Sample records for capsaicin receptor trpv1

  1. Capsaicin Receptor: TRPV1 A Promiscuous TRP Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Pingle; J. A. Matta; G. P. Ahern

    TRPV1, the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent\\u000a ingredient in hot chili peppers. The receptor has a diverse tissue distribution, with high expression in sensory neurons.\\u000a TRPV1 is a nonselective cation channel with significant permeability to calcium, protons, and large polyvalent cations. It\\u000a is the most polymodal TRP channel,

  2. Capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in urothelium of neurogenic human bladders and effect of intravesical resiniferatoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolos Apostolidis; Ciaran M. Brady; Yiangos Yiangou; John Davis; Clare J. Fowler; Praveen Anand

    2005-01-01

    ObjectivesTo study TRPV1 immunoreactivity in the urothelium of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) before and after treatment with resiniferatoxin (RTX) and controls. Functional capsaicin TRPV1 receptors have been demonstrated in urothelial cells of rodent urinary bladder, and TRPV1-knockout mice exhibit diminished nitric oxide and stretch-evoked adenosine triphosphate release from urothelial cells. In patients with NDO, TRPV1 suburothelial nerve density

  3. From The Cover: Protein kinase C phosphorylation sensitizes but does not activate the capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gautam Bhave; Hui-Juan Hu; Kathi S. Glauner; Weiguo Zhu; Haibin Wang; D. J. Brasier; Gerry S. Oxford; Robert W. Gereau IV

    2003-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) modulates the function of the capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). This modulation manifests as increased current when the channel is activated by capsaicin. In addition, studies have suggested that phosphorylation by PKC might directly gate the channel, because PKC-activating phorbol esters induce TRPV1 currents in the absence of applied ligands. To test whether

  4. ThermoTRP Channels in Nociceptors: Taking a Lead from Capsaicin Receptor TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Mandadi, Sravan; Roufogalis, Basil D.

    2008-01-01

    Nociceptors with peripheral and central projections express temperature sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, also called thermoTRP’s. Chemosensitivity of thermoTRP’s to certain natural compounds eliciting pain or exhibiting thermal properties has proven to be a good tool in characterizing these receptors. Capsaicin, a pungent chemical in hot peppers, has assisted in the cloning of the first thermoTRP, TRPV1. This discovery initiated the search for other receptors encoding the response to a wide range of temperatures encountered by the body. Of these, TRPV1 and TRPV2 encode unique modalities of thermal pain when exposed to noxious heat. The ability of TRPA1 to encode noxious cold is presently being debated. The role of TRPV1 in peripheral inflammatory pain and central sensitization during chronic pain is well known. In addition to endogenous agonists, a wide variety of chemical agonists and antagonists have been discovered to activate and inhibit TRPV1. Efforts are underway to determine conditions under which agonist-mediated desensitization of TRPV1 or inhibition by antagonists can produce analgesia. Also, identification of specific second messenger molecules that regulate phosphorylation of TRPV1 has been the focus of intense research, to exploit a broader approach to pain treatment. The search for a role of TRPV2 in pain remains dormant due to the lack of suitable experimental models. However, progress into TRPA1’s role in pain has received much attention recently. Another thermoTRP, TRPM8, encoding for the cool sensation and also expressed in nociceptors, has recently been shown to reduce pain via a central mechanism, thus opening a novel strategy for achieving analgesia. The role of other thermoTRP’s (TRPV3 and TRPV4) encoding for detection of warm temperatures and expressed in nociceptors cannot be excluded. This review will discuss current knowledge on the role of nociceptor thermoTRPs in pain and therapy and describes the activator and inhibitor molecules known to interact with them and modulate their activity. PMID:19305786

  5. The TRPV1 receptor and nociception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Immke; Narender R. Gavva

    2006-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is an emerging target for the treatment of pain with a unique expression profile in peripheral nociceptors and the ability to show polymodal activation, TRPV1 is an important integrator of responses to inflammatory mediators. Sensitization of TRPV1 during chronic pain is believed to contribute to the transduction of noxious signaling for normally innocuous stimuli and consequently

  6. Calcium-sensing receptor in rat vagal bronchopulmonary sensory neurons regulates the function of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qihai; Vysotskaya, Zhanna V; Moss, Charles R; Kagira, Martin K; Gilbert, Carolyn A

    2013-11-01

    Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been known to play a critical role in the maintainance of systemic Ca(2+) homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that CaSR is also expressed in many tissues that are not directly related to plasma Ca(2+) regulation, such as the central and peripheral nervous system, where the function of this receptor remains to be defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of CaSR and its potential interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) in rat vagal bronchopulmonary sensory neurons. Our immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated the expression of CaSR in these sensory neurons as well as in trachea and lung parenchyma. Results from our whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in isolated neurons showed that strong activation of CaSR with high concentrations of its agonists, including spermine, NPS R-568 and Ca(2+), inhibited the capsaicin-evoked whole-cell inward current. Blockade of CaSR with its antagonists NPS 2390 and NPS 2143 significantly enhanced the capsaicin-evoked TRPV1 current. These data suggest that CaSR is likely to be involved in the integration of primary bronchopulmonary sensory inputs in physiological and/or pathophysiological conditions. PMID:23913765

  7. Activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin induces functional Kinin B1 receptor in rat spinal cord microglia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxydative stress, which are enhanced by transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) activation. To examine the link between TRPV1 and B1R in inflammatory pain, this study aimed to determine the ability of TRPV1 to regulate microglial B1R expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn, and the underlying mechanism. Methods B1R expression (mRNA, protein and binding sites) was measured in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord in response to TRPV1 activation by systemic capsaicin (1-50 mg/kg, s.c) in rats pre-treated with TRPV1 antagonists (capsazepine or SB-366791), the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), or vehicle. B1R function was assessed using a tail-flick test after intrathecal (i.t.) injection of a selective B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK), and its microglial localization was investigated by confocal microscopy with the selective fluorescent B1R agonist, [N?-bodipy]-des-Arg9-BK. The effect of i.t. capsaicin (1 ?g/site) was also investigated. Results Capsaicin (10 to 50 mg/kg, s.c.) enhanced time-dependently (0-24h) B1R mRNA levels in the lumbar spinal cord; this effect was prevented by capsazepine (10 mg/kg, i.p.; 10 ?g/site, i.t.) and SB-366791 (1 mg/kg, i.p.; 30 ?g/site, i.t.). Increases of B1R mRNA were correlated with IL-1? mRNA levels, and they were significantly less in cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Intrathecal capsaicin (1 ?g/site) also enhanced B1R mRNA in lumbar spinal cord. NAC (1 g/kg/d × 7 days) prevented B1R up-regulation, superoxide anion production and NF-kB activation induced by capsaicin (15 mg/kg). Des-Arg9-BK (9.6 nmol/site, i.t.) decreased by 25-30% the nociceptive threshold at 1 min post-injection in capsaicin-treated rats (10-50 mg/kg) while it was without effect in control rats. Des-Arg9-BK-induced thermal hyperalgesia was blocked by capsazepine, SB-366791 and by antagonists/inhibitors of B1R (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg, p.o.), glutamate NMDA receptor (DL-AP5, 10 ?g/site, i.t.), substance P NK-1 receptor (RP-67580, 10 ?g/site, i.t.) and nitric oxide synthase (L-NNA, 10 ?g/site, i.t.). The B1R fluorescent agonist was co-localized with an immunomarker of microglia (Iba-1) in spinal cord dorsal horn of capsaicin-treated rats. Conclusion This study highlights a new mechanism for B1R induction via TRPV1 activation and establishes a link between these two pro-nociceptive receptors in inflammatory pain. PMID:22264228

  8. Activation of protein kinase C reverses capsaicin-induced calcium-dependent desensitization of TRPV1 ion channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sravan Mandadi; Mitsuko Numazaki; Makoto Tominaga; Manjunatha B Bhat; Patricia J Armati; Basil D Roufogalis

    2004-01-01

    Ca2+ selective ion channels of vanilloid receptor subtype-1 (TRPV1) in capsaicin-sensitive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and TRPV1 transfected Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells are desensitized following calcium-dependent tachyphylaxis induced by successive applications of 100nM capsaicin. Tachyphylaxis of TRPV1 to 100nM capsaicin stimuli was not observed in the absence of extracellular calcium. Capsaicin sensitivity of desensitized TRPV1 ion channels recovered

  9. Tachykinin (NK1, NK2 and NK3) receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and early transcription factor, cFOS, mRNA expression in rat tissues following systemic capsaicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Kunde, Dale A; Crawford, Amanda; Geraghty, Dominic P

    2013-05-10

    Capsaicin, the pungent component of chilli pepper, stimulates TRPV1-expressing cells which are followed by desensitisation to subsequent exposure to capsaicin and other TRPV1 activators. At high systemic doses (>125 mg/kg), capsaicin produces long-term changes in both tachykinin receptor and TRPV1 expression and function in rats. However, whether desensitising (low) doses of capsaicin (~50 mg/kg) affect tachykinin receptor and TRPV1 gene expression in the short term has yet to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare tachykinin receptor (NK1, NK2 and NK3) and TRPV1 mRNA expression 24h after administration of capsaicin (50 mg/kgs.c.). Tachykinin receptor and TRPV1 mRNA were detected in all tissues studied with expression levels differing by up to 2500-fold between tissues. The highest expression of TRPV1 and NK1 mRNA was observed in the salivary gland, whereas NK2 mRNA expression was highest in the urinary bladder and NK3 mRNA expression in the frontal cortex. In the cervical spinal cord of rats treated with capsaicin, NK1 and NK3 mRNA expression were reduced by 56% and 80%, respectively (P<0.05), whereas NK2 and TRPV1 mRNA expression were increased 2.2- and 1.4-fold, respectively (P<0.05). NK1 and NK2 mRNA expression were decreased (P<0.05) in the urinary bladder and gastric fundus, respectively, following capsaicin treatment. There was a marked 100-fold increase in cFOS mRNA expression and 100-fold decrease in NK2 mRNA expression in the whole blood of capsaicin-treated rats. In conclusion, these studies show that tachykinin receptor and TRPV1 mRNA expression undergo significant changes within 24h of systemic low-dose capsaicin administration. PMID:23499799

  10. Burning mouth syndrome as a trigeminal small fibre neuropathy: Increased heat and capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in nerve fibres correlates with pain score

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Yilmaz; T. Renton; Y. Yiangou; J. Zakrzewska; I. P. Chessell; C. Bountra; P. Anand

    2007-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is often an idiopathic chronic and intractable pain condition, affecting 1.5–5.5% of middle-aged and elderly women. We have studied the heat and capsaicin receptor TRPV1, and its regulator nerve growth factor (NGF), in BMS. Patients with BMS (n=10) and controls (n=10) were assessed for baseline and post-topical capsaicin pain scores, and their tongue biopsies immunostained for

  11. Substance MCS-18 isolated from Helleborus purpurascens is a potent antagonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, in rat cultured sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Neacsu, C; Ciobanu, C; Barbu, I; Toader, O; Szegli, G; Kerek, F; Babes, A

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of Helleborus roots were traditionally used in the Balkan area for their analgesic action. We report that the pure natural product MCS-18 isolated from this source is a potent, specific and reversible antagonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, expressed in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. TRPV1 is a non-selective cation channel expressed in a subset of cutaneous and visceral sensory nerve endings and activated by noxious heat, acidity and fatty acid metabolites of arachidonic acid, with a decisive role in inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. MCS-18 inhibited the increase in intracellular calcium concentration evoked in DRG neurons by capsaicin (300 nM) and low pH (5.5) but not by heat (43 degrees C). The substance had no effect on the responses mediated by acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) or the irritant receptor TRPA1. Whole-cell patch-clamp was used to confirm the inhibition of capsaicin-induced currents by MCS-18 which was dose-dependent. The mechanism of inhibition does not require an intact cell, as capsaicin-induced currents were also inhibited in the excised outside-out configuration. The antagonism of the capsaicin and proton action on native TRPV1 by MCS-18 may be of interest for pain therapy. PMID:19537933

  12. Glucose concentration in culture medium affects mRNA expression of TRPV1 and CB1 receptors and changes capsaicin toxicity in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Farani, Ahmad; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Sahebgharani, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    Objective (s): Hyperglycemia is widely recognized as the underlying cause for some debilitating conditions in diabetic patients. The role of cannabinoid CB1 and vanilloid TRPV1 receptors and their endogenous agonists, endovanilloids, in diabetic neuropathy is shown in many studies. Here we have used PC12 cell line to investigate the possible influence of glucose concentration in culture medium on cytoprotective or toxic effects of a CB1 [WIN55 212-2 (WIN)], or TRPV1 [Capsaicin (CAS)] agonist. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was tested using the MTT assay. We have also measured TRPV1 and CB1 transcripts by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction while cells were grown in low (5.5 mM) and high (50 mM) glucose concentrations. Results: Real time PCR results indicated that high glucose medium increased (P<0.01) TRPV1 mRNA and decreased (P <0.001) that of CB1. Cell culture tests show that hyperglycemic cells are more vulnerable (Dose × Medium, F (3,63)=41.5, P<0.001) to the toxic effects of capsaicin compared to those grown in low glucose medium. Conclusion: These findings propose that hyperglycemic conditions may result in neuronal cell death because of inducing a counterbalance between cytotoxic TRPV1 and cytoprotective CB1 receptors. PMID:25691944

  13. Preferential block of inactivation-deficient Na+ currents by capsaicin reveals a non-TRPV1 receptor within the Na+ channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sho-Ya; Mitchell, Jane; Wang, Ging Kuo

    2007-01-01

    Capsaicin elicits burning pain via the activation of the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1). Intriguingly, several reports showed that capsaicin also inhibits Na+ currents but the mechanisms remain unclear. To explore this non-TRPV1 action we applied capsaicin to HEK293 cells stably expressing inactivation-deficient rat skeletal muscle Na+ mutant channels (rNav1.4-WCW). Capsaicin elicited a conspicuous time-dependent block of inactivation-deficient Na+ currents. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of capsaicin for open Na+ channels at +30 mV was measured 6.8+/-0.6 microM (n=5), a value that is 10-30 times lower than those for resting (218 microM) and inactivated (74 microM) wild-type Na+ channels. On-rate and off-rate constants for capsaicin open-channel block at +30 mV were estimated to be 6.37 microM(-1) s(-1) and 34.4 s(-1), respectively, with a calculated dissociation constant (KD) of 5.4 microM. Capsaicin at 30 microM produced approximately 70% additional use-dependent block of remaining rNav1.4-WCW Na+ currents during repetitive pulses at 1 Hz. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the local anesthetic receptor was not responsible for the capsaicin block of the inactivation-deficient Na+ channel. Interestingly, capsaicin elicited little time-dependent block of batrachotoxin-modified rNav1.4-WCW Na+ currents, indicating that batrachotoxin prevents capsaicin binding. Finally, neuronal open Na+ channels endogenously expressed in GH3 cells were as sensitive to capsaicin block as rNav1.4 counterparts. We conclude that capsaicin preferentially blocks persistent late Na+ currents, probably via a receptor that overlaps the batrachotoxin receptor but not the local anesthetic receptor. Drugs that target such a non-TRPV1 receptor could be beneficial for patients with neuropathic pain. PMID:16962240

  14. The role of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor (TRPV1) in physiology and pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    István Nagy; Péter Sántha; Gábor Jancsó; László Urbán

    2004-01-01

    The cloning of the vanilloid receptor 1 opened a floodgate for discoveries regarding the function of this complex molecule. It has been found that, in addition to heat, protons and vanilloids, this receptor also responds to various endogenous ligands. Furthermore, it has been also emerged that, through associations with other molecules, the vanilloid receptor 1 plays an important role in

  15. Capsaicin Interaction with TRPV1 Channels in a Lipid Bilayer: Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Sonya M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J; Sansom, Mark S P

    2015-03-24

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is a heat-sensitive ion channel also involved in pain sensation, and is the receptor for capsaicin, the active ingredient of hot chili peppers. The recent structures of TRPV1 revealed putative ligand density within the S1 to S4 voltage-sensor-like domain of the protein. However, questions remain regarding the dynamic role of the lipid bilayer in ligand binding to TRPV1. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore behavior of capsaicin in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer and with the target S1-S4 transmembrane helices of TRPV1. Equilibrium simulations reveal a preferred interfacial localization for capsaicin. We also observed a capsaicin molecule flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular leaflet, and subsequently able to access the intracellular TRPV1 binding site. Calculation of the potential of mean force (i.e., free energy profile) of capsaicin along the bilayer normal confirms that it prefers an interfacial localization. The free energy profile indicates that there is a nontrivial but surmountable barrier to the flipping of capsaicin between opposing leaflets of the bilayer. Molecular dynamics of the S1-S4 transmembrane helices of the TRPV1 in a lipid bilayer confirm that Y511, known to be crucial to capsaicin binding, has a distribution along the bilayer normal similar to that of the aromatic group of capsaicin. Simulations were conducted of the TRPV1 S1-S4 transmembrane helices in the presence of capsaicin placed in the aqueous phase, in the lipid, or docked to the protein. No stable interaction between ligand and protein was seen for simulations initiated with capsaicin in the bilayer. However, interactions were seen between TRPV1 and capsaicin starting from the cytosolic aqueous phase, and capsaicin remained stable in the majority of simulations from the docked pose. We discuss the significance of capsaicin flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular leaflet and mechanisms of binding site access by capsaicin. PMID:25809255

  16. TRPV1 activation and induction of nociceptive response by a non-pungent capsaicin-like compound, capsiate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Iida; T. Moriyama; K. Kobata; A. Morita; N. Murayama; S. Hashizume; T. Fushiki; S. Yazawa; T. Watanabe; M. Tominaga

    2003-01-01

    Capsiate is a capsaicin-like ingredient of a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, CH-19 sweet. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the non-pungency of capsiate, we investigated whether capsiate activates the cloned capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 (VR1). In patch-clamp experiments, capsiate was found to activate TRPV1 expressed transiently in HEK293 cells with a similar potency as capsaicin. Capsiate induced nociceptive responses in mice

  17. Direct activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1(TRPV1) by Diacylglycerol (DAG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Ho Woo; Sung Jun Jung; Mei Hong Zhu; Chul-Kyu Park; Yong Ho Kim; Seog Bae Oh; C Justin Lee

    2008-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor, known as transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), is activated by a wide range of noxious stimulants and putative ligands such as capsaicin, heat, pH, anandamide, and phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC). However, the identity of endogenous activators for TRPV1 under physiological condition is still debated. Here, we report that diacylglycerol (DAG) directly activates

  18. A proinflammatory chemokine, CCL3, sensitizes the heat- and capsaicin-gated ion channel TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Inan, Sadeet; Cowan, Alan; Sun, Ronghua; Wang, Ji Ming; Rogers, Thomas J.; Caterina, Michael; Oppenheim, Joost J.

    2005-01-01

    Pain, a critical component of host defense, is one hallmark of the inflammatory response. We therefore hypothesized that pain might be exacerbated by proinflammatory chemokines. To test this hypothesis, CCR1 was cotransfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells together with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a cation channel required for certain types of thermal hyperalgesia. In these cells, capsaicin and anandamide induced Ca2+ influx mediated by TRPV1. When CCR1:TRPV1/HEK293 cells were pretreated with CCL3, the sensitivity of TRPV1, as indicated by the Ca2+ influx, was increased ?3-fold. RT-PCR analysis showed that a spectrum of chemokine and cytokine receptors is expressed in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Immunohistochemical staining of DRG showed that CCR1 is coexpressed with TRPV1 in >85% of small-diameter neurons. CCR1 on DRG neurons was functional, as demonstrated by CCL3-induced Ca2+ ion influx and PKC activation. Pretreatment with CCL3 enhanced the response of DRG neurons to capsaicin or anandamide. This sensitization was inhibited by pertussis toxin, U73122, or chelerythrine chloride, inhibitors of Gi-protein, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C, respectively. Intraplantar injection of mice with CCL3 decreased their hot-plate response latency. That a proinflammatory chemokine, by interacting with its receptor on small-diameter neurons, sensitizes TRPV1 reveals a previously undescribed mechanism of receptor cross-sensitization that may contribute to hyperalgesia during inflammation. PMID:15764707

  19. Design and synthesis of conformationally restricted capsaicin analogues based in the 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole heterocycle reveal a novel family of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Carolyne Lespay; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Pamela; Brauchi, Sebastián; Olavarría, Miguel Zárraga

    2013-08-01

    4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde was used as starting material to obtain a number of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole alkylamide derivatives. The pharmacological properties of these conformationally restricted capsaicin analogues were evaluated on HEK-293T cells transiently expressing TRPV1 receptor. By means of a highthroughput calcium imaging assay we find that 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles (compounds 8-15) act as potent antagonists of the capsaicin receptor, inhibiting both, the capsaicin- and temperature-dependent activation. Docking studies suggested a different binding orientation on the vanilloid binding site when compared with capsaicin analogues, such as 5-iodononivamide. Overall, our studies suggest that 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles interact with capsaicin's binding region of the receptor, although using a different set of interactions within the vanilloid binding pocket. PMID:23796768

  20. Ca 2 ? \\/Calmodulin Modulates TRPV1 Activation by Capsaicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara Rosenbaum; Ariela Gordon-Shaag; Mika Munari; Sharona E. Gordon

    cells, Ca 2 ? \\/calmodulin decreased the capsaicin-activated current. This inhibition was not mimicked by Mg 2 ? , re- flected a decrease in open probability, and was slowly reversible. Furthermore, increasing the calmodulin concen- tration in our patches by coexpression of wild-type calmodulin with TRPV1 produced inhibition by Ca 2 ? alone. In contrast, patches excised from cells coexpressing

  1. A proinflammatory chemokine, CCL3, sensitizes the heat- and capsaicin-gated ion channel TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Zhang; Saadet Inan; Alan Cowan; Ronghua Sun; Ji Ming Wang; Thomas J. Rogers; Michael Caterina; Joost J. Oppenheim

    2005-01-01

    Pain, a critical component of host defense, is one hallmark of the inflammatory response. We therefore hypothesized that pain might be exacerbated by proinflammatory chemokines. To test this hypothesis, CCR1 was cotransfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells together with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a cation channel required for certain types of thermal hyperalgesia. In these cells, capsaicin

  2. Capsaicin induces NKCC1 internalization and inhibits chloride secretion in colonic epithelial cells independently of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Patrice G; Tang, Xu; Weber, Christopher R; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-15

    Colonic chloride secretion is regulated via the neurohormonal and immune systems. Exogenous chemicals (e.g., butyrate, propionate) can affect chloride secretion. Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the chili peppers, exerts various effects on gastrointestinal function. Capsaicin is known to activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), expressed in the mesenteric nervous system. Recent studies have also demonstrated its presence in epithelial cells but its role remains uncertain. Because capsaicin has been reported to inhibit colonic chloride secretion, we tested whether this effect of capsaicin could occur by direct action on epithelial cells. In mouse colon and model T84 human colonic epithelial cells, we found that capsaicin inhibited forskolin-dependent short-circuit current (FSK-I(sc)). Using PCR and Western blot, we demonstrated the presence of TRPV1 in colonic epithelial cells. In T84 cells, TRPV1 localized at the basolateral membrane and in vesicular compartments. In permeabilized monolayers, capsaicin activated apical chloride conductance, had no effect on basolateral potassium conductance, but induced NKCC1 internalization demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and basolateral surface biotinylation. AMG-9810, a potent inhibitor of TRPV1, did not prevent the inhibition of the FSK-I(sc) by capsaicin. Neither resiniferatoxin nor N-oleoyldopamine, two selective agonists of TRPV1, blocked the FSK-I(sc). Conversely capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, and N-oleoyldopamine raised intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in T84 cells and AMG-9810 blocked the rise in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by capsaicin and resiniferatoxin suggesting the presence of a functional TRPV1 channel. We conclude that capsaicin inhibits chloride secretion in part by causing NKCC1 internalization, but by a mechanism that appears to be independent of TRPV1. PMID:23139219

  3. Effects of neonatal treatment with the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, on adult rat brain and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Newson, Penny N; van den Buuse, Maarten; Martin, Sally; Lynch-Frame, Ann; Chahl, Loris A

    2014-10-01

    Treatment of neonatal rats with the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonist, capsaicin, produces life-long loss of sensory neurons expressing TRPV1 channels. Previously it was shown that rats treated on day 2 of life with capsaicin had behavioural hyperactivity in a novel environment at 5-7 weeks of age and brain changes reminiscent of those found in subjects with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate brain and behavioural responses of adult rats treated as neonates with capsaicin. It was found that the brain changes found at 5-7 weeks in rats treated as neonates with capsaicin persisted into adulthood (12 weeks) but were less in older rats (16-18 weeks). Increased prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle was found in these rats at 8 and 12 weeks of age rather than the deficit commonly found in animal models of schizophrenia. Subjects with schizophrenia also have reduced flare responses to niacin and methylnicotinate proposed to be mediated by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Flare responses are accompanied by cutaneous plasma extravasation. It was found that the cutaneous plasma extravasation responses to methylnicotinate and PGD2 were reduced in capsaicin-treated rats. In conclusion, several neuroanatomical changes observed in capsaicin-treated rats, as well as the reduced cutaneous plasma extravasation responses, indicate that the role of TRPV1 channels in schizophrenia is worthy of investigation. PMID:24975423

  4. Vanilloid Receptor-1 (TRPV1) Expression and Function in the Vasculature of the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Czikora, Ágnes; Pásztor, Enik? T.; Dienes, Beatrix; Bai, Péter; Csernoch, László; Rutkai, Ibolya; Csató, Viktória; Mányiné, Ivetta S.; Pórszász, Róbert; Édes, István; Papp, Zoltán; Boczán, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are emerging in vascular biology. In particular, the expression of the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) was reported in vascular smooth muscle cells. This study characterized the arteriolar TRPV1 function and expression in the rat. TRPV1 mRNA was expressed in various vascular beds. Six commercially available antibodies were tested for TRPV1 specificity. Two of them were specific (immunostaining was abolished by blocking peptides) for neuronal TRPV1 and one recognized vascular TRPV1. TRPV1 was expressed in blood vessels in the skeletal muscle, mesenteric and skin tissues, as well as in the aorta and carotid arteries. TRPV1 expression was found to be regulated at the level of individual blood vessels, where some vessels expressed, while others did not express TRPV1 in the same tissue sections. Capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) evoked constrictions in skeletal muscle arteries and in the carotid artery, but had no effect on the femoral and mesenteric arteries or the aorta. In blood vessels, TRPV1 expression was detected in most of the large arteries, but there were striking differences at level of the small arteries. TRPV1 activity was suppressed in some isolated arteries. This tightly regulated expression and function suggests a physiological role for vascular TRPV1. PMID:24217926

  5. Neonatal capsaicin treatment in rats affects TRPV1-related noxious heat sensation and circadian body temperature rhythm.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-06-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel that serves as a polymodal detector of noxious stimuli such as capsaicin. Therefore, capsaicin treatment has been used to investigate the physiological function of TRPV1. Here, we report physiological changes induced by treating neonatal rats with capsaicin. Capsaicin (50mg/kg) (cap-treated) or vehicle (vehicle-treated) was systemically administered to newborn SD rat pups within 48 h after birth. TRPV1 expression, intake volume of capsaicin water, and noxious heat sensation were measured 6 weeks after capsaicin treatment. Circadian body temperature and locomotion were recorded by biotelemetry. Expression of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Hsf1 (clock genes) was also investigated. Neonatal capsaicin treatment not only decreased TRPV1 expression but also induced desensitization to noxious heat stimuli. Circadian body temperature of cap-treated rats increased significantly compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Additionally, the amplitude of the circadian body temperature was reversed in cap-treated rats. Expression of the hypothalamic Hsf1 and liver Per2 clock genes followed a similar trend. Therefore, we suggest that these findings will be useful in studying various physiological mechanisms related to TRPV1. PMID:24746025

  6. TRPV1 (vanilloid receptor) in the urinary tract: expression, function and clinical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    António Avelino; Francisco Cruz

    2006-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel activated by capsaicin, heat, protons and endogenous ligands such as anandamide. It is largely expressed in the urinary tract of mammals. Structures in which the receptor expression is firmly established include sensory fibers and urothelial cells, although the presence of TRPV1 in other cell types has been reported.

  7. Expression and distribution of vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) in the adult rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attila Tóth; Judit Boczán; Noémi Kedei; Erzsébet Lizanecz; Zsolt Bagi; Zoltán Papp; István Édes; László Csiba; Peter M. Blumberg

    2005-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor (TRPV1 or VR1) is a molecular integrator of various painful stimuli, including capsaicin, acid, and high temperature. It can also be activated by endogenous ligands, like the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1) agonist anandamide. TRPV1 is well characterized at the terminals of sensory nerves involved in the pain pathway. There is also evidence that TRPV1 is expressed in

  8. Tunable Calcium Current through TRPV1 Receptor Channels*S?

    PubMed Central

    Samways, Damien S. K.; Khakh, Baljit S.; Egan, Terrance M.

