling energy consumption by impacting taste sensory signals. As drug targets for obesity, both TRPV1 and TRPM5 offer the advantage of operating in compartments that could limit drug distribution to the site of action. The potential for other TRP channels as anti-obesity drug targets also is discussed. PMID:23432058

  1. Constrained TRPV1 agonists synthesized via silver-mediated intramolecular azo-methine ylide cycloaddition of ?-iminoamides.

    PubMed

    Painter, Thomas O; Kaszas, Krisztian; Gross, Jacklyn; Douglas, Justin T; Day, Victor W; Iadarola, Michael J; Santini, Conrad

    2014-02-01

    As part of an effort to identify agonists of TRPV1, a peripheral sensory nerve ion channel, high throughput screening of the NIH Small Molecule Repository (SMR) collection identified MLS002174161, a pentacyclic benzodiazepine. A synthesis effort was initiated that ultimately afforded racemic seco analogs 12 of the SMR compound via a silver mediated intramolecular [3+2] cycloaddition of an azo-methine ylide generated from ?-iminoamides 11. The cycloaddition set four contiguous stereocenters and, in some cases, also spontaneously afforded imides 13 from 12. The synthesis of compounds 12, the features that facilitated the conversion of 12-13, and their partial agonist activity against TRPV1 are discussed. PMID:24412067

  2. Pharmacological evidence for CGRP uptake into perivascular capsaicin sensitive nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Sams-Nielsen, Anette; Orskov, Cathrine; Jansen-Olesen, Inger

    2001-01-01

    Specific mechanisms, providing reuptake of cathecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin and glutamate) into cells of the central nervous system are well known, whereas neuronal uptake of neuropeptide transmitters have not previously been reported. In the present study we present evidence for uptake of the 37 amino acid neuropeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) into perivascular terminals of capsaicin sensitive nerve fibres, innervating the guinea-pig basilar artery. Release of CGRP from perivascular nerve terminals was obtained by capsaicin-induced vanilloid receptor-stimulation and detected as CGRP receptor-mediated dilation of isolated segments of the guinea-pig basilar artery. Following three repeated capsaicin challenges, CGRP-depleted segments were incubated with CGRP. This caused significant reappearance of capsaicin-induced vasodilatory responses. These responses were dependent on duration and concentration of the preceding CGRP incubation and were inhibited by the CGRP receptor antagonist, CGRP8–37. The CGRP-re-depletion was significantly reduced when CGRP8–37 was present during the preceding CGRP incubation. Thus, presynaptic CGRP receptors are likely to be involved in neuronal CGRP uptake. Incubating the artery segments with 125I-CGRP allowed subsequent detection of capsaicin-induced 125I-release. Immunohistochemical experiments showed that only terminal CGRP is subject to capsaicin-induced depletion in vitro, whereas CGRP-immunoreactivity endures in the nerve fibres. PMID:11226146

  3. Biochem. J. (2010) 432, 549556 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20100936 549 PP2B/calcineurin-mediated desensitization of TRPV1 does not require

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    2010-01-01

    /calcineurin-mediated desensitization of TRPV1 does not require AKAP150 Elaine D. POR*, Bret K. SAMELSON, Sergei BELUGIN, Armen N. Recent evidence indicates that AKAP150-anchored PKA and PKC phosphorylate and sensitize the TRPV1 the dephosphorylation and desensitization of TRPV1. Biochemical, electrophysiological and cell-based experiments

  4. A novel, potent, oral active and safe antinociceptive pyrazole targeting kappa opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Walker, Cristiani I B; Oliveira, Sara M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Silva, Cássia R; Machado, Pablo; Boligon, Aline A; Martins, Marcos A P; Zanatta, Nilo; Bonacorso, Hélio G; Athayde, Margareth L; Rubin, Maribel A; Calixto, Joăo B; Ferreira, Juliano

    2013-10-01

    Pyrazole compounds are an intriguing class of compounds with potential analgesic activity; however, their mechanism of action remains unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to explore the antinociceptive potential, safety and mechanism of action of novel 1-pyrazole methyl ester derivatives, which were designed by molecular simplification, using in vivo and in vitro methods in mice. First, tree 1-pyrazole methyl ester derivatives (DMPE, MPFE, and MPCIE) were tested in the capsaicin test and all presented antinociceptive effect; however the MPClE (methyl 5-trichloromethyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxylate) was the most effective. Thus, we selected this compound to assess the effects and mechanisms in subsequent pain models. MPCIE produced antinociception when administered by oral, intraperitoneal, intrathecal and intraplantar routes and was effective in the capsaicin and the acetic acid-induced nociception tests. Moreover, this compound reduced the hyperalgesia in diverse clinically-relevant pain models, including postoperative, inflammatory, and neuropathic nociception in mice. The antinociception produced by orally administered MPClE was mediated by ?-opioid receptors, since these effects were prevented by systemically pre-treatment with naloxone and the ?-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Moreover, MPCIE prevented binding of the ?-opioid ligand [(3)H]-CI-977 in vitro (IC?? of 0.68 (0.32-1.4) ?M), but not the TRPV1 ([(3)H]-resiniferatoxin) or the ??-adrenoreceptor ([(3)H]-idazoxan) binding. Regarding the drug-induced side effects, oral administration of MPClE did not produce sedation, constipation or motor impairment at its active dose. In addition, MPCIE was readily absorbed after oral administration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MPClE is a novel, potent, orally active and safe analgesic drug that targets ?-opioid receptors. PMID:23791558

