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Sample records for capsaicin receptor trpv1

  1. N-glycosylation determines ionic permeability and desensitization of the TRPV1 capsaicin receptor.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Nicholas A; Lew, Michael J; Abogadie, Fe C; Poole, Daniel P; Jennings, Ernest A; Ivanusic, Jason J; Eilers, Helge; Bunnett, Nigel W; McIntyre, Peter

    2012-06-22

    The balance of glycosylation and deglycosylation of ion channels can markedly influence their function and regulation. However, the functional importance of glycosylation of the TRPV1 receptor, a key sensor of pain-sensing nerves, is not well understood, and whether TRPV1 is glycosylated in neurons is unclear. We report that TRPV1 is N-glycosylated and that N-glycosylation is a major determinant of capsaicin-evoked desensitization and ionic permeability. Both N-glycosylated and unglycosylated TRPV1 was detected in extracts of peripheral sensory nerves by Western blotting. TRPV1 expressed in HEK-293 cells exhibited various degrees of glycosylation. A mutant of asparagine 604 (N604T) was not glycosylated but did not alter plasma membrane expression of TRPV1. Capsaicin-evoked increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) were sustained in wild-type TRPV1 HEK-293 cells but were rapidly desensitized in N604T TRPV1 cells. There was marked cell-to-cell variability in capsaicin responses and desensitization between individual cells expressing wild-type TRPV1 but highly uniform responses in cells expressing N604T TRPV1, consistent with variable levels of glycosylation of the wild-type channel. These differences were also apparent when wild-type or N604T TRPV1-GFP fusion proteins were expressed in neurons from trpv1(-/-) mice. Capsaicin evoked a marked, concentration-dependent increase in uptake of the large cationic dye YO-PRO-1 in cells expressing wild-type TRPV1, indicative of loss of ion selectivity, that was completely absent in cells expressing N604T TRPV1. Thus, TRPV1 is variably N-glycosylated and glycosylation is a key determinant of capsaicin regulation of TRPV1 desensitization and permeability. Our findings suggest that physiological or pathological alterations in TRPV1 glycosylation would affect TRPV1 function and pain transmission. PMID:22570472

  2. Nicotinic Acid Activates the Capsaicin Receptor TRPV1 – A Potential Mechanism for Cutaneous Flushing

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Linlin; Lee, Bo Hyun; Mao, Rongrong; Cai, Anping; Jia, Yunfang; Clifton, Heather; Schaefer, Saul; Xu, Lin; Zheng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nicotinic acid (a.k.a. niacin or vitamin B3), widely used to treat dyslipidemias, represents an effective and safe means to reduce the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, a substantial fraction of patients discontinue treatment due to a strong side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly termed flushing. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that nicotinic acid causes flushing partially by activating the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, a polymodal cellular sensor that mediates the flushing response upon consumption of spicy food. Approach and Results We observed that the nicotinic acid-induced increase in blood flow was substantially reduced in Trpv1?/? knockout mice, indicating involvement of the channel in flushing response. Using exogenously expressed TRPV1, we confirmed that nicotinic acid at sub-millimolar to millimolar concentrations directly and potently activates TRPV1 from the intracellular side. Binding of nicotinic acid to TRPV1 lowers its activation threshold for heat, causing channel opening at physiological temperatures. Activation of TRPV1 by voltage or ligands (capsaicin and 2-APB) is also potentiated by nicotinic acid. We further demonstrated that nicotinic acid does not compete directly with capsaicin but may activate TRPV1 through the 2-APB activation pathway. Using live-cell fluorescence imaging, we observed that nicotinic acid can quickly enter the cell through a transporter-mediated pathway to activate TRPV1. Conclusions Direct activation of TRPV1 by nicotinic acid may lead to cutaneous vasodilation that contributes to flushing, suggesting a potential novel pathway to inhibit flushing and improve compliance. PMID:24675661

  3. TRPV1 recapitulates native capsaicin receptor in sensory neurons in association with Fas-associated factor 1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangsung; Kang, Changjoong; Shin, Chan Young; Hwang, Sun Wook; Yang, Young Duk; Shim, Won Sik; Park, Min-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Misook; Kim, Byung-Moon; Cho, Hawon; Shin, Youngki; Oh, Uhtaek

    2006-03-01

    TRPV1, a cloned capsaicin receptor, is a molecular sensor for detecting adverse stimuli and a key element for inflammatory nociception and represents biophysical properties of native channel. However, there seems to be a marked difference between TRPV1 and native capsaicin receptors in the pharmacological response profiles to vanilloids or acid. One plausible explanation for this overt discrepancy is the presence of regulatory proteins associated with TRPV1. Here, we identify Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) as a regulatory factor, which is coexpressed with and binds to TRPV1 in sensory neurons. When expressed heterologously, FAF1 reduces the responses of TRPV1 to capsaicin, acid, and heat, to the pharmacological level of native capsaicin receptor in sensory neurons. Furthermore, silencing FAF1 by RNA interference augments capsaicin-sensitive current in native sensory neurons. We therefore conclude that FAF1 forms an integral component of the vanilloid receptor complex and that it constitutively modulates the sensitivity of TRPV1 to various noxious stimuli in sensory neurons. PMID:16510717

  4. ThermoTRP Channels in Nociceptors: Taking a Lead from Capsaicin Receptor TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Mandadi, Sravan; Roufogalis, Basil D.

    2008-01-01

    Nociceptors with peripheral and central projections express temperature sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, also called thermoTRP’s. Chemosensitivity of thermoTRP’s to certain natural compounds eliciting pain or exhibiting thermal properties has proven to be a good tool in characterizing these receptors. Capsaicin, a pungent chemical in hot peppers, has assisted in the cloning of the first thermoTRP, TRPV1. This discovery initiated the search for other receptors encoding the response to a wide range of temperatures encountered by the body. Of these, TRPV1 and TRPV2 encode unique modalities of thermal pain when exposed to noxious heat. The ability of TRPA1 to encode noxious cold is presently being debated. The role of TRPV1 in peripheral inflammatory pain and central sensitization during chronic pain is well known. In addition to endogenous agonists, a wide variety of chemical agonists and antagonists have been discovered to activate and inhibit TRPV1. Efforts are underway to determine conditions under which agonist-mediated desensitization of TRPV1 or inhibition by antagonists can produce analgesia. Also, identification of specific second messenger molecules that regulate phosphorylation of TRPV1 has been the focus of intense research, to exploit a broader approach to pain treatment. The search for a role of TRPV2 in pain remains dormant due to the lack of suitable experimental models. However, progress into TRPA1’s role in pain has received much attention recently. Another thermoTRP, TRPM8, encoding for the cool sensation and also expressed in nociceptors, has recently been shown to reduce pain via a central mechanism, thus opening a novel strategy for achieving analgesia. The role of other thermoTRP’s (TRPV3 and TRPV4) encoding for detection of warm temperatures and expressed in nociceptors cannot be excluded. This review will discuss current knowledge on the role of nociceptor thermoTRPs in pain and therapy and describes the activator and inhibitor molecules known to interact with them and modulate their activity. PMID:19305786

  5. A Bivalent Tarantula Toxin Activates the Capsaicin Receptor, TRPV1, by Targeting the Outer Pore Domain

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Christopher J.; Priel, Avi; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Siemens, Jan; Julius, David

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxins have evolved to target regions of membrane ion channels that underlie ligand binding, gating, or ion permeation, and have thus served as invaluable tools for probing channel structure and function. Here we describe a peptide toxin from the Earth Tiger tarantula that selectively and irreversibly activates the capsaicin- and heat-sensitive channel, TRPV1. This high avidity interaction derives from a unique tandem repeat structure of the toxin that endows it with an antibody-like bivalency, illustrating a new paradigm in toxin structure and evolution. The ‘double-knot’ toxin traps TRPV1 in the open state by interacting with residues in the presumptive pore-forming region of the channel, highlighting the importance of conformational changes in the outer pore region of TRP channels during activation. PMID:20510930

  6. Calcium-dependent and independent mechanisms of capsaicin receptor (TRPV1)-mediated cytokine production and cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Christopher A; Johansen, Mark E; Lanza, Diane L; Lee, Jeewoo; Lim, Ju-Ok; Yost, Garold S

    2005-01-01

    Activation of the capsaicin receptor (VR1 or TRPV1) in bronchial epithelial cells by capsaicinoids and other vanilloids promotes pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of TRPV1-mediated calcium flux from extracellular sources as an initiator of these responses and to define additional cellular pathways that control cell death. TRPV1 antagonists and reduction of calcium concentrations in treatment solutions attenuated calcium flux, induction of interleukin-6 and 8 gene expression, and IL-6 secretion by cells treated with capsaicin or resiniferatoxin. Most TRPV1 antagonists also attenuated cell death, but the relative potency and extent of protection did not directly correlate with inhibition of total calcium flux. Treatment solutions with reduced calcium content or chelators had no effect on cytotoxicity. Inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and cyclo-oxygenases also prevented cell death indicating that TRPV1 agonists disrupted basal arachidonic acid metabolism and altered cyclo-oxygenase function via a TRPV1-dependent mechanism in order to produce toxicity. These data confirm previous results demonstrating calcium flux through TRPV1 acts as a trigger for cytokine production by vanilloids, and provides new mechanistic insights on mechanisms of cell death produced by TRPV1 agonists in respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:16173059

  7. Tachykinin (NK1, NK2 and NK3) receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and early transcription factor, cFOS, mRNA expression in rat tissues following systemic capsaicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Kunde, Dale A; Crawford, Amanda; Geraghty, Dominic P

    2013-05-10

    Capsaicin, the pungent component of chilli pepper, stimulates TRPV1-expressing cells which are followed by desensitisation to subsequent exposure to capsaicin and other TRPV1 activators. At high systemic doses (>125 mg/kg), capsaicin produces long-term changes in both tachykinin receptor and TRPV1 expression and function in rats. However, whether desensitising (low) doses of capsaicin (~50 mg/kg) affect tachykinin receptor and TRPV1 gene expression in the short term has yet to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare tachykinin receptor (NK1, NK2 and NK3) and TRPV1 mRNA expression 24h after administration of capsaicin (50 mg/kgs.c.). Tachykinin receptor and TRPV1 mRNA were detected in all tissues studied with expression levels differing by up to 2500-fold between tissues. The highest expression of TRPV1 and NK1 mRNA was observed in the salivary gland, whereas NK2 mRNA expression was highest in the urinary bladder and NK3 mRNA expression in the frontal cortex. In the cervical spinal cord of rats treated with capsaicin, NK1 and NK3 mRNA expression were reduced by 56% and 80%, respectively (P<0.05), whereas NK2 and TRPV1 mRNA expression were increased 2.2- and 1.4-fold, respectively (P<0.05). NK1 and NK2 mRNA expression were decreased (P<0.05) in the urinary bladder and gastric fundus, respectively, following capsaicin treatment. There was a marked 100-fold increase in cFOS mRNA expression and 100-fold decrease in NK2 mRNA expression in the whole blood of capsaicin-treated rats. In conclusion, these studies show that tachykinin receptor and TRPV1 mRNA expression undergo significant changes within 24h of systemic low-dose capsaicin administration. PMID:23499799

  8. Glucose concentration in culture medium affects mRNA expression of TRPV1 and CB1 receptors and changes capsaicin toxicity in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Farani, Ahmad; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Sahebgharani, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    Objective (s): Hyperglycemia is widely recognized as the underlying cause for some debilitating conditions in diabetic patients. The role of cannabinoid CB1 and vanilloid TRPV1 receptors and their endogenous agonists, endovanilloids, in diabetic neuropathy is shown in many studies. Here we have used PC12 cell line to investigate the possible influence of glucose concentration in culture medium on cytoprotective or toxic effects of a CB1 [WIN55 212-2 (WIN)], or TRPV1 [Capsaicin (CAS)] agonist. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was tested using the MTT assay. We have also measured TRPV1 and CB1 transcripts by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction while cells were grown in low (5.5 mM) and high (50 mM) glucose concentrations. Results: Real time PCR results indicated that high glucose medium increased (P<0.01) TRPV1 mRNA and decreased (P <0.001) that of CB1. Cell culture tests show that hyperglycemic cells are more vulnerable (Dose × Medium, F (3,63)=41.5, P<0.001) to the toxic effects of capsaicin compared to those grown in low glucose medium. Conclusion: These findings propose that hyperglycemic conditions may result in neuronal cell death because of inducing a counterbalance between cytotoxic TRPV1 and cytoprotective CB1 receptors. PMID:25691944

  9. Binding of Capsaicin to the TRPV1 Ion Channel.

    PubMed

    Darré, Leonardo; Domene, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels constitute a notable family of cation channels involved in the ability of an organisms to detect noxious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli that give rise to the perception of pain, taste, and changes in temperature. One of the most experimentally studied agonist of TRP channels is capsaicin, which is responsible for the burning sensation produced when chili pepper is in contact with organic tissues. Thus, understanding how this molecule interacts and regulates TRP channels is essential to high impact pharmacological applications, particularly those related to pain treatment. The recent publication of a three-dimensional structure of the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) in the absence and presence of capsaicin from single particle electron cryomicroscopy experiments provides the opportunity to explore these questions at the atomic level. In the present work, molecular docking and unbiased and biased molecular dynamics simulations were employed to generate a structural model of the capsaicin-channel complex. In addition, the standard free energy of binding was estimated using alchemical transformations coupled with conformational, translational, and orientational restraints on the ligand. Key binding modes consistent with previous experimental data are identified, and subtle but essential dynamical features of the binding site are characterized. These observations shed some light into how TRPV1 interacts with capsaicin, and may help to refine design parameters for new TRPV1 antagonists, and potentially guide further developments of TRP channel modulators. PMID:26502196

  10. Attenuation of natural killer cell functions by capsaicin through a direct and TRPV1-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hun Sik; Kwon, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Gye Eun; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Davies, Alexander J; Oh, Seog Bae; Lee, Heuiran; Cho, Young Keol; Joo, Chul Hyun; Kwon, Seog Woon; Kim, Sun Chang; Kim, Yoo Kyum

    2014-07-01

    The assessment of the biological activity of capsaicin, the compound responsible for the spicy flavor of chili pepper, produced controversial results, showing either carcinogenicity or cancer prevention. The innate immune system plays a pivotal role in cancer pathology and prevention; yet, the effect of capsaicin on natural killer (NK) cells, which function in cancer surveillance, is unclear. This study found that capsaicin inhibited NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production (interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-?). Capsaicin impaired the cytotoxicity of NK cells, thereby inhibiting lysis of standard target cells and gastric cancer cells by modulating calcium mobilization in NK cells. Capsaicin also induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells, but that effect required higher concentrations and longer exposure times than those required to trigger NK cell dysfunction. Furthermore, capsaicin inhibited the cytotoxicity of isolated NK cells and of an NK cell line, suggesting a direct effect on NK cells. Antagonists of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), a cognate capsaicin receptor, or deficiency in TRPV1 expression failed to prevent the defects induced by capsaicin in NK cells expressing functional TRPV1. Thus, the mechanism of action of capsaicin on NK cells is largely independent of TRPV1. Taken together, capsaicin may have chemotherapeutic potential but may impair NK cell function, which plays a central role in tumor surveillance. PMID:24743513

  11. Capsaicin Interaction with TRPV1 Channels in a Lipid Bilayer: Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Sonya M.; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J.; Sansom, Mark S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is a heat-sensitive ion channel also involved in pain sensation, and is the receptor for capsaicin, the active ingredient of hot chili peppers. The recent structures of TRPV1 revealed putative ligand density within the S1 to S4 voltage-sensor-like domain of the protein. However, questions remain regarding the dynamic role of the lipid bilayer in ligand binding to TRPV1. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore behavior of capsaicin in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer and with the target S1–S4 transmembrane helices of TRPV1. Equilibrium simulations reveal a preferred interfacial localization for capsaicin. We also observed a capsaicin molecule flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular leaflet, and subsequently able to access the intracellular TRPV1 binding site. Calculation of the potential of mean force (i.e., free energy profile) of capsaicin along the bilayer normal confirms that it prefers an interfacial localization. The free energy profile indicates that there is a nontrivial but surmountable barrier to the flipping of capsaicin between opposing leaflets of the bilayer. Molecular dynamics of the S1–S4 transmembrane helices of the TRPV1 in a lipid bilayer confirm that Y511, known to be crucial to capsaicin binding, has a distribution along the bilayer normal similar to that of the aromatic group of capsaicin. Simulations were conducted of the TRPV1 S1–S4 transmembrane helices in the presence of capsaicin placed in the aqueous phase, in the lipid, or docked to the protein. No stable interaction between ligand and protein was seen for simulations initiated with capsaicin in the bilayer. However, interactions were seen between TRPV1 and capsaicin starting from the cytosolic aqueous phase, and capsaicin remained stable in the majority of simulations from the docked pose. We discuss the significance of capsaicin flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular leaflet and mechanisms of binding site access by capsaicin. PMID:25809255

  12. Capsaicin interaction with TRPV1 channels in a lipid bilayer: molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Sonya M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J; Sansom, Mark S P

    2015-03-24

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is a heat-sensitive ion channel also involved in pain sensation, and is the receptor for capsaicin, the active ingredient of hot chili peppers. The recent structures of TRPV1 revealed putative ligand density within the S1 to S4 voltage-sensor-like domain of the protein. However, questions remain regarding the dynamic role of the lipid bilayer in ligand binding to TRPV1. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore behavior of capsaicin in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer and with the target S1-S4 transmembrane helices of TRPV1. Equilibrium simulations reveal a preferred interfacial localization for capsaicin. We also observed a capsaicin molecule flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular leaflet, and subsequently able to access the intracellular TRPV1 binding site. Calculation of the potential of mean force (i.e., free energy profile) of capsaicin along the bilayer normal confirms that it prefers an interfacial localization. The free energy profile indicates that there is a nontrivial but surmountable barrier to the flipping of capsaicin between opposing leaflets of the bilayer. Molecular dynamics of the S1-S4 transmembrane helices of the TRPV1 in a lipid bilayer confirm that Y511, known to be crucial to capsaicin binding, has a distribution along the bilayer normal similar to that of the aromatic group of capsaicin. Simulations were conducted of the TRPV1 S1-S4 transmembrane helices in the presence of capsaicin placed in the aqueous phase, in the lipid, or docked to the protein. No stable interaction between ligand and protein was seen for simulations initiated with capsaicin in the bilayer. However, interactions were seen between TRPV1 and capsaicin starting from the cytosolic aqueous phase, and capsaicin remained stable in the majority of simulations from the docked pose. We discuss the significance of capsaicin flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular leaflet and mechanisms of binding site access by capsaicin. PMID:25809255

  13. Design and synthesis of conformationally restricted capsaicin analogues based in the 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole heterocycle reveal a novel family of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Carolyne Lespay; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Pamela; Brauchi, Sebastián; Olavarría, Miguel Zárraga

    2013-08-01

    4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde was used as starting material to obtain a number of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole alkylamide derivatives. The pharmacological properties of these conformationally restricted capsaicin analogues were evaluated on HEK-293T cells transiently expressing TRPV1 receptor. By means of a highthroughput calcium imaging assay we find that 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (compounds 8-15) act as potent antagonists of the capsaicin receptor, inhibiting both, the capsaicin- and temperature-dependent activation. Docking studies suggested a different binding orientation on the vanilloid binding site when compared with capsaicin analogues, such as 5-iodononivamide. Overall, our studies suggest that 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles interact with capsaicin's binding region of the receptor, although using a different set of interactions within the vanilloid binding pocket. PMID:23796768

  14. Capsaicin induces NKCC1 internalization and inhibits chloride secretion in colonic epithelial cells independently of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xu; Weber, Christopher R.; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R.; Matthews, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    Colonic chloride secretion is regulated via the neurohormonal and immune systems. Exogenous chemicals (e.g., butyrate, propionate) can affect chloride secretion. Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the chili peppers, exerts various effects on gastrointestinal function. Capsaicin is known to activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), expressed in the mesenteric nervous system. Recent studies have also demonstrated its presence in epithelial cells but its role remains uncertain. Because capsaicin has been reported to inhibit colonic chloride secretion, we tested whether this effect of capsaicin could occur by direct action on epithelial cells. In mouse colon and model T84 human colonic epithelial cells, we found that capsaicin inhibited forskolin-dependent short-circuit current (FSK-Isc). Using PCR and Western blot, we demonstrated the presence of TRPV1 in colonic epithelial cells. In T84 cells, TRPV1 localized at the basolateral membrane and in vesicular compartments. In permeabilized monolayers, capsaicin activated apical chloride conductance, had no effect on basolateral potassium conductance, but induced NKCC1 internalization demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and basolateral surface biotinylation. AMG-9810, a potent inhibitor of TRPV1, did not prevent the inhibition of the FSK-Isc by capsaicin. Neither resiniferatoxin nor N-oleoyldopamine, two selective agonists of TRPV1, blocked the FSK-Isc. Conversely capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, and N-oleoyldopamine raised intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in T84 cells and AMG-9810 blocked the rise in [Ca2+]i induced by capsaicin and resiniferatoxin suggesting the presence of a functional TRPV1 channel. We conclude that capsaicin inhibits chloride secretion in part by causing NKCC1 internalization, but by a mechanism that appears to be independent of TRPV1. PMID:23139219

  15. Capsaicin induces NKCC1 internalization and inhibits chloride secretion in colonic epithelial cells independently of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Patrice G; Tang, Xu; Weber, Christopher R; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-15

    Colonic chloride secretion is regulated via the neurohormonal and immune systems. Exogenous chemicals (e.g., butyrate, propionate) can affect chloride secretion. Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the chili peppers, exerts various effects on gastrointestinal function. Capsaicin is known to activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), expressed in the mesenteric nervous system. Recent studies have also demonstrated its presence in epithelial cells but its role remains uncertain. Because capsaicin has been reported to inhibit colonic chloride secretion, we tested whether this effect of capsaicin could occur by direct action on epithelial cells. In mouse colon and model T84 human colonic epithelial cells, we found that capsaicin inhibited forskolin-dependent short-circuit current (FSK-I(sc)). Using PCR and Western blot, we demonstrated the presence of TRPV1 in colonic epithelial cells. In T84 cells, TRPV1 localized at the basolateral membrane and in vesicular compartments. In permeabilized monolayers, capsaicin activated apical chloride conductance, had no effect on basolateral potassium conductance, but induced NKCC1 internalization demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and basolateral surface biotinylation. AMG-9810, a potent inhibitor of TRPV1, did not prevent the inhibition of the FSK-I(sc) by capsaicin. Neither resiniferatoxin nor N-oleoyldopamine, two selective agonists of TRPV1, blocked the FSK-I(sc). Conversely capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, and N-oleoyldopamine raised intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in T84 cells and AMG-9810 blocked the rise in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by capsaicin and resiniferatoxin suggesting the presence of a functional TRPV1 channel. We conclude that capsaicin inhibits chloride secretion in part by causing NKCC1 internalization, but by a mechanism that appears to be independent of TRPV1. PMID:23139219

  16. Vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) expression and function in the vasculature of the rat.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Attila; Czikora, Agnes; Pásztor, Eniko T; Dienes, Beatrix; Bai, Péter; Csernoch, László; Rutkai, Ibolya; Csató, Viktória; Mányiné, Ivetta S; Pórszász, Róbert; Edes, István; Papp, Zoltán; Boczán, Judit

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are emerging in vascular biology. In particular, the expression of the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) was reported in vascular smooth muscle cells. This study characterized the arteriolar TRPV1 function and expression in the rat. TRPV1 mRNA was expressed in various vascular beds. Six commercially available antibodies were tested for TRPV1 specificity. Two of them were specific (immunostaining was abolished by blocking peptides) for neuronal TRPV1 and one recognized vascular TRPV1. TRPV1 was expressed in blood vessels in the skeletal muscle, mesenteric and skin tissues, as well as in the aorta and carotid arteries. TRPV1 expression was found to be regulated at the level of individual blood vessels, where some vessels expressed, while others did not express TRPV1 in the same tissue sections. Capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) evoked constrictions in skeletal muscle arteries and in the carotid artery, but had no effect on the femoral and mesenteric arteries or the aorta. In blood vessels, TRPV1 expression was detected in most of the large arteries, but there were striking differences at level of the small arteries. TRPV1 activity was suppressed in some isolated arteries. This tightly regulated expression and function suggests a physiological role for vascular TRPV1. PMID:24217926

  17. Capsaicin enhances anti-proliferation efficacy of pirarubicin via activating TRPV1 and inhibiting PCNA nuclear translocation in 5637 cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long; Chen, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhenkun; Liu, Wei; Yang, Fei; Yang, Zhao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Li, Lei; Zeng, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The recurrence of bladder cancer after surgery with or without chemotherapy remains a major challenge in bladder cancer treatment. Previous studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) acts as a tumor suppressor through inducing apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. However, whether activation of TRPV1 has any synergistic effects with pirarubicin (THP), one of main drugs used in urinary bladder instillation chemotherapy to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy has remained elusive. The present study verified that TRPV1 was differentially expressed in bladder cancer cell lines. Furthermore, activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin was shown to induce growth inhibition of 5637 cells in which TRPV1 was highly expressed, while the growth of T24 cells, which express TRPV1 at low levels, was not affected. In addition, the present study demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 enhanced the anti?proliferative effects of pirarubicin using an MTT assay and cell cycle analysis. Finally, immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that activation of TRPV1 prevented the translocation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen to the nucleus. This phenomenon was reversed by pre?treatment with capsazepine, a specific TRPV1 antagonist. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the anti?tumor activity of TRPV1 against bladder cancer. Activation of TRPV1 may be applied as a novel strategy to treat bladder cancer or enhance the therapeutic efficacy of traditional chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26648574

  18. New insights into mechanisms of opioid inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity during painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Shaqura, Mohammed; Khalefa, Baled I; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Zöllner, Christian; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Fürst, Susanna; Schäfer, Michael; Mousa, Shaaban A

    2014-10-01

    Painful diabetic neuropathy is a disease of the peripheral sensory neuron with impaired opioid responsiveness. Since ?-opioid receptor (MOR) activation can inhibit the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activity in peripherally sensory neurons, this study investigated the mechanisms of impaired opioid inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity in painful diabetic neuropathy. Intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg) in Wistar rats led to a degeneration of insulin producing pancreatic ?-cells, elevated blood glucose, and mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia). In these animals, local morphine's inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced nocifensive behavior as well as on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 current in dorsal root ganglion cells were significantly impaired. These changes were associated with a loss in MOR but not TRPV1 in peripheral sensory neurons. Intrathecal delivery of nerve growth factor in diabetic animals normalized sensory neuron MOR and subsequently rescued morphine's inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity in vivo and in vitro. These findings identify a loss in functional MOR on sensory neurons as a contributing factor for the impaired opioid inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity during advanced STZ-induced diabetes. Moreover, they support growing evidence of a distinct regulation of opioid responsiveness during various painful states of disease (e.g. arthritis, cancer, neuropathy) and may give novel therapeutic incentives. PMID:24863039

  19. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats affects TRPV1-related noxious heat sensation and circadian body temperature rhythm.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-06-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel that serves as a polymodal detector of noxious stimuli such as capsaicin. Therefore, capsaicin treatment has been used to investigate the physiological function of TRPV1. Here, we report physiological changes induced by treating neonatal rats with capsaicin. Capsaicin (50mg/kg) (cap-treated) or vehicle (vehicle-treated) was systemically administered to newborn SD rat pups within 48 h after birth. TRPV1 expression, intake volume of capsaicin water, and noxious heat sensation were measured 6 weeks after capsaicin treatment. Circadian body temperature and locomotion were recorded by biotelemetry. Expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Hsf1 (clock genes) was also investigated. Neonatal capsaicin treatment not only decreased TRPV1 expression but also induced desensitization to noxious heat stimuli. Circadian body temperature of cap-treated rats increased significantly compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Additionally, the amplitude of the circadian body temperature was reversed in cap-treated rats. Expression of the hypothalamic Hsf1 and liver Per2 clock genes followed a similar trend. Therefore, we suggest that these findings will be useful in studying various physiological mechanisms related to TRPV1. PMID:24746025

  20. Selective disruption of high sensitivity heat activation but not capsaicin activation of TRPV1 channels by pore turret mutations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuanyuan; Yang, Fan; Cao, Xu; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Wang, KeWei; Zheng, Jie

    2012-04-01

    The capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 is a highly heat-sensitive ion channel. Although chemical activation and heat activation of TRPV1 elicit similar pungent, painful sensation, the molecular mechanism underlying synergistic activation remains mysterious. In particular, where the temperature sensor is located and whether heat and capsaicin share a common activation pathway are debated. To address these fundamental issues, we searched for channel mutations that selectively affected one form of activation. We found that deletion of the first 10 amino acids of the pore turret significantly reduced the heat response amplitude and shifted the heat activation threshold, whereas capsaicin activation remained unchanged. Removing larger portions of the turret disrupted channel function. Introducing an artificial sequence to replace the deleted region restored sensitive capsaicin activation in these nonfunctional channels. The heat activation, however, remained significantly impaired, with the current exhibiting diminishing heat sensitivity to a level indistinguishable from that of a voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv7.4. Our results demonstrate that heat and capsaicin activation of TRPV1 are structurally and mechanistically distinct processes, and the pore turret is an indispensible channel structure involved in the heat activation process but is not part of the capsaicin activation pathway. Synergistic effect of heat and capsaicin on TRPV1 activation may originate from convergence of the two pathways on a common activation gate. PMID:22412190

  1. Protein kinase C epsilon contributes to basal and sensitizing responses of TRPV1 to capsaicin in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Rahul; Wolfe, Darren; Goss, James; Watkins, Simon; de Groat, William C.; Sculptoreanu, Adrian; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) by protein kinase C epsilon (PKC?) plays an important role in the development of chronic pain. Here, we employ a highly defective herpes simplex virus vector (vHDNP) that expresses dominant negative PKC? (DNPKC?) as a strategy to demonstrate that PKC? is essential for: (i) maintenance of basal phosphorylation and normal TRPV1 responses to capsaicin (CAPS), a TRPV1 agonist and (ii) enhancement of TRPV1 responses by phorbol esters. Phorbol esters induced translocation of endogenous PKC? to the plasma membrane and thereby enhanced CAPS currents. These results were extended to an in-vivo pain model in which vHDNP delivery to dorsal root ganglion neurons caused analgesia in CAPS-treated, acutely inflamed rat hind paws. These findings support the conclusion that in addition to receptor sensitization, PKC? is essential for normal TRPV1 responses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18973552

  2. Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Du, Junhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Shentai; Yu, Weihua; Du, Guangwei; Clark, Richard B.; Walters, Edgar T.; Carlton, Susan M.; Hu, Hongzhen

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers. Application of retinoids evokes substantial irritating side effects, including pain and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. Here we show that both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids activate recombinant or native transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), an irritant receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers. In vivo, retinoids produced pain-related behaviors that were either eliminated or significantly reduced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 function. These findings identify TRPV1 as an ionotropic receptor for retinoids and provide cellular and molecular insights into retinoid-evoked hypersensitivity. These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity. PMID:23925292

  3. Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Du, Junhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Shentai; Yu, Weihua; Du, Guangwei; Clark, Richard B; Walters, Edgar T; Carlton, Susan M; Hu, Hongzhen

    2013-09-01

    Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers. Application of retinoids evokes substantial irritating side effects, including pain and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. Here we show that both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids activate recombinant or native transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), an irritant receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers. In vivo, retinoids produced pain-related behaviors that were either eliminated or significantly reduced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 function. These findings identify TRPV1 as an ionotropic receptor for retinoids and provide cellular and molecular insights into retinoid-evoked hypersensitivity. These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity. PMID:23925292

  4. Structural determinants of the transient receptor potential 1 (TRPV1) channel activation by phospholipid analogs.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Llorente, Itzel; Hernández-García, Enrique; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Banerjee, Souvik; Miller, Duane; Gududuru, Veeresh; Fells, James; Norman, Derek; Tigyi, Gabor; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2014-08-29

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal protein that responds to various stimuli, including capsaicin (the pungent compound found in chili peppers), extracellular acid, and basic intracellular pH, temperatures close to 42 °C, and several lipids. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an endogenous lipid widely associated with neuropathic pain, is an agonist of the TRPV1 channel found in primary afferent nociceptors and is activated by other noxious stimuli. Agonists or antagonists of lipid and other chemical natures are known to possess specific structural requirements for producing functional effects on their targets. To better understand how LPA and other lipid analogs might interact and affect the function of TRPV1, we set out to determine the structural features of these lipids that result in the activation of TRPV1. By changing the acyl chain length, saturation, and headgroup of these LPA analogs, we established strict requirements for activation of TRPV1. Among the natural LPA analogs, we found that only LPA 18:1, alkylglycerophosphate 18:1, and cyclic phosphatidic acid 18:1, all with a monounsaturated C18 hydrocarbon chain activate TRPV1, whereas polyunsaturated and saturated analogs do not. Thus, TRPV1 shows a more restricted ligand specificity compared with LPA G-protein-coupled receptors. We synthesized fatty alcohol phosphates and thiophosphates and found that many of them with a single double bond in position ?9, 10, or 11 and ?9 cyclopropyl group can activate TRPV1 with efficacy similar to capsaicin. Finally, we developed a pharmacophore and proposed a mechanistic model for how these lipids could induce a conformational change that activates TRPV1. PMID:25035428

  5. Inhibition of capsaicin-driven nasal hyper-reactivity by SB-705498, a TRPV1 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Carlijn; Drunen, Cornelis Van; Denyer, Jane; Smart, Kevin; Segboer, Christine; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Newlands, Amy; Beerahee, Misba; Fokkens, Wytske; Tsitoura, Daphne C

    2014-01-01

    AIMS To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of intranasal SB-705498, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. METHODS Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical studies were performed: (i) an intranasal SB-705498 first time in human study to examine the safety and PK of five single escalating doses from 0.5 to 12?mg and of repeat dosing with 6?mg and 12?mg twice daily for 14 days and (ii) a PD efficacy study in subjects with non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) to evaluate the effect of 12?mg intranasal SB-705498 against nasal capsaicin challenge. RESULTS Single and repeat dosing with intranasal SB-705498 was safe and well tolerated. The overall frequency of adverse events was similar for SB-705498 and placebo and no dose-dependent increase was observed. Administration of SB-705498 resulted in less than dose proportional AUC(0,12?h) and Cmax, while repeat dosing from day 1 to day 14 led to its accumulation. SB-705498 receptor occupancy in nasal tissue was estimated to be high (>80%). Administration of 12?mg SB-705498 to patients with NAR induced a marked reduction in total symptom scores triggered by nasal capsaicin challenge. Inhibition of rhinorrhoea, nasal congestion and burning sensation was associated with 2-to 4-fold shift in capsaicin potency. CONCLUSIONS Intranasal SB-705498 has an appropriate safety and PK profile for development in humans and achieves clinically relevant attenuation of capsaicin-provoked rhinitis symptoms in patients with NAR. The potential impact intranasal SB-705498 may have in rhinitis treatment deserves further evaluation. PMID:23909699

  6. The pain receptor TRPV1 displays agonist-dependent activation stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Hazan, Adina; Kumar, Rakesh; Matzner, Henry; Priel, Avi

    2015-01-01

    The receptor channel TRPV1 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1) is expressed by primary afferent sensory neurons of the pain pathway, where it functions as a sensor of noxious heat and various chemicals, including eicosanoids, capsaicin, protons and peptide toxins. Comprised of four identical subunits that organize into a non-selective cationic permeable channel, this receptor has a variety of binding sites responsible for detecting their respective agonists. Although its physiological role as a chemosensor has been described in detail, the stoichiometry of TRPV1 activation by its different ligands remains unknown. Here, we combined the use of concatemeric constructs harboring mutated binding sites with patch-clamp recordings in order to determine the stoichiometry for TRPV1 activation through the vanilloid binding site and the outer-pore domain by capsaicin and protons, respectively. We show that, while a single capsaicin-bound subunit was sufficient to achieve a maximal open-channel lifetime, all four proton-binding sites were required. Thus, our results demonstrate a distinct stoichiometry of TRPV1 activation through two of its different agonist-binding domains. PMID:26194846

  7. Identifying the integrated neural networks involved in capsaicin-induced pain using fMRI in awake TRPV1 knockout and wild-type rats

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Jason R.; Kenkel, William; Caccaviello, John C.; Gamber, Kevin; Simmons, Phil; Nedelman, Mark; Kulkarni, Praveen; Ferris, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type vs. knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain. PMID:25745388

  8. Expression and functionality of TRPV1 receptor in human MCF-7 and canine CF.41 cells.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, C; Barbero, R; Cuniberti, B; Odore, R; Re, G

    2015-06-01

    As canine mammary tumours (CMT) and human breast cancer share clinical and prognostic features, the former have been proposed as a model to study carcinogenesis and improved therapeutic treatment in human breast cancer. In recent years, it has been shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is expressed in different neoplastic tissues and its activation has been associated with regulation of cancer growth and progression. The aim of the present research was to demonstrate the presence of TRPV1 in human and canine mammary cancer cells, MCF-7 and CF.41, respectively, and to study the role of TRPV1 in regulating cell proliferation. The images obtained by Western blot showed a signal at 100 kDa corresponding to the molecular weight of TRPV1 receptor. All tested TRPV1 agonists and antagonists caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) of cell growth rate in MCF-7 cells. By contrast, in CF.41 cells capsaicin and capsazepine induced a significant increase (P < 0.05) in cell proliferation, whereas resiniferatoxin (RTX) and 5-iodo-resiniferatoxin (5-I-RTX) had no influence on CF.41 cell proliferation. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the different effects evoked by TRPV1 activation in MCF-7 and CF.41 cells. PMID:23510405

  9. TRPV1 receptors augment basal synaptic transmission in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, F; Eslamizade, M J; Mousavi, S M M; Abraki, S B; Hadjighassem, M R; Gorji, A

    2016-02-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy in human and animals is attributed to alterations in brain function especially hippocampus formation. Changes in synaptic activity might be causally related to the alterations during epileptogenesis. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) as one of the non-selective ion channels has been shown to be involved in synaptic transmission. However, the potential role of TRPV1 receptors in synaptic function in the epileptic brain needs to be elucidated. In the present study, we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry to assess hippocampal TRPV1 mRNA expression, protein content, and distribution. Moreover, the effects of pharmacologic activation and inhibition of TRPV1 receptors on the slope of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were analyzed in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, after 3months of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). SE induced an upregulation of TRPV1 mRNA and protein content in the whole hippocampal extract, as well as its distribution in both CA1 and CA3 regions. Activation and inhibition of TRPV1 receptors (via capsaicin 1?M and capsazepine 10?M, respectively) did not influence basal synaptic transmission in CA1 and CA3 regions of control slices, however, capsaicin increased and capsazepine decreased synaptic transmission in both regions in tissues from epileptic animals. Taken together, these findings suggest that a higher expression of TRPV1 in the epileptic condition is accompanied by alterations in basal synaptic transmission. PMID:26621124

  10. Modulation of defensive behavior by Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, D C; Moreira, F A; Terzian, A L; Fogaça, M V; Lisboa, S F; Wotjak, C T; Guimaraes, F S

    2014-10-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) was first characterized in primary afferent fibers as a receptor for capsaicin (the pungent ingredient of chili peppers). Later on, this cation-permeable ion channel was also described in the central nervous system, where its main putative endogenous ligand is N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide (an endocannabinoid, also known as anandamide). Recent results employing genetic, pharmacological and histochemical techniques indicate that TRPV1 tonically modulate anxiety, fear and panic responses in brain regions related to defensive responses, such as the dorsal periaqueductal gray, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Genetic deletion or antagonism of this ion channel induces anxiolytic-like effects in several animal models. The main mechanism responsible for TRPV1-mediated effects on anxiety seems to involve facilitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. In addition, there is evidence for interactions with other neurotransmitter systems, such as nitric oxide and endocannabinoids. PMID:24726577

  11. Structural mechanism underlying capsaicin binding and activation of the TRPV1 ion channel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Xiao, Xian; Cheng, Wei; Yang, Wei; Yu, Peilin; Song, Zhenzhen; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Capsaicin bestows spiciness by activating TRPV1 channel with exquisite potency and selectivity. Although a capsaicin-bound channel structure was previously resolved by cryo-EM at 4.2- to 4.5-Å resolution, capsaicin was registered as a small electron density, reflecting neither its chemical structure nor specific ligand-channel interactions--important details required for mechanistic understanding. We obtained the missing atomic-level details by iterative computation and confirmed them by systematic site-specific functional tests. We observed that the bound capsaicin takes a 'tail-up, head-down' configuration. The vanillyl and amide groups form specific interactions to anchor its bound position, while the aliphatic tail may sample a range of conformations, making it invisible in cryo-EM images. Capsaicin stabilizes TRPV1's open state by 'pull-and-contact' interactions between the vanillyl group and the S4-S5 linker. Our study provides a structural mechanism for the agonistic function of capsaicin and its analogs, and demonstrates an effective approach to obtain atomic-level information from cryo-EM structures. PMID:26053297

  12. Characterization of A-425619 at native TRPV1 receptors: a comparison between dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Heath A; Neelands, Torben R; Kort, Michael; Han, Ping; Vos, Melissa H; Faltynek, Connie R; Moreland, Robert B; Puttfarcken, Pamela S

    2008-10-31

    1-isoquinolin-5-yl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-urea (A-425619), a novel, potent, and selective transient receptor potential type V1 (TRPV1) antagonist, attenuates pain associated with inflammation and tissue injury in rats. The purpose of this study was to extend the in vitro characterization of A-425619 to native TRPV1 receptors and to compare the pharmacological properties of TRPV1 receptors in the dorsal root ganglion with trigeminal ganglion neurons. A robust increase in intracellular Ca(2+) was elicited by a variety of TRPV1 agonists with similar rank order of potency between both cultures: resiniferatoxin>tinyatoxin>capsaicin>N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA). A-425619 blocked the 500 nM capsaicin response in both dorsal root ganglion with trigeminal ganglion cultures with IC(50) values of 78 nM and 115 nM, respectively, whereas capsazepine was significantly less potent (dorsal root ganglia: IC(50)=2.63 microM; trigeminal ganglia: IC(50)=6.31 microM). Furthermore, A-425619 was more potent in blocking the 3 microM NADA-evoked response in both dorsal root ganglia (IC(50)=36 nM) and trigeminal ganglia (IC(50)=37 nM) than capsazepine (dorsal root ganglia, IC(50)=741 nM; trigeminal ganglia, IC(50)=708 nM). Electrophysiology studies showed that 100 nM A-425619 completely inhibited TRPV1-mediated acid activated currents in dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglia neurons. In addition, A-425619 blocked capsaicin- and NADA-evoked calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release in both cultures more effectively than capsazepine. These data show that A-425619 is a potent TRPV1 antagonist at the native TRPV1 receptors, and suggest that the pharmacological profile for TRPV1 receptors on dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglia is very similar. PMID:18755179

  13. Anxiogenic-like effect induced by TRPV1 receptor activation within the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter in mice.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Diego Cardozo; Gomes, Karina Santos; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2013-08-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of TRPV1 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type-1) receptors has been emerging as a novel target in the investigation of anxiety states. Here, we attempt to show the role played by the TRPV1 receptors within the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), a midbrain structure strongly involved in the modulation of anxiety. Anxiety was assessed by recording spatiotemporal [percent open arm entries (%OE) and percent open arm time (%OT)] and ethological [e.g., head dipping (HD), stretched-attend postures (SAP)] measures in mice exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Mice received an intra-dPAG injection of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0nmol/0.2?L; Experiment 1) or antagonist capsazepine (0, 10, 30 or 60nmol/0.2?L; Experiment 2), or combined injections of capsazepine (30nmol) and capsaicin (1.0nmol) (Experiment 3), and were exposed to the EPM to record spatiotemporal and ethological measures. While capsaicin produced an anxiogenic-like effect (it reduced %OE and %OT and frequency of SAP and HD in the open arms), capsazepine did not change any behavior in the EPM. However, when injected before capsaicin (1.0nmol), intra-dPAG capsazepine (30nmol-a dose devoid of intrinsic effects) antagonized completely the anxiogenic-like effect of the TRPV1 agonist. These results suggest that the anxiogenic-like effect produced by capsaicin is primarily due to TRPV1 activation within the dPAG in mice, but that dPAG TRPV1 receptors do not exert a tonic control over defensive behavior in mice exposed to the EPM. PMID:23707246

  14. Regulation of leptin receptor?expressing neurons in the brainstem by TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zsombok, Andrea; Jiang, Yanyan; Gao, Hong; Anwar, Imran J.; Rezai?Zadeh, Kavon; Enix, Courtney L.; Münzberg, Heike; Derbenev, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The central nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of feeding behavior and whole?body metabolism via controlling the autonomic output to the visceral organs. Activity of the parasympathetic neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) determines the vagal tone and thereby modulates the function of the subdiaphragmatic organs. Leptin is highly involved in the regulation of food intake and alters neuronal excitability of brainstem neurons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has also been shown to increase neurotransmission in the brainstem and we tested the hypothesis that TRPV1 regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release to leptin receptor?expressing (LepRbEGFP) DMV neurons. Whole?cell patch?clamp recordings were performed to determine the effect of TRPV1 activation on excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSC, IPSC) of LepRbEGFP neurons in the DMV. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in 50% of LepRbEGFP neurons without altering the frequency of miniature IPSCs in the DMV. Stomach?projecting LepRbEGFP neurons were identified in the DMV using the transsynaptic retrograde viral tracer PRV?614. Activation of TRPV1 increased the frequency of mEPSC in ~50% of stomach?related LepRbEGFP DMV neurons. These data demonstrate that TRPV1 increases excitatory neurotransmission to a subpopulation of LepRbEGFP DMV neurons via presynaptic mechanisms and suggest a potential interaction between TRPV1 and leptin signaling in the DMV. PMID:25263209

  15. Capsaicin-responsive corneal afferents do not contain TRPV1 at their central terminals in trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Deborah M.; Hermes, Sam M.; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Aicher, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the substrates for ocular nociception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Capsaicin application to the ocular surface in awake rats evoked nocifensive responses and suppressed spontaneous grooming responses. Thus, peripheral capsaicin was able to activate the central pathways encoding ocular nociception. Our capsaicin stimulus evoked c-Fos expression in a select population of neurons within rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis in anesthetized rats. These activated neurons also received direct contacts from corneal afferent fibers traced with cholera toxin B from the corneal surface. However, the central terminals of the corneal afferents that contacted capsaicin-activated trigeminal neurons did not contain TRPV1. To determine if TRPV1 expression had been altered by capsaicin stimulation, we examined TRPV1 content of corneal afferents in animals that did not receive capsaicin stimulation. These studies confirmed that while TRPV1 was present in 30% of CTb-labeled corneal afferent neurons within the trigeminal ganglion, TRPV1 was only detected in 2% of the central terminals of these corneal afferents within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Other TRP channels were also present in low proportions of central corneal afferent terminals in unstimulated animals (TRPM8, 2%; TRPA1, 10%). These findings indicate that a pathway from the cornea to rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis is involved in corneal nociceptive transmission, but that central TRP channel expression is unrelated to the type of stimulus transduced by the peripheral nociceptive endings. PMID:24996127

  16. Binding mode pediction of evodiamine within vanilloid receptor TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanli; Sun, Lidan; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Yanhui; Gong, Wuzhuang; Jin, Hongwei; Zhang, Liangren; Liang, Huaping

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the potential binding mode of drugs is crucial to computer-aided drug design paradigms. It has been reported that evodiamine acts as an agonist of the vanilloid receptor Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). However, the precise interaction between evodiamine and TRPV1 was still not fully understood. In this perspective, the homology models of TRPV1 were generated using the crystal structure of the voltage-dependent shaker family K(+) channel as a template. We then performed docking and molecular dynamics simulation to gain a better understanding of the probable binding modes of evodiamine within the TRPV1 binding pocket. There are no significant interspecies differences in evodiamine binding in rat, human and rabbit TRPV1 models. Pharmacophore modeling further provided confidence for the validity of the docking studies. This study is the first to shed light on the structural determinants required for the interaction between TRPV1 and evodiamine, and gives new suggestions for the rational design of novel TRPV1 ligands. PMID:22942745

  17. Binding Mode Prediction of Evodiamine within Vanilloid Receptor TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanli; Sun, Lidan; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Yanhui; Gong, Wuzhuang; Jin, Hongwei; Zhang, Liangren; Liang, Huaping

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the potential binding mode of drugs is crucial to computer-aided drug design paradigms. It has been reported that evodiamine acts as an agonist of the vanilloid receptor Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). However, the precise interaction between evodiamine and TRPV1 was still not fully understood. In this perspective, the homology models of TRPV1 were generated using the crystal structure of the voltage-dependent shaker family K+ channel as a template. We then performed docking and molecular dynamics simulation to gain a better understanding of the probable binding modes of evodiamine within the TRPV1 binding pocket. There are no significant interspecies differences in evodiamine binding in rat, human and rabbit TRPV1 models. Pharmacophore modeling further provided confidence for the validity of the docking studies. This study is the first to shed light on the structural determinants required for the interaction between TRPV1 and evodiamine, and gives new suggestions for the rational design of novel TRPV1 ligands. PMID:22942745

  18. Targeting the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 (TRPV1) Assembly Domain Attenuates Inflammation-induced Hypersensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Iftinca, Mircea; Aboushousha, Reem; Varela, Diego; Altier, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel expressed in sensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. TRPV1 is a polymodal channel activated by noxious heat, capsaicin, and protons. As a sensor for noxious stimuli, TRPV1 channel has been described as a key contributor to pain signaling. To form a functional channel, TRPV1 subunits must assemble into tetramers, and several studies have identified the TRPV1 C terminus as an essential element in subunit association. Here we combined biochemical assays with electrophysiology and imaging-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in live cells to identify a short motif in the C-terminal tail of the TRPV1 subunit that governs channel assembly. Removing this region through early truncation or targeted deletion results in loss of subunit association and channel function. Importantly, we found that interfering with TRPV1 subunit association using a plasma membrane-tethered peptide attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in two mouse models of inflammatory hyperalgesia. This represents a novel mechanism to disrupt TRPV1 subunit assembly and hence may offer a new analgesic tool for pain relief. PMID:24808184

  19. Targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) assembly domain attenuates inflammation-induced hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Iftinca, Mircea; Aboushousha, Reem; Varela, Diego; Altier, Christophe

    2014-06-13

    The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel expressed in sensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. TRPV1 is a polymodal channel activated by noxious heat, capsaicin, and protons. As a sensor for noxious stimuli, TRPV1 channel has been described as a key contributor to pain signaling. To form a functional channel, TRPV1 subunits must assemble into tetramers, and several studies have identified the TRPV1 C terminus as an essential element in subunit association. Here we combined biochemical assays with electrophysiology and imaging-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in live cells to identify a short motif in the C-terminal tail of the TRPV1 subunit that governs channel assembly. Removing this region through early truncation or targeted deletion results in loss of subunit association and channel function. Importantly, we found that interfering with TRPV1 subunit association using a plasma membrane-tethered peptide attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in two mouse models of inflammatory hyperalgesia. This represents a novel mechanism to disrupt TRPV1 subunit assembly and hence may offer a new analgesic tool for pain relief. PMID:24808184

  20. Structural mechanism underlying capsaicin binding and activation of TRPV1 ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Yang, Wei; Yu, Peilin; Song, Zhenzhen; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin bestows spiciness by activating TRPV1 channel with exquisite potency and selectivity. Capsaicin-bound channel structure was previously resolved by cryo-EM at 4.2-to-4.5 Å resolution, however important details required for mechanistic understandings are unavailable: capsaicin was registered as a small electron density, reflecting neither its chemical structure nor specific ligand-channel interactions. We obtained the missing atomic-level details by iterative computation, which were confirmed by systematic site-specific functional tests. We observed that the bound capsaicin takes “tail-up, head-down” configurations. The vanillyl and amide groups form specific interactions to anchor its bound position, while the aliphatic tail may sample a range of conformations, making it invisible in cryo-EM images. Capsaicin stabilizes the open state by “pull-and-contact” interactions between the vanillyl group and the S4-S5 linker. Our study provided a structural mechanism for the agonistic function of capsaicin and its analogs, and demonstrated an effective approach to obtain atomic level information from cryo-EM structures. PMID:26053297

  1. Functional plasticity of central TRPV1 receptors in brainstem dorsal vagal complex circuits of streptozotocin-treated hyperglycemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zsombok, Andrea; Bhaskaran, Muthu D.; Gao, Hong; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Smith, Bret N.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that central neurons participate in diabetic processes by modulating autonomic output from neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). We tested the hypothesis that synaptic modulation by transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors is reduced in the DMV in slices from a murine model of type 1 diabetes. The TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin robustly enhanced glutamate release onto DMV neurons by acting at preterminal receptors in slices from intact mice, but failed to do so in slices from diabetic mice. TRPV1 receptor protein expression in the vagal complex was unaltered. Brief insulin pre-application restored TRPV1-dependent modulation of glutamate release in a PKC- and PI3K-dependent manner. The restorative effect of insulin was prevented by brefeldin A, suggesting insulin induced TRPV1 receptor trafficking to the terminal membrane. Central vagal circuits critical to the autonomic regulation of metabolism undergo insulin-dependent synaptic plasticity involving TRPV1 receptor modulation in diabetic mice after several days of chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:21957263

  2. TRPV1 receptors mediate particulate matter-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Agopyan, N; Head, J; Yu, S; Simon, S A

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is a world-wide health problem mainly because it produces adverse cardiovascular and respiratory effects that frequently result in morbidity. Despite many years of epidemiological and basic research, the mechanisms underlying PM toxicity remain largely unknown. To understand some of these mechanisms, we measured PM-induced apoptosis and necrosis in normal human airway epithelial cells and sensory neurons from both wild-type mice and mice lacking TRPV1 receptors using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide labeling, respectively. Exposure of environmental PMs containing residual oil fly ash and ash from Mount St. Helens was found to induce apoptosis, but not necrosis, as a consequence of sustained calcium influx through TRPV1 receptors. Apoptosis was completely prevented by inhibiting TRPV1 receptors with capsazepine or by removing extracellular calcium or in sensory neurons from TRPV1(-/-) mice. Binding of either one of the PMs to the cell membrane induced a capsazepine-sensitive increase in cAMP. PM-induced apoptosis was augmented upon the inhibition of PKA. PKA inhibition on its own also induced apoptosis, thereby suggesting that this pathway may be endogenously protective against apoptosis. In summary, it was found that inhibiting TRPV1 receptors prevents PM-induced apoptosis, thereby providing a potential mechanism to reduce their toxicity. PMID:14633515

  3. Effect of surgical and chemical sensory denervation on non-neural expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kun, József; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Perkecz, Anikó; Bán, Ágnes; Polgár, Beáta; Szolcsányi, János; Pintér, Erika

    2012-11-01

    Pretreatment with the ultrapotent capsaicin analog resiniferatoxin (RTX) has been applied as a selective pharmacological tool in inflammation and pain studies to desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor-expressing sensory nerve endings. The discovery of TRPV1 receptor on non-neural cells challenges systemic RTX desensitization as a method acting exclusively on a population of sensory neurons, but not on non-neural cells. Systemic RTX desensitization was used for chemical denervation and transection of the sciatic and saphenous nerves for surgical denervation in rats. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate the presence and alterations of the TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein following chemical and surgical denervation. We provided the first evidence for non-neural TRPV1 immunopositivity and mRNA expression in the rat dorsal paw and plantar skin as well as the oral mucosa. Neither chemical nor surgical denervation influenced the level of TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein expression in non-neural cells of either skin regions or mucosa. Therefore, RTX and consequently capsaicin remain to be considered as selective neurotoxins for a population of primary afferent neurons. PMID:22528458

  4. Pharmacology of the capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 ion channel.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Istvan; Friston, Dominic; Valente, Jojo Sousa; Torres Perez, Jose Vicente; Andreou, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1), has been identified as a polymodal transducer molecule on a sub-set of primary sensory neurons which responds to various stimuli including noxious heat (> -42 degrees C), protons and vanilloids such as capsaicin, the hot ingredient of chilli peppers. Subsequently, TRPV1 has been found indispensable for the development of burning pain and reflex hyperactivity associated with inflammation of peripheral tissues and viscera, respectively. Therefore, TRPV1 is regarded as a major target for the development of novel agents for the control of pain and visceral hyperreflexia in inflammatory conditions. Initial efforts to introduce agents acting on TRPV1 into clinics have been hampered by unexpected side-effects due to wider than expected expression in various tissues, as well as by the complex pharmacology, of TRPV1. However, it is believed that better understanding of the pharmacological properties of TRPV1 and specific targeting of tissues may eventually lead to the development of clinically useful agents. In order to assist better understanding of TRPV1 pharmacology, here we are giving a comprehensive account on the activation and inactivation mechanisms and the structure-function relationship of TRPV1. PMID:24941664

  5. TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Stuart; Quallo, Talisia; Andersson, David A

    2014-01-01

    TRPV1 is a well-characterised channel expressed by a subset of peripheral sensory neurons involved in pain sensation and also at a number of other neuronal and non-neuronal sites in the mammalian body. Functionally, TRPV1 acts as a sensor for noxious heat (greater than ~42 °C). It can also be activated by some endogenous lipid-derived molecules, acidic solutions (pH < 6.5) and some pungent chemicals and food ingredients such as capsaicin, as well as by toxins such as resiniferatoxin and vanillotoxins. Structurally, TRPV1 subunits have six transmembrane (TM) domains with intracellular N- (containing 6 ankyrin-like repeats) and C-termini and a pore region between TM5 and TM6 containing sites that are important for channel activation and ion selectivity. The N- and C- termini have residues and regions that are sites for phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and PI(4,5)P2 binding, which regulate TRPV1 sensitivity and membrane insertion. The channel has several interacting proteins, some of which (e.g. AKAP79/150) are important for TRPV1 phosphorylation. Four TRPV1 subunits form a non-selective, outwardly rectifying ion channel permeable to monovalent and divalent cations with a single-channel conductance of 50-100 pS. TRPV1 channel kinetics reveal multiple open and closed states, and several models for channel activation by voltage, ligand binding and temperature have been proposed. Studies with TRPV1 agonists and antagonists and Trpv1 (-/-) mice have suggested a role for TRPV1 in pain, thermoregulation and osmoregulation, as well as in cough and overactive bladder. TRPV1 antagonists have advanced to clinical trials where findings of drug-induced hyperthermia and loss of heat sensitivity have raised questions about the viability of this therapeutic approach. PMID:24756708

  6. Capsaicin, nonivamide and trans-pellitorine decrease free fatty acid uptake without TRPV1 activation and increase acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rohm, Barbara; Riedel, Annett; Ley, Jakob P; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Red pepper and its major pungent component, capsaicin, have been associated with hypolipidemic effects in rats, although mechanistic studies on the effects of capsaicin and/or structurally related compounds on lipid metabolism are scarce. In this work, the effects of capsaicin and its structural analog nonivamide, the aliphatic alkamide trans-pellitorine and vanillin as the basic structural element of all vanilloids on the mechanisms of intestinal fatty acid uptake in differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells were studied. Capsaicin and nonivamide were found to reduce fatty acid uptake, with IC?? values of 0.49 ?M and 1.08 ?M, respectively. trans-Pellitorine was shown to reduce fatty acid uptake by 14.0±2.14% at 100 ?M, whereas vanillin was not effective, indicating a pivotal role of the alkyl chain with the acid amide group in fatty acid uptake by Caco-2 cells. This effect was associated neither with the activation of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) nor with effects on paracellular transport or glucose uptake. However, acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity increased (p<0.05) in the presence of 10 ?M capsaicin, nonivamide or trans-pellitorine, pointing to an increased fatty acid biosynthesis that might counteract the decreased fatty acid uptake. PMID:25422952

  7. Prolonged exposure to bradykinin and prostaglandin E2 increases TRPV1 mRNA but does not alter TRPV1 and TRPV1b protein expression in cultured rat primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Shilpa; Paule, Cleoper C; Varga, Angelika; Photiou, Andy; Jenes, Agnes; Avelino, Antonio; Buluwela, Laki; Nagy, Istvan

    2014-04-01

    Sensitisation of the capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) ion channel in nociceptive primary sensory neurons (PSN) underlies the development of inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. Removal of the negative-dominant splice variant of the TRPV1 molecule, TRPV1b from TRPV1/TRPV1b heterotetrameric channels, which should be associated with changes in the expression of TRPV1 and TRPV1b transcripts and proteins, has been suggested to contribute to that sensitisation. Respective reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western-blotting revealed that both TRPV1 and TRPV1b mRNA, and their encoded proteins are expressed in rat cultured PSN. Sequencing of the RT-PCR products showed that TRPV1b mRNA lacks the entire exon 7. Further, growing PSN for 2 days in the presence of 10?M bradykinin (BK) and 10?M prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly increases TRPV1 responsiveness and TRPV1 mRNA expression, without producing any changes in TRPV1b mRNA, and TRPV1 and TRPV1b protein expression. These data challenge the hypothesis that alterations in the composition of the TRPV1 ion channel contributes to the sensitisation. PMID:24525250

  8. Activation of recombinant human TRPV1 receptors expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells increases [Ca(2+)](i), initiates neurotransmitter release and promotes delayed cell death.

    PubMed

    Lam, Patricia M W; Hainsworth, Atticus H; Smith, Graham D; Owen, Davina E; Davies, James; Lambert, David G

    2007-08-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated, Ca(2+)-permeable ion channel in the TRP superfamily of channels. We report the establishment of the first neuronal model expressing recombinant human TRPV1 (SH-SY5Y(hTRPV1)). SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were stably transfected with hTRPV1 using the Amaxa Biosystem (hTRPV1 in pIREShyg2 with hygromycin selection). Capsaicin, olvanil, resiniferatoxin and the endocannabinoid anandamide increased [Ca(2+)](i) with potency (EC(50)) values of 2.9 nmol/L, 34.7 nmol/L, 0.9 nmol/L and 4.6 micromol/L, respectively. The putative endovanilloid N-arachidonoyl-dopamine increased [Ca(2+)](i) but this response did not reach a maximum. Capsaicin, anandamide, resiniferatoxin and olvanil mediated increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and iodo-resiniferatoxin with potencies (K(B)) of approximately 70 nmol/L and 2 nmol/L, respectively. Capsaicin stimulated the release of pre-labelled [(3)H]noradrenaline from monolayers of SH-SY5Y(hTRPV1) cells with an EC(50) of 0.6 nmol/L indicating amplification between [Ca(2+)](i) and release. In a perfusion system, we simultaneously measured [(3)H]noradrenaline release and [Ca(2+)](i) and observed that increased [Ca(2+)](i) preceded transmitter release. Capsaicin treatment also produced a cytotoxic response (EC(50) 155 nmol/L) that was antagonist-sensitive and mirrored the [Ca(2+)](I) response. This model displays pharmacology consistent with TRPV1 heterologously expressed in standard non-neuronal cells and native neuronal cultures. The advantage of SH-SY5Y(hTRPV1) is the ability of hTRPV1 to couple to neuronal biochemical machinery and produce large quantities of cells. PMID:17442052

  9. Epithelial TRPV1 signaling accelerates gingival epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Matsuda, Y; Yamada, H; Tabeta, K; Nakajima, T; Murakami, S; Yamazaki, K

    2014-11-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a member of the calcium-permeable thermosensitive transient receptor potential superfamily, is a sensor of thermal and chemical stimuli. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat (> 43°C), acidic conditions (pH < 6.6), capsaicin, and endovanilloids. This pain receptor was discovered on nociceptive fibers in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 was recently found to be expressed by non-neuronal cells, such as epithelial cells. The oral gingival epithelium is exposed to multiple noxious stimuli, including heat and acids derived from endogenous and exogenous substances; however, whether gingival epithelial cells (GECs) express TRPV1 is unknown. We show that both TRPV1 mRNA and protein are expressed by GECs. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in the gingival epithelial cell line, epi 4. Moreover, TRPV1 activation in epi 4 cells accelerated proliferation. These responses to capsaicin were inhibited by a specific TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366791. We also observed GEC proliferation in capsaicin-treated mice in vivo. No effects were observed on GEC apoptosis by epithelial TRPV1 signaling. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying this proliferative effect, we performed complementary (c)DNA microarray analysis of capsaicin-stimulated epi 4 cells. Compared with control conditions, 227 genes were up-regulated and 232 genes were down-regulated following capsaicin stimulation. Several proliferation-related genes were validated by independent experiments. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-17 and neuregulin 2 were significantly up-regulated in capsaicin-treated epi 4 cells. Our results suggest that functional TRPV1 is expressed by GECs and contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25266715

  10. Carboxyl-terminal domain of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 contains distinct segments differentially involved in capsaicin- and heat-induced desensitization.