    2008-01-01

    TRPV1 receptors are polymodal cation channels that open in response to diverse stimuli including noxious heat, capsaicin, and protons. Because Ca2+ is vital for TRPV1 signaling, we sought to precisely measure its contribution to TRPV1 responses and discovered that the Ca2+ current was tuned by the mode of activation. Using patch clamp photometry, we found that the fraction of the total current carried by Ca2+ (called the Pf%) was significantly smaller for TRPV1 currents evoked by protons than for those evoked by capsaicin. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we discovered that the smaller Pf% was due to protonation of three acidic amino acids (Asp646, Glu648, and Glu651) that are located in the mouth of the pore. Thus, in keeping with recent reports of time-dependent changes in the ionic permeability of some ligand-gated ion channels, we now show for the first time that the physiologically important Ca2+ current of the TRPV1 receptor is also dynamic and depends on the mode of activation. This current is significantly smaller when the receptor is activated by a change in pH, owing to atomic scale interactions of H+ and Ca2+ with the fixed negative charge of side chains in the pore. PMID:18775990

  9. Activation of bronchopulmonary vagal afferent nerves with bradykinin, acid and vanilloid receptor agonists in wild-type and TRPV1-\\/- mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kollarik; B. J. Undem

    2003-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 (formerly VR1) has been implicated in the activation of nociceptive sensory nerves by capsaicin, noxious heat, protons, bradykinin, cannabinoids such as anandamide, and certain metabolites of arachidonic acid. Using TRPV1 knockout mouse (TRPV1-\\/-) we address the question of whether TRPV1 is obligatory for action potential discharge in vagal C-fibre terminals evoked by capsaicin, anandamide, acid and

  10. Investigation of the role of TRPV1 receptors in acute and chronic nociceptive processes using gene-deficient mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kata Bölcskei; Zsuzsanna Helyes; Árpád Szabó; Katalin Sándor; Krisztián Elekes; József Németh; Róbert Almási; Erika Pintér; Gábor Peth?; János Szolcsányi

    2005-01-01

    Capsaicin-sensitive, TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) receptor-expressing primary sensory neurons exert local and systemic efferent effects besides the classical afferent function. The TRPV1 receptor is considered a molecular integrator of various physico-chemical noxious stimuli. In the present study its role was analysed in acute nociceptive tests and chronic neuropathy models by comparison of wild-type (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO)

  11. Ph?1? toxin prevents capsaicin-induced nociceptive behavior and mechanical hypersensitivity without acting on TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Castro-Junior, Celio J; Milano, Julie; Souza, Alessandra H; Silva, Juliana F; Rigo, Flávia K; Dalmolin, Geruza; Cordeiro, Marta N; Richardson, Michael; Barros, Alexandre G A; Gomez, Renato S; Silva, Marco A R; Kushmerick, Christopher; Ferreira, Juliano; Gomez, Marcus V

    2013-08-01

    Ph?1? toxin is a peptide purified from the venom of the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer, with markedly antinociceptive action in models of acute and persistent pain in rats. Similarly to ziconotide, its analgesic action is related to inhibition of high voltage activated calcium channels with more selectivity for N-type. In this study we evaluated the effect of Ph?1? when injected peripherally or intrathecally in a rat model of spontaneous pain induced by capsaicin. We also investigated the effect of Ph?1? on Ca˛? transients in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and HEK293 cells expressing the TRPV1 receptor. Intraplantar or intrathecal administered Ph?1? reduced both nocifensive behavior and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by capsaicin similarly to that observed with SB366791, a specific TRPV1 antagonist. Peripheral nifedipine and mibefradil did also decrease nociceptive behavior induced by intraplantar capsaicin. In contrast, ?-conotoxin MVIIA (a selective N-type Ca˛? channel blocker) was effective only when administered intrathecally. Ph?1?, MVIIA and SB366791 inhibited, with similar potency, the capsaicin-induced Ca˛? transients in DRG neurons. The simultaneous administration of Ph?1? and SB366791 inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca˛? transients that were additive suggesting that they act through different targets. Moreover, Ph?1? did not inhibit capsaicin-activated currents in patch-clamp recordings of HEK293 cells that expressed TRPV1 receptors. Our results show that Ph?1? may be effective as a therapeutic strategy for pain and this effect is not related to the inhibition of TRPV1 receptors. PMID:23597507

  12. Activation of bronchopulmonary vagal afferent nerves with bradykinin, acid and vanilloid receptor agonists in wild-type and TRPV1?/? mice

    PubMed Central

    Kollarik, M; Undem, B J

    2004-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 (formerly VR1) has been implicated in the activation of nociceptive sensory nerves by capsaicin, noxious heat, protons, bradykinin, cannabinoids such as anandamide, and certain metabolites of arachidonic acid. Using TRPV1 knockout mouse (TRPV1?/?) we address the question of whether TRPV1 is obligatory for action potential discharge in vagal C-fibre terminals evoked by capsaicin, anandamide, acid and bradykinin. The response of a defined subtype of the vagal afferent bronchopulmonary C-fibres (conduction velocity < 0.7 ms?1) to the putative TRPV1 activators was studied in vitro in the mouse isolated/perfused lung–nerve preparation. Capsaicin (1 ?m) evoked action potential discharge of ?90% (28/31) of C-fibres in the TRPV1+/+ mice, but failed to activate bronchopulmonary C-fibres in TRPV1?/? animals (n = 10). Anandamide (3–100 ?m) induced concentration-dependent activation of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1+/+ C-fibres with a threshold of 3–10 ?m, but failed to evoke substantive discharge in TRPV1?/? C-fibres. In the TRPV1+/+ mice, the B2 receptor-mediated activation by bradykinin (1 ?m) was restricted to the capsaicin-sensitive C-fibres. Bradykinin was effective in evoking B2 receptor-mediated action potential discharge in TRPV1?/? C-fibres, but the response was significantly (P < 0.05) less persistent than in TRPV1+/+ C-fibres. Exposing the tissue to acid (pH = 5) excited both TRPV1+/+ and TRPV1?/? C-fibres. We conclude that TRPV1 is obligatory for vagal C-fibre activation by capsaicin and anandamide. By contrast, whereas TRPV1 may have a modulatory role in bradykinin and acid-induced activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibres, it is not required for action potential discharge evoked by these stimuli. PMID:14634201

  13. The effect of neurotrophic factors on morphology, TRPV1 expression and capsaicin responses of cultured human DRG sensory neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Anand; W. R. Otto; M. A. Casula; N. C. Day; J. B. Davis; C. Bountra; R. Birch; P. Anand

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the effect of key neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on morphology, levels of the vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) and responses to capsaicin in adult human sensory neurons in vitro. Avulsed dorsal root ganglia (DRG, n=5) were cultured with or without a combination of nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell (line)-derived growth factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin3 (NT3) for 5 days. In

  14. Effects of the novel TRPV1 receptor antagonist SB366791 in vitro and in vivo in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Varga; József Németh; Árpád Szabó; Jason J. McDougall; Chunfen Zhang; Krisztián Elekes; Erika Pintér; János Szolcsányi; Zsuzsanna Helyes

    2005-01-01

    The TRPV1 capsaicin receptor is a non-selective cation channel localized in the cell membrane of a subset of primary sensory neurons and functions as an integrator molecule in nociceptive\\/inflammatory processes. The present paper characterizes the effects of SB366791, a novel TRPV1 antagonist, on capsaicin-evoked responses both in vitro and in vivo using rat models. SB366791 (100 and 500nM) significantly inhibited

  15. Lipids as regulators of the activity of transient receptor potential type V1 (TRPV1) channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano De Petrocellis; Vincenzo Di Marzo

    2005-01-01

    After 7 years from its cloning, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel remains the sole membrane receptor mediating the pharmacological effects of the hot chilli pepper pungent component, capsaicin, and of the Euphorbia toxin, resiniferatoxin. Yet, this ion channel represents one of the most complex examples of how the activity of a protein can be regulated. Among the

  16. Functional characterisation of the S512Y mutant vanilloid human TRPV1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Kathy G; Garrett, Elizabeth M; Rutter, A Richard; Bonnert, Timothy P; Jarolimek, Wolfgang; Seabrook, Guy R

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels include the nonselective cation channel TRPV1, which is activated by a range of stimuli including low pH, vanilloids and heat. Previously, selective mutagenesis experiments identified an intracellular residue (S512Y) critical to discriminating between pH and vanilloid (capsaicin) gating of the rat TRPV1 receptor. In this study, switching the equivalent residue in the human TRPV1 (which has some significant differences with the rat TRPV1) also rendered this channel relatively insensitive to activation by capsaicin and proved critical in determining the receptor's sensitivity to the putative endovanilloid N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA), suggesting a similar mode of activation for these two agonists. Potency of pH gating was reduced; however, voltage-dependent outward rectification properties of the pH-dependent current and gating by heat and pH sensitisation of the S512Y heat response remained unaffected. Surprisingly, residual capsaicin gating was detected and could be sensitised by pH even in the presence of a competitive antagonist. Taken together, these findings indicate that effective functional interaction of capsaicin with the S512Y channel still occurred, although the vanilloid-dependent gating per se was severely compromised. This observation provides additional evidence for capsaicin interacting at multiple sites, distinct from the S512 residue located close to the intracellular face of the pore. PMID:16100528

  17. Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Du, Junhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Shentai; Yu, Weihua; Du, Guangwei; Clark, Richard B; Walters, Edgar T; Carlton, Susan M; Hu, Hongzhen

    2013-09-01

    Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers. Application of retinoids evokes substantial irritating side effects, including pain and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. Here we show that both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids activate recombinant or native transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), an irritant receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers. In vivo, retinoids produced pain-related behaviors that were either eliminated or significantly reduced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 function. These findings identify TRPV1 as an ionotropic receptor for retinoids and provide cellular and molecular insights into retinoid-evoked hypersensitivity. These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity. PMID:23925292

  18. Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Du, Junhui; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Shentai; Yu, Weihua; Du, Guangwei; Clark, Richard B.; Walters, Edgar T.; Carlton, Susan M.; Hu, Hongzhen

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids are structurally related derivatives of vitamin A and are required for normal vision as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Clinically, retinoids are effective in treating many skin disorders and cancers. Application of retinoids evokes substantial irritating side effects, including pain and inflammation; however, the precise mechanisms accounting for the sensory hypersensitivity are not understood. Here we show that both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids activate recombinant or native transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), an irritant receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers. In vivo, retinoids produced pain-related behaviors that were either eliminated or significantly reduced by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 function. These findings identify TRPV1 as an ionotropic receptor for retinoids and provide cellular and molecular insights into retinoid-evoked hypersensitivity. These findings also suggest that selective TRPV1 antagonists are potential therapeutic drugs for treating retinoid-induced sensory hypersensitivity. PMID:23925292

  19. Structural determinants of the transient receptor potential 1 (TRPV1) channel activation by phospholipid analogs.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Llorente, Itzel; Hernández-García, Enrique; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Banerjee, Souvik; Miller, Duane; Gududuru, Veeresh; Fells, James; Norman, Derek; Tigyi, Gabor; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2014-08-29

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal protein that responds to various stimuli, including capsaicin (the pungent compound found in chili peppers), extracellular acid, and basic intracellular pH, temperatures close to 42 °C, and several lipids. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an endogenous lipid widely associated with neuropathic pain, is an agonist of the TRPV1 channel found in primary afferent nociceptors and is activated by other noxious stimuli. Agonists or antagonists of lipid and other chemical natures are known to possess specific structural requirements for producing functional effects on their targets. To better understand how LPA and other lipid analogs might interact and affect the function of TRPV1, we set out to determine the structural features of these lipids that result in the activation of TRPV1. By changing the acyl chain length, saturation, and headgroup of these LPA analogs, we established strict requirements for activation of TRPV1. Among the natural LPA analogs, we found that only LPA 18:1, alkylglycerophosphate 18:1, and cyclic phosphatidic acid 18:1, all with a monounsaturated C18 hydrocarbon chain activate TRPV1, whereas polyunsaturated and saturated analogs do not. Thus, TRPV1 shows a more restricted ligand specificity compared with LPA G-protein-coupled receptors. We synthesized fatty alcohol phosphates and thiophosphates and found that many of them with a single double bond in position ?9, 10, or 11 and ?9 cyclopropyl group can activate TRPV1 with efficacy similar to capsaicin. Finally, we developed a pharmacophore and proposed a mechanistic model for how these lipids could induce a conformational change that activates TRPV1. PMID:25035428

  20. Interaction with Phosphoinositides Confers Adaptation onto the TRPV1 Pain Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Yao; Feng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation is a common feature of many sensory systems. But its occurrence to pain sensation has remained elusive. Here we address the problem at the receptor level and show that the capsaicin ion channel TRPV1, which mediates nociception at the peripheral nerve terminals, possesses properties essential to the adaptation of sensory responses. Ca2+ influx following the channel opening caused a

  1. Functional Recovery from Desensitization of Vanilloid Receptor TRPV1 Requires Resynthesis of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beiying Liu; Chunguang Zhang; Feng Qin

    2005-01-01

    Capsaicin and other naturally occurring pungent molecules have long been used as topical analgesics to treat a variety of chronic pain conditions. The analgesic effects of these compounds involve long-term desensitization of nociceptors after strong stimulation. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we studied the recovery from desensitization of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1.We showed that prolonged applications of capsaicin led to

  2. Attenuated fever response in mice lacking TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohko Iida; Isao Shimizu; Michele L. Nealen; Ashley Campbell; Michael Caterina

    2005-01-01

    TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor, is expressed not only in nociceptive neurons, but also in other locations, including the hypothalamus. Studies involving systemic or intrahypothalamic capsaicin administration have suggested a role for TRPV1 in body temperature control. To explore this possibility, we examined thermoregulatory responses in TRPV1?\\/? mice. These mutant animals exhibited no obvious changes in circadian body temperature fluctuation, tolerance

  3. Differential expression of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and related novel receptors TRPV3, TRPV4 and TRPM8 in normal human tissues and changes in traumatic and diabetic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Facer; Maria A Casula; Graham D Smith; Christopher D Benham; Iain P Chessell; Chas Bountra; Marco Sinisi; Rolfe Birch; Praveen Anand

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors expressed by primary sensory neurons mediate thermosensitivity, and may play a role in sensory pathophysiology. We previously reported that human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons co-expressed TRPV1 and TRPV3, and that these were increased in injured human DRG. Related receptors TRPV4, activated by warmth and eicosanoids, and TRPM8, activated by cool and menthol,

  4. Capsaicin Regulates Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channels by Altering Lipid Bilayer Elasticity

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Sol M.

    the TRPV1 receptor involved in nociception. At micro- to millimolar concentrations, commonly used research. At submi- cromolar concentrations, capsaicin specifically activates the TRPV1 receptor involved

  5. Identifying the integrated neural networks involved in capsaicin-induced pain using fMRI in awake TRPV1 knockout and wild-type rats.

    PubMed

    Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William; Caccaviello, John C; Gamber, Kevin; Simmons, Phil; Nedelman, Mark; Kulkarni, Praveen; Ferris, Craig F

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type vs. knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain. PMID:25745388

  6. Identifying the integrated neural networks involved in capsaicin-induced pain using fMRI in awake TRPV1 knockout and wild-type rats

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Jason R.; Kenkel, William; Caccaviello, John C.; Gamber, Kevin; Simmons, Phil; Nedelman, Mark; Kulkarni, Praveen; Ferris, Craig F.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type vs. knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain.

  7. COOL (TRPM8) AND HOT (TRPV1) RECEPTORS IN THE BLADDER AND MALE GENITAL TRACT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT J. STEIN; SOLEDAD SANTOS; JIRO NAGATOMI; YUKIO HAYASHI; BRANDON S. MINNERY; MACRINA XAVIER; ANKUR S. PATEL; JOEL B. NELSON; WILLIAM J. FUTRELL; NAOKI YOSHIMURA; MICHAEL B. CHANCELLOR; FERNANDO DE MIGUEL

    2004-01-01

    Purpose:Overactive bladder symptoms due to various etiologies have been successfully treated with capsaicin by desensitization of the temperature sensitive vanilloid receptor TRPV1. Recently another temperature sensitive receptor, TRPM8, activated by menthol and cool temperatures (8C to 28C) was described that may be the proposed cool receptor, at least in part mediating the bladder response in the diagnostic ice water test.

  8. Identification and characterisation of SB366791, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor (VR1\\/TRPV1) antagonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gunthorpe; H. K. Rami; J. C. Jerman; D. Smart; C. H. Gill; E. M. Soffin; S. Luis Hannan; S. C. Lappin; J. Egerton; G. D. Smith; A. Worby; L. Howett; D. Owen; S. Nasir; C. H. Davies; M. Thompson; P. A. Wyman; A. D. Randall; J. B. Davis

    2004-01-01

    Vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel, predominantly expressed by peripheral sensory neurones, which is known to play a key role in the detection of noxious painful stimuli, such as capsaicin, acid and heat. To date, a number of antagonists have been used to study the physiological role of TRPV1; however, antagonists such as capsazepine are somewhat compromised by

  9. Modulation of defensive behavior by Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, D C; Moreira, F A; Terzian, A L; Fogaça, M V; Lisboa, S F; Wotjak, C T; Guimaraes, F S

    2014-10-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) was first characterized in primary afferent fibers as a receptor for capsaicin (the pungent ingredient of chili peppers). Later on, this cation-permeable ion channel was also described in the central nervous system, where its main putative endogenous ligand is N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide (an endocannabinoid, also known as anandamide). Recent results employing genetic, pharmacological and histochemical techniques indicate that TRPV1 tonically modulate anxiety, fear and panic responses in brain regions related to defensive responses, such as the dorsal periaqueductal gray, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Genetic deletion or antagonism of this ion channel induces anxiolytic-like effects in several animal models. The main mechanism responsible for TRPV1-mediated effects on anxiety seems to involve facilitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. In addition, there is evidence for interactions with other neurotransmitter systems, such as nitric oxide and endocannabinoids. PMID:24726577

  10. Capsaicin-induced avoidance behavior in the terrestrial Gastropoda Megalobulimus abbreviatus: evidence for TRPV-1 signaling and opioid modulation in response to chemical noxious stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kalil-Gaspar, Pedro; Marcuzzo, Simone; Rigon, Paula; Molina, Cynthia Goulart; Achaval, Matilde

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the nociceptive response (avoidance latency) of the land snail Megalobulimus abbreviatus (N=8 in each group) after topical capsaicin exposure (0.1% and 0.5% in 20% ethanol) and to compare it to a well-studied stressful (50 degrees C) thermal stimulus model. We also tested if ruthenium red, and capsazepine, respectively nonselective and selective TRPV1 receptor antagonists, could modify both capsaicin- and thermal-evoked responses. Finally, animals were pretreated with morphine, naloxone or morphine plus naloxone prior to capsaicin stimuli. Latencies were measured when the animal lifted its head-foot complex 1 cm from the substrate. Data were compared using ANOVA and LSD post hoc, and the Student T Test (p<0.05). Capsaicin elicited dose-dependent withdrawal behavior. The capsaicin vehicle (20% ethanol) also evoked a less intense but significant avoidance reaction. Capsazepine and ruthenium red attenuated both capsaicin and heat withdrawal responses, when compared to vehicles. Morphine increased, and naloxone, either alone or in combination with morphine, reduced capsaicin-evoked latencies when compared to morphine or saline. These results indicate that the TRPV1 receptor plays a role in the nociceptive circuits of M. abbreviatus. PMID:17553716

  11. Direct evidence for functional TRPV1/TRPA1 heteromers.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J M; Balasuriya, Dilshan; Jeggle, Pia; Goetze, Tom A; McNaughton, Peter A; Reeh, Peter W; Edwardson, J Michael

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) plays a key role in sensing environmental hazards and in enhanced pain sensation following inflammation. A considerable proportion of TRPV1-expressing cells also express transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1). There is evidence for a TRPV1-TRPA1 interaction that is predominantly calcium-dependent, and it has been suggested that the two proteins might form a heteromeric channel. Here, we constructed subunit concatemers to search for direct evidence for such an interaction. We found that a TRPV1::TRPV1 concatemer and TRPV1 formed channels with similar properties. A TRPV1::TRPA1 concatemer was responsive to TRPV1 agonists capsaicin, acidic pH and ethanol, but not to TRPA1 agonists. Isolated TRPV1 and TRPV1::TRPA1 imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) both had molecular volumes consistent with the formation of tetrameric channels. Antibodies decorated epitope tags on TRPV1 with a four-fold symmetry, as expected for a homotetramer. In contrast, pairs of antibodies decorated tags on TRPV1::TRPA1 predominantly at 180°, indicating the formation of a channel consisting of two TRPV1::TRPA1 concatemers arranged face to face. TRPV1::TRPA1 was sensitized by PKC activation and could be inhibited by a TRPV1 antagonist. TRPV1::TRPA1 was activated by heat and displayed a threshold and temperature coefficient similar to TRPV1. However, the channel formed by TRPV1::TRPA1 has only two binding sites for capsaicin and shows less total current and a smaller capsaicin-induced shift in voltage-dependent gating than TRPV1::TRPV1 or TRPV1. We conclude that the presence of TRPA1 exerts a functional inhibition on TRPV1. PMID:24643480

  12. Capsaicin-responsive corneal afferents do not contain TRPV1 at their central terminals in trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Deborah M; Hermes, Sam M; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Aicher, Sue A

    2014-11-01

    We examined the substrates for ocular nociception in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Capsaicin application to the ocular surface in awake rats evoked nocifensive responses and suppressed spontaneous grooming responses. Thus, peripheral capsaicin was able to activate the central pathways encoding ocular nociception. Our capsaicin stimulus evoked c-Fos expression in a select population of neurons within rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis in anesthetized rats. These activated neurons also received direct contacts from corneal afferent fibers traced with cholera toxin B from the corneal surface. However, the central terminals of the corneal afferents that contacted capsaicin-activated trigeminal neurons did not contain TRPV1. To determine if TRPV1 expression had been altered by capsaicin stimulation, we examined TRPV1 content of corneal afferents in animals that did not receive capsaicin stimulation. These studies confirmed that while TRPV1 was present in 30% of CTb-labeled corneal afferent neurons within the trigeminal ganglion, TRPV1 was only detected in 2% of the central terminals of these corneal afferents within the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Other TRP channels were also present in low proportions of central corneal afferent terminals in unstimulated animals (TRPM8, 2%; TRPA1, 10%). These findings indicate that a pathway from the cornea to rostral trigeminal nucleus caudalis is involved in corneal nociceptive transmission, but that central TRP channel expression is unrelated to the type of stimulus transduced by the peripheral nociceptive endings. PMID:24996127

  13. Deletion of vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) in mice alters behavioral effects of ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Blednov, Y.A.; Harris, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is activated by ethanol and this may be important for some of the central and peripheral actions of ethanol. To determine if this receptor has a role in ethanol-mediated behaviors, we studied null mutant mice in which the Trpv1 gene was deleted. Mice lacking this gene showed significantly higher preference for ethanol and consumed more ethanol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild type littermates. Null mutant mice showed shorter duration of loss of righting reflex induced by low doses of ethanol (3.2 and 3.4 g/kg) and faster recovery from motor incoordination induced by ethanol (2 g/kg). However, there were no differences between null mutant and wild type mice in severity of ethanol-induced acute withdrawal (4 g/kg) or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol (2.5 g/kg). Two behavioral phenotypes (decreased sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation and faster recovery from ethanol-induced motor incoordination) seen in null mutant mice were reproduced in wild type mice by injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (10 mg/kg). These two ethanol behaviors were changed in the opposite direction after injection of capsaicin, a selective TRPV1 agonist, in wild type mice. The studies provide the first evidence that TRPV1 is important for specific behavioral actions of ethanol. PMID:19705551

  14. Regulation of leptin receptor?expressing neurons in the brainstem by TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zsombok, Andrea; Jiang, Yanyan; Gao, Hong; Anwar, Imran J.; Rezai?Zadeh, Kavon; Enix, Courtney L.; Münzberg, Heike; Derbenev, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The central nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of feeding behavior and whole?body metabolism via controlling the autonomic output to the visceral organs. Activity of the parasympathetic neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) determines the vagal tone and thereby modulates the function of the subdiaphragmatic organs. Leptin is highly involved in the regulation of food intake and alters neuronal excitability of brainstem neurons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has also been shown to increase neurotransmission in the brainstem and we tested the hypothesis that TRPV1 regulates presynaptic neurotransmitter release to leptin receptor?expressing (LepRbEGFP) DMV neurons. Whole?cell patch?clamp recordings were performed to determine the effect of TRPV1 activation on excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSC, IPSC) of LepRbEGFP neurons in the DMV. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in 50% of LepRbEGFP neurons without altering the frequency of miniature IPSCs in the DMV. Stomach?projecting LepRbEGFP neurons were identified in the DMV using the transsynaptic retrograde viral tracer PRV?614. Activation of TRPV1 increased the frequency of mEPSC in ~50% of stomach?related LepRbEGFP DMV neurons. These data demonstrate that TRPV1 increases excitatory neurotransmission to a subpopulation of LepRbEGFP DMV neurons via presynaptic mechanisms and suggest a potential interaction between TRPV1 and leptin signaling in the DMV. PMID:25263209

  15. Capsaicin-induced avoidance behavior in the terrestrial Gastropoda Megalobulimus abbreviatus: Evidence for TRPV-1 signaling and opioid modulation in response to chemical noxious stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Kalil-Gaspar; Simone Marcuzzo; Paula Rigon; Cynthia Goulart Molina; Matilde Achaval

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the nociceptive response (avoidance latency) of the land snail Megalobulimus abbreviatus (N=8 in each group) after topical capsaicin exposure (0.1% and 0.5% in 20% ethanol) and to compare it to a well-studied stressful (50 °C) thermal stimulus model. We also tested if ruthenium red, and capsazepine, respectively nonselective and selective TRPV1 receptor antagonists,

  16. Caged vanilloid ligands for activation of TRPV1 receptors by 1- and 2-photon excitation†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Gover, Tony D.; Muralidharan, Sukumaran; Auston, Darryl A.; Weinreich, Daniel; Kao, Joseph P. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Nociceptive neurons in the peripheral nervous system detect noxious stimuli and report the information to the central nervous system. Most nociceptive neurons express the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel gated by vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin, the pungent essence of chili peppers. Here, we report the synthesis and biological application of two caged vanilloids—biologically inert precursors that, when photolyzed, release bioactive vanilloid ligands. The two caged vanilloids, Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA, are photoreleased with quantum efficiency of 0.13 and 0.041, respectively. Under flash photolysis conditions, photorelease of Nb-VNA and Nv-VNA is 95% complete in ?40 ?s and ?125 ?s, respectively. Through 1-photon excitation with ultraviolet light (360 nm), or 2-photon excitation with red light (720 nm), the caged vanilloids can be photoreleased in situ to activate TRPV1 receptors on nociceptive neurons. The consequent increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) can be visualized by laser-scanning confocal imaging of neurons loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, fluo-3. Stimulation results from TRPV1 receptor activation, because the response is blocked by capsazepine, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. In Ca2+-free extracellular medium, photoreleased vanilloid can still elevate [Ca2+]i, which suggests that TRPV1 receptors also reside on endomembranes in neurons and can mediate Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Notably, whole-cell voltage clamp measurements showed that flash photorelease of vanilloid can activate TRPV1 channels in < 4 msec at 22°C. In combination with 1- or 2-photon excitation, caged vanilloids are a powerful tool for probing morphologically distinct structures of nociceptive sensory neurons with high spatial and temporal precision. PMID:16605259

  17. TRPV1 receptors modulate retinal development.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Mauro; Martins, Daniel O; Britto, Luiz R G

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the possible participation of TRPV1 channels in retinal apoptosis and overall development. Retinas from newborn, male albino rats were treated in vitro with capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist. The expression of cell cycle markers was not changed after TRPV1 blockade, whereas capsazepine reduced the number of apoptotic cells throughout the retina,increased ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation and slightly reduced JNK phosphorylation. The expression of BAD, Bcl-2, as well as integral and cleaved capsase-3 were similar in all experimental conditions. Newborn rats were kept for 2 months after receiving high doses of capsazepine. In their retinas, calbindin and parvalbumin protein levels were upregulated, but only the number of amacrine-like, parvalbumin-positive cells was increased. The numbers of calretinin, calbindin, ChAT, vimentin, PKC-alpha and GABA-positive cells were similar in both conditions. Protein expression of synapsin Ib was also increased in the retinas of capsazepine-treated rats. Calretinin, vimentin, GFAP, synapsin Ia, synaptophysin and light neurofilament protein levels were not changed when compared to control values. Our results indicate that TRPV1 channels play a role in the control of the early apoptosis that occur during retinal development, which might be dependent on MAPK signaling. Moreover, it seems that TRPV1 function might be important for neuronal and synaptic maturation in the retina. PMID:21414401

  18. Activation of Mu Opioid Receptors Sensitizes Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 (TRPV1) via ?-Arrestin-2-Mediated Cross-Talk

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Matthew P.; Bierbower, Sonya M.; Eskander, Michael A.; Szteyn, Kalina; Por, Elaine D.; Gomez, Ruben; Veldhuis, Nicholas; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Jeske, Nathaniel A.

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential family V1 channel (TRPV1) is activated by multiple stimuli, including capsaicin, acid, endovanilloids, and heat (>42C). Post-translational modifications to TRPV1 result in dynamic changes to the sensitivity of receptor activation. We have previously demonstrated that ?-arrestin2 actively participates in a scaffolding mechanism to inhibit TRPV1 phosphorylation, thereby reducing TRPV1 sensitivity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ?-arrestin2 sequestration by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) on thermal and chemical activation of TRPV1. Here we report that activation of mu opioid receptor by either morphine or DAMGO results in ?-arrestin2 recruitment to mu opioid receptor in sensory neurons, while activation by herkinorin does not. Furthermore, treatment of sensory neurons with morphine or DAMGO stimulates ?-arrestin2 dissociation from TRPV1 and increased sensitivity of the receptor. Conversely, herkinorin treatment has no effect on TRPV1 sensitivity. Additional behavioral studies indicate that GPCR-driven ?-arrestin2 sequestration plays an important peripheral role in the development of thermal sensitivity. Taken together, the reported data identify a novel cross-talk mechanism between GPCRs and TRPV1 that may contribute to multiple clinical conditions. PMID:24695785

  19. A hot new twist to hair biology: involvement of vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1/TRPV1) signaling in human hair growth control.