  5. Individual differences in perception of bitterness from capsaicin, piperine and zingerone.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Hayes, John E

    2004-01-01

    It was recently shown that in some subjects capsaicin can evoke bitterness as well as burning and stinging, particularly in the circumvallate (CV) region of the tongue. Because perception of bitterness from capsaicin is characterized by large individual differences, the main goal of the present study was to learn whether people who taste capsaicin as bitter also report bitterness from structurally similar sensory irritants that are known to stimulate capsaicin-sensitive neurons. The irritancy and taste of capsaicin and two of its most commonly studied congeners, piperine and zingerone, were measured in individuals who had been screened for visibility of, and reliable access to, the CV papillae. Approximately half of these individuals reported tasting bitterness from all three irritants when the stimuli were swabbed directly onto the CV papillae. Concentrations that produced similar levels of burning sensation across subjects also produced similar (though lower) levels of bitter taste. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that capsaicin and its congeners stimulate bitterness via a common sensory receptor that is distributed differentially among individuals. Additionally, bitter tasters rated gustatory qualities (but not burning and stinging) slightly but significantly higher than did bitter non-tasters, which suggests that perception of capsaicin bitterness is associated with a higher overall taste responsiveness (but not chemesthetic responsiveness) in the CV region. PMID:14752040

  6. Noninvasive diode laser activation of transient receptor potential proteins and nociceptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Jiang; Brian Y. Cooper; Michael I. Nemenov

    2007-01-01

    We investigated diode laser (980 nm) evoked activation of transient receptor potential proteins (TRPV1 and TRPV2). C and A-delta (Adelta) nociceptor families are primarily responsible for pain mediation in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 proteins have been associated with heat evoked pain in C fibers while Adelta fibers have been associated with TRPV2. Diode laser stimulation allows a margin of

  7. Research progress in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 of sensory nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da-Lu Liu; Wen-Ting Wang; Jun-Ling Xing; San-Jue Hu

    2009-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) is a protein mainly expressed in sensory neurons and\\u000a fibers, such as in trigeminal ganglion and dorsal root ganglion, and has been indicated to be involved in several physiological\\u000a and pathological processes. Studies on thermal activation have revealed that phosphorylation is involved in TRPV1 activation\\u000a and 2 putative phosphorylation sites, Ser

  8. p38 MAPK Activation by NGF in Primary Sensory Neurons after Inflammation Increases TRPV1 Levels and Maintains Heat Hyperalgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ru-Rong Ji; Tarek A. Samad; Shan-Xue Jin; Raymond Schmoll; Clifford J. Woolf

    2002-01-01

    Peripheral inflammation induces p38 MAPK activation in the soma of C fiber nociceptors in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after 24 hr. Inflammation also increases protein, but not mRNA levels, of the heat-gated ion channel TRPV1 (VR1) in these cells, which is then transported to peripheral but not central C fiber terminals. Inhibiting p38 activation in the DRG reduces the

  9. TRPV1 agonist piperine but not olvanil enhances glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in rat spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, Chang-Yu; Piao, Lian-Hua; Yue, Hai-Yuan; Mizuta, Kotaro; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2011-07-15

    We examined the effects of TRPV1 agonists olvanil and piperine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in the substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Bath-applied olvanil did not affect the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC), and unchanged holding currents at -70 mV. On the other hand, superfusing piperine reversibly and concentration-dependently increased sEPSC frequency (half-maximal effective concentration: 52.3 ?M) with a minimal increase in its amplitude. This sEPSC frequency increase was almost repetitive at an interval of more than 20 min. Piperine at a high concentration produced an inward current in some neurons. The facilitatory effect of piperine was blocked by TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. It is concluded that piperine but not olvanil activates TRPV1 channels in the central terminals of primary-afferent neurons, resulting in an increase in the spontaneous release of l-glutamate onto SG neurons. PMID:21703243

  10. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 expressing corneal sensory neurons can be subdivided into at least three subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Alamri, Abdulhakeem; Bron, Romke; Brock, James A; Ivanusic, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is innervated by three main functional classes of sensory neurons: polymodal nociceptors, pure mechano-nociceptors and cold-sensing neurons. Here we explored transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) expression in guinea pig corneal sensory neurons, a widely used molecular marker of polymodal nociceptors. We used retrograde tracing to identify corneal afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and double label in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry to determine their molecular profile. In addition, we used immunohistochemistry to reveal the neurochemistry and structure of TRPV1 expressing nerve endings in the corneal epithelium. Approximately 45% of corneal afferent neurons expressed TRPV1, 28% expressed Piezo2 (a marker of putative pure mechano-nociceptors) and 8% expressed the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8; a marker of cold-sensing neurons). There was no co-expression of TRPV1 and Piezo2 in corneal afferent neurons, but 6% of TRPV1 neurons co-expressed TRPM8. The TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons could be divided into three subpopulations on the basis of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and/or or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha3 (GFR?3) co-expression. In the corneal epithelium, the TRPV1 axons that co-expressed CGRP and GFR?3 ended as simple unbranched endings in the wing cell layer. In contrast, those that only co-expressed GFR?3 had ramifying endings that branched and terminated in the squamous cell layer, whereas those that only co-expressed CGRP had simple endings in the basal epithelium. This study shows that the majority of TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons (>90%) are likely to be polymodal nociceptors. Furthermore, TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons can be subdivided into specific subpopulations based on their molecular phenotype, nerve terminal morphology and distribution in the corneal epithelium. PMID:26106303