    PubMed

    Joseph, John; Wang, Sen; Lee, Jongseok; Ro, Jin Y; Chung, Man-Kyo

    2013-12-13

    Multiple Ca(2+)-dependent processes are involved in capsaicin-induced desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), but desensitization of TRPV1 by heat occurs even in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that capsaicin and heat desensitize TRPV1 through distinct mechanisms involving distinct structural segments of TRPV1. In HEK293 cells that heterologously express TRPV1, we found that heat-induced desensitization was not affected by the inclusion of intracellular ATP or alanine mutation of Lys(155), both of which attenuate capsaicin-induced desensitization, suggesting that heat-induced desensitization occurs through mechanisms distinct from capsaicin-induced desensitization. To determine protein domains involved in heat-induced desensitization, we generated chimeric proteins between TRPV1 and TRPV3, a heat-gated channel lacking heat-induced desensitization. We found that TRPV1 with the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of TRPV3 retained heat activation but was impaired in heat-induced desensitization. Further experiments using chimeric or deletion mutants within TRPV1 CTD indicated that the distal half of CTD regulates the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 in modality-specific manners. Within the distal CTD, we identified two segments that distinctly regulated capsaicin- and heat-induced desensitization. The results suggest that the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 by capsaicin and heat can be modulated differentially and disproportionally through different regions of TRPV1 CTD. Identifying the domains involved in thermal regulation of TRPV1 may facilitate the development of novel anti-hyperalgesic approaches aimed at attenuating activation and enhancing desensitization of TRPV1 by thermal stimuli. PMID:24174527

  11. Carboxyl-terminal Domain of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Contains Distinct Segments Differentially Involved in Capsaicin- and Heat-induced Desensitization*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, John; Wang, Sen; Lee, Jongseok; Ro, Jin Y.; Chung, Man-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Ca2+-dependent processes are involved in capsaicin-induced desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), but desensitization of TRPV1 by heat occurs even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that capsaicin and heat desensitize TRPV1 through distinct mechanisms involving distinct structural segments of TRPV1. In HEK293 cells that heterologously express TRPV1, we found that heat-induced desensitization was not affected by the inclusion of intracellular ATP or alanine mutation of Lys155, both of which attenuate capsaicin-induced desensitization, suggesting that heat-induced desensitization occurs through mechanisms distinct from capsaicin-induced desensitization. To determine protein domains involved in heat-induced desensitization, we generated chimeric proteins between TRPV1 and TRPV3, a heat-gated channel lacking heat-induced desensitization. We found that TRPV1 with the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of TRPV3 retained heat activation but was impaired in heat-induced desensitization. Further experiments using chimeric or deletion mutants within TRPV1 CTD indicated that the distal half of CTD regulates the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 in modality-specific manners. Within the distal CTD, we identified two segments that distinctly regulated capsaicin- and heat-induced desensitization. The results suggest that the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 by capsaicin and heat can be modulated differentially and disproportionally through different regions of TRPV1 CTD. Identifying the domains involved in thermal regulation of TRPV1 may facilitate the development of novel anti-hyperalgesic approaches aimed at attenuating activation and enhancing desensitization of TRPV1 by thermal stimuli. PMID:24174527

  12. The Endoplasmic Reticulum of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Contains Functional TRPV1 Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Sandín, Sonia; Rodríguez-García, Arancha; Alonso, María Teresa; García-Sancho, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a plasma membrane Ca2+ channel involved in transduction of painful stimuli. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons express ectopic but functional TRPV1 channels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (TRPV1ER). We have studied the properties of TRPV1ER in DRG neurons and HEK293T cells expressing TRPV1. Activation of TRPV1ER with capsaicin or other vanilloids produced an increase of cytosolic Ca2+ due to Ca2+ release from the ER. The decrease of [Ca2+]ER was directly revealed by an ER-targeted aequorin Ca2+ probe, expressed in DRG neurons using a herpes amplicon virus. The sensitivity of TRPV1ER to capsaicin was smaller than the sensitivity of the plasma membrane TRPV1 channels. The low affinity of TRPV1ER was not related to protein kinase A- or C-mediated phosphorylations, but it was due to inactivation by cytosolic Ca2+ because the sensitivity to capsaicin was increased by loading the cells with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA. Decreasing [Ca2+]ER did not affect the sensitivity of TRPV1ER to capsaicin. Disruption of the TRPV1 calmodulin-binding domains at either the C terminus (?35AA) or the N terminus (K155A) increased 10-fold the affinity of TRPV1ER for capsaicin, suggesting that calmodulin is involved in the inactivation. The lack of TRPV1 sensitizers, such as phosphatylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, in the ER could contribute to decrease the affinity for capsaicin. The low sensitivity of TRPV1ER to agonists may be critical for neuron health, because otherwise Ca2+ depletion of ER could lead to ER stress, unfolding protein response, and cell death. PMID:19778904

  13. THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: TARGET OF TOXICANTS AND THERAPEUTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the structural and functional complexities of the TRPV1 is essential to the therapeutic modulation of inflammation and pain. Because of its central role in initiating inflammatory processes and integrating painful stimuli, there is an understandable interest...

  14. Piperine exerts anti-seizure effects via the TRPV1 receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Yuan; Li, Wen; Qu, Kun-Peng; Chen, Chang-Rui

    2013-08-15

    The mechanisms involved in the anti-seizure property of piperine (1-[5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2,4-pentadienyl]-(E,E)-piperidine, C17H19NO3) are still unclear. Piperine could activate transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) receptor, and the rapid activation of whole-cell currents is antagonized by the competitive TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Interestingly, recent studies have reported that TRPV1 may be a novel anti-epileptogenic target which led us to hypothesize that the anti-seizure property of piperine involves the TRPV1 receptor. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of piperine on seizures induced in mice and identified the receptors involved in the suppression of seizure caused by maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) models. Piperine, administered at doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg, significantly delayed the onset of myoclonic jerks and generalized clonic seizures, and decreased the seizure stage and mortality compared with the vehicle-treated animals. Piperine also significantly reduced the incidence of MES-induced tonic hindlimb extension (THE) and PTZ-induced Fos immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus. The anti-seizure effects of piperine were blocked by a TRPV1-selective antagonist capsazepine. Taken together, these data support the further investigation of piperine as a TRPV1 agonist for anti-seizure therapy. PMID:23911889

  15. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in human small cell lung cancer via the TRPV6 receptor and the calpain pathway.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jamie K; Brown, Kathleen C; Dom, Aaron M; Witte, Theodore R; Thornhill, Brent A; Crabtree, Clayton M; Perry, Haley E; Brown, J Michael; Ball, John G; Creel, Rebecca G; Damron, C Luke; Rollyson, William D; Stevenson, Cathryn D; Hardman, W Elaine; Valentovic, Monica A; Carpenter, A Betts; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2014-08-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers, displays potent anti-neoplastic activity in a wide array of human cancer cells. The present manuscript examines the signaling pathways underlying the apoptotic activity of capsaicin in human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in vitro and in vivo. Studies in neuronal cells show that capsaicin exerts its biological activity via the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) superfamily of cation-channel receptors. The TRPV family is comprised of six members (TRPV1-6). Capsaicin is a known agonist of the TRPV1 receptor. We observed that capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human SCLC cells was mediated via the TRPV receptor family; however it was independent of TRPV1. Surprisingly, the apoptotic activity of capsaicin required the TRPV6 receptor. Depletion of TRPV6 receptor by siRNA methodology abolished the apoptotic activity of capsaicin in SCLC cells. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that TRPV6 receptor was robustly expressed on human SCLC tissues (from patients) and SCLC cell lines but almost absent in normal lung tissues. This correlates with our results that capsaicin induced very little apoptosis in normal lung epithelial cells. The pro-apoptotic activity of capsaicin was mediated by the intracellular calcium and calpain pathway. The treatment of human SCLC cells with capsaicin increased the activity of calpain 1 and 2 by threefold relative to untreated SCLC cells. Such calpain activation, in response to capsaicin, was downstream of the TRPV6 receptor. Taken together, our data provide insights into the mechanism underlying the apoptotic activity of capsaicin in human SCLCs. PMID:24878626

  16. TRPV1 Activation in Primary Cortical Neurons Induces Calcium-Dependent Programmed Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhyun; Lee, Jun Hong; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

    2013-03-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1, also known as vanilloid receptor 1) is a receptor that detects capsaicin, a pungent component of chili peppers, and noxious heat. Although its function in the primary nociceptor as a pain receptor is well established, whether TRPV1 is expressed in the brain is still under debate. In this study, the responses of primary cortical neurons were investigated. Here, we report that 1) capsaicin induces caspase-3-dependent programmed cell death, which coincides with increased production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite ; that 2) the prolonged capsaicin treatment induces a steady increase in the degree of capase-3 activation, which is prevented by the removal of capsaicin; 3) and that blocking calcium entry and calcium-mediated signaling prevents capsaicin-induced cell death. These results indicate that cortical neurons express TRPV1 whose prolonged activation causes cell death. PMID:23585723

  17. GABAA receptor modulation by piperine and a non-TRPV1 activating derivative.

    PubMed

    Khom, Sophia; Strommer, Barbara; Schöffmann, Angela; Hintersteiner, Juliane; Baburin, Igor; Erker, Thomas; Schwarz, Thomas; Schwarzer, Christoph; Zaugg, Janine; Hamburger, Matthias; Hering, Steffen

    2013-06-15

    The action of piperine (the pungent component of pepper) and its derivative SCT-66 ((2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl))-N,N-diisobutyl-2,4-pentadienamide) on different gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABA(A)) receptors, transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors and behavioural effects were investigated. GABA(A) receptor subtypes and TRPV1 receptors were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Modulation of GABA-induced chloride currents (I(GABA)) by piperine and SCT-66 and activation of TRPV1 was studied using the two-microelectrode-voltage-clamp technique and fast perfusion. Their effects on explorative behaviour, thermoregulation and seizure threshold were analysed in mice. Piperine acted with similar potency on all GABA(A) receptor subtypes (EC?? range: 42.8±7.6 ?M (????)-59.6±12.3 ?M (????). I(GABA) modulation by piperine did not require the presence of a ?(2S)-subunit, suggesting a binding site involving only ? and ? subunits. I(GABA) activation was slightly more efficacious on receptors formed from ?(2/3) subunits (maximal I(GABA) stimulation through ???? receptors: 332±64% and ????: 271±36% vs. ????: 171±22%, p<0.05) and ??-subunits (????: 375±51% vs. ????:136±22%, p<0.05). Replacing the piperidine ring by a N,N-diisobutyl residue (SCT-66) prevents interactions with TRPV1 and simultaneously increases the potency and efficiency of GABA(A) receptor modulation. SCT-66 displayed greater efficacy on GABA(A) receptors than piperine, with different subunit-dependence. Both compounds induced anxiolytic, anticonvulsant effects and reduced locomotor activity; however, SCT-66 induced stronger anxiolysis without decreasing body temperature and without the proconvulsive effects of TRPV1 activation and thus may serve as a scaffold for the development of novel GABA(A) receptor modulators. PMID:23623790

  18. Transient receptor potential cation channel V1 (TRPV1) is degraded by starvation- and glucocorticoid-mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seyoung; Park, Jungyun; An, Inkyung; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwang, Jungwook

    2014-03-01

    A mammalian cell renovates itself by autophagy, a process through which cellular components are recycled to produce energy and maintain homeostasis. Recently, the abundance of gap junction proteins was shown to be regulated by autophagy during starvation conditions, suggesting that transmembrane proteins are also regulated by autophagy. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), an ion channel localized to the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is a sensory transducer that is activated by a wide variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli. Intriguingly, the abundance of cellular TRPV1 can change dynamically under pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms by which the protein levels of TRPV1 are regulated have not yet been explored. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms of TRPV1 recycling using HeLa cells constitutively expressing TRPV1. Endogenous TRPV1 was degraded in starvation conditions; this degradation was blocked by chloroquine (CLQ), 3MA, or downregulation of Atg7. Interestingly, a glucocorticoid (cortisol) was capable of inducing autophagy in HeLa cells. Cortisol increased cellular conversion of LC3-I to LC-3II, leading autophagy and resulting in TRPV1 degradation, which was similarly inhibited by treatment with CLQ, 3MA, or downregulation of Atg7. Furthermore, cortisol treatment induced the colocalization of GFP-LC3 with endogenous TRPV1. Cumulatively, these observations provide evidence that degradation of TRPV1 is mediated by autophagy, and that this pathway can be enhanced by cortisol. PMID:24658385

  19. TRPV1 activation impedes foam cell formation by inducing autophagy in oxLDL-treated vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, B-H; Yin, Y-W; Liu, Y; Pi, Y; Guo, L; Cao, X-J; Gao, C-Y; Zhang, L-L; Li, J-C

    2014-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are an important origin of foam cells besides macrophages. The mechanisms underlying VSMC foam cell formation are relatively little known. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) and autophagy have a potential role in regulating foam cell formation. Our study demonstrated that autophagy protected against foam cell formation in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-treated VSMCs; activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin rescued the autophagy impaired by oxLDL and activated autophagy–lysosome pathway in VSMCs; activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin impeded foam cell formation of VSMCs through autophagy induction; activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin induced autophagy through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. This study provides evidence that autophagy plays an important role in VSMC foam cell formation and highlights TRPV1 as a promising therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. PMID:24743737

  20. Capsaicin up-regulates protease-activated receptor-4 mRNA and protein in primary cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Wang, Zhaojin; Zhang, Zaifeng; Zhang, Rui; Yu, Lianfeng

    2013-04-01

    Previous study has shown that there is a functional link between the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor and protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) in modulation of inflammation and pain. Capsaicin activation of TRPV1 is involved in enhancement of the expression of TRPV1 in mRNA and protein in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in vivo. Whether capsaicin could influence expression of PAR4 in primary sensory neurons remains unknown. In the present study, expression of PAR4 in cultured rat DRG neurons was observed using immunofluorescence, real-time PCR and Western blots to examine whether increases in PAR4 mRNA and protein levels are induced by capsaicin treatment with or without pre-treatment of forskolin, a cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) activator or PKA inhibitor fragment 14-22 (PKI14-22), a PKA inhibitor. Capsaicin treatment of cultured DRG neurons significantly increased the expression of PAR4 in mRNA and protein levels. The percentage of PAR4-, TRPV1-immunoreactive neurons and their co-localization in cultured DRG neurons increased significantly in the presence of capsaicin as compared with that in the absence of capsaicin. Compared with capsaicin-only group, pre-incubation with forskolin strongly enhanced the capsaicin-induced increase of PAR4 in mRNA and protein levels. Consistent with the involvement of PKA in the modulation of PAR4 expression, this evoked expression both at mRNA and protein levels was significantly inhibited after PKA was inhibited by pre-incubation with PKI14-22. Taken together, these results provide evidence that TRPV1 activation significantly increases the expression of PAR4 mRNA and protein levels in primary cultures of DRG neurons after capsaicin incubation. Effects of capsaicin on PAR4 expression appear to be mediated by cAMP/PKA signal pathways in DRG neurons. PMID:23274964

  1. Mechanisms of potassium- and capsaicin-induced axonal calcitonin gene-related peptide release: involvement of L- and T-type calcium channels and TRPV1 but not sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, M J S; Reeh, P W; Sauer, S K

    2008-02-01

    We have previously shown that capsaicin, noxious heat, protons and potassium ions (K(+)) induce a graded, calcium- and receptor-dependent increase of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide (iCGRP) release from isolated rat sciatic axons. Morphological evidence for axonal vesicular exocytosis has also been presented. Here we determine the differential contribution of voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels to high extracellular potassium and capsaicin-induced iCGRP secretion. Blockade of L-type calcium channels significantly decreased the K(+)-induced axonal response (nimodipine (10 microM) by 66% and methoxyverapamil, D600 (50 microM), by 77%). Interestingly, however, D600 was unable to reduce the capsaicin-induced iCGRP release. Omega-Conotoxin GVIA (1 microM), a N-type blocker, and omega-agatoxin TK (0.1 microM), a P/Q-type blocker, had no significant effect. Also the anticonvulsant gabapentin (50 microM and 100 microM), reported to impede calcium channels, was ineffective. Inhibition of low threshold T-type calcium channels by mibefradil (10 microM) significantly reduced potassium (by 47%) but not capsaicin-stimulated iCGRP release. Reduction of total sodium channel conductance by tetrodotoxin (1 microM), lidocaine (10 microM, 50 microM or 500 microM) or by replacement of extracellular sodium with choline-chloride did not result in a reduction of either potassium- or capsaicin-induced axonal iCGRP release. These results suggest that slow depolarization by high extracellular potassium activates axonal low threshold (T-type) as well as high threshold-activated (L-type) voltage-gated calcium channels to mediate iCGRP release, and that capsaicin-induced release is largely dependent on calcium influx through TRPV1. Action potential generation and propagation are not required for axonal release mechanisms. PMID:18178321

  2. Receptome: Interactions between three pain-related receptors or the "Triumvirate" of cannabinoid, opioid and TRPV1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Zádor, Ferenc; Wollemann, Maria

    2015-12-01

    A growing amount of data demonstrates the interactions between cannabinoid, opioid and the transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. These interactions can be bidirectional, inhibitory or excitatory, acute or chronic in their nature, and arise both at the molecular level (structurally and functionally) and in physiological processes, such as pain modulation or perception. The interactions of these three pain-related receptors may also reserve important and new therapeutic applications for the treatment of chronic pain or inflammation. In this review, we summarize the main findings on the interactions between the cannabinoid, opioid and the TRPV1 receptor regarding to pain modulation. PMID:26520391

  3. TRPV1 stimulation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, Hisashi; Yamaoka, Tomoko; Sanpei, Kazuaki; Sasaoka, Hirotoshi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2008-12-26

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) functions as a polymodal nociceptor and is activated by several vanilloids, including capsaicin, protons and heat. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the brain, their roles remain unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of TRPV1 in cytotoxic processes using TRPV1-expressing cultured rat cortical neurons. Capsaicin induced severe neuronal death with apoptotic features, which was completely inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and was dependent on extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx. Interestingly, nifedipine, a specific L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity, even when applied 2-4 h after the capsaicin. ERK inhibitor PD98059 and several antioxidants, but not the JNK and p38 inhibitors, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity. Together, these data indicate that TRPV1 activation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical cultures via L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel opening, Ca{sup 2+} influx, ERK phosphorylation, and reactive oxygen species production.

  4. Evodiamine suppresses capsaicin-induced thermal hyperalgesia through activation and subsequent desensitization of the transient receptor potential V1 channels.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Emiko; Wang, Shenglan; Matsuyoshi, Nobuyuki; Kogure, Yoko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Noguchi, Koichi; Dai, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Evodiae fructus (EF), a fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham, has long been used as an analgesic drug in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its pharmacological action is unclear. Here, using calcium imaging, whole-cell patch-clamp recording, and behavioral analysis, we investigated the pharmacological action of EF and its principal compound, evodiamine, on the transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 channels. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and TRPV1- or TRPA1-transfected human embryonic kidney-derived (HEK) 293 cells were used for calcium imaging or whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Twenty male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the capsaicin-induced thermal hyperalgesia behavioral analyses. We found that evodiamine induced significant increases in intracellular calcium and robust inward currents in a subpopulation of isolated rat DRG neurons, most of which were also sensitive to capsaicin. The effect of evodiamine was completely blocked by capsazepine, a competitive antagonist of TRPV1. Evodiamine induced significant inward currents in TRPV1-, but not TRPA1-transfected HEK293 cells. Pretreatment with evodiamine reduced capsaicin-induced currents significantly. Furthermore, the in vivo pre-treatment of evodiamine suppressed thermal hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar injection of capsaicin in rats. These results identify that the analgesic effect of EF and evodiamine may be due to the activation and subsequent desensitization of TRPV1 in sensory neurons. PMID:26188960

  5. Functional TRPV1 expression in human corneal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanquan; Yang, Hua; Wang, Zheng; Mergler, Stefan; Wolosin, J Mario; Reinach, Peter S

    2013-02-01

    Corneal wound healing in mice subsequent to an alkali burn results in dysregulated inflammation and opacification. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) channel activation in all tissue layers by endogenous ligands contributes to this sight compromising outcome since in TRPV1 knockout mice wound healing results instead in tissue transparency restoration. However, it is not known if primary human stromal fibroblasts exhibit such expression even though functional TRPV1 expression is evident in an immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line. In primary human corneal fibroblasts (HCF), TRPV1 gene expression and localization were identified based on the results of quantitative RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Western blot analysis identified a 100 kD protein corresponding to TRPV1 protein expression in a positive control. Single-cell fluorescence imaging detected in fura2-AM loaded cells Ca(2+) transients that rose 1.8-fold above the baseline induced by a selective TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin (CAP), which were blocked by a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (CPZ) or exposure to a Ca(2+) free medium. The whole-cell mode of the planar patch-clamp technique identified TRPV1-induced currents that rose 1.76-fold between -60 and +130 mV. CAP-induced time dependent changes in the phosphorylation status of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling mediators that led to a 2.5-fold increase in IL-6 release after 24 h. This rise did not occur either in TRPV1 siRNA gene silenced cells or during exposure to SB203580 (10 ?M), a selective p38 MAPK inhibitor. Taken together, identification of functional TRPV1 expression in HCF suggests that in vivo its activation by injury contributes to corneal opacification and inflammation during wound healing. These undesirable effects may result in part from increases in IL-6 expression mediated by p-p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:23232207

  6. TRPV1: A Potential Drug Target for Treating Various Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rafael; Sheth, Sandeep; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel present on sensory neurons which is activated by heat, protons, capsaicin and a variety of endogenous lipids termed endovanilloids. As such, TRPV1 serves as a multimodal sensor of noxious stimuli which could trigger counteractive measures to avoid pain and injury. Activation of TRPV1 has been linked to chronic inflammatory pain conditions and peripheral neuropathy, as observed in diabetes. Expression of TRPV1 is also observed in non-neuronal sites such as the epithelium of bladder and lungs and in hair cells of the cochlea. At these sites, activation of TRPV1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystitis, asthma and hearing loss. Therefore, drugs which could modulate TRPV1 channel activity could be useful for the treatment of conditions ranging from chronic pain to hearing loss. This review describes the roles of TRPV1 in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of selected organs of the body and highlights how drugs targeting this channel could be important clinically. PMID:24861977

  7. Involvement of TRPV1-dependent and -independent components in the regulation of vagally induced contractions in the mouse esophagus.

    PubMed

    Boudaka, Ammar; Wörl, Jürgen; Shiina, Takahiko; Neuhuber, Winfried L; Kobayashi, Haruo; Shimizu, Yasutake; Takewaki, Tadashi

    2007-02-01

    Transient receptor potential ion channel of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1)-dependent pathway, consisting of capsaicin-sensitive tachykininergic primary afferent and myenteric nitrergic neurons, has been suggested to mediate the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on vagally mediated striated muscle contractions in the rat esophagus. In a recent study, similar but also different effects of capsaicin and piperine on TRPV1 were demonstrated. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of these two drugs on vagally induced contractions in the mouse esophagus. Capsaicin and piperine inhibited vagally induced contractions of a thoracic esophageal segment in a concentration-dependent manner. Ruthenium red (10 microM; a non-selective blocker of transient receptor potential cation channels) and SB-366791 (10 microM; a novel selective antagonist of TRPV1) blocked the inhibitory effect of capsaicin but not that of piperine. Piperine inhibited the vagally mediated contractions in esophagi of adult mice neonatally injected with capsaicin, while capsaicin failed to do so. Desensitization of TRPV1 in the mouse esophagus by in vitro pretreatment with capsaicin failed to affect the inhibitory effect of piperine, whereas the piperine effect was cross-desensitized by capsaicin pretreatment in rat and hamster esophagi. Additionally, a tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist, L-732,138 (1 microM), as well as a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 200 microM), blocked the inhibitory effect of capsaicin but not that of piperine. Taken together, the results suggest that piperine inhibits the vagally mediated striated muscle contraction in the mouse esophagus through its action on a TRPV1-dependent pathway as well as a TRPV1-independent site. PMID:17156774

  8. POTENTIATION OF PULMONARY REFLEX RESPONSE TO CAPSAICIN 24 HOURS FOLLOWING WHOLE-BODY ACROLEIN EXPOSURE IS MEDIATED BY TRPV1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary C-fibers are stimulated by irritant air pollutants producing apnea, bronchospasm, and decrease in HR. C-fiber chemoreflex activation is mediated by TRPV1 and release of substance P. While acrolein has been shown to stimulate C-fibers, the persistence of acrolein effect...

  9. Comparison of the effects of pelargonic acid vanillylamide and capsaicin on human vanilloid receptors.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Thomas; Roufogalis, Basil; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-07-01

    Pelargonic acid vanillylamide is like capsaicin a natural capsaicinoid from chili peppers and commonly used in food additives to create a hot sensation, even in self-defense pepper sprays and as an alternative to capsaicin in medical products for topical treatment of pain. Although the chemical structures of both compounds are similar, preclinical data suggest that capsaicin is the more potent compound. We therefore performed voltage-clamp recordings using cells transfected with the human vanilloid receptor TRPV1 in order to assess the responses of pelargonic acid vanillylamide and capsaicin at the receptor level. We provide evidence that at the molecular target TRPV1, the concentration-response curves, kinetics of current activation, as well as inhibition by the competitive antagonist capsazepine were not significantly different between the two capsaicinoids. We suggest that the different effects of the two capsaicinoids observed in previous studies may rather be due to different physicochemical or pharmacokinetic properties than to different pharmacological profiles at the receptor level. PMID:22961689

  10. Additive antiemetic efficacy of low-doses of the cannabinoid CB(1/2) receptor agonist ?(9)-THC with ultralow-doses of the vanilloid TRPV1 receptor agonist resiniferatoxin in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Zhong, Weixia; Trinh, Chung; McClanahan, Bryan; Brar, Rajivinder S

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1/2 and vanilloid TRPV1 agonists (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC) and resiniferatoxin (RTX), respectively) can attenuate the emetic effects of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. In this study we used the least shrew to demonstrate whether combinations of varying doses of ?(9)-THC with resiniferatoxin can produce additive antiemetic efficacy against cisplatin-induced vomiting. RTX by itself caused vomiting in a bell-shaped dose-dependent manner with maximal vomiting at 18 ?g/kg when administered subcutaneously (s.c.) but not intraperitoneally (i.p.). ?(9)-THC up to 10 mg/kg provides only 80% protection of least shrews from cisplatin-induced emesis with an ID50 of 0.3-1.8 mg/kg. Combinations of 1 or 5 ?g/kg RTX with varying doses of ?(9)-THC completely suppressed both the frequency and the percentage of shrews vomiting with ID50 dose values 5-50 times lower than ?(9)-THC doses tested alone against cisplatin. A less potent TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, by itself did not cause emesis (i.p. or s.c.), but it did significantly reduce vomiting induced by cisplatin given after 30 min but not at 2 h. The TRPV1-receptor antagonist, ruthenium red, attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis at 5mg/kg; however, another TRPV1-receptor antagonist, capsazepine, did not. In summary, we present evidence that combination of CB1/2 and TRPV1 agonists have the capacity to completely abolish cisplatin-induced emesis at doses that are ineffective when used individually. PMID:24157976

  11. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Is a Mediator of Lung Toxicity for Coal Fly Ash Particulate Material

    PubMed Central

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E.; Johansen, Mark E.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Thomas, Karen C.; Romero, Erin G.; Lee, Jeewoo; Yost, Garold S.; Veranth, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental particulate matter (PM) pollutants adversely affect human health, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been implicated as a sensor for environmental PM and a mediator of adverse events in the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TRPV1 can distinguish chemically and physically unique PM that represents important sources of air pollution; to elucidate the molecular basis of TRPV1 activation by PM; and to ascertain the contributions of TRPV1 to human lung cell and mouse lung tissue responses exposed to an insoluble PM agonist, coal fly ash (CFA1). The major findings of this study are that TRPV1 is activated by some, but not all of the prototype PM materials evaluated, with rank-ordered responses of CFA1 > diesel exhaust PM > crystalline silica; TRP melastatin-8 is also robustly activated by CFA1, whereas other TRP channels expressed by airway sensory neurons and lung epithelial cells that may also be activated by CFA1, including TRPs ankyrin 1 (A1), canonical 4? (C4?), M2, V2, V3, and V4, were either slightly (TRPA1) or not activated by CFA1; activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 occurs via cell surface interactions between the solid components of CFA1 and specific amino acid residues of TRPV1 that are localized in the putative pore-loop region; and activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 is not exclusive in mouse lungs but represents a pathway by which CFA1 affects the expression of selected genes in lung epithelial cells and airway tissue. PMID:22155782

  12. 6,6-Fused heterocyclic ureas as highly potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Kim, Hyo-Shin; Lee, Sunho; Jung, Aeran; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ann, Jihyae; Yoon, Suyoung; Choi, Sun; Lee, Jin Hee; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Schiene, Klaus; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-02-15

    A series of N-[{2-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-pyridin-3-yl}methyl] N'-(6,6-fused heterocyclic) ureas have been investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. Among them, compound 15 showed highly potent TRPV1 antagonism to capsaicin, with Ki(ant)=0.2nM, as well as antagonism to other activators, and it was efficacious in a pain model. A docking study of 15 with our hTRPV1 homology model indicates that there is crucial hydrogen bonding between the ring nitrogen and the receptor, contributing to its potency. PMID:25597011

  13. TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan; Park, Kyungpyo

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca(2+)]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca(2+)]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

  14. TRPV1 Channel: A Potential Drug Target for Treating Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy has 2-3% incidence worldwide. However, present antiepileptic drugs provide only partial control of seizures. Calcium ion accumulation in hippocampal neurons has long been known as a major contributor to the etiology of epilepsy. TRPV1 is a calcium-permeable channel and mediator of epilepsy in the hippocampus. TRPV1 is expressed in epileptic brain areas such as CA1 area and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Here the author reviews the patent literature on novel molecules targeting TRPV1 that are currently being investigated in the laboratory and are candidates for future clinical evaluation in the management of epilepsy. A limited number of recent reports have implicated TRPV1 in the induction or treatment of epilepsy suggesting that this may be new area for potential drugs targeting this debilitating disease. Thus activation of TRPV1 by oxidative stress, resiniferatoxin, cannabinoid receptor (CB1) activators (i.e. anandamide) or capsaicin induced epileptic effects, and these effects could be reduced by appropriate inhibitors, including capsazepine (CPZ), 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), resolvins, and CB1 antagonists. It has been also reported that CPZ and IRTX reduced spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission through modulation of glutaminergic systems and desensitization of TRPV1 channels in the hippocampus of rats. Immunocytochemical studies indicated that TRPV1 channel expression increased in the hippocampus of mice and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy Taken together, findings in the current literature support a role for calcium ion accumulation through TRPV1 channels in the etiology of epileptic seizures, indicating that inhibition of TRPV1 in the hippocampus may possibly be a novel target for prevention of epileptic seizures. PMID:26411767

  15. Distinctive changes in plasma membrane phosphoinositides underlie differential regulation of TRPV1 in nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, Viktor; Yudin, Yevgen; Hammond, Gerald R; Sharma, Esseim; Fukami, Kiyoko; Rohacs, Tibor

    2013-07-10

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal, Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel crucial to regulation of nociceptor responsiveness. Sensitization of TRPV1 by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists to its endogenous activators, such as low pH and noxious heat, is a key factor in hyperalgesia during tissue injury as well as pathological pain syndromes. Conversely, chronic pharmacological activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin leads to calcium influx-induced adaptation of the channel. Paradoxically, both conditions entail activation of phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphoinositides. We found that in sensory neurons PLC? activation by bradykinin led to a moderate decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), but no sustained change in the levels of its precursor PI(4)P. Preventing this selective decrease in PI(4,5)P2 inhibited TRPV1 sensitization, while selectively decreasing PI(4,5)P2 independently of PLC potentiated the sensitizing effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on the channel, thereby inducing increased TRPV1 responsiveness. Maximal pharmacological TRPV1 stimulation led to a robust decrease of both PI(4,5)P2 and its precursor PI(4)P in sensory neurons. Attenuating the decrease of either lipid significantly reduced desensitization, and simultaneous reduction of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P independently of PLC inhibited TRPV1. We found that, on the mRNA level, the dominant highly Ca(2+)-sensitive PLC isoform in dorsal root ganglia is PLC?4. Capsaicin-induced desensitization of TRPV1 currents was significantly reduced, whereas capsaicin-induced nerve impulses in the skin-nerve preparation increased in mice lacking this isoform. We propose a comprehensive model in which differential changes in phosphoinositide levels mediated by distinct PLC isoforms result in opposing changes in TRPV1 activity. PMID:23843517

  16. Distinct properties of Ca2+-calmodulin binding to N- and C-terminal regulatory regions of the TRPV1 channel.

    PubMed

    Lau, Sze-Yi; Procko, Erik; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2012-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a molecular pain receptor belonging to the TRP superfamily of nonselective cation channels. As a polymodal receptor, TRPV1 responds to heat and a wide range of chemical stimuli. The influx of calcium after channel activation serves as a negative feedback mechanism leading to TRPV1 desensitization. The cellular calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) likely participates in the desensitization of TRPV1. Two CaM-binding sites are identified in TRPV1: the N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and a short distal C-terminal (CT) segment. Here, we present the crystal structure of calcium-bound CaM (Ca(2+)-CaM) in complex with the TRPV1-CT segment, determined to 1.95-Å resolution. The two lobes of Ca(2+)-CaM wrap around a helical TRPV1-CT segment in an antiparallel orientation, and two hydrophobic anchors, W787 and L796, contact the C-lobe and N-lobe of Ca(2+)-CaM, respectively. This structure is similar to canonical Ca(2+)-CaM-peptide complexes, although TRPV1 contains no classical CaM recognition sequence motif. Using structural and mutational studies, we established the TRPV1 C terminus as a high affinity Ca(2+)-CaM-binding site in both the isolated TRPV1 C terminus and in full-length TRPV1. Although a ternary complex of CaM, TRPV1-ARD, and TRPV1-CT had previously been postulated, we found no biochemical evidence of such a complex. In electrophysiology studies, mutation of the Ca(2+)-CaM-binding site on TRPV1-ARD abolished desensitization in response to repeated application of capsaicin, whereas mutation of the Ca(2+)-CaM-binding site in TRPV1-CT led to a more subtle phenotype of slowed and reduced TRPV1 desensitization. In summary, our results show that the TRPV1-ARD is an important mediator of TRPV1 desensitization, whereas TRPV1-CT has higher affinity for CaM and is likely involved in separate regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23109716

  17. Antinociceptive activity of transient receptor potential channel TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 antagonists in neurogenic and neuropathic pain models in mice*

    PubMed Central

    Sa?at, Kinga; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the antinociceptive activity of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 antagonists in neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain models in mice. For this purpose, TRP channel antagonists were administered into the dorsal surface of a hind paw 15 min before capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), or formalin. Their antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic efficacies after intraperitoneal administration were also assessed in a paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain model. Motor coordination of paclitaxel-treated mice that received these TRP channel antagonists was investigated using the rotarod test. TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and SB-366791, attenuated capsaicin-induced nociceptive reaction in a concentration-dependent manner. At 8 ?g/20 ?l, this effect was 51% (P<0.001) for capsazepine and 37% (P<0.05) for SB-366791. A TRPA1 antagonist, A-967079, reduced pain reaction by 48% (P<0.05) in the AITC test and by 54% (P<0.001) in the early phase of the formalin test. The test compounds had no influence on the late phase of the formalin test. In paclitaxel-treated mice, they did not attenuate heat hyperalgesia but N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-{[(3-methylphenyl)methyl]oxy}-N-(2-thienylmethyl) benzamide hydrochloride salt (AMTB), a TRPM8 antagonist, reduced cold hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia by 31% (P<0.05) and 51% (P<0.01), respectively. HC-030031, a TRPA1 channel antagonist, attenuated tactile allodynia in the von Frey test (62%; P<0.001). In conclusion, distinct members of TRP channel family are involved in different pain models in mice. Antagonists of TRP channels attenuate nocifensive responses of neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain, but their efficacies strongly depend on the pain model used. PMID:25743118

  18. Severe ulceration with impaired induction of growth factors and cytokines in keratinocytes after trichloroacetic acid application on TRPV1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-jin; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Kimura, Ayako; Kaminaka, Chikako; Yonei, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a highly polymodal TRP channel activated by various stimuli, including capsaicin, heat and acids. TRPV1 expression can be detected widely but is highest in sensory neurons and its activation alerts the body to noxious signals via neurogenic pain. Although TRPV1 is reportedly localized in the epidermis, it remains unclear how TRPV1 is involved in the chemical peeling processes with cytotoxic acids. Therefore, in this study, the role of TRPV1 on the effects of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peeling was assessed using TRPV1-deficient mice. Following the confirmation of TRPV1 expression in murine keratinocytes with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, the effects of TCA on TRPV1-deficient mouse skin were compared with those on wild-type mouse skin. Our results indicated that TRPV1 expression was not required for TCA-induced DNA damage, as shown by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, but was indispensable for the TCA-induced production of distinct growth factors and cytokines by keratinocytes. Ulceration after TCA peeling was actually more severe in the absence of TRPV1, suggesting that the TRPV1-mediated epidermal production of growth factors and cytokines affected the damaging and healing processes of TCA-peeled skin to induce rejuvenation. PMID:22858856

  19. Anionic linear aliphatic surfactants activate TRPV1: a possible endpoint for estimation of detergent induced eye nociception?

    PubMed

    Lindegren, H; Mogren, H; El Andaloussi-Lilja, J; Lundqvist, J; Forsby, A

    2009-12-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been reported as one of the key components in the pain pathway. Activation of the receptor causes a Ca(2+) influx in sensory C-fibres with secondary effects leading to neurogenic inflammation in the surrounding tissue. We have earlier reported specific activation of TRPV1 by surfactant-containing hygiene products. We have continued this project by investigating activation of the TRPV1 by shampoo and soap ingredients in low concentrations measured as intracellular Ca(2+) influxes in stably TRPV1-expressing neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. As a TRPV1 specific control, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine was used. The response was quantified as the product induced Ca(2+) influx during 2 min in relation to the maximum response induced by the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin. The results show that anionic alkyl linear surfactant ingredients such as sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium laureth sulphate, ammonium lauryl sulphate, sodium C12-15 pareth sulphate and N-lauroylsarcosine concentration-dependently induced Ca(2+) influx that could be addressed to TRPV1. The cationic surfactants benzalkonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride induced a Ca(2+) influx that was not TRPV1 mediated as well as the zwitterionic surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine, the non-linear anionic surfactant sodium deoxycholate and the non-ionic surfactant Triton-X. These results reveal a new mechanistic pathway for surfactant-induced nociception. PMID:19540328

  20. The TRPV1 channel in rodents is a major target for antinociceptive effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938.

    PubMed

    Perez-Burgos, Azucena; Wang, Lu; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Mao, Yu-Kang; Ahmadzai, Mustafa; Janssen, Luke J; Stanisz, Andrew M; Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang A

    2015-09-01

    Certain probiotic bacteria have been shown to reduce distension-dependent gut pain, but the mechanisms involved remain obscure. Live luminal Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) and its conditioned medium dose dependently reduced jejunal spinal nerve firing evoked by distension or capsaicin, and 80% of this response was blocked by a specific TRPV1 channel antagonist or in TRPV1 knockout mice. The specificity of DSM action on TRPV1 was further confirmed by its inhibition of capsaicin-induced intracellular calcium increases in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Another lactobacillus with ability to reduce gut pain did not modify this response. Prior feeding of rats with DSM inhibited the bradycardia induced by painful gastric distension. These results offer a system for the screening of new and improved candidate bacteria that may be useful as novel therapeutic adjuncts in gut pain. Certain bacteria exert visceral antinociceptive activity, but the mechanisms involved are not determined. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 was examined since it may be antinociceptive in children. Since transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel activity may mediate nociceptive signals, we hypothesized that TRPV1 current is inhibited by DSM. We tested this by examining the effect of DSM on the firing frequency of spinal nerve fibres in murine jejunal mesenteric nerve bundles following serosal application of capsaicin. We also measured the effects of DSM on capsaicin-evoked increase in intracellular Ca(2+) or ionic current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, we tested the in vivo antinociceptive effects of oral DSM on gastric distension in rats. Live DSM reduced the response of capsaicin- and distension-evoked firing of spinal nerve action potentials (238 ± 27.5% vs. 129 ± 17%). DSM also reduced the capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 ionic current in DRG neuronal primary culture from 83 ± 11% to 41 ± 8% of the initial response to capsaicin only. Another lactobacillus (Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1) with known visceral anti-nociceptive activity did not have these effects. DSM also inhibited capsaicin-evoked Ca(2+) increase in DRG neurons; an increase in Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity ratio of 2.36 ± 0.31 evoked by capsaicin was reduced to 1.25 ± 0.04. DSM releasable products (conditioned medium) mimicked DSM inhibition of capsaicin-evoked excitability. The TRPV1 antagonist 6-iodonordihydrocapsaicin or the use of TRPV1 knock-out mice revealed that TRPV1 channels mediate about 80% of the inhibitory effect of DSM on mesenteric nerve response to high intensity gut distension. Finally, feeding with DSM inhibited perception in rats of painful gastric distension. Our results identify a specific target channel for a probiotic with potential therapeutic properties. PMID:26084409

  1. Novel therapeutics in the field of capsaicin and pain.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, a pharmacologically active agent found in chili peppers, causes burning and itching sensation due to binding at the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV-1) receptor, a polymodal receptor critical to the sensing of a variety of stimuli (e.g., noxious heat, bidirectional pH), and subsequent activation of polymodal C and A-? nociceptive fibers. Acutely, TRPV-1 activation with peripheral capsaicin produces pronociceptive effects, which extends to the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia. However, capsaicin has been reported to display antinociceptive properties as well, largely through TRPV-1-dependent mechanisms. Local application of high concentration of capsaicin is used for neuropathic pain and repeated stimulation of TRPV-1 induced an improvement of epigastric pain in irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia patients by desensitization of nociceptive pathways. New TRPV-1 agonists are currently under preclinical study and TRPV-1 antagonists are in early clinical development as analgesics. The TRPV-1 pathway might be a novel target for therapeutics in pain sensitivity. PMID:25959004

  2. Persistent Nociception Triggered by Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) Is Mediated by TRPV1 and Oxidative Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Eskander, Michael A.; Ruparel, Shivani; Green, Dustin P.; Chen, Paul B.; Por, Elaine D.; Jeske, Nathaniel A.; Gao, Xiaoli; Flores, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is elevated in certain chronic pain conditions and is a sufficient stimulus to cause lasting pain in humans, but the actual mechanisms underlying the persistent effects of NGF remain incompletely understood. We developed a rat model of NGF-induced persistent thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia to determine the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and oxidative mechanisms in the persistent effects of NGF. Persistent thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia require de novo protein translation and are mediated by TRPV1 and oxidative mechanisms. By comparing effects after systemic (subcutaneous), spinal (intrathecal) or hindpaw (intraplantar) injections of test compounds, we determined that TRPV1 and oxidation mediate persistent thermal hypersensitivity via peripheral and spinal sites of action and mechanical allodynia via only a spinal site of action. Therefore, NGF-evoked thermal and mechanical allodynia are mediated by spatially distinct mechanisms. NGF treatment evoked sustained increases in peripheral and central TRPV1 activity, as demonstrated by increased capsaicin-evoked nocifensive responses, increased calcitonin gene-related peptide release from hindpaw skin biopsies, and increased capsaicin-evoked inward current and membrane expression of TRPV1 protein in dorsal root ganglia neurons. Finally, we showed that NGF treatment increased concentrations of linoleic and arachidonic-acid-derived oxidized TRPV1 agonists in spinal cord and skin biopsies. Furthermore, increases in oxidized TRPV1-active lipids were reduced by peripheral and spinal injections of compounds that completely blocked persistent nociception. Collectively, these data indicate that NGF evokes a persistent nociceptive state mediated by increased TRPV1 activity and oxidative mechanisms, including increased production of oxidized lipid TRPV1 agonists. PMID:26041925

  3. Protons stabilize the closed conformation of gain-of-function mutants of the TRPV1 channel.

    PubMed

    Boukalova, Stepana; Teisinger, Jan; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2013-03-01

    The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is a molecular integrator of noxious stimuli, including capsaicin, heat and protons. Despite clear similarities between the overall architecture of TRPV1 and voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels, the extent of conservation in the molecular logic for gating is unknown. In Kv channels, a small contact surface between S1 and the pore-helix is required for channel functioning. To explore the function of S1 in TRPV1, we used tryptophan-scanning mutagenesis and characterized the responses to capsaicin and protons. Wild-type-like currents were generated in 9 out of 17 mutants; three mutants (M445W, A452W, R455W) were non-functional. The conservative mutation R455K in the extracellular extent of S1 slowed down capsaicin-induced activation and prevented normal channel closure. This mutant was neither activated nor potentiated by protons, on the contrary, protons promoted a rapid deactivation of its currents. Similar phenotypes were found in two other gain-of-function mutants and also in the pore-helix mutant T633A, known to uncouple proton activation. We propose that the S1 domain contains a functionally important region that may be specifically involved in TRPV1 channel gating, and thus be important for the energetic coupling between S1-S4 sensor activation and gate opening. Analogous to Kv channels, the S1-pore interface might serve to stabilize conformations associated with TRPV1 channel gating. PMID:23220012

  4. Effect of chirality and lipophilicity in the functional activity of evodiamine and its analogues at TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Fontana, Gabriele; Sacchetti, Alessandro; Passarella, Daniele; Appendino, Giovanni; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Evodiamine, a racemic quinazolinocarboline alkaloid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Evodiae fructus, has been reported to act as an agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) cation channel both in vitro and in vivo. Evodiamine is structurally different from all known TRPV1 activators, and has significant clinical potential as a thermogenic agent. Nevertheless, the molecular bases for its actions are still poorly understood. Experimental Approach To investigate the structure-activity relationships of evodiamine, the natural racemate was resolved, and a series of 23 synthetic analogues was prepared, using as the end point the intracellular Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells stably overexpressing either the human or the rat recombinant TRPV1. Key Results S-(+) evodiamine was more efficacious and potent than R-(?) evodiamine, and a new potent lead (Evo30) was identified, more potent than the reference TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin. In general, potency and efficacy correlated with the lipophilicity of the analogues. Like other TRPV1 agonists, several synthetic analogues could efficiently desensitize TRPV1 to activation by capsaicin. Conclusions and Implications Evodiamine qualifies as structurally unique lead structure to develop new potent TRPV1 agonists/desensitizers. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:23902373

  5. The anticancer antibiotic mithramycin-A inhibits TRPV1 expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Zavala, K; Lee, J; Chong, J; Sharma, M; Eilers, H; Schumacher, M A

    2014-08-22

    Activation of peripheral nociceptors by products of inflammation has been shown to be dependent on specific sensory transducing elements such as the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. The development of high-affinity antagonists to TRPV1 as well as to other receptors capable of detecting noxious stimuli has now become a major focus in analgesic development. Another critical feature of nociception is the relative abundance of a particular pain transducing receptor under normal or pathophysiologic conditions. Increases in expression and/or changes in distribution of nociceptive receptors such as TRPV1 have been correlated with progression of tissue injury and persistence of pain behaviors. Although some details are emerging as to what regulates nociceptor-specific gene expression, compounds that could potentially be used to block or reverse over-expression of nociceptive gene expression are essentially absent. In our efforts to better understand the transcriptional regulation of TRPV1 in sensory neurons, we identified an anticancer agent, mithramycin-A, that decreased TRPV1 expression in primary rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Mithramycin-A dose-dependently (10-50 nM) decreased endogenous TRPV1 mRNA content and appeared to decrease TRPV1-like protein expression in DRG neurons. We also observed that mithramycin-A directed a decrease in the number of capsaicin-responsive DRG neurons without a significant change in the capsaicin-response magnitudes. Interestingly, mithramycin-A also reduced the mRNA encoding Sp1 and Sp4 in DRG neurons, transcription factors previously found to positively regulate TRPV1 expression in sensory neurons. Taken together, we propose that mithramycin-A directs an inhibitory effect on a subpopulation of capsaicin-responsive DRG neurons that utilize Sp1-like factors for TRPV1 expression. Given the therapeutic correlate of mithramycin-A effectiveness in the treatment of certain cancers, small molecule transcriptional inhibitors such as mithramycin-A may serve as useful tools of discovery in pain transduction and possibly future analgesic development. PMID:24468003

  6. Resolving TRPV1- and TNF-?-mediated spinal cord synaptic plasticity and inflammatory pain with neuroprotectin D1.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Kyu; Lü, Ning; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Tong; Serhan, Charles N; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2011-10-19

    Mechanisms of inflammatory pain are not fully understood. We investigated the role of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential subtype V1) and TNF-?, two critical mediators for inflammatory pain, in regulating spinal cord synaptic transmission. We found in mice lacking Trpv1 the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in lamina II neurons of spinal cord slices is reduced. Further, C-fiber-induced spinal long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo is abolished in Trpv1 knock-out mice. TNF-? also increases sEPSC frequency but not amplitude in spinal outer lamina II (lamina IIo) neurons, and this increase is abolished in Trpv1 knock-out mice. Single-cell PCR analysis revealed that TNF-?-responding neurons in lamina IIo are exclusively excitatory (vGluT2(+)) neurons. Notably, neuroprotectin-1 (NPD1), an anti-inflammatory lipid mediator derived from ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid), blocks TNF-?- and capsaicin-evoked sEPSC frequency increases but has no effect on basal synaptic transmission. Strikingly, NPD1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 current (IC(50) = 0.4 nm) in dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons, and this IC(50) is ? 500 times lower than that of AMG9810, a commonly used TRPV1 antagonist. NPD1 inhibition of TRPV1 is mediated by GPCRs, since the effects were blocked by pertussis toxin. In contrast, NPD1 had no effect on mustard oil-induced TRPA1 currents. Spinal injection of NPD1, at very low doses (0.1-10 ng), blocks spinal LTP and reduces TRPV1-dependent inflammatory pain, without affecting baseline pain. NPD1 also reduces TRPV1-independent but TNF-?-dependent pain hypersensitivity. Our findings demonstrate a novel role of NPD1 in regulating TRPV1/TNF-?-mediated spinal synaptic plasticity and identify NPD1 as a novel analgesic for treating inflammatory pain. PMID:22016541

  7. Vanilloids selectively sensitize thermal glutamate release from TRPV1 expressing solitary tract afferents.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Andresen, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Vanilloids, high temperature, and low pH activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. In spinal dorsal root ganglia, co-activation of one of these gating sites on TRPV1 sensitized receptor gating by other modes. Here in rat brainstem slices, we examined glutamate synaptic transmission in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) neurons where most cranial primary afferents express TRPV1, but TRPV1 sensitization is unknown. Electrical shocks to the solitary tract (ST) evoked EPSCs (ST-EPSCs). Activation of TRPV1 with capsaicin (100 nM) increased spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) but inhibited ST-EPSCs. High concentrations of the ultra-potent vanilloid resiniferatoxin (RTX, 1 nM) similarly increased sEPSC rates but blocked ST-EPSCs. Lowering the RTX concentration to 150 pM modestly increased the frequency of the sEPSCs without causing failures in the evoked ST-EPSCs. The sEPSC rate increased with raising bath temperature to 36 °C. Such thermal responses were larger in 150 pM RTX, while the ST-EPSCs remained unaffected. Vanilloid sensitization of thermal responses persisted in TTX but was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Our results demonstrate that multimodal activation of TRPV1 facilitates sEPSC responses in more than the arithmetic sum of the two activators, i.e. co-activation sensitizes TRPV1 control of spontaneous glutamate release. Since action potential evoked glutamate release is unaltered, the work provides evidence for cooperativity in gating TRPV1 plus a remarkable separation of calcium mechanisms governing the independent vesicle pools responsible for spontaneous and evoked release at primary afferents in the NTS. PMID:26471418

  8. TRPV1 and Endocannabinoids: Emerging Molecular Signals that Modulate Mammalian Vision

    PubMed Central

    Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Redmon, Sarah; Jo, Andrew O.; Križaj, David

    2014-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) subunits form a polymodal cation channel responsive to capsaicin, heat, acidity and endogenous metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids. While originally reported to serve as a pain and heat detector in the peripheral nervous system, TRPV1 has been implicated in the modulation of blood flow and osmoregulation but also neurotransmission, postsynaptic neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity within the central nervous system. In addition to its central role in nociception, evidence is accumulating that TRPV1 contributes to stimulus transduction and/or processing in other sensory modalities, including thermosensation, mechanotransduction and vision. For example, TRPV1, in conjunction with intrinsic cannabinoid signaling, might contribute to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal transport and excitability, cytokine release from microglial cells and regulation of retinal vasculature. While excessive TRPV1 activity was proposed to induce RGC excitotoxicity, physiological TRPV1 activity might serve a neuroprotective function within the complex context of retinal endocannabinoid signaling. In this review we evaluate the current evidence for localization and function of TRPV1 channels within the mammalian retina and explore the potential interaction of this intriguing nociceptor with endogenous agonists and modulators. PMID:25222270

  9. HCl-induced and ATP-dependent upregulation of TRPV1 receptor expression and cytokine production by human esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Altomare, Annamaria; Guarino, Michele; Cicala, Michele; Rieder, Florian; Fiocchi, Claudio; Li, Dan; Cao, Weibiao; Behar, Jose; Biancani, Piero; Harnett, Karen M

    2012-09-01

    The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains elusive, but recent evidence suggests that early secretion of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by the mucosa leads to influx of immune cells followed by tissue damage. We previously showed that exposure of esophageal mucosa to HCl causes ATP release, resulting in activation of acetyl-CoA:1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF AT), the enzyme responsible for the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF). In addition, HCl causes release of IL-8 from the esophageal mucosa. We demonstrate that esophageal epithelial cells secrete proinflammatory mediators in response to HCl and that this response is mediated by ATP. Monolayers of the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A were exposed to acidified cell culture medium (pH 5) for 12 min, a total of seven times over 48 h, to simulate the recurrent acid exposure clinically occurring in GERD. HCl upregulated mRNA and protein expression for the acid-sensing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily vanilloid member 1 (TRPV1), lyso-PAF AT, IL-8, eotaxin-1, -2, and -3, macrophage inflammatory protein-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The chemokine profile secreted by HET-1A cells in response to repeated HCl exposure parallels similar findings in erosive esophagitis patients. In HET-1A cells, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin reproduced these findings for mRNA of the inflammatory mediators lyso-PAF AT, IL-8, and eotaxin-1. These effects were blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists iodoresiniferatoxin and JNJ-17203212. These effects were imitated by direct application of ATP and blocked by the nonselective ATP antagonist suramin. We conclude that HCl/TRPV-induced ATP release upregulated secretion of various chemoattractants by esophageal epithelial cells. These chemoattractants are selective for leukocyte subsets involved in acute inflammatory responses and allergic inflammation. The data support the validity of HET-1A cells as a model of the response of the human esophageal mucosa in GERD. PMID:22790593

  10. ZO-1 and -2 Are Required for TRPV1-Modulated Paracellular Permeability.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Cong, X; Zhang, Y; Xiang, R L; Mei, M; Yang, N Y; Su, Y C; Choi, S; Park, K; Zhang, L W; Wu, L L; Yu, G Y

    2015-12-01

    The tight junction-based paracellular pathway plays an important role in saliva secretion. Zonula occludens (ZO) proteins are submembranous proteins of tight junction complex; however, their function in salivary epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we found that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin increased rat saliva secretion both in vivo and ex vivo. Meanwhile, TRPV1 activation enlarged the width of tight junctions between neighboring acinar cells, increased the paracellular ?ux of 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran in submandibular gland (SMG) tissues, and decreased transepithelial electric resistance (TER) in SMG-C6 cells. ZO-1, -2, and -3 were distributed principally to the apical lateral region of acinar cells in SMG tissues and continuously encircled the peripheries of SMG-C6 cells in the untreated condition. TRPV1 activation obviously diminished ZO-1 and -2 staining, but not ZO-3 or ?-catenin, at the cell-cell contacts ex vivo and in vitro. Moreover, in untreated SMG-C6 cells, ZO-1 and -2 single or double knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased the paracellular ?ux of 4-kDa FITC-dextran. In capsaicin-treated cells, ZO-1 and -2 single or double knockdown abolished, whereas their re-expression restored, the capsaicin-induced increase in paracellular permeability. Furthermore, TRPV1 activation increased RhoA activity, and inhibition of either RhoA or Rho kinase (ROCK) abolished the capsaicin-induced TER decrease as well as ZO-1 and -2 redistribution. These results indicate that ZO-1 and -2 play crucial roles in both basal salivary epithelial barrier function and TRPV1-modulated paracellular transport. RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway is responsible for TRPV1-modulated paracellular permeability as well as ZO-1 and -2 redistribution. PMID:26464396

  11. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) influences how retinal ganglion cell neurons respond to pressure-related stress.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Rebecca M; Sidorova, Tatiana; Ward, Nicholas J; Chakravarthy, Rohini; Ho, Karen W; Calkins, David J

    2015-01-01

    Our recent studies implicate the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a mediator of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) function and survival. With elevated pressure in the eye, TRPV1 increases in RGCs, supporting enhanced excitability, while Trpv1 -/- accelerates RGC degeneration in mice. Here we find TRPV1 localized in monkey and human RGCs, similar to rodents. Expression increases in RGCs exposed to acute changes in pressure. In retinal explants, contrary to our animal studies, both Trpv1 -/- and pharmacological antagonism of the channel prevented pressure-induced RGC apoptosis, as did chelation of extracellular Ca(2+). Finally, while TRPV1 and TRPV4 co-localize in some RGC bodies and form a protein complex in the retina, expression of their mRNA is inversely related with increasing ocular pressure. We propose that TRPV1 activation by pressure-related insult in the eye initiates changes in expression that contribute to a Ca(2+)-dependent adaptive response to maintain excitatory signaling in RGCs. PMID:25713995

  12. TRPV1 structures in distinct conformations reveal activation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Erhu; Liao, Maofu; Cheng, Yifan; Julius, David

    2013-12-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal signal detectors that respond to a wide range of physical and chemical stimuli. Elucidating how these channels integrate and convert physiological signals into channel opening is essential to understanding how they regulate cell excitability under normal and pathophysiological conditions. Here we exploit pharmacological probes (a peptide toxin and small vanilloid agonists) to determine structures of two activated states of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. A domain (consisting of transmembrane segments 1-4) that moves during activation of voltage-gated channels remains stationary in TRPV1, highlighting differences in gating mechanisms for these structurally related channel superfamilies. TRPV1 opening is associated with major structural rearrangements in the outer pore, including the pore helix and selectivity filter, as well as pronounced dilation of a hydrophobic constriction at the lower gate, suggesting a dual gating mechanism. Allosteric coupling between upper and lower gates may account for rich physiological modulation exhibited by TRPV1 and other TRP channels. PMID:24305161

  13. A pathophysiological role of TRPV1 in ischemic injury after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyanohara, Jun; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Sanpei, Kazuaki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2015-11-20

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel with high Ca(2+) permeability, which functions as a polymodal nociceptor activated by heat, protons and several vanilloids, including capsaicin and anandamide. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, their pathophysiological roles in the brain remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether TRPV1 is involved in cerebral ischemic injury using a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model in wild-type (WT) and TRPV1-knockout (KO) mice. For transient ischemia, the left MCA of C57BL/6 mice was occluded for 60 min and reperfused at 1 and 2 days after ischemia. We found that neurological and motor deficits, and infarct volumes in TRPV1-KO mice were lower than those of WT mice. Consistent with these results, intracerebroventricular injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (20 nmol), 30 min before the onset of ischemia attenuated neurological and motor deficits and improved infarct size without influencing cerebral blood flow in the occluded MCA territory. The protective effect of capsazepine on ischemic brain damage was not observed in TRPV1-KO mice. WT and TRPV1-KO mice did not show any differences with respect to the increased number of Iba1-positive microglia/macrophages, GFAP-positive astrocytes, and Gr1-positive neutrophils at 1 and 2 days after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, we conclude that brain TRPV1 channels are activated by ischemic stroke and cause neurological and motor deficits and infarction after brain ischemia. PMID:26456642

  14. Developing piperine towards TRPV1 and GABAA receptor ligands--synthesis of piperine analogs via Heck-coupling of conjugated dienes.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Laurin; Schönbauer, David; Pakfeifer, Peter; Schöffmann, Angela; Khom, Sophia; Hering, Steffen; Mihovilovic, Marko D

    2015-01-28

    Piperine, the pungent alkaloid of black pepper, and several of its derivatives are modulators of ?-amino butyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Concomitantly, this natural product has also been reported to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. We have developed a Heck cross-coupling reaction of conjugated dienamides enabling the rapid assembly of piperine derivatives containing a modified aromatic core. Upon assessment of a focussed compound library, key aromatic substituents were identified selectively affecting either the GABAA or the TRPV1 receptor. PMID:25438036

  15. ?-Spinasterol, a TRPV1 receptor antagonist, elevates the seizure threshold in three acute seizure tests in mice.

    PubMed

    Soca?a, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Pieróg, Mateusz; Wla?, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    ?-Spinasterol is a plant-derived compound which was reported to act as a selective antagonist for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor. Several studies revealed that the TRPV1 receptors might modulate seizure activity in animal models of seizures and epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ?-spinasterol on the seizure threshold in three acute models of seizures, i.e., in the intravenous (i.v.) pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure test, in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test and in the model of psychomotor seizures induced by 6 Hz stimulation in mice. Our results revealed significant anticonvulsant effect of ?-spinasterol in all the used seizure tests. In the i.v. PTZ test, statistically significant elevation was noted in case of the threshold for myoclonic twitches (doses of 0.1-1 mg/kg) and generalized clonus seizures (doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) but not for tonic seizures. The studied TRPV1 antagonist also increased the threshold for tonic hindlimb extension in the MEST (doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and 6 Hz psychomotor seizure (doses of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) tests in mice. Furthermore, ?-spinasterol did not produce any significant impairment of motor coordination (assessed in the chimney test) and muscular strength (investigated in the grip-strength test) and it did not provoke significant changes in body temperature in mice. Based on the results of our study and the fact that ?-spinasterol is characterized by good blood-brain permeability, we postulate further investigation of this compound to precisely evaluate mechanism of its anticonvulsant action and opportunity of its usage in clinical practice. PMID:25764210

  16. A painful link between the TRPV1 channel and lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2015-03-15

    The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is expressed mainly by sensory neurons that detect noxious stimuli from the environment such as high temperatures and pungent compounds (such as allicin and capsaicin) and has been extensively linked to painful and inflammatory processes. This extraordinary protein also responds to endogenous stimuli among which we find molecules of a lipidic nature. We recently described that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid linked to the generation and maintenance of pain, can directly activate TRPV1 and produce pain by binding to the channels' C-terminal region, specifically to residue K710. In an effort to further understand how activation of TRPV1 is achieved by this negatively-charged lipid, we used several synthetic and naturally-occurring lipids to determine the structural requirements that need to be met by these charged lipids in order to produce the activation of TRPV1. In this review, we detail the findings obtained by other research groups and our own on the field of TRPV1-regulation by negatively-charged lipids and discuss the possible therapeutic relevance of these findings on the basis of the role of TRPV1 in pathophysiological processes. PMID:25445434

  17. TRPV1 Activation Exacerbates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis in H9C2 Cells via Calcium Overload and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zewei; Han, Jie; Zhao, Wenting; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuai; Ye, Lifang; Liu, Tingting; Zheng, Liangrong

    2014-01-01

    Transient potential receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, which are expressed on sensory neurons, elicit cardioprotective effects during ischemia reperfusion injury by stimulating the release of neuropeptides, namely calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Recent studies show that TRPV1 channels are also expressed on cardiomyocytes and can exacerbate air pollutant-induced apoptosis. However, whether these channels present on cardiomyocytes directly modulate cell death and survival pathways during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in H/R induced apoptosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes. We demonstrated that TRPV1 was indeed expressed in H9C2 cells, and activated by H/R injury. Although neuropeptide release caused by TRPV1 activation on sensory neurons elicits a cardioprotective effect, we found that capsaicin (CAP; a TRPV1 agonist) treatment of H9C2 cells paradoxically enhanced the level of apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium and mitochondrial superoxide levels, attenuating mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis (measured by the expression of ATP synthase ?). In contrast, treatment of cells with capsazepine (CPZ; a TRPV1 antagonist) or TRPV1 siRNA attenuated H/R induced-apoptosis. Furthermore, CAP and CPZ treatment revealed a similar effect on cell viability and mitochondrial superoxide production in primary cardiomyocytes. Finally, using both CGRP8–37 (a CGRP receptor antagonist) and RP67580 (a SP receptor antagonist) to exclude the confounding effects of neuropeptides, we confirmed aforementioned detrimental effects as TRPV1?/? mouse hearts exhibited improved cardiac function during ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, direct activation of TRPV1 in myocytes exacerbates H/R-induced apoptosis, likely through calcium overload and associated mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study provides a novel understanding of the role of myocyte TRPV1 channels in ischemia/reperfusion injury that sharply contrasts with its known extracardiac neuronal effects. PMID:25314299

  18. Consequences of activating the calcium-permeable ion channel TRPV1 in breast cancer cells with regulated TRPV1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tina T L; Peters, Amelia A; Tan, Ping T; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2014-08-01

    Increased expression of specific calcium channels in some cancers and the role of calcium signaling in proliferation and invasion have led to studies assessing calcium channel inhibitors as potential therapies for some cancers. The use of channel activators to promote death of cancer cells has been suggested, but the risk of activators promoting cancer cell proliferation and the importance of the degree of channel over-expression is unclear. We developed an MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with inducible TRPV1 overexpression and assessed the role of TRPV1 levels on cell death mediated by the TRPV1 activator capsaicin and the potential for submaximal activation to promote proliferation. The TRPV1 level was a determinant of cell death induced by capsaicin. A concentration response curve with varying TRPV1 expression levels identified the minimum level of TRPV1 required for capsaicin induced cell death. At no level of TRPV1 over-expression or capsaicin concentration did TRPV1 activation enhance proliferation. Cell death induced by capsaicin was necrotic and associated with up-regulation of c-Fos and RIP3. These studies suggest that activators of specific calcium channels may be an effective way to induce necrosis and that this approach may not always be associated with enhancement of cancer cell proliferation. PMID:24889371

  19. Functionally important amino acid residues in the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel – an overview of the current mutational data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to create an overview of the currently available results of site-directed mutagenesis studies on transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. Systematization of the vast number of data on the functionally important amino acid mutations of TRPV1 may provide a clearer picture of this field, and may promote a better understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of TRPV1. The review summarizes information on 112 unique mutated sites along the TRPV1, exchanged to multiple different residues in many cases. These mutations influence the effect or binding of different agonists, antagonists, and channel blockers, alter the responsiveness to heat, acid, and voltage dependence, affect the channel pore characteristics, and influence the regulation of the receptor function by phosphorylation, glycosylation, calmodulin, PIP2, ATP, and lipid binding. The main goal of this paper is to publish the above mentioned data in a form that facilitates in silico molecular modelling of the receptor by promoting easier establishment of boundary conditions. The better understanding of the structure-function relationship of TRPV1 may promote discovery of new, promising, more effective and safe drugs for treatment of neurogenic inflammation and pain-related diseases and may offer new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23800232

  20. Mechanisms and clinical uses of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surinder Kumar; Vij, Amarjit Singh; Sharma, Mohit

    2013-11-15

    Capsaicin is the active ingredient of chili peppers and gives them the characteristic pungent flavor. Understanding the actions of capsaicin led to the discovery of its receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1). This receptor is found on key sensory afferents, and so the use of capsaicin to selectively activate pain afferents has been studied in animal and human models for various indications. Capsaicin is unique among naturally occurring irritant compounds because the initial neuronal excitation evoked by it is followed by a long-lasting refractory period, during which the previously excited neurons are no longer responsive to a broad range of stimuli. This process known as defunctionalisation has been exploited for therapeutic use of capsaicin in various painful conditions. We reviewed different studies on mechanisms of action of capsaicin and its utility in different clinical conditions. A beneficial role of capsaicin has been reported in obesity, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal conditions, various cancers, neurogenic bladder, and dermatologic conditions. Various theories have been put forth to explain these effects. Interestingly many of these pharmacological actions are TRPV1 independent. This review is aimed at providing an overview of these mechanisms and to also present literature which contradicts the proposed beneficial effects of capsaicin. Most of the literature comes from animal studies and since many of these mechanisms are poorly understood, more investigation is required in human subjects. PMID:24211679

  1. Quantitative mass spectrometry analysis reveals that deletion of the TRPV1 receptor in mice alters substance P and neurokinin A expression in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pailleux, Floriane; Lemoine, Jérôme; Beaudry, Francis

    2012-12-01

    Vanilloid receptors have a central role in the processing of nociceptive stimuli. TRPV1 null mice showed significant decrease in response to heat noxious stimuli. However, thermal sensitivity is still present suggesting that the TRPV1 is not an exclusive transducer of thermal stimuli. Additionally, tachykinin peptides play a central role in pain processing and expression levels may also contribute in modifying the pain threshold. The LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that SP and NKA were significantly down-regulated in TRPV1(-/-) in spinal cord and brain tissues. In spinal cord, SP concentrations were 23.4 % lower (p < 0.0049) and NKA concentrations were 22.0 % lower (p < 0.0022) in TRPV1 null mice. Additionally, brain SP concentrations were 26.9 % lower (p < 0.0260) and brain NKA concentrations were 31.9 % lower (p < 0.0063) in TRPV1 null mice. These results clearly demonstrate that TPRV1 null mice exhibit lower SP and NKA concentrations in the central nervous system. The deficit of thermal responses may also be related to the down-regulations of SP and NKA. PMID:22878644

  2. TRPV1 channels are functionally coupled with BK(mSlo1) channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Yongfeng; Hou, Panpan; Yan, Zonghe; Kong, Wenjuan; Liu, Beiying; Li, Xia; Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuexuan; Qin, Feng; Ding, Jiuping

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel is a nonselective cation channel activated by a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli, such as temperature (?42 °C), capsaicin, a pungent compound in hot chili peppers, and allyl isothiocyanate. Large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels regulate the electric activities and neurotransmitter releases in excitable cells, responding to changes in membrane potentials and elevation of cytosolic calcium ions (Ca(2+)). However, it is unknown whether the TRPV1 channels are coupled with the BK channels. Using patch-clamp recording combined with an infrared laser device, we found that BK channels could be activated at 0 mV by a Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 channels not the intracellular calcium stores in submilliseconds. The local calcium concentration around BK is estimated over 10 ?M. The crosstalk could be affected by 10 mM BAPTA, whereas 5 mM EGTA was ineffectual. Fluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments also showed that BK and TRPV1 were able to form a TRPV1-BK complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TRPV1-BK coupling also occurs in dosal root ganglion (DRG) cells, which plays a critical physiological role in regulating the "pain" signal transduction pathway in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:24147119

  3. Co-localization of the vanilloid capsaicin receptor and substance P in sensory nerve fibers innervating cochlear and vertebro-basilar arteries.