    PubMed

    Bodó, Eniko; Bíró, Tamás; Telek, Andrea; Czifra, Gabriella; Griger, Zoltán; Tóth, Balázs I; Mescalchin, Alessandra; Ito, Taisuke; Bettermann, Albrecht; Kovács, László; Paus, Ralf

    2005-04-01

    The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1, or transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor, TRPV1) is activated by capsaicin, the key ingredient of hot peppers. TRPV1 was originally described on sensory neurons as a central integrator of various nociceptive stimuli. However, several human skin cell populations are also now recognized to express TRPV1, but with unknown function. Exploiting the human hair follicle (HF) as a prototypic epithelial-mesenchymal interaction system, we have characterized the HF expression of TRPV1 in situ and have examined TRPV1 signaling in organ-cultured human scalp HF and outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes in vitro. TRPV1 immunoreactivity was confined to distinct epithelial compartments of the human HF, mainly to the ORS and hair matrix. In organ culture, TRPV1 activation by capsaicin resulted in a dose-dependent and TRPV1-specific inhibition of hair shaft elongation, suppression of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, premature HF regression (catagen), and up-regulation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-beta(2). Cultured human ORS keratinocytes also expressed functional TRPV1, whose stimulation inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, elevated intracellular calcium concentration, up-regulated known endogenous hair growth inhibitors (interleukin-1beta, transforming growth factor-beta(2)), and down-regulated known hair growth promoters (hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, stem cell factor). These findings strongly support TRPV1 as a significant novel player in human hair growth control, underscore the physiological importance of TRPV1 in human skin beyond nociception, and identify TRPV1 as a promising, novel target for pharmacological manipulations of epithelial growth disorders. PMID:15793280

  20. ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature12823 TRPV1structuresindistinctconformations

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature12823 TRPV1structuresindistinctconformations reveal activation mechanisms of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. A domain (consisting of transmembrane segments 1­4) that moves during acti- vation of voltage-gated channels remains stationary in TRPV1, highlighting differences in gating

  1. Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis reduces ASIC channel but enhances TRPV1 receptor function in rat bladder sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Khoa; Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Using patch-clamp techniques, we studied the plasticity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) and transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) channel function in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons retrogradely labeled from the bladder. Saline (control) or cyclophosphamide (CYP) was given intraperitoneally on days 1, 3, and 5. On day 6, lumbosacral (LS, L6–S2) or thoracolumbar (TL, T13–L2) DRG were removed and dissociated. Bladders and bladder DRG neurons from CYP-treated rats showed signs of inflammation (greater myeloperoxidase activity; lower intramuscular wall pH) and increased size (whole cell capacitance), respectively, compared with controls. Most bladder neurons (>90%) responded to protons and capsaicin. Protons produced multiphasic currents with distinct kinetics, whereas capsaicin always triggered a sustained response. The TRPV1 receptor antagonist A-425619 abolished capsaicin-triggered currents and raised the threshold of heat-activated currents. Prolonged exposure to an acidic environment (pH range: 7.2 to 6.6) inhibited proton-evoked currents, potentiated the capsaicin-evoked current, and reduced the threshold of heat-activated currents in LS and TL bladder neurons. CYP treatment reduced density but not kinetics of all current components triggered by pH 5. In contrast, CYP-treatment was associated with an increased current density in response to capsaicin in LS and TL bladder neurons. Correspondingly, heat triggered current at a significantly lower temperature in bladder neurons from CYP-treated rats compared with controls. These results reveal that cystitis differentially affects TRPV1- and ASIC-mediated currents in both bladder sensory pathways. Acidification of the bladder wall during inflammation may contribute to changes in nociceptive transmission mediated through the TRPV1 receptor, suggesting a role for TRPV1 in hypersensitivity associated with cystitis. PMID:23636721

  2. Nonpsychotropic plant cannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD), activate and desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in vitro: potential for the treatment of neuronal hyperexcitability.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Fabio Arturo; Hill, Charlotte L; Leo, Antonio; Alhusaini, Ahlam; Soubrane, Camille; Mazzarella, Enrico; Russo, Emilio; Whalley, Benjamin J; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Stephens, Gary J

    2014-11-19

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder, with over 50 million people worldwide affected. Recent evidence suggests that the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) may contribute to the onset and progression of some forms of epilepsy. Since the two nonpsychotropic cannabinoids cannabidivarin (CBDV) and cannabidiol (CBD) exert anticonvulsant activity in vivo and produce TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation in vitro, we evaluated the effects of these two compounds on TRPV1 channel activation and desensitization and in an in vitro model of epileptiform activity. Patch clamp analysis in transfected HEK293 cells demonstrated that CBD and CBDV dose-dependently activate and rapidly desensitize TRPV1, as well as TRP channels of subfamily V type 2 (TRPV2) and subfamily A type 1 (TRPA1). TRPV1 and TRPV2 transcripts were shown to be expressed in rat hippocampal tissue. When tested on epileptiform neuronal spike activity in hippocampal brain slices exposed to a Mg(2+)-free solution using multielectrode arrays (MEAs), CBDV reduced both epileptiform burst amplitude and duration. The prototypical TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, produced similar, although not identical effects. Capsaicin, but not CBDV, effects on burst amplitude were reversed by IRTX, a selective TRPV1 antagonist. These data suggest that CBDV antiepileptiform effects in the Mg(2+)-free model are not uniquely mediated via activation of TRPV1. However, TRPV1 was strongly phosphorylated (and hence likely sensitized) in Mg(2+)-free solution-treated hippocampal tissue, and both capsaicin and CBDV caused TRPV1 dephosphorylation, consistent with TRPV1 desensitization. We propose that CBDV effects on TRP channels should be studied further in different in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy. PMID:25029033

  3. Ischemic neuroprotection by TRPV1 receptor-induced hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Muzzi, Mirko; Felici, Roberta; Cavone, Leonardo; Gerace, Elisabetta; Minassi, Alberto; Appendino, Giovanni; Moroni, Flavio; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Although treatment of stroke patients with mild hypothermia is a promising therapeutic approach, chemicals inducing prompt and safe reduction of body temperature are an unmet need. We measured the effects of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) agonist rinvanil on thermoregulation and ischemic brain injury in mice. Intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injection of rinvanil induces mild hypothermia that is prevented by the receptor antagonist capsazepine. Both intraischemic and postischemic treatments provide permanent neuroprotection in animals subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), an effect lost in mice artificially kept normothermic. Data indicate that TRPV1 receptor agonists are promising candidates for hypothermic treatment of stroke. PMID:22434066

  4. Ischemic neuroprotection by TRPV1 receptor-induced hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Muzzi, Mirko; Felici, Roberta; Cavone, Leonardo; Gerace, Elisabetta; Minassi, Alberto; Appendino, Giovanni; Moroni, Flavio; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2012-06-01

    Although treatment of stroke patients with mild hypothermia is a promising therapeutic approach, chemicals inducing prompt and safe reduction of body temperature are an unmet need. We measured the effects of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) agonist rinvanil on thermoregulation and ischemic brain injury in mice. Intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injection of rinvanil induces mild hypothermia that is prevented by the receptor antagonist capsazepine. Both intraischemic and postischemic treatments provide permanent neuroprotection in animals subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), an effect lost in mice artificially kept normothermic. Data indicate that TRPV1 receptor agonists are promising candidates for hypothermic treatment of stroke. PMID:22434066

  5. Receptor changes in brain tissue of rats treated as neonates with capsaicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katerina Zavitsanou; Victoria S. Dalton; Hongqin Wang; Penny Newson; Loris A. Chahl

    2010-01-01

    Capsaicin, the hot chemical in chillies, administered to neonatal rats, causes destruction of polymodal nociceptive primary afferent neurons by acting on TRPV1 receptors causing intrinsic somatosensory deprivation. Although the effects of neonatal capsaicin treatment in the periphery have been extensively investigated, less is known about the brain networks to which the capsaicin sensory neurons are relayed. In the present study

  6. Altered urinary bladder function in mice lacking the vanilloid receptor TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nakamura; S. Kiss; M. L. Nealen; S. Barrick; A. J. Kanai; E. Wang; G. Ruiz; W. C. de Groat; G. Apodaca; S. Watkins; M. J. Caterina; L. A. Birder

    2002-01-01

    In the urinary bladder, the capsaicin-gated ion channel TRPV1 is expressed both within afferent nerve terminals and within the epithelial cells that line the bladder lumen. To determine the significance of this expression pattern, we analyzed bladder function in mice lacking TRPV1. Compared with wild-type littermates, trpv1?\\/? mice had a higher frequency of low-amplitude, non-voiding bladder contractions. This alteration was

  7. Vanilloid receptor TRPV1-positive sensory afferents in the mouse ankle and knee joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won Gil Cho; Juli G. Valtschanoff

    2008-01-01

    TRPV1, a cation channel on sensory nerves sensitive to heat and capsaicin, plays an important role in the transduction of noxious stimuli to the spinal cord. It is expressed by neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) that may also express neuropeptides, which are important for the development of inflammation. Mice with genetic deletion of TRPV1 have been used to study

  8. TRPV1 receptors are involved in protein nitration and Müller cell reaction in the acutely axotomized rat retina.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Mauro; Martins, Daniel O; Britto, Luiz R G

    2010-11-01

    We report here the protein expression of TRPV1 receptor in axotomized rat retinas and its possible participation in mechanisms involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Adult rats were subjected to unilateral, intraorbital axotomy of the optic nerve, and the retinal tissue was removed for further processing. TRPV1 total protein expression decreased progressively after optic nerve transection, reaching 66.2% of control values 21 days after axotomy. The number of cells labeled for TRPV1 in the remnant GCL decreased after 21 days post-lesion (to 63%). Fluoro-Jade B staining demonstrated that the activation of TRPV1 in acutely-lesioned eyes elicited more intense neuronal degeneration in the GCL and in the inner nuclear layer than in sham-operated retinas. A single intraocular injection of capsazepine (100 ?M), a TRPV1 antagonist, 5 days after optic nerve lesion, decreased the number of GFAP-expressing Müller cells (72.5% of control values) and also decreased protein nitration in the retinal vitreal margin (75.7% of control values), but did not affect lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, retinal explants were treated with capsaicin (100 ?M), and remarkable protein nitration was then present, which was reduced by blockers of the constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthases (7-NI and aminoguanidine, respectively). TRPV1 activation also increased GFAP expression, which was reverted by both TRPV1 antagonism with capsazepine and by 7-NI and aminoguanidine. Given that Müller cells do not express TRPV1, we suppose that the increased GFAP expression in these cells might be elicited by TRPV1 activation and by its indirect effect upon nitric oxide overproduction and peroxynitrite formation. We incubated Fluorogold pre-labeled retinal explants in the presence of capsazepine (1 ?M) during 48 h. The numbers of surviving RGCs stained with fluorogold and the numbers of apoptotic cells in the GCL detected with TUNEL were similar in lesioned and control retinas. We conclude that TRPV1 receptor expression decreased after optic nerve injury due to death of TRPV1-containing cells. Furthermore, these data indicate that TRPV1 might be involved in intrinsic protein nitration and Müller cell reaction observed after optic nerve injury. PMID:20826152

  9. Structure and function of TRPV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Tominaga; Tomoko Tominaga

    2005-01-01

    Capsaicin, the main ingredient in hot chili peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. The capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), is predicted to have six transmembrane (TM) domains and a short, pore-forming hydrophobic stretch between the fifth and sixth TM domains,

  10. Topical acetone treatment induces neurogenic oedema on the sensitized mouse ear: an in vivo study using transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor knockout mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pozsgai; K. Sándor; A. Perkecz; J. Szolcsányi; Z. Helyes; S. D. Brain; E. Pintér

    2007-01-01

    .\\u000a Objective:  The participation of sensory neurons and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in phorbol 12-myristate\\u000a 13-acetate (PMA)-induced nerve-sensitizing effect was examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods:  PMA dissolved in acetone and acetone were applied to the ears of TRPV1 receptor knockout and wild-type mice. Different groups\\u000a of animals received ibuprofen, anti-interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) antibody, resiniferatoxin (RTX) or capsaicin pretreatment.\\u000a Ear thickness,

  11. Effect of surgical and chemical sensory denervation on non-neural expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kun, József; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Perkecz, Anikó; Bán, Ágnes; Polgár, Beáta; Szolcsányi, János; Pintér, Erika

    2012-11-01

    Pretreatment with the ultrapotent capsaicin analog resiniferatoxin (RTX) has been applied as a selective pharmacological tool in inflammation and pain studies to desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor-expressing sensory nerve endings. The discovery of TRPV1 receptor on non-neural cells challenges systemic RTX desensitization as a method acting exclusively on a population of sensory neurons, but not on non-neural cells. Systemic RTX desensitization was used for chemical denervation and transection of the sciatic and saphenous nerves for surgical denervation in rats. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate the presence and alterations of the TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein following chemical and surgical denervation. We provided the first evidence for non-neural TRPV1 immunopositivity and mRNA expression in the rat dorsal paw and plantar skin as well as the oral mucosa. Neither chemical nor surgical denervation influenced the level of TRPV1 receptor mRNA and protein expression in non-neural cells of either skin regions or mucosa. Therefore, RTX and consequently capsaicin remain to be considered as selective neurotoxins for a population of primary afferent neurons. PMID:22528458

  12. The effects of the TRPV1 antagonist SB705498 on TRPV1 receptor-mediated activity and inflammatory hyperalgesia in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris A. Chizh; Mary B. O’Donnell; Antonella Napolitano; Jie Wang; Allison C. Brooke; Mike C. Aylott; Jonathan N. Bullman; Emily J. Gray; Robert Y. Lai; Pauline M. Williams; Jonathan M. Appleby

    2007-01-01

    TRPV1 is a cation channel activated by a range of noxious stimuli and highly expressed in nociceptive fibres. TRPV1 receptors are involved in pain and sensitisation associated with tissue injury and inflammation; hence, TRPV1 antagonists are potentially useful for the treatment of such pain states. SB-705498 is a potent, selective and orally bioavailable TRPV1 antagonist with demonstrated efficacy in a

  13. Pharmacological blockade of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 elicits marked hyperthermia in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narender R. Gavva; James J. S. Treanor; Andras Garami; Liang Fang; Sekhar Surapaneni; Anna Akrami; Francisco Alvarez; Annette Bak; Mary Darling; Anu Gore; Graham R. Jang; James P. Kesslak; Liyun Ni; Mark H. Norman; Gabrielle Palluconi; Mark J. Rose; Margaret Salfi; Edward Tan; Andrej A. Romanovsky; Christopher Banfield; Gudarz Davar

    2008-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 has been identified as a molecular target for the treatment of pain associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. Hence, TRPV1 antagonists have been considered for therapeutic evaluation in such diseases. During Phase I clinical trials with AMG 517, a highly selective TRPV1 antagonist, we found that TRPV1 blockade elicited marked, but reversible, and generally plasma concentration-dependent

  14. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1? upregulation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Feng, Xiaoli; Ma, Shuangtao; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Tianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Nilius, Bernd; Huang, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Zhu, Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents, but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown. The capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle, the role of which remains unclear. Here we report the function of TRPV1 in cultured C2C12 myocytes and the effect of TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin on energy metabolism and exercise endurance of skeletal muscles in mice. In vitro, capsaicin increased cytosolic free calcium and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) expression in C2C12 myotubes through activating TRPV1. In vivo, PGC-1? in skeletal muscle was upregulated by capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation or genetic overexpression of TRPV1 in mice. TRPV1 activation increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration, promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxidative fibers, enhanced exercise endurance and prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. Importantly, these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1? in skeletal muscles. The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance. PMID:22184011

  15. Capsaicin, nonivamide and trans-pellitorine decrease free fatty acid uptake without TRPV1 activation and increase acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Rohm, Barbara; Riedel, Annett; Ley, Jakob P; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Red pepper and its major pungent component, capsaicin, have been associated with hypolipidemic effects in rats, although mechanistic studies on the effects of capsaicin and/or structurally related compounds on lipid metabolism are scarce. In this work, the effects of capsaicin and its structural analog nonivamide, the aliphatic alkamide trans-pellitorine and vanillin as the basic structural element of all vanilloids on the mechanisms of intestinal fatty acid uptake in differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells were studied. Capsaicin and nonivamide were found to reduce fatty acid uptake, with IC50 values of 0.49 ?M and 1.08 ?M, respectively. trans-Pellitorine was shown to reduce fatty acid uptake by 14.0±2.14% at 100 ?M, whereas vanillin was not effective, indicating a pivotal role of the alkyl chain with the acid amide group in fatty acid uptake by Caco-2 cells. This effect was associated neither with the activation of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) or the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) nor with effects on paracellular transport or glucose uptake. However, acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity increased (p<0.05) in the presence of 10 ?M capsaicin, nonivamide or trans-pellitorine, pointing to an increased fatty acid biosynthesis that might counteract the decreased fatty acid uptake. PMID:25422952

  16. The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes by dephosphorylating and desensitizing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) via a calcium calcineurin, dephosphorylated TRPV1. The WIN-induced desensitization of TRPV1 was mediated by calcineurin, because

  17. Contributions of different modes of TRPV1 activation to TRPV1 antagonist-induced hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Garami, Andras; Shimansky, Yury P.; Pakai, Eszter; Oliveira, Daniela L.; Gavva, Narender R.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) antagonists are widely viewed as next-generation pain therapeutics. However, these compounds cause hyperthermia, a serious side effect. TRPV1 antagonists differentially block three modes of TRPV1 activation: by heat, protons, and chemical ligands (e.g., capsaicin). We asked what combination of potencies in these three modes of TRPV1 activation corresponds to the lowest potency of a TRPV1 antagonist to cause hyperthermia. We studied hyperthermic responses of rats, mice, and guinea pigs to eight TRPV1 antagonists with different pharmacological profiles and used mathematical modeling to find a relative contribution of the blockade of each activation mode to the development of hyperthermia. We have found that the hyperthermic effect has the highest sensitivity to the extent of TRPV1 blockade in the proton mode (0.43 to 0.65) with no to moderate sensitivity in the capsaicin mode (-0.01 to 0.34) and no sensitivity in the heat mode (0.00 to 0.01). We conclude that hyperthermia-free TRPV1 antagonists do not block TRPV1 activation by protons, even if they are potent blockers of the heat mode, and that decreasing the potency to block the capsaicin mode may further decrease the potency to cause hyperthermia. PMID:20107070

  18. TRPV1 shows dynamic ionic selectivity during agonist stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man-Kyo Chung; Ali D Güler; Michael J Caterina

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel that is gated by noxious heat, capsaicin and other diverse stimuli. It is a nonselective cation channel that prefers Ca2+ over Na+. These permeability characteristics, as in most channels, are widely presumed to be static. On the contrary, we found that activation of native or recombinant rat TRPV1 leads to

  19. The role of TRPV1 channels in carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masaya; Ueda, Takashi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Kumamoto, Natsuko; Ugawa, Shinya

    2015-02-11

    Peripheral inflammation leads to ipsilateral and contralateral mechanical hyperalgesia. The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel expressed in mammalian primary sensory neurons and the spinal cord, may be involved in peripheral inflammation, but there is no consensus on the role of this channel in inflammation-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Here, we examined the role of TRPV1 channels in carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia using wild-type and TRPV1-knockout (KO) mice and compared the results with those obtained in mice peripherally administered capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, or capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. In the TRPV1-KO mice, ipsilateral mechanical hyperalgesia was significantly reduced during the acute phase (10-60?min), and the contralateral mechanical hyperalgesia nearly disappeared during both the acute and subacute phases. Blocking peripheral TRPV1 using capsazepine before carrageenan administration resulted in similar effects as those observed in the TRPV1-KO mice, except that it was less effective against contralateral mechanical hyperalgesia during the subacute phase. In contrast, capsaicin remarkably decreased ipsilateral and contralateral mechanical hyperalgesia throughout both phases, but this analgesic effect was not observed in the TRPV1-KO mice. Thus, TRPV1 channels could be involved in the development of both ipsilateral and contralateral mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Peripheral TRPV1 could participate in acute hyperalgesia, whereas central TRPV1 may participate in subacute secondary hyperalgesia. Capsaicin potentially acts on both primary and secondary hyperalgesia in a TRPV1-dependent manner. PMID:25590988

  20. The vanilloid receptor TRPV1: 10 years from channel cloning to antagonist proof-of-concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel N. Cortright; Charles A. Blum; Samer R. Eid; Arpad Szallasi

    2007-01-01

    The clinical use of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1; also known as VR1) antagonists is based on the concept that endogenous agonists acting on TRPV1 might provide a major contribution to certain pain conditions. Indeed, a number of small-molecule TRPV1 antagonists are already undergoing Phase I\\/II clinical trials for the indications of chronic inflammatory pain and migraine.

  1. Carboxyl-terminal Domain of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Contains Distinct Segments Differentially Involved in Capsaicin- and Heat-induced Desensitization*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, John; Wang, Sen; Lee, Jongseok; Ro, Jin Y.; Chung, Man-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Ca2+-dependent processes are involved in capsaicin-induced desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), but desensitization of TRPV1 by heat occurs even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that capsaicin and heat desensitize TRPV1 through distinct mechanisms involving distinct structural segments of TRPV1. In HEK293 cells that heterologously express TRPV1, we found that heat-induced desensitization was not affected by the inclusion of intracellular ATP or alanine mutation of Lys155, both of which attenuate capsaicin-induced desensitization, suggesting that heat-induced desensitization occurs through mechanisms distinct from capsaicin-induced desensitization. To determine protein domains involved in heat-induced desensitization, we generated chimeric proteins between TRPV1 and TRPV3, a heat-gated channel lacking heat-induced desensitization. We found that TRPV1 with the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of TRPV3 retained heat activation but was impaired in heat-induced desensitization. Further experiments using chimeric or deletion mutants within TRPV1 CTD indicated that the distal half of CTD regulates the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 in modality-specific manners. Within the distal CTD, we identified two segments that distinctly regulated capsaicin- and heat-induced desensitization. The results suggest that the activation and desensitization of TRPV1 by capsaicin and heat can be modulated differentially and disproportionally through different regions of TRPV1 CTD. Identifying the domains involved in thermal regulation of TRPV1 may facilitate the development of novel anti-hyperalgesic approaches aimed at attenuating activation and enhancing desensitization of TRPV1 by thermal stimuli. PMID:24174527

  2. Structural determinant of TRPV1 desensitization interacts with calmodulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuko Numazaki; Tomoko Tominaga; Kumiko Takeuchi; Namie Murayama; Hidenori Toyooka; Makoto Tominaga

    2003-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 (VR1), is a sensory neuron-specific ion channel that serves as a polymodal detector of pain-producing chemical and physical stimuli. Extracellular Ca2+-dependent desensitization of TRPV1 observed in patch-clamp experiments when using both heterologous expression systems and native sensory ganglia is thought to be one mechanism underlying the paradoxical effectiveness of capsaicin as an analgesic therapy. Here, we

  3. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC1? upregulation in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhidan Luo; Liqun Ma; Zhigang Zhao; Hongbo He; Dachun Yang; Xiaoli Feng; Shuangtao Ma; Xiaoping Chen; Tianqi Zhu; Tingbing Cao; Daoyan Liu; Bernd Nilius; Yu Huang; Zhencheng Yan; Zhiming Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents, but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown. The capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle, the role of which remains unclear. Here we report the function

  4. GABA Blocks Pathological but Not Acute TRPV1 Pain Signals.

    PubMed

    Hanack, Christina; Moroni, Mirko; Lima, Wanessa C; Wende, Hagen; Kirchner, Marieluise; Adelfinger, Lisa; Schrenk-Siemens, Katrin; Tappe-Theodor, Anke; Wetzel, Christiane; Kuich, P Henning; Gassmann, Martin; Roggenkamp, Dennis; Bettler, Bernhard; Lewin, Gary R; Selbach, Matthias; Siemens, Jan

    2015-02-12

    Sensitization of the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is central to the initiation of pathological forms of pain, and multiple signaling cascades are known to enhance TRPV1 activity under inflammatory conditions. How might detrimental escalation of TRPV1 activity be counteracted? Using a genetic-proteomic approach, we identify the GABAB1 receptor subunit as bona fide inhibitor of TRPV1 sensitization in the context of diverse inflammatory settings. We find that the endogenous GABAB agonist, GABA, is released from nociceptive nerve terminals, suggesting an autocrine feedback mechanism limiting TRPV1 sensitization. The effect of GABAB on TRPV1 is independent of canonical G protein signaling and rather relies on close juxtaposition of the GABAB1 receptor subunit and TRPV1. Activating the GABAB1 receptor subunit does not attenuate normal functioning of the capsaicin receptor but exclusively reverts its sensitized state. Thus, harnessing this mechanism for anti-pain therapy may prevent adverse effects associated with currently available TRPV1 blockers. PMID:25679765

  5. THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: TARGET OF TOXICANTS AND THERAPEUTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the structural and functional complexities of the TRPV1 is essential to the therapeutic modulation of inflammation and pain. Because of its central role in initiating inflammatory processes and integrating painful stimuli, there is an understandable interest...

  6. Loss of Function of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Genetic Variant Is Associated with Lower Risk of Active Childhood Asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Fandos, César; Duran-Tauleria, Enric; Smit, Lidwien A. M.; Kauffmann, Francine; Antó, Josep M.; Valverde, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channels of the vanilloid subfamily (TRPV) participate in the generation of Ca2+ signals at different locations of the respiratory system, thereby controlling its correct functioning. TRPV1 expression and activity appear to be altered under pathophysiological conditions such as chronic cough and airway hypersensitivity, whereas TRPV4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, to date, there is no information about the genetic impact of either TRPV1 or TRPV4 on asthma pathophysiology. We now report on the association of two functional SNPs, TRPV1-I585V and TRPV4-P19S, with childhood asthma. Both SNPs were genotyped in a population of 470 controls without respiratory symptoms and 301 asthmatics. Although none of the SNPs modified the risk of suffering from asthma, carriers of the TRPV1-I585V genetic variant showed a lower risk of current wheezing (odds ratio = 0.51; p = 0.01), a characteristic of active asthma, or cough (odds ratio = 0.57; p = 0.02). Functional analysis of TRPV1-I585V, using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2 to measure intracellular [Ca2+] concentrations, revealed a decreased channel activity in response to two typical TRPV1 stimuli, heat and capsaicin. On the other hand, TRPV4-P19S, despite its loss-of-channel function, showed no significant association with asthma or the presence of wheezing. Our data suggest that genetically determined level of TRPV1 activity is relevant for asthma pathophysiology. PMID:20639579

  7. Ontogenetic expression of the vanilloid receptors TRPV1 and TRPV2 in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Mauro; Martins, Daniel O; Kihara, Alexandre H; Britto, Luiz R G

    2009-11-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the gene and protein expression and the pattern of distribution of the vanilloid receptors TRPV1 and TRPV2 in the developing rat retina. During the early phases of development, TRPV1 was found mainly in the neuroblastic layer of the retina and in the pigmented epithelium. In the adult, TRPV1 was found in microglial cells, blood vessels, astrocytes and in neuronal structures, namely synaptic boutons of both retinal plexiform layers, as well as in cell bodies of the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. The pattern of distribution of TRPV1 was mainly punctate, and there was higher TRPV1 labeling in the peripheral retina than in central regions. TRPV2 expression was quite distinct. Its expression was virtually undetectable by immunoblotting before P1, and that receptor was found by immunohistochemistry only by postnatal day 15 (P15). RNA and protein analysis showed that the adult levels are only reached by P60, which includes small processes in the retinal plexiform layers, and labeled cellular bodies in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. There was no overlapping between the signal observed for both receptors. In conclusion, our results showed that the patterns of distribution of TRPV1 and TRPV2 are different during the development of the rat retina, suggesting that they have specific roles in both visual processing and in providing specific cues to neural development. PMID:19619635

  8. Quantitative Real-Time PCR detection of TRPV1–4 gene expression in human leukocytes from healthy and hyposensitive subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giacomo Spinsanti; Raffaella Zannolli; Cristina Panti; Ilaria Ceccarelli; Letizia Marsili; Valeria Bachiocco; Francesco Frati; Anna Maria Aloisi

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besides functioning as chemosensors for a broad range of endogenous and synthetic ligands, transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1–4 channels have also been related to capsaicin (TRPV1), pain, and thermal stimuli perception, and itching sensation (TRPV1–4). While the expression of the TRPV1–4 genes has been adequately proved in skin, sensory fibres and keratinocytes, less is known about TRPV3 and

  9. Somatostatin 4 receptor activation modulates TRPV1[correction of TPRV1] currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Gorham, Louise; Just, Stefan; Doods, Henri

    2014-06-24

    Somatostatin (sst) is a cyclic neuropeptide known to have inhibitory roles in the central nervous system. It exerts its biological effects via the activation of the 5 sst receptor subtypes, which belong to the family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). This peptide has analgesic properties, specifically via the activation of the sst4 receptor subtype. Although this is established, the precise molecular mechanisms causing this have not yet been fully elucidated. This research aimed to identify a possible anti-nociceptive mechanism, showing functional links to the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) within the pain processing pathway. Calcium imaging and whole cell voltage clamp experiments were conducted on DRG neurons prepared from adult rats, utilizing capsaicin stimulations and the sst4 receptor specific agonist J-2156. The complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) inflammatory pain model was used to examine if effects are augmented in pain conditions. The sst4 receptor agonist J-2156 was able significantly to inhibit capsaicin induced calcium and sodium influx, where the effect was more potent after CFA treatment. This inhibition identifies a contributory molecular mechanism to the analgesic properties of sst4 receptor activation. PMID:24810884

  10. Forced swim-induced musculoskeletal hyperalgesia is mediated by CRF2 receptors but not by TRPV1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamid, Ramy E.; Kovacs, Katalin J.; Pasley, Jeff D.; Nunez, Myra G.; Larson, Alice A.