  11. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 expressing corneal sensory neurons can be subdivided into at least three subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Alamri, Abdulhakeem; Bron, Romke; Brock, James A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is innervated by three main functional classes of sensory neurons: polymodal nociceptors, pure mechano-nociceptors and cold-sensing neurons. Here we explored transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) expression in guinea pig corneal sensory neurons, a widely used molecular marker of polymodal nociceptors. We used retrograde tracing to identify corneal afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and double label in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry to determine their molecular profile. In addition, we used immunohistochemistry to reveal the neurochemistry and structure of TRPV1 expressing nerve endings in the corneal epithelium. Approximately 45% of corneal afferent neurons expressed TRPV1, 28% expressed Piezo2 (a marker of putative pure mechano-nociceptors) and 8% expressed the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8; a marker of cold-sensing neurons). There was no co-expression of TRPV1 and Piezo2 in corneal afferent neurons, but 6% of TRPV1 neurons co-expressed TRPM8. The TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons could be divided into three subpopulations on the basis of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and/or or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha3 (GFR?3) co-expression. In the corneal epithelium, the TRPV1 axons that co-expressed CGRP and GFR?3 ended as simple unbranched endings in the wing cell layer. In contrast, those that only co-expressed GFR?3 had ramifying endings that branched and terminated in the squamous cell layer, whereas those that only co-expressed CGRP had simple endings in the basal epithelium. This study shows that the majority of TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons (>90%) are likely to be polymodal nociceptors. Furthermore, TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons can be subdivided into specific subpopulations based on their molecular phenotype, nerve terminal morphology and distribution in the corneal epithelium. PMID:26106303

  12. Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Potential for modulation of inflammatory disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. O'Sullivan; D. A. Kendall

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids act via cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the ion channel receptor TRPV1. Evidence has now emerged suggesting that an additional target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors. There are three PPAR subtypes ?, ? (also known as ?) and ?, which regulate cell differentiation, metabolism and immune function. The major endocannabinoids,

  13. Respiratory actions of tachykinins in the nucleus of the solitary tract: effect of neonatal capsaicin pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Stuart B; Geraghty, Dominic P

    2000-01-01

    The respiratory response to microinjection of capsaicin and tachykinin receptor agonists into the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS) was investigated in adult, urethane-anaesthetized rats which had been pretreated with capsaicin (50?mg?kg?1?s.c.) or vehicle (10% Tween 80, 10% ethanol in saline) as day 2 neonates. Microinjection of capsaicin (1?nmol) into the cNTS of vehicle-pretreated rats, significantly reduced respiratory frequency (59 breaths?min?1, preinjection control, 106 breaths?min?1) without affecting tidal volume (VT). In capsaicin-pretreated rats, the capsaicin-induced bradypnoea was markedly attenuated (minimum frequency, 88 breaths?min?1; control, 106 breaths?min?1). In vehicle-pretreated rats, microinjection of substance?P (SP, 33?pmol), neurokinin?A (NKA, 33?pmol) and NKB (330?pmol), and the selective NK1 tachykinin receptor agonists, [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP (33?pmol) and septide (10?pmol), increased VT (maxima, 3.60–3.93?ml?kg?1) compared with preinjection control (2.82?ml?kg?1), without affecting frequency. The selective NK3 agonist senktide (10?pmol) also increased VT (3.93?ml?kg?1) which was accompanied by a bradypnoea (?25 breaths?min?1). The selective NK2 agonist, [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) (330?pmol) increased VT slightly but significantly decreased frequency (?12 breaths?min?1). In capsaicin-pretreated rats, VT responses to SP and [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP were increased whereas the response to septide was abolished. Both the VT and bradypnoeic responses to senktide and [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) were significantly enhanced. These results show that neonatal capsaicin administration markedly reduces the respiratory response to microinjection of capsaicin into the cNTS. The destruction of capsaicin-sensitive afferents appears to sensitize the NTS to SP, NKB, [Sar9,Met(O2)11]-SP, senktide and [Nle10]-NKA(4-10). Moreover, the loss of septide responsiveness in capsaicin-pretreated rats, suggests that ‘septide-sensitive' NK1 receptors may be located on the central terminals of afferent neurons. PMID:10725261

  14. Expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) families 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the mouse olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Khalifa; Takumida, Masaya; Ishibashi, Takuya; Hamamoto, Takao; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-1-4 in the mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) in comparison to its expression in respiratory epithelium. CBA/J mice were used. The localization of TRPV-1, -2, -3 and -4 in the nasal mucosa was investigated using immunohistochemistry and a double staining study for TRPV-1 and -2 and SP was also carried out. TRPV-1-4, were expressed variably in the OE with a diffuse pattern in lamina propria, and were expressed in respiratory epithelium with strong positive expression in glandular cells of lamina propria. The double-staining study revealed coexpression of TRPV-1 and -2 and substance P (SP) in the trigeminal nerve fibers of the OE. Coexpression of TRPV-1 and SP was marked around the blood vessels and seromucinous gland of respiratory epithelium while TRPV-2 showed no co-localization. TRPV-1-4 were found to be localized in the mouse OE and respiratory epithelium. Our results suggest that TRPVs may play multiple roles in the OE, contributing to olfactory adaptation, olfactory/trigeminal interactions in nasal chemoreception and OE homeostasis; they may also be involved in olfactory transduction as well as olfactory dysfunction secondary to sinonasal inflammatory disease. TRPVs in respiratory mucosa may play a significant role in nasal nociception, ciliary movement and the regulation of mucous secretion. PMID:19839244