    PubMed

    Vass, Z; Dai, C F; Steyger, P S; Jancsó, G; Trune, D R; Nuttall, A L

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that capsaicin-sensitive substance P (SP)-containing trigeminal ganglion neurons innervate the spiral modiolar artery (SMA), radiating arterioles, and the stria vascularis of the cochlea. Antidromic electrical or chemical stimulation of trigeminal sensory nerves results in neurogenic plasma extravasation in inner ear tissues. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the possible morphological basis of cochlear vascular changes mediated by capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. Therefore, the distribution of SP and capsaicin receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1-TRPV1) was investigated by double immunolabeling to demonstrate the anatomical relationships between the cochlear and vertebro-basilar blood vessels and the trigeminal sensory fiber system. Extensive TRPV1 and SP expression and co-localization were observed in axons within the adventitial layer of the basilar artery, the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, the SMA, and the radiating arterioles of the cochlea. There appears to be a functional relationship between the trigeminal ganglion and the cochlear blood vessels since electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induced significant plasma extravasation from the SMA and the radiating arterioles. The findings suggest that stimulation of paravascular afferent nerves may result in permeability changes in the basilar and cochlear vascular bed and may contribute to the mechanisms of vertebro-basilar type of headache through the release of SP and stimulation of TPVR1, respectively. We propose that vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing deficits associated with migraine may arise from perturbations of capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory ganglion neurons projecting to the cochlea. PMID:15026132

  4. CO-LOCALIZATION OF THE VANILLOID CAPSAICIN RECEPTOR AND SUBSTANCE P IN SENSORY NERVE FIBERS INNERVATING COCHLEAR AND VERTEBRO-BASILAR ARTERIES

    PubMed Central

    VASS, Z.; DAI, C. F.; STEYGER, P. S.; JANCSÓ, G.; TRUNE, D. R.; NUTTALL, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that capsaicin-sensitive substance P (SP)-containing trigeminal ganglion neurons innervate the spiral modiolar artery (SMA), radiating arterioles, and the stria vascularis of the cochlea. Antidromic electrical or chemical stimulation of trigeminal sensory nerves results in neurogenic plasma extravasation in inner ear tissues. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the possible morphological basis of cochlear vascular changes mediated by capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves. Therefore, the distribution of SP and capsaicin receptor (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1—TRPV1) was investigated by double immunolabeling to demonstrate the anatomical relationships between the cochlear and vertebro-basilar blood vessels and the trigeminal sensory fiber system. Extensive TRPV1 and SP expression and co-localization were observed in axons within the adventitial layer of the basilar artery, the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, the SMA, and the radiating arterioles of the cochlea. There appears to be a functional relationship between the trigeminal ganglion and the cochlear blood vessels since electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induced significant plasma extravasation from the SMA and the radiating arterioles. The findings suggest that stimulation of paravascular afferent nerves may result in permeability changes in the basilar and cochlear vascular bed and may contribute to the mechanisms of vertebro-basilar type of headache through the release of SP and stimulation of TPVR1, respectively. We propose that vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing deficits associated with migraine may arise from perturbations of capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal sensory ganglion neurons projecting to the cochlea. PMID:15026132

  5. ?-Substituted 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonamidophenyl)acetamides as potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong-Thao; Kim, Ho Shin; Ann, Jihyae; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Changhoon; Hong, Mannkyu; Hoang, Van-Hai; Ngo, Van T H; Hong, Sunhye; Cui, Minghua; Choi, Sun; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Christoph, Thomas; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-06-01

    A series of ?-substituted acetamide derivatives of previously reported 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonamidophenyl)propanamide leads (1, 2) were investigated for antagonism of hTRPV1 activation by capsaicin. Compound 34, which possesses an ?-m-tolyl substituent, showed highly potent and selective antagonism of capsaicin with Ki(CAP)=0.1 nM. It thus reflected a 3-fold improvement in potency over parent 1. Docking analysis using our homology model indicated that the high potency of 34 might be attributed to a specific hydrophobic interaction of the m-tolyl group with the receptor. PMID:25937016

  6. TRPA1 contributes to capsaicin-induced facial cold hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kuniya; Shinoda, Masamichi; Furukawa, Akihiko; Kita, Kozue; Noma, Noboru; Iwata, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    Orofacial cold hyperalgesia is known to cause severe persistent pain in the face following trigeminal nerve injury or inflammation, and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankylin 1 (TRPA1) are thought to be involved in cold hyperalgesia. However, how these two receptors are involved in cold hyperalgesia is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanisms underlying facial cold hyperalgesia, nocifensive behaviors to cold stimulation, the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, and TG neuronal excitability to cold stimulation following facial capsaicin injection were examined in rats. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWRT) to cold stimulation of the lateral facial skin was significantly decreased following facial capsaicin injection. This reduction of HWRT was significantly recovered following local injection of TRPV1 antagonist as well as TRPA1 antagonist. Approximately 30% of TG neurons innervating the lateral facial skin expressed both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and about 64% of TRPA1-positive neurons also expressed TRPV1. The TG neuronal excitability to noxious cold stimulation was significantly increased following facial capsaicin injection and this increase was recovered by pretreatment with TRPA1 antagonist. These findings suggest that TRPA1 sensitization via TRPV1 signaling in TG neurons is involved in cold hyperalgesia following facial skin capsaicin injection. PMID:25371244

  7. Capsaicin and sensory neurones: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Szolcsányi, János

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red pepper has become not only a "hot" topic in neuroscience but its new target-related unique actions have opened the door for the drug industry to introduce a new chapter of analgesics. After several lines of translational efforts with over 1,000 patents and clinical trials, the 8% capsaicin dermal patch reached the market and its long-lasting local analgesic effect in some severe neuropathic pain states is now well established. This introductory chapter outlines on one hand the historical background based on the author's 50 years of experience in this field and on the other hand emphasizes new scopes, fascinating perspectives in pharmaco-physiology, and molecular pharmacology of nociceptive sensory neurons. Evidence for the effect of capsaicin on C-polymodal nociceptors (CMH), C-mechanoinsensitive (CHMi), and silent C-nociceptors are listed and the features of the capsaicin-induced blocking effects of nociceptors are demonstrated. Common and different characteristics of nociceptor-blocking actions after systemic, perineural, local, intrathecal, and in vitro treatments are summarized. Evidence for the misleading conclusions drawn from neonatal capsaicin pretreatment is presented. Perspectives opened from cloning the capsaicin receptor "Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1" (TRPV1) are outlined and potential molecular mechanisms behind the long-lasting functional, ultrastructural, and nerve terminal-damaging effects of capsaicin and other TRPV1 agonists are summarized. Neurogenic inflammation and the long-list of "capsaicin-sensitive" tissue responses are mediated by an unorthodox dual sensory-efferent function of peptidergic TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals which differ from the classical efferent and sensory nerve endings that have a unidirectional role in neuroregulation. Thermoregulatory effects of capsaicin are discussed in detail. It is suggested that since hyperthermia and burn risk due to enhanced noxious heat threshold are the major obstacles of some TRPV1 antagonists, they could be overcome. The special "multisteric" gating function of the TRPV1 cation channel provides the structural ground for blocking chemical activation of TRPV1 without affecting its responsiveness to physical stimuli. A new chapter of potential analgesics targeting nociceptors is now already supported for pain relief in persistent pathological pain states. PMID:24941663

  8. A pain-inducing centipede toxin targets the heat activation machinery of nociceptor TRPV1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shilong; Yang, Fan; Wei, Ningning; Hong, Jing; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Rong, Mingqiang; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Kewei; Lai, Ren

    2015-09-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel is a polymodal nociceptor that responds to heat with exquisite sensitivity through an unknown mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel toxin, RhTx, from the venom of the Chinese red-headed centipede that potently activates TRPV1 to produce excruciating pain. RhTx is a 27-amino-acid small peptide that forms a compact polarized molecule with very rapid binding kinetics and high affinity for TRPV1. We show that RhTx targets the channel's heat activation machinery to cause powerful heat activation at body temperature. The RhTx-TRPV1 interaction is mediated by the toxin's highly charged C terminus, which associates tightly to the charge-rich outer pore region of the channel where it can directly interact with the pore helix and turret. These findings demonstrate that RhTx binding to the outer pore can induce TRPV1 heat activation, therefore providing crucial new structural information on the heat activation machinery.

  9. A pain-inducing centipede toxin targets the heat activation machinery of nociceptor TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shilong; Yang, Fan; Wei, Ningning; Hong, Jing; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Rong, Mingqiang; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie; Wang, KeWei; Lai, Ren

    2015-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel is a polymodal nociceptor that responds to heat with exquisite sensitivity through an unknown mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel toxin, RhTx, from the venom of the Chinese red-headed centipede that potently activates TRPV1 to produce excruciating pain. RhTx is a 27-amino-acid small peptide that forms a compact polarized molecule with very rapid binding kinetics and high affinity for TRPV1. We show that RhTx targets the channel's heat activation machinery to cause powerful heat activation at body temperature. The RhTx-TRPV1 interaction is mediated by the toxin's highly charged C terminus, which associates tightly to the charge-rich outer pore region of the channel where it can directly interact with the pore helix and turret. These findings demonstrate that RhTx binding to the outer pore can induce TRPV1 heat activation, therefore providing crucial new structural information on the heat activation machinery. PMID:26420335

  10. A pain-inducing centipede toxin targets the heat activation machinery of nociceptor TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilong; Yang, Fan; Wei, Ningning; Hong, Jing; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Rong, Mingqiang; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Zheng, Jie; Wang, KeWei; Lai, Ren

    2015-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel is a polymodal nociceptor that responds to heat with exquisite sensitivity through an unknown mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel toxin, RhTx, from the venom of the Chinese red-headed centipede that potently activates TRPV1 to produce excruciating pain. RhTx is a 27-amino-acid small peptide that forms a compact polarized molecule with very rapid binding kinetics and high affinity for TRPV1. We show that RhTx targets the channel's heat activation machinery to cause powerful heat activation at body temperature. The RhTx–TRPV1 interaction is mediated by the toxin's highly charged C terminus, which associates tightly to the charge-rich outer pore region of the channel where it can directly interact with the pore helix and turret. These findings demonstrate that RhTx binding to the outer pore can induce TRPV1 heat activation, therefore providing crucial new structural information on the heat activation machinery. PMID:26420335

  11. Capsaicin may have important potential for promoting vascular and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, the phytochemical responsible for the spiciness of peppers, has the potential to modulate metabolism via activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors, which are found not only on nociceptive sensory neurons, but also in a range of other tissues. TRPV1 activation induces calcium influx, and in certain tissues this is associated with increased activation or expression of key proteins such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), KLF2, PPARdelta, PPARgamma, and LXR?. The calcium influx triggered by TRPV1 activation in endothelial cells mimics the impact of shear stress in this regard, activating and increasing the expression of eNOS-but also increasing expression of cox-2, thrombomodulin, and nrf2-responsive antioxidant enzymes, while decreasing expression of proinflammatory proteins. Hence, dietary capsaicin has favourably impacted endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rodents. TRPV1-mediated induction of LXR? in foam cells promotes cholesterol export, antagonising plaque formation. Capsaicin-mediated activation of TRPV1-expressing neurons in the gastrointestinal tract promotes sympathetically mediated stimulation of brown fat, raising metabolic rate. The increased expression of UCP2 induced by TRPV1 activation exerts a protective antioxidant effect on the liver in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and on vascular endothelium in the context of hyperglycaemia. In rodent studies, capsaicin-rich diets have shown favourable effects on atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and stroke risk. Clinically, ingestion of capsaicin-or its less stable non-pungent analogue capsiate-has been shown to boost metabolic rate modestly. Topical application of capsaicin via patch was found to increase exercise time to ischaemic threshold in patients with angina. Further clinical studies with capsaicin administered in food, capsules, or via patch, are needed to establish protocols that are tolerable for most patients, and to evaluate the potential of capsaicin for promoting vascular and metabolic health. PMID:26113985

  12. Capsaicin may have important potential for promoting vascular and metabolic health

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, the phytochemical responsible for the spiciness of peppers, has the potential to modulate metabolism via activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors, which are found not only on nociceptive sensory neurons, but also in a range of other tissues. TRPV1 activation induces calcium influx, and in certain tissues this is associated with increased activation or expression of key proteins such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), KLF2, PPARdelta, PPARgamma, and LXR?. The calcium influx triggered by TRPV1 activation in endothelial cells mimics the impact of shear stress in this regard, activating and increasing the expression of eNOS—but also increasing expression of cox-2, thrombomodulin, and nrf2-responsive antioxidant enzymes, while decreasing expression of proinflammatory proteins. Hence, dietary capsaicin has favourably impacted endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rodents. TRPV1-mediated induction of LXR? in foam cells promotes cholesterol export, antagonising plaque formation. Capsaicin-mediated activation of TRPV1-expressing neurons in the gastrointestinal tract promotes sympathetically mediated stimulation of brown fat, raising metabolic rate. The increased expression of UCP2 induced by TRPV1 activation exerts a protective antioxidant effect on the liver in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and on vascular endothelium in the context of hyperglycaemia. In rodent studies, capsaicin-rich diets have shown favourable effects on atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver, cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and stroke risk. Clinically, ingestion of capsaicin—or its less stable non-pungent analogue capsiate—has been shown to boost metabolic rate modestly. Topical application of capsaicin via patch was found to increase exercise time to ischaemic threshold in patients with angina. Further clinical studies with capsaicin administered in food, capsules, or via patch, are needed to establish protocols that are tolerable for most patients, and to evaluate the potential of capsaicin for promoting vascular and metabolic health. PMID:26113985

  13. Palmitoylethanolamide normalizes intestinal motility in a model of post-inflammatory accelerated transit: involvement of CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Raffaele; Orlando, Pierangelo; Pagano, Ester; Aveta, Teresa; Buono, Lorena; Borrelli, Francesca; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a naturally occurring acylethanolamide chemically related to the endocannabinoid anandamide, interacts with targets that have been identified in peripheral nerves controlling gastrointestinal motility, such as cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, TRPV1 channels and PPAR?. Here, we investigated the effect of PEA in a mouse model of functional accelerated transit which persists after the resolution of colonic inflammation (post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome). Experimental Approach Intestinal inflammation was induced by intracolonic administration of oil of mustard (OM). Mice were tested for motility and biochemical and molecular biology changes 4 weeks later. PEA, oleoylethanolamide and endocannabinoid levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and receptor and enzyme mRNA expression by qRT-PCR. Key Results OM induced transient colitis and a functional post-inflammatory increase in upper gastrointestinal transit, associated with increased intestinal anandamide (but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol, PEA or oleoylethanolamide) levels and down-regulation of mRNA for TRPV1 channels. Exogenous PEA inhibited the OM-induced increase in transit and tended to increase anandamide levels. Palmitic acid had a weaker effect on transit. Inhibition of transit by PEA was blocked by rimonabant (CB1 receptor antagonist), further increased by 5?-iodoresiniferatoxin (TRPV1 antagonist) and not significantly modified by the PPAR? antagonist GW6471. Conclusions and Implications Intestinal endocannabinoids and TRPV1 channel were dysregulated in a functional model of accelerated transit exhibiting aspects of post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome. PEA counteracted the accelerated transit, the effect being mediated by CB1 receptors (possibly via increased anandamide levels) and modulated by TRPV1 channels. PMID:24818658

  14. 2-(3-Fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl) Propanamides as Potent Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Antagonists: Structure Activity Relationships of 2-Amino Derivatives in the N-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-3-ylmethyl) C-region

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong Seop; Ryu, HyungChul; Kang, Dong Wook; Cho, Seong-Hee; Seo, Sejin; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kwak, Eun Joo; Kim, Yong Soo; Bhondwe, Rahul S.; Kim, Ho Shin; Park, Seul-gi; Son, Karam; Choi, Sun; DeAndrea-Lazarus, Ian; Pearce, Larry V.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Frank, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Kögel, Babette Y.; Schiene, Klaus; Christoph, Thomas; Lee, Jeewoo

    2012-01-01

    A series of N-(2-amino-6-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-3-ylmethyl) 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl) propanamides were designed combining previously identified pharmacophoric elements and evaluated as hTRPV1 antagonists. The SAR analysis indicated that specific hydrophobic interactions of the 2-amino substituents in the C-region of the ligand were critical for high hTRPV1binding potency. In particular, compound 49S was an excellent TRPV1 antagonist (Ki(CAP) = 0.2 nM; IC50(pH) = 6.3 nM) and was thus ca. 100- and 20-fold more potent, respectively, than the parent compounds 2 and 3 for capsaicin antagonism. Furthermore, it demonstrated strong analgesic activity in the rat neuropathic model superior to 2 with almost no side effects. Compound 49S antagonized capsaicin induced hypothermia in mice, but showed TRPV1-related hyperthermia. The basis for the high potency of 49S compared to 2 is suggested by docking analysis with our hTRPV1 homology model in which the 4-methylpiperidinyl group in the C-region of 49S made additional hydrophobic interactions with the hydrophobic region. PMID:22957803

  15. 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as potent transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists: structure-activity relationships of 2-amino derivatives in the N-(6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-ylmethyl) C-region.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong Seop; Ryu, HyungChul; Kang, Dong Wook; Cho, Seong-Hee; Seo, Sejin; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kwak, Eun Joo; Kim, Yong Soo; Bhondwe, Rahul S; Kim, Ho Shin; Park, Seul-gi; Son, Karam; Choi, Sun; DeAndrea-Lazarus, Ian A; Pearce, Larry V; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Kögel, Babette Y; Schiene, Klaus; Christoph, Thomas; Lee, Jeewoo

    2012-10-11

    A series of N-(2-amino-6-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-ylmethyl)-2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides were designed combining previously identified pharmacophoric elements and evaluated as hTRPV1 antagonists. The SAR analysis indicated that specific hydrophobic interactions of the 2-amino substituents in the C-region of the ligand were critical for high hTRPV1 binding potency. In particular, compound 49S was an excellent TRPV1 antagonist (K(i(CAP)) = 0.2 nM; IC(50(pH)) = 6.3 nM) and was thus approximately 100- and 20-fold more potent, respectively, than the parent compounds 2 and 3 for capsaicin antagonism. Furthermore, it demonstrated strong analgesic activity in the rat neuropathic model superior to 2 with almost no side effects. Compound 49S antagonized capsaicin induced hypothermia in mice but showed TRPV1-related hyperthermia. The basis for the high potency of 49S compared to 2 is suggested by docking analysis with our hTRPV1 homology model in which the 4-methylpiperidinyl group in the C-region of 49S made additional hydrophobic interactions with the hydrophobic region. PMID:22957803

  16. Hyaluronan modulates TRPV1 channel opening, reducing peripheral nociceptor activity and pain

    PubMed Central

    Caires, Rebeca; Luis, Enoch; Taberner, Francisco J.; Fernandez-Ballester, Gregorio; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Balazs, Endre A.; Gomis, Ana; Belmonte, Carlos; de la Peña, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in the extracellular matrix of all body tissues, including synovial fluid in joints, in which it behaves as a filter that buffers transmission of mechanical forces to nociceptor nerve endings thereby reducing pain. Using recombinant systems, mouse-cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and in vivo experiments, we found that HA also modulates polymodal transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) channels. HA diminishes heat, pH and capsaicin (CAP) responses, thus reducing the opening probability of the channel by stabilizing its closed state. Accordingly, in DRG neurons, HA decreases TRPV1-mediated impulse firing and channel sensitization by bradykinin. Moreover, subcutaneous HA injection in mice reduces heat and capsaicin nocifensive responses, whereas the intra-articular injection of HA in rats decreases capsaicin joint nociceptor fibres discharge. Collectively, these results indicate that extracellular HA reduces the excitability of the ubiquitous TRPV1 channel, thereby lowering impulse activity in the peripheral nociceptor endings underlying pain. PMID:26311398

  17. Photoswitchable fatty acids enable optical control of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Frank, James Allen; Moroni, Mirko; Moshourab, Rabih; Sumser, Martin; Lewin, Gary R; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are not only essential components of cellular energy storage and structure, but play crucial roles in signalling. Here we present a toolkit of photoswitchable FA analogues (FAAzos) that incorporate an azobenzene photoswitch along the FA chain. By modifying the FAAzos to resemble capsaicin, we prepare a series of photolipids targeting the Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel known for its role in nociception. Several azo-capsaicin derivatives (AzCAs) emerge as photoswitchable agonists of TRPV1 that are relatively inactive in the dark and become active on irradiation with ultraviolet-A light. This effect can be rapidly reversed by irradiation with blue light and permits the robust optical control of dorsal root ganglion neurons and C-fibre nociceptors with precision timing and kinetics not available with any other technique. More generally, we expect that photolipids will find many applications in controlling biological pathways that rely on protein-lipid interactions. PMID:25997690

  18. Photoswitchable fatty acids enable optical control of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Frank, James Allen; Moroni, Mirko; Moshourab, Rabih; Sumser, Martin; Lewin, Gary R.; Trauner, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are not only essential components of cellular energy storage and structure, but play crucial roles in signalling. Here we present a toolkit of photoswitchable FA analogues (FAAzos) that incorporate an azobenzene photoswitch along the FA chain. By modifying the FAAzos to resemble capsaicin, we prepare a series of photolipids targeting the Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel known for its role in nociception. Several azo-capsaicin derivatives (AzCAs) emerge as photoswitchable agonists of TRPV1 that are relatively inactive in the dark and become active on irradiation with ultraviolet-A light. This effect can be rapidly reversed by irradiation with blue light and permits the robust optical control of dorsal root ganglion neurons and C-fibre nociceptors with precision timing and kinetics not available with any other technique. More generally, we expect that photolipids will find many applications in controlling biological pathways that rely on protein–lipid interactions. PMID:25997690

  19. Differential Regulation of Proton-Sensitive Ion Channels by Phospholipids: A Comparative Study between ASICs and TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Hae-Jin; Yu, Soo-Young; Kim, Dong-Il; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Protons are released in pain-generating pathological conditions such as inflammation, ischemic stroke, infection, and cancer. During normal synaptic activities, protons are thought to play a role in neurotransmission processes. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are typical proton sensors in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In addition to ASICs, capsaicin- and heat-activated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels can also mediate proton-mediated pain signaling. In spite of their importance in perception of pH fluctuations, the regulatory mechanisms of these proton-sensitive ion channels still need to be further investigated. Here, we compared regulation of ASICs and TRPV1 by membrane phosphoinositides, which are general cofactors of many receptors and ion channels. We observed that ASICs do not require membrane phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) for their function. However, TRPV1 currents were inhibited by simultaneous breakdown of PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. By using a novel chimeric protein, CF-PTEN, that can specifically dephosphorylate at the D3 position of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3), we also observed that neither ASICs nor TRPV1 activities were altered by depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3 in intact cells. Finally, we compared the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) on two proton-sensitive ion channels. We observed that AA potentiates the currents of both ASICs and TRPV1, but that they have different recovery aspects. In conclusion, ASICs and TRPV1 have different sensitivities toward membrane phospholipids, such as PI(4)P, PI(4,5)P2, and AA, although they have common roles as proton sensors. Further investigation about the complementary roles and respective contributions of ASICs and TRPV1 in proton-mediated signaling is necessary. PMID:25781982

  20. Differential regulation of proton-sensitive ion channels by phospholipids: a comparative study between ASICs and TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Hae-Jin; Yu, Soo-Young; Kim, Dong-Il; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Protons are released in pain-generating pathological conditions such as inflammation, ischemic stroke, infection, and cancer. During normal synaptic activities, protons are thought to play a role in neurotransmission processes. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are typical proton sensors in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In addition to ASICs, capsaicin- and heat-activated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels can also mediate proton-mediated pain signaling. In spite of their importance in perception of pH fluctuations, the regulatory mechanisms of these proton-sensitive ion channels still need to be further investigated. Here, we compared regulation of ASICs and TRPV1 by membrane phosphoinositides, which are general cofactors of many receptors and ion channels. We observed that ASICs do not require membrane phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) for their function. However, TRPV1 currents were inhibited by simultaneous breakdown of PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. By using a novel chimeric protein, CF-PTEN, that can specifically dephosphorylate at the D3 position of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3), we also observed that neither ASICs nor TRPV1 activities were altered by depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3 in intact cells. Finally, we compared the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) on two proton-sensitive ion channels. We observed that AA potentiates the currents of both ASICs and TRPV1, but that they have different recovery aspects. In conclusion, ASICs and TRPV1 have different sensitivities toward membrane phospholipids, such as PI(4)P, PI(4,5)P2, and AA, although they have common roles as proton sensors. Further investigation about the complementary roles and respective contributions of ASICs and TRPV1 in proton-mediated signaling is necessary. PMID:25781982

  1. Increased GFR and Renal Excretory Function by Activation of TRPV1 in the Isolated Perfused Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianping; Wang, Donna H.

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels leads to natriuresis and diuresis via an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), recirculating Krebs-Henseleit buffer added with inulin was perfused in the isolated perfused kidney of male Wistar rat at a constant flow, and perfusion pressures (PP) were pre-adjusted to three different levels (~100, ~150, and ~190 mmHg) with phenylephrine. Capsaicin (Cap), a selective TRPV1 agonist, was perfused in the presence or absence of capsazepine (Capz), a selective TRPV1 antagonist, CGRP8–37, a selective calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, or spantide II (Spa), a selective substance P (SP) receptor antagonist. At the higher (150 and 190 mmHg) but not baseline (100 mmHg) PP levels, Cap at 10µM significantly decreased PP and increased GFR, urine flow rate (UFR) and Na+ excretion (UNaV). At the highest (190 mmHg) PP level, Cap (2, 10, 30 µM) dose-dependently decreased PP and increased GFR, UFR, UNaV, and the release of CGRP and SP. Capz or CGRP8–37 combined with Spa fully blocked the effect of Cap on PP, GFR, UFR, UNaV, and the release of CGRP and SP. In conclusion, activation of TRPV1 in the isolated kidney decreases renal PP and increases GFR and water/sodium excretion possibly via simultaneous activation of CGRP and SP receptors upon their enhanced release, suggesting that TRPV1 plays a key role in modulating renal hemodynamics and excretory function. PMID:18329285

  2. Molecular determinants of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) binding to transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Poblete, Horacio; Oyarzún, Ingrid; Olivero, Pablo; Comer, Jeffrey; Zuñiga, Matías; Sepulveda, Romina V; Báez-Nieto, David; González Leon, Carlos; González-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramón

    2015-01-23

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been recognized as an important activator of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. More specifically, TRPV1 is a pain receptor activated by a wide range of stimuli. However, whether or not PI(4,5)P2 is a TRPV1 agonist remains open to debate. Utilizing a combined approach of mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we identified a PI(4,5)P2 binding site located between the TRP box and the S4-S5 linker. At this site, PI(4,5)P2 interacts with the amino acid residues Arg-575 and Arg-579 in the S4-S5 linker and with Lys-694 in the TRP box. We confirmed that PI(4,5)P2 behaves as a channel agonist and found that Arg-575, Arg-579, and Lys-694 mutations to alanine reduce PI(4,5)P2 binding affinity. Additionally, in silico mutations R575A, R579A, and K694A showed that the reduction in binding affinity results from the delocalization of PI(4,5)P2 in the binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that PI(4,5)P2 binding induces conformational rearrangements of the structure formed by S6 and the TRP domain, which cause an opening of the lower TRPV1 channel gate. PMID:25425643

  3. Protease activated receptors 1 and 4 sensitize TRPV1 in nociceptive neurones

    E-print Network

    Vellani, Vittorio; Kinsey, Anna M; Prandini, Massimiliano; Hechtfischer, Sabine C; Reeh, Peter; Magherini, Pier C; Giacomoni, Chiara; McNaughton, Peter A

    2010-09-27

    Abstract Protease-activated receptors (PAR1-4) are activated by proteases released by cell damage or blood clotting, and are known to be involved in promoting pain and hyperalgesia. Previous studies have shown that PAR2 receptors enhance activation...

  4. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor PI(4)P from the plasma membrane through Ca2+-induced phospholipase C? (PLC?) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLC? indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 or PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25670203

  5. Identification of a Binding Motif in the S5 Helix That Confers Cholesterol Sensitivity to the TRPV1 Ion Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Picazo-Juárez, Giovanni; Romero-Suárez, Silvina; Nieto-Posadas, Andrés; Llorente, Itzel; Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Briggs, Margaret; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Simon, Sidney A.; Ladrón-de-Guevara, Ernesto; Islas, León D.; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    The TRPV1 ion channel serves as an integrator of noxious stimuli with its activation linked to pain and neurogenic inflammation. Cholesterol, a major component of cell membranes, modifies the function of several types of ion channels. Here, using measurements of capsaicin-activated currents in excised patches from TRPV1-expressing HEK cells, we show that enrichment with cholesterol, but not its diastereoisomer epicholesterol, markedly decreased wild-type rat TRPV1 currents. Substitutions in the S5 helix, rTRPV1-R579D, and rTRPV1-F582Q, decreased this cholesterol response and rTRPV1-L585I was insensitive to cholesterol addition. Two human TRPV1 variants, with different amino acids at position 585, had different responses to cholesterol with hTRPV1-Ile585 being insensitive to this molecule. However, hTRPV1-I585L was inhibited by cholesterol addition similar to rTRPV1 with the same S5 sequence. In the absence of capsaicin, cholesterol enrichment also inhibited TRPV1 currents induced by elevated temperature and voltage. These data suggest that there is a cholesterol-binding site in TRPV1 and that the functions of TRPV1 depend on the genetic variant and membrane cholesterol content. PMID:21555515

  6. Activation of mitochondrial transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel contributes to microglial migration.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Takahito; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, survey the environment of the healthy brain. Microglial migration is essential for many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Although microglia express some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family, there is little knowledge regarding the physiological roles of TRP channels in microglia. Here, we explored the role of TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a channel opened by capsaicin, heat, protons, and endovanilloids, in microglia. We found that application of capsaicin induced concentration-dependent migration in microglia derived from wild-type mice but not in those derived from TRPV1 knockout (TRPV1-KO) mice. Capsaicin-induced microglial migration was significantly inhibited by co-application of the TRPV1 blocker SB366791 and the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM. Using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we validated that TRPV1 was expressed in microglia. Electrophysiological recording, intracellular Ca(2+) imaging, and immunocytochemistry indicated that TRPV1 was localized primarily in intracellular organelles. Treatment with capsaicin induced an increase in intramitochondrial Ca(2+) concentrations and mitochondrial depolarization. Furthermore, microglia derived from TRPV1-KO mice showed delayed Ca(2+) efflux compared with microglia derived from wild-type mice. Capsaicin-induced microglial migration was inhibited by membrane-permeable antioxidants and MAPK inhibitors, suggesting that mitochondrial TRPV1 activation induced Ca(2+) -dependent production of ROS followed by MAPK activation, which correlated with an augmented migration of microglia. Moreover, a mixture of three endovanilloids augmented microglial migration via TRPV1 activation. Together, these results indicate that mitochondrial TRPV1 plays an important role in inducing microglial migration. Activation of TRPV1 triggers an increase in intramitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration and following depolarization of mitochondria, which results in mtROS production, MAPK activation, and enhancement of chemotactic activity in microglia. PMID:26010461

  7. Structure-activity relationship studies and discovery of a potent transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) antagonist 4-[3-chloro-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-2-pyridyl]-N-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyridine-1-carboxamide (V116517) as a clinical candidate for pain management.

    PubMed

    Tafesse, Laykea; Kanemasa, Toshiyuki; Kurose, Noriyuki; Yu, Jianming; Asaki, Toshiyuki; Wu, Gang; Iwamoto, Yuka; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Ni, Chiyou; Engel, John; Tsuno, Naoki; Patel, Aniket; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shintani, Takuya; Brown, Kevin; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Shet, Manjunath; Iso, Yasuyoshi; Kato, Akira; Kyle, Donald J

    2014-08-14

    A series of novel tetrahydropyridinecarboxamide TRPV1 antagonists were prepared and evaluated in an effort to optimize properties of previously described lead compounds from piperazinecarboxamide series. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to block capsaicin and acid-induced calcium influx in CHO cells expressing human TRPV1. The most potent of these TRPV1 antagonists were further characterized in pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and body temperature studies. On the basis of its pharmacokinetic, in vivo efficacy, safety, and toxicological properties, compound 37 was selected for further evaluation in human clinical trials. PMID:25057800

  8. Unravelling the Mystery of Capsaicin: A Tool to Understand and Treat Pain

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Nilsson, Matias; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of pharmacological studies have used capsaicin as a tool to activate many physiological systems, with an emphasis on pain research but also including functions such as the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, and the urinary tract. Understanding the actions of capsaicin led to the discovery its receptor, transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), part of the superfamily of TRP receptors, sensing external events. This receptor is found on key fine sensory afferents, and so the use of capsaicin to selectively activate pain afferents has been exploited in animal studies, human psychophysics, and imaging studies. Its effects depend on the dose and route of administration and may include sensitization, desensitization, withdrawal of afferent nerve terminals, or even overt death of afferent fibers. The ability of capsaicin to generate central hypersensitivity has been valuable in understanding the consequences and mechanisms behind enhanced central processing of pain. In addition, capsaicin has been used as a therapeutic agent when applied topically, and antagonists of the TRPV1 receptor have been developed. Overall, the numerous uses for capsaicin are clear; hence, the rationale of this review is to bring together and discuss the different types of studies that exploit these actions to shed light upon capsaicin working both as a tool to understand pain but also as a treatment for chronic pain. This review will discuss the various actions of capsaicin and how it lends itself to these different purposes. PMID:23023032

  9. Comparison of TRPA1- versus TRPV1- mediated Cough in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Brozmanova, Mariana; Mazurova, Lenka; Ru, Fei; Tatar, Milos; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-01-01

    TRPA1 receptor is activated by endogenous inflammatory mediators and exogenous pollutant molecules relevant to respiratory diseases. Previous studies have implicated TRPA1 as a drug target for antitussive therapy. Here we evaluated the relative efficacy of TRPA1 activation to evoke cough. In conscious guinea pigs the TRPA1 agonist allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) evoked cough with a maximally effective concentration of 10mM that was abolished by the selective TRPA1 antagonist AP-18. AITC (10mM) was approximately 3-times less effective in inducing cough than capsaicin (50 ?M). Ex vivo single fiber extracellular recordings revealed that, similarly to capsaicin, AITC evoked activation in airway jugular C-fibers, but not in airway nodose A?-fibers. Consistent with the cough studies, AITC was approximately 3-times less effective than capsaicin in evoking sustained activation of the jugular C-fibers. Another TRPA1 agonist, cinnamaldehyde, was approximately twofold more effective than AITC in inducing cough. However, the cinnamaldehyde (10mM)-induced cough was only partially inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist AP-18, and was abolished by combination of AP-18 and the TRPV1 antagonist I-RTX. We conclude that in naïve guinea pigs, TRPA1 activation initiates cough that is relatively modest compared to the cough initiated by TRPV1, likely due to lower efficacy of TRPA1 stimulation to induce sustained activation of airway C-fibers. PMID:22683866

  10. No relevant modulation of TRPV1-mediated trigeminal pain by intranasal carbon dioxide in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nasal insufflation of CO2 has been shown to exert antinociceptive respectively antihyperalgesic effects in animal pain models using topical capsaicin with activation of TRPV1-receptor positive nociceptive neurons. Clinical benefit from CO2 inhalation in patients with craniofacial pain caused by a putative activation of TRPV1 receptor positive trigeminal neurons has also been reported. These effects are probably mediated via an activation of TRPV1 receptor - positive neurons in the nasal mucosa with subsequent central inhibitory effects (such as conditioned pain modulation). In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of intranasal CO2 on a human model of craniofacial pain elicited by nasal application of capsaicin. Methods In a first experiment, 48 healthy volunteers without previous craniofacial pain received intranasal capsaicin to provoke trigeminal pain elicited by activation of TRVP1 positive nociceptive neurons. Then, CO2 or air was insufflated alternatingly into the nasal cavity at a flow rate of 1 l/min for 60 sec each. In the subsequent experiment, all participants were randomized into 2 groups of 24 each and received either continuous nasal insufflation of CO2 or placebo for 18:40 min after nociceptive stimulation with intranasal capsaicin. In both experiments, pain was rated on a numerical rating scale every 60 sec. Results Contrary to previous animal studies, the effects of CO2 on experimental trigeminal pain were only marginal. In the first experiment, CO2 reduced pain ratings only minimally by 5.3% compared to air if given alternatingly with significant results for the main factor GROUP (F1,47?=?4.438; p?=?0.041) and the interaction term TIME*GROUP (F2.6,121.2?=?3.3; p?=?0.029) in the repeated-measures ANOVA. However, these effects were abrogated after continuous insufflation of CO2 or placebo with no significant changes for the main factors or the interaction term. Conclusions Although mild modulatory effects of low-flow intranasal CO2 could be seen in this human model of TRPV-1 mediated activation of nociceptive trigeminal neurons, utility is limited as observed changes in pain ratings are clinically non-significant. PMID:23574808

  11. Capsaicin Induces “Brite” Phenotype in Differentiating 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baboota, Ritesh K.; Singh, Dhirendra P.; Sarma, Siddhartha M.; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sandhir, Rajat; Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi K.; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Targeting the energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT) by pharmacological and dietary means in order to promote its conversion to energy expending “brite” cell type holds promise as an anti-obesity approach. Present study was designed to investigate/revisit the effect of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation with special reference to induction of “brite” phenotype during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods Multiple techniques such as Ca2+ influx assay, Oil Red-O staining, nutrigenomic analysis in preadipocytes and matured adipocytes have been employed to understand the effect of capsaicin at different doses. In addition to in-vitro experiments, in-vivo studies were carried out in high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats treated with resiniferatoxin (RTX) (a TRPV1 agonist) and in mice administered capsaicin. Results TRPV1 channels are expressed in preadipocytes but not in adipocytes. In preadipocytes, both capsaicin and RTX stimulate Ca2+ influx in dose-dependent manner. This stimulation may be prevented by capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist. At lower doses, capsaicin inhibits lipid accumulation and stimulates TRPV1 gene expression, while at higher doses it enhances accumulation of lipids and suppresses expression of its receptor. In doses of 0.1–100 µM, capsaicin promotes expression of major pro-adipogenic factor PPAR? and some of its downstream targets. In concentrations of 1 µM, capsaicin up-regulates anti-adipogenic genes. Low-dose capsaicin treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiating into adipocytes results in increased expression of brown fat cell marker genes. In white adipose of mice, capsaicin administration leads to increase in browning-specific genes. Global TRPV1 ablation (i.p. by RTX administration) leads to increase in locomotor activity with no change in body weight. Conclusion Our findings suggest the dual modulatory role of capsaicin in adipogenesis. Capsaicin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 via TRPV1 activation and induces brown-like phenotype whereas higher doses. PMID:25072597

  12. Blockade of peripheral P2Y1 receptors prevents the induction of thermal hyperalgesia via modulation of TRPV1 expression in carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain rats: involvement of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in DRGs.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Gu; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Moon, Ji-Young; Choi, Sheu-Ran; Choi, Hoon-Seong; Kang, Suk-Yun; Han, Ho-Jae; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2014-04-01

    Although previous reports have suggested that P2Y1 receptors (P2Y1Rs) are involved in cutaneous nociceptive signaling, it remains unclear how P2Y1Rs contribute to peripheral sensitization. The current study was designed to delineate the role of peripheral P2Y1Rs in pain and to investigate potential linkages to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in DRGs and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) expression in a rodent inflammatory pain model. Following injection of 2% carrageenan into the hind paw, expressions of P2Y1 and TRPV1 and the phosphorylation rates of both p38 MAPK and ERK but not JNK were increased and peaked at day 2 post-injection. Blockade of peripheral P2Y1Rs by the P2Y1R antagonist, MRS2500 injection (i.pl, D0 to D2) significantly reduced the induction of thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. Simultaneously, MRS2500 injections suppressed upregulated TRPV1 expression and DRG p38 phosphorylation, while pERK signaling was not affected. Furthermore, inhibition of p38 activation in the DRGs by SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor, i.t, D0 to D2) prevented the upregulation of TRPV1 and a single i.t injection of SB203580 reversed the established thermal hyperalgesia, but not mechanical allodynia. Lastly, to identify the mechanism of action of P2Y1Rs, we repeatedly injected the P2Y1 agonist, MRS2365 into the naïve rat's hind paw and observed a dose-dependent increase in TRPV1 expression and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These data demonstrate a sequential role for P2Y1R, p38 MAPK and TRPV1 in inflammation-induced thermal hyperalgesia; thus, peripheral P2Y1Rs activation modulates p38 MAPK signaling and TRPV1 expression, which ultimately leads to the induction of thermal hyperalgesia. PMID:24333674

  13. Role of thermo TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in heat, cold, and mechanical nociception of rats.

    PubMed

    Nozadze, Ivliane; Tsiklauri, Nana; Gurtskaia, Gulnazi; Tsagareli, Merab G

    2016-02-01

    A sensitive response of the nervous system to changes in temperature is of predominant importance for homeotherms to maintain a stable body temperature. A number of temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels have been studied as nociceptors that respond to extreme temperatures and harmful chemicals. Recent findings in the field of pain have established a family of six thermo-TRP channels (TRPA1, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, and TRPV4) that exhibit sensitivity to increases or decreases in temperature, as well as to chemical substances eliciting the respective hot or cold sensations. In this study, we used behavioral methods to investigate whether mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) and capsaicin affect the sensitivity to heat, innocuous and noxious cold, and mechanical stimuli in male rats. The results obtained indicate that TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels are clearly involved in pain reactions, and the TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate enhances the heat pain sensitivity, possibly by indirectly modulating TRPV1 channels coexpressed in nociceptors with TRPA1. Overall, our data support the role of thermosensitive TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in pain modulation and show that these two thermoreceptor channels are in a synergistic and/or conditional relationship with noxious heat and cold cutaneous stimulation. PMID:26274042

  14. CT-guided injection of a TRPV1 agonist around dorsal root ganglia decreases pain transmission in swine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jacob D; Saeed, Maythem; Do, Loi; Braz, Joao; Basbaum, Allan I; Iadarola, Michael J; Wilson, David M; Dillon, William P

    2015-09-16

    One approach to analgesia is to block pain at the site of origin or along the peripheral pathway by selectively ablating pain-transmitting neurons or nerve terminals directly. The heat/capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) expressed by nociceptive neurons is a compelling target for selective interventional analgesia because it leaves somatosensory and proprioceptive neurons intact. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), like capsaicin, is a TRPV1 agonist but has greater potency. We combine RTX-mediated inactivation with the precision of computed tomography (CT)-guided delivery to ablate peripheral pain fibers in swine. Under CT guidance, RTX was delivered unilaterally around the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and vehicle only was administered to the contralateral side. During a 4-week observation period, animals demonstrated delayed or absent withdrawal responses to infrared laser heat stimuli delivered to sensory dermatomes corresponding to DRG receiving RTX treatment. Motor function was unimpaired as assessed by disability scoring and gait analysis. In treated DRG, TRPV1 mRNA expression was reduced, as were nociceptive neuronal perikarya in ganglia and their nerve terminals in the ipsilateral dorsal horn. CT guidance to precisely deliver RTX to sites of peripheral pain transmission in swine may be an approach that could be tailored to block an array of clinical pain conditions in patients. PMID:26378245

  15. Different types of toxins targeting TRPV1 in pain.

    PubMed

    Min, Jia-Wei; Liu, Wan-Hong; He, Xiao-Hua; Peng, Bi-Wen

    2013-09-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV1) channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. Members of this family are expressed in primary sensory neurons and are best known for their role in nociception and sensory transmission. Multiple painful stimuli can activate these channels. In this review, we discussed the mechanisms of different types of venoms that target TRPV1, such as scorpion venom, botulinum neurotoxin, spider toxin, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). Some of these toxins activate TRPV1; however, some do not. Regardless of TRPV1 inhibition or activation, they occur through different pathways. For example, BoNT/A decreases TRPV1 expression levels by blocking TRPV1 trafficking to the plasma membrane, although the exact mechanism is still under debate. Vanillotoxins from tarantula (Psalmopoeus cambridgei) are proposed to activate TRPV1 via interaction with a region of TRPV1 that is homologous to voltage-dependent ion channels. Here, we offer a description of the present state of knowledge for this complex subject. PMID:23732125

  16. Functional expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in rat vestibular ganglia.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Takefumi; Ishida, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yukiko; Yamada, Takahiro; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takimoto, Yasumitsu; Horii, Arata; Uno, Atsuhiko; Imai, Takao; Okazaki, Suzuyo; Inohara, Hidenori; Shimada, Shoichi

    2013-09-27

    Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are non-selective cation channels. They are co-expressed, and interact in sensory neurons such as dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG), and are involved in nociception, being activated by nociceptive stimuli. Immunohistological localization of TRPV1 in vestibular ganglion (VG) neurons has been reported. Although TRPA1 is co-expressed with TRPV1 in DRG and TG neurons, it is unclear whether TRPA1 channels are expressed in VG neurons. Moreover, it is unknown whether TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are functional in VG neurons. We investigated the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in rat VG neurons by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Ca(2+) imaging experiments. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 RT-PCR products were amplified from the mRNA of rat VG neurons. In situ hybridization experiments showed TRPV1 and TRPA1 mRNA expression in the majority of VG neurons. Immunohistochemistry experiments confirmed TRPV1 protein expression. In Ca(2+) imaging experiments, capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, induced a significant increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in rat primary cultured VG neurons, which was almost completely blocked by capsazepine, a TRPV1-specific antagonist. Cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, also caused an increase in [Ca(2+)]i, which was completely inhibited by HC030031, a TRPA1-specific antagonist. Moreover, in some VG neurons, a [Ca(2+)]i increase was evoked by both capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde in the same neuron. In summary, our histological and physiological studies reveal that TRPV1 and TRPA1 are expressed in VG neurons. It is suggested that TRPV1 and TRPA1 in VG neurons might participate in vestibular function and/or dysfunction such as vertigo. PMID:23916509

  17. Excess Nitric Oxide Activates TRPV1-Ca(2+)-Calpain Signaling and Promotes PEST-dependent Degradation of Liver X Receptor ?.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Feng; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2016-01-01

    Excess nitric oxide (NO) deregulates cholesterol metabolism in macrophage foam cells, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. To investigate the mechanism, we found that in macrophages, treatment with NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) or diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide induced LXR? degradation and reduced the expression of the downstream target of LXR?, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and cholesterol efflux. In addition, SNAP induced calcium (Ca(2+)) influx into cells, increased calpain activity and promoted the formation of calpain-LXR? complex. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain activity reversed the SNAP-induced degradation of LXR?, down-regulation of ABCA1 and impairment of cholesterol efflux in macrophages. SNAP increased the formation of calpain-LXR? complex in a Pro-Glu-Ser-Thr (PEST) motif-dependent manner. Truncation of the PEST motif in LXR? abolished the calpain-dependent proteolysis. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) by EGTA or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 channel activity diminished SNAP-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+), calpain activation, LXR? degradation, ABCA1 down-regulation and impaired cholesterol efflux. In conclusion, excess NO may activate calpain via TRPV1-Ca(2+) signaling and promote the recognition of calpain in the PEST motif of LXR?, thereby leading to degradation of LXR? and, ultimately, downregulated ABCA1 expression and impaired ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in macrophages. PMID:26722214

  18. Excess Nitric Oxide Activates TRPV1-Ca2+-Calpain Signaling and Promotes PEST-dependent Degradation of Liver X Receptor ?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin-Feng; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2016-01-01

    Excess nitric oxide (NO) deregulates cholesterol metabolism in macrophage foam cells, yet the underlying molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. To investigate the mechanism, we found that in macrophages, treatment with NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) or diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide induced LXR? degradation and reduced the expression of the downstream target of LXR?, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and cholesterol efflux. In addition, SNAP induced calcium (Ca2+) influx into cells, increased calpain activity and promoted the formation of calpain-LXR? complex. Pharmacological inhibition of calpain activity reversed the SNAP-induced degradation of LXR?, down-regulation of ABCA1 and impairment of cholesterol efflux in macrophages. SNAP increased the formation of calpain-LXR? complex in a Pro-Glu-Ser-Thr (PEST) motif-dependent manner. Truncation of the PEST motif in LXR? abolished the calpain-dependent proteolysis. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ by EGTA or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 channel activity diminished SNAP-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+, calpain activation, LXR? degradation, ABCA1 down-regulation and impaired cholesterol efflux. In conclusion, excess NO may activate calpain via TRPV1-Ca2+ signaling and promote the recognition of calpain in the PEST motif of LXR?, thereby leading to degradation of LXR? and, ultimately, downregulated ABCA1 expression and impaired ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in macrophages. PMID:26722214

  19. Interaction between TRPA1 and TRPV1: Synergy on pulmonary sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lu-Yuan; Hsu, Chun-Chun; Lin, Yu-Jung; Lin, Ruei-Lung; Khosravi, Mehdi

    2015-12-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors are co-expressed in vagal pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. Because both these ligand-gated non-selective cation channels are sensitive to a number of endogenous inflammatory mediators, it is highly probable that they can be activated simultaneously during airway inflammation. Studies were carried out to investigate whether there is an interaction between these two polymodal transducers upon simultaneous activation, and how it modulates the activity of vagal pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. Our studies showed a distinct potentiating effect induced abruptly by simultaneous activations of TRPA1 and TRPV1 by their respective selective agonists, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and capsaicin (Cap), at near-threshold concentrations. This synergistic effect was demonstrated in the studies of single-unit recording of vagal bronchopulmonary C-fiber afferents and the reflex responses elicited by activation of these afferents in intact animals, as well as in the isolated nodose and jugular bronchopulmonary sensory neurons. This potentiating effect was absent when either AITC or Cap was replaced by non-TRPA1 and non-TRPV1 chemical activators of these neurons, demonstrating the selectivity of the interaction between these two TRP channels. Furthermore, the synergism was dependent upon the extracellular Ca(2+), and the rapid onset of the action further suggests that the interaction probably occurred locally at the sites of these channels. These findings suggest that the TRPA1-TRPV1 interaction may play an important role in regulating the function and excitability of pulmonary sensory neurons during airway inflammation, but the mechanism underlying this positive interaction is not yet fully understood. PMID:26283426

  20. Role of TRPV1 channels of the dorsal periaqueductal gray in the modulation of nociception and open elevated plus maze-induced antinociception in mice.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Diego Cardozo; Gomes, Karina Santos; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2015-10-01

    Recent findings have identified the presence of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels within the dorsal portion of the periaqueductal gray (dPAG), suggesting their involvement in the control of pain and environmentally-induced antinociception. Environmentally, antinociception may be achieved through the use of an open elevated plus maze (oEPM, an EPM with 4 open arms), a highly aversive environmental situation. Here, we investigated the role of these TRPV1 channels within the dPAG in the modulation of a tonic pain and in the oEPM-induced antinociception. Male Swiss mice, under the nociceptive effect of 2.5% formalin injected into the right hind paw, received intra-dPAG injections of the TRPV1 agonist (capsaicin: 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1.0 nmol/0.2 ?L; Experiment 1) or antagonist (capsazepine: 0, 10 or 30 nmol/0.2 ?L; Experiment 2) or combined injections of capsazepine (30 nmol) and capsaicin (1.0 nmol) (Experiment 3) and the time spent licking the formalin-injected paw was recorded. In Experiment 4, mice received intra-dPAG capsazepine (0 or 30 nmol) and were exposed to the oEPM or to a control situation, an enclosed EPM (eEPM; an EPM with 4 enclosed arms). Results showed that while capsaicin (1 nmol) decreased the time spent licking the formalin-injected paw, capsazepine did not change nociceptive response. Capsazepine (30 nmol) blocked pain inhibition induced by capsaicin and mildly attenuated the oEPM-induced antinociception. Our results revealed an important role of TRPV1 channels within the dPAG in the modulation of pain and in the phenomenon known as fear-induced antinociception in mice. PMID:26183651

  1. Role of TRPV1 in the Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhichao; Wong, Chun-Kit; So, Chun; Lo, Iek-Chi; Huang, Yu; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Tsang, Suk-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) is an important signal that regulates cardiomyocyte differentiation during cardiogenesis. TRPV1 is a Ca2+-permeable channel that is expressed in cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we utilized mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (mESC-CMs) as a model to investigate the functional role of TRPV1 in cardiomyocyte differentiation. Induction of embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes was achieved using embryoid body (EB)-based differentiation method. Quantitative PCRs showed an increased TRPV1 expression during the differentiation process. In [Ca2+]i measurement study, application of TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin and camphor, elicited a [Ca2+]i rise in mESC-CMs, the effect of which was abolished by TRPV1-shRNA. In functional study, treatment of EBs with TRPV1 antagonists (capsazepine and SB366791) and TRPV1-shRNA reduced the size of the EBs and decreased the percentage of spontaneously beating EBs. TRPV1 antagonists and TRPV1-shRNA also suppressed the expression of cardiomyocyte marker genes, including cardiac actin, c-TnT, c-TnI, and ?-MHC. Taken together, this study demonstrated an important functional role of TRPV1 channels in the differentiation of mESCs into cardiomyocytes. PMID:26208267

  2. Cigarette smoke has sensory effects through nicotinic and TRPA1 but not TRPV1 receptors on the isolated mouse trachea and larynx

    PubMed Central

    Kichko, Tatjana I.; Kobal, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposes chemosensory nerves in the airways to a multitude of chemicals, some acting through the irritant receptors TRPV1 and TRPA1 but potentially also through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Our aim was to characterize the differences in sensory neuronal effects of CS, gas phase, and particulate matter as well as of typical constituents, such as nicotine and reactive carbonyls. Isolated mouse trachea and larynx were employed to measure release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as an index of sensory neuron activation evoked by CS, by filtered CS gas phase essentially free of nicotine, and by dilute total particulate matter (TPM) containing defined nicotine concentrations. With CS stimulation of the superfused trachea, TRPV1 null mutants showed about the same large responses as wild-type mice, whereas both TRPA1?/? and double knockouts exhibited 80% reduction; the retained 20% response was abolished by mecamylamine (10 ?M), indicating a distinct contribution of nAChRs. These phenotypes were accentuated by using TPM to stimulate the immersed trachea; 50% of response was retained in TRPA1?/? and abolished by mecamylamine. In contrast, the gas phase acted like a sheer TRPA1 agonist, consistent with its composition, among other compounds, of volatile reactive carbonyls like formaldehyde and acrolein. In the trachea, the gas phase and CS were equally effective in releasing CGRP, whereas the larynx showed much larger CS than gas phase responses. Thus nicotinic receptors contribute to the sensory effects of cigarette smoke on the trachea, which are dominated by TRPA1. How this translates to human perception affords future research. PMID:26472811

  3. Cigarette smoke has sensory effects through nicotinic and TRPA1 but not TRPV1 receptors on the isolated mouse trachea and larynx.

    PubMed

    Kichko, Tatjana I; Kobal, Gerd; Reeh, Peter W

    2015-10-15

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposes chemosensory nerves in the airways to a multitude of chemicals, some acting through the irritant receptors TRPV1 and TRPA1 but potentially also through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Our aim was to characterize the differences in sensory neuronal effects of CS, gas phase, and particulate matter as well as of typical constituents, such as nicotine and reactive carbonyls. Isolated mouse trachea and larynx were employed to measure release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as an index of sensory neuron activation evoked by CS, by filtered CS gas phase essentially free of nicotine, and by dilute total particulate matter (TPM) containing defined nicotine concentrations. With CS stimulation of the superfused trachea, TRPV1 null mutants showed about the same large responses as wild-type mice, whereas both TRPA1(-/-) and double knockouts exhibited 80% reduction; the retained 20% response was abolished by mecamylamine (10 ?M), indicating a distinct contribution of nAChRs. These phenotypes were accentuated by using TPM to stimulate the immersed trachea; 50% of response was retained in TRPA1(-/-) and abolished by mecamylamine. In contrast, the gas phase acted like a sheer TRPA1 agonist, consistent with its composition, among other compounds, of volatile reactive carbonyls like formaldehyde and acrolein. In the trachea, the gas phase and CS were equally effective in releasing CGRP, whereas the larynx showed much larger CS than gas phase responses. Thus nicotinic receptors contribute to the sensory effects of cigarette smoke on the trachea, which are dominated by TRPA1. How this translates to human perception affords future research. PMID:26472811

  4. Neuroprotection induced by N-acetylcysteine against cytosolic glutathione depletion-induced Ca2+ influx in dorsal root ganglion neurons of mice: role of TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Naz?ro?lu, M; Ci?, B; Ozgül, C

    2013-07-01

    Glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are thiol-containing antioxidants, and also act through a direct reaction with free radicals. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is the principal transduction channel serving as a polymodal detector. Despite the importance of oxidative stress in pain sensitivity, its role in TRPV1 modulation is poorly understood. NAC may also have a regulator role on TRPV1 channel activity in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron. Therefore, we tested the effects of GSH and NAC on TRPV1 channel current, Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and caspase activity in the DRG of mice. DRG neurons were freshly isolated from mice and the neurons were incubated for 6 and 24h with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Pretreatment of cultured DRG neurons with NAC, results in a protection against oxidative damages. This neuroprotection is associated with the attenuation of a Ca(2+) influx triggered by oxidative agents such as H2O2, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and GSH depletion via BSO. Here, we demonstrate the contribution of cytosolic factors (related to thiol group depletion) on the activation of TRPV1 channels in this mechanism. TRPV1 channels are activated by various agents including capsaicin (CAP), the pungent component of hot chili peppers, and are blocked by capsazepine. An oxidative environment also increased CAP-evoked TRPV1 currents in the neurons. When NAC and GSH were included in the patch pipette as well as extracellularly in the chamber, TRPV1 channels were not activated by CAP and H2O2. TRPV1 inhibitors, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid strongly reduced BSO-induced oxidative toxicity and Ca(2+) influx, in a manner similar to pretreatment with NAC and GSH. Caspase-3 and -9 activities of all groups were not changed by the agonists or antagonists. In conclusion, in our experimental model, TRPV1 channels are involved in the oxidative stress-induced neuronal death, and negative modulation of this channel activity by GSH and NAC pretreatment may account for their neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress. PMID:23545271

  5. TRPV1: A Target for Next Generation Analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Louis S; Sikand, Parul

    2008-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a Ca2+ permeant non-selective cation channel expressed in a subpopulation of primary afferent neurons. TRPV1 is activated by physical and chemical stimuli. It is critical for the detection of nociceptive and thermal inflammatory pain as revealed by the deletion of the TRPV1 gene. TRPV1 is distributed in the peripheral and central terminals of the sensory neurons and plays a role in initiating action potentials at the nerve terminals and modulating neurotransmitter release at the first sensory synapse, respectively. Distribution of TRPV1 in the nerve terminals innervating blood vessels and in parts of the CNS that are not subjected to temperature range that is required to activate TRPV1 suggests a role beyond a noxious thermal sensor. Presently, TRPV1 is being considered as a target for analgesics through evaluation of different antagonists. Here, we will discuss the distribution and the functions of TRPV1, potential use of its agonists and antagonists as analgesics and highlight the functions that are not related to nociceptive transmission that might lead to adverse effects. PMID:19305794

  6. Vitexin inhibits inflammatory pain in mice by targeting TRPV1, oxidative stress, and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Sergio M; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-06-28

    The flavonoid vitexin (1) is a flavone C-glycoside (apigenin-8-C-?-D-glucopyranoside) present in several medicinal and other plants. Plant extracts containing 1 are reported to possess antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, the only evidence that 1 exhibits antinociceptive activity was demonstrated in the acetic acid-induced writhing model. Therefore, the analgesic effects and mechanisms of 1 were evaluated. In the present investigation, intraperitoneal treatment with 1 dose-dependently inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing. Furthermore, treatment with 1 also inhibited pain-like behavior induced by phenyl-p-benzoquinone, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), capsaicin (an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, TRPV1), and both phases of the formalin test. It was also observed that inhibition of carrageenan-, capsaicin-, and chronic CFA-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia occurred. Regarding the antinociceptive mechanisms of 1, it prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione levels, ferric-reducing ability potential, and free-radical scavenger ability, inhibited the production of hyperalgesic cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-33, and up-regulated the levels of the anti-hyperalgesic cytokine IL-10. These results demonstrate that 1 exhibits an analgesic effect in a variety of inflammatory pain models by targeting TRPV1 and oxidative stress and by modulating cytokine production. PMID:23742617

  7. Discovery of novel 5,5-diarylpentadienamides as orally available transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Saku, Osamu; Ishida, Hiroshi; Atsumi, Eri; Sugimoto, Yoshiyuki; Kodaira, Hiroshi; Kato, Yoshimitsu; Shirakura, Shiro; Nakasato, Yoshisuke

    2012-04-12

    We have developed a novel and potent chemical series of 5,5-diphenylpentadienamides for targeting TRPV1 in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we examined a variety of replacements for the 5-position of dienamides with the goal of addressing issues related to pharmacokinetics. Our data suggest that substitution with alkoxy groups on the phenyl ring at the 5-position increases their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. This investigation culminated in the discovery of compound (R)-36b, which showed a good pharmacokinetic profile. In vivo, compound (R)-36b was found to be effective at reversing mechanical allodynia in rats in a dose-dependent manner, and it reversed thermal hyperalgesia in a model of neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve injury. PMID:22394104

  8. Phenotyping the Function of TRPV1-Expressing Sensory Neurons by Targeted Axonal Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Brenneis, Christian; Kistner, Katrin; Puopolo, Michelino; Segal, David; Roberson, David; Sisignano, Marco; Labocha, Sandra; Ferreirós, Nerea; Strominger, Amanda; Cobos, Enrique J.; Ghasemlou, Nader; Geisslinger, Gerd; Reeh, Peter W.; Bean, Bruce P.; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2013-01-01

    Specific somatosensations may be processed by different subsets of primary afferents. C-fibers expressing heat-sensitive TRPV1 channels are proposed, for example, to be heat but not mechanical pain detectors. To phenotype in rats the sensory function of TRPV1+ afferents, we rapidly and selectively silenced only their activity, by introducing the membrane-impermeant sodium channel blocker QX-314 into these axons via the TRPV1 channel pore. Using tandem mass spectrometry we show that upon activation with capsaicin, QX-314 selectively accumulates in the cytosol only of TRPV1-expressing cells, and not in control cells. Exposure to QX-314 and capsaicin induces in small DRG neurons a robust sodium current block within 30 s. In sciatic nerves, application of extracellular QX-314 with capsaicin persistently reduces C-fiber but not A-fiber compound action potentials and this effect does not occur in TRPV1?/? mice. Behavioral phenotyping after selectively silencing TRPV1+ sciatic nerve axons by perineural injections of QX-314 and capsaicin reveals deficits in heat and mechanical pressure but not pinprick or light touch perception. The response to intraplantar capsaicin is substantially reduced, as expected. During inflammation, silencing TRPV1+ axons abolishes heat, mechanical, and cold hyperalgesia but tactile and cold allodynia remain following peripheral nerve injury. These results indicate that TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons process particular thermal and mechanical somatosensations, and that the sensory channels activated by mechanical and cold stimuli to produce pain in naive/inflamed rats differ from those in animals after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:23283344

  9. Capsaicin protects mouse neuromuscular junctions from the neuroparalytic effects of botulinum neurotoxin a.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Krivitskaya, Natalia; Potian, Joseph G; Hognason, Kormakur; Garcia, Carmen C; McArdle, Joseph J

    2009-11-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A), the most toxic, naturally occurring protein, cleaves synapse-associated protein of 25 kDa and inhibits acetylcholine release from motor nerve endings (MNEs). This leads to paralysis of skeletal muscles. Our study demonstrates that capsaicin protects mouse neuromuscular junctions from the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. Bilateral injection of BoNT/A near the innervation of the Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult Swiss-Webster mice inhibited the toe spread reflex (TSR). However, when capsaicin was coinjected bilaterally, or injected 4 or 8 h before injecting BoNT/A, the TSR remained normal. In animals that were pretreated with capsazepine, capsaicin failed to protect against the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. In vivo analyses demonstrated that capsaicin protected muscle functions and electromygraphic activity from the incapacitating effects of BoNT/A. The twitch response to nerve stimulation was greater for EDL preparations isolated from mice injected with capsaicin before BoNT/A. Capsaicin pretreatment also prevented the inhibitory effects of BoNT/A on end-plate currents. Furthermore, pretreatment of Neuro 2a cells with capsaicin significantly preserved labeling of synaptic vesicles by FM 1-43. This protective effect of capsaicin was observed only in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) and was inhibited by capsazepine. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that MNEs express transient receptor potential protein of the vanilloid subfamily, TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor. Capsaicin pretreatment, in vitro, reduced nerve stimulation or KCl-induced uptake of BoNT/A into motor nerve endings and cholinergic Neuro 2a cells. These data demonstrate that capsaicin interacts with TRPV1 receptors on MNEs to reduce BoNT/A uptake via a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. PMID:19654265