    2013-01-01

    The exacerbation of musculoskeletal pain by stress in humans is modeled by the musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in rodents following a forced swim. We hypothesized that stress-sensitive corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors and transient receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are responsible for the swim stress-induced musculoskeletal hyperalgesia. We confirmed that a cold swim (26°C) caused a transient, morphine-sensitive decrease in grip force responses reflecting musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in mice. Pretreatment with the CRF2 receptor antagonist astressin 2B, but not the CRF1 receptor antagonist NBI-35965, attenuated this hyperalgesia. Desensitizing the TRPV1 receptor centrally or peripherally using desensitizing doses of resiniferatoxin (RTX) failed to prevent the musculoskeletal hyperalgesia produced by cold swim. SB-366791, a TRPV1 antagonist, also failed to influence swim-induced hyperalgesia. Together these data indicate that swim stress-induced musculoskeletal hyperalgesia is mediated, in part, by CRF2 receptors but is independent of the TRPV1 receptor. PMID:23624287

  11. Furanocoumarins Are a Novel Class of Modulators for the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 (TRPV1) Channel*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingjuan; Sun, Weiyang; Gianaris, Nicholas G.; Riley, Ashley M.; Cummins, Theodore R.; Fehrenbacher, Jill C.; Obukhov, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Furanocoumarin imperatorin is the major active component of Angelica dahurica root extracts, widely used in traditional medicine to treat headache, toothache, and orbital eye pain. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms that may underlie the pain-relieving effects of the compound. We found that imperatorin significantly inhibited formalin- and capsaicin-induced nocifensive responses but did not alter baseline thermal withdrawal thresholds in the rat. We established that imperatorin is a weak agonist of TRPV1, a channel implicated in detecting several noxious stimuli, exhibiting a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 12.6 ± 3.2 ?m. A specific TRPV1 antagonist, JNJ-17203212 (0.5 ?m), potently inhibited imperatorin-induced TRPV1 activation. Site-directed mutagenesis studies revealed that imperatorin most likely acted via a site adjacent to or overlapping with the TRPV1 capsaicin-binding site. TRPV1 recovery from desensitization was delayed in the presence of imperatorin. Conversely, imperatorin sensitized TRPV1 to acid activation but did not affect the current amplitude and/or the activation-inactivation properties of Nav1.7, a channel important for transmission of nociceptive information. Thus, our data indicate that furanocoumarins represent a novel group of TRPV1 modulators that may become important lead compounds in the drug discovery process aimed at developing new treatments for pain management. PMID:24569998

  12. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in human small cell lung cancer via the TRPV6 receptor and the calpain pathway.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jamie K; Brown, Kathleen C; Dom, Aaron M; Witte, Theodore R; Thornhill, Brent A; Crabtree, Clayton M; Perry, Haley E; Brown, J Michael; Ball, John G; Creel, Rebecca G; Damron, C Luke; Rollyson, William D; Stevenson, Cathryn D; Hardman, W Elaine; Valentovic, Monica A; Carpenter, A Betts; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2014-08-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chili peppers, displays potent anti-neoplastic activity in a wide array of human cancer cells. The present manuscript examines the signaling pathways underlying the apoptotic activity of capsaicin in human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in vitro and in vivo. Studies in neuronal cells show that capsaicin exerts its biological activity via the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) superfamily of cation-channel receptors. The TRPV family is comprised of six members (TRPV1-6). Capsaicin is a known agonist of the TRPV1 receptor. We observed that capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human SCLC cells was mediated via the TRPV receptor family; however it was independent of TRPV1. Surprisingly, the apoptotic activity of capsaicin required the TRPV6 receptor. Depletion of TRPV6 receptor by siRNA methodology abolished the apoptotic activity of capsaicin in SCLC cells. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that TRPV6 receptor was robustly expressed on human SCLC tissues (from patients) and SCLC cell lines but almost absent in normal lung tissues. This correlates with our results that capsaicin induced very little apoptosis in normal lung epithelial cells. The pro-apoptotic activity of capsaicin was mediated by the intracellular calcium and calpain pathway. The treatment of human SCLC cells with capsaicin increased the activity of calpain 1 and 2 by threefold relative to untreated SCLC cells. Such calpain activation, in response to capsaicin, was downstream of the TRPV6 receptor. Taken together, our data provide insights into the mechanism underlying the apoptotic activity of capsaicin in human SCLCs. PMID:24878626

  13. Cold Suppresses Agonist-induced Activation of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Chung, M.-K.; Wang, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction. PMID:21666106

  14. TRPV1 Activation in Primary Cortical Neurons Induces Calcium-Dependent Programmed Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhyun; Lee, Jun Hong; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

    2013-03-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1, also known as vanilloid receptor 1) is a receptor that detects capsaicin, a pungent component of chili peppers, and noxious heat. Although its function in the primary nociceptor as a pain receptor is well established, whether TRPV1 is expressed in the brain is still under debate. In this study, the responses of primary cortical neurons were investigated. Here, we report that 1) capsaicin induces caspase-3-dependent programmed cell death, which coincides with increased production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite ; that 2) the prolonged capsaicin treatment induces a steady increase in the degree of capase-3 activation, which is prevented by the removal of capsaicin; 3) and that blocking calcium entry and calcium-mediated signaling prevents capsaicin-induced cell death. These results indicate that cortical neurons express TRPV1 whose prolonged activation causes cell death. PMID:23585723

  15. Polypeptide Modulators of TRPV1 Produce Analgesia without Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Korolkova, Yuliya V.; Dyachenko, Igor A.; Bondarenko, Dmitrii A.; Skobtsov, Denis I.; Murashev, Arkadii N.; Kotova, Polina D.; Rogachevskaja, Olga A.; Kabanova, Natalia V.; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors (TRPV1) play a significant physiological role. The study of novel TRPV1 agonists and antagonists is essential. Here, we report on the characterization of polypeptide antagonists of TRPV1 based on in vitro and in vivo experiments. We evaluated the ability of APHC1 and APHC3 to inhibit TRPV1 using the whole-cell patch clamp approach and single cell Ca2+ imaging. In vivo tests were performed to assess the biological effects of APHC1 and APHC3 on temperature sensation, inflammation and core body temperature. In the electrophysiological study, both polypeptides partially blocked the capsaicin-induced response of TRPV1, but only APHC3 inhibited acid-induced (pH 5.5) activation of the receptor. APHC1 and APHC3 showed significant antinociceptive and analgesic activity in vivo at reasonable doses (0.01–0.1 mg/kg) and did not cause hyperthermia. Intravenous administration of these polypeptides prolonged hot-plate latency, blocked capsaicin- and formalin-induced behavior, reversed CFA-induced hyperalgesia and produced hypothermia. Notably, APHC3’s ability to inhibit the low pH-induced activation of TRPV1 resulted in a reduced behavioural response in the acetic acid-induced writhing test, whereas APHC1 was much less effective. The polypeptides APHC1 and APHC3 could be referred to as a new class of TRPV1 modulators that produce a significant analgesic effect without hyperthermia. PMID:24351908

  16. Structure Activity Relationships of 1,4-Dihydropyridines That Act as Enhancers of the Vanilloid Receptor 1 (TRPV1)

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Eun Joo; Keller, Jason M.; Olah, Zoltan; Iadarola, Michael J.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Vanilloid agonists such as capsaicin activate ion flux through the TRPV1 channel, a heat- and ligand-gated cation channel that transduces painful chemical or thermal stimuli applied to peripheral nerve endings in skin or deep tissues. We have probed the SAR of a variety of 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) derivatives as novel "enhancers" of TRPV1 activity by examining changes in capsaicin-induced elevations in 45Ca2+-uptake in either cells ectopically expressing TRPV1 or in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The enhancers increased the maximal capsaicin effect on 45Ca2+-uptake by typically 2 – 3 fold without producing an action when used alone. The DHP enhancers contained 6-aryl substitution and small alkyl groups at the 1 and 4 positions, and a 3-phenylalkylthioester was tolerated. Levels of free intracellular Ca2+, as measured by calcium imaging, were also increased in DRG neurons when exposed to the combination of capsaicin and the most efficacious enhancer 23 compared to capsaicin alone. Thus, DHPs can modulate TRPV1 channels in a positive fashion. PMID:18809334

  17. Phospholipase C mediated modulation of TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Lukacs, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels are involved in both thermosensation and nociception. They are activated by heat, protons and capsaicin, and modulated by a plethora of other agents. This review will focus on the consequences of phospholipase C (PLC) activation, with special emphasis on the effects of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) on these channels. Two opposing effects of PIP2 have been reported on TRPV1. PIP2 has been proposed to inhibit TRPV1, and relief from this inhibition was suggested to be involved in sensitization of these channels by pro-inflammatory agents. In excised patches, however, PIP2 was shown to activate TRPV1. Calcium flowing through TRPV1 activates PLC and the resulting depletion of PIP2 was proposed to play a role in capsaicin-induced desensitization of these channels. We will describe the data indicating involvement of PLC and PIP2 in sensitization and desensitization of TRPV1, and will also discuss other pathways potentially contributing to these two phenomena. We attempt to resolve the seemingly contradictory data by proposing that PIP2 can both activate and inhibit TRPV1 depending on the experimental conditions, more specifically on the level of stimulation of these channels. Finally, we also discuss data in the literature indicating that other TRP channels, TRPA1 and some members of the TRPC subfamily, may also be under a similar dual control by PIP2. PMID:18528787

  18. Regulation of the putative TRPV1t salt taste receptor by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lyall, Vijay; Phan, Tam-Hao T; Ren, ZuoJun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Melone, Pamela; Mahavadi, Sunila; Murthy, Karnam S; DeSimone, John A

    2010-03-01

    Regulation of the putative amiloride and benzamil (Bz)-insensitive TRPV1t salt taste receptor by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) was studied by monitoring chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses to 0.1 M NaCl solutions containing Bz (5 x 10(-6) M; a specific ENaC blocker) and resiniferatoxin (RTX; 0-10 x 10(-6) M; a specific TRPV1 agonist) in Sprague-Dawley rats and in wildtype (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. In rats and WT mice, RTX elicited a biphasic effect on the NaCl + Bz CT response, increasing the CT response between 0.25 x 10(-6) and 1 x 10(-6) M. At concentrations >1 x 10(-6) M, RTX inhibited the CT response. An increase in PIP(2) by topical lingual application of U73122 (a phospholipase C blocker) or diC8-PIP(2) (a short chain synthetic PIP(2)) inhibited the control NaCl + Bz CT response and decreased its sensitivity to RTX. A decrease in PIP(2) by topical lingual application of phenylarsine oxide (a phosphoinositide 4 kinase blocker) enhanced the control NaCl + Bz CT response, increased its sensitivity to RTX stimulation, and inhibited the desensitization of the CT response at RTX concentrations >1 x 10(-6) M. The ENaC-dependent NaCl CT responses were not altered by changes in PIP(2). An increase in PIP(2) enhanced CT responses to sweet (0.3 M sucrose) and bitter (0.01 M quinine) stimuli. RTX produced the same increase in the Bz-insensitive Na(+) response when present in salt solutions containing 0.1 M NaCl + Bz, 0.1 M monosodium glutamate + Bz, 0.1 M NaCl + Bz + 0.005 M SC45647, or 0.1 M NaCl + Bz + 0.01 M quinine. No effect of RTX was observed on CT responses in WT mice and rats in the presence of the TRPV1 blocker N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide (1 x 10(-6) M) or in TRPV1 KO mice. We conclude that PIP(2) is a common intracellular effector for sweet, bitter, umami, and TRPV1t-dependent salt taste, although in the last case, PIP(2) seems to directly regulate the taste receptor protein itself, i.e., the TRPV1 ion channel or its taste receptor variant, TRPV1t. PMID:20032236

  19. Thimerosal decreases TRPV1 activity by oxidation of extracellular sulfhydryl residues.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yunju; Kim, Dong Kwan; Khil, Lee-Yong; Oh, Uhtaek; Kim, Jun; Kwak, Jiyeon

    2004-10-21

    TRPV1, a receptor for capsaicin, plays a key role in mediating thermal and inflammatory pain. Because the modulation of ion channels by the cellular redox state is a significant determinant of channel function, we investigated the effects of sulfhydryl modification on the activity of TRPV1. Thimerosal, which oxidizes sulfhydryls, blocked the capsaicin-activated inward current (I(cap)) in cultured sensory neurons, in a reversible and dose-dependent manner, which was prevented by the co-application of the reducing agent, dithiothreitol. Among the three cysteine residues of TRPV1 that are exposed to the extracellular space, the oxidation-induced effect of thimerosal on I(cap) was blocked only by a point mutation at Cys621. These results suggest that the modification of an extracellular thiol group can alter the activity of TRPV1. Consequently, we propose that such a modulation of the redox state might regulate the physiological activity of TRPV1. PMID:15464274

  20. Serotonin Increases the Functional Activity of Capsaicin-Sensitive Rat Trigeminal Nociceptors via Peripheral Serotonin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Loyd, Dayna R.; Weiss, Gabriela; Henry, Michael A.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral serotonin (5HT) has been implicated in migraine and temporomandibular pain disorders in humans and animal models and yet the mechanism(s) by which 5HT evokes pain remains unclear. Trigeminal pain can be triggered by activation of the transient receptor potential V1 channel (TRPV1), expressed by a subset of nociceptive trigeminal ganglia (TG) neurons and gated by capsaicin, noxious heat, and other noxious stimuli. As 5HT is released in the periphery during inflammation and evokes thermal hyperalgesia and TRPV1 is essential for thermal hyperalgesia, we hypothesized that 5HT increases the activity of capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal neurons and that this increase can be attenuated by pharmacologically targeting peripheral 5HT receptors. TG cultures were pretreated with 5HT (10 nM–100 µM), sumatriptan (5HT1B/1D agonist), ketanserin (5HT2A antagonist), granisetron (5HT3 antagonist) or vehicle prior to capsaicin (30 nM – 50 nM). Single-cell accumulation of intracellular calcium was recorded or CGRP release was measured following each treatment. In addition, using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we detected the co-localization of 5HT1B, 5HT1D, 5HT2A and 5HT3A, but not 5HT2C, mRNA with TRPV1 in TG cells. 5HT pretreatment evoked a significant increase in calcium accumulation in capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal neurons and enhanced capsaicin-evoked CGRP release, but had no significant effect when given alone. Sumatriptan, ketanserin and granisetron treatment attenuated calcium accumulation and 5HT enhancement of capsaicin-evoked CGRP release. Together these results indicate that 5HT increases the activity of capsaicin-sensitive peripheral nociceptors, which can be attenuated by pharmacologically targeting peripheral 5HT receptors, thereby providing a mechanistic basis for peripheral craniofacial pain therapy. PMID:21737202

  1. Tiotropium modulates transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) in airway sensory nerves: A beneficial off-target effect???

    PubMed Central

    Birrell, Mark A.; Bonvini, Sara J.; Dubuis, Eric; Maher, Sarah A.; Wortley, Michael A.; Grace, Megan S.; Raemdonck, Kristof; Adcock, John J.; Belvisi, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that the long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist tiotropium, a drug widely prescribed for its bronchodilator activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, improves symptoms and attenuates cough in preclinical and clinical tussive agent challenge studies. The mechanism by which tiotropium modifies tussive responses is not clear, but an inhibition of vagal tone and a consequent reduction in mucus production from submucosal glands and bronchodilation have been proposed. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether tiotropium can directly modulate airway sensory nerve activity and thereby the cough reflex. Methods We used a conscious cough model in guinea pigs, isolated vagal sensory nerve and isolated airway neuron tissue– and cell-based assays, and in vivo single-fiber recording electrophysiologic techniques. Results Inhaled tiotropium blocked cough and single C-fiber firing in the guinea pig to the transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 agonist capsaicin, a clinically relevant tussive stimulant. Tiotropium and ipratropium, a structurally similar muscarinic antagonist, inhibited capsaicin responses in isolated guinea pig vagal tissue, but glycopyrrolate and atropine did not. Tiotropium failed to modulate other TRP channel–mediated responses. Complementary data were generated in airway-specific primary ganglion neurons, demonstrating that tiotropium inhibited capsaicin-induced, but not TRPA1-induced, calcium movement and voltage changes. Conclusion For the first time, we have shown that tiotropium inhibits neuronal TRPV1-mediated effects through a mechanism unrelated to its anticholinergic activity. We speculate that some of the clinical benefit associated with taking tiotropium (eg, in symptom control) could be explained through this proposed mechanism of action. PMID:24506933

  2. TRPV1 stimulation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, Hisashi; Yamaoka, Tomoko; Sanpei, Kazuaki; Sasaoka, Hirotoshi; Nakagawa, Takayuki [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kaneko, Shuji [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: skaneko@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-26

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) functions as a polymodal nociceptor and is activated by several vanilloids, including capsaicin, protons and heat. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the brain, their roles remain unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of TRPV1 in cytotoxic processes using TRPV1-expressing cultured rat cortical neurons. Capsaicin induced severe neuronal death with apoptotic features, which was completely inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine and was dependent on extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx. Interestingly, nifedipine, a specific L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity, even when applied 2-4 h after the capsaicin. ERK inhibitor PD98059 and several antioxidants, but not the JNK and p38 inhibitors, attenuated capsaicin cytotoxicity. Together, these data indicate that TRPV1 activation triggers apoptotic cell death of rat cortical cultures via L-type Ca{sup 2+} channel opening, Ca{sup 2+} influx, ERK phosphorylation, and reactive oxygen species production.

  3. Unique Responses are Observed in Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 and Vanilloid 1 (TRPA1 and TRPV1) Co-Expressing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sadofsky, Laura R.; Sreekrishna, Koti T.; Lin, Yakang; Schinaman, Renee; Gorka, Kate; Mantri, Yogita; Haught, John Christian; Huggins, Thomas G.; Isfort, Robert J.; Bascom, Charles C.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are implicated in modulation of cough and nociception. In vivo, TRPA1 and TRPV1 are often co-expressed in neurons and TRPA1V1 hetero-tetramer formation is noted in cells co-transfected with the respective expression plasmids. In order to understand the impact of TRP receptor interaction on activity, we created stable cell lines expressing the TRPA1, TRPV1 and co-expressing the TRPA1 and TRPV1 (TRPA1V1) receptors. Among the 600 compounds screened against these receptors, we observed a number of compounds that activated the TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPA1V1 receptors; compounds that activated TRPA1 and TRPA1V1; compounds that activated TRPV1 and TRPA1V1; compounds in which TRPA1V1 response was modulated by either TRPA1 or TRPV1; and compounds that activated only TRPV1 or TRPA1 or TRPA1V1; and one compound that activated TRPA1 and TRPV1, but not TRPA1V1. These results suggest that co-expression of TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptors imparts unique activation profiles different from that of cells expressing only TRPA1 or TRPV1. PMID:24921186

  4. The Chimeric Approach Reveals That Differences in the TRPV1 Pore Domain Determine Species-specific Sensitivity to Block of Heat Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Papakosta, Marianthi; Dalle, Carine; Haythornthwaite, Alison; Cao, Lishuang; Stevens, Edward B.; Burgess, Gillian; Russell, Rachel; Cox, Peter J.; Phillips, Stephen C.; Grimm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The capsaicin-, heat-, and proton-activated ion channel TRPV1, a member of the transient receptor potential cation channel family is a polymodal nociceptor. For almost a decade, TRPV1 has been explored by the pharmaceutical industry as a potential target for example for pain conditions. Antagonists which block TRPV1 activation by capsaicin, heat, and protons were developed by a number of pharmaceutical companies. The unexpected finding of hyperthermia as an on-target side effect in clinical studies using polymodal TRPV1 antagonists has prompted companies to search for ways to circumvent hyperthermia, for example by the development of modality-selective antagonists. The significant lack of consistency of the pharmacology of many TRPV1 antagonists across different species has been a further obstacle. JYL-1421 for example was shown to block capsaicin and heat responses in human and monkey TRPV1 while it was largely ineffective in blocking heat responses in rat TRPV1. These findings suggested structural dissimilarities between different TRPV1 species relevant for small compound antagonism for example of heat activation. Using a chimeric approach (human and rat TRPV1) in combination with a novel FLIPR-based heat activation assay and patch-clamp electrophysiology we have identified the pore region as being strongly linked to the observed species differences. We demonstrate that by exchanging the pore domains JYL-1421, which is modality-selective in rat can be made modality-selective in human TRPV1 and vice-versa. PMID:21911503

  5. Compartment-specific modulation of GABAergic synaptic transmission by TRPV1 channels in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Andrés E; Hernández, Vivian M; Rodenas-Ruano, Alma; Chan, C Savio; Castillo, Pablo E

    2014-12-10

    The transient receptor potential TRPV1 or vanilloid receptor is a nonselective ligand-gated channel highly expressed in primary sensory neurons where it mediates nociception. TRPV1 is also expressed in the brain where its activation depresses excitatory synaptic transmission. Whether TRPV1 also regulates inhibitory synapses in the brain is unclear. Here, using a combination of pharmacology, electrophysiology, and an in vivo knockdown strategy, we report that TRPV1 activation by capsaicin or by the endocannabinoid anandamide depresses somatic, but not dendritic inhibitory transmission in both rat and mouse dentate gyrus. The effect on somatic inhibition was absent in TRPV1 knock-out mice and was also eliminated by two different TRPV1 shRNAs expressed in dentate granule cells, strongly supporting a functional role for TRPV1 in modulating GABAergic synaptic function. Moreover, TRPV1-mediated depression occurs independently of GABA release, requires postsynaptic Ca(2+) rise and activation of calcineurin, and is likely due to clathrin-dependent internalization of GABA receptors. Altogether, these findings reveal a novel form of compartment-specific regulation whereby TRPV1 channels can modify synaptic function in the brain. PMID:25505315

  6. TRPV1: A Potential Drug Target for Treating Various Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rafael; Sheth, Sandeep; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel present on sensory neurons which is activated by heat, protons, capsaicin and a variety of endogenous lipids termed endovanilloids. As such, TRPV1 serves as a multimodal sensor of noxious stimuli which could trigger counteractive measures to avoid pain and injury. Activation of TRPV1 has been linked to chronic inflammatory pain conditions and peripheral neuropathy, as observed in diabetes. Expression of TRPV1 is also observed in non-neuronal sites such as the epithelium of bladder and lungs and in hair cells of the cochlea. At these sites, activation of TRPV1 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of diseases such as cystitis, asthma and hearing loss. Therefore, drugs which could modulate TRPV1 channel activity could be useful for the treatment of conditions ranging from chronic pain to hearing loss. This review describes the roles of TRPV1 in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of selected organs of the body and highlights how drugs targeting this channel could be important clinically. PMID:24861977

  7. Altered pharmacology of native rodent spinal cord TRPV1 after phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Mogg, AJ; Mill, CEJ; Folly, EA; Beattie, RE; Blanco, MJ; Beck, JP; Broad, LM

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Evidence suggests that phosphorylation of TRPV1 is an important component underlying its aberrant activation in pathological pain states. To date, the detailed pharmacology of diverse TRPV1 receptor agonists and antagonists has yet to be reported for native TRPV1 under phosphorylating conditions. Our goal was to optimize a relatively high-throughput methodology to allow pharmacological characterization of the native TRPV1 receptor using a spinal cord neuropeptide release assay under naive and phosphorylating states. Experimental Approach Herein, we describe characterization of rodent TRPV1 by measurement of CGRP release from acutely isolated lumbar (L1-L6) spinal cord using a 96-well technique that combines use of native, adult tissue with quantitation of CGRP release by elisa. Key Results We have studied a diverse panel of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists under basal and phosphorylating conditions. We show that TRPV1-mediated CGRP release is evoked, in a temperature-dependent manner, by a PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu); and that treatment with PDBu increases the potency and efficacy of known TRPV1 chemical agonists, in an agonist-specific manner. We also show that the pharmacological profile of diverse TRPV1 antagonists is dependent on whether the stimulus is PDBu or capsaicin. Of note, HPPB was identified as an antagonist of capsaicin-evoked, but a potentiator of PDBu-evoked, CGRP release. Conclusions and Implications Our findings indicate that both TRPV1 agonist and antagonist profiles can be differentially altered by PKC activation. These findings may offer new insights for targeting TRPV1 in pain states. PMID:23062150

  8. POTENTIATION OF PULMONARY REFLEX RESPONSE TO CAPSAICIN 24 HOURS FOLLOWING WHOLE-BODY ACROLEIN EXPOSURE IS MEDIATED BY TRPV1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary C-fibers are stimulated by irritant air pollutants producing apnea, bronchospasm, and decrease in HR. C-fiber chemoreflex activation is mediated by TRPV1 and release of substance P. While acrolein has been shown to stimulate C-fibers, the persistence of acrolein effect...

  9. Integrin ?6?4 and TRPV1 channel coordinately regulate directional keratinocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Ayako; Ohkubo, Tsuyako; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Jun

    2015-02-27

    The directional migration of epithelial cells is crucial for wound healing. Among integrins, a family of cell adhesion receptors, integrin ?4 has been assumed to be a promigratory factor, in addition to its role in stable adhesion. In turn, Ca(2+) signaling is also a key coordinator of migration. Keratinocytes reportedly express transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1); however, the function of these channels as a regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) level in cell migration has remained uncharacterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in directional migration related to integrin ?4 using a scratch wound assay on a confluent monolayer sheet of murine keratinocytes (Pam212 cells). Double immunofluorescence staining revealed the de novo expression of integrin ?4 and TRPV1 in migrating cells at the wound edge in response to scratch wounding, and both expression levels were almost matched. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) not only promoted keratinocyte migration, but also caused the further up-regulation of both integrin ?4 and TRPV1. In addition, the knockdown of the integrin ?4 or TRPV1 gene significantly impeded wound closure. The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin significantly promoted migration, while a selective TRPV1 antagonist inhibited it. The gene knockdown of TRPV1 inhibited the expression of the integrin ?4 gene and that of ?4 protein in migrating cells. These findings suggest that TRPV1 may stimulate directional migration directly by eliciting a Ca(2+) signal or indirectly via integrin ?4 expression. PMID:25637531

  10. Retinal cell death induced by TRPV1 activation involves NMDA signaling and upregulation of nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Mauro; Martins, Daniel O; Britto, Luiz R G

    2013-04-01

    The activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) has been correlated with oxidative and nitrosative stress and cell death in the nervous system. Our previous results indicate that TRPV1 activation in the adult retina can lead to constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent protein nitration and apoptosis. In this report, we have investigated the potential effects of TRPV1 channel activation on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and function, and the putative participation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in retinal TRPV1-induced protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation. Intravitreal injections of the classical TRPV1 agonist capsaicin up-regulated the protein expression of the inducible and endothelial NOS isoforms. Using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate for nitric oxide (NO) imaging, we found that capsaicin also increased the production of NO in retinal blood vessels. Processes and perikarya of TRPV1-expressing neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina were found in the vicinity of nNOS-positive neurons, but those two proteins did not colocalize. Retinal explants exposed to capsaicin presented high protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and cell death, which were observed in the inner nuclear and plexiform layers and in ganglion cells. This effect was partially blocked by AP-5, a NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by CNQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. These data support a potential role for TRPV1 channels in physiopathological retinal processes mediated by NO, which at least in part involve glutamate release. PMID:23324998

  11. Comparison of the effects of pelargonic acid vanillylamide and capsaicin on human vanilloid receptors.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Thomas; Roufogalis, Basil; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-07-01

    Pelargonic acid vanillylamide is like capsaicin a natural capsaicinoid from chili peppers and commonly used in food additives to create a hot sensation, even in self-defense pepper sprays and as an alternative to capsaicin in medical products for topical treatment of pain. Although the chemical structures of both compounds are similar, preclinical data suggest that capsaicin is the more potent compound. We therefore performed voltage-clamp recordings using cells transfected with the human vanilloid receptor TRPV1 in order to assess the responses of pelargonic acid vanillylamide and capsaicin at the receptor level. We provide evidence that at the molecular target TRPV1, the concentration-response curves, kinetics of current activation, as well as inhibition by the competitive antagonist capsazepine were not significantly different between the two capsaicinoids. We suggest that the different effects of the two capsaicinoids observed in previous studies may rather be due to different physicochemical or pharmacokinetic properties than to different pharmacological profiles at the receptor level. PMID:22961689

  12. Additive antiemetic efficacy of low-doses of the cannabinoid CB(1/2) receptor agonist ?(9)-THC with ultralow-doses of the vanilloid TRPV1 receptor agonist resiniferatoxin in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Zhong, Weixia; Trinh, Chung; McClanahan, Bryan; Brar, Rajivinder S

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1/2 and vanilloid TRPV1 agonists (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC) and resiniferatoxin (RTX), respectively) can attenuate the emetic effects of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. In this study we used the least shrew to demonstrate whether combinations of varying doses of ?(9)-THC with resiniferatoxin can produce additive antiemetic efficacy against cisplatin-induced vomiting. RTX by itself caused vomiting in a bell-shaped dose-dependent manner with maximal vomiting at 18 ?g/kg when administered subcutaneously (s.c.) but not intraperitoneally (i.p.). ?(9)-THC up to 10 mg/kg provides only 80% protection of least shrews from cisplatin-induced emesis with an ID50 of 0.3-1.8 mg/kg. Combinations of 1 or 5 ?g/kg RTX with varying doses of ?(9)-THC completely suppressed both the frequency and the percentage of shrews vomiting with ID50 dose values 5-50 times lower than ?(9)-THC doses tested alone against cisplatin. A less potent TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, by itself did not cause emesis (i.p. or s.c.), but it did significantly reduce vomiting induced by cisplatin given after 30 min but not at 2 h. The TRPV1-receptor antagonist, ruthenium red, attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis at 5mg/kg; however, another TRPV1-receptor antagonist, capsazepine, did not. In summary, we present evidence that combination of CB1/2 and TRPV1 agonists have the capacity to completely abolish cisplatin-induced emesis at doses that are ineffective when used individually. PMID:24157976

  13. 6,6-Fused heterocyclic ureas as highly potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Kim, Hyo-Shin; Lee, Sunho; Jung, Aeran; Kim, Sung-Eun; Ann, Jihyae; Yoon, Suyoung; Choi, Sun; Lee, Jin Hee; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Schiene, Klaus; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-02-15

    A series of N-[{2-(4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-pyridin-3-yl}methyl] N'-(6,6-fused heterocyclic) ureas have been investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. Among them, compound 15 showed highly potent TRPV1 antagonism to capsaicin, with Ki(ant)=0.2nM, as well as antagonism to other activators, and it was efficacious in a pain model. A docking study of 15 with our hTRPV1 homology model indicates that there is crucial hydrogen bonding between the ring nitrogen and the receptor, contributing to its potency. PMID:25597011

  14. TRPV1 in Salivary Gland Epithelial Cells Is Not Involved in Salivary Secretion via Transcellular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seulki; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Namkoong, Eun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Cong, Xin; Yu, Guangyan

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) was originally found in sensory neurons. Recently, it has been reported that TRPV1 is expressed in salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC). However, the physiological role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. We found that TRPV1 is expressed in mouse and human submandibular glands (SMG) and HSG cells, originated from human submandibular gland ducts at both mRNA and protein levels. However, capsaicin (CAP), TRPV1 agonist, had little effect on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in these cells, although carbachol consistently increased [Ca2+]i. Exposure of cells to high temperature (>43?) or acidic bath solution (pH5.4) did not increase [Ca2+]i, either. We further examined the role of TRPV1 in salivary secretion using TRPV1 knock-out mice. There was no significant difference in the pilocarpine (PILO)-induced salivary flow rate between wild-type and TRPV1 knock-out mice. Saliva flow rate also showed insignificant change in the mice treated with PILO plus CAP compared with that in mice treated with PILO alone. Taken together, our results suggest that although TRPV1 is expressed in SGEC, it appears not to play any direct roles in saliva secretion via transcellular pathway. PMID:25598668

  15. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Is a Mediator of Lung Toxicity for Coal Fly Ash Particulate Material

    PubMed Central

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E.; Johansen, Mark E.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Thomas, Karen C.; Romero, Erin G.; Lee, Jeewoo; Yost, Garold S.; Veranth, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental particulate matter (PM) pollutants adversely affect human health, but the molecular basis is poorly understood. The ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been implicated as a sensor for environmental PM and a mediator of adverse events in the respiratory tract. The objectives of this study were to determine whether TRPV1 can distinguish chemically and physically unique PM that represents important sources of air pollution; to elucidate the molecular basis of TRPV1 activation by PM; and to ascertain the contributions of TRPV1 to human lung cell and mouse lung tissue responses exposed to an insoluble PM agonist, coal fly ash (CFA1). The major findings of this study are that TRPV1 is activated by some, but not all of the prototype PM materials evaluated, with rank-ordered responses of CFA1 > diesel exhaust PM > crystalline silica; TRP melastatin-8 is also robustly activated by CFA1, whereas other TRP channels expressed by airway sensory neurons and lung epithelial cells that may also be activated by CFA1, including TRPs ankyrin 1 (A1), canonical 4? (C4?), M2, V2, V3, and V4, were either slightly (TRPA1) or not activated by CFA1; activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 occurs via cell surface interactions between the solid components of CFA1 and specific amino acid residues of TRPV1 that are localized in the putative pore-loop region; and activation of TRPV1 by CFA1 is not exclusive in mouse lungs but represents a pathway by which CFA1 affects the expression of selected genes in lung epithelial cells and airway tissue. PMID:22155782

  16. Distinctive Changes in Plasma Membrane Phosphoinositides Underlie Differential Regulation of TRPV1 in Nociceptive Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lukacs, Viktor; Yudin, Yevgen; Hammond, Gerald R.; Sharma, Esseim; Fukami, Kiyoko

    2013-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal, Ca2+-permeable cation channel crucial to regulation of nociceptor responsiveness. Sensitization of TRPV1 by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists to its endogenous activators, such as low pH and noxious heat, is a key factor in hyperalgesia during tissue injury as well as pathological pain syndromes. Conversely, chronic pharmacological activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin leads to calcium influx-induced adaptation of the channel. Paradoxically, both conditions entail activation of phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes, which hydrolyze phosphoinositides. We found that in sensory neurons PLC? activation by bradykinin led to a moderate decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), but no sustained change in the levels of its precursor PI(4)P. Preventing this selective decrease in PI(4,5)P2 inhibited TRPV1 sensitization, while selectively decreasing PI(4,5)P2 independently of PLC potentiated the sensitizing effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on the channel, thereby inducing increased TRPV1 responsiveness. Maximal pharmacological TRPV1 stimulation led to a robust decrease of both PI(4,5)P2 and its precursor PI(4)P in sensory neurons. Attenuating the decrease of either lipid significantly reduced desensitization, and simultaneous reduction of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P independently of PLC inhibited TRPV1. We found that, on the mRNA level, the dominant highly Ca2+-sensitive PLC isoform in dorsal root ganglia is PLC?4. Capsaicin-induced desensitization of TRPV1 currents was significantly reduced, whereas capsaicin-induced nerve impulses in the skin–nerve preparation increased in mice lacking this isoform. We propose a comprehensive model in which differential changes in phosphoinositide levels mediated by distinct PLC isoforms result in opposing changes in TRPV1 activity. PMID:23843517

  17. Protease activated receptors 1 and 4 sensitize TRPV1 in nociceptive neurones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PAR1-4) are activated by proteases released by cell damage or blood clotting, and are known to be involved in promoting pain and hyperalgesia. Previous studies have shown that PAR2 receptors enhance activation of TRPV1 but the role of other PARs is less clear. In this paper we investigate the expression and function of the PAR1, 3 and 4 thrombin-activated receptors in sensory neurones. Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization show that PAR1 and PAR4 are expressed in 10 - 15% of neurons, distributed across all size classes. Thrombin or a specific PAR1 or PAR4 activating peptide (PAR1/4-AP) caused functional effects characteristic of activation of the PLC?/PKC pathway: intracellular calcium release, sensitisation of TRPV1, and translocation of the epsilon isoform of PKC (PKC?) to the neuronal cell membrane. Sensitisation of TRPV1 was significantly reduced by PKC inhibitors. Neurons responding to thrombin or PAR1-AP were either small nociceptive neurones of the peptidergic subclass, or larger neurones which expressed markers for myelinated fibres. Sequential application of PAR1-AP and PAR4-AP showed that PAR4 is expressed in a subset of the PAR1-expressing neurons. Calcium responses to PAR2-AP were by contrast seen in a distinct population of small IB4+ nociceptive neurones. PAR3 appears to be non-functional in sensory neurones. In a skin-nerve preparation the release of the neuropeptide CGRP by heat was potentiated by PAR1-AP. Culture with nerve growth factor (NGF) increased the proportion of thrombin-responsive neurons in the IB4- population, while glial-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) and neurturin upregulated the proportion of thrombin-responsive neurons in the IB4+ population. We conclude that PAR1 and PAR4 are functionally expressed in large myelinated fibre neurons, and are also expressed in small nociceptors of the peptidergic subclass, where they are able to potentiate TRPV1 activity. PMID:20875131

  18. Ursolic acid from Agastache mexicana aerial parts produces antinociceptive activity involving TRPV1 receptors, cGMP and a serotonergic synergism.