  15. The influence of topical capsaicin on the local thermal control of skin blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Stephens, D P; Charkoudian, N; Benevento, J M; Johnson, J M; Saumet, J L

    2001-09-01

    To test whether heat-sensitive receptors participate in the cutaneous vascular responses to direct heating, we monitored skin blood flow (SkBF; laser Doppler flowmetry) where the sensation of heat was induced either by local warming (T(Loc); Peltier cooling/heating unit) or by both direct warming and chemical stimulation of heat-sensitive nociceptors (capsaicin). In part I, topical capsaicin (0.075 or 0.025%) was applied to 12 cm(2) of skin 1 h before stepwise local warming of untreated and capsaicin-treated forearm skin. Pretreatment with 0.075% capsaicin cream shifted the SkBF/T(Loc) relationship to lower temperatures by an average of 6 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P < 0.05). In part II, we used a combination of topical capsaicin (0.025%) and local warming to evoke thermal sensation at one site and only local warming to evoke thermal sensation at a separate site. Cutaneous vasomotor responses were compared when the temperatures at these two sites were perceived to be the same. SkBF differed significantly between capsaicin and control sites when compared on the basis of actual temperatures, but that difference became insignificant when compared on the basis of the perceived temperatures. These data suggest heat-sensitive nociceptors are important in the cutaneous vasodilator response to local skin warming. PMID:11507006

  16. Adaptation to Capsaicin Within and Across Days

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald H Mcburney; Carey D Balaban; Dale E Christopher; Cameron Harvey

    1997-01-01

    McBurney, D. H., C. D. Balaban, D. E. Christopher and C. Harvey. Adaptation to capsaicin within and across days. Physiol Behav 61(2) 181–190, 1997.—Subjects judged the time-course of the burn caused by 100 ppm capsaicin applied to the tongue on Day 1 and Day 5. On Days 2–4, they tasted hard candy containing capsaicin. Most subjects did not show adaptation

  17. Contribution of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Subtype 1 to the Analgesic and Antihyperalgesic Activity of Nefopam in Rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Verleye; Jean-Marie Gillardin

    2009-01-01

    In order to further elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of analgesic and antihyperalgesic nefopam, its interactions with the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) were investigated. In sensory neurons of rat embryos, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in culture, nefopam (3–30 ?mol\\/l) and capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist, 10 ?mol\\/l) prevented intracellular calcium elevation and calcitonin gene-related peptide release induced by vanilloid

  18. Effect of resiniferatoxin on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons of the adult rat spinal cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-Y. Jiang; T. Fujita; H.-Y. Yue; L.-H. Piao; T. Liu; T. Nakatsuka; E. Kumamoto

    2009-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist, capsaicin, enhances glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in CNS neurons. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) has a much higher affinity for TRPV1 than capsaicin, but its ability to modulate excitatory transmission is unclear. We examined the effect of RTX on excitatory transmission using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of

  19. Capsaicin and nicotine-sensitive afferent neurones and nasal secretion in healthy human volunteers and in patients with vasomotor rhinitis.

    PubMed Central

    Stjärne, P.; Lundblad, L.; Lundberg, J. M.; Anggĺrd, A.

    1989-01-01

    1. Applications of capsaicin, nicotine and methacholine were made locally onto the nasal mucosa in human controls and patients suffering from hyperreactive nasal disorders. Perception of sensation was registered as a sympton score and secretion quantified. The sensory reaction (irritation - pain) to capsaicin was similar in the three groups studied, i.e. controls, a group of patients with the diagnosis of vasomotor rhinitis and a group of patients with increased nasal secretion as the main symptom of the hyperreactive disorder. Nicotine induced only a mild itching sensation in the three groups. However, capsaicin and nicotine challenge caused a significantly larger secretory response in the last group than in the unselected vasomotor rhinitis group and in the control group. 2. Pretreatment with muscarinic receptor antagonists almost completely abolished the secretory response to both capsaicin and nicotine, and blocked methacholine-induced secretion. Furthermore, pretreatment with a combination of local anaesthetic and vasoconstrictor agent abolished the capsaicin-induced irritation, as well as the capsaicin- and nicotine-induced secretion on both the ipsilateral and the contralateral side. Therefore, no clearcut contribution seems to be exerted by locally released peptides from sensory neurones as direct trigger substances for the secretory response to capsaicin. 3. In conclusion, the nasal secretory response, in man, to both capsaicin and nicotine, seems to be mediated via cholinergic parasympathetic reflexes. In patients with hyperreactive non-allergic disorders of the nasal mucosa with rhinorrhea as the main complaint, the enhanced secretion may be due to a hyperreactive efferent cholinergic mechanism rather than hypersensitive irritant receptors on capsaicin- and nicotine-sensitive sensory neurones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2720299

  20. Activation of primary sensory neurons by the topical application of capsaicin on the epidermis of a re-innervated organotypic human skin model.