  10. Maresin 1 Inhibits TRPV1 in Temporomandibular Joint-Related Trigeminal Nociceptive Neurons and TMJ Inflammation-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in the Trigeminal Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In the trigeminal system, disruption of acute resolution processing may lead to uncontrolled inflammation and chronic pain associated with the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Currently, there are no effective treatments for TMJ pain. Recently, it has been recognized that maresin 1, a newly identified macrophage-derived mediator of inflammation resolution, is a potent analgesic for somatic inflammatory pain without noticeable side effects in mice and a potent endogenous inhibitor of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in the somatic system. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the analgesic actions of maresin 1 on TMJ pain are unclear in the trigeminal system. Here, by performing TMJ injection of a retrograde labeling tracer DiI (a fluorescent dye), I showed that maresin 1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents and neuronal activity via G?i-coupled G-protein coupled receptors in DiI-labeled trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Further, maresin 1 blocked TRPV1 agonist-evoked increases in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency and abolished TMJ inflammation-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal nucleus. These results demonstrate the potent actions of maresin 1 in regulating TRPV1 in the trigeminal system. Thus, maresin 1 may serve as a novel endogenous inhibitor for treating TMJ-inflammatory pain in the orofacial region. PMID:26617436

  11. Maresin 1 Inhibits TRPV1 in Temporomandibular Joint-Related Trigeminal Nociceptive Neurons and TMJ Inflammation-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in the Trigeminal Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In the trigeminal system, disruption of acute resolution processing may lead to uncontrolled inflammation and chronic pain associated with the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Currently, there are no effective treatments for TMJ pain. Recently, it has been recognized that maresin 1, a newly identified macrophage-derived mediator of inflammation resolution, is a potent analgesic for somatic inflammatory pain without noticeable side effects in mice and a potent endogenous inhibitor of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in the somatic system. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the analgesic actions of maresin 1 on TMJ pain are unclear in the trigeminal system. Here, by performing TMJ injection of a retrograde labeling tracer DiI (a fluorescent dye), I showed that maresin 1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents and neuronal activity via G?i-coupled G-protein coupled receptors in DiI-labeled trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Further, maresin 1 blocked TRPV1 agonist-evoked increases in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency and abolished TMJ inflammation-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal nucleus. These results demonstrate the potent actions of maresin 1 in regulating TRPV1 in the trigeminal system. Thus, maresin 1 may serve as a novel endogenous inhibitor for treating TMJ-inflammatory pain in the orofacial region. PMID:26617436

  12. TRPV1 antagonist with high analgesic efficacy: 2-Thio pyridine C-region analogues of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae-Hwan; Ryu, Hyungchul; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Ho Shin; Ann, Jihyae; Tran, Phuong-Thao; Hoang, Van-Hai; Son, Karam; Cui, Minghua; Choi, Sun; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Schiene, Klaus; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2013-11-01

    A series of 2-thio pyridine C-region analogues of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides were investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. Among them, compound 24S showed stereospecific and excellent TRPV1 antagonism of capsaicin-induced activation. Further, it demonstrated strong anti-allodynic in a rat neuropathic pain model. Consistent with its action in vitro being through TRPV1, compound 24S blocked capsaicin-induced hypothermia in mice. Docking analysis of 24S with our hTRPV1 homology model was performed to identify its binding mode. PMID:24035514

  13. Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Inflammation and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Fumio; Aono, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel, is a receptor activated by high temperatures and chemical agonists such as the vanilloids and protons. Because of these properties, TRPV1 has emerged as a polymodal nocisensor of nociceptive afferent neurons. TRPV1 is thought to be a central transducer of hyperalgesia and a prime target for controlling pain pharmacologically because it is a point where many proalgesic pathways converge and it is upregulated and sensitized by inflammation and injury. However, whether TRPV1 agonists promote or inhibit inflammation remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that SA13353 (1-[2-(1-adamantyl)ethyl]-1-pentyl-3-[3-(4-pyridyl)propyl]urea), a novel TRPV1 agonist, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-a production by the activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons and reduces the severity of symptoms in kidney injury, lung inflammation, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis. These results suggest that TRPV1 agonists may act as anti-inflammatories in certain inflammatory and autoimmune conditions in vivo. Given the potential deleterious effects of inhibiting the population of channels with a protective function, caution should be taken in the use of potent TRPV1 antagonists as a general strategy to treat inflammation. Further studies are required to clarify the role of TRPV1 and neuropeptides, which are released because of TRPV1 activation in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24280677

  14. Jellyfish and other cnidarian envenomations cause pain by affecting TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Karlsson, Evert; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarian envenomations cause a burning-pain sensation of which the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Activation of TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, leads to cell depolarisation and pain. Here, we show in vitro and in vivo evidence for desensitization-dependent TRPV1 activation in cnidarian envenomations. Cnidarian venom induced a nociceptive reactivity, comparable to capsaicin, in laboratory rats, which could be reduced by the selective TRPV1 antagonist, BCTC. These findings are the first to explain at least part of the symptomology of cnidarian envenomations and provide insights into the design of more effective treatments for this global public health problem. PMID:17010344

  15. Potent and orally efficacious benzothiazole amides as TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Besidski, Yevgeni; Brown, William; Bylund, Johan; Dabrowski, Michael; Dautrey, Sophie; Harter, Magali; Horoszok, Lucy; Hu, Yin; Johnson, Dean; Johnstone, Shawn; Jones, Paul; Leclerc, Sandrine; Kolmodin, Karin; Kers, Inger; Labarre, Maryse; Labrecque, Denis; Laird, Jennifer; Lundström, Therese; Martino, John; Maudet, Mickaël; Munro, Alexander; Nylöf, Martin; Penwell, Andrea; Rotticci, Didier; Slaitas, Andis; Sundgren-Andersson, Anna; Svensson, Mats; Terp, Gitte; Villanueva, Huascar; Walpole, Christopher; Zemribo, Ronald; Griffin, Andrew M

    2012-10-01

    Benzothiazole amides were identified as TRPV1 antagonists from high throughput screening using recombinant human TRPV1 receptor and structure-activity relationships were explored to pinpoint key pharmacophore interactions. By increasing aqueous solubility, through the attachment of polar groups to the benzothiazole core, and enhancing metabolic stability, by blocking metabolic sites, the drug-like properties and pharmokinetic profiles of benzothiazole compounds were sufficiently optimized such that their therapeutic potential could be verified in rat pharmacological models of pain. PMID:22939234

  16. Tetrahydro-naphthols as orally available TRPV1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Urbahns, Klaus; Yura, Takeshi; Gupta, Jang B; Tajimi, Masaomi; Fujishima, Hiroshi; Masuda, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Ikegami, Yuka; Marumo, Makiko; Yasoshima, Kayo; Yoshida, Nagahiro; Moriwaki, Toshiya; Madge, David; Chan, Fiona; Mogi, Muneto

    2012-05-15

    Starting from a naphthol-based lead series with low oral bioavailability, we have identified potent TRPV1 antagonists with oral bioavailability in rats. These compounds emerged from SAR studies aimed at replacing the lead's phenol structure whilst maintaining potency. Compound rac-6a is an orally available TRPV1 antagonist with single-digit nanomolar activity. The enantiomers show a low eudismic ratio at the receptor level. PMID:22525313

  17. Wu-Tou Decoction Inhibits Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice: Participation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Chunfang; Wan, Hongye; Sun, Danni; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yue; Qu, Yakun; Xu, Ying; Jing, Xianghong; Liu, Junling; Chen, Shuping; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula and has been used effectively to treat joint diseases clinically. Previous reports indicated that WTD possesses anti-inflammatory activity; however, its actions on pain have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive activity of WTD in CFA-induced mice, and its possible mechanism of the action associated with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels was also explored. Our results showed that 1.58, 3.15, and 6.30?g/kg WTD significantly attenuated mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. Moreover, WTD effectively inhibited spontaneous nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. WTD also effectively suppressed jumping and wet-dog-shake behaviors to intraperitoneal injection of icilin. Additionally, WTD significantly reduced protein expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglia and skins of injured paw. Collectively, our data demonstrate firstly that WTD exerts antinociceptive activity in inflammatory conditions by attenuating mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. This antinociceptive effect may result in part from inhibiting the activities of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, and the suppression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 protein by WTD was also highly effective. These findings suggest that WTD might be an attractive and suitable therapeutic agent for the management of chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:25839032

  18. TRPV1 Channels and Gastric Vagal Afferent Signalling in Lean and High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kentish, Stephen J.; Frisby, Claudine L.; Kritas, Stamatiki; Li, Hui; Hatzinikolas, George; O’Donnell, Tracey A.; Wittert, Gary A.; Page, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Within the gastrointestinal tract vagal afferents play a role in control of food intake and satiety signalling. Activation of mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents induces satiety. However, gastric vagal afferent responses to mechanical stretch are reduced in high fat diet mice. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1) are expressed in vagal afferents and knockout of TRPV1 reduces gastro-oesophageal vagal afferent responses to stretch. We aimed to determine the role of TRPV1 on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity and food intake in lean and HFD-induced obese mice. Methods TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet or high fat diet for 20wks. Gastric emptying of a solid meal and gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity was determined. Results Gastric emptying was delayed in high fat diet mice but there was no difference between TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice on either diet. TRPV1 mRNA expression in whole nodose ganglia of TRPV1+/+ mice was similar in both dietary groups. The TRPV1 agonist N-oleoyldopamine potentiated the response of tension receptors in standard laboratory diet but not high fat diet mice. Food intake was greater in the standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- compared to TRPV1+/+ mice. This was associated with reduced response of tension receptors to stretch in standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- mice. Tension receptor responses to stretch were decreased in high fat diet compared to standard laboratory diet TRPV1+/+ mice; an effect not observed in TRPV1-/- mice. Disruption of TRPV1 had no effect on the response of mucosal receptors to mucosal stroking in mice on either diet. Conclusion TRPV1 channels selectively modulate gastric vagal afferent tension receptor mechanosensitivity and may mediate the reduction in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in high fat diet-induced obesity. PMID:26285043

  19. Synthesis of novel 13?-18-norandrostane-ferrocene conjugates via homogeneous catalytic methods and their investigation on TRPV1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Szánti-Pintér, Eszter; Wouters, Johan; Gömöry, Ágnes; Sághy, Éva; Sz?ke, Éva; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Kollár, László; Skoda-Földes, Rita

    2015-12-01

    13?-Steroid-ferrocene derivatives were synthesized via two reaction pathways starting from an unnatural 16-keto-18-nor-13?-steroid. The unnatural steroid was converted to ferrocene derivatives via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation. 16-Azido- and 16-N-(prop-2-ynyl)-carboxamido-steroids were synthesized as starting materials for azide-alkyne cycloaddition with the appropriate ferrocene derivatives. Based on our earlier work, aminocarbonylation of 16-iodo-16-ene and 16-iodo-15-ene derivatives was studied with ferrocenylmethylamine. The new products were obtained in moderate to good yields and were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR and MS. The solid state structure of the starting material 13?-18-norandrostan-16-one and two carboxamide products were determined by X-ray crystallography. Evidences were provided that the N-propargyl-carboxamide compound as well as its ferrocenylmethyltriazole derivative are able to decrease the activation of TRPV1 receptor on TRG neurons. PMID:26519768

  20. The ion channel TRPV1 regulates the activation and proinflammatory properties of CD4? T cells.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Samuel; Aoki-Nonaka, Yukari; de Jong, Petrus Rudolf; Nohara, Lilian L; Xu, Hongjian; Stanwood, Shawna R; Srikanth, Sonal; Lee, Jihyung; To, Keith; Abramson, Lior; Yu, Timothy; Han, Tiffany; Touma, Ranim; Li, Xiangli; González-Navajas, José M; Herdman, Scott; Corr, Maripat; Fu, Guo; Dong, Hui; Gwack, Yousang; Franco, Alessandra; Jefferies, Wilfred A; Raz, Eyal

    2014-11-01

    TRPV1 is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel studied mostly as a pain receptor in sensory neurons. However, its role in other cell types is poorly understood. Here we found that TRPV1 was functionally expressed in CD4(+) T cells, where it acted as a non-store-operated Ca(2+) channel and contributed to T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-induced Ca(2+) influx, TCR signaling and T cell activation. In models of T cell-mediated colitis, TRPV1 promoted colitogenic T cell responses and intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 in human CD4(+) T cells recapitulated the phenotype of mouse Trpv1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. Our findings suggest that inhibition of TRPV1 could represent a new therapeutic strategy for restraining proinflammatory T cell responses. PMID:25282159

  1. Asymmetric synthesis and receptor activity of chiral simplified resiniferatoxin (sRTX) analogues as transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ligands.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong Seop; Ki, Yooran; Ahn, Song Yeon; Yoon, Suyoung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Park, Hyeung-Geun; Sun, Wei; Son, Karam; Cui, Minghua; Choi, Sun; Pearce, Larry V; Esch, Timothy E; Deandrea-Lazarus, Ian A; Blumberg, Peter M; Lee, Jeewoo

    2014-01-01

    The chiral isomers of the two potent simplified RTX-based vanilloids, compounds 2 and 3, were synthesized employing highly enantioselective PTC alkylation and evaluated as hTRPV1 ligands. The analysis indicated that the R-isomer was the eutomer in binding affinity and functional activity. The agonism of compound 2R was comparable to that of RTX. Docking analysis of the chiral isomers of 3 suggested the basis for its stereospecific activity and the binding mode of 3R. PMID:24321344

  2. Distribution of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1-expressing nerve fibers in mouse esophagus.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Hosoya, Takuji; Ishikawa, Eriko; Tashima, Kimihito; Amagase, Kikuko; Kato, Shinichi; Murayama, Toshihiko; Horie, Syunji

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) plays a role in esophageal function. However, the distribution of TRPV1 nerve fibers in the esophagus is currently not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of TRPV1 and neurotransmitters released from TRPV1 nerve fibers in the mouse lower esophagus. Furthermore, we investigated changes in the presence of TRPV1 in the mouse model of esophagitis. Numerous TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibers were seen in both the submucosal layer and myenteric plexus of the lower esophagus and colocalized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). TRPV1 colocalized with substance P in axons in the submucosal layer and myenteric plexus. TRPV1 colocalized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the myenteric plexus. We observed some colocalization of CGRP with the vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter, packaging of ACh into synaptic vesicles after its synthesis in terminal cytoplasm, in the submucosal layer and myenteric plexus. In the esophagitis model, the number of the TRPV1 nerve fibers did not change, but their immunoreactive intensity increased compared with sham-operated mice. Inhibitory effect of exogenous capsaicin on electrically stimulated twitch contraction significantly increased in esophagitis model compared with the effect in sham-operated mice. Overall, these results suggest that TRPV1 nerve fibers projecting to both the submucosal and muscle layer of the esophagus are extrinsic spinal and vagal afferent neurons. Furthermore, TRPV1 nerve fibers contain CGRP, substance P, nitric oxide, and ACh. Therefore, acid influx-mediated TRPV1 activation may play a role in regulating esophageal relaxation. PMID:25002127

  3. Analgesic effects of botulinum neurotoxin type A in a model of allyl isothiocyanate- and capsaicin-induced pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Luvisetto, Siro; Vacca, Valentina; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    We evaluate analgesic effects of BoNT/A in relation to the two main transient receptor potentials (TRP), the vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and the ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), having a role in migraine pain. BoNT/A (15 pg/mouse) was injected in the inner side of the medial part of hindlimb thigh of mice, where the superficial branch of femoral artery is located. We chosen this vascular structure because it is similar to other vascular structures, such as the temporal superficial artery, whose perivascular nociceptive fibres probably contributes to migraine pain. After an interval, ranging from 7 to 30 days, capsaicin (agonist of TRPV1) or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; agonist of TRPA1) were injected in the same region previously treated with BoNT/A and nocifensive response to chemicals-induced pain was recorded. In absence of BoNT/A, capsaicin and AITC induced extensive nocifensive response, with a markedly different temporal profile: capsaicin induced maximal pain during the first 5 min, while AITC induced maximal pain at 15-30 min after injection. Pretreatment with BoNT/A markedly reduced both the capsaicin- and AITC-induced pain for at least 21 days. These data suggest a long lasting analgesic effect of BoNT/A exerted via prevention of responsiveness of TRPV1 and TRPA1 toward their respective agonists. PMID:25529549

  4. 2-Aryl substituted pyridine C-region analogues of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as highly potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ryu, HyungChul; Seo, Sejin; Kim, Myeong Seop; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Ho Shin; Ann, Jihyae; Tran, Phuong-Thao; Hoang, Van-Hai; Byun, Jieun; Cui, Minghua; Son, Karam; Sharma, Pankaz Kumar; Choi, Sun; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Koegel, Babette-Yvonne; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2014-08-15

    A series of 2-aryl pyridine C-region derivatives of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides were investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. Multiple compounds showed highly potent TRPV1 antagonism toward capsaicin comparable to previous lead 7. Among them, compound 9 demonstrated anti-allodynia in a mouse neuropathic pain model and blocked capsaicin-induced hypothermia in a dose-dependent manner. Docking analysis of 9 with our hTRPV1 homology model provided insight into its specific binding mode. PMID:25011915

  5. Analysis of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in frogs and lizards illuminates both nociceptive heat and chemical sensitivities and coexpression with TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in ancestral vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeru; Nakatsuka, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Kenji; Fukuta, Naomi; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Ohta, Toshio; Tominaga, Makoto

    2012-08-31

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP vanilloid 1 (V1) perceive noxious temperatures and chemical stimuli and are involved in pain sensation in mammals. Thus, these two channels provide a model for understanding how different genes with similar biological roles may influence the function of one another during the course of evolution. However, the temperature sensitivity of TRPA1 in ancestral vertebrates and its evolutionary path are unknown as its temperature sensitivities vary among different vertebrate species. To elucidate the functional evolution of TRPA1, TRPA1s of the western clawed (WC) frogs and green anole lizards were characterized. WC frog TRPA1 was activated by heat and noxious chemicals that activate mammalian TRPA1. These stimuli also activated native sensory neurons and elicited nocifensive behaviors in WC frogs. Similar to mammals, TRPA1 was functionally co-expressed with TRPV1, another heat- and chemical-sensitive nociceptive receptor, in native sensory neurons of the WC frog. Green anole TRPA1 was also activated by heat and noxious chemical stimulation. These results suggest that TRPA1 was likely a noxious heat and chemical receptor and co-expressed with TRPV1 in the nociceptive sensory neurons of ancestral vertebrates. Conservation of TRPV1 heat sensitivity throughout vertebrate evolution could have changed functional constraints on TRPA1 and influenced the functional evolution of TRPA1 regarding temperature sensitivity, whereas conserving its noxious chemical sensitivity. In addition, our results also demonstrated that two mammalian TRPA1 inhibitors elicited different effect on the TRPA1s of WC frogs and green anoles, which can be utilized to clarify the structural bases for inhibition of TRPA1. PMID:22791718

  6. ?N-TRPV1: A Molecular Co-detector of Body Temperature and Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Zaelzer, Cristian; Hua, Pierce; Prager-Khoutorsky, Masha; Ciura, Sorana; Voisin, Daniel L; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Bourque, Charles W

    2015-10-01

    Thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion occur during hyperthermia or hypertonicity to preserve body hydration. These vital responses are triggered when hypothalamic osmoregulatory neurons become depolarized by ion channels encoded by an unknown product of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 gene (Trpv1). Here, we show that rodent osmoregulatory neurons express a transcript of Trpv1 that mediates the selective translation of a TRPV1 variant that lacks a significant portion of the channel's amino terminus (?N-TRPV1). The mRNA transcript encoding this variant (Trpv1dn) is widely expressed in the brains of osmoregulating vertebrates, including the human hypothalamus. Transfection of Trpv1dn into heterologous cells induced the expression of ion channels that could be activated by either hypertonicity or by heating in the physiological range. Moreover, expression of Trpv1dn rescued the osmosensory and thermosensory responses of single hypothalamic neurons obtained from Trpv1 knockout mice. ?N-TRPV1 is therefore a co-detector of core body temperature and fluid tonicity. PMID:26387947

  7. Iron overload causes osteoporosis in thalassemia major patients through interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Francesca; Perrotta, Silverio; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Tortora, Chiara; Siniscalco, Dario; Francese, Matteo; Torella, Marco; Nobili, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Maione, Sabatino

    2014-12-01

    The pathogenesis of bone resorption in ?-thalassemia major is multifactorial and our understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remains incomplete. Considering the emerging importance of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system in bone metabolism, it may be instructive to examine a potential role for this system in the development of osteoporosis in patients with ?-thalassemia major and its relationship with iron overload and iron chelation therapy. This study demonstrates that, in thalassemic-derived osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression inversely correlates with femoral and lumbar bone mineral density, and directly correlates with ferritin levels and liver iron concentration. The vanilloid agonist resiniferatoxin dramatically reduces cathepsin K levels and osteoclast numbers in vitro, without affecting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression. The iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox decrease both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K expression, as well as osteoclast activity. Taken together, these data show that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 activation/desensitization influences tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression and activity, and this effect is dependent on iron, suggesting a pivotal role for iron overload in the dysregulation of bone metabolism in patients with thalassemia major. Our applied pharmacology provides evidence for the potential of iron chelators to abrogate these effects by reducing osteoclast activity. Whether iron chelation therapy is capable of restoring bone health in humans requires further study, but the potential to provide dual benefits for patients with ?-thalassemia major -preventing iron-overload and alleviating associated osteoporotic changes - is exciting. PMID:25216685

  8. Iron overload causes osteoporosis in thalassemia major patients through interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Francesca; Perrotta, Silverio; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Tortora, Chiara; Siniscalco, Dario; Francese, Matteo; Torella, Marco; Nobili, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Maione, Sabatino

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bone resorption in ?-thalassemia major is multifactorial and our understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remains incomplete. Considering the emerging importance of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system in bone metabolism, it may be instructive to examine a potential role for this system in the development of osteoporosis in patients with ?-thalassemia major and its relationship with iron overload and iron chelation therapy. This study demonstrates that, in thalassemic-derived osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression inversely correlates with femoral and lumbar bone mineral density, and directly correlates with ferritin levels and liver iron concentration. The vanilloid agonist resiniferatoxin dramatically reduces cathepsin K levels and osteoclast numbers in vitro, without affecting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression. The iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox decrease both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K expression, as well as osteoclast activity. Taken together, these data show that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 activation/desensitization influences tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression and activity, and this effect is dependent on iron, suggesting a pivotal role for iron overload in the dysregulation of bone metabolism in patients with thalassemia major. Our applied pharmacology provides evidence for the potential of iron chelators to abrogate these effects by reducing osteoclast activity. Whether iron chelation therapy is capable of restoring bone health in humans requires further study, but the potential to provide dual benefits for patients with ?-thalassemia major –preventing iron-overload and alleviating associated osteoporotic changes – is exciting. PMID:25216685

  9. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang; Li, Junying

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  10. Suppression of In Vivo Neovascularization by the Loss of TRPV1 in Mouse Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Tomoyose, Katsuo; Okada, Yuka; Sumioka, Takayoshi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Flanders, Kathleen C.; Shirai, Kumi; Morii, Tomoya; Reinach, Peter S.; Yamanaka, Osamu; Saika, Shizuya

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of loss of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) on the development of neovascularization in corneal stroma in mice. Blocking TRPV1 receptor did not affect VEGF-dependent neovascularization in cell culture. Lacking TRPV1 inhibited neovascularization in corneal stroma following cauterization. Immunohistochemistry showed that immunoreactivity for active form of TGF?1 and VEGF was detected in subepithelial stroma at the site of cauterization in both genotypes of mice, but the immunoreactivity seemed less marked in mice lacking TRPV1. mRNA expression of VEGF and TGF?1 in a mouse cornea was suppressed by the loss of TRPV1. TRPV1 gene ablation did not affect invasion of neutrophils and macrophage in a cauterized mouse cornea. Blocking TRPV1 signal does not affect angiogenic effects by HUVECs in vitro. TRPV1 signal is, however, involved in expression of angiogenic growth factors in a cauterized mouse cornea and is required for neovascularization in the corneal stroma in vivo. PMID:26491553

  11. DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF TRPV1, TRPV3 AND TRPV4 SENSITIVITY THROUGH A CONSERVED BINDING SITE ON THE ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAIN

    E-print Network

    Gaudet, Rachelle

    1 DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF TRPV1, TRPV3 AND TRPV4 SENSITIVITY THROUGH A CONSERVED BINDING SITE Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which include the thermosensitive TRPV1-V4, have large show that a multiligand binding site for ATP and calmodulin previously identified in TRPV1-ARD

  12. Optical stimulation in mice lacking the TRPV1 channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Eul; Izzo Matic, Agnella; Otting, Margarete; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Lasers can be used to stimulate neural tissue, including the sciatic nerve or auditory neurons. Wells and coworkers suggested that neural tissue is likely stimulated by heat.[1,2] Ion channels that can be activated by heat are the TRPV channels, a subfamily of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels. TRPV channels are nonselective cation channels found in sensory neurons involved in nociception. In addition to various chemicals, TRPV channels can also be thermally stimulated. The activation temperature for the different TRPV channels varies and is 43°C for TRPV1 and 39°C for TRPV3. By performing an immunohistochemical staining procedure on frozen 20 ?m cochlear slices using a primary TRPV1 antibody, we observed specific immunostaining of the spiral ganglion cells. Here we show that in mice that lack the gene for the TRPV1 channel optical radiation cannot evoke action potentials on the auditory nerve.

  13. Ion channel TRPV1-dependent activation of PTP1B suppresses EGFR-associated intestinal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Petrus R.; Takahashi, Naoki; Harris, Alexandra R.; Lee, Jihyung; Bertin, Samuel; Jeffries, James; Jung, Michael; Duong, Jen; Triano, Amy I.; Lee, Jongdae; Niv, Yaron; Herdman, David S.; Taniguchi, Koji; Kim, Chang-Whan; Dong, Hui; Eckmann, Lars; Stanford, Stephanie M.; Bottini, Nunzio; Corr, Maripat; Raz, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a high rate of turnover, and dysregulation of pathways that regulate regeneration can lead to tumor development; however, the negative regulators of oncogenic events in the intestinal epithelium are not fully understood. Here we identified a feedback loop between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known mediator of proliferation, and the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We found that TRPV1 was expressed by IECs and was intrinsically activated upon EGFR stimulation. Subsequently, TRPV1 activation inhibited EGFR-induced epithelial cell proliferation via activation of Ca2+/calpain and resulting activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). In a murine model of multiple intestinal neoplasia (ApcMin/+ mice), TRPV1 deficiency increased adenoma formation, and treatment of these animals with an EGFR kinase inhibitor reversed protumorigenic phenotypes, supporting a functional association between TRPV1 and EGFR signaling in IECs. Administration of a TRPV1 agonist suppressed intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice, similar to — as well as in conjunction with — a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, which suggests that targeting both TRPV1 and COX-2 has potential as a therapeutic approach for tumor prevention. Our findings implicate TRPV1 as a regulator of growth factor signaling in the intestinal epithelium through activation of PTP1B and subsequent suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:25083990

  14. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel regulates diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjung; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Patel, Payal R; Hu, Xiaodi; Lee, Yongjin; Azuma, Yoshihiro; Wang, Hsun-Fan; Tsitsilianos, Nicholas; Shafiq, Umber; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jason K

    2015-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a major characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent studies have shown a metabolic role of capsaicin that may be mediated via the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel. In this study, TRPV1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice (as controls) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and metabolic studies were performed to measure insulin and leptin action. The TRPV1 KO mice became more obese than the WT mice after HFD, partly attributed to altered energy balance and leptin resistance in the KO mice. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiment showed that the TRPV1 KO mice were more insulin resistant after HFD because of the ?40% reduction in glucose metabolism in the white and brown adipose tissue, compared with that in the WT mice. Leptin treatment failed to suppress food intake, and leptin-mediated hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 activity was blunted in the TRPV1 KO mice. We also found that the TRPV1 KO mice were more obese and insulin resistant than the WT mice at 9 mo of age. Taken together, these results indicate that lacking TRPV1 exacerbates the obesity and insulin resistance associated with an HFD and aging, and our findings further suggest that TRPV1 has a major role in regulating glucose metabolism and hypothalamic leptin's effects in obesity. PMID:25888600

  15. Ablation of TRPV1 Abolishes Endothelin Induced Increases in Afferent Renal Nerve Activity: Mechanisms and Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chaoqin; Wang, Donna H.

    2009-01-01

    Endothelin 1 (ET-1) and its receptors, ETA and ETB, play an important role in regulating renal function and blood pressure, and these components are expressed in sensory nerves. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in sensory nerves innervating the renal pelvis enhances afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA), diuresis, and natriuresis. We test the hypothesis that ET1 increases ARNA via activation of ETB, whereas ETA counter-balances ETB in wild type (WT) but not TRPV1-null mutant (TRPV?/?) mice. ET-1 alone or with BQ123, an ETA antagonist, perfused into the left renal pelvis increased ipsilaterel ARNA in WT but not TRPV?/? mice, and ARNA increases were greater in the latter. [Ala1, 3,11,15]-endothelin 1 (4 Ala-ET-1), an ETB agonist, increased ARNA that was greater than that induced by ET-1 in WT mice only. 4 Ala-ET-1-induced increases in ARNA were abolished by chelerythrine (CHE), a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, but not by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Neither CHE, H89, nor BQ788, an ETB antagonist, affected ARNA triggered by capsaicin (CAP) in WT mice. Substance P (SP) release from the renal pelvis was increased by 4 Ala-ET-1 in WT mice only, and the increase was abolished by CHE but not by H89. Neither CHE, H89, nor BQ788 affected CAP-induced SP release. Our data show that ET1 increases ARNA via activation of ETB whereas ETA counter-balances ETB in WT but not TRPV?/? mice, suggesting that TRPV1 mediates ETB-dependent increases in ARNA, diuresis, and natriuresis via possibly the PKC pathway. PMID:19858408

  16. Pyridine C-region analogs of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ryu, HyungChul; Seo, Sejin; Lee, Jee-Young; Ha, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Sunho; Jung, Aeran; Ann, Jihyae; Kim, Sung-Eun; Yoon, Suyoung; Hong, Mannkyu; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Schiene, Klaus; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-03-26

    A series of pyridine derivatives in the C-region of N-((6-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-3-yl)methyl) 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides were investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. The SAR analysis indicated that 6-difluorochloromethyl pyridine derivatives were the best surrogates of the C-region for previous leads. Among them, compound 31 showed excellent antagonism to capsaicin as well as to multiple hTRPV1 activators. It demonstrated strong analgesic activity in the formalin test in mice with full efficacy and it blocked capsaicin-induced hypothermia in vivo. PMID:25659771

  17. Effects of some natural carotenoids on TRPA1- and TRPV1-induced neurogenic inflammatory processes in vivo in the mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Györgyi; Kemény, Ágnes; Barthó, Loránd; Molnár, Péter; Deli, József; Szente, Lajos; Bozó, Tamás; Pál, Szilárd; Sándor, Katalin; Sz?ke, Éva; Szolcsányi, János; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2015-05-01

    Mechanisms of the potent anti-inflammatory actions of carotenoids are unknown. Since carotenoids are incorporated into membranes, they might modulate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and vanilloid 1 (TRPA1 and TRPV1) activation predominantly on peptidergic sensory nerves. We therefore investigated the effects of three carotenoids (?-carotene, lutein and lycopene) on cutaneous neurogenic inflammation. Acute neurogenic edema and inflammatory cell recruitment were induced by smearing the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil (5%) or the TRPV1 activator capsaicin (2.5%) on the mouse ear. Ear thickness was then determined by micrometry, microcirculation by laser Doppler imaging and neutrophil accumulation by histopathology and spectrophotometric determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The effects of lutein on the stimulatory action of the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil were also tested on the guinea-pig small intestine, in isolated organ experiments. Mustard oil evoked 50-55% ear edema and granulocyte influx, as shown by histology and myeloperoxidase activity. Swelling was significantly reduced between 2 and 4 h after administration of lutein or ?-carotene (100 mg/kg subcutane three times during 24 h). Lutein also decreased neutrophil accumulation induced by TRPA1 activation, but did not affect mustard oil-evoked intestinal contraction. Lycopene had no effect on any of these parameters. None of the three carotenoids altered capsaicin-evoked inflammation. It is proposed that the dihydroxycarotenoid lutein selectively inhibits TRPA1 activation and consequent neurogenic inflammation, possibly by modulating lipid rafts. PMID:25645682

  18. Relative contributions of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in the activation of vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibres by the endogenous autacoid 4-oxononenal

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Clark, T E; McAlexander, M A; Nassenstein, C; Sheardown, S A; Wilson, S; Thornton, J; Carr, M J; Undem, B J

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 channels are cation channels found preferentially on nociceptive sensory neurones, including capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1-expressing vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibres, and are activated by electrophilic compounds such as mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde. Oxidative stress, a pathological feature of many respiratory diseases, causes the endogenous formation of a number of reactive electrophilic alkenals via lipid peroxidation. One such alkenal, 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), activates TRPA1 in cultured sensory neurones. However, our data demonstrate that 100 ?m 4HNE was unable to evoke significant action potential discharge or tachykinin release from bronchopulmonary C-fibre terminals. Instead, another endogenously produced alkenal, 4-oxononenal (4ONE, 10 ?m), which is far more electrophilic than 4HNE, caused substantial action potential discharge and tachykinin release from bronchopulmonary C-fibre terminals. The activation of mouse bronchopulmonary C-fibre terminals by 4ONE (10–100 ?m) was mediated entirely by TRPA1 channels, based on the absence of responses in C-fibre terminals from TRPA1 knockout mice. Interestingly, although the robust increases in calcium caused by 4ONE (0.1–10 ?m) in dissociated vagal neurones were essentially abolished in TRPA1 knockout mice, at 100 ?m 4ONE caused a large TRPV1-dependent response. Furthermore, 4ONE (100 ?m) was shown to activate TRPV1 channel-expressing HEK cells. In conclusion, the data support the hypothesis that 4-ONE is a relevant endogenous activator of vagal C-fibres via an interaction with TRPA1, and at less relevant concentrations, it may activate nerves via TRPV1. PMID:18499726

  19. Modulation of transient receptor vanilloid 1 activity by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Viola; Stein, Christoph; Zöllner, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel responding to noxious heat, protons, and chemicals such as capsaicin. TRPV1 is expressed in sensory neurons and plays a critical role in pain associated with tissue injury, inflammation, and nerve lesions. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is coexpressed with TRPV1. It is activated by compounds that cause a burning sensation (e.g., mustard oil) and, indirectly, by components of the inflammatory milieu eliciting nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Previous studies indicate an interaction of TRPV1 and TRPA1 signaling pathways. Here we sought to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions in nociceptive neurons. We first excluded physical interactions of both channels using radioligand binding studies. By microfluorimetry, electrophysiological experiments, cAMP measurements, and site-directed mutagenesis we found a sensitization of TRPV1 after TRPA1 stimulation with mustard oil in a calcium and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. TRPA1 stimulation enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation via the putative PKA phosphorylation site serine 116. We also detected calcium-sensitive increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 activation in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The inhibition of TRPA1 by HC-030031 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1,3-dimethyl-N-[4-(1-methylethyl)phenyl]-2,6-dioxo-7H-purine-7-acetamide, 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide) after its initial stimulation (and the calcium-insensitive TRPA1 mutant D477A) still showed increased capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity. This excludes a calcium-induced additive TRPA1 current after TRPV1 stimulation. Our study shows sensitization of TRPV1 via activation of TRPA1, which involves adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP, subsequent translocation and activation of PKA, and phosphorylation of TRPV1 at PKA phosphorylation residues. This suggests that cross-sensitization of TRP channels contributes to enhanced pain sensitivity in inflamed tissues. PMID:24275229

  20. Trans-activation of TRPV1 by D1R in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Woo; Cho, Pyung Sun; Lee, Han Kyu; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Oh, Seog Bae

    2015-10-01

    TRPV1, a ligand-gated ion channel expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons is modulated by a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays important roles in motor control, cognition, and pain modulation in the CNS, and acts via a variety of dopamine receptors (D1R-D5R), a class of GPCRs. Although nociceptive sensory neurons express D1-like receptors, very little is known about the effect of dopamine on TRPV1 in the peripheral nervous system. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of D1R activation on TRPV1 in mouse DRG neurons using Ca(2+) imaging and immunohistochemical analysis. The D1R agonist SKF-38393 induced reproducible Ca(2+) responses via Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 rather than Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed co-expression of D1R and TRPV1 in mouse DRG neurons. The PLC-specific inhibitor blocked the SKF-38393-induced Ca(2+) response, whereas the PKC, DAG lipase, AC, and PKA inhibitors had no effect on the SKF-38393-induced Ca(2+) response. Taken together, our results suggest that the SKF-38393-induced Ca(2+) response results from the direct activation of TRPV1 by a PLC/DAG-mediated membrane-delimited pathway. These results provide evidence that the trans-activation of TRPV1 following D1R activation may contribute to the modulation of pain signaling in nociceptive sensory neurons. PMID:26319554

  1. Selective Activation of hTRPV1 by N-Geranyl Cyclopropylcarboxamide, an Amiloride-Insensitive Salt Taste Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Kweon, Hae-Jin; Suh, Byung-Chang; Lyall, Vijay; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2014-01-01

    TRPV1t, a variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been proposed as a constitutively active, non-selective cation channel as a putative amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor and shares many properties with TRPV1. Based on our previous chorda tympani taste nerve recordings in rodents and human sensory evaluations, we proposed that N-geranylcyclopropylcarboxamide (NGCC), a novel synthetic compound, acts as a salt taste enhancer by modulating the amiloride/benzamil-insensitive Na+ entry pathways. As an extension of this work, we investigated NGCC-induced human TRPV1 (hTRPV1) activation using a Ca2+-flux signaling assay in cultured cells. NGCC enhanced Ca2+ influx in hTRPV1-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner (EC50?=?115 µM). NGCC-induced Ca2+ influx was significantly attenuated by ruthenium red (RR; 30 µM), a non-specific blocker of TRP channels and capsazepine (CZP; 5 µM), a specific antagonist of TRPV1, implying that NGCC directly activates hTRPV1. TRPA1 is often co-expressed with TRPV1 in sensory neurons. Therefore, we also investigated the effects of NGCC on hTRPA1-expressing cells. Similar to hTRPV1, NGCC enhanced Ca2+ influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells (EC50?=?83.65 µM). The NGCC-induced Ca2+ influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells was blocked by RR (30 µM) and HC-030031 (100 µM), a specific antagonist of TRPA1. These results suggested that NGCC selectively activates TRPV1 and TRPA1 in cultured cells. These data may provide additional support for our previous hypothesis that NGCC interacts with TRPV1 variant cation channel, a putative amiloride/benzamil-insensitive salt taste pathway in the anterior taste receptive field. PMID:24586504

  2. Positive allosteric modulation of TRPV1 as a novel analgesic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of long-term opiate use in treating chronic non-cancer pain is increasing, and prescription opioid abuse and dependence are a major public health concern. To explore alternatives to opioid-based analgesia, the present study investigates a novel allosteric pharmacological approach operating through the cation channel TRPV1. This channel is highly expressed in subpopulations of primary afferent unmyelinated C- and lightly-myelinated A?-fibers that detect low and high rates of noxious heating, respectively, and it is also activated by vanilloid agonists and low pH. Sufficient doses of exogenous vanilloid agonists, such as capsaicin or resiniferatoxin, can inactivate/deactivate primary afferent endings due to calcium overload, and we hypothesized that positive allosteric modulation of agonist-activated TRPV1 could produce a selective, temporary inactivation of nociceptive nerve terminals in vivo. We previously identified MRS1477, a 1,4-dihydropyridine that potentiates vanilloid and pH activation of TRPV1 in vitro, but displays no detectable intrinsic agonist activity of its own. To study the in vivo effects of MRS1477, we injected the hind paws of rats with a non-deactivating dose of capsaicin, MRS1477, or the combination. An infrared diode laser was used to stimulate TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals and the latency and intensity of paw withdrawal responses were recorded. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed on dorsal root ganglia to examine changes in gene expression and the cellular specificity of such changes following treatment. Results Withdrawal responses of the capsaicin-only or MRS1477-only treated paws were not significantly different from the untreated, contralateral paws. However, rats treated with the combination of capsaicin and MRS1477 exhibited increased withdrawal latency and decreased response intensity consistent with agonist potentiation and inactivation or lesion of TRPV1-containing nerve terminals. The loss of nerve endings was manifested by an increase in levels of axotomy markers assessed by qRT-PCR and colocalization of ATF3 in TRPV1+ cells visualized via immunohistochemistry. Conclusions The present observations suggest a novel, non-narcotic, selective, long-lasting TRPV1-based approach for analgesia that may be effective in acute, persistent, or chronic pain disorders. PMID:22998799

  3. Resiniferatoxin and its analogs provide novel insights into the pharmacology of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Szallasi, A.; Blumberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent constituent of chili peppers, represents the paradigm for the capsaicinoids or vanilloids, a family of compounds shown to stimulate and then desensitize specific subpopulations of sensory receptors, including C-polymodal nociceptors, A-delta mechanoheat nociceptors and warm receptors of the skin, as well as enteroceptors of thin afferent fibers. An exciting recent advance in the field has been the finding that resiniferatoxin (RTX), a naturally occurring diterpene containing a homovanillic acid ester, a key structural motif of capsaicin, functions as an ultrapotent capsaicin analog. For most of the responses characteristic of capsaicin, RTX is 100-10,000 fold more potent. Structure/activity analysis indicates, however, that RTX and related homovanillyl-diterpene esters display distinct spectra of activity. Specific ({sup 3}H)RTX binding provides the first direct proof for the existence of vanilloid receptors. We expect that the RTX class of vanilloids will promote rapid progress in understanding of vanilloid structure/activity requirements and mechanism.

  4. Short-Term Increases in Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 Mediate Stress-Induced Enhancement of Neuronal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Weitlauf, Carl; Ward, Nicholas J.; Lambert, Wendi S.; Sidorova, Tatiana N.; Ho, Karen W.; Sappington, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Progression of neurodegeneration in disease and injury is influenced by the response of individual neurons to stressful stimuli and whether this response includes mechanisms to counter declining function. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels transduce a variety of disease-relevant stimuli and can mediate diverse stress-dependent changes in physiology, both presynaptic and postsynaptic. Recently, we demonstrated that knock-out or pharmacological inhibition of the TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) capsaicin-sensitive subunit accelerates degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons and their axons with elevated ocular pressure, the critical stressor in the most common optic neuropathy, glaucoma. Here we probed the mechanism of the influence of TRPV1 on ganglion cell survival in mouse models of glaucoma. We found that induced elevations of ocular pressure increased TRPV1 in ganglion cells and its colocalization at excitatory synapses to their dendrites, whereas chronic elevation progressively increased ganglion cell Trpv1 mRNA. Enhanced TRPV1 expression in ganglion cells was transient and supported a reversal of the effect of TRPV1 on ganglion cells from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing, which was also transient. Short-term enhancement of TRPV1-mediated activity led to a delayed increase in axonal spontaneous excitation that was absent in ganglion cells from Trpv1?/? retina. In isolated ganglion cells, pharmacologically activated TRPV1 mobilized to discrete nodes along ganglion cell dendrites that corresponded to sites of elevated Ca2+. These results suggest that TRPV1 may promote retinal ganglion cell survival through transient enhancement of local excitation and axonal activity in response to ocular stress. PMID:25392504

  5. Expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and anoctamin 1 in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the tongue.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Shigeji

    2014-07-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal sensor that is activated by heat (>43 °C), acid, or capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of hot peppers. Reports that mice lacking TRPV1 display heat avoidance behaviors and TRPV1-negative neurons respond to heat suggest that an additional heat sensor is present. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1; also known as transmembrane protein 16A [TMEM16A]), is a component of Ca(2+)-activated chloride channels (CaCCs), and has been recently identified as a heat sensor, activated by temperatures over 44 °C. ANO1 is highly co-localized with TRPV1 in small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate co-expression of ANO1 and TRPV1 in rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the tongue by using retrograde labeling and immunohistochemical techniques. Fluoro-gold (FG) retrograde labeling was used to identify the TG neurons innervating the anterior two thirds of the tongue; as expected, most labeling was detected in the mandibular division of the TGs. The FG-labeled TG neurons showed TRPV1 immunoreactivity (17.9%) and ANO1 immunoreactivity (13.7%), indicating that TRPV1- and ANO1-expressing neurons were present in the mandibular division of the TGs. Seventy-six percent of the ANO1-immunoreactive TG neurons were also immunoreactive for TRPV1; this co-expression was mainly detected in small- to medium-diameter TG neurons. The high degree of co-expression of TRPV1 and ANO1 suggests that cooperation between ANO1 and TRPV1 plays a role in the signaling pathways of nociceptive TG neurons. PMID:24792786

  6. Short-term increases in transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 mediate stress-induced enhancement of neuronal excitation.

    PubMed

    Weitlauf, Carl; Ward, Nicholas J; Lambert, Wendi S; Sidorova, Tatiana N; Ho, Karen W; Sappington, Rebecca M; Calkins, David J

    2014-11-12

    Progression of neurodegeneration in disease and injury is influenced by the response of individual neurons to stressful stimuli and whether this response includes mechanisms to counter declining function. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels transduce a variety of disease-relevant stimuli and can mediate diverse stress-dependent changes in physiology, both presynaptic and postsynaptic. Recently, we demonstrated that knock-out or pharmacological inhibition of the TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) capsaicin-sensitive subunit accelerates degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons and their axons with elevated ocular pressure, the critical stressor in the most common optic neuropathy, glaucoma. Here we probed the mechanism of the influence of TRPV1 on ganglion cell survival in mouse models of glaucoma. We found that induced elevations of ocular pressure increased TRPV1 in ganglion cells and its colocalization at excitatory synapses to their dendrites, whereas chronic elevation progressively increased ganglion cell Trpv1 mRNA. Enhanced TRPV1 expression in ganglion cells was transient and supported a reversal of the effect of TRPV1 on ganglion cells from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing, which was also transient. Short-term enhancement of TRPV1-mediated activity led to a delayed increase in axonal spontaneous excitation that was absent in ganglion cells from Trpv1(-/-) retina. In isolated ganglion cells, pharmacologically activated TRPV1 mobilized to discrete nodes along ganglion cell dendrites that corresponded to sites of elevated Ca(2+). These results suggest that TRPV1 may promote retinal ganglion cell survival through transient enhancement of local excitation and axonal activity in response to ocular stress. PMID:25392504

  7. Auto-oxidation products of epigallocatechin gallate activate TRPA1 and TRPV1 in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Mako; Kawai, Yasushi; Nagatomo, Katsuhiro; Tateyama, Michihiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The sensation of astringency is elicited by catechins and their polymers in wine and tea. It has been considered that catechins in green tea are unstable and auto-oxidized to induce more astringent taste. Here, we examined how mammalian transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1, which are nociceptive sensors, are activated by green tea catechins during the auto-oxidation process. Neither TRPV1 nor TRPA1 could be activated by any of the freshly prepared catechin. When one of the major catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), was preincubated for 3h in Hank's balanced salt solution, it significantly activated both TRP channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Even after incubation, other catechins showed much less effects. Results suggest that only oxidative products of EGCG activate both TRPV1 and TRPA1. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons were also activated by the incubated EGCG through TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that theasinensins A and D are formed during incubation of EGCG. We found that purified theasinensin A activates both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and that it stimulates DRG neurons through TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. Results suggested a possibility that TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are involved in the sense of astringent taste of green tea. PMID:25422365

  8. Propofol restores TRPV1 sensitivity via a TRPA1-, nitric oxide synthase-dependent activation of PKC?

    PubMed Central

    Sinharoy, Pritam; Zhang, Hongyu; Sinha, Sayantani; Prudner, Bethany C; Bratz, Ian N; Damron, Derek S

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the intravenous anesthetic, propofol, restores the sensitivity of transient receptor potential vanilloid channel subtype-1 (TRPV1) receptors via a protein kinase C epsilon (PKC?)-dependent and transient receptor potential ankyrin channel subtype-1 (TRPA1)-dependent pathway in sensory neurons. The extent to which the two pathways are directly linked or operating in parallel has not been determined. Using a molecular approach, our objectives of the current study were to confirm that TRPA1 activation directly results in PKC? activation and to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which this occurs. F-11 cells were transfected with complimentary DNA (cDNA) for TRPV1 only or both TRPV1 and TRPA1. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration was measured in individual cells via fluorescence microscopy. An immunoblot analysis of the total and phosphorylated forms of PKC?, nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and TRPV1 was also performed. In F-11 cells containing both channels, PKC? inhibition prevented the propofol- and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity to agonist stimulation as well as increased phosphorylation of PKC? and TRPV1. In cells containing TRPV1 only, neither agonist induced PKC? or TRPV1 phosphorylation. Moreover, NOS inhibition blocked propofol-and AITC-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity and PKC? phosphorylation, and PKC? inhibition prevented the nitric oxide donor, SNAP, from restoring TRPV1 sensitivity. Also, propofol-and AITC-induced phosphorylation of nNOS and nitric oxide (NO) production were blocked with the TRPA1-antagonist, HC-030031. These data indicate that the AITC- and propofol-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity is mediated by a TRPA1-dependent, nitric oxide synthase-dependent activation of PKC?. PMID:26171233

  9. Hunting for origins of migraine pain: cluster analysis of spontaneous and capsaicin-induced firing in meningeal trigeminal nerve fibers

    PubMed Central

    Zakharov, A.; Vitale, C.; Kilinc, E.; Koroleva, K.; Fayuk, D.; Shelukhina, I.; Naumenko, N.; Skorinkin, A.; Khazipov, R.; Giniatullin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal nerves in meninges are implicated in generation of nociceptive firing underlying migraine pain. However, the neurochemical mechanisms of nociceptive firing in meningeal trigeminal nerves are little understood. In this study, using suction electrode recordings from peripheral branches of the trigeminal nerve in isolated rat meninges, we analyzed spontaneous and capsaicin-induced orthodromic spiking activity. In control, biphasic single spikes with variable amplitude and shapes were observed. Application of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin to meninges dramatically increased firing whereas the amplitudes and shapes of spikes remained essentially unchanged. This effect was antagonized by the specific TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Using the clustering approach, several groups of uniform spikes (clusters) were identified. The clustering approach combined with capsaicin application allowed us to detect and to distinguish “responder” (65%) from “non-responder” clusters (35%). Notably, responders fired spikes at frequencies exceeding 10 Hz, high enough to provide postsynaptic temporal summation of excitation at brainstem and spinal cord level. Almost all spikes were suppressed by tetrodotoxin (TTX) suggesting an involvement of the TTX-sensitive sodium channels in nociceptive signaling at the peripheral branches of trigeminal neurons. Our analysis also identified transient (desensitizing) and long-lasting (slowly desensitizing) responses to the continuous application of capsaicin. Thus, the persistent activation of nociceptors in capsaicin-sensitive nerve fibers shown here may be involved in trigeminal pain signaling and plasticity along with the release of migraine-related neuropeptides from TRPV1 positive neurons. Furthermore, cluster analysis could be widely used to characterize the temporal and neurochemical profiles of other pain transducers likely implicated in migraine. PMID:26283923

  10. 2-Alkyl/alkenyl substituted pyridine C-region analogues of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as highly potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ryu, HyungChul; Seo, Sejin; Cho, Seong-Hee; Kim, Ho Shin; Jung, Aeran; Kang, Dong Wook; Son, Karam; Cui, Minghua; Hong, Sun-hye; Sharma, Pankaz Kumar; Choi, Sun; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Schiene, Klaus; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2014-08-15

    A series of 2-alkyl/alkenyl pyridine C-region derivatives of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides were investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. Multiple compounds showed excellent and stereospecific TRPV1 antagonism with better potency than previous lead 2. Among them, compound 15f demonstrated a strong analgesic profile in a rat neuropathic pain model and blocked capsaicin-induced hypothermia in a dose-dependent manner. Docking analysis of (S)-15f with our hTRPV1 homology model provided insight into its specific binding mode. PMID:24948568

  11. TRPV1 mediates cell death in rat synovial fibroblasts through calcium entry-dependent ROS production and mitochondrial depolarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Fen; Sun Wenwu; Zhao Xiao Ting; Cui Zongjie Yang Wenxiu

    2008-05-16

    Synoviocyte hyperplasia is critical for rheumatoid arthritis, therefore, potentially an important target for therapeutics. It was found in this work that a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, and acidic solution (pH 5.5) induced increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in synoviocytes isolated from a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. The increases in both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} and ROS production were completely abolished in calcium-free buffer or by a TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Further experiments revealed that capsaicin and pH 5.5 solution caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reduction in cell viability; such effects were inhibited by capsazepine, or the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. Both capsaicin and pH 5.5 buffer induced apoptosis as shown by nuclear condensation and fragmentation. Furthermore, RT-PCR readily detected TRPV1 mRNA expression in the isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, these data indicated that TRPV1 activation triggered synoviocyte death by [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} elevation, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization.

  12. TRPV1 and SP: key elements for sepsis outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Bodkin, Jennifer Victoria; Fernandes, Elizabeth Soares

    2013-01-01

    Sensory neurons play important roles in many disorders, including inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis. Sepsis is a potentially lethal systemic inflammatory reaction to a local bacterial infection, affecting thousands of patients annually. Although associated with a high mortality rate, sepsis outcome depends on the severity of systemic inflammation, which can be directly influenced by several factors, including the immune response of the patient. Currently, there is a lack of effective drugs to treat sepsis, and thus there is a need to develop new drugs to improve sepsis outcome. Several mediators involved in the formation of sepsis have now been identified, but the mechanisms underlying the pathology remain poorly understood. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor and the neuropeptide substance P (SP) have recently been demonstrated as important targets for sepsis and are located on sensory neurones and non-neuronal cells. Herein, we highlight and review the importance of sensory neurones for the modulation of sepsis, with specific focus on recent findings relating to TRPV1 and SP, with their distinct abilities to alter the transition from local to systemic inflammation and also modify the overall sepsis outcome. We also emphasize the protective role of TRPV1 in this context. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Neuropeptides. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-7 PMID:23145480

  13. External QX-314 inhibits evoked cranial primary afferent synaptic transmission independent of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Fawley, Jessica A; Andresen, Michael C

    2014-12-01

    The cell-impermeant lidocaine derivative QX-314 blocks sodium channels via intracellular mechanisms. In somatosensory nociceptive neurons, open transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors provide a transmembrane passageway for QX-314 to produce long-lasting analgesia. Many cranial primary afferents express TRPV1 at synapses on neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and caudal trigeminal nucleus (Vc). Here, we investigated whether QX-314 interrupts neurotransmission from primary afferents in rat brain-stem slices. Shocks to the solitary tract (ST) activated highly synchronous evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (ST-EPSCs). Application of 300 ?M QX-314 increased the ST-EPSC latency from TRPV1+ ST afferents, but, surprisingly, it had similar actions at TRPV1- ST afferents. Continued exposure to QX-314 blocked evoked ST-EPSCs at both afferent types. Neither the time to onset of latency changes nor the time to ST-EPSC failure differed between responses for TRPV1+ and TRPV1- inputs. Likewise, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine failed to prevent the actions of QX-314. Whereas QX-314 blocked ST-evoked release, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs remained unaltered. In neurons exposed to QX-314, intracellular current injection evoked action potentials suggesting a presynaptic site of action. QX-314 acted similarly at Vc neurons to increase latency and block EPSCs evoked from trigeminal tract afferents. Our results demonstrate that QX-314 blocked nerve conduction in cranial primary afferents without interrupting the glutamate release mechanism or generation of postsynaptic action potentials. The TRPV1 independence suggests that QX-314 either acted extracellularly or more likely entered these axons through an undetermined pathway common to all cranial primary afferents. PMID:25185814

  14. Opioids and TRPV1 in the peripheral control of neuropathic pain - Defining a target site in the injured nerve.

    PubMed

    Labuz, Dominika; Spahn, Viola; Celik, Melih Özgür; Machelska, Halina

    2016-02-01

    Targeting peripheral neuropathic pain at its origin may prevent the development of hypersensitivity. Recently we showed this can be mediated by opioid receptors at the injured nerve trunk. Here, we searched for the most relevant peripheral site to block transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), and investigated analgesic interactions between TRPV1 and opioids in neuropathy. In a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in mice, we assessed the effects of ?-, ?- and ?-opioid receptor agonists and TRPV1 antagonist (SB366791) injected at the CCI site or into the injured nerve-innervated paw on spontaneous paw lifting, heat and mechanical sensitivity. We also examined TRPV1 expression in total membrane and plasma membrane fractions from nerves and paws. We found that opioids and SB366791 co-injected in per se nonanalgesic doses at the CCI site or into the paw diminished heat and mechanical sensitivity. SB366791 alone dose-dependently alleviated heat and mechanical sensitivity. TRPV1 blockade in the paw was more effective than at the CCI site. None of the treatments diminished spontaneous paw lifting. TRPV1 expression analysis suggests that the levels of functional TRPV1 do not critically determine the TRPV1 antagonist-mediated analgesia. Together, the identification of the primary action site in damaged nerves is crucial for effective pain control. Contrary to opioids, the TRPV1 blockade in the injured nerve peripheral terminals, rather than at the nerve trunk, appears promising against heat pain. Opioid/TRPV1 antagonist combinations at both locations partially reduced neuropathy-triggered heat and mechanical pain. PMID:26453963

  15. TRPV1 mediates cellular uptake of anandamide and thus promotes endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Nicole A.; Barth, Sonja; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Klec, Christiane; Strunk, Dirk; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anandamide (N-arachidonyl ethanolamide, AEA) is an endogenous cannabinoid that is involved in various pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and tumor-angiogenesis. Herein, we tested the involvement of classical cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) and the Ca2+-channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on cellular AEA uptake and its effect on endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation. Uptake of the fluorescence-labeled anandamide (SKM4-45-1) was monitored in human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and a human endothelial-vein cell line (EA.hy926). Involvement of the receptors during AEA translocation was determined by selective pharmacological inhibition (AM251, SR144528, CID16020046, SB366791) and molecular interference by TRPV1-selective siRNA-mediated knock-down and TRPV1 overexpression. We show that exclusively TRPV1 contributes essentially to AEA transport into endothelial cells in a Ca2+-independent manner. This TRPV1 function is a prerequisite for AEA-induced endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation. Our findings point to a so far unknown moonlighting function of TRPV1 as Ca2+-independent contributor/regulator of AEA uptake. We propose TRPV1 as representing a promising target for development of pharmacological therapies against AEA-triggered endothelial cell functions, including their stimulatory effect on tumor-angiogenesis. PMID:25395667

  16. Neuroprotection induced by vitamin E against oxidative stress in hippocampal neurons: involvement of TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Crouzin, Nadine; Ferreira, Marie-Céleste de Jesus; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; Barbanel, Gérard; Guiramand, Janique; Vignes, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Pretreatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with a low concentration of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TP), the major component of vitamin E, results in a long-lasting protection against oxidative damages, via genomic effects. This neuroprotection is associated with the attenuation of a calcium influx triggered by oxidative agents such as Fe(2+) ions. This Ca(2+) influx is supported by a TRP-like channel, also partly involved in capacitive calcium entry within neurons. Here, we evidence the contribution of TRPV1 channels in this mechanism. TRPV1 channels are activated by various agents including capsaicin, the pungent component of hot chili peppers and blocked by capsazepine (CPZ) or 5'-iodo-resiniferatoxin. Both TRPV1 inhibitors strongly reduced Fe(2+) ion-mediated toxicity and Ca(2+) influx, in the same way as to alpha-TP pretreatment. Moreover, CPZ also decreased capacitive calcium entry in hippocampal neurons. Finally, both CPZ and 5'-iodo-resiniferatoxin reduced spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission; this depression of synaptic transmission being largely occluded in alpha-TP-pretreated neurons. In conclusion, in our experimental model, TRPV1 channels are involved in the Fe(2+) ion-induced neuronal death and a negative modulation of this channel activity by alpha-TP pretreatment may account, at least in part, for the long-lasting neuroprotection against oxidative stress. PMID:20087852

  17. Targeting TRPV1 for Body Weight Control using TRPV1?/? Mice and Electroacupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Choowanthanapakorn, Monchanok; Lu, Kung-Wen; Yang, Jun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global social medical problem resulting in morbidity as high as 20–30%. Here we investigated whether the manipulation of TRPV1 can control mice body weight through electroacupuncture (EA). The results demonstrated that body weight increased with time in the control group (108.19?±?1.31%, n?=?7). The increase of mice body weight was significantly less in the EA group (104.41?±?0.76%, p?TRPV1 knock mice (107.94?±?0.41% and 107.79?±?1.04% for TRPV1?/? and TRPV1?/? with EA, respectively, p?>?0.05). The visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) weight was lower in the EA group at 4 weeks after manipulation. Moreover, the protein levels of TRPV1, pPKA, pPKC, and pERK were increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) after EA treatment but not in the sham EA and TRPV1?/? mice. This study suggests that targeting TRPV1 is beneficial in controlling body weight and TRPV1-associated mechanisms in mice. PMID:26621679

  18. Targeting TRPV1 for Body Weight Control using TRPV1(-/-) Mice and Electroacupuncture.

    PubMed

    Choowanthanapakorn, Monchanok; Lu, Kung-Wen; Yang, Jun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global social medical problem resulting in morbidity as high as 20-30%. Here we investigated whether the manipulation of TRPV1 can control mice body weight through electroacupuncture (EA). The results demonstrated that body weight increased with time in the control group (108.19?±?1.31%, n?=?7). The increase of mice body weight was significantly less in the EA group (104.41?±?0.76%, p?TRPV1 knock mice (107.94?±?0.41% and 107.79?±?1.04% for TRPV1(-/-) and TRPV1(-/-) with EA, respectively, p?>?0.05). The visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) weight was lower in the EA group at 4 weeks after manipulation. Moreover, the protein levels of TRPV1, pPKA, pPKC, and pERK were increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) after EA treatment but not in the sham EA and TRPV1(-/-) mice. This study suggests that targeting TRPV1 is beneficial in controlling body weight and TRPV1-associated mechanisms in mice. PMID:26621679

  19. Subgroup-Elimination Transcriptomics Identifies Signaling Proteins that Define Subclasses of TRPV1-Positive Neurons and a Novel Paracrine Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Isensee, Jörg; Wenzel, Carsten; Buschow, Rene; Weissmann, Robert; Kuss, Andreas W.; Hucho, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Normal and painful stimuli are detected by specialized subgroups of peripheral sensory neurons. The understanding of the functional differences of each neuronal subgroup would be strongly enhanced by knowledge of the respective subgroup transcriptome. The separation of the subgroup of interest, however, has proven challenging as they can hardly be enriched. Instead of enriching, we now rapidly eliminated the subgroup of neurons expressing the heat-gated cation channel TRPV1 from dissociated rat sensory ganglia. Elimination was accomplished by brief treatment with TRPV1 agonists followed by the removal of compromised TRPV1(+) neurons using density centrifugation. By differential microarray and sequencing (RNA-Seq) based expression profiling we compared the transcriptome of all cells within sensory ganglia versus the same cells lacking TRPV1 expressing neurons, which revealed 240 differentially expressed genes (adj. p<0.05, fold-change>1.5). Corroborating the specificity of the approach, many of these genes have been reported to be involved in noxious heat or pain sensitization. Beyond the expected enrichment of ion channels, we found the TRPV1 transcriptome to be enriched for GPCRs and other signaling proteins involved in adenosine, calcium, and phosphatidylinositol signaling. Quantitative population analysis using a recent High Content Screening (HCS) microscopy approach identified substantial heterogeneity of expressed target proteins even within TRPV1-positive neurons. Signaling components defined distinct further subgroups within the population of TRPV1-positive neurons. Analysis of one such signaling system showed that the pain sensitizing prostaglandin PGD2 activates DP1 receptors expressed predominantly on TRPV1(+) neurons. In contrast, we found the PGD2 producing prostaglandin D synthase to be expressed exclusively in myelinated large-diameter neurons lacking TRPV1, which suggests a novel paracrine neuron-neuron communication. Thus, subgroup analysis based on the elimination rather than enrichment of the subgroup of interest revealed proteins that define subclasses of TRPV1-positive neurons and suggests a novel paracrine circuit. PMID:25551770

  20. Involvement of TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels in migration of rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elodie; Dahan, Diana; Cardouat, Guillaume; Gillibert-Duplantier, Jennifer; Marthan, Roger; Savineau, Jean-Pierre; Ducret, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension, the main disease of the pulmonary circulation, is characterized by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, involving proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain to be identified. In the present study, we thus investigated in rat intrapulmonary arteries (1) the expression and the functional activity of TRPV1 and TRPV4, (2) the PASMC migration triggered by these TRPV channels, and (3) the associated reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated expression of TRPV1 and TRPV4 mRNA in rat intrapulmonary arteries. These results were confirmed at the protein level by western blot. Using microspectrofluorimetry (indo-1), we show that capsaicin and 4?-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (4?-PDD), selective agonists of TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively, increased the intracellular calcium concentration of PASMC. Furthermore, stimulation of TRPV1 and TRPV4 induced PASMC migratory responses, as assessed by two different methods (a modified Boyden chamber assay and a wound-healing migration assay). This response cannot seem to be attributed to a proliferative effect as assessed by BrdU and Wst-1 colorimetric methods. Capsaicin- and 4?-PDD-induced calcium and migratory responses were inhibited by the selective TRPV1 and TRPV4 blockers, capsazepine and HC067047, respectively. Finally, as assessed by immunostaining, these TRPV-induced migratory responses were associated with reorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton and the tubulin and intermediate filament networks. In conclusion, these data point out, for the first time, the implication of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in rat PASMC migration, suggesting the implication of these TRPV channels in the physiopathology of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22820913

  1. Capsaicin Fluidifies the Membrane and Localizes Itself near the Lipid-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Torrecillas, Alejandro; Schneider, Monika; Fernández-Martínez, Ana M; Ausili, Alessio; de Godos, Ana M; Corbalán-García, Senena; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C

    2015-10-21

    Capsaicin is the chemical responsible for making some peppers spicy hot, but additionally it is used as a pharmaceutical to alleviate different pain conditions. Capsaicin binds to the vanilloid receptor TRPV1, which plays a role in coordinating chemical and physical painful stimuli. A number of reports have also shown that capsaicin inserts in membranes and its capacity to modify them may be part of its molecular mode of action, affecting the activity of other membrane proteins. We have used differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, (31)P NMR, and (2)H NMR spectroscopy to show that capsaicin increases the fluidity and disorder of 1,2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine membrane models. By using (1)H NOESY MAS NMR based on proton-proton cross-peaks between capsaicin and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine resonances, we determined the location profile of this molecule in a fluid membrane concluding that it occupies the upper part of the phospholipid monolayer, between the lipid-water interface and the double bond of the acyl chain in position sn-2. This location explains the disorganization of the membrane of both the lipid-water interface and the hydrophobic palisade. PMID:26247812

  2. Fufang Kushen injection inhibits sarcoma growth and tumor-induced hyperalgesia via TRPV1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizheng; Fan, Huiting; Higgins, Tim; Qi, Jia; Haines, Diana; Trivett, Anna; Oppenheim, Joost J; Wei, Hou; Li, Jie; Lin, Hongsheng; Howard, O M Zack

    2014-12-28

    Cancer pain is a deleterious consequence of tumor growth and related inflammation. Opioids and anti-inflammatory drugs provide first line treatment for cancer pain, but both are limited by side effects. Fufang Kushen injection (FKI) is GMP produced, traditional Chinese medicine used alone or with chemotherapy to reduce cancer-associated pain. FKI limited mouse sarcoma growth both in vivo and in vitro, in part, by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT kinases and BAD. FKI inhibited TRPV1 mediated capsaicin-induced ERK phosphorylation and reduced tumor-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Thus, FKI limited cancer pain both directly by blocking TRPV1 signaling and indirectly by reducing tumor growth. PMID:25242356

  3. Capsaicin stimulates the non-store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry but inhibits the store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry in neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-P. . E-mail: w1994@vghtc.gov.tw; Tseng, C.-S.; Sun, S.-P.; Chen, Y.-S.; Tsai, C.-R.; Hsu, M.-F.