    PubMed

    Verano, Jazmín; González-Trujano, Ma Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Pellicer, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Agastache mexicana is a plant that has long been used in large demands in Mexican folk medicine to treat anxiety, insomnia and pain, among others affections. Chromatographic technique was used to identify ursolic acid (UA), 130.7 mg/g and 20.3 mg/g, as an antinociceptive active compound identified in ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. mexicana aerial parts, respectively. Temporal course curves of the antinociceptive response demonstrated a dose-dependent and significant activity of UA (1 to 100 mg/kg, i.p.) with an ED50=2 mg/kg in comparison to the efficacy of diclofenac (1 or 30 to 100 mg/kg, i.p.), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, with an ED50=11.56 mg/kg. The antinociceptive response consisted in the reduction of abdominal constrictions induced with 1% acetic acid in mice. Similarly, UA at 2 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in the intracolonic administration of 0.3% capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) in mice. It has been reported the inhibition produced by UA on the calcium-flux induced by capsaicin on TRPV1 receptor suggesting the antagonistic activity of this receptor. Finally, an ED50=44 mg/kg was calculated in the neurogenic and inflammatory nociception induced in the formalin test in rats. The antinociceptive response of UA in the formalin test was not modified in presence of naloxone, flumazenil or L-arginine. Nevertheless, it was reverted in presence of 1-H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazolo(4,2-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase) and increased in presence of N(G)-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), theophylline (inhibitor of phosphodiesterase) and WAY100635 (an antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors). Current results provide evidence that the antinociceptive response of A. mexicana depends in part on the presence of UA. Moreover, this triterpene may exerts its antinociceptive effect mediated by the presence of cGMP and an additive synergism with 5HT1A receptors, but also an antagonistic activity towards TRPV1 receptors may be involved. PMID:23932918

  19. TRPV1 and the gut: from a tasty receptor for a painful vanilloid to a key player in hyperalgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Holzer

    2004-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in red pepper, has been used since ancient times as a spice, despite the burning sensation associated with its intake. More than 50 years ago, Nikolaus Jancsó discovered that capsaicin can selectively stimulate nociceptive primary afferent neurons. The ensuing research established that the neuropharmacological properties of capsaicin are due to its activation of the transient receptor

  20. TRPV1 inhibition attenuates IL-13 mediated asthma features in mice by reducing airway epithelial injury.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Rakhshinda; Bhat, Younus Ahmad; Panda, Lipsa; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan

    2013-03-01

    Even though neurogenic axis is well known in asthma pathogenesis much attention had not been given on this aspect. Recent studies have reported the importance of TRP channels, calcium-permeable ion channels and key molecules in neurogenic axis, in asthma therapeutics. The role of TRPV1 channels has been underestimated in chronic respiratory diseases as TRPV1 knockout mice of C57BL/6 strains did not attenuate the features of these diseases. However, this could be due to strain differences in the distribution of airway capsaicin receptors. Here, we show that TRPV1 inhibition attenuates IL-13 induced asthma features by reducing airway epithelial injury in BALB/c mice. We found that IL-13 increased not only the lung TRPV1 levels but also TRPV1 expression in bronchial epithelia in BALB/c rather than in C57BL/6 mice. TRPV1 knockdown attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia and subepithelial fibrosis induced by IL-13 in BALB/c mice. Further, TRPV1 siRNA treatment reduced not only the cytosolic calpain and mitochondrial calpain 10 activities in the lung but also bronchial epithelial apoptosis indicating that TRPV1 siRNA might have corrected the intracellular and intramitochondrial calcium overload and its consequent apoptosis. Knockdown of IL-13 in allergen induced asthmatic mice reduced TRPV1, cytochrome c, and activities of calpain and caspase 3 in lung cytosol. Thus, these findings suggest that induction of TRPV1 with IL-13 in bronchial epithelia could lead to epithelial injury in in vivo condition. Since TRPV1 expression is correlated with human asthma severity, TRPV1 inhibition could be beneficial in attenuating airway epithelial injury and asthma features. PMID:23453702

  1. TRPV1 Channels Are Involved in Niacin-induced Cutaneous Vasodilation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Heather L; Inceoglu, Bora; Ma, Linlin; Zheng, Jie; Schaefer, Saul

    2015-02-01

    : Niacin is effective in treating dyslipidemias but causes cutaneous vasodilation or flushing, a side effect that limits its clinical use. Blocking prostaglandins in humans reduces but does not consistently eliminate flushing, indicating additional mechanisms may contribute to flushing. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, when activated, causes cutaneous vasodilation and undergoes tachyphylaxis similar to that seen with niacin. Using a murine model, early phase niacin-induced flushing was examined and TRPV1 channel involvement demonstrated using pharmacologic blockade, desensitization, and genetic knockouts (TRPV1 KO). The TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 reduced the magnitude of the initial and secondary peaks and the rapidity of the vasodilatory response (slope). TRPV1 desensitization by chronic capsaicin reduced the initial peak and slope. TRPV1 KO mice had a lower initial peak, secondary peak, and slope compared with wild-type mice. Chronic niacin reduced the initial peak, secondary peak, and slope in wild-type mice but had no effect in knockout mice. Furthermore, chronic niacin diminished the response to capsaicin in wild-type mice. Overall, these data demonstrate an important role for TRPV1 channels in niacin-induced flushing, both in the acute response and with chronic administration. That niacin-induced flushing is a complex cascade of events, which should inform pharmacological intervention against this side effect. PMID:25387247

  2. Regulation of the Temperature-dependent Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by Phospholipids in Planar Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohui; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-02-20

    TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) proteins are heat-activated nonselective cation channels. TRPV1 channels are polymodal in their function and exhibit multifaceted regulation with various molecular compounds. In this regard, phosphoinositides, particularly phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, are important channel regulators. However, their effects on TRPV1 channel activity have not been conclusively determined. To characterize temperature-induced activation of TRPV1 in the presence of different phospholipids, we purified the TRPV1 protein from HEK-293 cells and incorporated it into planar lipid bilayers. In the presence of 2.5 ?m phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, TRPV1 channels demonstrated rapid activation at 33-39 °C and achieved full channel opening at 42 °C. At this temperature range, TRPV1 heat activation exhibited steep temperature dependence (temperature coefficient (Q10) of 18), and the channel openings were accompanied by large changes in entropy and enthalpy, suggesting a substantial conformation change. At a similar temperature range, another phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, also potentiated heat activation of TRPV1, but with much lower efficiency. Negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol could also induce heat activation of TRPV1 channels, although with a small-conductance state. Our data demonstrate that phospholipids, specifically phosphoinositides, are important regulators of TRPV1 and are required for heat-induced channel activity. PMID:25561742

  3. Capsaicin receptor as target of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the gut.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a 37 aminoacid-residue peptide, is a marker of afferent fibers in the upper gastrointestinal tract, being almost completely depleted following treatment with the selective neurotoxin capsaicin that targets these fibers via transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV-1). It is widely distributed in the peripheral nervous system of mammals where it is present as alpha isoform, while intrinsic neurons of the enteric nervous systems express predominantly CGRP-beta. Many gastrointestinal functions involve CGRP-containing afferent fibers of the enteric nervous system such as defense against irritants, intestinal nociception, modulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and healing of gastric ulcers. The main effects on stomach homeostasis rely on local vasodilator actions during increased acid-back diffusion. In humans, release of CGRP through the activation of TRPV-1 has been shown to protect from gastric damage induced by several stimuli and to be involved in gastritis. In both dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome the repeated stimulation of TRPV-1 induced an improvement in epigastric pain of these patients. The TRPV-1/CGRP pathway might be a novel target for therapeutics in gastric mucosal injury and visceral sensitivity. PMID:24941672

  4. TRPV1 receptors on unmyelinated C-fibres mediate colitis-induced sensitization of pelvic afferent nerve fibres in rats

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, H U; De Winter, B Y; Van Nassauw, L; Timmermans, J-P; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A; De Man, J G

    2008-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease often suffer from gastrointestinal motility and sensitivity disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of transient receptor potential of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the pathophysiology of colitis-induced pelvic afferent nerve sensitization. Trinitrobenzene sulphate (TNBS) colitis (7.5 mg, 30% ethanol) was induced in Wistar rats 72 h prior to the experiment. Single-fibre recordings were made from pelvic nerve afferents in the decentralized S1 dorsal root. Fibres responding to colorectal distension (CRD) were identified in controls and rats with TNBS colitis. The effect of the TRPV1 antagonist N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-chlorophyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)carboxamide (BCTC; 0.25–5 mg kg?1) or its vehicle (hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin) was tested on the afferent response to repetitive distensions (60 mmHg). Immunocytochemical staining of TRPV1 and NF200, a marker for A-fibre neurons, was performed in the dorsal root ganglia L6–S1. TNBS colitis significantly increased the response to colorectal distension of pelvic afferent C-fibres. BCTC did not significantly affect the C-fibre response in controls, but normalized the sensitized response in rats with colitis. TNBS colitis increased the spontaneous activity of C-fibres, an effect which was insensitive to administration of BCTC. TNBS colitis had no effect on A?-fibres, nor was their activity modulated by BCTC. TNBS colitis caused an immunocytochemical up-regulation of TRPV1 receptors in the cell bodies of pelvic afferent NF200 negative neurons. TRPV1 signalling mediates the colitis-induced sensitization of pelvic afferent C-fibres to CRD, while A?-fibres are neither sensitized by colitis nor affected by TRPV1 inhibition. PMID:18755744

  5. Antinociceptive activity of transient receptor potential channel TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 antagonists in neurogenic and neuropathic pain models in mice*

    PubMed Central

    Sa?at, Kinga; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the antinociceptive activity of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 antagonists in neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain models in mice. For this purpose, TRP channel antagonists were administered into the dorsal surface of a hind paw 15 min before capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), or formalin. Their antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic efficacies after intraperitoneal administration were also assessed in a paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain model. Motor coordination of paclitaxel-treated mice that received these TRP channel antagonists was investigated using the rotarod test. TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and SB-366791, attenuated capsaicin-induced nociceptive reaction in a concentration-dependent manner. At 8 ?g/20 ?l, this effect was 51% (P<0.001) for capsazepine and 37% (P<0.05) for SB-366791. A TRPA1 antagonist, A-967079, reduced pain reaction by 48% (P<0.05) in the AITC test and by 54% (P<0.001) in the early phase of the formalin test. The test compounds had no influence on the late phase of the formalin test. In paclitaxel-treated mice, they did not attenuate heat hyperalgesia but N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-{[(3-methylphenyl)methyl]oxy}-N-(2-thienylmethyl) benzamide hydrochloride salt (AMTB), a TRPM8 antagonist, reduced cold hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia by 31% (P<0.05) and 51% (P<0.01), respectively. HC-030031, a TRPA1 channel antagonist, attenuated tactile allodynia in the von Frey test (62%; P<0.001). In conclusion, distinct members of TRP channel family are involved in different pain models in mice. Antagonists of TRP channels attenuate nocifensive responses of neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain, but their efficacies strongly depend on the pain model used. PMID:25743118

  6. Antinociceptive activity of transient receptor potential channel TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 antagonists in neurogenic and neuropathic pain models in mice.

    PubMed

    Sa?at, Kinga; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the antinociceptive activity of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1 antagonists in neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain models in mice. For this purpose, TRP channel antagonists were administered into the dorsal surface of a hind paw 15 min before capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), or formalin. Their antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic efficacies after intraperitoneal administration were also assessed in a paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain model. Motor coordination of paclitaxel-treated mice that received these TRP channel antagonists was investigated using the rotarod test. TRPV1 antagonists, capsazepine and SB-366791, attenuated capsaicin-induced nociceptive reaction in a concentration-dependent manner. At 8 µg/20 µl, this effect was 51% (P<0.001) for capsazepine and 37% (P<0.05) for SB-366791. A TRPA1 antagonist, A-967079, reduced pain reaction by 48% (P<0.05) in the AITC test and by 54% (P<0.001) in the early phase of the formalin test. The test compounds had no influence on the late phase of the formalin test. In paclitaxel-treated mice, they did not attenuate heat hyperalgesia but N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-{[(3-methylphenyl)methyl]oxy}-N-(2-thienylmethyl) benzamide hydrochloride salt (AMTB), a TRPM8 antagonist, reduced cold hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia by 31% (P<0.05) and 51% (P<0.01), respectively. HC-030031, a TRPA1 channel antagonist, attenuated tactile allodynia in the von Frey test (62%; P<0.001). In conclusion, distinct members of TRP channel family are involved in different pain models in mice. Antagonists of TRP channels attenuate nocifensive responses of neurogenic, tonic, and neuropathic pain, but their efficacies strongly depend on the pain model used. PMID:25743118

  7. Interference of TRPV1 function altered the susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Li, Ying-Chao; Tang, Yan-Ping; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS) including hippocampus, and regulates the balance of excitation and inhibition in CNS, which imply its important role in epilepsy. We used both pharmacological manipulations and transgenic mice to disturb the function of TRPV1 and then studied the effects of these alterations on the susceptibility of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. Our results showed that systemic administration of TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP, 40 mg/kg) directly induced tonic-clonic seizures (TCS) without PTZ induction. The severity of seizure was increased in lower doses of CAP groups (5 and 10 mg/kg), although the latency to TCS was delayed. On the other hand, systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg) and TRPV1 knockout mice exhibited delayed latency to TCS and reduced mortality. Furthermore, hippocampal administration of CPZ (10 and 33 nmol/?L/side) was firstly reported to increase the latency to TCS, decrease the maximal grade of seizure and mortality. It is worth noting that decreased susceptibility of PTZ-induced seizures was observed in hippocampal TRPV1 overexpression mice and hippocampal CAP administration (33 nmol/?L/side), which is opposite from results of systemic agonist CAP. Our findings suggest that the systemic administration of TRPV1 antagonist may be a novel therapeutic target for epilepsy, and alteration of hippocampal TRPV1 function exerts a critical role in seizure susceptibility. PMID:25713512

  8. Morphine Reduces Expression of TRPV1 Receptors in the Amygdala but not in the Hippocampus of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hakimizadeh, Elham; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Roohbakhsh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic use of opioids usually results in physical dependence. The underlying mechanisms for this dependence are still being evaluated. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) are important receptors of pain perception. Their role during opioid dependence has not been studied well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of morphine-dependence on the expression of TRPV1 receptors in the amygdala and CA1 region of the hippocampus. Methods: This study used four groups of rats. Two groups of rats (morphine and morphine+naloxone) received morphine based on the following protocol: 10 mg/kg (twice daily, 3 days) followed by 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg (twice daily), respectively, for 4 consecutive days. Another group received vehicle (1 ml/kg) instead of morphine given using the same schedule. The morphine+naloxone group of rats additionally received naloxone (5 mg/kg) at the end of the protocol. The control group rats received no injections or intervention. The amygdala and CA1 regions of the morphine, saline-treated and intact animals were isolated and prepared for real-time PCR analysis. Results: Administration of naloxone induced withdrawal signs in morphine-treated animals. The results showed a significant decrease in TRPV1 gene expression in the amygdala (P<0.05) but not the CA1 region of morphine dependent rats. Conclusion: TRPV1 receptors may be involved in morphine-induced dependence. PMID:24850983

  9. TRPV1 Activation Attenuates High-Salt Diet-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis through PPAR-? Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Liang, Yi; Wang, Xiang; Lu, Zongshi; Li, Li; Zhu, Shanjun; Liu, Daoyan; Yan, Zhencheng; Zhu, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    High-salt diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis are associated with increased reactive oxygen species production. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a specific receptor for capsaicin, exerts a protective role in cardiac remodeling that resulted from myocardial infarction, and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors ? (PPAR-?) play an important role in metabolic myocardium remodeling. However, it remains unknown whether activation of TRPV1 could alleviate cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and the effect of cross-talk between TRPV1 and PPAR-? on suppressing high-salt diet-generated oxidative stress. In this study, high-salt diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis are characterized by significant enhancement of HW/BW%, LVEDD, and LVESD, decreased FS and EF, and increased collagen deposition. These alterations were associated with downregulation of PPAR-?, UCP2 expression, upregulation of iNOS production, and increased oxidative/nitrotyrosine stress. These adverse effects of long-term high-salt diet were attenuated by chronic treatment with capsaicin. However, this effect of capsaicin was absent in TRPV1?/? mice on a high-salt diet. Our finding suggests that chronic dietary capsaicin consumption attenuates long-term high-salt diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. This benefit effect is likely to be caused by TRPV1 mediated upregulation of PPAR-? expression. PMID:25152753

  10. Depressive behavior in the forced swim test can be induced by TRPV1 receptor activity and is dependent on NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamid, Ramy E.; Kovács, Katalin J.; Nunez, Myra G.; Larson, Alice A.

    2013-01-01

    Blocking, desensitizing, or knocking out transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors decreases immobility in the forced swim test, a measure of depressive behavior. We questioned whether enhancing TRPV1 activity promotes immobility in a fashion that is prevented by antidepressants. To test this we activated heat-sensitive TRPV1 receptors in mice by water that is warmer than body temperature (41°C) or a low dose of resiniferatoxin (RTX). Water at 41°C elicited less immobility than cooler water (26°C), indicating that thermoregulatory sites do not contribute to immobility. Although a desensitizing regimen of RTX (3–5 injections of 0.1 mg/kg s.c.) decreased immobility during swims at 26°C, it did not during swims at 41°C. In contrast, low dose of RTX (0.02 mg/kg s.c.) enhanced immobility, but only during swims at 41°C. Thus, activation of TRPV1 receptors, endogenously or exogenously, enhances immobility and these sites are activated by cold rather than warmth. Two distinct types of antidepressants, amitriptyline (10 mg/kg i.p.) and ketamine (50 mg/kg i.p.), each inhibited the increase in immobility induced by the low dose of RTX, verifying its mediation by TRPV1 sites. When desensitization was limited to central populations using intrathecal injections of RTX (0.25 µg/kg i.t.), immobility was attenuated at both temperatures and the increase in immobility produced by the low dose of RTX was inhibited. This demonstrates a role for central TRPV1 receptors in depressive behavior, activated by conditions (cold stress) distinct from those that activate TRPV1 receptors along thermosensory afferents (heat). PMID:24200896

  11. TRPV1 and Endocannabinoids: Emerging Molecular Signals that Modulate Mammalian Vision

    PubMed Central

    Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Redmon, Sarah; Jo, Andrew O.; Križaj, David

    2014-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) subunits form a polymodal cation channel responsive to capsaicin, heat, acidity and endogenous metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids. While originally reported to serve as a pain and heat detector in the peripheral nervous system, TRPV1 has been implicated in the modulation of blood flow and osmoregulation but also neurotransmission, postsynaptic neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity within the central nervous system. In addition to its central role in nociception, evidence is accumulating that TRPV1 contributes to stimulus transduction and/or processing in other sensory modalities, including thermosensation, mechanotransduction and vision. For example, TRPV1, in conjunction with intrinsic cannabinoid signaling, might contribute to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal transport and excitability, cytokine release from microglial cells and regulation of retinal vasculature. While excessive TRPV1 activity was proposed to induce RGC excitotoxicity, physiological TRPV1 activity might serve a neuroprotective function within the complex context of retinal endocannabinoid signaling. In this review we evaluate the current evidence for localization and function of TRPV1 channels within the mammalian retina and explore the potential interaction of this intriguing nociceptor with endogenous agonists and modulators. PMID:25222270

  12. Involvement of apoptosis and calcium accumulation through TRPV1 channels in neurobiology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Naz?ro?lu, M; Övey, I S

    2015-05-01

    Calcium ion accumulation into the cytosol of the hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) are main reasons in etiology of epilepsy. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel is a cation-permeable calcium channel found in the DRG and hippocampus. Although previous studies implicate TRPV1 channels in the generation of epilepsy, suppression of ongoing seizures by TRPV1 antagonists has not yet been investigated. We tested the effects of TRPV1-specific antagonists, capsazepine (CPZ) and 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX) on the modulation of calcium accumulation, apoptosis and anticonvulsant properties in the hippocampus and DRG of pentylentetrazol (PTZ) and capsaicin (CAP) administrated rats. Forty rats were divided into five groups as follows; control, PTZ, CAP+PTZ, IRTX, and IRTX+PTZ. Fura-2 and patch-clamp experiments were performed on neurons dissected from treated animals by CAP and CPZ. PTZ and CAP+PTZ administrations increased intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations, TRPV1 current densities, apoptosis, caspase 3 and 9 values although the values were reduced by IRTX and CPZ treatments. Latency time was extended by application CPZ and IRTX although CAP produced acceleration of epileptic seizures. Taken together, these results support a role for TRPV1 channels in the inhibition of apoptosis, epileptic seizures and calcium accumulation, indicating that TRPV1 inhibition may possibly be a novel target in the DRG and hippocampus for prevention of epileptic seizures and peripheral pain. PMID:25743251

  13. Permeation and block of TRPV1 channels by the cationic lidocaine derivative QX-314.

    PubMed

    Puopolo, Michelino; Binshtok, Alexander M; Yao, Gui-Lan; Oh, Seog Bae; Woolf, Clifford J; Bean, Bruce P

    2013-04-01

    QX-314 (N-ethyl-lidocaine) is a cationic lidocaine derivative that blocks voltage-dependent sodium channels when applied internally to axons or neuronal cell bodies. Coapplication of external QX-314 with the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 protein (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin produces long-lasting sodium channel inhibition in TRPV1-expressing neurons, suggestive of QX-314 entry into the neurons. We asked whether QX-314 entry occurs directly through TRPV1 channels or through a different pathway (e.g., pannexin channels) activated downstream of TRPV1 and whether QX-314 entry requires the phenomenon of "pore dilation" previously reported for TRPV1. With external solutions containing 10 or 20 mM QX-314 as the only cation, inward currents were activated by stimulation of both heterologously expressed and native TRPV1 channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. QX-314-mediated inward current did not require pore dilation, as it activated within several seconds and in parallel with Cs-mediated outward current, with a reversal potential consistent with PQX-314/PCs = 0.12. QX-314-mediated current was no different when TRPV1 channels were expressed in C6 glioma cells, which lack expression of pannexin channels. Rapid addition of QX-314 to physiological external solutions produced instant partial inhibition of inward currents carried by sodium ions, suggesting that QX-314 is a permeant blocker. Maintained coapplication of QX-314 with capsaicin produced slowly developing reduction of outward currents carried by internal Cs, consistent with intracellular accumulation of QX-314 to concentrations of 50-100 ?M. We conclude that QX-314 is directly permeant in the "standard" pore formed by TRPV1 channels and does not require either pore dilation or activation of additional downstream channels for entry. PMID:23303863

  14. Sensitization of TRPV1 by EP1 and IP reveals peripheral nociceptive mechanism of prostaglandins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Moriyama; Tomohiro Higashi; Kazuya Togashi; Tohko Iida; Eri Segi; Yukihiko Sugimoto; Tomoko Tominaga; Shuh Narumiya; Makoto Tominaga

    2005-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) are major inflammatory mediators that play important roles in pain sensation and hyperalgesia. The role of their receptors (EP and IP, respectively) in inflammation has been well documented, although the EP receptor subtypes involved in this process and the underlying cellular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a nonselective

  15. Short Interfering (si)RNA Against Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Whitworth, Craig; Bunch, Jennifer R.; Turner, Jeremy G.; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent of choice for the treatment of solid tumors, produces hearing loss in approximately half a million new cancer patients annually in the United States. The hearing loss is due, in part, to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea, leading to lipid peroxidation and damage or death of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. The cochlea expresses the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1), which are normally expressed on small diameter neurons in the peripheral nervous system and mediate thermal sensitivity, but whose role in the cochlea is unclear. In this study, we show that TRPV1 is co-regulated along with the NADPH oxidase isoform, NOX3, by cisplatin. Induction of these proteins by cisplatin is dependent on ROS generation, since it is reversed by systemic lipoic acid administration. In organ of Corti hair cell cultures (UB/OC-1 cells), cisplatin activates and induces TRPV1 and NOX3, leading to apoptosis of these cells. Inhibition of TRPV1 by capsazepine or ruthenium red reduced the apoptosis, implicating TRPV1 in this process. Treatment of UB/OC-1 cultures with short interfering RNA (siRNA) against either TRPV1 or NOX3 reduced cisplatininduced apoptosis, while round window application of TRPV1 siRNA to rats reduced TRPV1 expression, decreased damage to outer hair cells and reduced cisplatin-induced hearing loss. These data provide a link between NOX3 and TRPV1 in cisplatin-induced hearing loss and suggest that targeting these proteins for knockdown by siRNA could serve as a novel approach in treating cisplatin ototoxicity. PMID:19052196

  16. An N-terminal variant of Trpv1 channel is required for osmosensory transduction.

    PubMed

    Sharif Naeini, Reza; Witty, Marie-France; Séguéla, Philippe; Bourque, Charles W

    2006-01-01

    Body fluid homeostasis requires the release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, an antidiuretic hormone) from the neurohypophysis. This release is controlled by specific and highly sensitive 'osmoreceptors' in the hypothalamus. Indeed, AVP-releasing neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) are directly osmosensitive, and this osmosensitivity is mediated by stretch-inhibited cation channels. However, the molecular nature of these channels remains unknown. Here we show that SON neurons express an N-terminal splice variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (Trpv1), also known as the capsaicin receptor, but not full-length Trpv1. Unlike their wild-type counterparts, SON neurons in Trpv1 knockout (Trpv1(-/-)) mice could not generate ruthenium red-sensitive increases in membrane conductance and depolarizing potentials in response to hyperosmotic stimulation. Moreover, Trpv1(-/-) mice showed a pronounced serum hyperosmolality under basal conditions and severely compromised AVP responses to osmotic stimulation in vivo. These results suggest that the Trpv1 gene may encode a central component of the osmoreceptor. PMID:16327782

  17. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate is a common activator of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Zhen; Gu, Qihai; Wang, Chunbo; Colton, Craig K; Tang, Jisen; Kinoshita-Kawada, Mariko; Lee, Lu-Yuan; Wood, Jackie D; Zhu, Michael X

    2004-08-20

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily contains a large number of proteins encoding cation permeable channels that are further divided into TRPC (canonical), TRPM (melastatin), and TRPV (vanilloid) subfamilies. Among the six TRPV members, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, and TRPV4 form heat-activated cation channels, which serve diverse functions ranging from nociception to osmolality regulation. Although chemical activators for TRPV1 and TRPV4 are well documented, those for TRPV2 and TRPV3 are lacking. Here we show that in the absence of other stimuli, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB) activates TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3, but not TRPV4, TRPV5, and TRPV6 expressed in HEK293 cells. In contrast, 2APB inhibits the activity of TRPC6 and TRPM8 evoked by 1-oleolyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol and menthol, respectively. In addition, low levels of 2APB strongly potentiate the effect of capsaicin, protons, and heat on TRPV1 as well as that of heat on TRPV3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In dorsal root ganglia neurons, supra-additive stimulations were evoked by 2APB and capsaicin or 2APB and acid. Our data suggest the existence of a common activation mechanism for TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV3 that may serve as a therapeutic target for pain management and treatment for diseases caused by hypersensitivity and temperature misregulation. PMID:15194687

  18. Expression of TRPV1 channels after nerve injury provides an essential delivery tool for neuropathic pain attenuation.