    PubMed

    Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Pennec, Jean-Pierre; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Chéret, Jérémy; Jeanmaire, Christine; Carré, Jean-Luc; Pauly, Gilles; Misery, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Using an ex vivo skin-nerve preparation, skin and nerve cells were reconstituted into a single unit and maintained in a nutrient medium bath until required experimentally. Our objective was to use the epidermis as a relay for the induction of an electric current to the neurons following the topical application of capsaicin on the skin epidermis of the skin explant, an agonist of the TRPV1 channel implicated in pruritus and pain. After 10-20 days of coculture to form the re-innervated skin model, we applied a solution of capsaicin directly on the epidermis of the skin explant (4 ?m). The resulting current was recorded using a path-clamp technique on the neuronal fibres. Following the topical application of capsaicin, spontaneous activity was triggered, as characterised by repetitive spikes with periods of 125, 225 or 275 ms. This study demonstrates that the skin explant and nerve cells preparation may receive stimuli and be used to screen molecules or to study signal transmission. PMID:24299199

  1. Pharmacology of vanilloid transient receptor potential cation channels.

    PubMed

    Vriens, Joris; Appendino, Giovanni; Nilius, Bernd

    2009-06-01

    Depending on their primary structure, the 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels identified so far can be sorted into 6 subfamilies: TRPC ("Canonical"), TRPV ("Vanilloid"), TRPM ("Melastatin"), TRPP ("Polycystin"), TRPML ("Mucolipin"), and TRPA ("Ankyrin"). The TRPV subfamily (vanilloid receptors) comprises channels critically involved in nociception and thermosensing (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, and TRPV4), whereas TRPV5 and TRPV6 are involved in renal Ca(2+) absorption/reabsorption. Apart from TRPV1, the pharmacology of these channels is still insufficiently known. Furthermore, only few small-molecule ligands for non-TRPV1 vanilloid receptors have been identified, and little is known of their endogenous ligands, resulting in a substantial "orphan" state for these channels. In this review, we summarize the pharmacological properties of members of the TRPV subfamily, highlighting the critical issues and challenges facing their "deorphanization" and clinical exploitation. PMID:19297520

  2. Capsaicin Induces Reflex Scratching in Inflamed Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiexian Liang; Guanqing Xiao; Wenjin Ji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether capsaicin induces itching in skin with existing inflammation. We induced skin inflammation by intradermal injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in the neck of mice. Four days later, we injected capsaicin in the same area and counted the number of scratching bouts for 30 min. We examined potential effects on pain in parallel experiments in which CFA

  3. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-01

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ?-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ?-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and ?- and/or ?-oxidation. PMID:26072923

  4. Ca(2+) binding protein S100A1 competes with calmodulin and PIP2 for binding site on the C-terminus of the TPRV1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Grycova, Lenka; Holendova, Blanka; Lansky, Zdenek; Bumba, Ladislav; Jirku, Michaela; Bousova, Kristyna; Teisinger, Jan

    2015-03-18

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel (TRPV1) belongs to the TRP family of ion channels. These channels play a role in many important biological processes such as thermosensation and pain transduction. The TRPV1 channel was reported to be also involved in nociception. Ca(2+) ions are described to participate in the regulation of TRP channels through the interaction with Ca(2+)-binding proteins, such as calmodulin or S100A1. Calmodulin is involved in the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of TRPV1 via its binding to the TRPV1 C-terminal region. However, the role of the Ca(2+)-binding protein S100A1 in the process of TRP channel regulation remains elusive. Here we characterized a region on the TRPV1 C-terminus responsible for the interaction with S100A1 using biochemical and biophysical tools. We found that this region overlaps with previously identified calmodulin and PIP2 binding sites and that S100A1 competes with calmodulin and PIP2 for this binding site. We identified several positively charged residues within this region, which have crucial impact on S100A1 binding, and we show that the reported S100A1-TRPV1 interaction is calcium-dependent. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism for the mutual regulation of PIP2 and the Ca(2+)-binding proteins S100A1 and calmodulin to TRPV1. PMID:25543978

  5. Differential Effects of Noxious Conditioning Stimulation of the Cheek by Capsaicin on Human Sensory and Inhibitory Masseter Reflex Responses Evoked by Tooth Pulp Stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kemppainen; A. Waltimo; T. Waltimo; M. Könönen; A. Pertovaara

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether selective activation of nociceptive primary afferent fibers by capsaicin would induce modulations on tooth-pulp-evoked sensory or inhibitory masseter reflex responses in healthy human subjects. The contribution of central N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mechanisms in capsaicin-induced effects on sensory or reflex responses was evaluated by dextromethorphan, an NMDA-receptor antagonist. The inhibitory masseter reflex was evoked by

  6. Capsaicin Combined with Local Anesthetics Preferentially Prolongs Sensory/Nociceptive Block in Rat Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Binshtok, Alexander M.; Wang, Chi-Fei; Hevelone, Nathanael D.; Bean, Bruce P.; Woolf, Clifford J.; Wang, Ging Kuo

    2009-01-01

    Background Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels integrate nociceptive stimuli and are predominantly expressed by unmyelinated C-fiber nociceptors, but not low-threshold mechanoreceptive sensory or motor fibers. A recent report showed that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel agonist capsaicin allows a hydrophilic quaternary ammonium derivative of lidocaine, QX-314, to selectively block C fibers without motor block. The authors tested whether a similar differential block would be produced using amphipathicN-methyl amitriptyline, amitriptyline, bupivacaine, or lidocaine, either alone or together with 0.05% capsaicin, in a rat sciatic nerve block model. Methods Rats (n = 8/group) were anesthetized with sevoflurane, and 0.2 ml of drug was injected either alone or with capsaicin (simultaneously or 10 min later) next to the sciatic nerve in the sciatic notch. Motor function was assessed by the extensor postural thrust. Nociception was evaluated by the nocifensive withdrawal reflex and vocalization evoked by pinch of a skin fold over the lateral metatarsus (cutaneous pain) with a serrated forceps. Results N-Methyl amitriptyline, amitriptyline, bupivacaine, or lidocaine, followed by injection of capsaicin 10 min later, each elicited a predominantly nociceptive-specific blockade. In comparison, simultaneous application of each local anesthetic with capsaicin did not elicit a clinically significant differential block, with the exception of N-methyl amitriptyline. Conclusions Both tertiary amine local anesthetics and their quaternary ammonium derivatives can elicit a predominantly sensory/nociceptor selective block when followed by injection of capsaicin. The combined application of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel agonists and various local anesthetics or their quaternary ammonium derivatives is an appealing strategy to achieve a long-lasting differential block in regional analgesia. PMID:18946300