    2005-12-01

    Rat neutrophils express the mRNA encoding for transient receptor potential (TRP) V1. However, capsaicin-stimulated [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation occurred only at high concentrations ({>=}100 {mu}M). This response was substantially decreased in a Ca{sup 2+}-free medium. Vanilloids displayed similar patterns of Ca{sup 2+} response with the rank order of potency as follows: scutigeral>resiniferatoxin>capsazepine>capsaicin=olvanil>isovelleral. Arachidonyl dopamine (AAD), an endogenous ligand for TRPV1, failed to desensitize the subsequent capsaicin challenge. Capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} response was not affected by 8-bromo-cyclic ADP-ribose (8-Br-cADPR), the ryanodine receptor blocker, but was slightly attenuated by 1-[6-[17{beta}-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,= 5-dione (U-73122), the inhibitor of phospholipase C-coupled processes, 1-[{beta}-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole (SKF-96365), the blocker of receptor-gated and store-operated Ca{sup 2+} (SOC) channels, 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate (2-APB), the blocker of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphospahte (IP{sub 3}) receptor and Ca{sup 2+} influx, and by ruthenium red, a blocker of TRPV channels, and enhanced by the Ca{sup 2+} channels blocker, cis-N-(2-phenylcyclopentyl)azacyclotridec-1-en-2-amine (MDL-12330A) and Na{sup +}-deprivation. In addition, capsaicin had no effect on the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity or the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) or on the total thiols content. Capsaicin ({>=}100 {mu}M) inhibited the cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-induced store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE). In the absence of external Ca{sup 2+}, the robust Ca{sup 2+} entry after subsequent addition of Ca{sup 2+} was decreased by capsaicin in CPA-activated cells. Capsaicin alone increased the actin cytoskeleton, and also increased the actin filament content in cell activation with CPA. These results indicate that capsaicin activates a TRPV1-independent non-SOCE pathway in neutrophils. The reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is probably involved in the capsaicin inhibition of SOCE.

  4. TRPV1 on astrocytes rescues nigral dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease via CNTF.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jin H; Park, Eun S; Won, So-Yoon; Lee, Yu A; Kim, Kyoung I; Jeong, Jae Y; Baek, Jeong Y; Cho, Eun J; Jin, Minyoung; Chung, Young C; Lee, Byoung D; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, Eung-Gook; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee; Woo, Dong Ho; Lee, C Justin; Kim, Sang R; Bok, Eugene; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Ahn, Tae-Beom; Ko, Hyuk Wan; Brahmachari, Saurav; Pletinkova, Olga; Troconso, Juan C; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Jin, Byung K

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no neuroprotective or neurorestorative therapy for Parkinson's disease. Here we report that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on astrocytes mediates endogenous production of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), which prevents the active degeneration of dopamine neurons and leads to behavioural recovery through CNTF receptor alpha (CNTFR?) on nigral dopamine neurons in both the MPP(+)-lesioned or adeno-associated virus ?-synuclein rat models of Parkinson's disease. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of human post-mortem substantia nigra from Parkinson's disease suggests that this endogenous neuroprotective system (TRPV1 and CNTF on astrocytes, and CNTFR? on dopamine neurons) might have relevance to human Parkinson's disease. Our results suggest that activation of astrocytic TRPV1 activates endogenous neuroprotective machinery in vivo and that it is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:26490328

  5. Protective effects of the flavonoid hesperidin methyl chalcone in inflammation and pain in mice: role of TRPV1, oxidative stress, cytokines and NF-?B.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Borghi, Sergio M; Zarpelon, Ana C; Guazelli, Carla F S; Manchope, Marilia F; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-02-25

    Cytokines and reactive oxygen species are inflammatory mediators that lead to increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, and their inhibition represents a therapeutic approach in controlling acute and chronic pain. The water-soluble flavonone hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) is used in the treatment of venous diseases, but its bioactivity as anti-inflammatory and analgesic is poorly understood. The present study evaluated the protective effects of HMC in widely used mouse models of acute and prolonged inflammation and pain. Male Swiss mice were treated with HMC (3-100 or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle (saline) 1h before inflammatory stimuli. In overt pain-like behavior tests, HMC inhibited acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone-induced writhing, and capsaicin-, Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)- and formalin-induced paw flinching and licking. HMC also inhibited carrageenan-, capsaicin- and CFA-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanistically, HMC inhibited carrageenan-induced cytokine (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10) production, oxidative stress and NF-?B activation. Furthermore, HMC did not cause gastric or hepatic injury in a 7 days treatment protocol. Thus, this is the first report that HMC reduces inflammation and inflammatory pain by targeting TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) receptor activity, oxidative stress, cytokine production, and NF-?B activity, which suggests its potential applicability in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25617481

  6. Role of the outer pore domain in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 dynamic permeability to large cations.

    PubMed

    Munns, Clare H; Chung, Man-Kyo; Sanchez, Yuly E; Amzel, L Mario; Caterina, Michael J

    2015-02-27

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) has been shown to alter its ionic selectivity profile in a time- and agonist-dependent manner. One hallmark of this dynamic process is an increased permeability to large cations such as N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). In this study, we mutated residues throughout the TRPV1 pore domain to identify loci that contribute to dynamic large cation permeability. Using resiniferatoxin (RTX) as the agonist, we identified multiple gain-of-function substitutions within the TRPV1 pore turret (N628P and S629A), pore helix (F638A), and selectivity filter (M644A) domains. In all of these mutants, maximum NMDG permeability was substantially greater than that recorded in wild type TRPV1, despite similar or even reduced sodium current density. Two additional mutants, located in the pore turret (G618W) and selectivity filter (M644I), resulted in significantly reduced maximum NMDG permeability. M644A and M644I also showed increased and decreased minimum NMDG permeability, respectively. The phenotypes of this panel of mutants were confirmed by imaging the RTX-evoked uptake of the large cationic fluorescent dye YO-PRO1. Whereas none of the mutations selectively altered capsaicin-induced changes in NMDG permeability, the loss-of-function phenotypes seen with RTX stimulation of G618W and M644I were recapitulated in the capsaicin-evoked YO-PRO1 uptake assay. Curiously, the M644A substitution resulted in a loss, rather than a gain, in capsaicin-evoked YO-PRO1 uptake. Modeling of our mutations onto the recently determined TRPV1 structure revealed several plausible mechanisms for the phenotypes observed. We conclude that side chain interactions at a few specific loci within the TRPV1 pore contribute to the dynamic process of ionic selectivity. PMID:25568328

  7. Phosphorylation of TRPV1 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 promotes TRPV1 surface localization, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Du, Junxie; Yang, Yanrui; Wang, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is an important serine/threonine kinase that plays critical roles in many physiological processes. Recently, Cdk5 has been reported to phosphorylate TRPV1 at threonine 407 (Thr-407) in humans (Thr-406 in rats), which enhances the function of TRPV1 channel and promotes thermal hyperalgesia in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain rats. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylates TRPV1 at Threonine 406 and promotes the surface localization of TRPV1, leading to inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. The mutation of Thr-406 of TRPV1 to alanine reduced the interaction of TRPV1 with the cytoskeletal elements and decreased the binding of TRPV1 with the motor protein KIF13B, which led to reduced surface distribution of TRPV1. Disrupting the phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 dramatically reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in HEK 293 cells after transient expression and the channel function in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Notably, intrathecal administration of the interfering peptide against the phosphorylation of Thr-406 alleviated heat hyperalgesia and reduced the surface level of TRPV1 in inflammatory pain rats. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV1 at Thr-406 increases the surface level and the function of TRPV1, while the TAT-T406 peptide can effectively attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. Our studies provide a potential therapy for inflammatory pain. PMID:26376215

  8. Acute Heat-Evoked Temperature Sensation Is Impaired but Not Abolished in Mice Lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation. PMID:24925072

  9. Effects of aerosol-applied capsaicin, histamine and prostaglandin E2 on airway sensory receptors of anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, S P; Higenbottam, T W; Adcock, J J

    1993-01-01

    1. Capsaicin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and histamine are potent stimuli for reflex coughing and bronchoconstriction in many species including man. We have studied the effects of solutions of capsaicin, PGE2 and histamine on airway sensory receptors when administered as inhaled aerosols to the lower respiratory tract in anaesthetized, paralysed and artificially ventilated cats. 2. Histamine, administered by aerosol (6 breaths of a 1 mg ml-1 solution) and intravenously (10 micrograms kg-1), caused an increase in the rate of discharge from rapidly adapting stretch receptors (RARs) and caused bronchoconstriction. 3. Six breaths of a capsaicin aerosol generated from solutions of 0.1 or 1 mg ml-1 stimulated six out of nine RARs tested. Bronchoconstriction occurred with and without RAR stimulation. The diluent for the capsaicin aerosol had no significant effect on pulmonary mechanics or rate of RAR discharge. 4. Administration of increasing concentrations (0.001-1 mg ml-1) of PGE2 aerosol given in six breaths (at 6 min intervals) caused a dose-dependent increase in the rate of discharge of eight RARs tested and caused bronchoconstriction. The diluent for the PGE2 aerosol had no effect on pulmonary mechanics or rate of RAR discharge. 5. Inhalation of aerosols of histamine (6 breaths of 1 mg ml-1 solution) and capsaicin (3 breaths of 0.1 mg ml-1 solution) stimulated all six lung C fibre endings studied (3 pulmonary and 3 bronchial). These aerosols of capsaicin and histamine also caused bronchoconstriction. 6. We conclude that solutions of capsaicin and PGE2, when delivered by aerosol to the airway epithelial surface, are not selective stimulants of C fibres. Both agents can stimulate RARs. Activation of some but not all RARs tested, by inhaled capsaicin, suggests that there are subpopulations of capsaicin-sensitive and -insensitive receptors. Stimulation of airway RARs by a range of pharmacologically active agents released by airway inflammation may contribute to reflex coughing and bronchoconstriction in man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8271211

  10. NK-3 receptors mediate enhancement of substance P release from capsaicin-sensitive spinal cord afferent terminals

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Giovanna; Carità, Francesca; Bonanno, Giambattista; Raiteri, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The effects of NK-3 receptor agonists on the release of substance P-immunoreactivity (SP-LI) have been investigated using superfused rat spinal cord synaptosomes.The Ca2+-dependent overflow of SP-LI evoked by 35?mM KCl was concentration-dependently enhanced by senktide (EC50=52?nM; maximal effect=70%) or [MePhe7]NKB (EC50=5.5?nM; maximal effect=125%), both selective agonists at receptors of the NK-3 type.The potentiation of the SP-LI overflow elicited by 100?nM senktide or [MePhe7]NKB was prevented by the NK-3 receptor antagonist (+)-SR142801. The antagonist halved, at 10?nM, and almost abolished, at 100?nM, the effect of both agonists. The effect of senktide or [MePhe7]NKB was insensitive to antagonists at NK-1 or NK-2 receptors.Capsaicin (0.1–1??M) stimulated SP-LI release in a concentration-dependent manner from spinal cord synaptosomes. The SP-LI overflow elicited by 1??M capsaicin was completely dependent on external Ca2+. Senktide could not affect the capsaicin-evoked release of SP-LI.Senktide failed to potentiate the K+-evoked overflow of SP-LI from synaptosomes previously exposed for 15?min in superfusion to capsaicin.The results show that release-enhancing NK-3 receptors are located on axon terminals of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurones in the spinal cord. Antagonists at NK-3 receptors might help controlling pain transmission. PMID:9831894

  11. [TRPV1 channel-mediated thermogenesis is a common mode for the Chinese pungent-hot or pungent-warm herbs to demonstrate their natures].

    PubMed

    Sui, Feng; Dai, Li; Li, Qian; Zhou, Hai-yu; Zhan, Hong-dan; Huo, Hai-ru; Jiang, Ting-liang

    2015-07-01

    To further uncover the scientific significance and molecular mechanism of the Chinese herbs with pungent hot or warm natures, endogenous and exogenous expression systems were established by isolation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and transfection of HEK293 cells with TRPV1 channel gene separately. On this basis, the regulation action of capsaicin, one main ingredient from chili pepper, on TRPV1 channel was further explored by using confocal microscope. Besides, the three-sites one-unit technique and method were constructed based on the brown adipose tissue (BAT), anal and tail skin temperatures. Then the effect of capsaicin on mouse energy metabolism was evaluated. Both endogenous and exogenous TRPV1 channel could be activated and this action could be specifically blocked by the TRPV1 channel inhibitor capsazepine. Simultaneously, the mice's core body temperature and BAT temperature fall down and then go up, accompanied by the increase of temperature of the mice's tail skin. Promotion of the energy metabolism by activation of TRPV1 channel might be the common way for the pungent-hot (warm) herbs to demonstrate their natures. PMID:26552144

  12. Differential chemosensory function and receptor expression of splanchnic and pelvic colonic afferents in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, Stuart M; Carter, R; Jones, W; Xu, Linjing; Robinson, David R; Hicks, Gareth A; Gebhart, GF; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Lumbar splanchnic (LSN) and sacral pelvic (PN) nerves convey different mechanosensory information from the colon to the spinal cord. Here we determined whether these pathways also differ in their chemosensitivity and receptor expression. Using an in vitro mouse colon preparation, individual primary afferents were tested with selective P2X and transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) receptor ligands. Afferent cell bodies in thoracolumbar and lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were retrogradely labelled from the colon and analysed for P2X3- and TRPV1-like immunoreactivity (LI). Forty per cent of LSN afferents responded to ?,?-methylene adenosine 5?-triphosphate (?,?-meATP; 1 mm), an effect that was concentration dependent and reversed by the P2X antagonist pyridoxyl5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2?,4?-disulphonic acid (PPADS) (100 ?m). Significantly fewer PN afferents (7%) responded to ?,?-meATP. Correspondingly, 36% of colonic thoracolumbar DRG neurones exhibited P2X3-LI compared with only 19% of colonic lumbosacral neurones. Capsaicin (3 ?m) excited 61% of LSN afferents and 47% of PN afferents; 82% of thoracolumbar and 50% of lumbosacral colonic DRG neurones displayed TRPV1-LI. Mechanically insensitive afferents were recruited by ?,?-meATP or capsaicin, and were almost exclusive to the LSN. Capsaicin-responsive LSN afferents displayed marked mechanical desensitization after responding to capsaicin, which did not occur in capsaicin-responsive PN afferents. Therefore, colonic LSN and PN pathways differ in their chemosensitivity to known noxious stimuli and their corresponding receptor expression. As these pathways relay information that may relate to symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disease, these results may have implications for the efficacy of therapies targeting receptor modulation. PMID:15946967

  13. Capsaicin receptors are colocalized with sweet/bitter receptors in the taste sensing cells of circumvallate papillae.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Wha; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Sang Bae; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2010-09-01

    We examined co-localization of vanilloid receptor (VR1) with sweet receptors T1R2, T1R3, or bitter receptor T2R6 in taste receptor cells of rat circumvallate papillae. Tissue sections of rat circumvallate papillae were doubly reacted with anti-VR1 antibodies and anti-T1R2, anti-T1R3 or anti-T2R6 antibodies, using double-immunofluorescence histochemistry technique. Localizations of VR1, T1Rs and T2R6 in the vallate taste cells containing ?-gustducin were also examined. VR1 immunoreactivities (-ir) were observed in subsets of taste cells in the circumvallate papillae, and 96-99% of the vallate taste cells exhibiting T1R2-, T1R3- or T2R6-ir co-exhibited VR1-ir. Approximately half of T2R6-ir cells (~49%), and 50-58% of T1Rs-ir cells, co-exhibited ?-gustducin-ir in the vallate taste buds. About 58% of VR1-ir cells in the vallate exhibited ?-gustducin-ir as well. Results support the idea that capsaicin may interact with the transduction pathways of sweet and bitter taste stimuli, possibly in mediation of its receptor VR1 localized in taste receptor cells. Additionally, the partial co-localization of ?-gustducin with VR1 suggests that a tentative modulatory function of capsaicin in sweet and bitter transductions in the rat circumvallate comprises of both ?-gustducin-mediated and non-mediated transduction pathways. PMID:20016958

  14. Orphanin FQ inhibits capsaicin-induced thermal nociception in monkeys by activation of peripheral ORL1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M C H; Naughton, N N; Traynor, J R; Song, M S; Woods, J H; Rice, K C; McKnight, A T

    2002-01-01

    Orphanin FQ (OFQ), an endogenous peptide for ORL1 receptors, has been identified. Although the actions of OFQ have much in common with those of opioid peptides at the cellular level, behavioral studies in rodents seem conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential pronociceptive or antinociceptive function of peripheral ORL1 receptors in primates. Experiments were conducted to verify whether local administration of OFQ can attenuate capsaicin-induced nociception and whether peripheral ORL1 receptors selectively mediate the local action of OFQ in monkeys. Capsaicin (100??g) was administered subcutaneously in the tail to locally evoke a nociceptive response (thermal allodynia/hyperalgesia), which was manifested as a reduced tail-withdrawal latency in normally innocuous 46°C warm water. Co-administration of OFQ (1?–?30??g) with capsaicin in the tail dose-dependently inhibited thermal nociception. However, a locally effective dose of OFQ (30??g), when applied in the back, did not inhibit capsaicin-induced nociception. OFQ-induced local antinociception was antagonized by a small dose (10??g) of J-113397, a selective ORL1 receptor antagonist, in the tail. Similarly, s.c. administration of 10??g of J-113397 in the back did not antagonize local antinociception of OFQ. In addition, s.c. administration of either OFQ or J-113397 in the tail alone did not change its thermal nociceptive threshold. Local administration of opioid receptor antagonists selective for mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors did not antagonize OFQ-induced local antinociception. Local administration of J-113397 also did not interfere with the local actions of mu, kappa, and delta opioid agonists in the tail. These results provide the first functional evidence that activation of peripheral ORL1 receptors produces thermal antinociception in primates and this action is independent of antinociception produced at classical opioid receptors. PMID:11861322

  15. ?CGRP is essential for algesic exocytotic mobilization of TRPV1 channels in peptidergic nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Devesa, Isabel; Ferrándiz-Huertas, Clotilde; Mathivanan, Sakthikumar; Wolf, Christoph; Luján, Rafael; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Proalgesic sensitization of peripheral nociceptors in painful syndromes is a complex molecular process poorly understood that involves mobilization of thermosensory receptors to the neuronal surface. However, whether recruitment of vesicular thermoTRP channels is a general mechanism underlying sensitization of all nociceptor types or is subtype-specific remains controversial. We report that sensitization-induced Ca2+-dependent exocytotic insertion of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors to the neuronal plasma membrane is a mechanism specifically used by peptidergic nociceptors to potentiate their excitability. Notably, we found that TRPV1 is present in large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) that were mobilized to the neuronal surface in response to a sensitizing insult. Deletion or silencing of calcitonin-gene–related peptide alpha (?CGRP) gene expression drastically reduced proalgesic TRPV1 potentiation in peptidergic nociceptors by abrogating its Ca2+-dependent exocytotic recruitment. These findings uncover a context-dependent molecular mechanism of TRPV1 algesic sensitization and a previously unrecognized role of ?CGRP in LDCV mobilization in peptidergic nociceptors. Furthermore, these results imply that concurrent secretion of neuropeptides and channels in peptidergic C-type nociceptors facilitates a rapid modulation of pain signaling. PMID:25489075

  16. In silico research to assist the investigation of carboxamide derivatives as potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghui; Li, Yan; Yang, Yinfeng; Du, Jian; Zhang, Shuwei; Yang, Ling

    2015-10-13

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel, is known for its essential role in the pathogenesis of various pain conditions such as nerve damage induced hyperalgesia, diabetic neuropathy and cancer pain. Therefore, TRPV1 is considered as a promising target for the development of new anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. In the present study, a theoretical study on the functionalities of the molecular interactions between 236 active ligands and TRPV1 was carried out, using three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR), molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approaches. The ligand-based CoMSIA model (obtained by use of a random division method for splitting the training and test sets) exhibits optimum predictivity (Q(2) = 0.522, Rncv(2) = 0.935, Rpred(2) = 0.839). The results show that the models are useful tools for the prediction of the test sets as well as newly designed structures against TRPV1 activity. In addition, to verify the rationality of the random division method for splitting the dataset, we also used a self-organizing map (SOM) division approach for establishing the QSAR models. Interestingly, the obtained optimal CoMSIA model based on the SOM division exhibits almost the same proper statistical results (Q(2) = 0.521, Rncv(2) = 0.929, Rpred(2) = 0.829) as the random division-derived model, proving the reasonability of both division methods for building the models. The contour plots of molecular fields along with docking and MD simulation have identified several key structural requirements responsible for the activity. The present work provides extremely useful guidelines for future structural modifications of this class of compounds towards the development of superior TRPV1 antagonists. The new computational insights presented in this study are expected to be valuable for the guideline and development of new potent TRPV1 antagonists. PMID:26248221

  17. Characterization of mouse orofacial pain and the effects of lesioning TRPV1-expressing neurons on operant behavior

    PubMed Central

    Neubert, John K; King, Christopher; Malphurs, Wendi; Wong, Fong; Weaver, James P; Jenkins, Alan C; Rossi, Heather L; Caudle, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    Background Rodent models of orofacial pain typically use methods adapted from manipulations to hind paw; however, limitations of these models include animal restraint and subjective assessments of behavior by the experimenter. In contrast to these methods, assessment of operant responses to painful stimuli has been shown to overcome these limitations and expand the breadth of interpretation of the behavioral responses. In the current study, we used an operant model based on a reward-conflict paradigm to assess nociceptive responses in three strains of mice (SKH1-Hrhr, C57BL/6J, TRPV1 knockout). We previously validated this operant model in rats and hypothesized in this study that wild-type mice would demonstrate a similar thermal stimulus-dependent response and similar operant pain behaviors. Additionally, we evaluated the effects on operant behaviors of mice manipulated genetically (e.g., TRPV1 k.o.) or pharmacologically with resiniferatoxin (RTX), a lesioning agent for TRPV1-expressing neurons. During the reward-conflict task, mice accessed a sweetened milk reward solution by voluntarily position their face against a neutral or heated thermode (37–55°C). Results As the temperature of the thermal stimulus became noxiously hot, reward licking events in SKH1-Hrhr and C57BL/6J mice declined while licking events in TRPV1 k.o. mice were insensitive to noxious heat within the activation range of TRPV1 (37–52°C). All three strains displayed nocifensive behaviors at 55°C, as indicated by a significant decrease in reward licking events. Induction of neurogenic inflammation by topical application of capsaicin reduced licking events in SKH1-Hrhr mice, and morphine rescued this response. Again, these results parallel what we previously documented using rats in this operant system. Following intracisternal treatment with RTX, C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a block of noxious heat at both 48 and 55°C. RTX-treated TRPV1 k.o. mice and all vehicle-treated mice displayed similar reward licking events as compared to the pre-treatment baseline levels. Both TRPV1 k.o. and RTX-treated C57BL/6J had complete abolishment of eye-wipe responses following corneal application of capsaicin. Conclusion Taken together, these results indicate the benefits of using the operant test system to investigate pain sensitivity in mice. This ability provides an essential step in the development of new treatments for patients suffering from orofacial pain disorders. PMID:18828909

  18. Key role of mucosal primary afferents in mediating the inhibitory influence of capsaicin on vagally mediated contractions in the mouse esophagus.

    PubMed

    Boudaka, Ammar; Wörl, Jürgen; Shiina, Takahiko; Saito, Shouichiro; Atoji, Yasuro; Kobayashi, Haruo; Shimizu, Yasutake; Takewaki, Tadashi

    2007-04-01

    Transient receptor potential ion channel of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1)-dependent pathway, consisting of capsaicin-sensitive tachykininergic primary afferent and myenteric nitrergic neurons, was suggested to mediate the inhibitory effect of capsaicin on the vagally mediated striated muscle contractions in the rat esophagus. These primary afferent neurons upon entering into the esophagus are distributed through the myenteric plexus, terminating either in the myenteric ganglia or en route to the mucosa where they branch into a delicate net of fine varicose fibers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether the mucosal primary afferents are a main mediator for the capsaicin inhibitory influence on vagally mediated contractions in the mouse esophagus. For this purpose, the vagally induced contractile activity of a thoracic esophageal segment was measured in the circular direction with a force transducer. Vagal stimulation (30 microsec, 25 V, 1-50 Hz for 1 sec) produced monophasic contractile responses, whose amplitudes were frequency-dependent. These contractions were completely abolished by d-tubocurarine (5 microM) while resistant to atropine (1 microM) and hexamethonium (100 microM). Capsaicin (30 microM) significantly inhibited the vagally induced contractions in esophagi with intact mucosa while its effect on preparations without mucosa was insignificant. Additionally, immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of TRPV1-positive nerve fibers in the tunica mucosa. Taken together, we conclude that in the mouse esophagus, capsaicin inhibits the vagally mediated striated muscle contractions mainly through its action on mucosal primary afferents, which in turn activate the presumed inhibitory local reflex arc. PMID:17485923

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus Vector-Mediated Gene Delivery of Poreless TRPV1 Channels Reduces Bladder Overactivity and Nociception in Rats.

    PubMed

    Majima, Tsuyoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Takai, Shun; Goins, William F; Gotoh, Momokazu; Tyagi, Pradeep; Glorioso, Joseph C; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-11-01

    Increased afferent excitability has been proposed as an important pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and overactive bladder (OAB). In this study, we investigated whether herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors encoding poreless TRPV1, in which the segment in C terminus of TRPV1 receptor is deleted, suppress bladder overactivity and pain behavior using a rat model of chemical cystitis. Replication-defective HSV vectors encoding poreless TRPV1 were injected into the bladder wall of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Additionally, recombinant HSV virus (vHG) vectors were injected as control. Cystometry (CMG) under urethane anesthesia was performed 1 week after viral injection to evaluate bladder overactivity induced by resiniferatoxin (RTx, a TRPV1 agonist). RTx-induced nociceptive behavior such as licking (lower abdominal licking) and freezing (motionless head-turning) was observed 2 weeks after viral injection. GFP expression in L4/L6/S1 dorsal root ganglia and the bladder as well as c-Fos-positive cells in the L6 spinal cord dorsal horn were also evaluated 2 weeks after viral injection. In CMG, the poreless TRPV1 vector-treated group showed a significantly smaller reduction in intercontraction intervals and voided volume after RTx infusion than the vHG-treated control group. The number of the RTx-induced freezing events was significantly decreased in the poreless TRPV1 group than in the vHG group, whereas there was no significant difference of the number of RTx-induced licking events between groups. The number of c-Fos-positive cells in the DCM and SPN regions of the L6 spinal dorsal horn was significantly smaller in the poreless TRPV1 group than in the vHG group. Our results indicated that HSV vector-mediated gene delivery of poreless TRPV1 had a therapeutic effect on TRPV1-mediated bladder overactivity and pain behavior. Thus, the HSV vector-mediated gene therapy targeting TRPV1 receptors could be a novel modality for the treatment of OAB and/or hypersensitive bladder disorders such as IC/BPS. PMID:26204493

  20. Noladin ether, a putative endocannabinoid, attenuates sensory neurotransmission in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed via a non-CB1/CB2 Gi/o linked receptor

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Marnie; Millns, Paul; Smart, Darren; Wright, James E; Kendall, David A; Ralevic, Vera

    2004-01-01

    Noladin ether has recently been reported to be an endocannabinoid, with selectivity for the cannabinoid (CB) CB1 receptor. In the present study, we investigated the effects of noladin ether in the rat isolated mesenteric arterial bed, cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells and human vanilloid (TRPV1)-receptor-expressing HEK293 cells (TRPV1-HEK293 cells). Electrical field stimulation of the mesenteric bed evoked frequency-dependent vasorelaxation due to the action of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory nerves. Noladin ether (0.1–3 ?M) attenuated sensory neurogenic relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. Noladin ether (1 ?M) reduced vasorelaxation at a submaximal frequency (8 Hz), from 57.3±6.8 to 23.3±3.8% (P<0.05, n=4). The inhibitory effects of noladin ether were unaffected by the CB1 antagonists SR141716A and LY320135, and the CB2 antagonist SR144528 (1 ?M). Noladin ether had no effect on vasorelaxation elicited by exogenous CGRP or capsaicin. These data suggest that noladin ether is acting at a prejunctional site and no interaction with TRPV1 is involved. In mesenteric beds from pertussis toxin (PTX)-pretreated rats, the inhibitory actions of noladin ether on sensory neurotransmission were abolished, indicating the involvement of Gi/o protein-coupled receptors. Noladin ether evoked a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in TRPV1-HEK293 cells at 10 ?M (36.5±3.2% of maximal capsaicin-induced response), but it was a less potent agonist than both capsaicin and anandamide and at 1 ?M it was essentially inactive. Noladin ether (1 ?M) had no effect on capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ responses in DRG cells, and produced no response alone, indicating it neither modulates nor acts directly on TRPV1 receptors. These data demonstrate that noladin ether attenuates sensory neurotransmission in rat mesenteric arteries via a non-CB1 non-CB2 PTX-sensitive prejunctional site, independently of TRPV1 receptors. PMID:15148262

  1. Assessment of the biological similarity of three capsaicin analogs (Capsinoids) found in non-pungent chili pepper (CH-19 Sweet) fruits.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Ikuko; Furuhata, Yasufumi; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Inoue, Naohiko; Sato, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-01-01

    CH-19 Sweet is a newly found chili pepper breed bearing much less pungent fruits. Because CH-19 Sweet fruits were found to contain three analogs (capsinoids) of capsaicin, a major component of pungency of hot peppers (the analogs are capsiate or CST, dihydrocapsiate or DCT, and nordihydrocapsiate or NDCT), we assessed in this study the bio-potencies of these three capsinoids by comparing them with capsaicin. The three capsinoids bound to transient potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors expressed in cultured cells and activated Ca(2+) influx in a concentration-dependent manner with similar magnitudes. In contrast to capsaicin, capsinoids at the same concentration induced virtually no nociceptive responses when applied to the eyes or the oral cavities of mice. Intravenous administration of capsaicin or 20-fold increased doses of each capsinoid to rats induced significant increases in plasma catecholamine levels. Orally administered, each capsinoid enhanced oxygen consumption in mice. Based on the present results, capsaicin and these three capsinoids should have similar bio-potency, though capsinoids do not generate pungency or sensory irritation. PMID:20139632

  2. Dietary agonists of TRPV1 inhibit gastric acid secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Okumi, Hirokuni; Tashima, Kimihito; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Namiki, Takao; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Horie, Syunji

    2012-11-01

    Capsaicin and 6-gingerol, pungent components of chilli pepper and ginger, are known as dietary agonists of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 nerve fibers are recognized to play a role in gastric mucosal integrity in rats. In the present studies, we examined the acute effects of peroral administration of capsaicin and 6-gingerol on gastric acid secretion in conscious mice. These agents were given p.?o. 30?min before the pylorus was ligated. Oral administration of capsaicin (1.0-100?mg/kg) or 6-gingerol (1.5-50?mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited basal acid secretion. Pretreatment with BCTC, a transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 antagonist, significantly reversed the reduced basal acid secretion by capsaicin or 6-gingerol. The combination of the lowest doses of capsaicin and 6-gingerol markedly inhibited basal acid secretion in conscious mice and this was also significantly reversed by BCTC. Moreover, the combination of the maximal dose of capsaicin and 6-gingerol inhibited basal acid secretion only to the level of a single administration of the maximal dose of capsaicin. These results suggest that the combination of capsaicin and 6-gingerol has an additive effect on the inhibition of gastric acid secretion through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1. In separate experiments, intraduodenal administration of either capsaicin (30?mg/kg) or 6-gingerol (15?mg/kg), whose doses were observed to have a significant inhibitory effect by oral administration, tended to inhibit basal acid secretion compared with the vehicle. These results suggest that the combination of capsaicin and 6-gingerol has an additive effect on inhibition of gastric acid secretion through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1, and oral administration of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 agonists directly stimulates transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 in the gastric lumen, resulting in a potent reduction of gastric acid secretion. PMID:23047250

  3. Analgesic Effect of Electroacupuncture in a Mouse Fibromyalgia Model: Roles of TRPV1, TRPV4, and pERK

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is among the most common chronic pain syndromes encountered in clinical practice, but there is limited understanding of FM pathogenesis. We examined the contribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRPV4 channels to chronic pain in the repeated acid injection mouse model of FM and the potential therapeutic efficacy of electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture (EA) at the bilateral Zusanli (ST36) acupoint reduced the long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia induced by repeated acid saline (pH 4) injection in mouse hindpaw. Isolated L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from FM model mice (FM group) were hyperexcitable, an effect reversed by EA pretreatment (FM + EA group). The increase in mechanical hyperalgesia was also accompanied by upregulation of TRPV1 expression and phosphoactivation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (pERK) in the DRG, whereas DRG expression levels of TRPV4, p-p38, and p-JNK were unaltered. Blockade of TRPV1, which was achieved using TRPV1 knockout mice or via antagonist injection, and pERK suppressed development of FM-like pain. Both TRPV1 and TRPV4 protein expression levels were increased in the spinal cord (SC) of model mice, and EA at the ST36 acupoint decreased overexpression. This study strongly suggests that DRG TRPV1 overexpression and pERK signaling, as well as SC TRPV1 and TRPV4 overexpression, mediate hyperalgesia in a mouse FM pain model. The therapeutic efficacy of EA may result from the reversal of these changes in pain transmission pathways. PMID:26043006

  4. Mechanism for phosphoinositide selectivity and activation of TRPV1 ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Ufret-Vincenty, Carmen A.; Klein, Rebecca M.; Collins, Marcus D.; Rosasco, Mario G.; Martinez, Gilbert Q.

    2015-01-01

    Although PI(4,5)P2 is believed to play an essential role in regulating the activity of numerous ion channels and transporters, the mechanisms by which it does so are unknown. Here, we used the ability of the TRPV1 ion channel to discriminate between PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P to localize the region of TRPV1 sequence that interacts directly with the phosphoinositide. We identified a point mutation in the proximal C-terminal region after the TRP box, R721A, that inverted the selectivity of TRPV1. Although the R721A mutation produced only a 30% increase in the EC50 for activation by PI(4,5)P2, it decreased the EC50 for activation by PI(4)P by more than two orders of magnitude. We used chemically induced and voltage-activated phosphatases to determine that PI(4)P continued to support TRPV1 activity even after depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane. Our data cannot be explained by a purely electrostatic mechanism for interaction between the phosphoinositide and the protein, similar to that of the MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) effector domain or the EGF receptor. Rather, conversion of a PI(4,5)P2-selective channel to a PI(4)P-selective channel indicates that a structured phosphoinositide-binding site mediates the regulation of TRPV1 activity and that the amino acid at position 721 likely interacts directly with the moiety at the 5? position of the phosphoinositide. PMID:25918361

  5. ?-Methylated simplified resiniferatoxin (sRTX) thiourea analogues as potent and stereospecific TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Shin; Jin, Mi-Kyoung; Kang, Sang-Uk; Lim, Ju-Ok; Tran, Phuong-Thao; Hoang, Van-Hai; Ann, Jihyae; Ha, Tae-Hwan; Pearce, Larry V; Pavlyukovets, Vladimir A; Blumberg, Peter M; Lee, Jeewoo

    2014-06-15

    A series of ?-methylated analogues of the potent sRTX thiourea antagonists were investigated as rTRPV1 ligands in order to examine the effect of ?-methylation on receptor activity. The SAR analysis indicated that activity was stereospecific with the (R)-configuration of the newly formed chiral center providing high binding affinity and potent antagonism while the configuration of the C-region was not significant. PMID:24794110

  6. Vitamin B complex attenuated heat hyperalgesia following infraorbital nerve constriction in rats and reduced capsaicin in vivo and in vitro effects.

    PubMed

    Kopruszinski, Caroline M; Reis, Renata C; Bressan, Elisangela; Reeh, Peter W; Chichorro, Juliana G

    2015-09-01

    Vitamins of the B complex attenuate some neuropathic pain sensory aspects in various animal models and in patients, but the mechanisms underlying their effects remain to be elucidated. Herein it was investigated if the treatment with a vitamin B complex (VBC) reduces heat hyperalgesia in rats submitted to infraorbital nerve constriction and the possibility that TRPV1 receptors represent a target for B vitamins. In the present study, the VBC refers to a combination of vitamins B1, B6 and B12 at low- (18, 18 and 1.8mg/kg, respectively) or high- (180, 180 and 18mg/kg, respectively) doses. Acute treatment of rats with either the low- or the high-doses combination reduced heat hyperalgesia after nerve injury, but the high-doses combination resulted in a long-lasting effect. Repeated treatment with the low-dose combination reduced heat hyperalgesia on day four after nerve injury and showed a synergist effect with a single injection of carbamazepine (3 or 10mg/kg), which per se failed to modify the heat threshold. In naïve rats, acute treatment with the high-dose of VBC or B1 and B12 vitamins independently reduced heat hyperalgesia evoked by capsaicin (3µg into the upper lip). Moreover, the VBC, as well as, each one of the B vitamins independently reduced the capsaicin-induced calcium responses in HEK 293 cells transiently transfected with the human TRPV1 channels. Altogether, these results indicate that B vitamins can be useful to control heat hyperalgesia associated with trigeminal neuropathic pain and that modulation of TRPV1 receptors may contribute to their anti-hyperalgesic effects. PMID:26048309

  7. Adrenergic stimulation sensitizes TRPV1 through upregulation of cystathionine ?-synthetase in a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liyan; Zhao, Liting; Qu, Ruobing; Zhu, Hong-Yan; Wang, Yongmeng; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood and treatment remains difficult. The present study was designed to investigate roles of adrenergic signaling and the endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine ?-synthetase (CBS) in a previously validated rat model of IBS induced by neonatal colonic inflammation (NCI). Here we showed that NCI-induced visceral hypersensitivity (VH) was significantly attenuated by ?2 subunit inhibitor but not by ?1 or ?3 or ? subunit inhibitor. NCI markedly elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration without alteration in expression of ?2 subunit receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRGs) innervating the colon. In addition, NCI markedly enhanced TRPV1 and CBS expression in the colon DRGs. CBS inhibitor AOAA reversed the upregulation of TRPV1 in NCI rats. In vitro experiments showed that incubation of DRG cells with NE markedly enhanced expression of TRPV1, which was reversed by application of AOAA. Incubation of DRG cells with the H2S donor NaHS greatly enhanced TRPV1 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of adrenergic signaling by NCI sensitizes TRPV1 channel activity, which is likely mediated by upregulation of CBS expression in peripheral sensory neurons, thus contributing to chronic visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26527188

  8. Adrenergic stimulation sensitizes TRPV1 through upregulation of cystathionine ?-synthetase in a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liyan; Zhao, Liting; Qu, Ruobing; Zhu, Hong-Yan; Wang, Yongmeng; Jiang, Xinghong; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood and treatment remains difficult. The present study was designed to investigate roles of adrenergic signaling and the endogenous hydrogen sulfide producing enzyme cystathionine ?-synthetase (CBS) in a previously validated rat model of IBS induced by neonatal colonic inflammation (NCI). Here we showed that NCI-induced visceral hypersensitivity (VH) was significantly attenuated by ?2 subunit inhibitor but not by ?1 or ?3 or ? subunit inhibitor. NCI markedly elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration without alteration in expression of ?2 subunit receptors in dorsal root ganglion (DRGs) innervating the colon. In addition, NCI markedly enhanced TRPV1 and CBS expression in the colon DRGs. CBS inhibitor AOAA reversed the upregulation of TRPV1 in NCI rats. In vitro experiments showed that incubation of DRG cells with NE markedly enhanced expression of TRPV1, which was reversed by application of AOAA. Incubation of DRG cells with the H2S donor NaHS greatly enhanced TRPV1 expression. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of adrenergic signaling by NCI sensitizes TRPV1 channel activity, which is likely mediated by upregulation of CBS expression in peripheral sensory neurons, thus contributing to chronic visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:26527188

  9. PAR-2 activation enhances weak acid-induced ATP release through TRPV1 and ASIC sensitization in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Sei, Hiroo; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-10-15

    Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the pathogenesis of heartburn sensation in nonerosive reflux disease. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells and is believed to play a role in inflammation and sensation. PAR-2 activation may modulate these responses through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which is involved in transduction of sensation and pain. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are both acid-sensitive nociceptors. However, the interaction among these molecules and the mechanisms of heartburn sensation are still not clear. We therefore examined whether ATP release in human esophageal epithelial cells in response to acid is modulated by TRPV1 and ASICs and whether PAR-2 activation influences the sensitivity of TRPV1 and ASICs. Weak acid (pH 5) stimulated the release of ATP from primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). This effect was significantly reduced after pretreatment with 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), a TRPV1-specific antagonist, or with amiloride, a nonselective ASIC blocker. TRPV1 and ASIC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection also decreased weak acid-induced ATP release. Pretreatment of HEECs with trypsin, tryptase, or a PAR-2 agonist enhanced weak acid-induced ATP release. Trypsin treatment led to the phosphorylation of TRPV1. Acid-induced ATP release enhancement by trypsin was partially blocked by IRTX, amiloride, or a PAR-2 antagonist. Conversely, acid-induced ATP release was augmented by PAR-2 activation through TRPV1 and ASICs. These findings suggested that the pathophysiology of heartburn sensation or esophageal hypersensitivity may be associated with the activation of PAR-2, TRPV1, and ASICs. PMID:26294672

  10. Measurement of Ensemble TRPV1 Ion Channel Currents Using Droplet Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Vijayvergiya, Viksita; Acharya, Shiv; Wilson, Sidney P; Schmidt, Jacob J

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological characterization of ion channels is useful for elucidation of channel function as well as quantitative assessment of pharmaceutical effects on ion channel conductance. We used droplet bilayers to measure ensemble ion channel currents from membrane preparations made from TRPV1-expressing HEK cells. Conductance measurements showed rectification, activation by acid and capsaicin, and inhibition by capsazepine, SB 452533, and JNJ 17293212. We also quantitatively measured concentration-dependent inhibition of channel conductance through determination of capsazepine IC50 in agreement with previously published studies using patch clamp. These results, combined with the reduced apparatus and material requirements of droplet bilayers, indicate that this platform could be used for study of other physiologically relevant ion channels. PMID:26513481

  11. Measurement of Ensemble TRPV1 Ion Channel Currents Using Droplet Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Vijayvergiya, Viksita; Acharya, Shiv; Wilson, Sidney P.; Schmidt, Jacob J.

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological characterization of ion channels is useful for elucidation of channel function as well as quantitative assessment of pharmaceutical effects on ion channel conductance. We used droplet bilayers to measure ensemble ion channel currents from membrane preparations made from TRPV1-expressing HEK cells. Conductance measurements showed rectification, activation by acid and capsaicin, and inhibition by capsazepine, SB 452533, and JNJ 17293212. We also quantitatively measured concentration-dependent inhibition of channel conductance through determination of capsazepine IC50 in agreement with previously published studies using patch clamp. These results, combined with the reduced apparatus and material requirements of droplet bilayers, indicate that this platform could be used for study of other physiologically relevant ion channels. PMID:26513481

  12. Ablation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 abolishes endothelin-induced increases in afferent renal nerve activity: mechanisms and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chaoqin; Wang, Donna H

    2009-12-01

    Endothelin 1 (ET-1) and its receptors, ETA and ETB, play important roles in regulating renal function and blood pressure, and these components are expressed in sensory nerves. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 channels expressed in sensory nerves innervating the renal pelvis enhances afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA), diuresis, and natriuresis. We tested the hypothesis that ET-1 increases ARNA via activation of ETB, whereas ETA counterbalances ETB in wild-type (WT) but not TRPV1-null mutant mice. ET-1 alone or with BQ123, an ETA antagonist, perfused into the left renal pelvis increased ipsilateral ARNA in WT but not in TRPV1-null mutant mice, and ARNA increases were greater in the latter. [Ala1, 3,11,15]-endothelin 1, an ETB agonist, increased ARNA that was greater than that induced by ET-1 in WT mice only. [Ala1, 3,11,15]-endothelin 1-induced increases in ARNA were abolished by chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, but not by H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Chelerythrine, H89, and BQ788, an ETB antagonist, did not affect ARNA triggered by capsaicin in WT mice. Substance P release from the renal pelvis was increased by [Ala1, 3,11,15]-endothelin 1 in WT mice only, and the increase was abolished by chelerythrine but not by H89. Chelerythrine, H89, and BQ788 did not affect capsaicin-induced substance P release. Our data show that ET1 increases ARNA via activation of ETB, whereas ETA counterbalances ETB in WT but not in TRPV1-null mutant mice, suggesting that TRPV1 mediates ETB-dependent increases in ARNA, diuresis, and natriuresis possibly via the protein kinase C pathway. PMID:19858408

  13. TRPV1 and TRPV4 Play Pivotal Roles in Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Hiroki; Katanosaka, Kimiaki; Murase, Shiori; Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Mizumura, Kazue

    2013-01-01

    Unaccustomed strenuous exercise that includes lengthening contraction (LC) often causes tenderness and movement related pain after some delay (delayed-onset muscle soreness, DOMS). We previously demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are up-regulated in exercised muscle through up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and they sensitized nociceptors resulting in mechanical hyperalgesia. There is also a study showing that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are involved in DOMS. Here we examined whether and how TRPV1 and/or TRPV4 are involved in DOMS. We firstly evaluated a method to measure the mechanical withdrawal threshold of the deep tissues in wild-type (WT) mice with a modified Randall-Selitto apparatus. WT, TRPV1?/? and TRPV4?/? mice were then subjected to LC. Another group of mice received injection of murine NGF-2.5S or GDNF to the lateral gastrocnemius (LGC) muscle. Before and after these treatments the mechanical withdrawal threshold of LGC was evaluated. The change in expression of NGF, GDNF and COX-2 mRNA in the muscle was examined using real-time RT-PCR. In WT mice, mechanical hyperalgesia was observed 6–24 h after LC and 1–24 h after NGF and GDNF injection. LC induced mechanical hyperalgesia neither in TRPV1?/? nor in TRPV4?/? mice. NGF injection induced mechanical hyperalgesia in WT and TRPV4?/? mice but not in TRPV1?/? mice. GDNF injection induced mechanical hyperalgesia in WT but neither in TRPV1?/? nor in TRPV4?/? mice. Expression of NGF and COX-2 mRNA was significantly increased 3 h after LC in all genotypes. However, GDNF mRNA did not increase in TRPV4?/? mice. These results suggest that TRPV1 contributes to DOMS downstream (possibly at nociceptors) of NGF and GDNF, while TRPV4 is located downstream of GDNF and possibly also in the process of GDNF up-regulation. PMID:23799042

  14. An exploration of the estrogen receptor transcription activity of capsaicin analogues via an integrated approach based on in silico prediction and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Ma, Duo; Lin, Yuan; Fu, Jianjie; Zhang, Aiqian

    2014-06-16

    Capsaicin has been considered as an alternative template of dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) in antifouling paint. However, information regarding the estrogenic activity of capsaicin analogues is rather limited in comparison to that of DDT analogues and their metabolites. We here explore the ER transcription activity of selected capsaicin analogues via an integrated approach based on in silico prediction and in vitro assays. Molecular simulation and the agonist/antagonist differential-docking screening identified 6-iodonordihydrocapsaicin (6-I-CPS) as a weak ER? agonist, while anti-estrogenicity was expected for N-arachidonoyldopamine, capsazepine, dihydrocapsaicin, trichostatin A, and capsaicin. On the contrary, the large volume of analogues, such as phorbol 12-phenylacetate 13-acetate 20-homovanillate and phorbol 12,13-dinonanoate 20-homovanillate, cannot fit well with the ER cavity. The result of MVLN assay was in accord with the in silico prediction. 6-I-CPS was demonstrated to induce luciferase gene expression, while the other analogues of relatively small molecular volume reduced luciferase gene expression in MVLN cells, both in the absence and presence of estradiol. This finding suggested that the ER transcription activity of capsaicin analogues is generated at least partly through the ER?-mediated pathway. Moreover, receptor polymorphism analysis indicated that capsaicin analogues may exhibit diverse species selectivity for human beings and marine species. PMID:24747365

  15. Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase-Dependent Generation of Antinociceptive Drug Metabolites Acting on TRPV1 in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Blomgren, Anders; Simonsen, Charlotte; Daulhac, Laurence; Libert, Frédéric; Chapuy, Eric; Etienne, Monique; Högestätt, Edward D.; Zygmunt, Peter M.; Eschalier, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The discovery that paracetamol is metabolized to the potent TRPV1 activator N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide (AM404) and that this metabolite contributes to paracetamol’s antinociceptive effect in rodents via activation of TRPV1 in the central nervous system (CNS) has provided a potential strategy for developing novel analgesics. Here we validated this strategy by examining the metabolism and antinociceptive activity of the de-acetylated paracetamol metabolite 4-aminophenol and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamine (HMBA), both of which may undergo a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)-dependent biotransformation to potent TRPV1 activators in the brain. Systemic administration of 4-aminophenol and HMBA led to a dose-dependent formation of AM404 plus N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-9Z-octadecenamide (HPODA) and arvanil plus olvanil in the mouse brain, respectively. The order of potency of these lipid metabolites as TRPV1 activators was arvanil?=?olvanil>>AM404> HPODA. Both 4-aminophenol and HMBA displayed antinociceptive activity in various rodent pain tests. The formation of AM404, arvanil and olvanil, but not HPODA, and the antinociceptive effects of 4-aminophenol and HMBA were substantially reduced or disappeared in FAAH null mice. The activity of 4-aminophenol in the mouse formalin, von Frey and tail immersion tests was also lost in TRPV1 null mice. Intracerebroventricular injection of the TRPV1 blocker capsazepine eliminated the antinociceptive effects of 4-aminophenol and HMBA in the mouse formalin test. In the rat, pharmacological inhibition of FAAH, TRPV1, cannabinoid CB1 receptors and spinal 5-HT3 or 5-HT1A receptors, and chemical deletion of bulbospinal serotonergic pathways prevented the antinociceptive action of 4-aminophenol. Thus, the pharmacological profile of 4-aminophenol was identical to that previously reported for paracetamol, supporting our suggestion that this drug metabolite contributes to paracetamol’s analgesic activity via activation of bulbospinal pathways. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to construct novel antinociceptive drugs based on fatty acid conjugation as a metabolic pathway for the generation of TRPV1 modulators in the CNS. PMID:23940628

  16. Capsaicin causes inactivation and degradation of the androgen receptor by inducing the restoration of miR-449a in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long; Chen, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhenkun; Liu, Wei; Yang, Fei; Yang, Zhao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Capsaicin, a novel antitumor agent extracted from chili peppers, has been proven to induce growth inhibition in various types of cancer including prostate cancer. However, the detailed mechanisms remain largely undiscovered. In the present study, we explored the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) by capsaicin and further researched the mechanisms of their interaction in AR-positive prostate cancer cells. In the present study, cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. Expression levels of cyclin D1, miR-449a, AR and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis. To further confirm the relationship among miR-449a, AR and prostate cancer proliferation, miR-449a was overexpressed by a lentivirus in prostate cancer cells. We discovered that capsaicin prevented tumor proliferation and cell cycle progression through inactivation and degradation of AR. We also found that restoration of miR-449a induced by capsaicin treatment resulted in the inhibition of AR signaling. Finally, we demonstrated that increased expression of miR-449a sensitized prostate cancer to capsaicin treatment. Finally, our experimental results indicated that capsaicin negatively modulates the activity of AR at the mRNA and protein levels by restoring miR-449a profiling in prostate cancer. In addition, increased expression of miR-449a may facilitate the sensitivity of prostate cancer to capsaicin treatment. Thus, capsaicin may be developed as a novel anti-AR drug for the therapy of prostate cancer. PMID:26081756

  17. Induction of thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity by parathyroid hormone-related peptide through upregulation of TRPV1 function and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Aaron D; Shepherd, Andrew J; Loo, Lipin; Mohapatra, Durga P

    2015-09-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying chronic pain associated with cancers are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that factors specifically elevated in the tumor microenvironment sensitize adjacent nociceptive afferents. We show that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), which is found at elevated levels in the tumor microenvironment of advanced breast and prostate cancers, is a critical modulator of sensory neurons. Intraplantar injection of PTHrP led to the development of thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in both male and female mice, which were absent in mice lacking functional transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). The PTHrP treatment of cultured mouse sensory neurons enhanced action potential firing, and increased TRPV1 activation, which was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide induced robust potentiation of TRPV1 activation and enhancement of neuronal firing at mild acidic pH that is relevant to acidic tumor microenvironment. We also observed an increase in plasma membrane TRPV1 protein levels after exposure to PTHrP, leading to upregulation in the proportion of TRPV1-responsive neurons, which was dependent on the activity of PKC and Src kinases. Furthermore, co-injection of PKC or Src inhibitors attenuated PTHrP-induced thermal but not mechanical hypersensitivity. Altogether, our results suggest that PTHrP and mild acidic conditions could induce constitutive pathological activation of sensory neurons through upregulation of TRPV1 function and trafficking, which could serve as a mechanism for peripheral sensitization of nociceptive afferents in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25970319

  18. Structure of the TRPV1 ion channel determined by electron cryo-microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Maofu; Cao, Erhu; Julius, David; Cheng, Yifan

    2013-12-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are sensors for a wide range of cellular and environmental signals, but elucidating how these channels respond to physical and chemical stimuli has been hampered by a lack of detailed structural information. Here we exploit advances in electron cryo-microscopy to determine the structure of a mammalian TRP channel, TRPV1, at 3.4?Å resolution, breaking the side-chain resolution barrier for membrane proteins without crystallization. Like voltage-gated channels, TRPV1 exhibits four-fold symmetry around a central ion pathway formed by transmembrane segments 5-6 (S5-S6) and the intervening pore loop, which is flanked by S1-S4 voltage-sensor-like domains. TRPV1 has a wide extracellular 'mouth' with a short selectivity filter. The conserved 'TRP domain' interacts with the S4-S5 linker, consistent with its contribution to allosteric modulation. Subunit organization is facilitated by interactions among cytoplasmic domains, including amino-terminal ankyrin repeats. These observations provide a structural blueprint for understanding unique aspects of TRP channel function. PMID:24305160

  19. TRPV1 Antagonism by Capsazepine Modulates Innate Immune Response in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Brito, Carolina X. L.; Teixeira, Simone A.; Barboza, Renato; dos Reis, Aramys S.; Azevedo-Santos, Ana Paula S.; Muscará, Marcelo; Costa, Soraia K. P.; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Brain, Susan D.; Grisotto, Marcos A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of people suffer from severe malaria every year. The innate immune response plays a determinant role in host's defence to malaria. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) modulates macrophage-mediated responses in sepsis, but its role in other pathogenic diseases has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, in malaria. C57BL/6 mice received 105 red blood cells infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA intraperitoneally. Noninfected mice were used as controls. Capsazepine or vehicle was given intraperitoneally for 6 days. Mice were culled on day 7 after infection and blood and spleen cell phenotype and activation were evaluated. Capsazepine decreased circulating but not spleen F4/80+Ly6G+ cell numbers as well as activation of both F4/80+and F4/80+Ly6G+ cells in infected animals. In addition, capsazepine increased circulating but not spleen GR1+ and natural killer (NK) population, without interfering with natural killer T (NKT) cell numbers and blood NK and NKT activation. However, capsazepine diminished CD69 expression in spleen NKT but not NK cells. Infection increased lipid peroxidation and the release of TNF? and IFN?, although capsazepine-treated group exhibited lower levels of lipid peroxidation and TNF?. Capsazepine treatment did not affect parasitaemia. Overall, TRPV1 antagonism modulates the innate immune response to malaria. PMID:25242870

  20. Polymorphisms in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs associate with sensations from sampled ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alissa L.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variation in chemosensory genes can explain variability in individual’s perception of and preference for many foods and beverages. To gain insight into variable preference and intake of alcoholic beverages, we explored individual variability in the responses to sampled ethanol. In humans, ethanol elicits sweet, bitter and burning sensations. Here, we explore the relationship between variation in ethanol sensations and polymorphisms in genes encoding bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and a polymodal nociceptor (TRPV1). Methods Caucasian participants (n=93) were genotyped for 16 SNPs in TRPV1, 3 SNPs in TAS2R38 and 1 SNP in TAS2R13. Participants rated sampled ethanol on a generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale. Two stimuli were presented: a 16% ethanol whole mouth sip-and-spit solution with a single time-point rating of overall intensity, and a cotton swab saturated with 50% ethanol on the circumvallate papillae (CV) with repeated ratings made over 3 minutes. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the time-intensity data. Results The ethanol whole mouth solution had overall intensity ratings near ‘very strong’. Burning/stinging had the highest mean AUC values, followed by bitterness and sweetness. Whole mouth intensity ratings were significantly associated with burning/stinging and bitterness AUC values on the CV. Three TRPV1 SNPs (rs224547, rs4780521, rs161364) were associated with ethanol sensations on the CV, with two (rs224547 and rs4780521) exhibiting strong linkage disequilibrium. Additionally, the TAS2R38 SNPs rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939 formed a haplotype, and were associated with bitterness on the CV. Lastly, overall intensity for whole mouth ethanol associated with the TAS2R13 SNP rs1015443. Conclusions These data suggest genetic variations in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs influence sensations from sampled ethanol and may potentially influence how individuals initially respond to alcoholic beverages. PMID:25257701

  1. Ganglion-specific splicing of TRPV1 underlies infrared sensation in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Gracheva, Elena O; Cordero-Morales, Julio F; González-Carcacía, José A; Ingolia, Nicholas T; Manno, Carlo; Aranguren, Carla I; Weissman, Jonathan S; Julius, David

    2011-08-01

    Vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are obligate blood feeders that have evolved specialized systems to suit their sanguinary lifestyle. Chief among such adaptations is the ability to detect infrared radiation as a means of locating hotspots on warm-blooded prey. Among vertebrates, only vampire bats, boas, pythons and pit vipers are capable of detecting infrared radiation. In each case, infrared signals are detected by trigeminal nerve fibres that innervate specialized pit organs on the animal's face. Thus, vampire bats and snakes have taken thermosensation to the extreme by developing specialized systems for detecting infrared radiation. As such, these creatures provide a window into the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying evolutionary tuning of thermoreceptors in a species-specific or cell-type-specific manner. Previously, we have shown that snakes co-opt a non-heat-sensitive channel, vertebrate TRPA1 (transient receptor potential cation channel A1), to produce an infrared detector. Here we show that vampire bats tune a channel that is already heat-sensitive, TRPV1, by lowering its thermal activation threshold to about 30?°C. This is achieved through alternative splicing of TRPV1 transcripts to produce a channel with a truncated carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain. These splicing events occur exclusively in trigeminal ganglia, and not in dorsal root ganglia, thereby maintaining a role for TRPV1 as a detector of noxious heat in somatic afferents. This reflects a unique organization of the bat Trpv1 gene that we show to be characteristic of Laurasiatheria mammals (cows, dogs and moles), supporting a close phylogenetic relationship with bats. These findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism for physiological tuning of thermosensory nerve fibres. PMID:21814281

  2. Thermo-Sensitive Receptor Protein: Role of TRPVs in Control of Body Temperature under Heat Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Kusuno, Tomoyuki; Hanada, Tsunehisa; Tominaga, Makoto; Tominaga, Tomoko; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamada, Hisao; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-01

    In vertebrate peripheral nervous system, skin heating and cooling are detected by thermo-sensitive neurons tuned to respond over distinct temperature ranges. TRP-family is thermo-sensitive receptor protein which is Ca2+-permeable ion channels expressing in cellular membrane. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat above 42 °C, whereas TRPV3 and TRPV4 are sensitive to moderate temperatures (<34 °C). Although the amino acid sequence and the channel properties have been characterized, the molecular mechanism of temperature sensation remains poorly understood. In environment, mid and far infrared radiation act as physical stimuli. Here we examined the role of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in regulation of body temperature (BT) by using infrared laser as mild heat stimuli. In wild type mouse, the laser irradiation which caused the increase in skin temperature up to 55 °C did not induce the change in BT without any treatment of TRPVs. However, desensitization of TRPV1 with capsaicin resulted in the increase in BT by laser irradiation. On the other hand, in TRPV4-knockout mouse, moderate thermal stimulus (skin surface temperature <43 °C) caused the increase in the BT. These results suggest that the processing of noxious and moderate thermal radiation stimuli may depend on the TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively.

  3. Structure activity relationships of benzyl C-region analogs of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonamidophenyl)propanamides as potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ann, Jihyae; Jung, Aeran; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Hyuk-Min; Ryu, HyungChul; Kim, Sunjoo; Kang, Dong Wook; Hong, Sunhye; Cui, Minghua; Choi, Sun; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Christoph, Thomas; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-11-01

    A series of 2-substituted 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl C-region analogs of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonamidophenyl)propanamides were investigated for hTRPV1 antagonism. The analysis indicated that the phenyl C-region derivatives exhibited better antagonism than those of the corresponding pyridine surrogates for most of the series examined. Among the phenyl C-region derivatives, the two best compounds 43 and 44S antagonized capsaicin selectively relative to their antagonism of other activators and showed excellent potencies with Ki(CAP)=0.3nM. These two compounds blocked capsaicin-induced hypothermia, consistent with TRPV1 as their site of action, and they demonstrated promising analgesic activities in a neuropathic pain model without hyperthermia. The docking study of 44S in our hTRPV1 homology model indicated that its binding mode was similar with that of its pyridine surrogate in the A- and B-regions but displayed a flipped configuration in the C-region. PMID:26474664

  4. Evidence for the role of lipid rafts and sphingomyelin in Ca(2+)-gating of Transient Receptor Potential channels in trigeminal sensory neurons and peripheral nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Sághy, Éva; Sz?ke, Éva; Payrits, Maja; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Börzsei, Rita; Erostyák, János; Jánosi, Tibor Zoltán; Sétáló, György; Szolcsányi, János

    2015-10-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) cation channels, such as TRP Vanilloid 1 and TRP Ankyrin repeat domain 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1) are nocisensors playing important role to signal pain. Two "melastatin" TRP receptors, like TRPM8 and TRPM3 are also expressed in a subgroup of primary sensory neurons. These channels serve as thermosensors with unique thermal sensitivity ranges and are activated also by several exogenous and endogenous chemical ligands inducing conformational changes from various allosteric ("multisteric") sites. We analysed the role of plasma membrane microdomains of lipid rafts on isolated trigeminal (TRG) neurons and TRPV1-expressing CHO cell line by measuring agonist-induced Ca(2+) transients with ratiometric technique. Stimulation-evoked calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) release from sensory nerve endings of the isolated rat trachea by radioimmunoassay was also measured. Lipid rafts were disrupted by cleaving sphingomyelin (SM) with sphingomyelinase (SMase), cholesterol depletion with methyl ?-cyclodextrin (MCD) and ganglioside breakdown with myriocin. It has been revealed that intracellular Ca(2+) increase responses evoked by the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the TRPA1 agonsits allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and formaldehyde as well as the TRPM8 activator icilin were inhibited after SMase, MCD and myriocin incubation but the response to the TRPM3 agonist pregnenolon sulphate was not altered. Extracellular SMase treatment did not influence the thapsigargin-evoked Ca(2+)-release from intracellular stores. Besides the cell bodies, SMase also inhibited capsaicin- or AITC-evoked CGRP release from peripheral sensory nerve terminals, this provides the first evidence for the importance of lipid raft integrity in TRPV1 and TRPA1 gating on capsaicin-sensitive nerve terminals. SM metabolites, ceramide and sphingosine, did not influence TRPA1 and TRPV1 activation on TRG neurons, TRPV1-expressing CHO cell line, and nerve terminals. We suggest, that the hydrophobic interactions between TRP receptors and membrane lipid raft interfaces modulate the opening properties of these channels and therefore, targeting this interaction might be a promising tool for drug developmental purposes. PMID:26238178

  5. The Pore Loop Domain of TRPV1 Is Required for Its Activation by the Volatile Anesthetics Chloroform and Isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Corinna; Luo, Jialie; Yin, Shijin; Hu, Hongzhen; Dhaka, Ajay

    2015-07-01

    The environmental irritant chloroform, a naturally occurring small volatile organohalogen, briefly became the world's most popular volatile general anesthetic (VGA) before being abandoned because of its low therapeutic index. When chloroform comes in contact with skin or is ingested, it causes a painful burning sensation. The molecular basis for the pain associated with chloroform remains unknown. In this study, we assessed the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family members in mediating chloroform activation and the molecular determinants of VGA activation of TRPV1. We identified the subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that are activated by chloroform. Additionally, we transiently expressed wild-type or specifically mutated TRP channels in human embryonic kidney cells and used calcium imaging or whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to assess the effects of chloroform or the VGA isoflurane on TRP channel activation. The results revealed that chloroform activates DRG neurons via TRPV1 activation. Furthermore, chloroform activates TRPV1, and it also activates TRPM8 and functions as a potent inhibitor of the noxious chemical receptor TRPA1. The results also indicate that residues in the outer pore region of TRPV1 previously thought to be required for either proton or heat activation of the channel are also required for activation by chloroform and isoflurane. In addition to identifying the molecular basis of DRG neuron activation by chloroform and the opposing effects chloroform has on different TRP channel family members, the findings of this study provide novel insights into the structural basis for the activation of TRPV1 by VGAs. PMID:25953616

  6. VGLUT2 controls heat and punctuate hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury via TRPV1-Cre primary afferents

    PubMed Central

    Rogoz, Katarzyna; Stjärne, Ludvig; Kullander, Klas; Lagerström, Malin C.