    PubMed

    Zakir, Hossain Md; Mostafeezur, Rahman Md; Suzuki, Akiko; Hitomi, Suzuro; Suzuki, Ikuko; Maeda, Takeyasu; Seo, Kenji; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Kensuke; Lev, Shaya; Binshtok, Alexander M; Iwata, Koichi; Kitagawa, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Increased expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, following nerve injury, may facilitate the entry of QX-314 into nociceptive neurons in order to achieve effective and selective pain relief. In this study we hypothesized that the level of QX-314/capsaicin (QX-CAP)--induced blockade of nocifensive behavior could be used as an indirect in-vivo measurement of functional expression of TRPV1 channels. We used the QX-CAP combination to monitor the functional expression of TRPV1 in regenerated neurons after inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transection in rats. We evaluated the effect of this combination on pain threshold at different time points after IAN transection by analyzing the escape thresholds to mechanical stimulation of lateral mental skin. At 2 weeks after IAN transection, there was no QX-CAP mediated block of mechanical hyperalgesia, implying that there was no functional expression of TRPV1 channels. These results were confirmed immunohistochemically by staining of regenerated trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. This suggests that TRPV1 channel expression is an essential necessity for the QX-CAP mediated blockade. Furthermore, we show that 3 and 4 weeks after IAN transection, application of QX-CAP produced a gradual increase in escape threshold, which paralleled the increased levels of TRPV1 channels that were detected in regenerated TG neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed that non-myelinated neurons regenerated slowly compared to myelinated neurons following IAN transection. We also show that TRPV1 expression shifted towards myelinated neurons. Our findings suggest that nerve injury modulates the TRPV1 expression pattern in regenerated neurons and that the effectiveness of QX-CAP induced blockade depends on the availability of functional TRPV1 receptors in regenerated neurons. The results of this study also suggest that the QX-CAP based approach can be used as a new behavioral tool to detect dynamic changes in TRPV1 expression, in various pathological conditions. PMID:22962595

  19. The unsilent majority–TRPV1 drives “spontaneous” transmission of unmyelinated primary afferents within cardiorespiratory NTS

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E.; Fawley, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Cranial primary afferent sensory neurons figure importantly in homeostatic control of visceral organ systems. Of the two broad classes of visceral afferents, the role of unmyelinated or C-type class remains poorly understood. This review contrasts key aspects of peripheral discharge properties of C-fiber afferents and their glutamate transmission mechanisms within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS). During normal prevailing conditions, most information arrives at the NTS through myelinated A-type nerves. However, most of visceral afferent axons (75–90%) in NTS are unmyelinated, C-type axons. Centrally, C-type solitary tract (ST) afferent terminals have presynaptic transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. Capsaicin activation of TRPV1 blocks phasic or synchronous release of glutamate but facilitates release of glutamate from a separate pool of vesicles. This TRPV1-operated pool of vesicles is active at normal temperatures and is responsible for actively driving a 10-fold higher release of glutamate at TRPV1 compared with TRPV1? terminals even in the absence of afferent action potentials. This novel TRPV1 mechanism is responsible for an additional asynchronous release of glutamate that is not present in myelinated terminals. The NTS is rich with presynaptic G protein-coupled receptors, and the implications of TRPV1-operated glutamate offer unique targets for signaling in C-type sensory afferent terminals from neuropeptides, inflammatory mediators, lipid metabolites, cytokines, and cannabinoids. From a homeostatic view, this combination could have broad implications for integration in chronic pathological disturbances in which the numeric dominance of C-type endings and TRPV1 would broadly disturb multisystem control mechanisms. PMID:23076872

  20. Developing piperine towards TRPV1 and GABAA receptor ligands--synthesis of piperine analogs via Heck-coupling of conjugated dienes.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Laurin; Schönbauer, David; Pakfeifer, Peter; Schöffmann, Angela; Khom, Sophia; Hering, Steffen; Mihovilovic, Marko D

    2015-01-28

    Piperine, the pungent alkaloid of black pepper, and several of its derivatives are modulators of ?-amino butyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Concomitantly, this natural product has also been reported to activate transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors. We have developed a Heck cross-coupling reaction of conjugated dienamides enabling the rapid assembly of piperine derivatives containing a modified aromatic core. Upon assessment of a focussed compound library, key aromatic substituents were identified selectively affecting either the GABAA or the TRPV1 receptor. PMID:25438036

  1. LASSBio-881: an N-acylhydrazone transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily type 1 antagonist orally effective against the hypernociception induced by capsaicin or partial sciatic ligation

    PubMed Central

    Tributino, JLM; Santos, MLH; Mesquita, CM; Lima, CKF; Silva, LL; Maia, RC; Duarte, CD; Barreiro, EJ; Fraga, CAM; Castro, NG; Miranda, ALP; Guimaraes, MZP

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Compound LASSBio-881 is an orally effective antinociceptive that binds to cannabinoid receptors and is active mainly on the neurogenic component of pain models. We investigated whether transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily type 1 (TRPV1) channels are involved in the effects of LASSBio-881. Experimental approach: Modulation of capsaicin (CAP)- and low pH-induced currents was evaluated in TRPV1-expressing Xenopus oocytes. In vivo effects were evaluated in CAP-induced acute and inflammatory changes in nociception, as well as in partial sciatic ligation-induced thermal hypernociception. Key results: LASSBio-881 inhibited TRPV1 currents elicited by CAP with an IC50 of 14 µM, and inhibited proton-gated currents by 70% at 20 µM. Functional interaction with CAP was surmountable. Locally applied LASSBio-881 decreased time spent in CAP-elicited nocifensive behaviour by 30%, and given orally it reduced measures of CAP- or carrageenan-evoked thermal hypernociception by 60 and 40% respectively. In addition, LASSBio-881 decreased the paw withdrawal responses to thermal stimuli of animals with sciatic neuropathy 7–11 days after nerve ligation, at a dose of 300 µmol·kg?1·day?1 p.o. At this dose, hyperthermia was not observed within 4 h following oral administration. Conclusions and implications: LASSBio-881 is a TRPV1 antagonist that apparently competes with CAP. Accordingly, LASSBio-881 inhibited nociception in models of acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain presumed to involve TRPV1 signalling. These in vivo actions were not hindered by hyperthermia, a common side effect of other TRPV1 antagonists. We propose that the antinociceptive properties of LASSBio-881 are due to TRPV1 antagonism, although other molecular interactions may contribute to the effects of this multi-target drug candidate. PMID:20401963

  2. TRPV1 Activation Exacerbates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis in H9C2 Cells via Calcium Overload and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zewei; Han, Jie; Zhao, Wenting; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuai; Ye, Lifang; Liu, Tingting; Zheng, Liangrong

    2014-01-01

    Transient potential receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, which are expressed on sensory neurons, elicit cardioprotective effects during ischemia reperfusion injury by stimulating the release of neuropeptides, namely calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Recent studies show that TRPV1 channels are also expressed on cardiomyocytes and can exacerbate air pollutant-induced apoptosis. However, whether these channels present on cardiomyocytes directly modulate cell death and survival pathways during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in H/R induced apoptosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes. We demonstrated that TRPV1 was indeed expressed in H9C2 cells, and activated by H/R injury. Although neuropeptide release caused by TRPV1 activation on sensory neurons elicits a cardioprotective effect, we found that capsaicin (CAP; a TRPV1 agonist) treatment of H9C2 cells paradoxically enhanced the level of apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium and mitochondrial superoxide levels, attenuating mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis (measured by the expression of ATP synthase ?). In contrast, treatment of cells with capsazepine (CPZ; a TRPV1 antagonist) or TRPV1 siRNA attenuated H/R induced-apoptosis. Furthermore, CAP and CPZ treatment revealed a similar effect on cell viability and mitochondrial superoxide production in primary cardiomyocytes. Finally, using both CGRP8–37 (a CGRP receptor antagonist) and RP67580 (a SP receptor antagonist) to exclude the confounding effects of neuropeptides, we confirmed aforementioned detrimental effects as TRPV1?/? mouse hearts exhibited improved cardiac function during ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, direct activation of TRPV1 in myocytes exacerbates H/R-induced apoptosis, likely through calcium overload and associated mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study provides a novel understanding of the role of myocyte TRPV1 channels in ischemia/reperfusion injury that sharply contrasts with its known extracardiac neuronal effects. PMID:25314299

  3. TRPV1 activation exacerbates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in H9C2 cells via calcium overload and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zewei; Han, Jie; Zhao, Wenting; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Shuai; Ye, Lifang; Liu, Tingting; Zheng, Liangrong

    2014-01-01

    Transient potential receptor vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, which are expressed on sensory neurons, elicit cardioprotective effects during ischemia reperfusion injury by stimulating the release of neuropeptides, namely calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). Recent studies show that TRPV1 channels are also expressed on cardiomyocytes and can exacerbate air pollutant-induced apoptosis. However, whether these channels present on cardiomyocytes directly modulate cell death and survival pathways during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in H/R induced apoptosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes. We demonstrated that TRPV1 was indeed expressed in H9C2 cells, and activated by H/R injury. Although neuropeptide release caused by TRPV1 activation on sensory neurons elicits a cardioprotective effect, we found that capsaicin (CAP; a TRPV1 agonist) treatment of H9C2 cells paradoxically enhanced the level of apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium and mitochondrial superoxide levels, attenuating mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis (measured by the expression of ATP synthase ?). In contrast, treatment of cells with capsazepine (CPZ; a TRPV1 antagonist) or TRPV1 siRNA attenuated H/R induced-apoptosis. Furthermore, CAP and CPZ treatment revealed a similar effect on cell viability and mitochondrial superoxide production in primary cardiomyocytes. Finally, using both CGRP(8-37) (a CGRP receptor antagonist) and RP67580 (a SP receptor antagonist) to exclude the confounding effects of neuropeptides, we confirmed aforementioned detrimental effects as TRPV1(-/-) mouse hearts exhibited improved cardiac function during ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, direct activation of TRPV1 in myocytes exacerbates H/R-induced apoptosis, likely through calcium overload and associated mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study provides a novel understanding of the role of myocyte TRPV1 channels in ischemia/reperfusion injury that sharply contrasts with its known extracardiac neuronal effects. PMID:25314299

  4. Osmoregulatory thirst in mice lacking the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and/or type 4 (TRPV4) receptor.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, Brian; Cowles, James; Lay, Jennifer; Simmonds, Sarah S; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies suggest the ability of the central nervous system to detect changes in osmolality is mediated by products of the genes encoding the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) or vanilloid-4 (TRPV4) channel. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether deletion of TRPV1 and/or TRPV4 channels altered thirst responses to cellular dehydration in mice. Injection of 0.5 or 1.0 M NaCl produced dose-dependent increases in cumulative water intakes of wild-type (WT), TRPV1-/-, TRPV4-/-, and TRPV1-/-V4-/- mice. However, there were no differences in cumulative water intakes between WT versus any other strain despite similar increases in plasma electrolytes and osmolality. Similar results were observed after injection of hypertonic mannitol. This was a consistent finding regardless of the injection route (intraperitoneal vs. subcutaneous) or timed access to water (delayed vs. immediate). There were also no differences in cumulative intakes across strains after injection of 0.15 M NaCl or during a time-controlled period (no injection). Chronic hypernatremia produced by sole access to 2% NaCl for 48 h also produced similar increases in water intake across strains. In a final set of experiments, subcutaneous injection of 0.5 M NaCl produced similar increases in the number of Fos-positive nuclei within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median preoptic nucleus across strains but significantly smaller number in the subfornical organ of WT versus TRPV1-/-V4-/- mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that TRPV1 and/or TRPV4 channels are not the primary mechanism by which the central nervous system responds to cellular dehydration during hypernatremia or hyperosmolality to increase thirst. PMID:25100078

  5. Increase of TRPV1-Immunoreactivity in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons Innervating the Femur in a Rat Model of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Kensuke; Suzuki, Miyako; Kawarai, Yuya; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Kubota, Gou; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Nakamura, Junichi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated nonselective cation channel, which can be activated by capsaicin and other noxious stimuli. Recently, an association between bone pain and TRPV1 has been reported. However, the influence of osteoporosis on TRPV1 in the sensory system innervating the femur has not been reported. Materials and Methods TRPV1-immunoreactive (ir) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons labeled with neurotracer [Fluoro-Gold (FG)] innervating the femurs of Sprague Dawley rats were examined in control, sham, and ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We evaluated osteoporosis in the femurs and compared the proportion of TRPV1-ir DRG neurons innervating femur between the 3 groups of rats. Results OVX rats showed osteoporotic cancellous bone in the femur. FG labeled neurons were distributed from L1 to L6 DRG, but there was no significant difference in the proportion of labeled neurons between the 3 groups (p>0.05). The proportions of FG labeled TRPV1-ir DRG neurons were 1.7%, 1.7%, and 2.8% of DRG neurons innervating the femur, in control, sham-operated, and OVX rats, respectively. The proportion of TRPV1-ir neurons in DRG innervating the femur in OVX rats was significantly higher than that in control and sham-operated rats (p<0.05). Conclusion Under physiological conditions, DRG neurons innervating femurs in rats contain TRPV1. Osteoporosis increases the numbers of TRPV1-ir neurons in DRG innervating osteoporotic femurs in rats. These findings suggest that TRPV1 may have a role in sensory perception of osteoporotic femurs. PMID:25323897

  6. Functionally important amino acid residues in the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel – an overview of the current mutational data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to create an overview of the currently available results of site-directed mutagenesis studies on transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor. Systematization of the vast number of data on the functionally important amino acid mutations of TRPV1 may provide a clearer picture of this field, and may promote a better understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of TRPV1. The review summarizes information on 112 unique mutated sites along the TRPV1, exchanged to multiple different residues in many cases. These mutations influence the effect or binding of different agonists, antagonists, and channel blockers, alter the responsiveness to heat, acid, and voltage dependence, affect the channel pore characteristics, and influence the regulation of the receptor function by phosphorylation, glycosylation, calmodulin, PIP2, ATP, and lipid binding. The main goal of this paper is to publish the above mentioned data in a form that facilitates in silico molecular modelling of the receptor by promoting easier establishment of boundary conditions. The better understanding of the structure-function relationship of TRPV1 may promote discovery of new, promising, more effective and safe drugs for treatment of neurogenic inflammation and pain-related diseases and may offer new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. PMID:23800232

  7. Mechanisms of Prolonged Presynaptic Ca2+ Signaling and Glutamate Release Induced by TRPV1 Activation in Rat Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Medvedeva, Yuliya V.; Kim, Man-Su; Usachev, Yuriy M.

    2009-01-01

    TRPV1-mediated release of neuroactive peptides and neurotransmitters from the peripheral and central terminals of primary sensory neurons can critically contribute to nociceptive processing at the periphery and in the CNS. However, the mechanisms that link TRPV1 activation with Ca2+ signaling at the release sites and neurosecretion are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a brief stimulation of the receptor using either capsaicin or the endogenous TRPV1 agonist N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) induces a prolonged elevation of presynaptic [Ca2+]i and a concomitant enhancement of glutamate release at sensory synapses. Initiation of this response required Ca2+ entry, primarily via TRPV1. The sustained phase of the response was independent of extracellular Ca2+ and was prevented by inhibitors of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and release mechanisms. Measurements using a mitochondria-targeted Ca2+ indicator, mtPericam, revealed that TRPV1 activation elicits a long-lasting Ca2+ elevation in presynaptic mitochondria. The concentration of TRPV1 agonist determined the duration of mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca2+ signals in presynaptic boutons and, consequently, the period of enhanced glutamate release and action potential firing by postsynaptic neurons. These data suggest that mitochondria control vanilloid-induced neurotransmission by translating the strength of presynaptic TRPV1 stimulation into duration of the postsynaptic response. PMID:18480286

  8. Divalent cations potentiate TRPV1 channel by lowering the heat activation threshold

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xu; Ma, Linlin; Yang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel responds to a wide spectrum of physical and chemical stimuli. In doing so, it serves as a polymodal cellular sensor for temperature change and pain. Many chemicals are known to strongly potentiate TRPV1 activation, though how this is achieved remains unclear. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the gating effects of divalent cations Mg2+ and Ba2+. Using a combination of fluorescence imaging and patch-clamp analysis, we found that these cations potentiate TRPV1 gating by most likely promoting the heat activation process. Mg2+ substantially lowers the activation threshold temperature; as a result, a significant fraction of channels are heat-activated at room temperature. Although Mg2+ also potentiates capsaicin- and voltage-dependent activation, these processes were found either to be not required (in the case of capsaicin) or insufficient (in the case of voltage) to mediate the activating effect. In support of a selective effect on heat activation, Mg2+ and Ba2+ cause a Ca2+-independent desensitization that specifically prevents heat-induced channel activation but does not prevent capsaicin-induced activation. These results can be satisfactorily explained within an allosteric gating framework in which divalent cations strongly promote the heat-dependent conformational change or its coupling to channel activation, which is further coupled to the voltage- and capsaicin-dependent processes. PMID:24344247

  9. Breathtaking TRP Channels: TRPA1 and TRPV1 in Airway Chemosensation and Reflex Control

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F.; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-01-01

    New studies have revealed an essential role for TRPA1, a sensory neuronal TRP ion channel, in airway chemosensation and inflammation. TRPA1 is activated by chlorine, reactive oxygen species and noxious constituents of smoke and smog, initiating irritation and airway reflex responses. Together with TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor, TRPA1 may contribute to chemical hypersensitivity, chronic cough and airway inflammation in asthma, COPD and reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. PMID:19074743

  10. Breathtaking TRP Channels: TRPA1 and TRPV1 in Airway Chemosensation and Reflex Control

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bret Bessac (Yale University School of Medicine Pharmacology)

    2008-12-01

    New studies have revealed an essential role for TRPA1, a sensory neuronal TRP ion channel, in airway chemosensation and inflammation. TRPA1 is activated by chlorine, reactive oxygen species, and noxious constituents of smoke and smog, initiating irritation and airway reflex responses. Together with TRPV1, the capsaicin receptor, TRPA1 may contribute to chemical hypersensitivity, chronic cough, and airway inflammation in asthma, COPD, and reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

  11. ?-arrestin-2-biased agonism of delta opioid receptors sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in primary sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in understanding the signaling mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of chronic pain, the pharmacologic treatment of chronic pain has seen little advancement. Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOPr) continue to be vital in the treatment of many forms of chronic pain, but side-effects limit their clinical utility and range from relatively mild, such as constipation, to major, such as addiction and dependence. Additionally, chronic activation of MOPr results in pain hypersensitivity known as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), and we have shown recently that recruitment of ?-arrestin2 to MOPr, away from transient potential vanilloid eceptor type 1 (TRPV1) in primary sensory neurons contributes to this phenomenon. The delta opioid receptor (DOPr) has become a promising target for the treatment of chronic pain, but little is known about the effects of chronic activation of DOPr on nociceptor sensitivity and OIH. Here we report that chronic activation of DOPr by the DOPr-selective agonist, SNC80, results in the sensitization of TRPV1 and behavioral signs of OIH via ?-arrestin2 recruitment to DOPr and away from TRPV1. Conversely, chronic treatment with ARM390, a DOPr-selective agonist that does not recruit ?-arrestin2, neither sensitized TRPV1 nor produced OIH. Interestingly, the effect of SNC80 to sensitize TRPV1 is species-dependent, as rats developed OIH but mice did not. Taken together, the reported data identify a novel side-effect of chronic administration of ?-arrestin2-biased DOPr agonists and highlight the importance of potential species-specific effects of DOPr agonists. PMID:25085415

  12. Mechanisms and clinical uses of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surinder Kumar; Vij, Amarjit Singh; Sharma, Mohit

    2013-11-15

    Capsaicin is the active ingredient of chili peppers and gives them the characteristic pungent flavor. Understanding the actions of capsaicin led to the discovery of its receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1). This receptor is found on key sensory afferents, and so the use of capsaicin to selectively activate pain afferents has been studied in animal and human models for various indications. Capsaicin is unique among naturally occurring irritant compounds because the initial neuronal excitation evoked by it is followed by a long-lasting refractory period, during which the previously excited neurons are no longer responsive to a broad range of stimuli. This process known as defunctionalisation has been exploited for therapeutic use of capsaicin in various painful conditions. We reviewed different studies on mechanisms of action of capsaicin and its utility in different clinical conditions. A beneficial role of capsaicin has been reported in obesity, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal conditions, various cancers, neurogenic bladder, and dermatologic conditions. Various theories have been put forth to explain these effects. Interestingly many of these pharmacological actions are TRPV1 independent. This review is aimed at providing an overview of these mechanisms and to also present literature which contradicts the proposed beneficial effects of capsaicin. Most of the literature comes from animal studies and since many of these mechanisms are poorly understood, more investigation is required in human subjects. PMID:24211679

  13. Dissecting the role of TRPV1 in detecting multiple trigeminal irritants in three behavioral assays for sensory irritation

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, CJ

    2013-01-01

    Polymodal neurons of the trigeminal nerve innervate the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral cavity and cornea. Trigeminal nociceptive fibers express a diverse collection of receptors and are stimulated by a wide variety of chemicals. However, the mechanism of stimulation is known only for relatively few of these compounds. Capsaicin, for example, activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels. In the present study, wildtype (C57Bl/6J) and TRPV1 knockout mice were tested in three behavioral assays for irritation to determine if TRPV1 is necessary to detect trigeminal irritants in addition to capsaicin. In one assay mice were presented with a chemical via a cotton swab and their response scored on a 5 level scale. In another assay, a modified two bottle preference test, which avoids the confound of mixing irritants with the animal’s drinking water, was used to assess aversion. In the final assay, an air dilution olfactometer was used to administer volatile compounds to mice restrained in a double-chambered plethysmograph where respiratory reflexes were monitored. TRPV1 knockouts showed deficiencies in the detection of benzaldehyde, cyclohexanone and eugenol in at least one assay. However, cyclohexanone was the only substance tested that appears to act solely through TRPV1. PMID:24358880

  14. Central terminal sensitization of TRPV1 by descending serotonergic facilitation modulates chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Han, Liang; Li, Man; Li, Zhe; LaVinka, Pamela Colleen; Sun, Shuohao; Tang, Zongxiang; Park, Kyoungsook; Caterina, Michael J.; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald; Wei, Feng; Dong, Xinzhong

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The peripheral terminals of primary nociceptive neurons play an essential role in pain detection mediated by membrane receptors like TRPV1, a molecular sensor of heat and capsaicin. However, the contribution of central terminal TRPV1 in the dorsal horn to chronic pain has not been investigated directly. Combining primary sensory neuron-specific GCaMP3 imaging with a trigeminal neuropathic pain model, we detected robust neuronal hyperactivity in injured and uninjured nerves in the skin, soma in trigeminal ganglion, and central terminals in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Extensive TRPV1 hyperactivity was observed in central terminals innervating all dorsal horn laminae. The central terminal TRPV1 sensitization was maintained by descending serotonergic (5-HT) input from the brainstem. Central blockade of TRPV1 or 5-HT/5-HT3A receptors attenuated central terminal sensitization, excitatory primary afferent inputs, and mechanical hyperalgesia in the territories of injured and uninjured nerves. Our results reveal new central mechanisms facilitating central terminal sensitization underlying chronic pain. PMID:24462040

  15. Central terminal sensitization of TRPV1 by descending serotonergic facilitation modulates chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Shin; Chu, Yuxia; Han, Liang; Li, Man; Li, Zhe; Lavinka, Pamela Colleen; Sun, Shuohao; Tang, Zongxiang; Park, Kyoungsook; Caterina, Michael J; Ren, Ke; Dubner, Ronald; Wei, Feng; Dong, Xinzhong

    2014-02-19

    The peripheral terminals of primary nociceptive neurons play an essential role in pain detection mediated by membrane receptors like TRPV1, a molecular sensor of heat and capsaicin. However, the contribution of central terminal TRPV1 in the dorsal horn to chronic pain has not been investigated directly. Combining primary sensory neuron-specific GCaMP3 imaging with a trigeminal neuropathic pain model, we detected robust neuronal hyperactivity in injured and uninjured nerves in the skin, soma in trigeminal ganglion, and central terminals in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Extensive TRPV1 hyperactivity was observed in central terminals innervating all dorsal horn laminae. The central terminal TRPV1 sensitization was maintained by descending serotonergic (5-HT) input from the brainstem. Central blockade of TRPV1 or 5-HT/5-HT3A receptors attenuated central terminal sensitization, excitatory primary afferent inputs, and mechanical hyperalgesia in the territories of injured and uninjured nerves. Our results reveal central mechanisms facilitating central terminal sensitization underlying chronic pain. PMID:24462040

  16. TRPV1 Channels Are Functionally Coupled with BK(mSlo1) Channels in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zonghe; Kong, Wenjuan; Liu, Beiying; Li, Xia; Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuexuan; Qin, Feng; Ding, Jiuping

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel is a nonselective cation channel activated by a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli, such as temperature (?42 °C), capsaicin, a pungent compound in hot chili peppers, and allyl isothiocyanate. Large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels regulate the electric activities and neurotransmitter releases in excitable cells, responding to changes in membrane potentials and elevation of cytosolic calcium ions (Ca2+). However, it is unknown whether the TRPV1 channels are coupled with the BK channels. Using patch-clamp recording combined with an infrared laser device, we found that BK channels could be activated at 0 mV by a Ca2+ influx through TRPV1 channels not the intracellular calcium stores in submilliseconds. The local calcium concentration around BK is estimated over 10 ?M. The crosstalk could be affected by 10 mM BAPTA, whereas 5 mM EGTA was ineffectual. Fluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments also showed that BK and TRPV1 were able to form a TRPV1-BK complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TRPV1-BK coupling also occurs in dosal root ganglion (DRG) cells, which plays a critical physiological role in regulating the “pain” signal transduction pathway in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:24147119

  17. TRPV1 channels are functionally coupled with BK(mSlo1) channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Yongfeng; Hou, Panpan; Yan, Zonghe; Kong, Wenjuan; Liu, Beiying; Li, Xia; Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuexuan; Qin, Feng; Ding, Jiuping

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) channel is a nonselective cation channel activated by a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli, such as temperature (?42 °C), capsaicin, a pungent compound in hot chili peppers, and allyl isothiocyanate. Large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels regulate the electric activities and neurotransmitter releases in excitable cells, responding to changes in membrane potentials and elevation of cytosolic calcium ions (Ca(2+)). However, it is unknown whether the TRPV1 channels are coupled with the BK channels. Using patch-clamp recording combined with an infrared laser device, we found that BK channels could be activated at 0 mV by a Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 channels not the intracellular calcium stores in submilliseconds. The local calcium concentration around BK is estimated over 10 ?M. The crosstalk could be affected by 10 mM BAPTA, whereas 5 mM EGTA was ineffectual. Fluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments also showed that BK and TRPV1 were able to form a TRPV1-BK complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TRPV1-BK coupling also occurs in dosal root ganglion (DRG) cells, which plays a critical physiological role in regulating the "pain" signal transduction pathway in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:24147119

  18. TRPA1 contributes to capsaicin-induced facial cold hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kuniya; Shinoda, Masamichi; Furukawa, Akihiko; Kita, Kozue; Noma, Noboru; Iwata, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    Orofacial cold hyperalgesia is known to cause severe persistent pain in the face following trigeminal nerve injury or inflammation, and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankylin 1 (TRPA1) are thought to be involved in cold hyperalgesia. However, how these two receptors are involved in cold hyperalgesia is not fully understood. To clarify the mechanisms underlying facial cold hyperalgesia, nocifensive behaviors to cold stimulation, the expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, and TG neuronal excitability to cold stimulation following facial capsaicin injection were examined in rats. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWRT) to cold stimulation of the lateral facial skin was significantly decreased following facial capsaicin injection. This reduction of HWRT was significantly recovered following local injection of TRPV1 antagonist as well as TRPA1 antagonist. Approximately 30% of TG neurons innervating the lateral facial skin expressed both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and about 64% of TRPA1-positive neurons also expressed TRPV1. The TG neuronal excitability to noxious cold stimulation was significantly increased following facial capsaicin injection and this increase was recovered by pretreatment with TRPA1 antagonist. These findings suggest that TRPA1 sensitization via TRPV1 signaling in TG neurons is involved in cold hyperalgesia following facial skin capsaicin injection. PMID:25371244

  19. Capsaicin and sensory neurones: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Szolcsányi, János

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red pepper has become not only a "hot" topic in neuroscience but its new target-related unique actions have opened the door for the drug industry to introduce a new chapter of analgesics. After several lines of translational efforts with over 1,000 patents and clinical trials, the 8% capsaicin dermal patch reached the market and its long-lasting local analgesic effect in some severe neuropathic pain states is now well established. This introductory chapter outlines on one hand the historical background based on the author's 50 years of experience in this field and on the other hand emphasizes new scopes, fascinating perspectives in pharmaco-physiology, and molecular pharmacology of nociceptive sensory neurons. Evidence for the effect of capsaicin on C-polymodal nociceptors (CMH), C-mechanoinsensitive (CHMi), and silent C-nociceptors are listed and the features of the capsaicin-induced blocking effects of nociceptors are demonstrated. Common and different characteristics of nociceptor-blocking actions after systemic, perineural, local, intrathecal, and in vitro treatments are summarized. Evidence for the misleading conclusions drawn from neonatal capsaicin pretreatment is presented. Perspectives opened from cloning the capsaicin receptor "Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1" (TRPV1) are outlined and potential molecular mechanisms behind the long-lasting functional, ultrastructural, and nerve terminal-damaging effects of capsaicin and other TRPV1 agonists are summarized. Neurogenic inflammation and the long-list of "capsaicin-sensitive" tissue responses are mediated by an unorthodox dual sensory-efferent function of peptidergic TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals which differ from the classical efferent and sensory nerve endings that have a unidirectional role in neuroregulation. Thermoregulatory effects of capsaicin are discussed in detail. It is suggested that since hyperthermia and burn risk due to enhanced noxious heat threshold are the major obstacles of some TRPV1 antagonists, they could be overcome. The special "multisteric" gating function of the TRPV1 cation channel provides the structural ground for blocking chemical activation of TRPV1 without affecting its responsiveness to physical stimuli. A new chapter of potential analgesics targeting nociceptors is now already supported for pain relief in persistent pathological pain states. PMID:24941663

  20. Small molecule positive allosteric modulation of TRPV1 activation by vanilloids and acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Kaszas, Krisztian; Keller, Jason M; Coddou, Claudio; Mishra, Santosh K; Hoon, Mark A; Stojilkovic, Stanko; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Iadarola, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) is a high-conductance, nonselective cation channel strongly expressed in nociceptive primary afferent neurons of the peripheral nervous system and functions as a multimodal nociceptor gated by temperatures greater than 43°C, protons, and small-molecule vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin. The ability to respond to heat, low pH, vanilloids, and endovanilloids and altered sensitivity and expression in experimental inflammatory and neuropathic pain models made TRPV1 a major target for the development of novel, nonopioid analgesics and resulted in the discovery of potent antagonists. In human clinical trials, observations of hyperthermia and the potential for thermal damage by suppressing the ability to sense noxious heat suggested that full-scale blockade of TRPV1 function can be counterproductive and subtler pharmacological approaches are necessary. Here we show that the dihydropyridine derivative 4,5-diethyl-3-(2-methoxyethylthio)-2-methyl-6-phenyl-1,4-(±)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (MRS1477) behaves as a positive allosteric modulator of both proton and vanilloid activation of TRPV1. Under inflammatory-mimetic conditions of low pH (6.0) and protein kinase C phosphorylation, addition of MRS1477 further increased sensitivity of already sensitized TPRV1 toward capsaicin. MRS1477 does not affect inhibition by capsazepine or ruthenium red and remains effective in potentiating activation by pH in the presence of an orthosteric vanilloid antagonist. These results indicate a distinct site on TRPV1 for positive allosteric modulation that may bind endogenous compounds or novel pharmacological agents. Positive modulation of TRPV1 sensitivity suggests that it may be possible to produce a selective analgesia through calcium overload restricted to highly active nociceptive nerve endings at sites of tissue damage and inflammation. PMID:22005042

  1. Small Molecule Positive Allosteric Modulation of TRPV1 Activation by Vanilloids and Acidic pHS?

    PubMed Central

    Kaszas, Krisztian; Keller, Jason M.; Coddou, Claudio; Mishra, Santosh K.; Hoon, Mark A.; Stojilkovic, Stanko; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) is a high-conductance, nonselective cation channel strongly expressed in nociceptive primary afferent neurons of the peripheral nervous system and functions as a multimodal nociceptor gated by temperatures greater than 43°C, protons, and small-molecule vanilloid ligands such as capsaicin. The ability to respond to heat, low pH, vanilloids, and endovanilloids and altered sensitivity and expression in experimental inflammatory and neuropathic pain models made TRPV1 a major target for the development of novel, nonopioid analgesics and resulted in the discovery of potent antagonists. In human clinical trials, observations of hyperthermia and the potential for thermal damage by suppressing the ability to sense noxious heat suggested that full-scale blockade of TRPV1 function can be counterproductive and subtler pharmacological approaches are necessary. Here we show that the dihydropyridine derivative 4,5-diethyl-3-(2-methoxyethylthio)-2-methyl-6-phenyl-1,4-(±)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (MRS1477) behaves as a positive allosteric modulator of both proton and vanilloid activation of TRPV1. Under inflammatory-mimetic conditions of low pH (6.0) and protein kinase C phosphorylation, addition of MRS1477 further increased sensitivity of already sensitized TPRV1 toward capsaicin. MRS1477 does not affect inhibition by capsazepine or ruthenium red and remains effective in potentiating activation by pH in the presence of an orthosteric vanilloid antagonist. These results indicate a distinct site on TRPV1 for positive allosteric modulation that may bind endogenous compounds or novel pharmacological agents. Positive modulation of TRPV1 sensitivity suggests that it may be possible to produce a selective analgesia through calcium overload restricted to highly active nociceptive nerve endings at sites of tissue damage and inflammation. PMID:22005042