  7. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels in human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Garreis, Fabian; Sahlmüller, Monika; Reinach, Peter S; Paulsen, Friedrich; Pleyer, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins such as TRPV1-TRPV4 are all heat-activated non-selective cation channels that are modestly permeable to Ca(2+). TRPV1, TRPV3, and TRPV4 functional expression were previously identified in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). However, the membrane currents were not described underlying their activation by either selective agonists or thermal variation. This study characterized the membrane currents and [Ca(2+)](i) transients induced by thermal and agonist TRPV1 and 4 stimulation. TRPV1 and 4 expressions were confirmed by RT-PCR and TRPV2 transcripts were also detected. In fura2-loaded HCEC, a TRPV1-3 selective agonist, 100 µM 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients and an increase in non-selective cation outward currents that were suppressed by ruthenium-red (RuR) (10-20 µM), a non-selective TRPV channel blocker. These changes were also elicited by rises in ambient temperature from 25 to over 40 °C. RuR (5 µM) and a selective TRPV1 channel blocker capsazepine CPZ (10 µM) or another related blocker, lanthanum chloride (La(3+)) (100 µM) suppressed these temperature-induced Ca(2+) increases. Planar patch-clamp technique was used to characterize the currents underlying Ca(2+) transients. Increasing the temperature to over 40 °C induced reversible rises in non-selective cation currents. Moreover, a hypotonic challenge (25%) increased non-selective cation currents confirming TRPV4 activity. We conclude that HCEC possess in addition to thermosensitive TRPV3 activity TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 activity. Their activation confers temperature sensitivity at the ocular surface, which may protect the cornea against such stress. PMID:21506114

  8. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca{sup 2+} influx

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Dong-Oh [Department of Biology Education, Daegu University, Gyungsan, Gyeongbuk 712–714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biology Education, Daegu University, Gyungsan, Gyeongbuk 712–714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690–756 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690–756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yung-Hyun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongeui University, Busan 614–054 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongeui University, Busan 614–054 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree [School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju-si 690–756 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju-si 690–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gi-Young, E-mail: immunkim@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690–756 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690–756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ? Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ? Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ? Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  9. Effects of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel agonists and antagonists on slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors in the rat sinus hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Cahusac, Peter M B

    2009-12-01

    The possible functional role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels was investigated by testing various TRP agonists and antagonists in an isolated rat sinus hair follicle preparation. Extracellular recordings from slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptor units were made. The antagonist capsazepine depressed spontaneous and mechanically evoked activity, with an IC(50) of 82 microM. In one-third of units, capsazepine caused a selective depression of mechanically evoked firing, such that the existing spontaneous firing was interrupted by an absence of activity during the mechanical stimulus. The broad spectrum TRP blocker ruthenium red (30 microM) had inconsistent effects, although in some units a delayed onset (following wash) bursting and paroxysmal firing ensued. The agonist icilin (50-100 microM) had an excitatory effect on spontaneous firing, and (-)-menthol (200 microM) had inconsistent effects. Cinnamaldehyde (1-2 mM) depressed all types of activity equally, mechanically evoked and spontaneous. Camphor (0.5-2 mM) also depressed all types of activity, although it had a preferential effect on spontaneous activity. Capsaicin (1-10 microM) and allyl isothiocyanate (50-100 microM) had no clear effects. These results rule out any role for TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in mechanotransduction processes of slowly adapting type II mechanoreceptors. PMID:20021572

  10. Transient receptor potential channel A1 and noxious cold responses in rat cutaneous nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, J.P.; Leith, J.L.; Lumb, B.M.; Donaldson, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The role of transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) in noxious cold sensation remains unclear. Some data support the hypothesis that TRPA1 is a transducer of noxious cold whilst other data contest it. In this study we investigated the role of TRPA1 in cold detection in cutaneous nociceptors in vivo using complementary experimental approaches. We used noxious withdrawal reflex electromyography, and single fibre recordings in vivo, to test the hypothesis that TRPA1-expressing primary afferents mediate noxious cold responses in anaesthetised rats. TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists sensitise their cognate receptors to heat and cold stimuli respectively. Herein we show that the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde applied to the skin in anaesthetised rats did not sensitise noxious cold evoked hind limb withdrawal. In contrast, cinnamaldehyde did sensitise the C fibre-mediated noxious heat withdrawal, indicated by a significant drop in the withdrawal temperature. TRPA1 agonist thus sensitised the noxious reflex withdrawal to heat, but not cold. Thermal stimuli also sensitise transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to agonist. Activity evoked by capsaicin in teased primary afferent fibres showed a significant positive correlation with receptive field temperature, in both normal and Freund's complete adjuvant-induced cutaneous inflammation. Altering the temperature of the receptive field did not modulate TRPA1 agonist evoked-activity in cutaneous primary afferents, in either normal or inflamed skin. In addition, block of the TRPA1 channel with Ruthenium Red did not inhibit cold evoked activity in either cinnamaldehyde sensitive or insensitive cold responsive nociceptors. In cinnamaldehyde-sensitive–cold-sensitive afferents, although TRPA1 agonist-evoked activity was totally abolished by Ruthenium Red, cold evoked activity was unaffected by channel blockade. We conclude that these results do not support the hypothesis that TRPA1-expressing cutaneous afferents play an important role in noxious cold responses. PMID:19961905