    2015-01-01

    Nerve injury induces a state of prolonged thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the innervated area, causing distress in affected individuals. Nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity is partially due to increased activity and thereby sustained release of neurotransmitters from the injured fibers. Glutamate, a prominent neurotransmitter in primary afferents, plays a major role in development of hypersensitivity. Glutamate is packed in vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) to enable controlled release upon depolarization. While a role for peripheral VGLUTs in nerve injury-induced pain is established, their contribution in specific peripheral neuronal populations is unresolved. We investigated the role of VGLUT2, expressed by transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) fibers, in nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity. Our data shows that removal of Vglut2 from Trpv1-Cre neurons using transgenic mice abolished both heat and punctuate hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury. In contrast, the development of cold hypersensitivity after nerve injury was unaltered. Here, we show that, VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission from Trpv1-Cre neurons selectively mediates heat and mechanical hypersensitivity associated with nerve injury. Our data clarifies the role of the Trpv1-Cre population and the dependence of VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission in nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:25615623

  7. Evidence for Novel Pharmacological Sensitivities of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Swarna; Churgin, Matthew A.; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Greenberg, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, is a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions globally. Praziquantel (PZQ), the only drug currently available for treatment and control, is largely ineffective against juvenile worms, and reports of PZQ resistance lend added urgency to the need for development of new therapeutics. Ion channels, which underlie electrical excitability in cells, are validated targets for many current anthelmintics. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of non-selective cation channels. TRP channels play key roles in sensory transduction and other critical functions, yet the properties of these channels have remained essentially unexplored in parasitic helminths. TRP channels fall into several (7–8) subfamilies, including TRPA and TRPV. Though schistosomes contain genes predicted to encode representatives of most of the TRP channel subfamilies, they do not appear to have genes for any TRPV channels. Nonetheless, we find that the TRPV1-selective activators capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX) induce dramatic hyperactivity in adult worms; capsaicin also increases motility in schistosomula. SB 366719, a highly-selective TRPV1 antagonist, blocks the capsaicin-induced hyperactivity in adults. Mammalian TRPA1 is not activated by capsaicin, yet knockdown of the single predicted TRPA1-like gene (SmTRPA) in S. mansoni effectively abolishes capsaicin-induced responses in adult worms, suggesting that SmTRPA is required for capsaicin sensitivity in these parasites. Based on these results, we hypothesize that some schistosome TRP channels have novel pharmacological sensitivities that can be targeted to disrupt normal parasite neuromuscular function. These results also have implications for understanding the phylogeny of metazoan TRP channels and may help identify novel targets for new or repurposed therapeutics. PMID:26655809

  8. Evidence for Novel Pharmacological Sensitivities of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Bais, Swarna; Churgin, Matthew A; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Greenberg, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, is a neglected tropical disease affecting hundreds of millions globally. Praziquantel (PZQ), the only drug currently available for treatment and control, is largely ineffective against juvenile worms, and reports of PZQ resistance lend added urgency to the need for development of new therapeutics. Ion channels, which underlie electrical excitability in cells, are validated targets for many current anthelmintics. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of non-selective cation channels. TRP channels play key roles in sensory transduction and other critical functions, yet the properties of these channels have remained essentially unexplored in parasitic helminths. TRP channels fall into several (7-8) subfamilies, including TRPA and TRPV. Though schistosomes contain genes predicted to encode representatives of most of the TRP channel subfamilies, they do not appear to have genes for any TRPV channels. Nonetheless, we find that the TRPV1-selective activators capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX) induce dramatic hyperactivity in adult worms; capsaicin also increases motility in schistosomula. SB 366719, a highly-selective TRPV1 antagonist, blocks the capsaicin-induced hyperactivity in adults. Mammalian TRPA1 is not activated by capsaicin, yet knockdown of the single predicted TRPA1-like gene (SmTRPA) in S. mansoni effectively abolishes capsaicin-induced responses in adult worms, suggesting that SmTRPA is required for capsaicin sensitivity in these parasites. Based on these results, we hypothesize that some schistosome TRP channels have novel pharmacological sensitivities that can be targeted to disrupt normal parasite neuromuscular function. These results also have implications for understanding the phylogeny of metazoan TRP channels and may help identify novel targets for new or repurposed therapeutics. PMID:26655809

  9. Epilepsy but not mobile phone frequency (900 MHz) induces apoptosis and calcium entry in hippocampus of epileptic rat: involvement of TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa; Özkan, Fatma Feyza; Hapil, Seher Rabia; Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Çi?, Bilal

    2015-02-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and epilepsy are reported to mediate the regulation of apoptosis and oxidative stress through Ca(2+) influx. Results of recent reports indicated that EMR can increase temperature and oxidative stress of body cells, and TRPV1 channel is activated by noxious heat, oxidative stress, and capsaicin (CAP). We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 MHz) EMR exposure on Ca(2+) influx, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and TRPV1 channel activations in the hippocampus of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Freshly isolated hippocampal neurons of twenty-one rats were used in study within three groups namely control, PTZ, and PTZ + EMR. The neurons in the three groups were stimulated by CAP. Epilepsy was induced by PTZ administration. The neurons in PTZ + EMR group were exposed to the 900 MHz EMR for 1 h. The apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase-3 and caspase-9 values were higher in PTZ and PTZ + EMR groups than in control. However, EMR did not add additional increase effects on the values in the hippocampal neurons. Intracellular-free Ca(2+) concentrations in fura-2 analyses were also higher in PTZ + CAP group than in control although their concentrations were decreased by TRPV1 channel blocker, capsazepine. However, there were no statistical changes on the Ca(2+) concentrations between epilepsy and EMR groups. In conclusion, apoptosis, mitochondrial, ROS, and Ca(2+) influx via TRPV1 channel were increased in the hippocampal neurons by epilepsy induction although the mobile phone did not change the values. The results indicated that TRPV1 channels in hippocampus may possibly be a novel target for effective target of epilepsy. PMID:25381485

  10. Biochem. J. (2010) 432, 549556 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20100936 549 PP2B/calcineurin-mediated desensitization of TRPV1 does not require

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    2010-01-01

    (transient receptor potential subfamily V type 1 channel, also known as the capsaicin receptor by multiple pain-evoking stimuli, including noxious heat (>42 C), acidic pH and CAP (capsaicin), the active

  11. Development of anti-migraine therapeutics using the capsaicin-induced dermal blood flow model.

    PubMed

    Buntinx, Linde; Vermeersch, Steve; de Hoon, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide (receptor) (CGRP-(R)) blocking therapeutics in the treatment of acute migraine headache provided proof-of-concept for the involvement of CGRP in the pathophysiology of this disorder. One of the major hurdles for the development of any class of drugs, including CGRP blocking therapeutics, is the early clinical development process during which toxic and inefficacious compounds need to be eliminated as early as possible in order to focus on the most promising molecules. At this stage, human models providing proof of target engagement, combined with safety and tolerability studies, are extremely valuable in focusing on those therapeutics that have the highest engagement from the lowest exposure. They guide the go/no-go decision making, establish confidence in the candidate molecule by de-risking toxicity and safety issues and thereby speed up the early clinical development. In this review the focus is on the so called 'capsaicin model' as a typical example of a target engagement biomarker used as a human model for the development of CGRP blocking therapeutics. By applying capsaicin onto the skin, TRPV1 channels are activated and a CGRP-mediated increase in dermal blood flow can be quantified with laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Effective CGRP blocking therapeutics in turn, display blockade of this response. The translation of this biomarker model from animals to humans is discussed as well as the limitations of the assay in predicting the efficacy of anti-migraine drugs. PMID:26114340

  12. A combined coarse-grained and all-atom simulation of TRPV1 channel gating and heat activation

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels act as key sensors of various chemical and physical stimuli in eukaryotic cells. Despite years of study, the molecular mechanisms of TRP channel activation remain unclear. To elucidate the structural, dynamic, and energetic basis of gating in TRPV1 (a founding member of the TRPV subfamily), we performed coarse-grained modeling and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based on the recently solved high resolution structures of the open and closed form of TRPV1. Our coarse-grained normal mode analysis captures two key modes of collective motions involved in the TRPV1 gating transition, featuring a quaternary twist motion of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) relative to the intracellular domains (ICDs). Our transition pathway modeling predicts a sequence of structural movements that propagate from the ICDs to the TMDs via key interface domains (including the membrane proximal domain and the C-terminal domain), leading to sequential opening of the selectivity filter followed by the lower gate in the channel pore (confirmed by modeling conformational changes induced by the activation of ICDs). The above findings of coarse-grained modeling are robust to perturbation by lipids. Finally, our MD simulation of the ICD identifies key residues that contribute differently to the nonpolar energy of the open and closed state, and these residues are predicted to control the temperature sensitivity of TRPV1 gating. These computational predictions offer new insights to the mechanism for heat activation of TRPV1 gating, and will guide our future electrophysiology and mutagenesis studies. PMID:25918362

  13. A combined coarse-grained and all-atom simulation of TRPV1 channel gating and heat activation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjun; Qin, Feng

    2015-05-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) channels act as key sensors of various chemical and physical stimuli in eukaryotic cells. Despite years of study, the molecular mechanisms of TRP channel activation remain unclear. To elucidate the structural, dynamic, and energetic basis of gating in TRPV1 (a founding member of the TRPV subfamily), we performed coarse-grained modeling and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation based on the recently solved high resolution structures of the open and closed form of TRPV1. Our coarse-grained normal mode analysis captures two key modes of collective motions involved in the TRPV1 gating transition, featuring a quaternary twist motion of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) relative to the intracellular domains (ICDs). Our transition pathway modeling predicts a sequence of structural movements that propagate from the ICDs to the TMDs via key interface domains (including the membrane proximal domain and the C-terminal domain), leading to sequential opening of the selectivity filter followed by the lower gate in the channel pore (confirmed by modeling conformational changes induced by the activation of ICDs). The above findings of coarse-grained modeling are robust to perturbation by lipids. Finally, our MD simulation of the ICD identifies key residues that contribute differently to the nonpolar energy of the open and closed state, and these residues are predicted to control the temperature sensitivity of TRPV1 gating. These computational predictions offer new insights to the mechanism for heat activation of TRPV1 gating, and will guide our future electrophysiology and mutagenesis studies. PMID:25918362

  14. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 increases expression and permeability of tight junction in normal and hyposecretory submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Liang; Yang, Ning-Yan; Ding, Chong; Li, Jing; Ding, Qian-Wen; Su, Yun-Chao; Xiang, Ruo-Lan; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2012-05-01

    Tight junction (TJ) is an important structure that regulates material transport through the paracellular pathway across the epithelium, but its significance in salivary physiology and pathogenesis of salivary dysfunctional diseases is not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that a functional transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) expresses in submandibular gland (SMG). However, association of TRPV1-induced saliva secretion with TJ remains unknown. Here we explored the effect of TRPV1 activation on expression and function of TJ of rabbit SMG in vitro and in vivo. RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that capsaicin upregulated expression of zonula occludin-1 (ZO-1), claudin (Cldn)-3, and -11, but not Cldn-1, -2, -4, -5, and -7 in cultured SMG cells. Capsaicin also increased the entering of 4?kDa FITC-dextran into the acinar lumen, induced redistribution of cytoskeleton F-actin under confocal microscope, and these effects were abolished by preincubation of capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, indicating that activation of TRPV1 increases expression and permeability of TJ in SMG. Additionally, in a hyposecretory model induced by rabbit SMG transplantation, the expression of ZO-1, Cldn-3, and -11 was decreased, whereas other TJs remained unaltered. The structure of TJ was impaired and the width of apical TJs was reduced under transmission electron microscope, concomitant with diminished immunofluorescence of F-actin in peri-apicolateral region, indicating impaired TJ expression and decreased paracellular permeability in the transplanted SMG. Moreover, topical capsaicin cream increased secretion, decreased TJ structural injury, reversed TJ expression levels, and protected F-actin morphology from disarrangement in transplanted SMGs. These data provide the first evidence to demonstrate that TJ components, particularly ZO-1, Cldn-3, and -11 have important roles in secretion of SMG under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The injury in TJ integrity was involved in the hypofunctional SMGs, and TRPV1 might be a potential target to improve saliva secretion through modulating expression and function of TJs. PMID:22391958

  15. TRPV1 activation is involved in the cardioprotection of remote limb ischemic postconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion injury rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanfeng; Song, Junxian; Chen, Hong; Cao, Chengfu; Lee, Chongyou

    2015-08-01

    Limb remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) has been proved to be a safe and effective measurement of cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. But what bridges the remote organ insult and the cardioprotective effect in heart remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to found that whether TRPV1 may mediate the cardioprotective effect from remote organ to heart and the role of CGRP and SP in this process. We found that RIPostC effectively ameliorated cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in terms of limiting infarct size, lowering CK and cTnI release and improving cardiac function. In addition, these cardioprotective effects could be significantly abolished by inhibition of either CGRP or SP receptors with corresponding antagonists (CGRP8-37 for CGRP and RP-67580 for SP) injected before reperfusion. Besides, RIPostC resulted in significantly increase in the levels of CGRP and SP in plasma and hearts, as well as the levels and mRNA expression of CGRP and SP in DRG. The increase in CGRP and SP levels in plasma and hearts were markedly inhibited by TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. These findings indicate that limb remote ischemic postconditioning could attenuate cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, and the cardioprotective mechanism is via TRPV1-mediated upregulation of CGRP and SP, which could subsequently act on their corresponding receptors in heart tissue. PMID:26079883

  16. Progesterone receptor chaperone complex-based high-throughput screening assay: identification of capsaicin as an inhibitor of the Hsp90 machine.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Chaitanya A; Alfa, Eyad; Lu, Su; Chadli, Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    Hsp90 and its co-chaperones are known to be important for cancer cell survival. The N-terminal inhibitors of Hsp90 that are in ongoing clinical trials as antitumor agents have unfortunately shown disappointing efficacies in the clinic. Thus, novel inhibitors of the Hsp90 machine with a different mechanism of action are urgently needed. We report here the development of a novel high-throughput screening assay platform to identify small-molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones. This assay quantitatively measures the ability of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones to refold/protect the progesterone receptor, a physiological client of Hsp90, in a 96-well plate format. We screened the National Institutes of Health clinical collection drug library and identified capsaicin as a hit molecule. Capsaicin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for topical use in pain management. Cell survival assays showed that capsaicin selectively kills cancer cells and destabilizes several Hsp90 client proteins. Thus, our data may explain the seemingly pleotropic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25184514

  17. Bladder Cancer and Urothelial Impairment: The Role of TRPV1 as Potential Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Mistretta, Francesco; Buffi, Nicolò Maria; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Lista, Giuliana; Larcher, Alessandro; Fossati, Nicola; Abrate, Alberto; Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Montorsi, Francesco; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Urothelium, in addition to its primary function of barrier, is now understood to act as a complex system of cell communication that exhibits specialized sensory properties in the regulation of physiological or pathological stimuli. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that bladder inflammation and neoplastic cell growth, the two most representative pathological conditions of the lower urinary tract, may arise from a primary defective urothelial lining. Transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1), a receptor widely distributed in lower urinary tract structures and involved in the physiological micturition reflex, was described to have a pathophysiological role in inflammatory conditions and in the genesis and development of urothelial cancer. In our opinion new compounds, such as curcumin, the major component of turmeric Curcuma longa, reported to potentiate the effects of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the management of recurrent urothelial cancer in vitro and also identified as one of several compounds to own the vanillyl structure required to work like a TRPV1 agonist, could be thought as complementary in the clinical management of both the recurrences and the inflammatory effects caused by the endoscopic resection or intravesical chemotherapy administration or could be combined with adjuvant agents to potentiate their antitumoral effect. PMID:24901005

  18. Solid-phase synthesis of a library of amphipatic hydantoins. Discovery of new hits for TRPV1 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Gerona-Navarro, Guillermo; González-Muñiz, Rosario; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia; González-Ros, José M.; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Carreño, Cristina; Albericio, Fernando; Royo, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Some heterocyclic systems, called privileged scaffolds, appear frequently in bioactive products and marketed drugs. The combination of a recognized privileged scaffold (hydantoin) and a functional group with high incidence in bioactive molecules (guanidine) guided the design of a library of amphipatic compounds, which allowed to discover novel TRPV1 ion channel blockers. The library was synthesized by parallel solid-phase synthesis from an orthogonally protected resin-bound Lys-Lys skeleton. Key steps of the synthetic procedure were the construction of the hydantoin ring, by reaction of the N-terminal amino group with N,N-disuccinimidyl carbonate (DSC) and subsequent base-induced cyclization, and the guanidinylation of the C-terminal Lys side-chain after removal of the Alloc protecting-group. The preliminary biological studies have allowed the identification of some of the key structural features directing the blockage of capsaicin-induced Ca2+ influx through TRPV1 channels, particularly, the strong preference showed for highly lipophilic acyl groups and substituted guanidine moieties. Active compounds based on this new pharmacophoric scaffold that display in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity PMID:21671576

  19. Endothelin receptor-mediated responses in trigeminal ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Ono, K; Hitomi, S; Harano, N; Sago, T; Yoshida, M; Nunomaki, M; Shiiba, S; Watanabe, S; Nakanishi, O; Inenaga, K

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence implicates endothelin in nociception, but it is unclear how endothelin activates trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons. In the present study, we investigated the expression of the endothelin receptors ETA and ETB and endothelin-induced responses in rat TRG neurons. Double-immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that ETA and ETB were expressed in TRG neurons and that 26% of ETA- or ETB-expressing neurons expressed both receptors. During whole-cell patch-clamp recording, endothelin-1 enhanced an induced current in response to capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, in approximately 20% of dissociated neurons. The enhancement was blocked by the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine and by the ETA antagonist BQ-123, but not by the ETB antagonist BQ-788. Ca(2+)-imaging showed that endothelin-1 increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in more than 20% of the dissociated neurons. Importantly, unlike the effect of endothelin-1 on capsaicin-induced current, the Ca(2+) response was largely suppressed by BQ-788 but not by BQ-123. These results suggest that ETA-mediated TRPV1 hyperactivation via PKC activation and ETB-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization occurs in different subsets of TRG neurons. These endothelin-induced responses may contribute to the induction of orofacial pain. The ETB-mediated function in TRG neurons is a special feature in the trigeminal system because of no ETB expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons. PMID:23396520

  20. Ultraviolet irradiation of the eye and Fos-positive neurons induced in trigeminal brainstem after intravitreal or ocular surface transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Z; Okamoto, K; Tashiro, A; Bereiter, D A

    2010-10-13

    The interior structures of the eye are well supplied by the trigeminal nerve; however, the function of these afferent fibers is not well defined. The aim of this study was to use c-fos like immunohistochemistry (Fos-LI) to map the trigeminal brainstem complex after intravitreal microinjection or ocular surface application of capsaicin, a selective transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist in male rats under barbiturate anesthesia. The effect of ocular inflammation on Fos-LI was tested 2 or 7 days after UV irradiation of the eye. In non-inflamed controls, intravitreal capsaicin produced peaks of Fos-LI at the trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris/caudalis (Vi/Vcvl) transition and in superficial laminae at the caudalis/upper cervical cord (Vc/C1) junction regions. At the Vc/C1 junction intravitreal capsaicin induced Fos-LI in a dose-dependent manner, while at the Vi/Vcvl transition responses were similar after vehicle or capsaicin injections. Two days, but not 7 days, after UV irradiation intravitreal and ocular surface capsaicin-evoked Fos-LI at the Vc/C1 junction and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) were markedly enhanced, whereas the responses at the Vi/Vcvl transition were not different from non-inflamed controls. More than 80% of trigeminal ganglion neurons labeled after intravitreal microinjection of Fluorogold also expressed immunoreactivity for the TRPV1 receptor. These findings suggested that most intraocular trigeminal sensory nerves serve as nociceptors. The similar pattern and magnitude of Fos-LI after capsaicin suggested that TRPV1-responsive trigeminal nerves that supply intraocular and ocular surface tissues form a unified integrative circuit in the caudal brainstem. Intensity coding of capsaicin concentration and facilitation of Fos-LI expression after UV irradiation strongly supported the hypothesis that the Vc/C1 junction was critical for nociceptive processing related to ocular pain, whereas the Vi/Vcvl transition region likely served other functions in ocular homeostasis under naïve and inflamed conditions. PMID:20643195

  1. Epidermal keratinocyte polarity and motility require Ca2+ influx through TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David M.; Huang, Ling; Robinson, Kenneth R.; Messerli, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ca2+ has long been known to play an important role in cellular polarity and guidance. We studied the role of Ca2+ signaling during random and directed cell migration to better understand whether Ca2+ directs cell motility from the leading edge and which ion channels are involved in this function by using primary zebrafish keratinocytes. Rapid line-scan and time-lapse imaging of intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i) during migration and automated image alignment enabled us to characterize and map the spatiotemporal changes in Ca2+i. We show that asymmetric distributions of lamellipodial Ca2+ sparks are encoded in frequency, not amplitude, and that they correlate with cellular rotation during migration. Directed migration during galvanotaxis increases the frequency of Ca2+ sparks over the entire lamellipod; however, these events do not give rise to asymmetric Ca2+i signals that correlate with turning. We demonstrate that Ca2+-permeable channels within these cells are mechanically activated and include several transient receptor potential family members, including TRPV1. Last, we demonstrate that cell motility and Ca2+i activity are affected by pharmacological agents that target TRPV1, indicating a novel role for this channel during cell migration. PMID:23943873

  2. Peripheral Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Orofacial Muscle Pain and Hyperalgesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloman, Jami L.

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, particularly those associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMD) are severely debilitating and affect approximately 12% of the population. Identifying peripheral nociceptive mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia, a prominent feature of persistent muscle pain, could contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for the management of TMD and other muscle pain conditions. This study provides evidence of functional interactions between ligand-gated channels, P2X3 and TRPV1/TRPA1, in trigeminal sensory neurons, and proposes that these interactions underlie the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. In the masseter muscle, direct P2X3 activation, via the selective agonist ??meATP, induced a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia. Importantly, the ??meATP-induced hyperalgesia was prevented by pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, or the TRPA1 antagonist, AP18. P2X3 was co-expressed with both TRPV1 and TRPA1 in masseter muscle afferents confirming the possibility for intracellular interactions. Moreover, in a subpopulation of P2X3 /TRPV1 positive neurons, capsaicin-induced Ca2+ transients were significantly potentiated following P2X3 activation. Inhibition of Ca2+-dependent kinases, PKC and CaMKII, prevented P2X3-mechanical hyperalgesia whereas blockade of Ca2+-independent PKA did not. Finally, activation of P2X3 induced phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine, residues in TRPV1 in trigeminal sensory neurons. Significant phosphorylation was observed at 15 minutes, the time point at which behavioral hyperalgesia was prominent. Similar data were obtained regarding another nonselective cation channel, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Our data propose P2X3 and NMDARs interact with TRPV1 in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization underlying masseter hyperalgesia. This study offers novel mechanisms by which individual pro-nociceptive ligand gated ion channels form functional complexes in nociceptors. It is also important to further elucidate peripheral anti-nociceptive mechanisms to improve clinical utilization of currently available analgesics and uncover additional therapeutic targets. A side project examined the mechanisms underlying sex differences in the anti-hyperalgesic effects of delta opioid receptors (DORs). This study provides evidence of a sex difference in the potency at DORs that is mediated by differences in the expression of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Collectively, understanding detailed molecular events that underlie the development of pathological pain conditions could benefit future pharmacotherapies.

  3. Intrathecal dihydroergotamine inhibits capsaicin-induced vasodilatation in the canine external carotid circulation via GR127935- and rauwolscine-sensitive receptors.

    PubMed

    Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; González-Hernández, Abimael; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Salinas, Inna I; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2012-10-01

    It has been suggested that during a migraine attack trigeminal nerves release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), producing central nociception and vasodilatation of cranial arteries, including the extracranial branches of the external carotid artery. Since trigeminal inhibition may prevent this vasodilatation, the present study has investigated the effects of intrathecal dihydroergotamine on the external carotid vasodilatation to capsaicin, ?-CGRP and acetylcholine. Anaesthetized vagosympathectomized dogs were prepared to measure blood pressure, heart rate and external carotid conductance. A catheter was inserted into the right common carotid artery for the continuous infusion of phenylephrine (to restore the carotid vascular tone), whereas the corresponding thyroid artery was cannulated for one-min intracarotid infusions of capsaicin, ?-CGRP and acetylcholine (which dose-dependently increased the external carotid conductance). Another cannula was inserted intrathecally (C(1)-C(3)) for the administration of dihydroergotamine, the ?(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine or the serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist GR127935 (N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)[1,1-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride monohydrate). Intrathecal dihydroergotamine (10, 31 and 100?g) inhibited the vasodilatation to capsaicin, but not that to ?-CGRP or acetylcholine. This inhibition was: (i) unaffected by 10?g GR127935 or 100?g rauwolscine, but abolished by 31?g GR127935 or 310?g rauwolscine at 10?g dihydroergotamine; and (ii) abolished by the combination 10?g GR127935+100?g rauwolscine at 100?g dihydroergotamine. Thus, intrathecal (C(1)-C(3)) dihydroergotamine seems to inhibit the external carotid vasodilatation to capsaicin by spinal activation of serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) (probably 5-HT(1B)) receptors and ?(2) (probably ?(2A/2C))-adrenoceptors. PMID:22841658

  4. Molecular target size of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor in pig dorsal root ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Szallasi, A.; Blumberg, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The size of the vanilloid receptor was examined by high-energy radiation inactivation analysis of the binding of ({sup 3}H)resiniferatoxin to pig dorsal root ganglion membranes; it was found to be 270 {plus minus} 25 kDa. This value most likely represents the size of a receptor complex rather than of an individual subunit. Other ligand-gated cation channel complexes have reported molecular weights in this range, e.g. 300 kDa for the acetylcholine receptor.

  5. Endocannabinoid-Dependent LTD in a Nociceptive Synapse Requires Activation of a Presynaptic TRPV-Like Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sharleen

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found that some forms of endocannabinoid-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus are mediated through activation of transient potential receptor vanilloid (TRPV) receptors instead of cannabinoid receptors CB1 or CB2. The potential role for synaptic localization of TRPV receptors during endocannabinoid modulation of nociceptive synapses was examined in the leech CNS where it is possible to record from the same pair of neurons from one preparation to the next. Long-term depression (LTD) in the monosynaptic connection between the nociceptive (N) sensory neuron and the longitudinal (L) motor neuron was found to be endocannabinoid-dependent given that this depression was blocked by RHC-80267, an inhibitor of DAG lipase that is required for 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) synthesis. Intracellular injection of a second DAG lipase inhibitor, tetrahyrdolipstatin (THL) was also able to block this endocannabinoid-dependent LTD (ecLTD) when injected postsynaptically but not presynaptically. N-to-L ecLTD was also inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and SB 366791. Bath application of 2AG or the TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and resiniferatoxin mimicked LTD and both capsaicin- and 2AG-induced depression were blocked by capsazepine. In addition, pretreatment with 2AG or capsaicin occluded subsequent expression of LTD induced by repetitive activity. Presynaptic, but not postsynaptic, intracellular injection of capsazepine blocked both activity- and 2AG-induced ecLTD, suggesting that a presynaptic TRPV-like receptor in the leech mediated this form of synaptic plasticity. These findings potentially extend the role ecLTD to nociceptive synapses and suggest that invertebrate synapses, which are thought to lack CB1/CB2 receptor orthologues, utilize a TRPV-like protein as an endocannabinoid receptor. PMID:20884761

  6. Capsaicin induces cytotoxicity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells via mitochondrial action.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, M; Sassek, M; Abdelmessih, S; Mergler, S; Grötzinger, C; Metzke, D; Wojciechowicz, T; Nowak, K W; Strowski, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), the pungent ingredient of chili peppers, inhibits growth of various solid cancers via TRPV1 as well as TRPV1-independent mechanisms. Recently, we showed that TRPV1 regulates intracellular calcium level and chromogranin A secretion in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. In the present study, we characterize the role of the TRPV1 agonist - CAP - in controlling proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic BON and QGP-1 NET cells. We demonstrate that CAP reduces viability and proliferation, and stimulates apoptotic death of NET cells. CAP causes mitochondrial membrane potential loss, inhibits ATP synthesis and reduces mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein production. In addition, CAP increases cytochrome c and cleaved caspase 3 levels in cytoplasm. CAP reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) acts synergistically with CAP to reduce ROS generation, without affecting CAP-induced toxicity. TRPV1 protein reduction by 75% reduction fails to attenuate CAP-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, these results suggest that CAP induces cytotoxicity by disturbing mitochondrial potential, and inhibits ATP synthesis in NET cells. Stimulation of ROS generation by CAP appears to be a secondary effect, not related to CAP-induced cytotoxicity. These results justify further evaluation of CAP in modulating pancreatic NETs in vivo. PMID:24075930

  7. Capsaicin and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) decrease tension by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors in fast skeletal muscle fibers of the frog.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Xóchitl; Ortiz-Mesina, Mónica; Uribe, Tannia; Castro, Elena; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Urzúa, Zorayda; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Huerta, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that vanilloid receptor (VR1) mRNA is expressed in muscle fibers. In this study, we evaluated the functional effects of VR1 activation. We measured caffeine-induced contractions in bundles of the extensor digitorum longus muscle of Rana pipiens. Isometric tension measurements showed that two VR1 agonists, capsaicin (CAP) and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA), reduced muscle peak tension to 57 ± 4 % and 71 ± 3% of control, respectively. The effect of CAP was partially blocked by a VR1 blocker, capsazepine (CPZ), but the effect of NADA was not changed by CPZ. Because NADA is able to act on cannabinoid receptors, which are also present in muscle fibers, we tested the cannabinoid antagonist AM281. We found that AM281 antagonized both CAP and NADA effects. AM281 alone reduced peak tension to 80 ± 6 % of control. With both antagonists, the CAP effect was completely blocked, and the NADA effect was partially blocked. These results provide pharmacological evidence of the functional presence of the VR1 receptor in fast skeletal muscle fibers of the frog and suggest that capsaicin and NADA reduce tension by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. PMID:25228331

  8. Mechanisms Underlying the Scratching Behavior Induced by the Activation of Proteinase-Activated Receptor-4 in Mice.

    PubMed

    Patricio, Eliziane S; Costa, Robson; Figueiredo, Claudia P; Gers-Barlag, Katharina; Bicca, Maíra A; Manjavachi, Marianne N; Segat, Gabriela C; Gentry, Clive; Luiz, Ana P; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Cunha, Thiago M; Bevan, Stuart; Calixto, João B

    2015-10-01

    A role for proteinase-activated receptor-4 (PAR-4) was recently suggested in itch sensation. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the pruriceptive actions of the selective PAR-4 agonist AYPGKF-NH2 (AYP) in mice. Dorsal intradermal (i.d.) administration of AYP elicited intense scratching behavior in mice, which was prevented by the selective PAR-4 antagonist (pepducin P4pal-10). PAR-4 was found to be coexpressed in 32% of tryptase-positive skin mast cells, and AYP caused a 2-fold increase in mast cell degranulation. However, neither the treatment with cromolyn nor the deficiency of mast cells (WBB6F1-Kit(W/Wv) mice) was able to affect AYP-induced itch. PAR-4 was also found on gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-positive neurons (pruriceptive fibers), and AYP-induced itch was reduced by the selective GRP receptor antagonist RC-3095. In addition, AYP evoked calcium influx in ?1.5% of cultured DRG neurons also sensitive to TRPV1 (capsaicin) and/or TRPA1 (AITC) agonists. Importantly, AYP-induced itch was reduced by treatment with either the selective TRPV1 (SB366791), TRPA1 (HC-030031), or NK1 (FK888) receptor antagonists. However, genetic loss of TRPV1, but not of TRPA1, diminished AYP-induced calcium influx in DRG neurons and the scratching behavior in mice. These findings provide evidence that PAR-4 activation by AYP causes pruriceptive itch in mice via a TRPV1/TRPA1-dependent mechanism. PMID:25955385

  9. Role of peptidergic nerve terminals in the skin: reversal of thermal sensation by calcitonin gene-related peptide in TRPV1-depleted neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Lin; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chiang, Hao; Fu, Yaw-Syan; Lue, June-Horng; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of peptidergic intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) to nociceptive responses after depletion of the thermal-sensitive receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), we took advantage of a resiniferatoxin (RTX)-induced neuropathy which specifically affected small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and their corresponding nerve terminals in the skin. Thermal hypoalgesia (p<0.001) developed from RTX-treatment day 7 (RTXd7) and became normalized from RTXd56 to RTXd84. Substance P (SP)(+) and TRPV1(+) neurons were completely depleted (p?=?0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively), but RTX had a relatively minor effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)(+) neurons (p?=?0.029). Accordingly, SP(+) (p<0.0001) and TRPV1(+) (p?=?0.0008) IENFs were permanently depleted, but CGRP(+) IENFs (p?=?0.012) were only transiently reduced and had recovered by RTXd84 (p?=?0.83). The different effects of RTX on peptidergic neurons were attributed to the higher co-localization ratio of TRPV1/SP than of TRPV1/CGRP (p?=?0.029). Thermal hypoalgesia (p?=?0.0018) reappeared with an intraplantar injection of botulinum toxin type A (botox), and the temporal course of withdrawal latencies in the hot-plate test paralleled the innervation of CGRP(+) IENFs (p?=?0.0003) and CGRP contents in skin (p?=?0.01). In summary, this study demonstrated the preferential effects of RTX on depletion of SP(+) IENFs which caused thermal hypoalgesia. In contrast, the skin was reinnervated by CGRP(+) IENFs, which resulted in a normalization of nociceptive functions. PMID:23209829

  10. Capsaicin as an anti-obesity drug.

    PubMed

    Leung, Felix W

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies support a role of capsaicin as an anti-obesity agent. Intestinal mucosal afferent nerves appear to play a role in controlling adipose tissue distribution between visceral and subcutaneous sites. Activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channels by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. A neurogenic mechanism modulates the regulation of fat metabolism by transient receptor potential vanilloid-1-sensitive sensory nerves. A neural pathway enables the selective activation of the central network that regulates brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity in response to a specific stimulation of gastrointestinal transient receptor potential channels. Dietary capsaicin reduces metabolic dysregulation in obese/diabetic mice by enhancing expression of adiponectin and its receptor. The effects of capsaicin in adipose tissue and liver are related to its dual action on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 expression/activation. Local desensitization of the abdominal capsaicin-sensitive fibers attenuates the hypometabolic adaptation to food deprivation. Truncal vagotomy leads to significant reductions in both diet-induced weight gain and visceral abdominal fat deposition. Vagal de-afferentation leads to a more modest, but clinically and statistically significant, reduction in visceral abdominal fat. Thermogenesis and lipid metabolism-related proteins are altered upon capsaicin treatment in white adipose tissue. Capsaicin induces apoptosis and inhibits adipogenesis in preadipocytes and adipocytes. Epidemiologic data show that consumption of foods containing capsaicin is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity. Clinical evidence supports a role of capsaicin as an anti-obesity agent. Both oral and gastrointestinal exposure to capsaicin increase satiety and reduce energy and fat intake; the stronger reduction with oral exposure suggests a sensory effect of capsaicin. Bioactive components containing capsaicin may support weight maintenance after a hypocaloric diet. Capsaicin consumption 1 h before low intensity exercise is a valuable supplement for the treatment of individuals with hyperlipidemia and/or obesity because it improves lipolysis. Capsinoid ingestion increases energy expenditure through the activation of brown adipose tissue in humans. Capsinoid ingestion is associated with an increase in fat oxidation that is nearly significant; and two common genetic variants may be predictors of response. Further clinical research to develop convenient approaches for obese individuals to take advantage of this common dietary ingredient to prevent the onset or curtail the progression of obesity will be instructive and clinically relevant. PMID:24941669

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ATP release from the human ureter on distension and P2X3

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    . Sections of ureter were stained using antibodies against P2X3 and capsaicin receptors (TRPV1). [ATP] rose TRPV1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 Introduction Pain due to a calculus causing an acute

  12. Discovery of Novel TRPV1 Ligands Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2010, Vol. 31, No. 6 1501 DOI 10.5012/bkcs.2010.31.6.1501

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    should be a useful therapeutic target for pain and inflammatory hyperalgesia. TRPV1 agonists, like the initial stimulatory and painful responses caused by TRPV1 agonists. 4 The cloning of TRPV1 initiated

  13. Capsaicin regulates the NF-?B pathway in salivary gland inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y-H; Namkoong, E; Choi, S; Bae, J-S; Jin, M; Hwang, S-M; Arote, R; Choi, S-Y; Park, K

    2013-06-01

    Salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) release several cytokines that play important roles in the inflammatory process. In this study, we examined whether capsaicin can modulate cytokine release in SGEC. After cells were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mRNA transcript and protein levels were detected by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These findings demonstrated that the increases in TNF? and IL-6 mRNA transcripts were highest at 3 hrs and 1 hr after incubation with poly(I:C) and LPS, respectively. Pre-treatment of the cells with 10 ?µ capsaicin, however, significantly inhibited mRNA transcripts and its protein levels. The simultaneous application of 10 ?µ capsazepine with capsaicin did not block the inhibitory effect of capsaicin. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of capsaicin was also shown in primary cultured cells from TRPV1(-/-) mice. We found that both poly(I:C) and LPS induced I?B-? degradation and phosphorylation, which resulted in NF-?B activation, and capsaicin inhibited this NF-?B pathway. These results demonstrate that SGEC release pro-inflammatory cytokines mediated by TLR, and capsaicin inhibits this process through the NF-?B pathway. This study suggests that capsaicin could potentially alleviate inflammation in salivary glands. PMID:23603336

  14. Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kimberly R.; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A. Brennan; Contreras, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH4Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

  15. Inhibition of airway hyper-responsiveness by TRPV1 antagonists (SB-705498 and PF-04065463) in the unanaesthetized, ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Delescluse, I; Mace, H; Adcock, J J

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Airway sensory nerves play a key role in respiratory cough, dyspnoea, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), all fundamental features of airway diseases [asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)]. Vagally mediated airway reflexes such as cough, bronchoconstriction and chest tightness originate from stimulation of airway sensory nerve endings. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) is present on peripheral terminals of airway sensory nerves and modulation of its activity represents a potential target for the pharmacological therapy of AHR in airway disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH As guinea pig models can provide some of the essential features of asthma, including AHR, we have established the model with some classical pharmacological agents and examined the effect of the TRPV1 antagonists, SB-705498 and PF-04065463 on AHR to histamine evoked by ovalbumin (OA) in unanaesthetized sensitized guinea pigs restrained in a double chamber plethysmograph. Specific airway conductance (sGaw) derived from the airflow was calculated as a percentage of change from baseline. KEY RESULTS Cetirizine and salbutamol significantly inhibited OA-evoked bronchoconstriction [sGaw area under the curve (AUC): 70 and 78%, respectively]. Atropine, SB-705498 and PF-04065463 significantly inhibited OA-evoked AHR to histamine in unanaesthetized, OA-sensitized guinea pigs (sGaw AUC: 94%, 57% and 73%, respectively). Furthermore, this effect was not related to antagonism of histamine's activity. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These data suggest that TRPV1 receptors located on airway sensory nerves are important in the development of AHR and that modulation of TRPV1-receptor activity represents a potential target for the pharmacological therapy of AHR in airway disease. PMID:22320181

  16. Scorpion Toxin, BmP01, Induces Pain by Targeting TRPV1 Channel.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Jiang, Wenbin; Luo, Lei; Li, Bowen; Yang, Shilong; Song, Yuzhu; Lai, Ren

    2015-09-01

    The intense pain induced by scorpion sting is a frequent clinical manifestation. To date, there is no established protocol with significant efficacy to alleviate the pain induced by scorpion envenomation. One of the important reasons is that, little information on pain-inducing compound from scorpion venoms is available. Here, a pain-inducing peptide (BmP01) has been identified and characterized from the venoms of scorpion (Mesobuthus martensii). In an animal model, intraplantar injection of BmP01 in mouse hind paw showed significant acute pain in wild type (WT) mice but not in TRPV1 knock-out (TRPV1 KO) mice during 30 min recording. BmP01 evoked currents in WT dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons but had no effect on DRG neurons of TRPV1 KO mice. Furthermore, OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 3672 BmP01 evoked currents on TRPV1-expressed HEK293T cells, but not on HEK293T cells without TRPV1. These results suggest that (1) BmP01 is one of the pain-inducing agents in scorpion venoms; and (2) BmP01 induces pain by acting on TRPV1. To our knowledge, this is the first report about a scorpion toxin that produces pain by targeting TRPV1. Identification of a pain-inducing compound may facilitate treating pain induced by scorpion envenomation. PMID:26389953

  17. Scorpion Toxin, BmP01, Induces Pain by Targeting TRPV1 Channel

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Md Abdul; Jiang, Wenbin; Luo, Lei; Li, Bowen; Yang, Shilong; Song, Yuzhu; Lai, Ren

    2015-01-01

    The intense pain induced by scorpion sting is a frequent clinical manifestation. To date, there is no established protocol with significant efficacy to alleviate the pain induced by scorpion envenomation. One of the important reasons is that, little information on pain-inducing compound from scorpion venoms is available. Here, a pain-inducing peptide (BmP01) has been identified and characterized from the venoms of scorpion (Mesobuthus martensii). In an animal model, intraplantar injection of BmP01 in mouse hind paw showed significant acute pain in wild type (WT) mice but not in TRPV1 knock-out (TRPV1 KO) mice during 30 min recording. BmP01 evoked currents in WT dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons but had no effect on DRG neurons of TRPV1 KO mice. Furthermore, BmP01 evoked currents on TRPV1-expressed HEK293T cells, but not on HEK293T cells without TRPV1. These results suggest that (1) BmP01 is one of the pain-inducing agents in scorpion venoms; and (2) BmP01 induces pain by acting on TRPV1. To our knowledge, this is the first report about a scorpion toxin that produces pain by targeting TRPV1. Identification of a pain-inducing compound may facilitate treating pain induced by scorpion envenomation. PMID:26389953

  18. 2-(3-Fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as potent TRPV1 antagonists: structure activity relationships of the 2-oxy pyridine C-region.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Shivaji A; Kang, Dong Wook; Ryu, HyungChul; Kim, Myeong Seop; Kim, Ho Shin; Ann, Jihyae; Ha, Taehwan; Kim, Sung-Eun; Son, Karam; Choi, Sun; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Schiene, Klaus; Christoph, Thomas; Lee, Jeewoo

    2013-06-01

    The structure activity relationships of 2-oxy pyridine derivatives in the C-region of N-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-3-ylmethyl) 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as hTRPV1 antagonists were investigated. The analysis indicated that the lipophilicity of the 2-oxy substituents was critical for potent antagonism and 4 or 5 carbons appeared to be optimal for activity. Multiple compounds proved to have comparable activity to 1, which had been reported as the most potent antagonist for capsaicin activity among the previous series of compounds. Further analysis of compounds 22 (2-isobutyloxy) and 53 (2-benzyloxy) in the formalin test in mice demonstrated strong analgesic activity with full efficacy. Docking analysis of 53S using our hTRPV1 homology model indicated that the A- and B-region 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamide made important hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions with Tyr511 and that the C-region 6-trifluoromethyl and 2-benzyloxy groups of pyridine occupied the two hydrophobic binding pockets, respectively. PMID:23685943

  19. The zebrafish ortholog of TRPV1 is required for heat-induced locomotion.

    PubMed

    Gau, Philia; Poon, Jason; Ufret-Vincenty, Carmen; Snelson, Corey D; Gordon, Sharona E; Raible, David W; Dhaka, Ajay

    2013-03-20

    The ability to detect hot temperatures is critical to maintaining body temperature and avoiding injury in diverse animals from insects to mammals. Zebrafish embryos, when given a choice, actively avoid hot temperatures and display an increase in locomotion similar to that seen when they are exposed to noxious compounds such as mustard oil. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the single zebrafish ortholog of TRPV1/2 may have arisen from an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian TRPV1 and TRPV2. As opposed to TRPV2, mammalian TRPV1 is essential for environmentally relevant heat sensation. In the present study, we provide evidence that the zebrafish TRPV1 ion channel is also required for the sensation of heat. Contrary to development in mammals, zebrafish TRPV1(+) neurons arise during the first wave of somatosensory neuron development, suggesting a vital importance of thermal sensation in early larval survival. In vitro analysis showed that zebrafish TRPV1 acts as a molecular sensor of environmental heat (?25°C) that is distinctly lower than the sensitivity of the mammalian form (?42°C) but consistent with thresholds measured in behavioral assays. Using in vivo calcium imaging with the genetically encoded calcium sensor GCaMP3, we show that TRPV1-expressing trigeminal neurons are activated by heat at behaviorally relevant temperatures. Using knock-down studies, we also show that TRPV1 is required for normal heat-induced locomotion. Our results demonstrate for the first time an ancient role for TRPV1 in the direct sensation of environmental heat and show that heat sensation is adapted to reflect species-dependent requirements in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:23516290

  20. Presynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors modulate GABA release in the mouse dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Smith, B N

    2015-11-12

    Regulation of GABA release in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) potently influences vagal output to the viscera. The presence of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) on GABAergic terminals that rapidly alter GABA release onto DMV motor neurons has been suggested previously, but the receptor subtypes contributing to the response are unknown. We examined the effect of selective activation and inhibition of iGluRs on tetrodotoxin-insensitive, miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) in DMV neurons using patch-clamp recordings in brainstem slices from mice. Capsaicin, which activates transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors and increases mIPSC frequency in the DMV via an iGluR-mediated, heterosynaptic mechanism, was also applied to assess GABA release subsequent to capsaicin-stimulated glutamate release. Application of glutamate, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), or kainic acid (KA), but not AMPA, resulted in increased mIPSC frequency in most neurons. Inhibition of AMPA/KA receptors reduced mIPSC frequency, but selective antagonism of AMPA receptors did not alter GABA release, implicating the presence of presynaptic KA receptors on GABAergic terminals. Whereas NMDA application increased mIPSC frequency, blocking NMDA receptors was without effect, indicating that presynaptic NMDA receptors were present, but not activated by ambient glutamate levels in the slice. The effect of NMDA was prevented by AMPA/KA receptor blockade, suggesting indirect involvement of NMDA receptors. The stimulatory effect of capsaicin on GABA release was prevented when AMPA/KA or NMDA, but not AMPA receptors were blocked. Results of these studies indicate that presynaptic NMDAR and KA receptors regulate GABA release in the DMV, representing a heterosynaptic arrangement for rapidly modulating parasympathetic output, especially when synaptic excitation is elevated. PMID:26343294

  1. Capsaicin and its analogues: structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Huang, X-F; Xue, J-Y; Jiang, A-Q; Zhu, H-L

    2013-01-01

    Capsaicin, the main ingredient responsible for the hot pungent taste of chilli peppers, is an alkaloid found in the Capsicum family. Capsaicin was traditionally used for muscular pain, headaches, to improve circulation and for its gastrointestinal protective effects. It was also commonly added to herbal formulations because it acts as a catalyst for other herbs and aids in their absorption. In addition, capsaicin and other capsaicinoid compounds showed strong evidence of having promising potential in the fight against many types of cancer. The mechanism of action of capsaicin has been extensively studied over the past decade. It has been established that capsaicin binds to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor which was expressed predominantly by sensory neurons. And many analogues of capsaicin have been synthesized and evaluated for diverse bioactivities. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the biology and structure-activity relationship of capsaicinoids. PMID:23627937

  2. Thermosensitive ion channel TRPV1 is endogenously expressed in the sperm of a fresh water teleost fish (Labeo rohita) and regulates sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Swain, Nirlipta; Kumari, Shikha; Saha, Ashish; Pradhan, Avinash; Goswami, Luna; Saha, Somdatta; Samanta, Luna; Maity, Apratim; Nayak, Tapas Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Rajakuberan, Chitra; Kumar, Abhishek; Goswami, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Sperm cells exhibit extremely high sensitivity in response to slight changes in temperature, osmotic pressure and/or presence of various chemical stimuli. In most cases throughout the evolution, these physico-chemical stimuli trigger Ca (2+)-signaling and subsequently alter structure, cellular function, motility and survival of the sperm cells. Few reports have recently demonstrated the presence of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in the sperm cells from higher eukaryotes, mainly from higher mammals. In this work, we have explored if the sperm cells from lower vertebrates can also have thermo-sensitive TRP channels. In this paper, we demonstrate the endogenous presence of one specific thermo-sensitive ion channel, namely Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid family member sub type 1 (TRPV1) in the sperm cells collected from fresh water teleost fish, Labeo rohita. By using western blot analysis, fluorescence assisted cell sorting (FACS) and confocal microscopy; we confirm the presence of this non-selective cation channel. Activation of TRPV1 by an endogenous activator NADA significantly increases the quality as well as the duration of fish sperm movement. The sperm cell specific expression of TRPV1 matches well with our in silico sequence analysis. The results demonstrate that TRPV1 gene is conserved in various fishes, ranging from 1-3 in copy number, and it originated by fish-specific duplication events within the last 320 million years (MY). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of any thermo-sensitive TRP channels in the sperm cells of early vertebrates as well as of aquatic animals, which undergo external fertilization in fresh water. This observation may have implications in the aquaculture, breeding of several fresh water and marine fish species and cryopreservation of fish sperms. PMID:23912940

  3. Shivering and tachycardic responses to external cooling in mice are substantially suppressed by TRPV1 activation but not by TRPM8 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Feketa, Viktor V; Balasubramanian, Adithya; Flores, Christopher M; Player, Mark R; Marrelli, Sean P

    2013-11-01

    Mild decrease of core temperature (32-34°C), also known as therapeutic hypothermia, is a highly effective strategy of neuroprotection from ischemia and holds significant promise in the treatment of stroke. However, induction of hypothermia in conscious stroke patients is complicated by cold-defensive responses, such as shivering and tachycardia. Although multiple thermoregulatory responses may be altered by modulators of thermosensitive ion channels, TRPM8 (transient receptor potential melastatin 8) and TRPV1 (TRP vanilloid 1), it is unknown whether these agents affect cold-induced shivering and tachycardia. The current study aimed to determine the effects of TRPM8 inhibition and TRPV1 activation on the shivering and tachycardic responses to external cooling. Conscious mice were treated with TRPM8 inhibitor compound 5 or TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) and exposed to cooling at 10°C. Shivering was measured by electromyography using implanted electrodes in back muscles, tachycardic response by electrocardiography, and core temperature by wireless transmitters in the abdominal cavity. The role of TRPM8 was further determined using TRPM8 KO mice. TRPM8 ablation had no effect on total electromyographic muscle activity (vehicle: 24.0 ± 1.8; compound 5: 23.8 ± 2.0; TRPM8 KO: 19.7 ± 1.9 V·s/min), tachycardia (?HR = 124 ± 31; 121 ± 13; 121 ± 31 beats/min) and drop in core temperature (-3.6 ± 0.1; -3.4 ± 0.4; -3.6 ± 0.5°C) during cold exposure. TRPV1 activation substantially suppressed muscle activity (vehicle: 25.6 ± 3.0 vs. DHC: 5.1 ± 2.0 V·s/min), tachycardia (?HR = 204 ± 25 vs. 3 ± 35 beats/min) and produced a profound drop in core temperature (-2.2 ± 0.6 vs. -8.9 ± 0.6°C). In conclusion, external cooling-induced shivering and tachycardia are suppressed by TRPV1 activation, but not by TRPM8 inhibition. This suggests that TRPV1 agonists may be combined with external physical cooling to achieve more rapid and effective hypothermia. PMID:24005250

  4. Mechanisms underlying the augmentation of phenylbiguanide and capsaicin induced cardiorespiratory reflexes by Mesobuthus tamulus venom.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Abhaya; Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2012-10-01

    Phenylbiguanide (PBG) and capsaicin evoke cardiorespiratory reflexes utilizing two separate pathways. It is known that Indian Red Scorpion (Mesobuthus tumulus; MBT) venom augments PBG (5-HT(3)) responses but, the effect of MBT venom on capsaicin (TRPV1)-induced response is not known. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to ascertain whether MBT venom also augments the capsaicin-induced reflex responses involving mechanisms similar to PBG. Experiments were performed on anaesthetized adult rats. Blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded. At the end of each experiment pulmonary water content was determined. PBG (10 ?g/kg) produced hypotension, bradycardia and apnoea-bradypnoea. Capsaicin (10 ?g/kg) also produced hypotension, bradycardia and apnoea-bradypnoea. MBT venom (100 ?g/kg) augmented PBG as well as capsaicin-induced responses and produced pulmonary oedema (increased pulmonary water content). Prostaglandin synthase inhibitor (indomethacin; 10 mg/kg) blocked the venom-induced augmentation of PBG and capsaicin reflexes. Kinin synthase inhibitor (aprotinin; 6000 KIU) and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor (methylene blue; 5 mg/kg) blocked the venom-induced augmentation of PBG response but not the capsaicin response. However, pulmonary oedema was blocked by these antagonists. Phosphodiesterase V inhibitor (sildenafil; 100 ?g/kg) augmented the PBG response but not the capsaicin response, though pulmonary oedema was seen in both the groups. The present results indicate that MBT venom also augments the capsaicin-induced responses. The augmentation of capsaicin response involves PGs and pulmonary oedema-independent mechanisms whereas, the augmentation of PBG response involves kinin mediated GC-cGMP pathway and pulmonary oedema-dependent mechanisms. PMID:22820164

  5. Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Channel Localized to Non-Neuronal Airway Cells Promotes Non-Neurogenic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Camilla; Carnini, Chiara; Facchinetti, Fabrizio; Viscomi, Arturo Roberto; Pisano, Anna Rita; Stokesberry, Susan; Brunmark, Charlott; Svitacheva, Naila; McGarvey, Lorcan; Patacchini, Riccardo; Damholt, Anders B.; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Materazzi, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Background The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, localized to airway sensory nerves, has been proposed to mediate airway inflammation evoked by allergen and cigarette smoke (CS) in rodents, via a neurogenic mechanism. However the limited clinical evidence for the role of neurogenic inflammation in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease raises an alternative possibility that airway inflammation is promoted by non-neuronal TRPA1. Methodology/Principal Findings By using Real-Time PCR and calcium imaging, we found that cultured human airway cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial and smooth muscle cells express functional TRPA1 channels. By using immunohistochemistry, TRPA1 staining was observed in airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells in sections taken from human airways and lung, and from airways and lung of wild-type, but not TRPA1-deficient mice. In cultured human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, acrolein and CS extract evoked IL-8 release, a response selectively reduced by TRPA1 antagonists. Capsaicin, agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a channel co-expressed with TRPA1 by airway sensory nerves, and acrolein or CS (TRPA1 agonists), or the neuropeptide substance P (SP), which is released from sensory nerve terminals by capsaicin, acrolein or CS), produced neurogenic inflammation in mouse airways. However, only acrolein and CS, but not capsaicin or SP, released the keratinocyte chemoattractant (CXCL-1/KC, IL-8 analogue) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of wild-type mice. This effect of TRPA1 agonists was attenuated by TRPA1 antagonism or in TRPA1-deficient mice, but not by pharmacological ablation of sensory nerves. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, although either TRPV1 or TRPA1 activation causes airway neurogenic inflammation, solely TRPA1 activation orchestrates an additional inflammatory response which is not neurogenic. This finding suggests that non-neuronal TRPA1 in the airways is functional and potentially capable of contributing to inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:22905134

  6. Bioavailability of capsaicin and its implications for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rollyson, William D.; Stover, Cody A.; Brown, Kathleen C.; Perry, Haley E.; Stevenson, Cathryn D.; McNees, Christopher A.; Ball, John G.; Valentovic, Monica A.; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2014-01-01

    The dietary compound capsaicin is responsible for the “hot and spicy” taste of chili peppers and pepper extracts. It is a valuable pharmacological agent with several therapeutic applications in controlling pain and inflammation. Emerging studies show that it displays potent anti-tumor activity in several human cancers. On a more basic research level, capsaicin has been used as a ligand to activate several types of ion-channel receptors. The pharmacological activity of capsaicin-like compounds is dependent on several factors like the dose, the route of administration and most importantly on its concentration at target tissues. The present review describes the current knowledge involving the metabolism and bioavailability of capsaicinoids in rodents and humans. Novel drug delivery strategies used to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic index of capsaicin are discussed in detail. The generation of novel capsaicin-mimetics and improved drug delivery methods will foster the hope of innovative applications of capsaicin in human disease. PMID:25307998

  7. Bioavailability of capsaicin and its implications for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Rollyson, William D; Stover, Cody A; Brown, Kathleen C; Perry, Haley E; Stevenson, Cathryn D; McNees, Christopher A; Ball, John G; Valentovic, Monica A; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2014-12-28

    The dietary compound capsaicin is responsible for the "hot and spicy" taste of chili peppers and pepper extracts. It is a valuable pharmacological agent with several therapeutic applications in controlling pain and inflammation. Emerging studies show that it displays potent anti-tumor activity in several human cancers. On a more basic research level, capsaicin has been used as a ligand to activate several types of ion-channel receptors. The pharmacological activity of capsaicin-like compounds is dependent on several factors like the dose, the route of administration and most importantly on its concentration at target tissues. The present review describes the current knowledge involving the metabolism and bioavailability of capsaicinoids in rodents and humans. Novel drug delivery strategies used to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic index of capsaicin are discussed in detail. The generation of novel capsaicin-mimetics and improved drug delivery methods will foster the hope of innovative applications of capsaicin in human disease. PMID:25307998

  8. Received 18 Nov 2014 | Accepted 8 Apr 2015 | Published 22 May 2015 Photoswitchable fatty acids enable optical

    E-print Network

    the FAAzos to resemble capsaicin, we prepare a series of photolipids targeting the Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel known for its role in nociception. Several azo-capsaicin capsaicin (CAP), the pungent component of chilli peppers11. Synthetic TRPV1 agonists include olvanil17

  9. Calcium regulation by temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels in human uveal melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Derckx, Raissa; Reinach, Peter S; Garreis, Fabian; Böhm, Arina; Schmelzer, Lisa; Skosyrski, Sergej; Ramesh, Niraja; Abdelmessih, Suzette; Polat, Onur Kerem; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Riechardt, Aline Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is both the most common and fatal intraocular cancer among adults worldwide. As with all types of neoplasia, changes in Ca(2+) channel regulation can contribute to the onset and progression of this pathological condition. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) are two different types of Ca(2+) permeation pathways that can be dysregulated during neoplasia. We determined in malignant human UM and healthy uvea and four different UM cell lines whether there is gene and functional expression of TRP subtypes and CB1 since they could serve as drug targets to either prevent or inhibit initiation and progression of UM. RT-PCR, Ca(2+) transients, immunohistochemistry and planar patch-clamp analysis probed for their gene expression and functional activity, respectively. In UM cells, TRPV1 and TRPM8 gene expression was identified. Capsaicin (CAP), menthol or icilin induced Ca(2+) transients as well as changes in ion current behavior characteristic of TRPV1 and TRPM8 expression. Such effects were blocked with either La(3+), capsazepine (CPZ) or BCTC. TRPA1 and CB1 are highly expressed in human uvea, but TRPA1 is not expressed in all UM cell lines. In UM cells, the CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-2, induced Ca(2+) transients, which were suppressed by La(3+) and CPZ whereas CAP-induced Ca(2+) transients could also be suppressed by CB1 activation. Identification of functional TRPV1, TRPM8, TRPA1 and CB1 expression in these tissues may provide novel drug targets for treatment of this aggressive neoplastic disease. PMID:24084605

  10. Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via activation of sensory TRPV1 and ?1 adrenoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical studies have now confirmed the link between short-term exposure to elevated levels of air pollution and increased cardiovascular mortality, but the mechanisms are complex and not completely elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that activation of pulmonary sensory receptors and the sympathetic nervous system underlies the influence of pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particulate on blood pressure, and on the myocardial response to ischemia and reperfusion. Methods & Results 6 h after intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particulate (0.5 mg), myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was performed in anesthetised rats. Blood pressure, duration of ventricular arrhythmia, arrhythmia-associated death, tissue edema and reperfusion injury were all increased by diesel exhaust particulate exposure. Reperfusion injury was also increased in buffer perfused hearts isolated from rats instilled in vivo, excluding an effect dependent on continuous neurohumoral activation or systemic inflammatory mediators. Myocardial oxidant radical production, tissue apoptosis and necrosis were increased prior to ischemia, in the absence of recruited inflammatory cells. Intratracheal application of an antagonist of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 (AMG 9810, 30 mg/kg) prevented enhancement of systolic blood pressure and arrhythmia in vivo, as well as basal and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury ex vivo. Systemic ?1 adrenoreceptor antagonism with metoprolol (10 mg/kg) also blocked enhancement of myocardial oxidative stress and reperfusion injury. Conclusions Pulmonary diesel exhaust particulate increases blood pressure and has a profound adverse effect on the myocardium, resulting in tissue damage, but also increases vulnerability to ischemia-associated arrhythmia and reperfusion injury. These effects are mediated through activation of pulmonary TRPV1, the sympathetic nervous system and locally generated oxidative stress. PMID:24568236

  11. Receptor-targeting mechanisms of pain-causing toxins: How ow?

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Christopher J.; Julius, David

    2012-01-01

    Venoms often target vital processes to cause paralysis or death, but many types of venom also elicit notoriously intense pain. While these pain-producing effects can result as a byproduct of generalized tissue trauma, there are now multiple examples of venom-derived toxins that target somatosensory nerve terminals in order to activate nociceptive (pain-sensing) neural pathways. Intriguingly, investigation of the venom components that are responsible for evoking pain has revealed novel roles and/or configurations of well-studied toxin motifs. This review serves to highlight pain-producing toxins that target the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, or members of the acid-sensing ion channel family, and to discuss the utility of venom-derived multivalent and multimeric complexes. PMID:22538196

  12. DOI: 10.1002/asia.201200730 Heterocycle-linked Phenylbenzyl Amides as Novel TRPV1 Antagonists and

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    the past sev- eral years. Since the cloning of the TRPV1 protein (previ- ously designated as vanilloid led the way for the development of sev- eral analgesics.[4a,6] While TRPV1 agonists have a therapeutic limitation because of their small therapeutic window be- tween the analgesic effect and excitatory side

  13. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1–Dependent Regulation of Liver-Related Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Diminished in the Type 1 Diabetic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Miyata, Kayoko; Bhaskaran, Muthu D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus controls the autonomic neural output to the liver, thereby participating in the regulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP); nevertheless, mechanisms controlling the activity of liver-related PVN neurons are not known. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is involved in glucose homeostasis and colocalizes with liver-related PVN neurons; however, the functional role of TRPV1 regarding liver-related PVN neurons has to be elucidated. A retrograde viral tracer was used to identify liver-related neurons within the brain-liver circuit in control, type 1 diabetic, and insulin-treated mice. Our data indicate that TRPV1 regulates liver-related PVN neurons. This TRPV1-dependent excitation diminished in type 1 diabetic mice. In vivo and in vitro insulin restored TRPV1 activity in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase C–dependent manner and stimulated TRPV1 receptor trafficking to the plasma membrane. There was no difference in total TRPV1 protein expression; however, increased phosphorylation of TRPV1 receptors was observed in type 1 diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that TRPV1 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of liver-related PVN neurons. Moreover, TRPV1-dependent excitation of liver-related PVN neurons diminishes in type 1 diabetes, thus indicating that the brain-liver autonomic circuitry is altered in type 1 diabetes and may contribute to the autonomic dysfunction of HGP. PMID:22492526

  14. Ablation of rat TRPV1-expressing Adelta/C-fibers with resiniferatoxin: analysis of withdrawal behaviors, recovery of function and molecular correlates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ablation of TRPV1-expressing nociceptive fibers with the potent capsaicin analog resiniferatoxin (RTX) results in long lasting pain relief. RTX is particularly adaptable to focal application, and the induced chemical axonopathy leads to analgesia with a duration that is influenced by dose, route of administration, and the rate of fiber regeneration. TRPV1 is expressed in a subpopulation of unmyelinated C- and lightly myelinated Adelta fibers that detect changes in skin temperature at low and high rates of noxious heating, respectively. Here we investigate fiber-type specific behaviors, their time course of recovery and molecular correlates of axon damage and nociception using infrared laser stimuli following an RTX-induced peripheral axonopathy. Results RTX was injected into rat hind paws (mid-plantar) to produce thermal hypoalgesia. An infrared diode laser was used to stimulate Adelta fibers in the paw with a small-diameter (1.6 mm), high-energy, 100 msec pulse, or C-fibers with a wide-diameter (5 mm), long-duration, low-energy pulse. We monitored behavioral responses to indicate loss and regeneration of fibers. At the site of injection, responses to C-fiber stimuli were significantly attenuated for two weeks after 5 or 50 ng RTX. Responses to Adelta stimuli were significantly attenuated for two weeks at the highest intensity stimulus, and for 5 weeks to a less intense Adelta stimulus. Stimulation on the toe, a site distal to the injection, showed significant attenuation of Adelta responses for 7- 8 weeks after 5 ng, or 9-10 weeks after 50 ng RTX. In contrast, responses to C-fiber stimuli exhibited basically normal responses at 5 weeks after RTX. During the period of fiber loss and recovery, molecular markers for nerve regeneration (ATF3 and galanin) are upregulated in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) when behavior is maximally attenuated, but markers of nociceptive activity (c-Fos in spinal cord and MCP-1 in DRG), although induced immediately after RTX treatment, returned to normal. Conclusion Behavioral recovery following peripheral RTX treatment is linked to regeneration of TRPV1-expressing Adelta and C-fibers and sustained expression of molecular markers. Infrared laser stimulation is a potentially valuable tool for evaluating the behavioral role of Adelta fibers in pain and pain control. PMID:21167052

  15. TRPA1 receptors in cough.

    PubMed

    Grace, Megan S; Belvisi, Maria G

    2011-06-01

    In the early 1990's ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) class were implicated in the afferent sensory loop of the cough reflex and in the heightened cough sensitivity seen in disease. Agonists of the TRPV1 capsaicin receptor such as vanilloids and protons were demonstrated to be amongst the most potent chemical stimuli which cause cough. However, more recently, the TRPA1 receptor (not activated by capsaicin) has become of interest in the cough field because it is known to be activated by ligands such as acrolein which is present in air pollution and the acrid smoke from organic material. TRPA1 is a Ca(2+)-permeant non-selective cation channel with 14 ankyrin repeats in its amino terminus which belongs to the larger TRP family. TRPA1 has been characterised as a thermoreceptor which is activated by cold temperature, environmental irritants and reactive electrophilic molecules which can be generated by oxidant stress and inflammation. TRPA1 is primarily expressed in small diameter, nociceptive neurons where its activation probably contributes to the perception of noxious stimuli and the phenomena known as inflammatory hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation. The respiratory tract is innervated by primary sensory afferent nerves which are activated by mechanical and chemical stimuli. Activation of these vagal sensory afferents leads to central reflexes including dyspnoea, changes in breathing pattern and cough. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimulating TRPA1 channels activates vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibres in the guinea pig and rodent lung, and recent data have shown that TRPA1 ligands cause cough in both animal models and normal volunteers. In summary, due to their activation by a wide range of irritant and chemical substances, either by exogenous agents, endogenously produced mediators during inflammation or by oxidant stress, we suggest TRPA1 channels should be considered as one of the most promising targets currently identified for the development of novel anti-tussive drugs. PMID:21074632

  16. Localization of the PIP2 Sensor of TRPV1 Ion Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Ufret-Vincenty, Carmen A.; Klein, Rebecca M.; Hua, Li; Angueyra, Juan; Gordon, Sharona E.