  2. Development of PAC-14028, a novel transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonist as a new drug for refractory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyung-Min; Park, Young-Ho

    2012-03-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a member of nonselective cation channels and has been implicated in the progression of neurogenic inflammation and nociception. Through the synthesis of over 2,000 new compounds, a novel non-vanilloid TRPV1 antagonist PAC-14028 was discovered. As well as ideal physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties, PAC-14028 showed meaningful efficacies against diverse disease models that include visceral pain, inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory pain. Of note, PAC-14028 effectively attenuates atopic dermatitis and pruritus without significant adverse effects, which is a substantial benefit over conventional pharmacotherapy. This report introduces the potential of a novel TRPV1 antagonist PAC-14028 as a new drug for atopic dermatitis and pruritus. PMID:22477184

  3. An alternative splicing product of the murine trpv1 gene dominant negatively modulates the activity of TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunbo; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Colton, Craig K; Wood, Jackie D; Zhu, Michael X

    2004-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), or vanilloid receptor 1, is the founding member of the vanilloid type of TRP superfamily of nonselective cation channels. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat, acid, and alkaloid irritants as well as several endogenous ligands and is sensitized by inflammatory factors, thereby serving important functions in detecting noxious stimuli in the sensory system and pathological states in different parts of the body. Whereas numerous studies have been carried out using the rat and human TRPV1 cDNA, the mouse TRPV1 cDNA has not been characterized. Here, we report molecular cloning of two TRPV1 cDNA variants from dorsal root ganglia of C57BL/6 mice. The deduced proteins are designated TRPV1alpha and TRPV1beta and contain 839 and 829 amino acids, respectively. TRPV1beta arises from an alternative intron recognition signal within exon 7 of the trpv1 gene. We found a predominant expression of TRPV1alpha in many tissues and significant expression of TRPV1beta in dorsal root ganglia, skin, stomach, and tongue. When expressed in HEK 293 cells or Xenopus oocytes, TRPV1alpha formed a Ca(2+)-permeable channel activated by ligands known to stimulate TRPV1. TRPV1beta was not functional by itself but its co-expression inhibited the function of TRPV1alpha. Furthermore, although both isoforms were synthesized at a similar rate, less TRPV1beta than TRPV1alpha protein was found in cells and on the cell surface, indicating that the beta isoform is highly unstable. Our data suggest that TRPV1beta is a naturally occurring dominant-negative regulator of the responses of sensory neurons to noxious stimuli. PMID:15234965

  4. Monoacylglycerols Activate TRPV1 – A Link between Phospholipase C and TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Zygmunt, Peter M.; Ermund, Anna; Movahed, Pouya; Andersson, David A.; Simonsen, Charlotte; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Blomgren, Anders; Birnir, Bryndis; Bevan, Stuart; Eschalier, Alain; Mallet, Christophe; Gomis, Ana; Högestätt, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate generates diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and protons, all of which can regulate TRPV1 activity via different mechanisms. Here we explored the possibility that the diacylglycerol metabolites 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 1-arachidonoylglycerol, and not metabolites of these monoacylglycerols, activate TRPV1 and contribute to this signaling cascade. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol and 1-arachidonoylglycerol activated native TRPV1 on vascular sensory nerve fibers and heterologously expressed TRPV1 in whole cells and inside-out membrane patches. The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitors methylarachidonoyl-fluorophosphonate and JZL184 prevented the metabolism of deuterium-labeled 2-arachidonoylglycerol and deuterium-labeled 1-arachidonoylglycerol in arterial homogenates, and enhanced TRPV1-mediated vasodilator responses to both monoacylglycerols. In mesenteric arteries from TRPV1 knock-out mice, vasodilator responses to 2-arachidonoylglycerol were minor. Bradykinin and adenosine triphosphate, ligands of phospholipase C-coupled membrane receptors, increased the content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in dorsal root ganglia. In HEK293 cells expressing the phospholipase C-coupled histamine H1 receptor, exposure to histamine stimulated the formation of 2-AG, and this effect was augmented in the presence of JZL184. These effects were prevented by the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin. Histamine induced large whole cell currents in HEK293 cells co-expressing TRPV1 and the histamine H1 receptor, and the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine abolished these currents. JZL184 increased the histamine-induced currents and tetrahydrolipstatin prevented this effect. The calcineurin inhibitor ciclosporin and the endogenous “entourage” compound palmitoylethanolamide potentiated the vasodilator response to 2-arachidonoylglycerol, disclosing TRPV1 activation of this monoacylglycerol at nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of JZL184 produced TRPV1-dependent antinociception in the mouse formalin test. Our results show that intact 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 1-arachidonoylglycerol are endogenous TRPV1 activators, contributing to phospholipase C-dependent TRPV1 channel activation and TRPV1-mediated antinociceptive signaling in the brain. PMID:24312564

  5. Temperature-induced opening of TRPV1 ion channel is stabilized by the pore domain

    PubMed Central

    Grandl, Jörg; Kim, Sung Eun; Uzzell, Valerie; Bursulaya, Badry; Petrus, Matt; Bandell, Michael; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2010-01-01

    Summary TRPV1 is the founding and best-studied member of the family of temperature-activated transient receptor potential ion channels (thermoTRPs). Voltage, chemicals, and heat amongst other agonists allosterically gate TRPV1. Molecular determinants for TRPV1 activation by capsaicin, allicin, acid, ammonia, and voltage have been identified. However, the structures and mechanisms mediating its pronounced temperature-sensitivity remain unclear. Recent studies of the related channel TRPV3 identified residues within the pore region required for heat activation. Here we use both random and targeted mutagenesis screens of TRPV1 and identify point mutations in the outer pore region that specifically impair temperature-activation. Single channel analysis shows that TRPV1 mutations disrupt heat-sensitivity by ablating long channel openings, that are part of the temperature-gating pathway. We propose that sequential occupancy of short and long open states upon activation provides a mechanism to enhance temperature-sensitivity. Our study suggests that the outer pore plays a general role in heat-sensitivity of thermoTRPs. PMID:20414199

  6. High concentrations of morphine sensitize and activate mouse dorsal root ganglia via TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors

    E-print Network

    Forster, Alexander B; Reeh, Peter; Messlinger, Karl; Fischer, Michael J M

    2009-04-16

    a dose-dependent rise in intracellular calcium in neurons from wild-type animals. In neurons from TRPV1 and TRPA1 knockout animals activation by morphine was markedly reduced, in the TRPV1/A1 double knockout animals this morphine effect was abrogated...

  7. Involvement of lysophosphatidic acid in bone cancer pain by potentiation of TRPV1 via PKC? pathway in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) released from injury tissue and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor are implicated in the induction of chronic pain. In the present study we examined whether an interaction between LPA receptor LPA1 and TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contributes to the development of bone cancer pain. Results Bone cancer was established by injection of mammary gland carcinoma cells into the rat tibia. Following the development of bone cancer pain, the TRPV1 expression and capsaicin-evoked currents were up-regulated in rat DRG neurons at L4-6 segments. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed a high co-localization of LPA1 with TRPV1 in DRG neurons. In isolated DRG neurons, whole-cell patch recording showed that capsaicin-induced currents were potentiated by LPA in a dose-dependent manner. The potentiation was blocked by either LPA1 antagonist, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor or PKC? inhibitor, but not by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor or Rho inhibitor. In the behavioral tests, both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in bone cancer rats were attenuated by LPA1 antagonist. Conclusion LPA potentiates TRPV1 current via a PKC?-dependent pathway in DRG neurons of rats with bone cancer, which may be a novel peripheral mechanism underlying the induction of bone cancer pain. PMID:21118579

  8. Increased function of the TRPV1 channel in small sensory neurons after local inflammation or in vitro exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine GRO/KC

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fei; Du, Yi-Ru; Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A.; He, Xi-Jing; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective Inflammation at the level of the sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) leads to robust mechanical pain behaviors and the local inflammation has direct excitatory effects on sensory neurons including small, primarily nociceptive, neurons. These neurons express the TRPV1 channel, which integrates multiple signals of pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to characterize regulation of the TRPV1 channel by local DRG inflammation and by GRO/KC (CXCL1), a cytokine known to be upregulated in inflamed DRGs. Methods Activation of the TRPV1 receptor with capsaicin was studied with patch clamp methods in acutely isolated small diameter rat sensory neurons in primary culture. In vivo, behavioral effects of TRPV1 and GRO/KC were examined by paw injections. Results Neurons isolated from lumbar DRGs 3 days after local inflammation showed enhanced TRPV1 function: tachyphylaxis (the decline in response to repeated applications of capsaicin) was significantly reduced. A similar effect on tachyphylaxis was observed in neurons pre-treated for 4 hours in vitro with GRO/KC. This effect was blocked by H-89, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Consistent with the in vitro results, in vivo behavioral responses to paw injection of capsaicin were enhanced and prolonged by pre-injecting the paw with GRO/KC 4 hours before the capsaicin injection. GRO/KC paw injections alone did not elicit pain behaviors. Conclusions Function of the TRPV1 channel is enhanced by DRG inflammation and these effects are preserved in vitro during short-term culture. The effects (decreased tachyphylaxis) are mimicked by incubation with GRO/KC, which has previously been found to be strongly upregulated in this and other pain models. PMID:22466126

  9. Acid evoked thermal hyperalgesia involves peripheral P2Y1 receptor mediated TRPV1 phosphorylation in a rodent model of thrombus induced ischemic pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously developed a thrombus-induced ischemic pain (TIIP) animal model, which was characterized by chronic bilateral mechanical allodynia without thermal hyperalgesia (TH). On the other hand we had shown that intraplantar injection of acidic saline facilitated ATP-induced pain, which did result in the induction of TH in normal rats. Because acidic pH and increased ATP are closely associated with ischemic conditions, this study is designed to: (1) examine whether acidic saline injection into the hind paw causes the development of TH in TIIP, but not control, animals; and (2) determine which peripheral mechanisms are involved in the development of this TH. Results Repeated intraplantar injection of pH 4.0 saline, but not pH 5.5 and 7.0 saline, for 3 days following TIIP surgery resulted in the development of TH. After pH 4.0 saline injections, protein levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) were elevated in the plantar muscle indicating that acidic stimulation intensified ischemic insults with decreased tissue acidity. At the same time point, there were no changes in the expression of TRPV1 in hind paw skin, whereas a significant increase in TRPV1 phosphorylation (pTRPV1) was shown in acidic saline (pH 4.0) injected TIIP (AS-TIIP) animals. Moreover, intraplantar injection of chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor) and AMG9810 (a TRPV1 antagonist) effectively alleviated the established TH. In order to investigate which proton- or ATP-sensing receptors contributed to the development of TH, amiloride (an ASICs blocker), AMG9810, TNP-ATP (a P2Xs antagonist) or MRS2179 (a P2Y1 antagonist) were pre-injected before the pH 4.0 saline. Only MRS2179 significantly prevented the induction of TH, and the increased pTRPV1 ratio was also blocked in MRS2179 injected animals. Conclusion Collectively these data show that maintenance of an acidic environment in the ischemic hind paw of TIIP rats results in the phosphorylation of TRPV1 receptors via a PKC-dependent pathway, which leads to the development of TH mimicking what occurs in chronic ischemic patients with severe acidosis. More importantly, peripheral P2Y1 receptors play a pivotal role in this process, suggesting a novel peripheral mechanism underlying the development of TH in these patients. PMID:24401144

  10. DECREASED SENSORY RECEPTORS P2X 3 AND TRPV1 IN SUBUROTHELIAL NERVE FIBERS FOLLOWING INTRADETRUSOR INJECTIONS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN FOR HUMAN DETRUSOR OVERACTIVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. APOSTOLIDIS; R. POPAT; Y. YIANGOU; D. COCKAYNE; A. P. D. W. FORD; J. B. DAVIS; P. DASGUPTA; C. J. FOWLER; P. ANAND

    2005-01-01

    PurposeBotulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT\\/A) is effective in the treatment of intractable detrusor overactivity (DO). In addition to its known inhibitory effect on presynaptic release of acetylcholine by motor terminals, there is increasing evidence that BoNT\\/A may affect sensory fibers. We investigated a possible effect of BoNT\\/A on human bladder afferent mechanisms by studying the sensory receptors P2X3 and TRPV1

  11. Role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Hepatitis Following Activation of TRPV1 Receptors by Cannabidiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venkatesh L. Hegde; Prakash S. Nagarkatti; Mitzi Nagarkatti

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundMyeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are getting increased attention as one of the main regulatory cells of the immune system. They are induced at sites of inflammation and can potently suppress T cell functions. In the current study, we demonstrate how activation of TRPV1 vanilloid receptors can trigger MDSCs, which in turn, can inhibit inflammation and hepatitis.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsPolyclonal activation of T

  12. Prolonged analgesic response of cornea to topical resiniferatoxin, a potent TRPV1 agonist

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Brian; Mitchell, Kendall; Keller, Jason M.; Chan, Chi-Chao; Swaim, William D.; Yaskovich, Ruth; Mannes, Andrew J.; Iadarola, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Analgesics currently available for the treatment of pain following ophthalmic surgery or injury are limited by transient effectiveness and undesirable or adverse side effects. The cornea is primarily innervated by small-diameter C-fiber sensory neurons expressing TRPV1 (transient receptor potential channel, subfamily V, member 1), a sodium/calcium cation channel expressed abundantly by nociceptive neurons and consequently a target for pain control. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), a potent TRPV1 agonist, produces transient analgesia when injected peripherally by inactivating TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals through excessive calcium influx. The aim of the present study was to evaluate topical RTX as a corneal analgesic. In rat cornea, a single application of RTX dose-dependently eliminated or reduced the capsaicin eye wipe response for 3–5 days, with normal nociceptive responses returning by 5–7 days. RTX alone produced a brief but intense noxious response, similar to capsaicin, necessitating pretreatment of the cornea with a local anesthetic. Topical lidocaine, applied prior to RTX, blocks acute nociceptive responses to RTX without impairing the subsequent analgesic effect. Importantly, RTX analgesia (a) did not impair epithelial wound healing, (b) left the blink reflex intact and (c) occurred without detectable histological damage to the cornea. Immunohistochemistry showed that loss of CGRP immunoreactivity, a surrogate marker for TRPV1-expressing fibers, extended at least to the corneal-scleral boundary and displayed a progressive return, coincident with the return of capsaicin sensitivity. These data suggest RTX may be a safe and effective treatment for postoperative or post-injury ophthalmic pain. PMID:20403666

  13. Prolonged analgesic response of cornea to topical resiniferatoxin, a potent TRPV1 agonist.

    PubMed

    Bates, Brian D; Mitchell, Kendall; Keller, Jason M; Chan, Chi-Chao; Swaim, William D; Yaskovich, Ruth; Mannes, Andrew J; Iadarola, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    Analgesics currently available for the treatment of pain following ophthalmic surgery or injury are limited by transient effectiveness and undesirable or adverse side effects. The cornea is primarily innervated by small-diameter C-fiber sensory neurons expressing TRPV1 (transient receptor potential channel, subfamily V, member 1), a sodium/calcium cation channel expressed abundantly by nociceptive neurons and consequently a target for pain control. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), a potent TRPV1 agonist, produces transient analgesia when injected peripherally by inactivating TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals through excessive calcium influx. The aim of the present study was to evaluate topical RTX as a corneal analgesic. In rat cornea, a single application of RTX dose dependently eliminated or reduced the capsaicin eye wipe response for 3-5 days, with normal nociceptive responses returning by 5-7 days. RTX alone produced a brief but intense noxious response, similar to capsaicin, necessitating pretreatment of the cornea with a local anesthetic. Topical lidocaine, applied prior to RTX, blocks acute nociceptive responses to RTX without impairing the subsequent analgesic effect. Importantly, RTX analgesia (a) did not impair epithelial wound healing, (b) left the blink reflex intact and (c) occurred without detectable histological damage to the cornea. Immunohistochemistry showed that loss of CGRP immunoreactivity, a surrogate marker for TRPV1-expressing fibers, extended at least to the corneal-scleral boundary and displayed a progressive return, coincident with the return of capsaicin sensitivity. These data suggest that RTX may be a safe and effective treatment for post-operative or post-injury ophthalmic pain. PMID:20403666

  14. Differential Regulation of Proton-Sensitive Ion Channels by Phospholipids: A Comparative Study between ASICs and TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Hae-Jin; Yu, Soo-Young; Kim, Dong-Il; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Protons are released in pain-generating pathological conditions such as inflammation, ischemic stroke, infection, and cancer. During normal synaptic activities, protons are thought to play a role in neurotransmission processes. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are typical proton sensors in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In addition to ASICs, capsaicin- and heat-activated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels can also mediate proton-mediated pain signaling. In spite of their importance in perception of pH fluctuations, the regulatory mechanisms of these proton-sensitive ion channels still need to be further investigated. Here, we compared regulation of ASICs and TRPV1 by membrane phosphoinositides, which are general cofactors of many receptors and ion channels. We observed that ASICs do not require membrane phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) for their function. However, TRPV1 currents were inhibited by simultaneous breakdown of PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. By using a novel chimeric protein, CF-PTEN, that can specifically dephosphorylate at the D3 position of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3), we also observed that neither ASICs nor TRPV1 activities were altered by depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3 in intact cells. Finally, we compared the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) on two proton-sensitive ion channels. We observed that AA potentiates the currents of both ASICs and TRPV1, but that they have different recovery aspects. In conclusion, ASICs and TRPV1 have different sensitivities toward membrane phospholipids, such as PI(4)P, PI(4,5)P2, and AA, although they have common roles as proton sensors. Further investigation about the complementary roles and respective contributions of ASICs and TRPV1 in proton-mediated signaling is necessary. PMID:25781982

  15. Differential Regulation of Proton-Sensitive Ion Channels by Phospholipids: A Comparative Study between ASICs and TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Hae-Jin; Yu, Soo-Young; Kim, Dong-Il; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Protons are released in pain-generating pathological conditions such as inflammation, ischemic stroke, infection, and cancer. During normal synaptic activities, protons are thought to play a role in neurotransmission processes. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are typical proton sensors in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In addition to ASICs, capsaicin- and heat-activated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels can also mediate proton-mediated pain signaling. In spite of their importance in perception of pH fluctuations, the regulatory mechanisms of these proton-sensitive ion channels still need to be further investigated. Here, we compared regulation of ASICs and TRPV1 by membrane phosphoinositides, which are general cofactors of many receptors and ion channels. We observed that ASICs do not require membrane phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) for their function. However, TRPV1 currents were inhibited by simultaneous breakdown of PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. By using a novel chimeric protein, CF-PTEN, that can specifically dephosphorylate at the D3 position of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3), we also observed that neither ASICs nor TRPV1 activities were altered by depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3 in intact cells. Finally, we compared the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) on two proton-sensitive ion channels. We observed that AA potentiates the currents of both ASICs and TRPV1, but that they have different recovery aspects. In conclusion, ASICs and TRPV1 have different sensitivities toward membrane phospholipids, such as PI(4)P, PI(4,5)P2, and AA, although they have common roles as proton sensors. Further investigation about the complementary roles and respective contributions of ASICs and TRPV1 in proton-mediated signaling is necessary. PMID:25781982

  16. Molecular Determinants of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) Binding to Transient Receptor Potential V1 (TRPV1) Channels.

    PubMed

    Poblete, Horacio; Oyarzún, Ingrid; Olivero, Pablo; Comer, Jeffrey; Zuńiga, Matías; Sepulveda, Romina V; Báez-Nieto, David; González Leon, Carlos; González-Nilo, Fernando; Latorre, Ramón

    2015-01-23

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) has been recognized as an important activator of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. More specifically, TRPV1 is a pain receptor activated by a wide range of stimuli. However, whether or not PI(4,5)P2 is a TRPV1 agonist remains open to debate. Utilizing a combined approach of mutagenesis and molecular modeling, we identified a PI(4,5)P2 binding site located between the TRP box and the S4-S5 linker. At this site, PI(4,5)P2 interacts with the amino acid residues Arg-575 and Arg-579 in the S4-S5 linker and with Lys-694 in the TRP box. We confirmed that PI(4,5)P2 behaves as a channel agonist and found that Arg-575, Arg-579, and Lys-694 mutations to alanine reduce PI(4,5)P2 binding affinity. Additionally, in silico mutations R575A, R579A, and K694A showed that the reduction in binding affinity results from the delocalization of PI(4,5)P2 in the binding pocket. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that PI(4,5)P2 binding induces conformational rearrangements of the structure formed by S6 and the TRP domain, which cause an opening of the lower TRPV1 channel gate. PMID:25425643

  17. Abundant expression and functional participation of TRPV1 at Zusanli acupoint (ST36) in mice: mechanosensitive TRPV1 as an “acupuncture-responding channel”

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is a therapy that involves applying mechanical stimulation to acupoints using needles. Although acupuncture is believed to trigger neural regulation by opioids or adenosine, still little is known about how physical stimulation is turned into neurological signaling. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors 1 and 4 (TRPV1 and TRPV4) and the acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) are regarded as mechanosensitive channels. This study aimed to clarify their role at the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) and propose possible sensing pathways linking channel activation to neurological signaling. Methods First, tissues from different anatomical layers of ST36 and the sham point were sampled, and channel expressions between the two points were compared using western blotting. Second, immunofluorescence was performed at ST36 to reveal distribution pattern of the channels. Third, agonist of the channels were injected into ST36 and tested in a mouse inflammatory pain model to seek if agonist injection could replicate acupuncture-like analgesic effect. Last, the components of proposed downstream sensing pathway were tested with western blotting to determine if they were expressed in tissues with positive mechanosensitive channel expression. Results The results from western blotting demonstrated an abundance of TRPV1, TRPV4, and ASIC3 in anatomical layers of ST36. Furthermore, immunofluorescence showed these channels were expressed in both neural and non-neural cells at ST36. However, only capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, replicated the analgesic effect of acupuncture when injected into ST36. Components of calcium wave propagation (CWP, the proposed downstream sensing pathway) were also expressed in tissues with abundant TRPV1 expression, the muscle and epimysium layers. Conclusions The results demonstrated mechanosensitive channel TRPV1 is highly expressed at ST36 and possibly participated in acupuncture related analgesia. Since CWP was reported by other to occur during acupuncture and its components were shown here to express in tissues with positive TRPV1 expression. These findings suggest TRPV1 might act as acupuncture-responding channel by sensing physical stimulation from acupuncture and conducting the signaling via CWP to nerve terminals. This study provided a better understanding between physical stimulation from acupuncture to neurological signaling. PMID:24612851

  18. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] from the plasma membrane through Ca(2+)-induced phospholipase C? (PLC?) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLC? indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25670203

  19. Unravelling the Mystery of Capsaicin: A Tool to Understand and Treat Pain

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Andresen, Trine; Nilsson, Matias; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2012-01-01

    A large number of pharmacological studies have used capsaicin as a tool to activate many physiological systems, with an emphasis on pain research but also including functions such as the cardiovascular system, the respiratory system, and the urinary tract. Understanding the actions of capsaicin led to the discovery its receptor, transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), part of the superfamily of TRP receptors, sensing external events. This receptor is found on key fine sensory afferents, and so the use of capsaicin to selectively activate pain afferents has been exploited in animal studies, human psychophysics, and imaging studies. Its effects depend on the dose and route of administration and may include sensitization, desensitization, withdrawal of afferent nerve terminals, or even overt death of afferent fibers. The ability of capsaicin to generate central hypersensitivity has been valuable in understanding the consequences and mechanisms behind enhanced central processing of pain. In addition, capsaicin has been used as a therapeutic agent when applied topically, and antagonists of the TRPV1 receptor have been developed. Overall, the numerous uses for capsaicin are clear; hence, the rationale of this review is to bring together and discuss the different types of studies that exploit these actions to shed light upon capsaicin working both as a tool to understand pain but also as a treatment for chronic pain. This review will discuss the various actions of capsaicin and how it lends itself to these different purposes. PMID:23023032

  20. Phenylarsine oxide as a redox modulator of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel function.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Kevin P; Wu, Gang; Patel, Aniket; Crumley, Gregg; Ilyin, Victor I

    2015-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels are capable of detecting and integrating noxious stimuli and play an important role in nociceptor activation and sensitization. It has been demonstrated that oxidizing agents are capable of positively modulating (sensitizing) the TRPV1 channel. The present study investigates the ability of the thiol-oxidizing agent phenylarsine oxide (PAO) to modulate TRPV1 currents under voltage-clamp conditions. We assessed the ability of PAO to modulate both proton- and capsaicin-activated currents mediated by recombinant human TRPV1 channels as well as native rat and human TRPV1 channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Experiments with other oxidizing and reducing agents having various membrane-permeating properties supported the intracellular oxidizing mechanism of PAO modulation. The PAO modulation of proton-activated currents was consistent across the cell types studied, with an increase in current across the proton concentrations studied. PAO modulation of the capsaicin-activated current in hTRPV1/Chinese hamster ovary cells consisted of potentiation of the current elicited with low capsaicin concentrations and inhibition of the current at higher concentrations. This same effect was seen with these recombinant cells in calcium imaging experiments and with native TRPV1 channels in rat DRG neurons. Contrary to this, currents in human DRG neurons were potentiated at all capsaicin concentrations tested after PAO treatment. These results could indicate important differences in the reduction-oxidation modulation of human TRPV1 channels in a native cellular environment. PMID:25250537

  1. Structure-activity relationship studies and discovery of a potent transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) antagonist 4-[3-chloro-5-[(1S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-2-pyridyl]-N-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyl]-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyridine-1-carboxamide (V116517) as a clinical candidate for pain management.

    PubMed

    Tafesse, Laykea; Kanemasa, Toshiyuki; Kurose, Noriyuki; Yu, Jianming; Asaki, Toshiyuki; Wu, Gang; Iwamoto, Yuka; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Ni, Chiyou; Engel, John; Tsuno, Naoki; Patel, Aniket; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shintani, Takuya; Brown, Kevin; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Shet, Manjunath; Iso, Yasuyoshi; Kato, Akira; Kyle, Donald J

    2014-08-14

    A series of novel tetrahydropyridinecarboxamide TRPV1 antagonists were prepared and evaluated in an effort to optimize properties of previously described lead compounds from piperazinecarboxamide series. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to block capsaicin and acid-induced calcium influx in CHO cells expressing human TRPV1. The most potent of these TRPV1 antagonists were further characterized in pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and body temperature studies. On the basis of its pharmacokinetic, in vivo efficacy, safety, and toxicological properties, compound 37 was selected for further evaluation in human clinical trials. PMID:25057800

  2. No relevant modulation of TRPV1-mediated trigeminal pain by intranasal carbon dioxide in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nasal insufflation of CO2 has been shown to exert antinociceptive respectively antihyperalgesic effects in animal pain models using topical capsaicin with activation of TRPV1-receptor positive nociceptive neurons. Clinical benefit from CO2 inhalation in patients with craniofacial pain caused by a putative activation of TRPV1 receptor positive trigeminal neurons has also been reported. These effects are probably mediated via an activation of TRPV1 receptor - positive neurons in the nasal mucosa with subsequent central inhibitory effects (such as conditioned pain modulation). In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of intranasal CO2 on a human model of craniofacial pain elicited by nasal application of capsaicin. Methods In a first experiment, 48 healthy volunteers without previous craniofacial pain received intranasal capsaicin to provoke trigeminal pain elicited by activation of TRVP1 positive nociceptive neurons. Then, CO2 or air was insufflated alternatingly into the nasal cavity at a flow rate of 1 l/min for 60 sec each. In the subsequent experiment, all participants were randomized into 2 groups of 24 each and received either continuous nasal insufflation of CO2 or placebo for 18:40 min after nociceptive stimulation with intranasal capsaicin. In both experiments, pain was rated on a numerical rating scale every 60 sec. Results Contrary to previous animal studies, the effects of CO2 on experimental trigeminal pain were only marginal. In the first experiment, CO2 reduced pain ratings only minimally by 5.3% compared to air if given alternatingly with significant results for the main factor GROUP (F1,47?=?4.438; p?=?0.041) and the interaction term TIME*GROUP (F2.6,121.2?=?3.3; p?=?0.029) in the repeated-measures ANOVA. However, these effects were abrogated after continuous insufflation of CO2 or placebo with no significant changes for the main factors or the interaction term. Conclusions Although mild modulatory effects of low-flow intranasal CO2 could be seen in this human model of TRPV-1 mediated activation of nociceptive trigeminal neurons, utility is limited as observed changes in pain ratings are clinically non-significant. PMID:23574808

  3. Capsaicin Induces “Brite” Phenotype in Differentiating 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Baboota, Ritesh K.; Singh, Dhirendra P.; Sarma, Siddhartha M.; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sandhir, Rajat; Boparai, Ravneet K.; Kondepudi, Kanthi K.; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Targeting the energy storing white adipose tissue (WAT) by pharmacological and dietary means in order to promote its conversion to energy expending “brite” cell type holds promise as an anti-obesity approach. Present study was designed to investigate/revisit the effect of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation with special reference to induction of “brite” phenotype during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods Multiple techniques such as Ca2+ influx assay, Oil Red-O staining, nutrigenomic analysis in preadipocytes and matured adipocytes have been employed to understand the effect of capsaicin at different doses. In addition to in-vitro experiments, in-vivo studies were carried out in high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats treated with resiniferatoxin (RTX) (a TRPV1 agonist) and in mice administered capsaicin. Results TRPV1 channels are expressed in preadipocytes but not in adipocytes. In preadipocytes, both capsaicin and RTX stimulate Ca2+ influx in dose-dependent manner. This stimulation may be prevented by capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist. At lower doses, capsaicin inhibits lipid accumulation and stimulates TRPV1 gene expression, while at higher doses it enhances accumulation of lipids and suppresses expression of its receptor. In doses of 0.1–100 µM, capsaicin promotes expression of major pro-adipogenic factor PPAR? and some of its downstream targets. In concentrations of 1 µM, capsaicin up-regulates anti-adipogenic genes. Low-dose capsaicin treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiating into adipocytes results in increased expression of brown fat cell marker genes. In white adipose of mice, capsaicin administration leads to increase in browning-specific genes. Global TRPV1 ablation (i.p. by RTX administration) leads to increase in locomotor activity with no change in body weight. Conclusion Our findings suggest the dual modulatory role of capsaicin in adipogenesis. Capsaicin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 via TRPV1 activation and induces brown-like phenotype whereas higher doses. PMID:25072597

  4. Osmotic and thermal control of magnocellular neurosecretory neurons--role of an N-terminal variant of trpv1.

    PubMed

    Sudbury, Jessica R; Ciura, Sorana; Sharif-Naeini, Reza; Bourque, Charles W

    2010-12-01

    The release of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) plays a key role in the osmoregulatory response of mammals to changes in salt or water intake and in the rate of water loss through evaporation during thermoregulatory cooling. Previous work has shown that the hypothalamus encloses the sensory elements that modulate vasopressin release during systemic changes in fluid osmolality or body temperature. These responses depend in part on a synaptic regulation of vasopressin neurons by afferent inputs arising from osmosensory and thermosensory neurons in the preoptic area. However, recent studies in rats and mice have shown that vasopressin neurons in the supraoptic nucleus also display intrinsic osmosensory and thermosensory properties. Isolated vasopressin neurons exposed to increases in perfusate temperature or osmolality generate increases in non-selective cation channel activity that cause membrane depolarization and increase neuronal excitability. These channels are calcium-permeable and can be blocked by ruthenium red. Moreover, intrinsic responses to osmotic and thermal stimuli are absent in magnocellular neurosecretory cells isolated from mice lacking the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (trpv1) gene, which encodes the capsaicin receptor. Immunostaining of vasopressin-releasing neurons with anti-TRPV1 antibodies reveals the presence of amino acids present in the carboxy terminus of the protein, but not those lying in the amino terminal domain. Thus, magnocellular neurosecretory neurons appear to express an N-terminal variant of trpv1 which lacks sensitivity to capsaicin, but which enables osmosensing and thermosensing. PMID:21143657