  11. Spatio-Temporal Expression and Functional Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Diabetic Mechanical Allodynia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huang-Hui; Qi, Jian; Shi, Juan; Li, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is one of the most common clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by prominent mechanical allodynia (DMA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying it has not fully been elucidated. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of a major nociceptive channel protein transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and analyzed its functional involvement by intrathecal (i.t.) application of TRPV1 antagonists in streptozocin (STZ)-induced DMA rat models. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining results showed that TRPV1 protein level was significantly increased in the soma of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on 14 days after STZ treatment (DMA 14 d), whereas those in spinal cord and skin (mainly from the central and peripheral processes of DRG neurons) had already been enhanced on DMA 7 d to peak on DMA 14 d. qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that TRPV1 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in the DRG on DMA 7 d, indicating a preceding translation of TRPV1 protein in the soma but preferential distribution of this protein to the processes under the DMA conditions. Cell counting assay based on double immunostaining suggested that increased TRPV1-immunoreactive neurons were likely to be small-sized and CGRP-ergic. Finally, single or multiple intrathecal applications of non-specific or specific TRPV1 antagonists, ruthenium red and capsazepine, at varying doses, effectively alleviated DMA, although the effect of the former was more prominent and long-lasting. These results collectively indicate that TRPV1 expression dynamically changes during the development of DMA and this protein may play important roles in mechanical nociception in DRG neurons, presumably through facilitating the release of CGRP. PMID:25020137

  12. Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 Regulates TRPV1 Phosphorylation in Sensory Neurons*

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    treatment. Furthermore, knockdown of TRPA1 (transient receptor potential subtype A1) expression in sensory- gesting that WIN acts through TRPA1. We also confirm the importance of TRPA1 in WIN) (12), N-arachido- noyldopamine (13), and anandamide (14), as well as TRPA1 (transient receptor

  13. Gastrointestinal absorption and metabolism of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kawada; T. Suzuki; M. Takahashi; K. Iwai

    1984-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin was studied in rats in vivo and in situ. Rapid absorption of capsaicin or dihydrocapsaicin from stomach and small intestine occurred in vivo. About 85% of the dose was absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract within 3 hr. In situ, within 60 min after the administration of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin into stomach, jejunum, and ileum,

  14. Eine colorimetrisehe Methode zur Bestimmung von Capsaicin in Drogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Schulte; H. M. Krüger

    1955-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Es wird eine Farbreaktion des Capsaicins mit Diazobenzolsulfonsäure beschrieben, die unter Einhaltung bestimmter Bedingungen die photometrische Bestimmung des Capsaicins gestattet. Die quantitative Isolierung des Capsaicins läßt sich durch Adsorptionschromatographie über eine Säule von Aluminiumoxyd und Kohle und Äthylalkohol als Entwicklerflüssigkeit erreichen.

  15. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-immunopositive neurons in the mouse are more prevalent within colon afferents compared to skin and muscle afferents.

    PubMed

    Christianson, J A; McIlwrath, S L; Koerber, H R; Davis, B M

    2006-06-19

    Previous studies in our laboratories found that isolectin B(4)(IB(4))-positive polymodal nociceptors in the mouse do not express transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), nor does deletion of TRPV1 compromise the ability of these afferents to detect thermal stimuli. Considering that IB(4)-positive afferents account for over 70% of cutaneous nociceptors and that 30-50% of all mouse primary afferents express TRPV1, it is highly likely that many TRPV1-positive fibers project to non-cutaneous structures. To investigate this issue, Alexa Fluor-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) or IB(4) was injected into the nerves innervating quadriceps muscle (femoral) or hindlimb skin (saphenous) of male C57Bl/6 mice. Similarly, Alexa Fluor-conjugated cholera toxin-beta was injected subserosally into the distal colon. Spinal ganglia at the appropriate level (L2-3 for saphenous and femoral nerves; L6 for colon) were processed for TRPV1, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurofilament heavy chain (NHF) and IB(4) visualization and examined on a confocal microscope. Colon afferents contained the highest percentage of both TRPV1- and CGRP-positive neurons, followed by femoral (WGA) and saphenous afferents (WGA and IB(4)). In contrast, NHF staining was more prevalent among femoral afferents, followed by saphenous (WGA) and colon afferents. IB(4) binding was observed in very few colon or saphenous (WGA) afferents, with no femoral afferents binding or transporting IB(4). Considering that the largest percentages of TRPV1-positive neurons observed in this study were within visceral and muscle afferent populations (neurons that typically are not subject to noxious temperatures), these results suggest that TRPV1 may not function primarily as a temperature sensor but rather as a detector of protons, vanilloid compounds or through interactions with other membrane proteins. PMID:16564640