    2011-01-01

    Although a large number of ion channels are now believed to be regulated by phosphoinositides, particularly phosphoinositide 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), the mechanisms involved in phosphoinositide regulation are unclear. For the TRP superfamily of ion channels, the role and mechanism of PIP2 modulation has been especially difficult to resolve. Outstanding questions include: is PIP2 the endogenous regulatory lipid; does PIP2 potentiate all TRPs or are some TRPs inhibited by PIP2; where does PIP2 interact with TRP channels; and is the mechanism of modulation conserved among disparate subfamilies? We first addressed whether the PIP2 sensor resides within the primary sequence of the channel itself, or, as recently proposed, within an accessory integral membrane protein called Pirt. Here we show that Pirt does not alter the phosphoinositide sensitivity of TRPV1 in HEK-293 cells, that there is no FRET between TRPV1 and Pirt, and that dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons from Pirt knock-out mice have an apparent affinity for PIP2 indistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates. We followed by focusing on the role of the C terminus of TRPV1 in sensing PIP2. Here, we show that the distal C-terminal region is not required for PIP2 regulation, as PIP2 activation remains intact in channels in which the distal C-terminal has been truncated. Furthermore, we used a novel in vitro binding assay to demonstrate that the proximal C-terminal region of TRPV1 is sufficient for PIP2 binding. Together, our data suggest that the proximal C-terminal region of TRPV1 can interact directly with PIP2 and may play a key role in PIP2 regulation of the channel. PMID:21224382

  17. Red ginseng extract blocks histamine-dependent itch by inhibition of H1R/TRPV1 pathway in sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Wook-Joo; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Shim, Won-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Korean Red Ginseng—a steamed root of Panax ginseng Meyer—has long been used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries. Its antipruritic effect was recently found, but no molecular mechanisms were revealed. Thus, the current study focused on determining the underlying molecular mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) against histamine-induced itch at the peripheral sensory neuronal level. Methods To examine the antipruritic effect of RGE, we performed in vivo scratching behavior test in mice, as well as in vitro calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp experiments to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. Results The results of our in vivo study confirmed that RGE indeed has an antipruritic effect on histamine-induced scratching in mice. In addition, RGE showed a significant inhibitory effect on histamine-induced responses in primary cultures of mouse dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that RGE has a direct inhibitory effect on sensory neuronal level. Results of further experiments showed that RGE inhibits histamine-induced responses on cells expressing both histamine receptor subtype 1 and TRPV1 ion channel, indicating that RGE blocks the histamine receptor type 1/TRPV1 pathway in sensory neurons, which is responsible for histamine-dependent itch sensation. Conclusion The current study found for the first time that RGE effectively blocks histamine-induced itch in peripheral sensory neurons. We believe that the current results will provide an insight on itch transmission and will be helpful in understanding how RGE exerts its antipruritic effects. PMID:26199558

  18. Functional roles of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in control of lower urinary tract activity: dual analysis of behavior and reflex during the micturition cycle.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Mochizuki, Tsutomu; Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Kira, Satoru; Mizumachi, Ryoji; Sokabe, Takaaki; Takayama, Yasunori; Tominaga, Makoto; Takeda, Masayuki

    2015-05-15

    The present study used a dual analysis of voiding behavior and reflex micturition to examine lower urinary tract function in transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 knockout (KO) mice and TRPV4 KO mice. In metabolic cage experiments conducted under conscious conditions (i.e., voluntary voiding behavior), TRPV4 KO mice showed a markedly higher voiding frequency (VF; 19.3 ± 1.2 times/day) and a smaller urine volume/voiding (UVV; 114 ± 9 ?l) compared with wild-type (WT) littermates (VF: 5.2 ± 0.5 times/day and UVV: 380 ± 34 ?l). Meanwhile, TRPV1 KO mice showed a similar VF to WT littermates (6.8 ± 0.5 times/day) with a significantly smaller UVV (276 ± 20 ?l). Water intake among these genotypes was the same, but TRPV4 KO mice had a larger urine output than the other two groups. In cystometrogram experiments conducted in decerebrate unanesthetized mice (i.e., reflex micturition response), no differences between the three groups were found in any cystometrogram variables, including voided volume, volume threshold for inducing micturition contraction, maximal voiding pressure, and bladder compliance. However, both TRPV1 KO and TRPV4 KO mice showed a significant number of nonvoiding bladder contractions (NVCs; 3.5 ± 0.9 and 2.8 ± 0.7 contractions, respectively) before each voiding, whereas WT mice showed virtually no NVCs. These results suggest that in the reflex micturition circuit, a lack of either channel is involved in NVCs during bladder filling, whereas in the forebrain, it is involved in the early timing of urine release, possibly in the conscious response to the bladder instability. PMID:25761879

  19. Structure of the N-terminal Ankyrin Repeat Domain of the

    E-print Network

    Gaudet, Rachelle

    on sequence identity and function, including the TRPV subfamily (named after the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, TRPV1 and TRPV2 are both activated at noxious temperatures ( 43 °C and 52 °C, respectively) (2, 3). TRPV1 is also gated by exogenous ligands such as capsaicin and resinif- eratoxin (reviewed in Ref. 4

  20. Capsaicin binds to prohibitin 2 and displaces it from the mitochondria to the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuramori, Chikanori; Azuma, Motoki; Kume, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuki; Inoue, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Kabe, Yasuaki; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Kizaki, Masahiro; Suematsu, Makoto; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-02-06

    Capsaicin is widely used as a food additive and as an analgesic agent. Besides its well-known role in nociception, which is mediated by vanilloid receptor 1 specifically expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons, capsaicin has also been considered as a potential anticancer agent, as it inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. Here we identified a new molecular target of capsaicin from human myeloid leukemia cells. We show that capsaicin binds to prohibitin (PHB) 2, which is normally localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane, and induces its translocation to the nucleus. PHB2 is implicated in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and the control of apoptosis. We also provide evidence suggesting that capsaicin causes apoptosis directly through the mitochondria and that PHB2 contributes to capsaicin-induced apoptosis at multiple levels. This work will serve as an important foundation for further understanding of anticancer activity of capsaicin.

  1. Effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation in bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Young; Suresh, Sekar; Park, Mi Na; Jang, Mi; Park, Sungkwon; Gobianand, Kuppannan; You, Seungkwon; Yeon, Sung-Heom; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Capsaicin is a major constituent of hot chili peppers that influences lipid metabolism in animals. In this study, we explored the effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The BMSCs were treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (0, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 ?M) for 2, 4, and 6 days. Capsaicin suppressed fat deposition significantly during adipogenic differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine/enhancer binding protein alpha, fatty acid binding protein 4, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression decreased after capsaicin treatment. We showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we found that capsaicin increased the expression levels of apoptotic genes, such as B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein and caspase 3. Overall, capsaicin inhibits fat deposition by triggering apoptosis. PMID:25358373

  2. Effects of Capsaicin on Adipogenic Differentiation in Bovine Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin Young; Suresh, Sekar; Park, Mi Na; Jang, Mi; Park, Sungkwon; Gobianand, Kuppannan; You, Seungkwon; Yeon, Sung-Heom; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin is a major constituent of hot chili peppers that influences lipid metabolism in animals. In this study, we explored the effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The BMSCs were treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (0, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 ?M) for 2, 4, and 6 days. Capsaicin suppressed fat deposition significantly during adipogenic differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine/enhancer binding protein alpha, fatty acid binding protein 4, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression decreased after capsaicin treatment. We showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we found that capsaicin increased the expression levels of apoptotic genes, such as B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein and caspase 3. Overall, capsaicin inhibits fat deposition by triggering apoptosis. PMID:25358373

  3. Synthesis and structural optimization of multiple H-bonding region of diarylalkyl (thio)amides as novel TRPV1 antagonists

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    and pharmacological studies on TRPV1 have been conducted since it was cloned in 1997 and these studies have im- plied in terms of therapeutic application. Fortu- nately, during our previous studies,10 we observed

  4. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Is Upregulated in Murine Skin Inflammation and Mediates Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1-Induced Neurogenic Edema.

    PubMed

    Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Kun, Jozsef; Dobrosi, Nora; Sándor, Katalin; Németh, Jozsef; Perkecz, Aniko; Pintér, Erika; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Gaszner, Balazs; Tékus, Valeria; Szolcsányi, Janos; Steinhoff, Martin; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Regl?di, Dora; Bíró, Tamas

    2015-09-01

    Although pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was described as a key vasoregulator in human skin, little is known about its expression in mouse skin. As it is important to investigate PACAP signaling in translational mouse dermatitis models, we determined its presence, regulation, and role in neurogenic and non-neurogenic cutaneous inflammatory mechanisms. The mRNA of PACAP and its specific receptor PAC1 was detected with real-time PCR in several skin regions at comparable levels. PACAP-38-immunoreactivity measured with radioimmunoassay was similar in plantar and dorsal paw skin and the ear but significantly smaller in the back skin. PACAP and PAC1 mRNA, as well as PACAP-38 and PAC1 protein expression, significantly increased in the plantar skin after intraplantar administration of capsaicin (50??l, 100??g?ml(-1)), an agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor, evoking chiefly neurogenic inflammation without inflammatory cell accumulation. Intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA; 50??l, 1?mg?ml(-1)) also increased PACAP/PAC1 mRNA but not the PACAP peptide. Capsaicin-induced neurogenic paw edema, but not CFA-evoked non-neurogenic swelling, was significantly smaller in PACAP-deficient mice throughout a 24-hour period. To our knowledge, we provide previously unreported evidence for PACAP and PAC1 expression upregulation during skin inflammation of different mechanisms and for its pro-inflammatory function in neurogenic edema formation. PMID:25905588

  5. Capsaicin 8 % Patch: A Review in Peripheral Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Burness, Celeste B; McCormack, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    The capsaicin 8 % patch (QUTENZA(®)) is an adhesive patch containing a high concentration (8 % w/w) of synthetic capsaicin, a selective agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel. It is approved for treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain in adults either alone or in combination with other medicinal products for pain in the EU; it is only approved to treat postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in the USA. In patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (PDPN), a single 30-min application of the capsaicin 8 % patch significantly improved pain relief and sleep quality compared with placebo in a 12-week double-blind trial. In a 52-week, randomized trial, up to seven consecutive 30-min treatments with the capsaicin 8 % patch (?7 treatments each at least 8 weeks apart) plus standard of care therapy was associated with sustained pain relief and no negative neurological safety consequences compared with standard of care. In two randomized trials, a single 60-min application of the capsaicin 8 % patch reduced pain scores significantly more than a low-concentration (0.04 %) capsaicin control patch in patients with PHN. Capsaicin 8 % patch treatment was noninferior to pregabalin (optimized dosage) in a randomized trial in patients with nondiabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Results in two trials in patients with HIV-AN were equivocal, with a significant improvement in pain intensity observed in one trial, but not in the other. The capsaicin 8 % patch was associated with expected, transient, capsaicin-related application-site adverse events such as erythema and pain. PMID:26666418

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 and insulin receptor substrate 2 and their co-localization with liver-related neurons in the hypothalamus and brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Zsombok, Andrea; Gao, Hong; Miyata, Kayoko; Issa, Alexandra; Derbenev, Andrei V.

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis mainly via controlling the autonomic output to the visceral organs. The autonomic output is regulated by hormones and nutrients to maintain adequate energy and glucose homeostasis. Insulin action is mediated via insulin receptors (IR) resulting in phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) inducing activation of downstream pathways. Furthermore, insulin enhances transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) mediated currents. Activation of the TRPV1 receptor increases excitatory neurotransmitter release in autonomic centers of the brain, thereby impacting energy and glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study is to determine co-expression of IRS2 and TRPV1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) in the mouse brain as well as expression of IRS2 and TRPV1 receptors at liver-related preautonomic neurons pre-labeled with a trans-neural, viral tracer (PRV-152). The data indicate that IRS2 and TRPV1 receptors are present and co-express in the PVN and the DMV. A large portion (over 50%) of the liver-related preautonomic DMV and PVN neurons expresses IRS2. Moreover, the majority of liver-related DMV and PVN neurons also express TRPV1 receptors, suggesting that insulin and TRPV1 actions may affect liver-related preautonomic neurons. PMID:21620379

  7. Divalent cations activate TRPV1 through promoting conformational change of the extracellular region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Ma, Linlin; Cao, Xu; Wang, Kewei; Zheng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Divalent cations Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) selectively and directly potentiate transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 heat activation by lowering the activation threshold into the room temperature range. We found that Mg(2+) potentiates channel activation only from the extracellular side; on the intracellular side, Mg(2+) inhibits channel current. By dividing the extracellularly accessible region of the channel protein into small segments and perturbing the structure of each segment with sequence replacement mutations, we observed that the S1-S2 linker, the S3-S4 linker, and the pore turret are all required for Mg(2+) potentiation. Sequence replacements at these regions substantially reduced or eliminated Mg(2+)-induced activation at room temperature while sparing capsaicin activation. Heat activation was affected by many, but not all, of these structural alternations. These observations indicate that extracellular linkers and the turret may interact with each other. Site-directed fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements further revealed that, like heat, Mg(2+) also induces structural changes in the pore turret. Interestingly, turret movement induced by Mg(2+) precedes channel activation, suggesting that Mg(2+)-induced conformational change in the extracellular region most likely serves as the cause of channel activation instead of a coincidental or accommodating structural adjustment. PMID:24344245

  8. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress.

    PubMed

    Krizanova, Olga; Steliarova, Iveta; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Michal; Hudecova, Sona

    2014-02-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 µM capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  9. Effects of vitamin D on kidney histology and trpv1 channels in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gurel, Ali; Atli, Hasan; Kaya, Nalan; Onalan, Ebru; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Aygen, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is an antineoplastic agent of the anthracycline group, and may show nephrotoxic effects in animal models and humans. We investigated changes in kidney tissue following doxorubicin treatment and the effects of vitamin D on kidney tissue and TRPV1 channels. In this study, 24 adult male Wistar Albino rats were used. The animals were divided into four groups of six animals. During the 14-day experiment period, Group I did not have any application. 200 IU/day cholecalciferol was administered orally to Group II. Group III received 10 mg/kg single dose of DXR intraperitoneally (IP); and Group IV had a single 10 mg/kg dose of IP DXR and 200 IU/day of oral cholecalciferol. At the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated, and their kidney tissues were removed. TRPV1 expression and apoptosis were detected in the tissue section by using immunohistochemical, TUNEL and real time-PCR (RT-PCR) techniques. The findings were examined and photographed with BH2 Olympus photomicroscope. As result of immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and examination with light microscope, it was found that the TRPV 1 immunoreactivity of the DXR group decreased in comparison with the control group, and the vitamin D application did not reverse this effect. Apoptosis detected by the TUNEL method tended to increase in the doxorubicin group and was relatively reversed with the administration of vitamin D. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed to correlate with the findings of apoptosis. This study showed that vitamin D has anti- apoptotic and antioxidant effects on kidney tissue after DXR-induced injury. PMID:26550293

  10. RPF151, a novel capsaicin-like analogue: in vitro studies and in vivo preclinical antitumor evaluation in a breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Tavares, Maurício Temotheo; Pasqualoto, Kerly Fernanda Mesquita; de Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Teixeira, Sarah Fernandes; Ferreira-Junior, Wilson Alves; Bertin, Ariane Matiello; de-Sá-Junior, Paulo Luiz; Barbuto, José Alexandre Marzagão; Figueiredo, Carlos Rogério; Cury, Yara; Damião, Mariana Celestina Frojuello Costa Bernstorff; Parise-Filho, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Capsaicin, the primary pungent component of the chili pepper, has antitumor activity. Herein, we describe the activity of RPF151, an alkyl sulfonamide analogue of capsaicin, against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. RPF151 was synthetized, and molecular modeling was used to compare capsaicin and RPF151. Cytotoxicity of RPF151 on MDA-MB-231 was also evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle analysis, by flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis of cycle-related proteins were used to evaluate the antiproliferative mechanisms. Apoptosis was evaluated by phosphatidyl-serine externalization, cleavage of Ac-YVAD-AMC, and Bcl-2 expression. The production of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by flow cytometry. RPF151 in vivo antitumor effects were investigated in murine MDA-MB-231 model. This study shows that RPF151 downregulated p21 and cyclins A, D1, and D3, leading to S-phase arrest and apoptosis. Although RPF151 has induced the activation of TRPV-1 and TRAIL-R1/DR4 and TRAIL-2/DR5 on the surface of MDA-MB-231 cells, its in vivo antitumor activity was TRPV-1-independent, thus suggesting that RPF151 should not have the same pungency-based limitation of capsaicin. In silico analysis corroborated the biological findings, showing that RPF151 has physicochemical improvements over capsaicin. Overall, the activity of RPF151 against MDA-MB-231 and its lower pungency suggest that it may have a relevant role in cancer therapy. PMID:25894379

  11. Role of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in inflammation and sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Devesa, Isabel; Planells-Cases, Rosa; Fernández-Ballester, Gregorio; González-Ros, José Manuel; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Fernández-Carvajal, Asia

    2011-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a thermoreceptor that responds to noxious temperatures, as well as to chemical agonists, such as vanilloids and protons. In addition, its channel activity is notably potentiated by proinflammatory mediators released upon tissue damage. The TRPV1 contribution to sensory neuron sensitization by proalgesic agents has signaled this receptor as a prime target for analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug intervention. However, TRPV1 antagonists have notably failed in clinical and preclinical studies because of their unwanted side effects. Recent reports have unveiled previously unrecognized anti-inflammatory and protective functions of TRPV1 in several diseases. For instance, this channel has been suggested to play an anti-inflammatory role in sepsis. Therefore, the use of potent TRPV1 antagonists as a general strategy to treat inflammation must be cautiously considered, given the deleterious effects that may arise from inhibiting the population of channels that have a protective function. The use of TRPV1 antagonists may be limited to treating those pathologies where enhanced receptor activity contributes to the inflamed state. Alternatively, therapeutic paradigms, such as reduction of inflammatory-mediated increase of receptor expression in the cell surface, may be a better strategy to prevent abrogation of the TRPV1 subpopulation involved in anti-inflammatory and protective processes. PMID:22096371

  12. Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Çi?, Bilal; Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    TRPV1 is a Ca2+ permeable channel and gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). Some reports have indicated that non-ionized electromagnetic radiation (EMR)-induces heat and oxidative stress effects. We aimed to investigate the effects of distance from sources on calcium signaling, cytosolic ROS production, cell viability, apoptosis, plus caspase-3 and -9 values induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines were divided into A, B, C and D groups as control, 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz groups, respectively. Cells in Group A were used as control and were kept in cell culture conditions without EMR exposure. Groups B, C and D were exposed to the EMR frequencies at different distances (0 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm) for 1h before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic ROS production, Ca2+ concentrations, apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-9 values were higher in groups B, C and D than in A group at 0 cm, 1 cm and 5 cm distances although cell viability (MTT) values were increased by the distances. There was no statistically significant difference in the values between control, 20 and 25 cm. Wi-Fi and mobile phone EMR placed within 10 cm of the cells induced excessive oxidative responses and apoptosis via TRPV1-induced cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in the cancer cells. Using cell phones and Wi-Fi sources which are farther away than 10 cm may provide useful protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis and overload of intracellular Ca2+. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25703814

  13. Intra-oral pre-treatment with capsaicin increases consumption of sweet solutions in rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xue Feng; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Sang Bae; Moon, Young Wha; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2009-08-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats received preference tests for sucrose or saccharin daily following oral treatment with 0.02% capsaicin. Consumed sweet solutions and preference scores increased in capsaicin-treated rats, compared to control rats on the second to fifth exposure period for sucrose and all exposure periods for saccharin. Chow intake was not affected by repeated treatment with capsaicin. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed decreased expression of sweet receptors T1R2 and T1R3 as well as capsaicin receptor VR1 in the circumvallate after this repeated oral exposure to capsaicin. VR1 immunoreactivities were also localized in the vallate taste cells by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Results suggest that decreased expression of sweet receptors in the circumvallate may be related to increased sweet consumption in capsaicin-treated rats; any causal relationship should be further studied. Also, these data suggest that capsaicin may interact with a sweet transduction pathway in the mediation of its receptor VR1 that are located in the vallate taste cells. PMID:19622238

  14. The two faces of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2011-04-15

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the principal pungent component in hot peppers, including red chili peppers, jalapeños, and habaneros. Consumed worldwide, capsaicin has a long and convoluted history of controversy about whether its consumption or topical application is entirely safe. Conflicting epidemiologic data and basic research study results suggest that capsaicin can act as a carcinogen or as a cancer preventive agent. Capsaicin is unique among naturally occurring irritant compounds because the initial neuronal excitation evoked is followed by a long-lasting refractory period, during which the previously excited neurons are no longer responsive to a broad range of stimuli. This process is referred to as desensitization and has been exploited for its therapeutic potential. Capsaicin-containing creams have been in clinical use for many years to relieve a variety of painful conditions. However, their effectiveness in pain relief is also highly debated and some adverse side effects have been reported. We have found that chronic, long-term topical application of capsaicin increased skin carcinogenesis in mice treated with a tumor promoter. These results might imply that caution should be exercised when using capsaicin-containing topical applications in the presence of a tumor promoter, such as, for example, sunlight. PMID:21487045

  15. Capsaicin, from Hot to Not; Can New Pain-Relieving Drugs Be Derived from This Substance Known to Cause Pain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusterholz, David B.

    2006-01-01

    The systematic developments of synthetically modified structures related to capsaicin known to have pungent properties found in chili peppers that could be useful as analgesic drug are described. It is found that identification of the receptor for capsaicin and the mechanism of its action greatly contributed to an understanding of the role…

  16. A novel, potent, oral active and safe antinociceptive pyrazole targeting kappa opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Walker, Cristiani I B; Oliveira, Sara M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Silva, Cássia R; Machado, Pablo; Boligon, Aline A; Martins, Marcos A P; Zanatta, Nilo; Bonacorso, Hélio G; Athayde, Margareth L; Rubin, Maribel A; Calixto, João B; Ferreira, Juliano

    2013-10-01

    Pyrazole compounds are an intriguing class of compounds with potential analgesic activity; however, their mechanism of action remains unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to explore the antinociceptive potential, safety and mechanism of action of novel 1-pyrazole methyl ester derivatives, which were designed by molecular simplification, using in vivo and in vitro methods in mice. First, tree 1-pyrazole methyl ester derivatives (DMPE, MPFE, and MPCIE) were tested in the capsaicin test and all presented antinociceptive effect; however the MPClE (methyl 5-trichloromethyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxylate) was the most effective. Thus, we selected this compound to assess the effects and mechanisms in subsequent pain models. MPCIE produced antinociception when administered by oral, intraperitoneal, intrathecal and intraplantar routes and was effective in the capsaicin and the acetic acid-induced nociception tests. Moreover, this compound reduced the hyperalgesia in diverse clinically-relevant pain models, including postoperative, inflammatory, and neuropathic nociception in mice. The antinociception produced by orally administered MPClE was mediated by ?-opioid receptors, since these effects were prevented by systemically pre-treatment with naloxone and the ?-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine. Moreover, MPCIE prevented binding of the ?-opioid ligand [(3)H]-CI-977 in vitro (IC?? of 0.68 (0.32-1.4) ?M), but not the TRPV1 ([(3)H]-resiniferatoxin) or the ??-adrenoreceptor ([(3)H]-idazoxan) binding. Regarding the drug-induced side effects, oral administration of MPClE did not produce sedation, constipation or motor impairment at its active dose. In addition, MPCIE was readily absorbed after oral administration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MPClE is a novel, potent, orally active and safe analgesic drug that targets ?-opioid receptors. PMID:23791558

  17. Capsaicin triggers immunogenic PEL cell death, stimulates DCs and reverts PEL-induced immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Granato, Marisa; Gilardini Montani, Maria Saveria; Filardi, Mariarosari; Faggioni, Alberto; Cirone, Mara

    2015-10-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of red pepper has been extensively studied for its many properties, especially the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant ones. It binds to vanilloid receptor 1, although it has been reported to be able to mediate some effects independently of its receptor. Another important property of Capsaicin is the anticancer activity against highly malignant tumors, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we found that Capsaicin induced an apoptotic cell death in PEL cells correlated with the inhibition of STAT3. STAT3 pathway, constitutively activated in PEL cells, is essential for their survival. By STAT3 de-phosphorylation, Capsaicin reduced the Mcl-1 expression level and this could represent one of the underlying mechanisms leading to the Capsaicin-mediated cell death and autophagy induction. Next, by pharmacological or genetic inhibition, we found that autophagy played a pro-survival role, suggesting that its inhibition could be exploited to increase the Capsaicin cytotoxic effect against PEL cells. Finally, we show that Capsaicin induced DAMP exposure, as for an immunogenic cell death, directly promoted DC activation and, more importantly, that it counteracted the immune-suppression, in terms of DC differentiation, mediated by the PEL released factors. PMID:26338963

  18. Discovery of potent transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonists: design and synthesis of phenoxyacetamide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiki; Hirano, Noriyuki; Nagahara, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Momen, Shinobu; Yokokawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ryoji

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to discover a novel type of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist because such antagonists are possible drug candidates for treating various disorders. We modified the structure of hit compound 7 (human TRPV1 IC50=411 nM) and converted its pyrrolidino group to a (hydroxyethyl)methylamino group, which substantially improved inhibitory activity (15d; human TRPV1 IC50=33 nM). In addition, 15d ameliorated bladder overactivity in rats in vivo. PMID:23632270

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF CAPSAICIN-SENSITIVE RECTAL MECHANORECEPTORS ACTIVATED BY RECTAL DISTENSION IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, N. J.; Kerrin, A.; Singer, C. A.; Hennig, G. W.; Gerthoffer, W. T.; McDonnell, O.

    2015-01-01

    Rodents detect visceral pain in response to noxious levels of rectal distension. However, the mechanoreceptors that innervate the rectum and respond to noxious levels of rectal distension have not been identified. Here, we have identified the mechanoreceptors of capsaicin-sensitive rectal afferents and characterized their properties in response to circumferential stretch of the rectal wall. We have also used the lethal spotted (ls/ls) mouse to determine whether rectal mechanoreceptors that respond to capsaicin and stretch may also develop in an aganglionic rectum that is congenitally devoid of enteric ganglia. In wild type (C57BL/6) mice, graded increases in circumferential stretch applied to isolated rectal segments activated a graded increase in firing of slowly-adapting rectal mechanoreceptors. Identical stimuli applied to the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice also activated similar graded increases in firing of stretch-sensitive rectal afferents. In both wild type and aganglionic rectal preparations, focal compression of the serosal surface using von Frey hairs identified mechanosensitive “hot spots,” that were associated with brief bursts of action potentials. Spritzing capsaicin (10 µM) selectively onto each identified mechanosensitive hot spot activated an all or none discharge of action potentials in 32 of 56 identified hot spots in wild type mice and 24 of 62 mechanosensitive hot spots in the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice. Each single unit activated by both capsaicin and circumferential stretch responded to low mechanical thresholds (1–2 g stretch). No high threshold rectal afferents were ever recorded in response to circumferential stretch. Anterograde labeling from recorded rectal afferents revealed two populations of capsaicin-sensitive mechanoreceptor that responded to stretch: one population terminated within myenteric ganglia, the other within the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers. In the aganglionic rectum of ls/ls mice, only the i.m. mechanoreceptors were identified. Both myenteric and i.m. mechanoreceptors could be identified by their immunoreactivity to the anti-TRPV1 antibody and the vesicular glutamate transporter, Vglut2. Myenteric mechanoreceptors had a unique morphology, consisting of smooth bulbous nodules that ramified within myenteric ganglia. In summary, the rectum of wild type mice is innervated by at least two populations of capsaicin-sensitive rectal mechanoreceptor, both of which respond to low mechanical thresholds within the innocuous range. These findings suggest that the visceral pain pathway activated by rectal distension is likely to involve low threshold rectal mechanoreceptors that are activated within the normal physiological range. PMID:18395992

  20. THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: THE INTERAGENCY, INTERNATION SYMPOSIUM ON CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Significance

    Evidence indicates that the frequency of occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial and temporal extent in the US and worldwide. Cyanotoxins are among the most potent toxins known, causing death through ...

  1. Capsaicin sensitizes malignant glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via DR5 upregulation and survivin downregulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Yeop; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Seung U; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Choi, Kyeong Sook

    2010-03-01

    Capsaicin, a pungent ingredient of red chili peppers, has been reported to possess antitumor activities. Here, we show that subtoxic doses of capsaicin effectively sensitize multiple malignant glioma cell lines to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. Although TRAIL alone mediated partial proteolytic processing of procaspase-3 in glioma cells, cotreatment with capsaicin and TRAIL efficiently restored complete activation of caspases. We found that treatment of various gliomas with capsaicin significantly upregulated DR5, a death receptor of TRAIL, and downregulated the caspase inhibitor survivin. The induction of DR5 was mediated by CHOP/GADD153. The reduction in survivin protein level was associated with downregulation of cyclin B and Cdc2 expression, suggesting that inhibition of Cdc2 activity might contribute to capsaicin-induced survivin downregulation. Taken together, these results indicate that the activity of capsaicin toward DR5 and survivin contributes to the amplification of caspase cascades, thereby restoring TRAIL sensitivity in malignant glioma cells. Interestingly, normal astrocytes were resistant to combined treatment with capsaicin and TRAIL. Neither capsaicin-induced DR5 upregulation/survivin downregulation nor the partial processing of procaspase-3 by TRAIL was induced in astrocytes. Thus, a combined regimen using capsaicin and TRAIL may provide a safe and effective strategy for treating malignant gliomas. PMID:19939880

  2. Capsaicin-sensitive C- and A-fibre nociceptors control long-term potentiation-like pain amplification in humans.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Florian; Magerl, Walter; Klein, Thomas; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2015-09-01

    Long-term potentiation in the spinal dorsal horn requires peptidergic C-fibre activation in animals. Perceptual correlates of long-term potentiation following high-frequency electrical stimulation in humans include increased sensitivity to electrical stimuli at the high frequency stimulation site (homotopic pain-long-term potentiation) and increased sensitivity to pinprick surrounding the high frequency stimulation site (heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation, equivalent to secondary hyperalgaesia). To characterize the peripheral fibre populations involved in induction of pain-long-term potentiation, we performed two selective nerve block experiments in 30 healthy male volunteers. Functional blockade of TRPV1-positive nociceptors by high-concentration capsaicin (verified by loss of heat pain) significantly reduced pain ratings to high frequency stimulation by 47% (P < 0.001), homotopic pain-long-term potentiation by 71% (P < 0.01), heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation by 92% (P < 0.001) and the area of secondary hyperalgesia by 76% (P < 0.001). The selective blockade of A-fibre conduction by nerve compression (verified by loss of first pain to pinprick) significantly reduced pain ratings to high frequency stimulation by 37% (P < 0.01), but not homotopic pain-long-term potentiation (-5%). It had a marginal effect on heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation (-35%, P = 0.059), while the area of secondary hyperalgesia remained unchanged (-2%, P = 0.88). In conclusion, all nociceptor subclasses contribute to high frequency stimulation-induced pain (with a relative contribution of C > A? fibres, and an equal contribution of TRPV1-positive and TRPV1-negative fibres). TRPV1-positive C-fibres are the main inducers of both homotopic and heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-positive A-fibres contribute substantially to the induction of heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-negative C-fibres induce a component of homotopic self-facilitation but not heterotopic pain-long-term potentiation. TRPV1-negative A-fibres are the main afferents mediating pinprick pain and hyperalgesia, however, they do not appear to contribute to the induction of pain-long-term potentiation. These findings show that distinct peripheral fibre classes mediate induction of long-term potentiation-like pain amplification, its spatial spread to adjacent skin (i.e. secondary hyperalgesia), and the resulting enhanced sensitivity to pinprick in humans. Nociceptive afferents that induce pain amplification can be readily dissociated from those mediating pain. These findings add substantially to our understanding of the mechanisms of pain amplification, that form the basis for understanding the mechanisms of hyperalgesia encountered in patients.See Sandkühler (doi:10.1093/brain/awv193) for a scientific commentary on this article. PMID:25943423

  3. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; La Rocca, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment can deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs have significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls, and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. A case has also been reported of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a patient with a large ingestion of peppers and chili peppers the day before. We present a case of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a 19-year-old Italian man with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers the preceding day. This case describes an unusual pattern of arterial hypertensive crisis due to capsaicin. PMID:19168246

  4. Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 expressing corneal sensory neurons can be subdivided into at least three subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Alamri, Abdulhakeem; Bron, Romke; Brock, James A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is innervated by three main functional classes of sensory neurons: polymodal nociceptors, pure mechano-nociceptors and cold-sensing neurons. Here we explored transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) expression in guinea pig corneal sensory neurons, a widely used molecular marker of polymodal nociceptors. We used retrograde tracing to identify corneal afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and double label in situ hybridization and/or immunohistochemistry to determine their molecular profile. In addition, we used immunohistochemistry to reveal the neurochemistry and structure of TRPV1 expressing nerve endings in the corneal epithelium. Approximately 45% of corneal afferent neurons expressed TRPV1, 28% expressed Piezo2 (a marker of putative pure mechano-nociceptors) and 8% expressed the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8; a marker of cold-sensing neurons). There was no co-expression of TRPV1 and Piezo2 in corneal afferent neurons, but 6% of TRPV1 neurons co-expressed TRPM8. The TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons could be divided into three subpopulations on the basis of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and/or or glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha3 (GFR?3) co-expression. In the corneal epithelium, the TRPV1 axons that co-expressed CGRP and GFR?3 ended as simple unbranched endings in the wing cell layer. In contrast, those that only co-expressed GFR?3 had ramifying endings that branched and terminated in the squamous cell layer, whereas those that only co-expressed CGRP had simple endings in the basal epithelium. This study shows that the majority of TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons (>90%) are likely to be polymodal nociceptors. Furthermore, TRPV1 expressing corneal afferent neurons can be subdivided into specific subpopulations based on their molecular phenotype, nerve terminal morphology and distribution in the corneal epithelium. PMID:26106303

  5. Blockade of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 promotes regeneration after sciatic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Fei; Zhang, Hong; Qi, Chao; Gao, Mei-ling; Wang, Hong; Li, Xia-qing

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) provides the sensation of pain (nociception). However, it remains unknown whether TRPV1 is activated after peripheral nerve injury, or whether activation of TRPV1 affects neural regeneration. In the present study, we established rat models of unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, with or without pretreatment with AMG517 (300 mg/kg), a TRPV1 antagonist, injected subcutaneously into the ipsilateral paw 60 minutes before injury. At 1 and 2 weeks after injury, we performed immunofluorescence staining of the sciatic nerve at the center of injury, at 0.3 cm proximal and distal to the injury site, and in the dorsal root ganglia. Our results showed that Wallerian degeneration occurred distal to the injury site, and neurite outgrowth and Schwann cell regeneration occurred proximal to the injury. The number of regenerating myelinated and unmyelinated nerve clusters was greater in the AMG517-pretreated rats than in the vehicle-treated group, most notably 2 weeks after injury. TRPV1 expression in the injured sciatic nerve and ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia was markedly greater than on the contralateral side. Pretreatment with AMG517 blocked this effect. These data indicate that TRPV1 is activated or overexpressed after sciatic nerve crush injury, and that blockade of TRPV1 may accelerate regeneration of the injured sciatic nerve. PMID:26487864

  6. Changes in carotid body amine levels and effects of dopamine on respiration in rats treated neonatally with capsaicin.

    PubMed Central

    McQueen, D. S.; Mir, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    Dopamine levels in rat carotid bodies and the effects of intravenous dopamine injections on respiration in adult rats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone have been studied in animals which were treated with capsaicin neonatally. Levels of dopamine were five fold higher in the carotid bodies of capsaicin-treated rats as compared with vehicle-treated controls, but there was no significant difference between capsaicin-treated and vehicle-treated rats in their ID50 values for dopamine-induced respiratory depression. Domperidone, a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, substantially reduced the respiratory depression caused by dopamine, both in capsaicin-treated and in control animals, suggesting that a D2-receptor was involved in the response. Cutting the carotid sinus nerves greatly reduced the ventilatory-depressant effect of dopamine, showing that sensory receptors, most probably arterial chemoreceptors, were responsible for most of the response. Substantially less reflex hyperventilation was evoked in capsaicin-treated rats by the peripheral chemoreceptor stimulants hypoxia and sodium cyanide, in comparison with the controls, and domperidone did not increase the responsiveness. About 80% of the reflex ventilatory change originated from carotid body chemoreceptors. The hypoventilation caused by breathing 100% O2 was not significantly different in capsaicin-treated rats when compared with controls. Domperidone substantially reduced this response in capsaicin-treated rats, but not in vehicle-treated animals. Dopamine-induced respiratory depression in capsaicin-treated rats was slightly enhanced, rather than reduced, by oxygen breathing; domperidone remained an effective antagonist of dopamine-induced ventilatory depression. Most of the reduction in respiration caused by dopamine in rats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone can be attributed to actions on a dopamine D2-receptor located in the carotid body. However, despite the increased levels of dopamine found in the carotid bodies, the reduced peripheral chemosensitivity observed in anaesthetized capsaicin-treated rats does not appear to result from a change in sensitivity to dopamine. PMID:6518343

  7. Effect of capsaicin on prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Laviada, Inés

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, natural products have emerged as modulators of many cellular responses, with potential applications as therapeutic drugs in many disorders. Among them, capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been demonstrated to have a role as a tumor suppressor for prostate cancer. Capsaicin potently suppresses the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The antiproliferative activity of capsaicin correlates with oxidative stress induction and apoptosis. Capsaicin also induces ceramide accumulation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in androgen-resistant prostate cells. In androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells, capsaicin exerts a biphasic effect, promoting growth at low doses and inducing apoptosis at doses over 200 µM. This article will draw upon multiple lines of evidence to provide a comprehensive description on the current state of knowledge that implicates the effect of capsaicin on prostate cancer cells. PMID:21062154

  8. Electroacupuncture suppresses capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia through an endogenous spinal opioid mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young; Wang, Jigong; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hee Kee; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2009-01-01

    Central sensitization, caused either by tissue inflammation or peripheral nerve injury, plays an important role in persistent pain. An animal model of capsaicin-induced pain has well-defined peripheral and central sensitization components, thus is useful for studying the analgesic effect on two separate components. The focus of this study is to examine the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia, which represents central sensitization. Capsaicin (0.5%, 10 ?l) was injected into the plantar side of the left hind paw, and foot withdrawal thresholds in response to von Frey stimuli (mechanical sensitivity) were determined for both primary and secondary hyperalgesia in rats. EA (2 Hz, 3 mA) was applied to various pairs of acupoints, GB30-GB34, BL40-BL60, GV2-GV6, LI3-LI6 and SI3-TE8, for 30 min under isofluraine anesthesia and then the effect of EA on mechanical sensitivity of paw was determined. EA applied to the ipsilateral SI3-TE8, but none the other acupoints, significantly reduced capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia but not primary hyperalgesia. EA analgesic effect was inhibited by a systemic non-specific opioid receptor (OR) antagonist or an intrathecal ?- or ?-OR antagonist. EA analgesic effect was not affected by an intrathecal ?-OR antagonist or systemic adrenergic receptor antagonist. This study demonstrates that EA produces a stimulation point specific analgesic effect on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia (central sensitization), mediated by activating endogenous spinal ? and ? opioid receptors. PMID:19646817

  9. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Alawi, Khadija M.; Aubdool, Aisah A.; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D.; Keeble, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the ?-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed ?-/?-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders.—Alawi, K. M., Aubdool, A. A., Liang, L., Wilde, E., Vepa, A., Psefteli, M.-P., Brain, S. D., Keeble, J. E. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature. PMID:26136480

  10. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Alawi, Khadija M; Aubdool, Aisah A; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D; Keeble, Julie E

    2015-10-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the ?-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed ?-/?-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders.-Alawi, K. M., Aubdool, A. A., Liang, L., Wilde, E., Vepa, A., Psefteli, M.-P., Brain, S. D., Keeble, J. E. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature. PMID:26136480

  11. Effect of delayed intrathecal administration of capsaicin on neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Ramamurthy, Somayaji; Prihoda, Thomas J; Eckmann, Maxim S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study was designed to examine the antinociceptive effect of intrathecally administered capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor agonist, in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Methods Male adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups, and all rats underwent unilateral sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Two weeks after injury, five groups received intrathecal administration of either capsaicin in three different dosing regimens or equal volumes of vehicle. The other group received intrathecal capsaicin on the third day after nerve injury. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was assessed by measuring the capsaicin-induced change in thermal and mechanical response thresholds. Results Capsaicin (150–300 ?g/100–200 ?L), when administered by fast infusion or chronic infusions at 8 ?L/hour or 1 ?L/hour, attenuated thermal hyperalgesia as indicated by significantly prolonging paw withdrawal latency to noxious thermal stimulation. The antinociceptive effect of capsaicin was more profound in the injured limb compared to that in the uninjured limb. When capsaicin was administered on the third day after nerve injury, it failed to attenuate thermal hyperalgesia. No significant effect on the mechanical response threshold was observed with intrathecally administered capsaicin. Conclusion Our data suggest that intrathecal capsaicin could significantly attenuate thermal hyperalgesia, depending on the time when the drug is given after nerve injury, and that the antinociceptive efficacy of intrathecal capsaicin positively correlates with the previously reported dynamic profile of spinal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activity after nerve injury. PMID:25246806

  12. An investigation into the mechanism of capsaicin-induced oedema in rabbit skin.

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, P; Brain, S D

    1995-01-01

    1. Oedema formation induced by intradermal capsaicin has been studied in rabbit skin. The effect of the anti-inflammatory steroid dexamethasone and also of a range of known inhibitors of oedema formation have been investigated in order to elucidate mechanisms involved in capsaicin-induced oedema formation. 2. Oedema formation, in response to intradermally-injected test agents, was measured by the local extravascular accumulation of intravenously injected 125I-labelled albumin. In separate experiments skin blood flow was assessed by the clearance of intradermally-injected 133xenon. 3. Oedema formation induced by intradermal histamine (3 nmol) and bradykinin (1 nmol), when in the presence of vasodilator doses of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (3 pmol) or prostaglandin E1, (PGE1) (10 pmol), was significantly inhibited (P < 0.01) in rabbits pretreated with intravenous dexamethasone (3 mg kg-1, -4 h). In contrast dexamethasone had no effect on capsaicin (3 mumol)-induced oedema formation or, on capsaicin (30-100 nmol)-induced blood flow. 4. Oedema formation observed in response to intradermal capsaicin (3 mumol) was significantly inhibited (P < 0.01) when the selective capsaicin antagonist, ruthenium red (3 nmol) was co-injected. This suggests that the mechanism of capsaicin-induced oedema involves activation of sensory nerves. However, oedema was not inhibited when capsaicin was co-injected with the neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist, RP67580 (10 nmol), the NK2 antagonist SR48960 (10 nmol) or the CGRP antagonist CGRP8-37 (300 pmol).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 6 PMID:7537589

  13. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-01

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ?-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ?-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and ?- and/or ?-oxidation. PMID:26072923

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide8-37 antagonizes capsaicin-induced vasodilation in the skin: evaluation of a human in vivo pharmacodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Van der Schueren, B J; Rogiers, A; Vanmolkot, F H; Van Hecken, A; Depré, M; Kane, S A; De Lepeleire, I; Sinclair, S R; de Hoon, J N

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the mediators involved in capsaicin-induced vasodilation in the human skin and to evaluate a pharmacodynamic model for the early clinical evaluation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists. Dermal blood flow (DBF) response of the forearm skin to topically applied capsaicin was measured using laser Doppler perfusion imaging in 22 subjects. The effect of intra-arterially administered CGRP(8-37) (1200 ng . min(-1) . dl(-1) forearm), indomethacin (5 mug . min(-1) . dl(-1) forearm), and N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA; 0.2 mg . min(-1) dl(-1) forearm), and orally administered aprepitant (375 mg) on capsaicin-induced dermal vasodilation was assessed. Furthermore, the diurnal variation of the DBF response to capsaicin was studied. CGRP(8-37) inhibited the capsaicin-induced DBF increase: 217(145, 290)% in infused versus 370 (254, 486)% in the noninfused arm [mean (95% CI); p = 0.004]. In contrast, indomethacin, l-NMMA, aprepitant, and the time of assessment did not affect the DBF response to capsaicin. Thus, capsaicin-induced vasodilation in the human forearm skin is largely mediated by CGRP, but not by vasodilating prostaglandins, nitric oxide, or substance P. The response to capsaicin does not display a circadian rhythm. A pharmacodynamic model is proposed to evaluate CGRP receptor antagonists in humans in vivo. PMID:18216286

  15. The potential antitumor effects of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Laviada, Inés; Rodríguez-Henche, Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, one of the major pungent ingredients found in red peppers, has been recently demonstrated to induce apoptosis in many types of malignant cell lines including colon adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, and many others. The mechanism whereby capsaicin induces apoptosis in cancer cells is not completely elucidated but involves intracellular calcium increase, reactive oxygen species generation, disruption of mitochondrial membrane transition potential, and activation of transcription factors such as NFkappaB and STATS. Recently, a role for the AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and autophagy pathways in capsaicin-triggered cell death has been proposed. In addition, capsaicin shows antitumor activity in vivo by reducing the growth of many tumors induced in mice. In this chapter, we report the last advances performed in the antitumor activity of capsaicin and review the main signaling pathways involved. PMID:24941670

  16. Differential Effects of Peripheral versus Central Coadministration of QX-314 and Capsaicin on Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Fox, Lyle E.; Cheng, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain is common and difficult to treat. Recently a technique was developed to selectively inhibit nociceptive inputs by simultaneously applying two drugs: capsaicin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 channel activator and QX-314, a lidocaine derivative that intracellularly blocks sodium channels. We used this technique to investigate whether transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1-expressing nociceptors contribute to neuropathic pain. Methods The rat chronic constriction injury model was used to induce neuropathic pain in order to test the analgesic effects of both peripheral (perisciatic) and central (intrathecal) administration of the QX-314/capsaicin combination. The Hargreaves and von Frey tests were used to monitor evoked pain-like behaviors and visual observations were used to rank spontaneous pain-like behaviors. Results Perisciatic injections of the QX-314/capsaicin combination transiently increased the withdrawal thresholds by ~3 fold for mechanical and thermal stimuli in rats (n = 6/group) with nerve injuries suggesting that peripheral transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1-expressing nociceptors contribute to neuropathic pain. In contrast, intrathecal administration of the QX-314/capsaicin combination did not alleviate pain-like behaviors (n = 5/group). Surprisingly, intrathecal QX-314 alone (n = 9) or in combination with capsaicin (n = 8) evoked spontaneous pain-like behaviors. Conclusions Data from the perisciatic injections suggested that a component of neuropathic pain was mediated by peripheral nociceptive inputs. The role of central nociceptive terminals could not be determined because of the severe side effects of the intrathecal drug combination. We concluded that only peripheral blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1-expressing nociceptive afferents by the QX-314/capsaicin combination was effective at reducing neuropathic allodynia and hyperalgesia. PMID:22739765

  17. A review of the high-concentration capsaicin patch and experience in its use in the management of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sangeeta; Bhaskar, Arun

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union, the high-concentration capsaicin patch is licensed for the management of neuropathic pain conditions in nondiabetic patients, including postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy (HIV-DSP). However, in the USA, the Food and Drug Administration approved its use only in PHN patients. Capsaicin is a transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 agonist, which increases the intracellular calcium ion concentration. This triggers calcium-dependent protease enzymes causing cytoskeletal breakdown and leads to the loss of cellular integrity and ‘defunctionalization’ of nociceptor fibres. Efficacy and therapeutic effect has been shown in several clinical studies of PHN and HIV-DSP. The high-concentration capsaicin patch and its practical application are different from low-concentration creams; one application can help for up to 3 months. The process of setting up of a service to use the capsaicin 8% patch is also discussed. PMID:23997814

  18. Spatio-temporal expression and functional involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in diabetic mechanical allodynia in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Hao; Wu, Huang-Hui; Qi, Jian; Shi, Juan; Li, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is one of the most common clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by prominent mechanical allodynia (DMA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying it has not fully been elucidated. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of a major nociceptive channel protein transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and analyzed its functional involvement by intrathecal (i.t.) application of TRPV1 antagonists in streptozocin (STZ)-induced DMA rat models. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining results showed that TRPV1 protein level was significantly increased in the soma of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on 14 days after STZ treatment (DMA 14 d), whereas those in spinal cord and skin (mainly from the central and peripheral processes of DRG neurons) had already been enhanced on DMA 7 d to peak on DMA 14 d. qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that TRPV1 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in the DRG on DMA 7 d, indicating a preceding translation of TRPV1 protein in the soma but preferential distribution of this protein to the processes under the DMA conditions. Cell counting assay based on double immunostaining suggested that increased TRPV1-immunoreactive neurons were likely to be small-sized and CGRP-ergic. Finally, single or multiple intrathecal applications of non-specific or specific TRPV1 antagonists, ruthenium red and capsazepine, at varying doses, effectively alleviated DMA, although the effect of the former was more prominent and long-lasting. These results collectively indicate that TRPV1 expression dynamically changes during the development of DMA and this protein may play important roles in mechanical nociception in DRG neurons, presumably through facilitating the release of CGRP. PMID:25020137

  19. Changes in transient receptor potential channels in the rat geniculate ganglion after chorda tympani nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Emiko; Katsura, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Tsuzuki, Kenzo; Noguchi, Koichi; Sakagami, Masafumi

    2015-09-30

    We reported differential expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and the (TRPM8) in the geniculate ganglions (GGs) of naive rats. In medical practice, the chorda tympani nerve (CTN) is injured in some patients during middle-ear surgery, and results in tongue numbness and taste disorder. We investigated changes in the expression of these receptors in GGs after CTN injury. In naive-rat GGs, 11.4, 11.8, and 0.5% of neurons were found to express the TRPV1, the TRPA1, the TRPM8, respectively. At 3 days after CTN injury, 5.2 and 4.0% of activating transcription factor 3-immunoreactive neurons, considered as injured neurons, were found to express the TRPV1 and the TRPA1, respectively. Among activating transcription factor 3-immunonegative neurons, considered as uninjured neurons, 3.9 and 3.8% were found to express the TRPV1 and the TRPA1, respectively. The TRPM8 was not detected in GGs after CTN injury. We found decreased mRNA levels of the TRPV1 and the TRPA1 in all neurons, as well as in uninjured neurons of ipsilateral GGs after CTN injury. CTN injury changes the gene expression in GGs and may have effects on the tongue. PMID:26302160

  20. Evaluation of the antitumour activity of Rinvanil and Phenylacetylrinvanil on the cervical cancer tumour cell lines HeLa, CaSKi and ViBo.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Luis; Alvarado-Sansininea, Jesús J; Escobar, María L; López-Muñoz, Hugo; Hernández-Vázquez, José M V; Monsalvo-Montiel, Iván; Demare, Patricia; Regla, Ignacio; Weiss-Steider, Benny

    2015-07-01

    Capsaicin is a potent inducer of apoptosis in tumourreceptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). The present study determined the IC50 and cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the Capsaicin analogues Rinvanil and Phenylacetylrinvanil (PhAR) on three cervical cancer cell lines: HeLa, CaSKi and ViBo. These analogues possess an increased affinity for TRPV1 receptors. The IC50 obtained proved to be cytotoxic for all three cell lines; however, in the cells treated with Capsaicin both active caspase-3 and nuclear fragmentation were present. Capsaicin and its analogues also inhibited the normal proliferation of lymphocytes, suggesting that they are non-selective antitumour compounds. Finally, we discuss the possible loss of the relation between apoptosis and affinity to TRPV1, and the need for other strategies to synthesise Capsaicin analogues that can be useful in cancer treatments. PMID:25864613

  1. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca{sup 2+} influx

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Dong-Oh; Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree; Kim, Gi-Young

    2012-02-15

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ? Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ? Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ? Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  2. Inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase, fatty-acid amide hydrolase and endocannabinoid transport differentially suppress capsaicin-induced behavioral sensitization through peripheral endocannabinoid mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Spradley, Jessica M; Guindon, Josée; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2010-09-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) and fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrade the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA), respectively. Pharmacological inhibition of these enzymes in the periphery may elucidate the role of endocannabinoids in controlling nociceptive transmission. We compared effects of the MGL inhibitor JZL184, the FAAH inhibitor URB597, and the endocannabinoid uptake inhibitor VDM11, administered locally in the paw, on behavioral hypersensitivities produced by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers. Intradermal capsaicin (10 microg i.pl.) produced nocifensive behavior, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanical allodynia in rats. JZL184 (100 microg i.pl.) suppressed capsaicin-induced nocifensive behavior and thermal hyperalgesia without altering capsaicin-evoked mechanical allodynia. Effects of JZL184 were blocked by either the CB(1) antagonist AM251 (80 microg i.pl.) or the CB(2) antagonist AM630 (25 microg i.pl.). URB597 (75 microg i.pl.) suppressed capsaicin-induced mechanical allodynia without altering capsaicin-evoked thermal hyperalgesia or nocifensive behavior. Effects of URB597 were blocked by AM251 (80 microg i.pl.), but not by AM630 (25 microg i.pl.). VDM11 (100 microg i.pl.) suppressed capsaicin-evoked hypersensitivity for all three dependent measures (nocifensive behavior, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanical allodynia), suggesting an additive effect following putative elevation of both AEA and 2-AG. The VDM11-induced suppression of capsaicin-evoked nocifensive behavior and thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by either AM251 (80 microg i.pl.) or AM630 (25 microg i.pl.), as observed with JZL184. The VDM11-induced suppression of capsaicin-evoked mechanical allodynia was blocked by AM251 (25 microg i.pl.) only, as observed with URB597. Thus, peripheral inhibition of enzymes hydrolyzing 2-AG and AEA suppresses capsaicin-evoked behavioral sensitization with distinct patterns of pharmacological specificity and in a non-overlapping and modality-specific manner. Modulation of endocannabinoids in the periphery suppressed capsaicin-evoked nocifensive behavior and thermal hyperalgesia through either CB(1) or CB(2) receptor mechanisms but suppressed capsaicin-evoked mechanical allodynia through CB(1) mechanisms only. Inhibition of endocannabinoid transport was more effective in suppressing capsaicin-induced sensitization compared to inhibition of either FAAH or MGL alone. These studies are the first to unveil the effects of pharmacologically increasing peripheral endocannabinoid levels on capsaicin-induced behavioral hypersensitivities. Our data suggest that 2-AG, the putative product of MGL inhibition, and AEA, the putative product of FAAH inhibition, differentially suppress capsaicin-induced nociception through peripheral cannabinoid mechanisms. PMID:20416378

  3. LOW-THRESHOLD HEAT RECEPTOR IN CHICK SENSORY NEURONS IS UPREGULATED INDEPENDENTLY OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR

    E-print Network

    Marin-Burgin, Antonia

    previously demonstrated that chick dorsal root ganglion neurons, which are insensitive to capsaicin, re responding to heat also responded to capsaicin, whereas after 3­4 days, more than one-half of the heat-responsive neurons did not respond to capsaicin. These data suggest the existence of low-threshold heat receptors

  4. Vanilloid receptor-1 regulates neurogenic inflammation in colon and protects mice from colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Vinuesa, Amaya G; Sancho, Rocío; García-Limones, Carmen; Behrens, Axel; ten Dijke, Peter; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2012-04-01

    Neuroinflammation driven by the vanilloid-type ion channel receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV-1) is suspected to play a role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Because inflammatory bowel disease is known to elevate the risk of colon cancer, we examined postulated roles for TRPV-1-driven neuroinflammation in promoting colitis-associated and spontaneous colon cancer development. Using a well-established model of colitis-associated cancer (CAC), we found that mice genetically deficient in TRPV-1 showed a higher incidence and number of tumors in the distal colon. In like manner, genetic deficiency of TRPV-1 in the APC(Min/+) model of spontaneous colon cancer accentuated the number of colonic adenomas formed. Mechanistic analyses in the CAC model revealed an increased infiltration of inflammatory cells into the tumors along with elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11 and activation of the STAT3 and NF-?B signaling pathways. Notably, TPRV-1-deficient mice exhibited a defect in expression of the anti-inflammatory neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) which contributed to the generation of a local proinflammatory environment. Together, our findings argue that by limiting neuroinflammatory processes, TRPV-1 exerts a protective role that restricts the initiation and progression of colon cancer. PMID:22396497

  5. Bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled capsaicin in humans.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W; Dixon, C M; Barnes, P J

    1985-04-01

    The effect of inhaled capsaicin, the irritant extract of pepper, on airway tone has been studied in humans. Inhaled capsaicin (2.4 X 10(-10) and 2.4 X 10(-9) mol) caused a dose-dependent fall in specific airways conductance (maximum fall 28 +/- 19 and 38 +/- 19%, respectively; means +/- SD, n = 17). This was maximal within 20 s of exposure and lasted for less than 60 s. There was no difference in the magnitude or duration of bronchoconstriction between normal, smoking, or asthmatic subjects. Capsaicin also caused coughing and retrosternal discomfort. On repeated exposure to capsaicin, there was no evidence for a reduced response (tachyphylaxis). Ipratropium bromide (0.25 mg by inhalation) significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced the bronchoconstriction (maximum falls 34 +/- 14 and 15 +/- 9% after saline and ipratropium bromide, respectively; means +/- SD n = 6), indicating that it was dependent on a cholinergic vagal reflex rather than on local release of substance P from nerves in the airway. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate (10 mg by nebulizer or 40 mg as a dry powder), however, had no significant effect on the bronchoconstrictor response. Capsaicin may be a useful tool for investigating nonmyelinated nerve reflexes in human airways. PMID:3157668

  6. High concentrations of morphine sensitize and activate mouse dorsal root ganglia via TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors

    E-print Network

    Forster, Alexander B.; Reeh, Peter; Messlinger, Karl; Fischer, Michael J. M.

    2009-04-16

    , Allchorne AJ, Vollrath MA, Christensen AP, Zhang DS, Woolf CJ, Corey DP: TRPA1 contributes to cold, mechanical, and chemical nociception but is not essential for hair-cell transduction. Neuron 2006, 50:277-289. 42. Dittert I, Vlachova V, Knotkova H... , Vitaskova Z, Vyklicky L, Kress M, Reeh PW: A technique for fast application of heated solutions of different composition to cultured neurones. J Neurosci Meth- ods 1998, 82:195-201. 43. Bretag AH: Synthetic interstitial fluid for isolated mammalian tissue...

  7. Depletion of substance P and glutamate by capsaicin blocks respiratory rhythm in neonatal rat in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Morgado-Valle, Consuelo; Feldman, Jack L

    2004-01-01

    The specific role of the neuromodulator substance P (SP) and its target, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), in the generation and regulation of respiratory activity is not known. The preBötzinger complex (preBötC), an essential site for respiratory rhythm generation, contains glutamatergic NK1R-expressing neurones that are strongly modulated by exogenously applied SP or acute pharmacological blockade of NK1Rs. We investigated the effects of capsaicin, which depletes neuropeptides (including SP) and glutamate from presynaptic terminals, on respiratory motor output in medullary slice preparations of neonatal rat that generate respiratory-related activity. Bath application of capsaicin slowed respiratory motor output in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Respiratory rhythm could be restored by bath application of SP or glutamate transporter blockers. Capsaicin also evoked dose-dependent glutamate release and depleted SP in fibres within the preBötC. Our results suggest that depletion of SP (or other peptides) and/or glutamate by capsaicin causes a cessation of respiratory rhythm in neonatal rat slices. PMID:14724197

  8. Adaptation to capsaicin within and across days.

    PubMed

    McBurney, D H; Balaban, C D; Christopher, D E; Harvey, C

    1997-02-01

    Subjects judged the time-course of the burn caused by 100 ppm capsaicin applied to the tongue on Day 1 and Day 5. On Days 2-4, they tasted hard candy containing capsaicin. Most subjects did not show adaptation within Day 1, but either plateaued after about 16 min or rose monotonically for the entire 34 min. Intensity was less on Day 5 and levelled off or declined for most subjects. Data were fit to a mathematical model of adaptation. Adaptation across days was accounted for by changes in the gains of the three processes. PMID:9035246

  9. Pharmacology of inhaled capsaicin in humans.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W

    1991-01-01

    Inhaled capsaicin in humans causes cough and transient increase in airways resistance: both these effects appear to be through stimulation of sensory nerves in the airway. It has therefore been possible to study the effect of pharmacological agents on these two reflexes. The induced cough can be modulated by using opiates and local anaesthetics and the increase in airways resistance by anticholinergic agents. The use of inhaled capsaicin has therefore proved a useful human model for the study of novel treatments of cough. PMID:2034834

  10. Incorporation of capsaicin in silicone coatings for enhanced antifouling performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Jaggari, Karunakar; Zhang Newby, Bi-Min

    2002-03-01

    Successful use of capsaicin as insect and animal repellant propelled us to use it as a possible antifouling agent. Its non-toxic, non-biocidal, non-leaching properties make it a viable alternative to organotin compounds. In order to optimize the anti-fouling performance of the coating, silicone, the most effective foul-release marine coating, was chosen as the carrier. We have incorporated capsaicin into silicone coating, by both bulk entrapment and surface immobilization. Contact angle measurements on capsaicin-incorporated silicone exhibited an increase in wettability, owing to the presence of capsaicin. FTIR study further confirmed the incorporation of capsaicin in silicone. Bacterial attachment studies were conducted using lake Erie water. While bacteria liberally inhabited the control coating, their presence on the capsaicin-incorporated coating was found to be minimal. These preliminary studies indicate that capsaicin incorporated silicone could be a viable environment friendly alternative to currently used antifouling coatings.

  11. Plasma membrane stretch activates transient receptor potential vanilloid and ankyrin channels in Merkel cells from hamster buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Soya, Manabu; Sato, Masaki; Sobhan, Ubaidus; Tsumura, Maki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    Merkel cells (MCs) have been proposed to form a part of the MC-neurite complex with sensory neurons. Many transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been identified in mammals; however, the activation properties of these channels in oral mucosal MCs remain to be clarified. We investigated the biophysical and pharmacological properties of TRP vanilloid (TRPV)-1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRP ankyrin (TRPA)-1, and TRP melastatin (TRPM)-8 channels, which are sensitive to osmotic and mechanical stimuli by measurement of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) using fura-2. We also analyzed their localization patterns through immunofluorescence. MCs showed immunoreaction for TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8 channels. In the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), the hypotonic test solution evoked Ca(2+) influx. The [Ca(2+)]i increases were inhibited by TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, or TRPA1 channel antagonists, but not by the TRPM8 channel antagonist. Application of TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPA1, or TRPM8 channel selective agonists elicited transient increases in [Ca(2+)]i only in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+). The results indicate that membrane stretching in MCs activates TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, and TRPA1 channels, that it may be involved in synaptic transmission to sensory neurons, and that MCs could contribute to the mechanosensory transduction sequence. PMID:24642224

  12. 40 CFR 180.1165 - Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1165 Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Capsaicin is exempt from the requirement...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1165 - Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1165 Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Capsaicin is exempt from the requirement...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1165 - Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1165 Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Capsaicin is exempt from the requirement...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1165 - Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1165 Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Capsaicin is exempt from the requirement...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1165 - Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1165 Capsaicin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Capsaicin is exempt from the requirement...