  16. Lack of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel modulates the development of neurogenic bladder dysfunction induced by cross-sensitization in afferent pathways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bladder pain of unknown etiology has been associated with co-morbid conditions and functional abnormalities in neighboring pelvic organs. Mechanisms underlying pain co-morbidities include cross-sensitization, which occurs predominantly via convergent neural pathways connecting distinct pelvic organs. Our previous results showed that colonic inflammation caused detrusor instability via activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) signaling pathways, therefore, we aimed to determine whether neurogenic bladder dysfunction can develop in the absence of TRPV1 receptors. Methods Adult male C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and TRPV1?/? (knockout) mice were used in this study. Colonic inflammation was induced by intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The effects of transient colitis on abdominal sensitivity and function of the urinary bladder were evaluated by cystometry, contractility and relaxation of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) in vitro to various stimuli, gene and protein expression of voltage-gated sodium channels in bladder sensory neurons, and pelvic responses to mechanical stimulation. Results Knockout of TRPV1 gene did not eliminate the development of cross-sensitization between the colon and urinary bladder. However, TRPV1?/? mice had prolonged intermicturition interval and increased number of non-voiding contractions at baseline followed by reduced urodynamic responses during active colitis. Contractility of DSM was up-regulated in response to KCl in TRPV1?/? mice with inflamed colon. Application of Rho-kinase inhibitor caused relaxation of DSM in WT but not in TRPV1?/? mice during colonic inflammation. TRPV1?/? mice demonstrated blunted effects of TNBS-induced colitis on expression and function of voltage-gated sodium channels in bladder sensory neurons, and delayed development of abdominal hypersensitivity upon colon-bladder cross-talk in genetically modified animals. Conclusions The lack of TRPV1 receptors does not eliminate the development of cross-sensitization in the pelvis. However, the function of the urinary bladder significantly differs between WT and TRPV?/? mice especially upon development of colon-bladder cross-sensitization induced by transient colitis. Our results suggest that TRPV1 pathways may participate in the development of chronic pelvic pain co-morbidities in humans. PMID:23305398

  17. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (thermo-TRPs) in human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mergler, Stefan; Garreis, Fabian; Sahlmüller, Monika; Reinach, Peter S.; Paulsen, Friedrich; Pleyer, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Thermosensitive transient receptor potential proteins (TRPs) such as TRPV1-TRPV4 are all heat-activated non-selective cation channels that are modestly permeable to Ca2+. TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 functional expression were previously identified in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). However, the membrane currents were not described underlying their activation by either selective agonists or thermal variation. This study characterized the membrane currents and [Ca 2+]i transients induced by thermal and agonist TRPV1 and 4 stimulation. TRPV1 and 4 expressions were confirmed by RT-PCR and TRPV2 transcripts were also detected. In fura2-loaded HCEC, a TRPV1-3 selective agonist, 100 µM 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), induced intracellular Ca2+ transients and an increase in non-selective cation outward currents that were suppressed by ruthenium-red (RuR) (10–20 µM), a nonselective TRPV channel blocker. These changes were also elicited by rises in ambient temperature from 25 °C to over 40 °C. RuR (5 µM) and a selective TRPV1 channel blocker capsazepine (CPZ) (10 µM) or another related blocker, lanthanum chloride (La3+) (100 µM) suppressed these temperature-induced Ca2+ increases. Planar patch-clamp technique was used to characterize the currents underlying Ca2+ transients. Increasing the temperature to over 40 °C induced reversible rises in non-selective cation currents. Moreover, a hypotonic challenge (25 %) increased non-selective cation currents confirming TRPV4 activity. We conclude that HCEC possess in addition to thermo-sensitive TRPV3 activity TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV4 activity. Their activation confers temperature sensitivity at the ocular surface, which may protect the cornea against such stress. PMID:21506114

  18. Adaptation to capsaicin within and across days.

    PubMed

    McBurney, D H; Balaban, C D; Christopher, D E; Harvey, C

    1997-02-01

    Subjects judged the time-course of the burn caused by 100 ppm capsaicin applied to the tongue on Day 1 and Day 5. On Days 2-4, they tasted hard candy containing capsaicin. Most subjects did not show adaptation within Day 1, but either plateaued after about 16 min or rose monotonically for the entire 34 min. Intensity was less on Day 5 and levelled off or declined for most subjects. Data were fit to a mathematical model of adaptation. Adaptation across days was accounted for by changes in the gains of the three processes. PMID:9035246

  19. Nociceptin inhibits vanilloid TRPV-1-mediated neurosensitization induced by fenoterol in human isolated bronchi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Faisy; Emmanuel Naline; Céline Rouget; Paul-André Risse; Emmanuel Guerot; Jean-Yves Fagon; Thierry Chinet; Nicolas Roche; Charles Advenier

    2004-01-01

    Chronic exposure to ? 2-adrenoceptor agonists, especially fenoterol, has been shown to increase smooth muscle contraction to endothelin-1 in human bronchi partly through tachykinin-mediated pathways. The purpose of this work was to further investigate the role of sensory nerves in fenoterol-induced sensitization of human airways and the effect of nociceptin, a nociceptin\\/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor agonist, on the increase in

  20. C-terminal dimerization activates the nociceptive transduction channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Chuang, Huai-hu

    2011-11-25

    Covalent modification of the specific cysteine residue(s) by oxidative stress robustly potentiates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and sensitizes nociception. Here we provide biochemical evidence of dimerization of TRPV1 subunits upon exposure to phenylarsine oxide and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), two chemical surrogates of oxidative stress. A disulfide bond formed between apposing cysteines ligates two C termini, serving as the structural basis of channel sensitization by oxidative covalent C-terminal modification. Systematic cysteine scanning of the C terminus of a cysteineless TRPV1 channel revealed a critical regi