  17. Noninvasive diode laser activation of transient receptor potential proteins and nociceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nan; Cooper, Brian Y.; Nemenov, Michael I.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated diode laser (980 nm) evoked activation of transient receptor potential proteins (TRPV1 and TRPV2). C and A-delta (A?) nociceptor families are primarily responsible for pain mediation in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 proteins have been associated with heat evoked pain in C fibers while A? fibers have been associated with TRPV2. Diode laser stimulation allows a margin of safety between non-invasive activation and damage 19, 22, 34. Laser pulses (20-50 ms, 0.1-10 W, 980 nm) were used to stimulate: A) in vitro: excised patches from HEK293 cells expressing TRPV1; B) in vitro: rat DRG nociceptors expressing either TRPV1 or TRPV2; and C) in vivo: C-fibers of the rat saphenous nerve (SN) trunk. Cell currents were recorded using standard patch clamp methods. The SN was also stimulated electrically with bipolar electrodes. Stimulation (20-50 ms) of HEK and DRG cells expressing TRPV1 was highly reproducible. Activation and peak currents were achieved at estimated peak temperatures of 55°C and 70°C. Threshold activation was also observed in DRG neurons expressing TRPV2. The conduction velocity for laser-activated saphenous nerve afferents was in the C fiber range (0.5-1 m/s). Electrically stimulated nerve contained stimulation artifacts and complex neural components with conduction velocities ranging from 0.3-30 m/s. Diode laser activation of TRPV1 protein is a reproducible and effective means to probe TRP activity in both in vivo and in vitro preparations

  18. Thy1.2 YFP-16 Transgenic Mouse Labels a Subset of Large-Diameter Sensory Neurons that Lack TRPV1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Clark, Thomas E.; Wu, Kevin Y.; Thompson, Julie-Ann; Yang, Kiseok; Bahia, Parmvir K.; Ajmo, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    The Thy1.2 YFP-16 mouse expresses yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in specific subsets of peripheral and central neurons. The original characterization of this model suggested that YFP was expressed in all sensory neurons, and this model has been subsequently used to study sensory nerve structure and function. Here, we have characterized the expression of YFP in the sensory ganglia (DRG, trigeminal and vagal) of the Thy1.2 YFP-16 mouse, using biochemical, functional and anatomical analyses. Despite previous reports, we found that YFP was only expressed in approximately half of DRG and trigeminal neurons and less than 10% of vagal neurons. YFP-expression was only found in medium and large-diameter neurons that expressed neurofilament but not TRPV1. YFP-expressing neurons failed to respond to selective agonists for TRPV1, P2X2/3 and TRPM8 channels in Ca2+ imaging assays. Confocal analysis of glabrous skin, hairy skin of the back and ear and skeletal muscle indicated that YFP was expressed in some peripheral terminals with structures consistent with their presumed non-nociceptive nature. In summary, the Thy1.2 YFP-16 mouse expresses robust YFP expression in only a subset of sensory neurons. But this mouse model is not suitable for the study of nociceptive nerves or the function of such nerves in pain and neuropathies. PMID:25746468

  19. Mechanisms underlying the hypertensive response induced by capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Abhaya; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2010-11-19

    Acute ingestion of large quantity of chili peppers (rich source of capsaicin) produced hypertensive crisis in a patient. The hypertensive response was explained on the basis of decreased vasodilator substance calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from sensory nerve terminals by capsaicin. Here we present our experimental observations in anaesthetized rats regarding the mechanisms underlying hypertensive response induced by capsaicin. Our results demonstrate non-involvement of adrenergic and angiotensinergic mechanisms and also the cardiac changes in producing the response. Thus, the direct action of capsaicin on vascular smooth muscle or the activation of endothelin is proposed. PMID:20223533

  20. Intravesical capsaicin for treatment of detrusor hyperreflexia.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, C J; Beck, R O; Gerrard, S; Betts, C D; Fowler, C G

    1994-01-01

    An intravesical instillation of 100 ml 1 or 2 mmol/l capsaicin has been used to treat detrusor hyperreflexia giving rise to intractable urinary incontinence in 12 patients with spinal cord disease and two other patients with detrusor overactivity of non-spinal origin. Nine patients, all of whom had spinal cord disease, showed some improvement in bladder function. The benefit was only shortlived and partial in four, but the remaining five achieved complete continence while performing intermittent self catheterisation. Urodynamic studies in these nine patients showed an increase in mean (SD) bladder capacity from 106 (57) to 302 (212) ml and a fall in the maximum detrusor pressure from 54 (20) to 36 (10) cm of water. There were no short term ill effects from the instillation and the improvement in bladder function lasted for between three weeks to six months, when in some patients it was repeated. The improvement in bladder behaviour shown in this study can be interpreted as showing that capsaicin sensitive afferents play an important part in the pathogenesis of detrusor hyperreflexia in spinal humans. Intravesical capsaicin seems a promising means of treating intractable detrusor hyperreflexia and studies with this substance may shed new light on other disorders of detrusor activity that cause incontinence. PMID:8126498

  1. In Vitro and Sensory Evaluation of Capsaicin-Loaded Nanoformulations

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Mathias; Kirsch, Benedikt; Hauser, Hannah; Schneider, Désirée; Seuß-Baum, Ingrid; Goycoolea, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin has known health beneficial and therapeutic properties. It is also able to enhance the permeability of drugs across epithelial tissues. Unfortunately, due to its pungency the oral administration of capsaicin is limited. To this end, we assessed the effect of nanoencapsulation of capsaicin, under the hypothesis that this would reduce its pungency. Core-shell nanocapsules with an oily core and stabilized with phospholipids were used. This system was used with or without chitosan coating. In this work, we investigated the in vitro release behavior of capsaicin-loaded formulations in different physiological media (including simulated saliva fluid). We also evaluated the influence of encapsulation of capsaicin on the cell viability of buccal cells (TR146). To study the changes in pungency after encapsulation we carried out a sensory analysis with a trained panel of 24 students. The in vitro release study showed that the systems discharged capsaicin slowly in a monotonic manner and that the chitosan coating had an effect on the release profile. The cytotoxic response of TR146 cells to capsaicin at a concentration of 500 ?M, which was evident for the free compound, was reduced following its encapsulation. The sensory study revealed that a chitosan coating results in a lower threshold of perception of the formulation. The nanoencapsulation of capsaicin resulted in attenuation of the sensation of pungency significantly. However, the presence of a chitosan shell around the nanoformulations did not mask the pungency, when compared with uncoated systems. PMID:26492045

  2. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channel inhibition potentiates the hypothermic response to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation in the conscious mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Feketa, Viktor V.; Zhang, Yi; Cao, Zhijuan; Balasubramanian, Adithya; Flores, Christopher M.; Player, Mark R.; Marrelli, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mild decrease in core temperature (therapeutic hypothermia; TH) provides lasting neuroprotection following cardiac arrest or cerebral ischemia. However, current methods for producing TH trigger a cold-defense response which must be countered by sedatives, muscle paralytics and mechanical ventilation. We aimed to determine methods for producing hypothermia in the conscious mouse by targeting two transient receptor potential (TRP) channels involved in thermoregulation, TRPV1 and TRPM8. Design Controlled prospective animal study. Subjects Conscious unrestrained young and aged male mice. Setting Research laboratory at academic medical center. Interventions Mice were treated with the TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), a TRPM8 inhibitor (“compound 5”) or their combination and the effects on core temperature (Tcore) were measured by implanted thermocouples and wireless transponders. Measurements and Main Results TRPV1 agonist DHC produced a dose-dependent (2–4 mg/kg, s.c.) drop in Tcore. A loading dose followed by continuous infusion of DHC produced a rapid and prolonged (>6 hrs) drop of Tcore within the therapeutic range (32–34 °C). The hypothermic effect of DHC was augmented in aged mice and was not desensitized with repeated administration. TRPM8 inhibitor “compound 5” (20 mg/kg s.c.) augmented the drop in core temperature during cold exposure (8 °C). When “compound 5” (30 mg/kg) was combined with DHC (1.25–2.5 mg/kg), the drop in Tcore was amplified and prolonged. Conclusions Activating warm receptors (TRPV1) produced rapid and lasting hypothermia in young and old mice. Furthermore, hypothermia induced by TRPV1 agonists was potentiated and prolonged by simultaneous inhibition of TRPM8. PMID:24595220

  3. New Derivatives of Natural Acyclic Guanidine Alkaloids with TRPV Receptor-Regulating Properties.

    PubMed

    Ogurtsova, Ekaterina K; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Korolkova, Yuliya V; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Mosharova, Irina V; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Grishin, Eugene V; Stonik, Valentin A

    2015-07-01

    The guanidine alkaloids, dihydropulchranin A (2), prepared from pulchranin A from the sponge Monanchora pulchra, and hexadecylguanidine (3), a synthetic analog of pulchranins, were studied for their TRPV channel-regulating activities. Compound 2 was active as an inhibitor of rTRPV1 and hTRPV3 receptors with EC50 values of 24.3 and 59.1 ?M, respectively. Hexadecylguanidine (3) was not active against these receptors. PMID:26411002

  4. Effects of tachykinins and capsaicin on the mechanical and electrical activity of the guinea-pig isolated trachea

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Valerie; Félétou, Michel; Advenier, Charles; Canet, Emmanuel

    1997-01-01

    The effects of tachykinins and capsaicin were studied by means of intracellular membrane potential and isometric tension recordings in the isolated trachea of the guinea-pig. The basal membrane potential averaged ?51?mV, and most preparations demonstrated spontaneous slow waves. Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a potassium channel blocker (8×10?3?M), depolarized the membrane potential to ?44?mV and induced a rhythmic activity. In control solution, substance P (10?8–10?6?M), [Nle10]-neurokinin A(4–10) (10?8–10?6?M) and capsaicin (10?7–10?6?M) induced concentration-dependent depolarizations which were statistically significant at the highest concentration tested (depolarization by 10?6?M: 8, 11 and 16?mV for the NK1 agonist, the NK2 agonist and capsaicin, respectively). In the presence of TEA (8×10?3?M), the three substances induced depolarizations which were statistically significant at the highest concentration tested for substance P (10?6?M) and at 10?7 and 10?6?M for both [Nle10]-neurokinin A(4–10) and capsaicin (depolarization by 10?6?M: 11, 17 and 10?mV for substance P, [Nle10]neurokinin A(4–10) and capsaicin, respectively). In the presence or absence of tetraethylammonium, [MePhe7]-neurokinin B (10?8–10?6?M) did not induce any significant changes in membrane potential. The depolarizing effects of substance P (10?6?M) and [Nle10]-neurokinin A(4–10) (10?6?M) were blocked only by the specific antagonists for NK1 and NK2 receptors, SR 140333 (10?7?M) and SR 48968 (10?7?M), respectively. The effects of capsaicin (10?6?M) were partially inhibited by each antagonist and fully blocked by their combination. Substance P (10?9 to 10?4?M), [Nle10]-neurokinin A(4–10) (10?10 to 10?5?M), [MePhe7]-neurokinin B and capsaicin (10?7 to 10?5?M) evoked concentration-dependent contractions. The contractions to substance P were significantly inhibited by SR 140333 (10?8 to 10?6?M) but unaffected by SR 48968 (10?8 to 10?6?M). Furthermore, the response to [Nle10]-neurokinin A(4–10) was significantly inhibited by SR 48968 and unaffected by SR 140333 at the same concentrations. Although SR 48968 (10?7?M) alone did not influence the effects of substance P, it potentiated the inhibitory effect of SR 140333 (10?7?M). A similar synergetic effect of these two compounds was observed in the inhibition of the contractile response to [Nle10]-neurokinin A(4–10). Neither SR 140333 (10?7?M) nor SR 48968 (10?7?M) alone influenced the contractions to [MePhe7]-neurokinin B and capsaicin. However, the combination of the two antagonists abolished the contractions to either peptide. These results demonstrate that the stimulation of both NK1 and NK2 tachykinin-receptors induced contraction and depolarization of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle and that both receptors were stimulated during the endogenous release of tachykinins by capsaicin. There was no evidence for a major role of NK3 receptors in the contractile and electrical activity of the guinea-pig isolated trachea. PMID:9384499

  5. Endothelin and neonatal capsaicin regulate gastric resistance to injury in BDL rats

    PubMed Central

    Câmara, Paula RS; Ferraz, Gerson JN; Velloso, Licio A; Zeitune, José Murilo R; Suassuna, Fernando AB; Ferraz, Jose Geraldo P

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between primary afferent neurons, endothelin (ET) and the role of its receptors on ethanol-induced gastric damage in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: Cirrhosis and portal hypertension were induced in rats by bile duct ligation (BDL) while controls had a sham operation. The association between ET and afferent neurons on the gastric mucosa was evaluated by capsaicin treatment in newborn rats, the use of ET agonists or antagonists, gastric ET-1 and -3 mRNA and synthetic capacity. Ethanol-induced damage was assessed using ex vivo gastric chamber experiments. Gastric blood flow was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. RESULTS: ET-3 and an ETB receptor antagonist significantly reduced the extent of ethanol-induced gastric damage in BDL rats. Gastric ET-1 and -3 levels were 30% higher in BDL rats compared to control rats. Capsaicin treatment restored the gastric resistance and blood flow responses to topical application of ethanol in BDL rats and ET-1 and -3 production to levels observed in controls. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the reduced resistance of the gastric mucosa of cirrhotic rats to ethanol-induced injury is a phenomenon modulated by ET through the ETB receptor and by sensory afferent neurons. PMID:23293745

  6. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, vanilloid 2 and melastatin 8 immunoreactive nerve fibers in human skin from individuals with and without Norrbottnian congenital insensitivity to pain.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, H E; Minde, J K; Sonesson, A; Toolanen, G; Högestätt, E D; Zygmunt, P M

    2009-09-15

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) and melastatin 8 (TRPM8) are thermosensitive cation channels expressed on primary sensory neurons. In contrast to TRPV1, which is present on nociceptive primary afferents and keratinocytes in human skin, less is known about the distribution of TRPV2 and TRPM8 in this tissue. Immunohistochemistry of human forearm skin identified TRPV2 and TRPM8 immunoreactive nerve fibers in epidermis-papillary dermis and around blood vessels and hair follicles in dermis, although these nerve fibers were less abundant than TRPV1 immunoreactive nerve fibers throughout the skin. The TRPV2 and TRPM8 immunoreactive nerve fibers also showed immunoreactivity for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and to a lesser extent substance P (SP). Neither of the TRP ion channels co-localized with neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Nerve fibers immunoreactive for TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, CGRP and SP were absent or substantially reduced in number in individuals with Norrbottnian congenital insensitivity to pain, an autosomal disease selectively affecting the development of C-fiber and Adelta-fiber primary afferents. Quantitative real time PCR detected mRNA transcripts encoding TRPV1 and TRPV2, but not TRPM8, in skin from healthy volunteers, suggesting that these ion channels are also expressed extraneuronally. In conclusion, nerve fibers in human skin express TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPM8 that co-localize with the sensory neuropeptides CGRP and SP, but not with NF200, VIP or TH. A dramatic loss of such nerve fibers was seen in skin from individuals with Norrbottnian congenital insensitivity to pain, further suggesting that these ion channels are expressed primarily on nociceptive primary sensory neurons in human skin. PMID:19482060

  7. Engagement of signaling pathways of protease-activated receptor 2 and ?-opioid receptor in bone cancer pain and morphine tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yanju; Gao, Yebo; Hou, Wei; Yang, Liping; Kong, Xiangying; Zheng, Honggang; Li, Conghuang; Hua, Baojin

    2015-09-15

    Pain is one of the most common and distressing symptoms suffered by patients with progression of cancer. Using a rat model of bone cancer, recent findings suggest that proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) signaling pathways contribute to neuropathic pain and blocking PAR2 amplifies antinociceptive effects of systemic morphine. The purpose of our study was to examine the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of PAR2 in regulating bone cancer-evoked pain and the tolerance of systemic morphine. Breast sarcocarcinoma Walker 256 cells were implanted into the tibia bone cavity of rats and this evoked significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Our results showed that the protein expression of PAR2 and its downstream pathways (protein kinases namely, PKC? and PKA) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) were amplified in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of bone cancer rats compared to control rats. Blocking spinal PAR2 by using FSLLRY-NH2 significantly attenuated the activities of PKC?/PKA signaling pathways and TRPV1 expression as well as mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Also, inhibition of PKC?/PKA and TRPV1 significantly diminished the hyperalgesia observed in bone cancer rats. Additionally, blocking PAR2 enhanced the attenuations of PKC?/PKA and cyclic adenosine monophosphate induced by morphine and further extended analgesia of morphine via ?-opioid receptor (MOR). Our data revealed specific signaling pathways, leading to bone cancer pain, including the activation of PAR2, downstream PKC?/PKA, TRPV1 and resultant sensitization of MOR. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of bone cancer pain often observed in clinics. PMID:25708385

  8. The effects of capsaicin and acidity on currents generated by noxious heat in cultured neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurones

    PubMed Central

    Vlachová, V; Lyfenko, A; Orkand, RK; Vyklický, L

    2001-01-01

    The effects of capsaicin, acidic pH, ATP, kainate and GABA on currents generated by noxious heat were studied in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones (< 20 ?m in diameter) isolated from neonatal rats. The patch clamp technique was used to record membrane currents or changes of membrane potential. In agreement with previous results, inward membrane currents (Iheat) induced by a 3 s ramp of increasing temperature from room temperature (˜23 °C) to over 42 °C varied greatly between cells (?100 pA to ?2.4 nA at 48 °C) and had a temperature coefficient (Q10) > 10 over the range of 43–52 °C. Capsaicin potentiated the heat-induced current even when capsaicin, at room temperature, had little or no effect on its own. In cells in which capsaicin induced no or very small membrane current at room temperature (< 50 pA), Iheat exhibited detectable activation above 40 °C and increased 5.1 ± 1.1 (n = 37) and 6.3 ± 2.0 (n = 18) times at 0.3 and 1 ?M capsaicin, respectively. A rapid decrease in extracellular pH from 7.3 to 6.8, 6.3 or 6.1 produced an inward current which inactivated in ˜5 s either completely (pH 6.8 or 6.3) or leaving a small current (˜50 pA) for more than 2 min (pH 6.1). After inactivation of the initial low pH-induced current, Iheat at 48 °C increased 2.3 ± 0.4 times at pH 6.8, 4.0 ± 0.6 times at pH 6.3 and 4.8 ± 0.8 times at pH 6.1 with a Q10 > 10 (n = 16). ATP (n = 22), kainate (n = 7) and GABA (n = 8) at 100 ?M, produced an inactivating inward current in all heat-sensitive DRG neurones tested. During inactivation and in the presence of the drug, Iheat was increased slightly with ATP and unaffected with kainate and GABA. These agents apparently do not directly affect the noxious heat receptor. The results indicate a novel class of capsaicin-sensitive cells, in which capsaicin evokes no or very small inward current but nevertheless increases sensitivity to noxious heat. PMID:11410629

  9. Benzo[d]imidazole Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Antagonists for the Treatment of Pain: Discovery of trans-2-(2-{2-[2-(4-Trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-vinyl]-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl}-phenyl)-propan-2-ol (Mavatrep).

    PubMed

    Parsons, William H; Calvo, Raul R; Cheung, Wing; Lee, Yu-Kai; Patel, Sharmila; Liu, Jian; Youngman, Mark A; Dax, Scott L; Stone, Dennis; Qin, Ning; Hutchinson, Tasha; Lubin, Mary Lou; Zhang, Sui-Po; Finley, Michael; Liu, Yi; Brandt, Michael R; Flores, Christopher M; Player, Mark R

    2015-05-14

    Reported herein is the design, synthesis, and pharmacologic characterization of a class of TRPV1 antagonists constructed on a benzo[d]imidazole platform that evolved from a biaryl amide lead. This design composes three sections: a 2-substituted 5-phenyl headgroup attached to the benzo[d]imidazole platform, which is tethered at the two position to a phenyl tail group. Optimization of this design led to the identification of 4 (mavatrep), comprising a trifluoromethyl-phenyl-vinyl tail. In a TRPV1 functional assay, using cells expressing recombinant human TRPV1 channels, 4 antagonized capsaicin-induced Ca(2+) influx, with an IC50 value of 4.6 nM. In the complete Freund's adjuvant- and carrageenan-induced thermal hypersensitivity models, 4 exhibited full efficacy, with ED80 values of 7.8 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively, corresponding to plasma levels of 270.8 and 9.2 ng/mL, respectively. On the basis of its superior pharmacologic and safety profile, 4 (mavatrep) was selected for clinical development for the treatment of pain. PMID:25850459

  10. Corn gluten hydrolysate and capsaicin have complimentary actions on body weight reduction and lipid-related genes in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Mun, Joo-Mi; Ok, Hyang Mok; Kwon, Oran

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a combination of corn gluten hydrolysate (CGH) and capsaicin may have an additive or synergistic effect on body weight reduction. For 13 weeks, male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a diet to induce obesity. Afterward, the rats were randomly divided into 5 dietary groups: the normal control (n = 5), the high-fat control (n = 8), the high-fat diet (HFD) containing 35% CGH (n = 7), the HFD containing 0.02% capsaicin (HF-P) (n = 8), and the HFD containing both CGH and capsaicin (HF-CP) (n = 7) for an additional 4 weeks. Administration of CGH plus capsaicin, along with a HFD, led to significant decreases in body weight, fat mass, lipids in the liver, and plasma leptin as well as increases in plasma adiponectin. The pattern of gene expression was different in each target organ. In the liver, up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1?, and acyl-coenzyme A oxidase was found in the HF-CP group. In contrast, down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? was found in both the HFD containing 35% CGH and HF-CP groups. In skeletal muscle, up-regulation of insulin receptor and uncoupling protein 3 was found in the HF-P group only, whereas up-regulation of the glucose transporter 4 gene was observed in both the HF-CP and HF-P groups. In adipose tissue, up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and hormone-sensitive lipase was only found in the HF-CP group. In summary, this study suggests that CGH and capsaicin perform complementary actions on food intake, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity by a coordinated control of energy metabolism in the liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, thus exerting an additive effect on body weight reduction. PMID:24916560

  11. Capsaicin induces de-differentiation of activated hepatic stellate cell.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Shanna; de Mesquita, Fernanda C; Caberlon, Eduardo; da Silva, Gabriela V; Basso, Bruno S; Ferreira, Gabriela A; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2012-12-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a key role in liver fibrogenesis. Activation of PPAR? and inhibition of fibrogenic molecules are potential strategies to block HSC activation and differentiation. A number of natural products have been suggested to have antifibrotic effects for the de-activation and de-differentiation of HSCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of capsaicin on HSC de-activation and de-differentiation. The results demonstrated that capsaicin induced quiescent phenotype in GRX via PPAR? activation. Significant decrease in COX-2 and type I collagen mRNA expression was observed in the first 24 h of treatment. These events preceded the reduction of TGF-?1 and total collagen secretion. Thus, capsaicin promoted down-regulation of HSC activation by its antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory actions. These findings demonstrate that capsaicin may have potential as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:22905849

  12. Effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin on capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Tamaddonfard, Sina; Pourbaba, Salar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Crocin, a constituent of saffron and yellow gardenia, possesses anti-nociceptive effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin in a rat model of orofacial pain. The contribution of opioid system was assessed using intra-fourth ventricle injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Materials and Methods: A guide cannula was implanted into the fourth ventricle of brain in anesthetized rats. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of capsaicin (1.5 µg/20 µl) into the right vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing/grooming was recorded for a period of 20 min. Locomotor activity was measured using an open-field test. Results: Intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin (10 and 40 µg/rat) and morphine (10 and 40 µg/rat) and their co-administration (2.5 and 10 µg/rat of each) suppressed capsaicin-induced orofacial pain. The analgesic effect induced by 10 µg/rat of morphine, but not crocin (10 µg/rat), was prevented by 20 µg/rat of naloxone pretreatment. The above-mentioned chemical compounds did not affect locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the injection of crocin into the cerebral fourth ventricle attenuates capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats. The anti-nociceptive effect of crocin was not attributed to the central opioid receptors. PMID:26468465

  13. Effects of Different Local Moxibustion-Like Stimuli at Zusanli (ST36) and Zhongwan (CV12) on Gastric Motility and Its Underlying Receptor Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yang-Shuai; Xin, Juan-Juan; Yang, Zhao-Kun; He, Wei; Shi, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Hu, Ling; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Zhu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the “intensity-response” relationship in local moxibustion-like stimuli- (LMS-) modulated gastric motility and its underlying receptor mechanism. Based on the thermal pain threshold (43°C), 41°C, 43°C, and 45°C LMS were separately applied to ST36 or CV12 for 180?s among ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3?/?) mice, TRPV1 knockout (TRPV1?/?) mice, and their homologous wild-type C57BL/6 mice (n = 8 in each group). Gastric motility was continuously measured by an intrapyloric balloon, and the amplitude, integral, and frequency of gastric motility during LMS were compared with those of initial activities. We found that both 43°C and 45°C LMS at ST36 induced significantly facilitated effect of gastric motility (P < 0.05), while LMS at CV12 induced inhibited effects (P < 0.05). 41°C LMS had no significant impact on gastric motility. Compared with C57BL/6 mice, the facilitatory effect at ST36 and inhibitive effect of LMS at CV12 were decreased significantly in TRPV1?/? mice (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) but not changed markedly in ASIC3?/? mice (P > 0.05). These results suggest that there existed an “intensity-response” relationship between temperature in LMS and its effects on gastric motility. TRPV1 receptor played a crucial role in the LMS-modulated gastric motility. PMID:26246837

  14. Gastrointestinal absorption and metabolism of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kawada, T.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, M.; Iwai, K.

    1984-03-15

    Gastrointestinal absorption of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin was studied in rats in vivo and in situ. Rapid absorption of capsaicin or dihydrocapsaicin from stomach and small intestine occurred in vivo. About 85% of the dose was absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract within 3 hr. In situ, within 60 min after the administration of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin into stomach, jejunum, and ileum, about 50, 80, and 70% of the respective dose had disappeared from the lumen. When 2,4-dinitrophenol or NaCN was added, no significant reduction in uptake of (/sup 3/H)dihydrocapsaicin was observed in the jejunum. These results suggested that capsaicin and its analogs were absorbed by a nonactive process in jejunum. (/sup 3/H)Dihydrocapsaicin was mainly absorbed via the portal system but not a mesenteric lymphangial one. The radioactivity in the portal blood was composed of 85% of (/sup 3/H)dihydrocapsaicin and 15% of its metabolite (8-methyl nonanoic acid) bound to the albumin fraction. Dihydrocapsaicin-hydrolyzing enzyme activity was found in jejunal tissue. These results suggest that capsaicin and its analogs partly received a first-pass effect, i.e., metabolism of a compound following first absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. It is concluded that capsaicin and its analogs are readily transported to the portal vein through the gastrointestinal tract by a nonactive process and partly metabolized during absorption.

  15. Capsaicin induces apoptosis and modulates MAPK signaling in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Su-Mi; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Cho, Sung-Bum; Park, Chang-Hwan; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2014-02-01

    Capsaicin is known to have tumor suppressive effects. However, the molecular mechanisms and targets of capsaicin involved in exerting anticancer activity are complex and remain to be clarified. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of capsaicin on human gastric cancer cells (AGS cells) and demonstrate that capsaicin induced apoptosis in AGS cells. Results of the MTT assay and flow cytometry revealed that capsaicin potentially inhibited the proliferation of AGS cells and induced apoptosis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Cleaved caspase-3 was increased and Bcl-2 was reduced by treatment with capsaicin in AGS cells. Capsaicin treatment decreased the expression of phosphorylated ERK 1/2, p38 MAPK or JNK in AGS cells. The results of this study suggest that capsaicin may serve as an anti-tumorigenic agent in human gastric cancer. PMID:24337453

  16. Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Corneal Stromal Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yuka; Reinach, Peter S; Shirai, Kumi; Kitano-Izutani, Ai; Miyajima, Masayasu; Yamanaka, Osamu; Sumioka, Takayoshi; Saika, Shizuya

    2015-11-01

    Corneal transparency is dependent on the maintenance of the structural integrity and functional activity of its epithelial and endothelial limiting layers and the stroma. Different transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subtypes are expressed in cells and on corneal sensory nerve endings. They serve as sensors and transducers of environmental stimuli that can reduce tissue transparency. These nonselective cation channels are members of a superfamily sharing TRP box protein sequence homology having 6 membrane spanning domains with a pore between the fifth and sixth segments. TRP channels are composed of 4 monomeric subunits that oligomerize in homomeric or heteromeric configurations derived from different TRP subtypes belonging to the same or any of 6 different subfamilies. TRP subfamily members identified in the cornea include those belonging to the canonical, vanilloid, ankyrin, or melastatin subfamilies. In this review, we specifically focus on the functional roles of TRPV1 and TRPA1 expression in the cornea as their activation provides adaptive nociceptive and immune responses to noxious environmental stresses such as irritating ligands, temperature fluctuations, rises in ambient osmolarity, mechanical stretch, decline in pH, and tissue injury. Our previous studies have indicated that TRPV1 and TRPA1 subtypes are potential drug targets for improving corneal wound healing after alkali burns, because injury-induced fibrosis, neovascularization, and inflammation in either TRPV1 or TRPA1 gene-silenced mice were all significantly reduced. PMID:26448171

  17. Capsaicin Regulates Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels by Altering Lipid Bilayer Elasticity

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Sol M.

    Capsaicin Regulates Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels by Altering Lipid Bilayer Elasticity J. A; accepted June 20, 2005 ABSTRACT At submicromolar concentrations, capsaicin specifically acti- vates in clinical and in vitro studies, capsaicin also modulates the function of a large number of seemingly

  18. Low-dose endotoxin potentiates capsaicin-induced pain in man: evidence for a pain neuroimmune connection.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Buijs, Mara; Tuke, Jonathan; Kwok, Yuen Hei; Gentgall, Melanie; Williams, Desmond; Rolan, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Despite the wealth of evidence in animals that immune activation has a key role in the development and maintenance of chronic pain, evidence to support this in humans is scant. We have sought such evidence by examining the effect of a subtle immunological stimulus, low dose intravenous endotoxin, on the allodynia, hyperalgesia, flare and pain produced by intradermal capsaicin in healthy volunteers. Here we provide evidence of immune priming of this neuropathic-like pain response in humans. Specifically, in 12 healthy volunteers, activation of Toll-Like Receptor 4 by endotoxin (0.4ng/kg IV) caused significant 5.1-fold increase in the 90-min integral of areas of capsaicin-induced allodynia (95% CI 1.3-9.1), 2.2-fold increase in flare (95% CI 1.9-2.6) and 1.8-fold increase in hyperalgesia (95% CI 1.1-2.5) following 50?g intradermal capsaicin injected into the forearm 3.5h after endotoxin. These data demonstrate clinically a significant role for the neuroimmune pain connection in modifying pain, thus providing evidence that immune priming may produce pain enhancement in humans and hence offer a novel range of pharmacological targets for anti-allodynics and/or analgesics. Additionally, the simplicity of the model makes it suitable as a test-bed for novel immune-targeted pain therapeutics. PMID:23499731

  19. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  20. Attenuation by valproate of c-fos immunoreactivity in trigeminal nucleus caudalis induced by intracisternal capsaicin.

    PubMed Central

    Cutrer, F. M.; Limmroth, V.; Ayata, G.; Moskowitz, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Valproic acid, useful in the treatment of migraine, is an inhibitor of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) aminotransferase and activator of glutamic acid decarboxylase. Its mechanism in migraine remains obscure. The effects of valproic acid (2-propylpentanoic acid) were examined on the number of cells expressing c-fos-like immunoreactivity (c-fos-LI), a marker of neuronal activation, within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (lamina I, IIo, TNC) 2 h after intracisternal injection of the irritant, capsaicin (0.1 ml; 15.25 micrograms ml-1), in urethane-anaesthetized Hartley guinea-pigs. Positive cells were counted in eighteen sections (50 microns) at three representative levels (rostral, middle and caudal) within lamina I, IIo of the TNC in 90 animals. 2. Numerous cells were labelled after capsaicin instillation (244 +/- 25; 1 ml; 15.25 mM) but not after capsaicin vehicle (11 +/- 1). Positive cells were also found within the medial reticular nucleus, the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract. A similar distribution has been demonstrated previously after application of intracisternal irritants such as autologous blood or carrageenin. 3. Valproate (> or = 10 mg kg-1, i.p.) reduced labelled cells by 52% (P < 0.05) in lamina I, IIo but not within the area postrema, the nucleus of the solitary tract or the medial reticular nucleus. A similar finding was obtained previously after administration of sumatriptan, dihydroergotamine or the NK1 receptor antagonist RPR 100,893. 4. Pretreatment with bicuculline (30 micrograms kg-1; i.p.), a GABAA antagonist, but not phaclofen (1 mg kg-1) a GABAB antagonist, reversed the effect of valproate and increased c-fos positive cells within lamina I, IIo. Somewhat paradoxically, bicuculline by itself (30 micrograms kg-1 i.p.) decreased the number of labelled cells suggesting that more than a single GABAergic mechanism can suppress c-fos expression. 5. We conclude that the mechanism of action of valproate is mediated via GABAA receptors. Since valproate decreases both c-fos expression and as previously shown, neurogenic inflammation within the meninges, the GABAA receptor complex might provide an important target for drug development in migraine and related headaches. Images Figure 4 PMID:8719796

  1. Capsaicin potentiates wild-type and mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride-channel currents.

    PubMed

    Ai, Tomohiko; Bompadre, Silvia G; Wang, Xiaohui; Hu, Shenghui; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2004-06-01

    To examine the effects of capsaicin on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), we recorded wild-type and mutant CFTR chloride-channel currents using patch-clamp methods. The effects of capsaicin were compared with those of genistein, a well-characterized CFTR activator. In whole-cell experiments, capsaicin potentiates cAMP-stimulated wild-type CFTR currents expressed in NIH 3T3 cells or Chinese hamster ovary cells in a dose-dependent manner with a maximal response approximately 60% of that with genistein and an apparent Kd of 48.4 +/- 6.8 microM. In cell-attached recordings, capsaicin alone fails to activate CFTR in cells that show negligible basal CFTR activity, indicating that capsaicin does not stimulate the cAMP cascade. The magnitude of potentiation with capsaicin depends on the channel activity before drug application; the lower the prestimulated Po, the higher the potentiation. Single-channel kinetic analysis shows that capsaicin potentiates CFTR by increasing the opening rate and decreasing the closing rate of the channel. Capsaicin may act as a partial agonist of genistein because the maximally enhanced wild-type CFTR currents with genistein are partially inhibited by capsaicin. Capsaicin increases DeltaR-CFTR, a protein kinase A (PKA)-independent, constitutively active channel, in cell-attached patches. In excised inside-out patches, capsaicin potentiates the PKA-phosphorylated, ATP-dependent CFTR activity. Both capsaicin and genistein potentiate the cAMP-stimulated G551D-CFTR, DeltaF508-CFTR, and 8SA mutant channel currents. The binding site for capsaicin is probably located at the cytoplasmic domain of CFTR, because pipette application of capsaicin fails to potentiate CFTR activity. In conclusion, capsaicin is a partial agonist of genistein in activation of the CFTR chloride channel. Both compounds affect ATP-dependent gating of CFTR. PMID:15155835

  2. Capsaicin-evoked CGRP release from rat buccal mucosa: development of a model system for studying trigeminal mechanisms of neurogenic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Christopher M.; Leong, Anthony S.; Dussor, Gregory O.; Harding-Rose, Catherine; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Kilo, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Many of the physiological hallmarks associated with neurogenic inflammatory processes in cutaneous tissues are similarly present within orofacial structures. Such attributes include the dependence upon capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons and the involvement of certain inflammatory mediators derived therein, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). However, there are also important differences between the trigeminal and spinal nervous systems, and the potential contributions of neurogenic processes to inflammatory disease within the trigeminal system have yet to be fully elucidated. We present here a model system that affords the ability to study mechanisms regulating the efferent functions of peptidergic terminals that may subserve neurogenic inflammation within the oral cavity. Freshly dissected buccal mucosa tissue from adult, male, Sprague–Dawley rats was placed into chambers and superfused with oxygenated, Krebs buffer. Serial aliquots of the egressing superfusate were acquired and analysed by radioimmunoassay for immunoreactive CGRP (iCGRP). Addition of the selective excitotoxin, capsaicin (10–300 ?M), to the superfusion buffer resulted in a significant, concentration-dependent increase in superfusate levels of iCGRP. Similarly, release of iCGRP from the buccal mucosa could also be evoked by a depolarizing concentration of potassium chloride (50 mM) or by the calcium ionophore A23187 (1 ?M). The specific, capsaicin receptor antagonist, capsazepine (300 ?M), completely abolished the capsaicin-evoked release of iCGRP while having no effect whatsoever on the potassium-evoked release. Moreover, capsaicin-evoked release was dependent upon the presence of extracellular calcium ions and was significantly, though incompletely, attenuated by neonatal capsaicin denervation. Collectively, these data indicate that the evoked neurosecretion of iCGRP in response to capsaicin occurs via a vanilloid receptor-mediated, exocytotic mechanism. The model system described here should greatly facilitate future investigations designed to identify and characterize the stimuli that regulate the release of CGRP or other neurosecretory substances in isolated tissues. This system may also be used to elucidate the role of these mediators in the aetiology of inflammatory processes within the trigeminal field of innervation. PMID:11683903

  3. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) Ion Channels in Chondrogenic Cells.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Csilla Sz?cs; Matta, Csaba; Foldvari, Zsofia; Juhász, Tamás; Katona, Éva; Takács, Ádám Roland; Hajdú, Tibor; Dobrosi, Nóra; Gergely, Pál; Zákány, Róza

    2015-01-01

    Mature and developing chondrocytes exist in a microenvironment where mechanical load, changes of temperature, osmolarity and acidic pH may influence cellular metabolism. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) receptors are environmental sensors mediating responses through activation of linked intracellular signalling pathways. In chondrogenic high density cultures established from limb buds of chicken and mouse embryos, we identified TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPV6 mRNA expression with RT-PCR. In both cultures, a switch in the expression pattern of TRPVs was observed during cartilage formation. The inhibition of TRPVs with the non-selective calcium channel blocker ruthenium red diminished chondrogenesis and caused significant inhibition of proliferation. Incubating cell cultures at 41 °C elevated the expression of TRPV1, and increased cartilage matrix production. When chondrogenic cells were exposed to mechanical load at the time of their differentiation into matrix producing chondrocytes, we detected increased mRNA levels of TRPV3. Our results demonstrate that developing chondrocytes express a full palette of TRPV channels and the switch in the expression pattern suggests differentiation stage-dependent roles of TRPVs during cartilage formation. As TRPV1 and TRPV3 expression was altered by thermal and mechanical stimuli, respectively, these are candidate channels that contribute to the transduction of environmental stimuli in chondrogenic cells. PMID:26262612

  4. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) Ion Channels in Chondrogenic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sz?cs Somogyi, Csilla; Matta, Csaba; Foldvari, Zsofia; Juhász, Tamás; Katona, Éva; Takács, Ádám Roland; Hajdú, Tibor; Dobrosi, Nóra; Gergely, Pál; Zákány, Róza

    2015-01-01

    Mature and developing chondrocytes exist in a microenvironment where mechanical load, changes of temperature, osmolarity and acidic pH may influence cellular metabolism. Polymodal Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) receptors are environmental sensors mediating responses through activation of linked intracellular signalling pathways. In chondrogenic high density cultures established from limb buds of chicken and mouse embryos, we identified TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPV6 mRNA expression with RT-PCR. In both cultures, a switch in the expression pattern of TRPVs was observed during cartilage formation. The inhibition of TRPVs with the non-selective calcium channel blocker ruthenium red diminished chondrogenesis and caused significant inhibition of proliferation. Incubating cell cultures at 41 °C elevated the expression of TRPV1, and increased cartilage matrix production. When chondrogenic cells were exposed to mechanical load at the time of their differentiation into matrix producing chondrocytes, we detected increased mRNA levels of TRPV3. Our results demonstrate that developing chondrocytes express a full palette of TRPV channels and the switch in the expression pattern suggests differentiation stage-dependent roles of TRPVs during cartilage formation. As TRPV1 and TRPV3 expression was altered by thermal and mechanical stimuli, respectively, these are candidate channels that contribute to the transduction of environmental stimuli in chondrogenic cells. PMID:26262612

  5. Natural Capsaicin in Capsicum chinense: Concentration vs. Origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capsaicin [N-vanillyl-8-methyl-6-(E) noneamide] is the most pungent of the group of compounds known as capsaicinoids in chili peppers. A survey was conducted to screen fruits of 307 hot pepper accessions of Capsicum chinense selected from the USDA germplasm collection for their major capsaicinoids c...

  6. Seed dispersal. Directed deterrence by capsaicin in chilies.

    PubMed

    Tewksbury, J J; Nabhan, G P

    2001-07-26

    The primary function of ripe, fleshy fruit is to facilitate seed dispersal by attracting consumers, yet many fruits contain unpleasant-tasting chemicals that deter consumption by vertebrates. Here we investigate this paradox in the chili (Capsicum) and find that capsaicin, the chemical responsible for the fruit's peppery heat, selectively discourages vertebrate predators without deterring more effective seed dispersers. PMID:11473305

  7. H2O2 generated by NADPH oxidase 4 contributes to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel-mediated mechanosensation in the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chian-Shiung; Lee, Shang-Hsing; Huang, Ho-Shiang; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-08-15

    The presence of NADPH oxidase (Nox) in the kidney, especially Nox4, results in H2O2 production, which regulates Na(+) excretion and urine formation. Redox-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1s) are distributed in mechanosensory fibers of the renal pelvis and monitor changes in intrapelvic pressure (IPP) during urine formation. The present study tested whether H2O2 derived from Nox4 affects TRPV1 function in renal sensory responses. Perfusion of H2O2 into the renal pelvis dose dependently increased afferent renal nerve activity and substance P (SP) release. These responses were attenuated by cotreatment with catalase or TRPV1 blockers. In single unit recordings, H2O2 activated afferent renal nerve activity in response to rising IPP but not high salt. Western blots revealed that Nox2 (gp91(phox)) and Nox4 are both present in the rat kidney, but Nox4 is abundant in the renal pelvis and originates from dorsal root ganglia. This distribution was associated with expression of the Nox4 regulators p22(phox) and polymerase ?-interacting protein 2. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that IPP increases polymerase ?-interacting protein 2 association with Nox4 or p22(phox) in the renal pelvis. Interestingly, immunofluorescence labeling demonstrated that Nox4 colocalizes with TRPV1 in sensory fibers of the renal pelvis, indicating that H2O2 generated from Nox4 may affect TRPV1 activity. Stepwise increases in IPP and saline loading resulted in H2O2 and SP release, sensory activation, diuresis, and natriuresis. These effects, however, were remarkably attenuated by Nox inhibition. Overall, these results suggest that Nox4-positive fibers liberate H2O2 after mechanostimulation, thereby contributing to a renal sensory nerve-mediated diuretic/natriuretic response. PMID:26136558

  8. Capsaicin causes cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in ER-positive and -negative breast cancer cells by modulating the EGFR/HER-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Thoennissen, N H; O'Kelly, J; Lu, D; Iwanski, G B; La, D T; Abbassi, S; Leiter, A; Karlan, B; Mehta, R; Koeffler, H P

    2010-01-14

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an ingredient of chili peppers with inhibitory effects against cancer cells of different origin. We examined the activity of capsaicin on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The drug potently inhibited growth of ER-positive (MCF-7, T47D, BT-474) and ER-negative (SKBR-3, MDA-MB231) breast cancer cell lines, which was associated with G(0)/G(1) cell-cycle arrest, increased levels of apoptosis and reduced protein expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER-2, activated extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclin D1. In contrast, cell-cycle regulator p27(KIP1), caspase activity as well as poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage were increased. Notably, capsaicin blocked breast cancer cell migration in vitro and decreased by 50% the size of MDA-MB231 breast cancer tumors growing orthotopically in immunodeficient mice without noticeable drug side effects. in vivo activation of ERK was clearly decreased, as well as expression of HER-2 and cyclin D1, whereas caspase activity and PARP cleavage products were increased in tumors of drug-treated mice. Besides, capsaicin potently inhibited the development of pre-neoplastic breast lesions by up to 80% without evidence of toxicity. Our data indicate that capsaicin is a novel modulator of the EGFR/HER-2 pathway in both ER-positive and -negative breast cancer cells with a potential role in the treatment and prevention of human breast cancer. PMID:19855437

  9. Capsaicin inhibits cell proliferation by cytochrome c release in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Meral, Ogunc; Alpay, Merve; Kismali, Gorkem; Kosova, Funda; Cakir, Dilek Ulker; Pekcan, Mert; Yigit, Serbulent; Sel, Tevhide

    2014-07-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the principal pungent component in hot peppers. The role of capsaicin in carcinogenesis is quite controversial. Although some investigators suspect that capsaicin is a carcinogen, co-carcinogen, or tumor promoter, others have reported that it has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and chemosensitizing activities of capsaicin alone and on 5-flourouracil (5-FU)-treated gastric cancer cells. In this study, the gastric cancer cell line HGC-27 was used and capsaicin used as a chemosensitizer and 5-flourouracil (5-FU) was used as chemotherapeutic. Cytotoxicity and chemosensitizing activities were analyzed with MTT assay; supernatant levels of LDH and glucose were detected as biochemical markers of cell viability; cytochrome c and AIF were evaluated with western blot; and additionally, wound-healing assays were employed. Results suggested that capsaicin had significant anticancer abilities; such capsaicin were capable of causing multifold decreases in the half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 value of 5-FU. The continuing controversy surrounding consumption or topical application of capsaicin clearly suggests that more well-controlled epidemiologic studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of capsaicin use. In summary, the present study demonstrated that capsaicin has the potential to be used for treating gastric carcinoma with 5-FU in vitro. PMID:24682934

  10. A Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist N-Arachidonoyl Dopamine Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seyeon; Yi, Sodam; Seo, Won Jong; Lee, Myeong Jung; Song, Young Keun; Baek, Seung Yong; Yu, Jinha; Hong, Soo Hyun; Lee, Jinyoung; Shin, Dong Wook; Jeong, Lak Shin; Noh, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids can affect multiple cellular targets, such as cannabinoid (CB) receptors, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). The stimuli to induce adipocyte differentiation in hBM-MSCs increase the gene transcription of the CB1 receptor, TRPV1 and PPAR?. In this study, the effects of three endocannabinoids, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA), N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), on adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs were evaluated. The adipocyte differentiation was promoted by AEA whereas inhibited by NADA. No change was observed by the treatment of non-cytotoxic concentrations of 2-AG. The difference between AEA and NADA in the regulation of adipogenesis is associated with their effects on PPAR? transactivation. AEA can directly activate PPAR?. The effect of AEA on PPAR? in hBM-MSCs may prevail over that on the CB1 receptor mediated signal transduction, giving rise to the AEA-induced promotion of adipogenesis. In contrast, NADA had no effect on the PPAR? activity in the PPAR? transactivation assay. The inhibitory effect of NADA on adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs was reversed not by capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, but by rimonabant, a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist. Rimonabant by itself promoted adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs, which may be interpreted as the result of the inverse agonism of the CB1 receptor. This result suggests that the constantly active CB1 receptor may contribute to suppress the adipocyte differentiation of hBM-MSCs. Therefore, the selective CB1 agonists that are unable to affect cellular PPAR? activity inhibit adipogenesis in hBM-MSCs. PMID:25995819

  11. Topical capsaicin formulations in the management of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Mark; Pasvankas, George

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the scientific and clinical evidence supporting the use of topical formulations containing the pungent principle of chili peppers--capsaicin, for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. Given the limitations of current oral and parenteral therapies for the management of pain arising from various forms of nerve injury, alternate therapeutic approaches that are not associated with systemic adverse events that limit quality of life, impair function, or threaten respiratory depression are critically needed. Moreover, neuropathic conditions can be complicated by progressive changes in the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to persistent reorganization of pain pathways and chronic neuropathic pain. Recent advances in the use of high-dose topical capsaicin preparations hold promise in managing a wide range of painful conditions associated with peripheral neuropathies and may in fact help reduce suffering by reversing progressive changes in the nervous system associated with chronic neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:24941666

  12. Capsaicin represses transcriptional activity of ?-catenin in human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Ho; Richardson, Raphael L; Dashwood, Roderick H; Baek, Seung Joon

    2012-06-01

    Capsaicin is a pungent ingredient in chili red peppers and has been linked to suppression of growth in various cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which capsaicin induces growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated whether capsaicin alters ?-catenin-dependent signaling in human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Exposure of SW480, LoVo and HCT-116 cells to capsaicin suppressed cell proliferation. Transient transfection with a ?-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-responsive reporter indicated that capsaicin suppressed the transcriptional activity of ?-catenin/TCF. Capsaicin treatment resulted in a decrease of intracellular ?-catenin levels and a reduction of transcripts from the ?-catenin gene (CTNNB1). These results were confirmed by a reduced luciferase reporter activity driven by promoter-reporter construct containing the promoter region of the Catnb gene. In addition, capsaicin destabilized ?-catenin through enhancement of proteosomal-dependent degradation. Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies indicated that capsaicin treatment suppressed TCF-4 expression and disrupted the interaction of TCF-4 and ?-catenin. This study identifies a role for the ?-catenin/TCF-dependent pathway that potentially contributes to the anticancer activity of capsaicin in human colorectal cancer cells. PMID:21764279

  13. Capsaicin: a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Arabaci, Betul; Gulcin, Ilhami; Alwasel, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) is a zinc containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the rapid and reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into a proton (H+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ion. On the other hand, capsaicin is the main component in hot chili peppers and is used extensively used in spices, food additives and drugs; it is responsible for their spicy flavor and pungent taste. There are sixteen known CA isoforms in humans. Human CA isoenzymes I, and II (hCA I and hCA II) are ubiquitous cytosolic isoforms. In this study, the inhibition properties of capsaicin against the slow cytosolic isoform hCA I, and the ubiquitous and dominant rapid cytosolic isozymes hCA II were studied. Both CA isozymes were inhibited by capsaicin in the micromolar range. This naturally bioactive compound has a Ki of 696.15 µM against hCA I, and of 208.37 µM against hCA II. PMID:25014536

  14. Treatment of Neuropathic Pain with the Capsaicin 8% Patch: Is Pretreatment with Lidocaine Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Kai-Uwe; Nowack, Walburga; Poole, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The capsaicin 8% patch can effectively treat neuropathic pain, but application can cause discomfort or a burning sensation. Until March 2013, it was recommended that patients be pretreated with a topical anesthetic, for example lidocaine, before capsaicin patch application. However, speculation existed over the need for pretreatment and its effectiveness in alleviating treatment-associated discomfort. This article compares tolerability to and efficacy of the capsaicin patch in pretreated and non-pretreated patients. All patients received a single capsaicin patch application. Pretreated patients received a lidocaine plaster before and intravenous lidocaine and metamizole infusions during capsaicin patch application. Pain levels, assessed using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), were used to determine tolerability and efficacy. All patients (pretreated n = 32; non-pretreated n = 26) completed 100% of the intended capsaicin patch application duration. At the time of capsaicin patch removal, 69% of pretreated and 88% of non-pretreated patients reported an NRS score increase, which returned to baseline by 6 hours post-treatment. There was no significant difference in mean NRS score between patient groups at any time during or after capsaicin patch treatment. Response was similar between patient groups; capsaicin patch treatment provided rapid and significant pain reductions that were sustained over 12 weeks. The same proportion of pretreated and non-pretreated patients reported willingness to receive retreatment with the capsaicin patch. This analysis shows that the capsaicin 8% patch is generally tolerable, and the small discomfort associated with patch application is short-lived. Lidocaine pretreatment does not have a significant effect on tolerability, efficacy, or patient willingness to receive retreatment. PMID:24289500

  15. Treatment of neuropathic pain with the capsaicin 8% patch: is pretreatment with lidocaine necessary?

    PubMed

    Kern, Kai-Uwe; Nowack, Walburga; Poole, Chris

    2014-02-01

    The capsaicin 8% patch can effectively treat neuropathic pain, but application can cause discomfort or a burning sensation. Until March 2013, it was recommended that patients be pretreated with a topical anesthetic, for example lidocaine, before capsaicin patch application. However, speculation existed over the need for pretreatment and its effectiveness in alleviating treatment-associated discomfort. This article compares tolerability to and efficacy of the capsaicin patch in pretreated and non-pretreated patients. All patients received a single capsaicin patch application. Pretreated patients received a lidocaine plaster before and intravenous lidocaine and metamizole infusions during capsaicin patch application. Pain levels, assessed using a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), were used to determine tolerability and efficacy. All patients (pretreated n = 32; non-pretreated n = 26) completed 100% of the intended capsaicin patch application duration. At the time of capsaicin patch removal, 69% of pretreated and 88% of non-pretreated patients reported an NRS score increase, which returned to baseline by 6 hours post-treatment. There was no significant difference in mean NRS score between patient groups at any time during or after capsaicin patch treatment. Response was similar between patient groups; capsaicin patch treatment provided rapid and significant pain reductions that were sustained over 12 weeks. The same proportion of pretreated and non-pretreated patients reported willingness to receive retreatment with the capsaicin patch. This analysis shows that the capsaicin 8% patch is generally tolerable, and the small discomfort associated with patch application is short-lived. Lidocaine pretreatment does not have a significant effect on tolerability, efficacy, or patient willingness to receive retreatment. PMID:24289500

  16. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin determination in chili pepper genotypes using ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC) system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were <5.0% for capsaicin and <9.9% for dihydrocapsaicin while the average recoveries obtained were quantitative (89.4%-90.1% for capsaicin, 92.4%-95.2% for dihydrocapsaicin), indicating good accuracy of the UFLC method. AVPP0705, AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (12,776, 5,828, 4,393, 4,760, 3,764 and 4,120 µg/kg) and the highest pungency level, whereas AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 recorded no detection of capsaicin and hence were non-pungent. All chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24853712

  17. Exposure to Allergen Causes Changes in NTS Neural Activities after Intratracheal Capsaicin Application, in Endocannabinoid Levels and in the Glia Morphology of NTS

    PubMed Central

    Spaziano, Giuseppe; Petrosino, Stefania; Matteis, Maria; Palazzo, Enza; Sullo, Nikol; de Novellis, Vito; Rossi, Francesco; Maione, Sabatino; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Allergen exposure may induce changes in the brainstem secondary neurons, with neural sensitization of the nucleus solitary tract (NTS), which in turn can be considered one of the causes of the airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. We evaluated neurofunctional, morphological, and biochemical changes in the NTS of naive or sensitized rats. To evaluate the cell firing activity of NTS, in vivo electrophysiological experiments were performed before and after capsaicin challenge in sensitized or naive rats. Immunohistochemical studies, endocannabinoid, and palmitoylethanolamide quantification in the NTS were also performed. This study provides evidence that allergen sensitization in the NTS induced: (1) increase in the neural firing response to intratracheal capsaicin application, (2) increase of endocannabinoid anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide, a reduction of 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in the NTS, (3) glial cell activation, and (4) prevention by a Group III metabotropic glutamate receptor activation of neural firing response to intratracheal application of capsaicin in both naïve and sensitized rats. Therefore, normalization of ovalbumin-induced NTS neural sensitization could open up the prospect of new treatments based on the recovery of specific brain nuclei function and for extensive studies on acute or long-term efficacy of selective mGlu ligand, in models of bronchial hyperreactivity. PMID:25866824

  18. Location, Partitioning Behavior, and Interaction of Capsaicin with Lipid Bilayer Membrane: Study Using Its Intrinsic Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Swain, Jitendriya; Kumar Mishra, Ashok

    2015-09-10

    Capsaicin is an ingredient of a wide variety of red peppers, and it has various pharmacological and biological applications. The present study explores the interaction of capsaicin with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer membrane by monitoring various photophysical parameters using its intrinsic fluorescence. In order to have a clearer understanding of the photophysical responses of capsaicin, studies involving (i) its solvation behavior in different solvents, (ii) the partition coefficient of capsaicin in different thermotropic phase states of lipid bilayer membrane, and (iii) its location inside lipid bilayer membrane have been carried out. Capsaicin has a reasonably high partition coefficient for DMPC liposome membrane, in both solid gel (2.8 ± 0.1 × 10(5)) and liquid crystalline (2.6 ± 0.1 × 10(5)) phases. Fluorescence quenching study using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) as quencher suggests that the phenolic group of capsaicin molecule is generally present near the headgroup region and hydrophobic tail present inside hydrophobic core region of the lipid bilayer membrane. The intrinsic fluorescence intensity and lifetime of capsaicin sensitively respond to the temperature dependent phase changes of liposome membrane. Above 15 mol %, capsaicin in the aqueous liposome suspension medium lowers the thermotropic phase transition temperature by about 3 °C, and above 30 mol %, the integrity of the membrane is significantly lost. PMID:26302022

  19. Capsaicin: a novel chemopreventive molecule and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Oyagbemi, A A; Saba, A B; Azeez, O I

    2010-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the a principal pungent ingredient of hot red and chili peppers that belong to the plant genus Capsicum (Solanaceae). Capsaicin is a cancer-suppressing agent. It blocks the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein 1 (AP-1), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signaling pathway that are required for carcinogenesis. The anti-inflammatory potential of capsaicin is attributed to its inhibitory effect on inducible COX-2 mRNA expression. Cytochrome P4502E1 mediates the activation of xenobiotics such as vinyl carbamate and dimethyl nitrosamine to their toxic metabolites. This metabolic activation of xenobiotics by Cytochrome P4502E1 has been shown to be inhibited by capsaicin. Capsaicin also generates reactive oxygen species in cells with resultant induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which is beneficial for cancer chemoprevention. Therefore, the use of capsaicin as a chemopreventive agent is of immense benefit for cancer chemoprevention. The search strategy included printed journals, pubmed, and medline, using the terms 'capsaicin' and 'anticancer' citations, relevant to anticancer properties of capsaicin. PMID:20071791

  20. Inhibitory effects of capsaicin on hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Xiang; Teng, Yin-Yan; Zhu, Qian-Dong; Zhang, Qi-Yu; Tang, Yin-He

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play an important role in the process of liver fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of capsaicin on HSCs and liver fibrosis. Cultured HSCs were incubated with various concentrations of capsaicin. Cell proliferation was examined using a cell counting kit. Production of hydrogen peroxide was determined using a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. The mRNA and protein expression of target genes was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) costaining followed by flow cytometric analysis. A CCl4 rat liver fibrosis model was used to assess in vivo effects of capsaicin by histological examination and measurement of liver fibrosis markers, including hydroxyproline content, serum type III collagen, and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels. Our results show that capsaicin dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation, suppressed cell activation, and decreased hydrogen peroxide production in cultured HSCs. Capsaicin reduced the mRNA levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) in HSCs. Moreover, capsaicin-induced cell apoptosis was associated with increased expression of Bax, cytochrome c (cyt c), and caspase-3, but reduced levels of Bcl-2. The animal studies further revealed that capsaicin efficiently reduced the extent of liver fibrosis, inhibited HSC proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis. Our findings suggest that capsaicin might inhibit fibrogenesis by inhibiting the activities of HSCs. PMID:25289759

  1. TheJournalofGeneralPhysiology The Rockefeller University Press $30.00

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    , to identify its receptor TRPV1. Studies on TRPV1 have provided a productive entryway to understanding stimuli (Wang and Woolf, 2005). After the finding that TRPV1 is involved in noxious heat sensation

  2. NOCICEPTORS AND THE PERCEPTION OF PAIN Alan Fein, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    CHANNELS CHEMESTHESIS MEDIATORS OF NOXIOUS HEAT TRPV1 TRPV1 AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET TRPV2 TRPV3 TRPV4 TRPM3 EXPRESSING THE MRGPRD RECEPTOR #12;vi NOCICEPTORS EXPRESSING TRPV1 NOCICEPTORS EXPRESSING THE VOLTAGE GATED

  3. High-Dose Capsaicin for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain: What We Know and What We Need to Know.

    PubMed

    Uçeyler, Nurcan; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-07-29

    Neuropathic pain is a frequent and disabling condition with diverse underlying etiologies and is often difficult to treat. Systemic drug treatment is often limited in efficacy. Furthermore, adverse effects may be a limiting factor when trying to reach the necessary dose. Analgesics that can be applied topically have the potential to largely overcome this problem. They may be of particular advantage in localized neuropathic pain syndromes such as postherpetic neuralgia or small fiber neuropathy. Capsaicin, the pungent component of chili peppers, is a natural ligand of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel and has long been used as topically applicable cream with concentrations of 0.025 to 0.075%. In 2009, a high-concentration transdermal capsaicin 8% patch (Qutenza(®); Acorda Therapeutics, Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA; Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd., Chertsey, Surrey, UK) was introduced for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes other than of diabetic origin in adults. It has since been widely used in diverse neuropathic pain disorders. In this review article, we summarize current knowledge on Qutenza, its advantages and problems, and expose unmet needs. PMID:25069571

  4. Aqueous two-phase extraction combined with chromatography: new strategies for preparative separation and purification of capsaicin from capsicum oleoresin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pei-Pei; Lu, Yan-Min; Tan, Cong-Ping; Liang, Yan; Cui, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin was preparatively separated and purified from capsicum oleoresin with a new method combined with aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and chromatography. Screening experiments of ATPE systems containing salts and hydrophilic alcohols showed that potassium carbonate/ethanol system was the most suitable system for capsaicin recovery among the systems considered. Response surface methodology was used to determine an optimized aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of capsaicin from capsaicin oleoresin. In a 20 % (w/w) ethanol/22.3 % (w/w) potassium carbonate system, 85.4 % of the capsaicin was recovered in the top ethanol-rich phase while most oil and capsanthin ester were removed in the interphase. The capsaicinoid extract was then subjected to two chromatographic steps using D101 macroporous resin and inexpensive SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin first applied for the purification of capsaicin. After simple optimization of loading/elution conditions for D101 macroporous resin chromatography and SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin chromatography, the purities of capsaicin were improved from 7 to 85 %. In the two chromatography processes, the recoveries of capsaicin were 93 and 80 % respectively; the productivities of capsaicin were 1.86 and 4.2 (g capsaicin/L resin) per day respectively. It is worth mentioning that a by-product of capsaicin production was also obtained with a high purity (90 %). PMID:25355002

  5. Capsaicin-induced genotoxic stress does not promote apoptosis in A549 human lung and DU145 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Jarosz, Paulina; Czech, Joanna; Rzeszutek, Iwona; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna; Grabowska, Wioleta; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Capsaicin is the major pungent component of the hot chili peppers of the genus Capsicum, which are consumed worldwide as a food additive. More recently, the selective action of capsaicin against cancer cells has been reported. Capsaicin was found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of a wide range of cancer cells in vitro, whereas being inactive against normal cells. As data on capsaicin-induced genotoxicity are limited and the effects of capsaicin against human lung A549 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were not explored in detail, we were interested in determining whether capsaicin-associated genotoxicity may also provoke A549 and DU145 cell death. Capsaicin-induced decrease in metabolic activity and cell proliferation, and changes in the cell cycle were limited to high concentrations used (? 100 ?M), whereas, at lower concentrations, capsaicin stimulated both DNA double strand breaks and micronuclei production. Capsaicin was unable to provoke apoptotic cell death when used up to 250 ?M concentrations. Capsaicin induced oxidative stress, but was ineffective in provoking the dissipation of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential. A different magnitude of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) recruitment contributed to diverse capsaicin-induced genotoxic effects in DU145 and A549 cells. Capsaicin was also found to be a DNA hypermethylating agent in A549 cells. In summary, we have shown that genotoxic effects of capsaicin may contribute to limited susceptibility of DU145 and A549 cancer cells to apoptosis in vitro, which may question the usefulness of capsaicin-based anticancer therapy, at least in a case of lung and prostate cancer. PMID:25813723

  6. Chitosan encapsulation modulates the effect of capsaicin on the tight junctions of MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M; Pereira, S; Pohl, L; Ketelhut, S; Kemper, B; Gorzelanny, C; Galla, H-J; Moerschbacher, B M; Goycoolea, F M

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin has known pharmacological effects including the ability to reversibly open cellular tight junctions, among others. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to enhance the paracellular transport of a substance with low permeability (FITC-dextran) across an epithelial cell monolayer via reversible opening of cellular tight junctions using a nanosystem comprised by capsaicin and of chitosan. We compared the biophysical properties of free capsaicin and capsaicin-loaded chitosan nanocapsules, including their cytotoxicity towards epithelial MDCK-C7 cells and their effect on the integrity of tight junctions, membrane permeability and cellular uptake. The cytotoxic response of MDCK-C7 cells to capsaicin at a concentration of 500 ?M, which was evident for the free compound, is not observable following its encapsulation. The interaction between nanocapsules and the tight junctions of MDCK-C7 cells was investigated by impedance spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. The nanocapsules modulated the interaction between capsaicin and tight junctions as shown by the different time profile of trans-epithelial electrical resistance and the enhanced permeability of monolayers incubated with FITC-dextran. Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy showed that the nanocapsules were internalized by MDCK-C7 cells. The capsaicin-loaded nanocapsules could be further developed as drug nanocarriers with enhanced epithelial permeability. PMID:25970096

  7. Metabolic detoxification of capsaicin by UDP-glycosyltransferase in three Helicoverpa species.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seung-Joon; Badenes-Pérez, Francisco R; Reichelt, Michael; Svatoš, Aleš; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G

    2011-10-01

    Capsaicin ?-glucoside was isolated from the feces of Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa assulta, and Helicoverpa zea that fed on capsaicin-supplemented artificial diet. The chemical structure was identified by NMR spectroscopic analysis as well as by enzymatic hydrolysis. The excretion rates of the glucoside were different among the three species; those in the two generalists, H. armigera and H. zea, were higher than in a specialist, H. assulta. UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGT) enzyme activities measured from the whole larval homogenate of the three species with capsaicin and UDP-glucose as substrates were also higher in the two generalists. Compared among five different larval tissues (labial glands, testes from male larvae, midgut, the Malpighian tubules (MT), and fat body) from the three species, the formation of the capsaicin glucoside by one or more UGT is high in the fat body of all the three species as expected, as well as in H. assulta MT. Optimization of the enzyme assay method is also described in detail. Although the lower excretion rate of the unaltered capsaicin in H. assulta indicates higher metabolic capacity toward capsacin than in the other two generalists, the glucosylation per se seems to be insufficient to explain the decrease in capsaicin in the specialist, suggesting that H. assulta might have another important mechanism to deal with capsaicin more specifically. PMID:21928395

  8. Chitosan encapsulation modulates the effect of capsaicin on the tight junctions of MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, M.; Pereira, S.; Pohl, L.; Ketelhut, S.; Kemper, B.; Gorzelanny, C.; Galla, H. -J.; Moerschbacher, B. M.; Goycoolea, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin has known pharmacological effects including the ability to reversibly open cellular tight junctions, among others. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to enhance the paracellular transport of a substance with low permeability (FITC-dextran) across an epithelial cell monolayer via reversible opening of cellular tight junctions using a nanosystem comprised by capsaicin and of chitosan. We compared the biophysical properties of free capsaicin and capsaicin-loaded chitosan nanocapsules, including their cytotoxicity towards epithelial MDCK-C7 cells and their effect on the integrity of tight junctions, membrane permeability and cellular uptake. The cytotoxic response of MDCK-C7 cells to capsaicin at a concentration of 500??M, which was evident for the free compound, is not observable following its encapsulation. The interaction between nanocapsules and the tight junctions of MDCK-C7 cells was investigated by impedance spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. The nanocapsules modulated the interaction between capsaicin and tight junctions as shown by the different time profile of trans-epithelial electrical resistance and the enhanced permeability of monolayers incubated with FITC-dextran. Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy showed that the nanocapsules were internalized by MDCK-C7 cells. The capsaicin-loaded nanocapsules could be further developed as drug nanocarriers with enhanced epithelial permeability. PMID:25970096

  9. Effects of topical perineural capsaicin in a reversible model of equine foot lameness.

    PubMed

    Seino, Kathy K; Foreman, Jonathan H; Greene, Stephen A; Goetz, Thomas E; Benson, G John

    2003-01-01

    Capsaicin is a local substance P depleter with dramatic analgesic effects. We tested the hypothesis that the topical application of capsaicin ointment over the palmar digital nerves would attenuate the clinical effects of a reversible model of equine foot lameness. Seven healthy adult horses shod unilaterally with adjustable heart bar shoes were studied in a crossover design for 2 weeks. Grade 5.0/5.0 lameness (nonweight bearing) was induced by tightening the adjustable heart bar shoe. One hour later, capsaicin ointment was applied over the medial and lateral palmar digital nerves 3 cm proximal to the coronary band, or horses were left untreated. One week later, treatment assignments were reversed, and the experiment was repeated. The heart rate was markedly lower in treated than in untreated trials at 20 and 40 minutes after capsaicin and between 1.6 and 3.6 hours after capsaicin (P < .05). The lameness score was markedly decreased in capsaicin-treated horses at 40 minutes and from 1.3 to 4 hours after treatment (P < .05). We conclude that the topical application of capsaicin ointment over the palmar digital nerves provided measurable pain relief for up to 4 hours after treatment (P < .05). The clinical application of this analgesic technique in horses with spontaneous clinical or induced laminitis or other sources of foot pain remains to be shown. PMID:12892309

  10. Cellular Mechanism Underlying Formaldehyde-Stimulated Cl? Secretion in Rat Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu-Li; Guo, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Yi-Lin; Chen, Peng-Xiao; Zhu, Yun-Xin; Huang, Jie-Hong; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that formaldehyde (FA) could be synthesized endogeneously and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel might be the sensor of FA. However, the physiological significance is still unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study investigated the FA induced epithelial Cl- secretion by activation of TRPV-1 channel located in the nerve ending fiber. Exogenously applied FA induced an increase of ISC in intact rat trachea tissue but not in the primary cultured epithelial cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis identified TRPV-1 expression in rat tracheal nerve ending. Capsazepine (CAZ), a TRPV-1 specific antagonist significantly blocked the ISC induced by FA. The TRPV-1 agonist capsaicin (Cap) induced an increase of ISC, which was similar to the ISC induced by FA. L-703606, an NK-1 specific inhibitor and propranolol, an adrenalin ? receptor inhibitor significantly abolished the ISC induced by FA or Cap. In the ion substitute analysis, FA could not induce ISC in the absence of extracelluar Cl-. The ISC induced by FA could be blocked by the non-specific Cl- channel inhibitor DPC and the CFTR specific inhibitor CFTRi-172, but not by the Ca2+-activated Cl- channel inhibitor DIDS. Furthermore, both forskolin, an agonist of adenylate cyclase (AC) and MDL-12330A, an antagonist of AC could block FA-induced ISC. Conclusion Our results suggest that FA-induced epithelial ISC response is mediated by nerve, involving the activation of TRPV-1 and release of adrenalin as well as substance P. PMID:23372735