  5. TLR4 enhances histamine-mediated pruritus by potentiating TRPV1 activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have indicated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pathogen-recognition receptor that triggers inflammatory signals in innate immune cells, is also expressed on sensory neurons, implicating its putative role in sensory signal transmission. However, the possible function of sensory neuron TLR4 has not yet been formally addressed. In this regard, we investigated the role of TLR4 in itch signal transmission. Results TLR4 was expressed on a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons that express TRPV1. In TLR4-knockout mice, histamine-induced itch responses were compromised while TLR4 activation by LPS did not directly elicit an itch response. Histamine-induced intracellular calcium signals and inward currents were comparably reduced in TLR4-deficient sensory neurons. Reduced histamine sensitivity in the TLR4-deficient neurons was accompanied by a decrease in TRPV1 activity. Heterologous expression experiments in HEK293T cells indicated that TLR4 expression enhanced capsaicin-induced intracellular calcium signals and inward currents. Conclusions Our data show that TLR4 on sensory neurons enhances histamine-induced itch signal transduction by potentiating TRPV1 activity. The results suggest that TLR4 could be a novel target for the treatment of enhanced itch sensation. PMID:25139109

  6. Capsaicin-sensitive cough receptors in lower airway are responsible for cough hypersensitivity in patients with upper airway cough syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li; Xu, Xianghuai; Wang, Lan; Yang, Zhongmin; Lü, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Cough hypersensitivity may be related to the pathogenesis of upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of capsaicin-sensitive cough receptors on the laryngopharynx and lower airway in the cough hypersensitivity of patients with UACS. Material/Methods 59 patients with UACS, 33 patients with rhinitis/sinusitis without cough, and 39 healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. Cough threshold C5, defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin required for the induction of ?5 coughs upon esposure to capsaicin, were determined at baseline and after laryngopharngeal anesthesia with lidocaine in all the subjects. After induced sputum cytology, the concentrations of histamine, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGPR) in the induced sputum were measured by ELISA. In 15 patients with UACS, sputum cytology and measurement of the above mediators were repeated after successful therapy. Results C5 response to capsaicin was significantly lower in the UACS group than in the rhinitis/sinusitis group and healthy control groups [3.9 (0.98, 7.8) ?mol/L vs. 7.8 (3.9, 93.75) ?mol/L vs. 31.2 (15.6, 62.5) ?mol/L, H=40.12, P=0.000]. Laryngopharngeal anesthesia with lidocaine dramatically increased C5 to capsaicin in the subjects of all 3 groups by a similar degree, but the increase in the UACS group was still the lowest, with an increased level of histamine, PGE2, and CGRP in the induced sputum. When cough resolved with the treatment of cetirizine alone or in combination with erythromycin, the levels of CGRP and histamine in the induced sputum decreased significantly in 15 patients with UACS, with no obvious change in cell differential or concentration of PGE2 in the induced sputum. Conclusions Laryngeal TRPV1 plays an important role in cough sensitivity, but sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive cough receptors in the lower airway may be more responsible for the cough hypersensitivity in patients with UACS. PMID:24296694

  7. Homocysteine and cytosolic GSH depletion induce apoptosis and oxidative toxicity through cytosolic calcium overload in the hippocampus of aged mice: involvement of TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Övey, I S; Naziro?lu, M

    2015-01-22

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis were induced in neuronal cultures by inhibition of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis with d,l-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO). Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channels are gated by oxidative stress. The oxidant effects of homocysteine (Hcy) may induce activation of TRPV1 and TRPM2 channels in aged mice as a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We tested the effects of Hcy, BSO and GSH on oxidative stress, apoptosis and Ca2+ and influx via TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels in the hippocampus of mice. Native mice hippocampal neurons were divided into five groups as follows; control, Hcy, BSO, Hcy+BSO and Hcy+BSO+GSH groups. The neurons in TRPM2 and TRPV1 experiments were stimulated by hydrogen peroxide and capsaicin, respectively. BSO and Hcy incubations increased intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, mitochondrial depolarization, and levels of caspase 3 and 9. All of these increases were reduced by GSH treatments. Treatment with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA) as potent inhibitors of TRPM2, capsazepine as a potent inhibitor of TRPV1, verapamil+diltiazem (V+D) as inhibitors of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) and MK-801 as a N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) channel antagonist indicated that GSH depletion and Hcy elevation activated Ca2+ entry into the neurons through TRPM2, TRPV1, VGCC and NMDA channels. Inhibitor roles of 2-APB and capsazepine on the Ca2+ entry higher than in V+D and MK-801 antagonists. In conclusion, these findings support the idea that GSH depletion and Hcy elevation can have damaging effects on hippocampal neurons by perturbing calcium homeostasis, mainly through TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels. GSH treatment can partially reverse these effects. PMID:25305668

  8. Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 Regulates TRPV1 Phosphorylation in Sensory Neurons*

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 Regulates TRPV1 Phosphorylation in Sensory Neurons* Received yet to be resolved. Because phospho- rylation of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential subtype V1) plays the cannabi- noid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) regulates the phosphoryla- tion state of TRPV1. Here, we show

  9. TGF-?1 sensitizes TRPV1 through Cdk5 signaling in odontoblast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Odontoblasts are specialized cells that form dentin and they are believed to be sensors for tooth pain. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine expressed early in odontoblasts, plays an important role in the immune response during tooth inflammation and infection. TGF-?1 is also known to participate in pain signaling by regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in nociceptive neurons of the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. However, the precise role of TGF-?1 in tooth pain signaling is not well characterized. The aim of our present study was to determine whether or not in odontoblasts Cdk5 is functionally active, if it is regulated by TGF-?1, and if it affects the downstream pain receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). Results We first determined that Cdk5 and p35 are indeed expressed in an odontoblast-enriched primary preparation from murine teeth. For the subsequent analysis, we used an odontoblast-like cell line (MDPC-23) and found that Cdk5 is functionally active in these cells and its kinase activity is upregulated during cell differentiation. We found that TGF-?1 treatment potentiated Cdk5 kinase activity in undifferentiated MDPC-23 cells. SB431542, a specific inhibitor of TGF-?1 receptor 1 (Tgfbr1), when co-administered with TGF-?1, blocked the induction of Cdk5 activity. TGF-?1 treatment also activated the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, causing an increase in early growth response-1 (Egr-1), a transcription factor that induces p35 expression. In MDPC-23 cells transfected with TRPV1, Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV1 at threonine-407 was significantly increased after TGF-?1 treatment. In contrast, SB431542 co-treatment blocked TRPV1 phosphorylation. Moreover, TGF-?1 treatment enhanced both proton- and capsaicin-induced Ca2+ influx in TRPV1-expressing MDPC-23 cells, while co-treatment with either SB431542 or roscovitine blocked this effect. Conclusions Cdk5 and p35 are expressed in a murine odontoblast-enriched primary preparation of cells from teeth. Cdk5 is also functionally active in odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. TGF-?1 sensitizes TRPV1 through Cdk5 signaling in MDPC-23 cells, suggesting the direct involvement of odontoblasts and Cdk5 in dental nociceptive pain transduction. PMID:23668392

  10. Nicotinic Acid is a Common Regulator of Heat-Sensing TRPV1-4 Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Linlin; Lee, Bo Hyun; Clifton, Heather; Schaefer, Saul; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA, a.k.a. vitamin B3 or niacin) can reduce blood cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins whereas increase high-density lipoproteins. However, when NA is used to treat dyslipidemias, it causes a strong side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly called flushing. A recent study showed that NA may cause flushing by lowering activation threshold temperature of the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel, leading to its activation at body temperature. The finding calls into question whether NA might also interact with the homologous heat-sensitive TRPV2-4 channels, particularly given that TRPV3 and TRPV4 are abundantly expressed in keratinocytes of the skin where much of the flushing response occurs. We found that NA indeed potentiated TRPV3 while inhibited TRPV2 and TRPV4. Consistent with these gating effects, NA lowered the heat-activation threshold of TRPV3 but elevated that of TRPV4. We further found that activity of TRPV1 was substantially prolonged by extracellular NA, which may further enhance the direct activation effect. Consistent with the broad gating effect on TRPV1-4 channels, evidence from the present study hints that NA may share the same activation pathway as 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common agonist for these TRPV channels. These findings shed new light on the molecular mechanism underlying NA regulation of TRPV channels. PMID:25752528

  11. Capsaicin modulates acetylcholine release at the myoneural junction.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Potian, Joseph G; Baskaran, Padmamalini; McArdle, Joseph J

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are non-selective cation channel proteins that are expressed throughout the body. Previous studies demonstrated the expression of TRP Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), capsaicin (CAP) receptor, in sensory neurons. Recently, we reported TRPV1 expression in mouse motor nerve terminals [MNTs; (Thyagarajan et al., 2009)], where we observed that CAP protected MNTs from botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A). Phrenic nerve diaphragm nerve muscle preparations (NMP) isolated from isoflurane anesthetized adult mice were analyzed for twitch tension, spontaneous (mEPCs) and nerve stimulus evoked (EPCs) acetylcholine release. When acutely applied to isolated NMP, CAP produced a concentration-dependent decline of twitch tension and produced a significant decline in the amplitude of EPCs and quantal content without any effect on the mEPCs. The suppression of nerve stimulus evoked acetylcholine release by CAP was antagonized by capsazepine (CPZ), a TRPV1 antagonist. CAP did not suppress phrenic nerve stimulus evoked acetylcholine release in TRPV1 knockout mice. Also, CAP treatment, in vitro, interfered with the localization of adapter protein 2 in cholinergic Neuro 2a cells. Wortmannin, (WMN; non-selective phosphoinositol kinase inhibitor), mimicked the effects of CAP by inhibiting the acetylcholine exocytosis. Our data suggest that TRPV1 proteins expressed at the MNT are coupled to the exo-endocytic mechanisms to regulate neuromuscular functions. PMID:25446918

  12. Neuroprotection induced by N-acetylcysteine against cytosolic glutathione depletion-induced Ca2+ influx in dorsal root ganglion neurons of mice: role of TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Naz?ro?lu, M; Ci?, B; Ozgül, C

    2013-07-01

    Glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are thiol-containing antioxidants, and also act through a direct reaction with free radicals. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is the principal transduction channel serving as a polymodal detector. Despite the importance of oxidative stress in pain sensitivity, its role in TRPV1 modulation is poorly understood. NAC may also have a regulator role on TRPV1 channel activity in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron. Therefore, we tested the effects of GSH and NAC on TRPV1 channel current, Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress and caspase activity in the DRG of mice. DRG neurons were freshly isolated from mice and the neurons were incubated for 6 and 24h with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Pretreatment of cultured DRG neurons with NAC, results in a protection against oxidative damages. This neuroprotection is associated with the attenuation of a Ca(2+) influx triggered by oxidative agents such as H2O2, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and GSH depletion via BSO. Here, we demonstrate the contribution of cytosolic factors (related to thiol group depletion) on the activation of TRPV1 channels in this mechanism. TRPV1 channels are activated by various agents including capsaicin (CAP), the pungent component of hot chili peppers, and are blocked by capsazepine. An oxidative environment also increased CAP-evoked TRPV1 currents in the neurons. When NAC and GSH were included in the patch pipette as well as extracellularly in the chamber, TRPV1 channels were not activated by CAP and H2O2. TRPV1 inhibitors, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid strongly reduced BSO-induced oxidative toxicity and Ca(2+) influx, in a manner similar to pretreatment with NAC and GSH. Caspase-3 and -9 activities of all groups were not changed by the agonists or antagonists. In conclusion, in our experimental model, TRPV1 channels are involved in the oxidative stress-induced neuronal death, and negative modulation of this channel activity by GSH and NAC pretreatment may account for their neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress. PMID:23545271

  13. Protein Kinase A Anchoring via AKAP150 Is Essential for TRPV1 Modulation by Forskolin and Prostaglandin E2 in Mouse Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Schnizler, Katrin; Shutov, Leonid P.; Van Kanegan, Michael J.; Merrill, Michelle A.; Nichols, Blake; McKnight, G. Stanley; Strack, Stefan; Hell, Johannes W.; Usachev, Yuriy M.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation-dependent modulation of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is one of the key mechanisms mediating the hyperalgesic effects of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, little is known about the molecular organization of the TRPV1 phosphorylation complex and specifically about scaffolding proteins that position the protein kinase A (PKA) holoenzyme proximal to TRPV1 for effective and selective regulation of the receptor. Here, we demonstrate the critical role of the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP150 in PKA-dependent modulation of TRPV1 function in adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We found that AKAP150 is expressed in ?80% of TRPV1-positive DRG neurons and is coimmunoprecipitated with the capsaicin receptor. In functional studies, PKA stimulation with forskolin markedly reduced desensitization of TRPV1. This effect was blocked by the PKA selective inhibitors KT5720 [(9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3?,2?,1?-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylicacid hexyl ester] and H89 (N-[2-(p-bromo-cinnamylamino)-ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfon-amide 2HCl), as well as by the AKAP inhibitory peptide Ht31. Similarly, PGE2 decreased TRPV1 desensitization in a manner sensitive to the PKA inhibitor KT5720. Both the forskolin and PGE2 effects were strongly impaired in DRG neurons from knock-in mice that express a mutant AKAP150 lacking the PKA-binding domain (?36 mice). Protein kinase C-dependent sensitization of TRPV1 remained intact in ?36 mice. The PGE2/PKA signaling defect in DRG neurons from ?36 mice was rescued by overexpressing the full-length human ortholog of AKAP150 in these cells. In behavioral testing, PGE2-induced thermal hyperalgesia was significantly diminished in ?36 mice. Together, these data suggest that PKA anchoring by AKAP150 is essential for the enhancement of TRPV1 function by activation of the PGE2/PKA signaling pathway. PMID:18463244

  14. Phenotyping the function of TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons by targeted axonal silencing.

    PubMed

    Brenneis, Christian; Kistner, Katrin; Puopolo, Michelino; Segal, David; Roberson, David; Sisignano, Marco; Labocha, Sandra; Ferreirós, Nerea; Strominger, Amanda; Cobos, Enrique J; Ghasemlou, Nader; Geisslinger, Gerd; Reeh, Peter W; Bean, Bruce P; Woolf, Clifford J

    2013-01-01

    Specific somatosensations may be processed by different subsets of primary afferents. C-fibers expressing heat-sensitive TRPV1 channels are proposed, for example, to be heat but not mechanical pain detectors. To phenotype in rats the sensory function of TRPV1(+) afferents, we rapidly and selectively silenced only their activity, by introducing the membrane-impermeant sodium channel blocker QX-314 into these axons via the TRPV1 channel pore. Using tandem mass spectrometry we show that upon activation with capsaicin, QX-314 selectively accumulates in the cytosol only of TRPV1-expressing cells, and not in control cells. Exposure to QX-314 and capsaicin induces in small DRG neurons a robust sodium current block within 30 s. In sciatic nerves, application of extracellular QX-314 with capsaicin persistently reduces C-fiber but not A-fiber compound action potentials and this effect does not occur in TRPV1(-/-) mice. Behavioral phenotyping after selectively silencing TRPV1(+) sciatic nerve axons by perineural injections of QX-314 and capsaicin reveals deficits in heat and mechanical pressure but not pinprick or light touch perception. The response to intraplantar capsaicin is substantially reduced, as expected. During inflammation, silencing TRPV1(+) axons abolishes heat, mechanical, and cold hyperalgesia but tactile and cold allodynia remain following peripheral nerve injury. These results indicate that TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons process particular thermal and mechanical somatosensations, and that the sensory channels activated by mechanical and cold stimuli to produce pain in naive/inflamed rats differ from those in animals after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:23283344

  15. Novel endogenous N-acyl amides activate TRPV1-4 receptors, BV-2 microglia, and are regulated in brain in an acute model of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Raboune, Siham; Stuart, Jordyn M.; Leishman, Emma; Takacs, Sara M.; Rhodes, Brandon; Basnet, Arjun; Jameyfield, Evan; McHugh, Douglas; Widlanski, Theodore; Bradshaw, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    A family of endogenous lipids, structurally analogous to the endogenous cannabinoid, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (Anandamide), and called N-acyl amides have emerged as a family of biologically active compounds at TRP receptors. N-acyl amides are constructed from an acyl group and an amine via an amide bond. This same structure can be modified by changing either the fatty acid or the amide to form potentially hundreds of lipids. More than 70 N-acyl amides have been identified in nature. We have ongoing studies aimed at isolating and characterizing additional members of the family of N-acyl amides in both central and peripheral tissues in mammalian systems. Here, using a unique in-house library of over 70 N-acyl amides we tested the following three hypotheses: (1) Additional N-acyl amides will have activity at TRPV1-4, (2) Acute peripheral injury will drive changes in CNS levels of N-acyl amides, and (3) N-acyl amides will regulate calcium in CNS-derived microglia. Through these studies, we have identified 20 novel N-acyl amides that collectively activate (stimulating or inhibiting) TRPV1-4. Using lipid extraction and HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry we showed that levels of at least 10 of these N-acyl amides that activate TRPVs are regulated in brain after intraplantar carrageenan injection. We then screened the BV2 microglial cell line for activity with this N-acyl amide library and found overlap with TRPV receptor activity as well as additional activators of calcium mobilization from these lipids. Together these data provide new insight into the family of N-acyl amides and their roles as signaling molecules at ion channels, in microglia, and in the brain in the context of inflammation. PMID:25136293

  16. Inhibitory effect of Iboga-type indole alkaloids on capsaicin-induced contraction in isolated mouse rectum.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mee Wah; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Iwai, Masumi; Tashima, Kimihito; Kitajima, Mariko; Horie, Syunji; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Voacanga africana (Apocynaceae) is used as an anti-diarrheal medicine in West Africa. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an extract of V. africana and its constituents on smooth muscle contraction induced by capsaicin in mouse rectum, where transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1)-immunoreactive fibers are abundant. Methanol and alkaloid extracts of the root bark of V. africana were found to inhibit capsaicin-induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner (30-300 ?g/ml). Major constituents isolated from the alkaloid extract were then studied for their effects on the capsaicin-induced contraction. The main active constituents were found to be Iboga-type alkaloids, including voacangine (1), 3-oxovoacangine (2), voacristine (3), and (7?)-voacangine hydroxyindolenine (4). The voacangine concentration dependently (3-100 ?M) inhibited the capsaicin-induced contraction. The capsaicin-induced contraction was almost completely inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonist, N-(4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carbox-amide (BCTC). On the other hand, the Iboga-type alkaloids did not inhibit the contractions induced by 3 ?M acetylcholine and 300 ?M nicotine. These results suggest that Iboga-type alkaloids isolated from V. africana inhibit capsaicin-induced contraction in the mouse rectum, possibly via the inhibition of a TRPV1-mediated pathway. This inhibition may be involved in the anti-diarrheal effect of V. africana. PMID:21042867

  17. Capsaicin-sensitive intestinal mucosal afferent mechanism and body fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Leung, Felix W

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes clinical and experimental data in support of the hypothesis that capsaicin-sensitive intestinal mucosal afferent mechanism plays a role in regulating body fat distribution. Epidemiological data have revealed that the consumption of foods containing capsaicin is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity. Rural Thai people consume diets containing 0.014% capsaicin. Rodents fed a diet containing 0.014% capsaicin showed no change in caloric intake but a significant 24% and 29% reduction in the visceral (peri-renal) fat weight. Increase in intestinal blood flow facilitates nutrient energy absorption and decrease in adipose tissue blood flow facilitates storage of nutrient energy in adipose tissue. Stimulation of intestinal mucosal afferent nerves increases intestinal blood flow, but decreases visceral (mesenteric) adipost tissue blood flow. In in vitro cell studies capsaicin has a direct effect on adipocytes. Intravenous capsaicin produces measurable plasma level and subcutaneous capsaicin retards accumulation of adipose tissue. The data on a direct effect of oral capsaicin on adipose tissue at remote sites, however, are conflicting. Capsaicin absorbed from the gut lumen is almost completely metabolized before reaching the general circulation. Oral capsaicin significantly increases transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel expression as well as TRPV1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in visceral adipose tissue. In TRPV1 knockout mice on a high fat diet the body weight was not significantly different in the absence or presence of oral capsaicin. In rodent experiments, daily intragastric administration of capsaicin for two weeks led to defunctionalization of intestinal mucosal afferent nerves, manifested by loss of acute mucosal capsaicin-induced effects; but not the corneal afferent nerves, with preservation of the paw wiping reflex of the eye exposed briefly to dilute capsaicin. The latter indicated the absence of an oral capsaicin effect at one remote site. There was an accompanying decrease and an increase in the proportion of body fat in visceral and subcutaenous compartments, respectively. Taken together, if oral capsaicin could regulate adipose tissue distribution, the process might involve the effect of intestinal mucosal afferent nerves in modulating intestinal and visceral adipose tissue blood flow. The hypothesis that the intestinal mucosal afferent mechanism is a plausible therapeutic target for abating visceral obesity deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:18541272

  18. N-acetyl cysteine reduces oxidative toxicity, apoptosis, and calcium entry through TRPV1 channels in the neutrophils of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Köse, S A; Naz?ro?lu, M

    2015-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common inflammatory and oxidant disease with an uncertain pathogenesis. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) decreases oxidative stress, intracellular free calcium ion [Ca(2+)]i, and apoptosis levels in human neutrophil. We aimed to investigate the effects of NAC on apoptosis, oxidative stress, and Ca(2+) entry through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels in neutrophils from patients with PCOS. Neutrophils isolated from PCOS group were investigated in three settings: (1) after incubation with TRPV1 channel blocker capsazepine or TRPM2 channel blocker 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB), (2) after supplementation with NAC (for 6 weeks), and (3) with combination (capsazepine + 2-APB + NAC) exposure. The neutrophils in TRPM2 and TRPV1 experiments were stimulated by N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP; 1 ?M) and capsaicin (10 ?M) as concentration agonists, respectively. Neutrophil lipid peroxidation and capsaicin-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i concentrations were reduced by capsazepine and NAC treatments. However, the [Ca(2+)]i concentration did not change by fMLP stimulation. Neutrophil lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytosolic reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization values were decreased by NAC treatment although neutrophil glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were increased by the NAC treatment. Serum lipid peroxidation, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, insulin, interleukin-1 beta, and homocysteine levels were decreased by NAC treatment although serum vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin E, and total antioxidant status were increased by the NAC treatment. In conclusion, NAC reduced oxidative stress, apoptosis, cytokine levels, and Ca(2+) entry through TRPV1 channel, which provide supportive evidence that oxidative stress and TRPV1 channel plays a key role in etiology of PCOS. PMID:25666878

  19. TRPV1 is important for mechanical and heat sensitivity in uninjured animals and development of heat hypersensitivity after muscle inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Walder, Roxanne Y.; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Loo, Lipin; Rasmussen, Lynn A.; Mohapatra, Durga P.; Wilson, Steven P.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia is principally mediated through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, as demonstrated by prior studies using models of cutaneous inflammation. Muscle pain is significantly different from cutaneous pain, and the involvement of TRPV1 in hyperalgesia induced by muscle inflammation is unknown. We tested whether TRPV1 contributes to the development of mechanical and heat hypersensitivity of the paw in TRPV1?/? mice after muscle inflammation. Because TRPV1?/? mice lack TRPV1 at the site of inflammation (muscle) and at the testing site (paw), we do not know whether TRPV1 is important as a mediator of nociceptor sensitization in the muscle or as a heat sensor in the paw. Using recombinant herpesviruses, we reexpressed TRPV1 in TRPV1?/? mice in primary afferents innervating skin, muscle, or both to determine which sites were important for the behavioral deficits. Responses to repeated application of noxious mechanical stimuli to the hind paw were enhanced in TRPV1?/? mice; this was restored by reexpression of TRPV1 into skin. Withdrawal latencies to noxious heat were increased in TRPV1?/? mice; normal latencies were restored by reexpression of TRPV1 in both skin and muscle. Heat hypersensitivity induced by muscle inflammation did not develop in TRPV1?/? mice; mechanical hypersensitivity was similar between TRPV1?/? and TRPV1+/+ mice. Heat hypersensitivity induced by muscle inflammation was restored by reexpression of TRPV1 into both muscle and skin of TRPV1?/? mice. These results suggest that TRPV1 serves as both a mediator of nociceptor sensitization at the site of inflammation and as a heat sensor at the paw. PMID:22694790

  20. [Capsaicin in treatment of neuropathic pain].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of neuropathic pain (NP) is a serious medical problem. Antiepileptic drugs and antidepressants, used to relief pain, act on the central pain mechanisms and cause several side-effects, thus substantially restricting possibilities of their clinical application.At the same time, NP often has a peripheral component. Ligand-associated channels, including vanilloid receptors TRPV1, play a key role in the development of regional NP syndromes. Capsaicin, a component of chili pepper and several other plants, is a highly selective ligand of TRPV1 receptors and has long been used in treatment of pain syndromes. However, its using is limited by short-term action and relatively low efficacy. Recently it has been shown that the local use of single high doses of capsaicin during 30-60 min causes a marked stable(> 12 weeks) effect. The decrease in NP (>50%) is seen in about half of patients. Current studies will allow to single out groups of patients with the maximal treatment effect of capsaicin. PMID:25629137

  1. Allyl isothiocyanate sensitizes TRPV1 to heat stimulation.

    PubMed

    Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Gees, Maarten; Sanchez, Alicia; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2014-03-01

    The powerful plant-derived irritant allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, aka mustard oil) induces hyperalgesia to heat in rodents and humans through mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. It is generally believed that AITC activates the broadly tuned chemosensory cation channel transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1), triggering an inflammatory response that sensitizes the heat sensor transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). In the view of recent data demonstrating that AITC can directly activate TRPV1, we here explored the possibility that this compound sensitizes TRPV1 to heat stimulation in a TRPA1-independent manner. Patch-clamp recordings and intracellular Ca(2+) imaging experiments in HEK293T cells over-expressing mouse TRPV1 revealed that the increase in channel activation induced by heating is larger in the presence of AITC than in control conditions. The analysis of the effects of AITC and heat on the current-voltage relationship of TRPV1 indicates that the mechanism of sensitization is based on additive shifts of the voltage dependence of activation towards negative voltages. Finally, intracellular Ca(2+) imaging experiments in mouse sensory neurons isolated from Trpa1 KO mice yielded that AITC enhances the response to heat, specifically in the subpopulation expressing TRPV1. Furthermore, this effect was strongly reduced by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine and virtually absent in neurons isolated from double Trpa1/Trpv1 KO mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TRPV1 is a locus for cross sensitization between AITC and heat in sensory neurons and may help explaining, at least in part, the role of this channel in AITC-induced hyperalgesia to heat. PMID:23955021

  2. Jellyfish and other cnidarian envenomations cause pain by affecting TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Karlsson, Evert; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Cnidarian envenomations cause a burning-pain sensation of which the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Activation of TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, leads to cell depolarisation and pain. Here, we show in vitro and in vivo evidence for desensitization-dependent TRPV1 activation in cnidarian envenomations. Cnidarian venom induced a nociceptive reactivity, comparable to capsaicin, in laboratory rats, which could be reduced by the selective TRPV1 antagonist, BCTC. These findings are the first to explain at least part of the symptomology of cnidarian envenomations and provide insights into the design of more effective treatments for this global public health problem. PMID:17010344

  3. Capsaicin inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis growth, biofilm formation, gingivomucosal inflammatory cytokine secretion, and in vitro osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Guan, X; Zhu, W; Liu, Z; Wang, X; Yu, H; Wang, H

    2014-02-01

    The prevention and treatment of periodontitis requires not only the control of causative pathogens, especially Porphyromonas gingivalis, but also the regulation of inflammatory immune response. Investigating auxiliary drugs for periodontitis during conventional treatments is, thus, quite important. Capsaicin, an agonist for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1), due to its bacteriostatic activity against Gram-negative bacteria and anti-inflammatory effects, appears to be a promising drug. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of capsaicin against P. gingivalis and biofilm formation, inflammatory cytokine levels in experimental periodontitis, osteoclast precursor proliferation, and osteoclastogenesis in vitro were fully investigated. The results showed that capsaicin inhibited P. gingivalis growth with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 16 and 64 mg/l, respectively. Capsaicin also inhibited P. gingivalis biofilm formation, with minimum biofilm inhibition concentrations MBIC50 and MBIC90 of 16 and 32 mg/l, respectively, and reduced pre-formed biofilms' viability with a minimum biofilm reduction concentration MBRC50 of 64 mg/l, as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In experimental periodontitis, except for IL-10, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12, and iNOS were depressed after capsaicin treatment. Moreover, capsaicin also suppressed osteoclast precursor proliferation and osteoclastogenesis, as demonstrated by NF-?B p65. However, this favorable effect was attenuated by the TRPV1 antagonist, camphor. It, thus, suggests that capsaicin is a potential drug for the auxiliary treatment of periodontitis. TRPV1 activation may involve in beneficial roles of capsaicin on periodontitis. PMID:23955115

  4. Calcium transient evoked by TRPV1 activators is enhanced by tumor necrosis factor-? in rat pulmonary sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Youmin; Gu, Qihai; Lin, Ruei-Lung; Kryscio, Richard

    2010-01-01

    TNF?, a proinflammatory cytokine known to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, has been shown to induce hyperalgesia in somatic tissue via a sensitizing effect on dorsal root ganglion neurons expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor (TRPV1). Because TRPV1-expressing pulmonary sensory neurons play an important role in regulating airway function, this study was carried out to determine whether TNF? alters the sensitivity of these neurons to chemical activators. Responses of isolated nodose and jugular ganglion neurons innervating the rat lungs were determined by measuring the transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Our results showed the following. 1) A pretreatment with TNF? (50 ng/ml) for ?24 h increased significantly the peak ?[Ca2+]i evoked by capsaicin (Cap) in these neurons. A pretreatment with the same concentration of TNF? for a longer duration (?48 h) did not further increase the response, but pretreatment for a shorter duration (1 h) or with a lower concentration (25 ng/ml, 24 h) failed to enhance the Cap sensitivity. 2) The same TNF? pretreatment also induced similar but less pronounced and less uniform increases in the responses to acid (pH 6.5–5.5), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common activator of TRPV1, V2, and V3 channels, and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a selective activator of TRPA1 channel. 3) In sharp contrast, the responses to ATP, ACh, and KCl were not affected by TNF?. 4) The TNF?-induced hypersensitivity to Cap was not prevented by pretreatment with indomethacin (30 ?M). 5) The immunoreactivity to both TNF receptor types 1 and 2 were detected in rat vagal pulmonary sensory neurons. In conclusion, prolonged treatment with TNF? induces a pronounced potentiating effect on the responses of isolated pulmonary sensory neurons to TRPV1 activators. This action of TNF? may contribute in part to the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by this cytokine. PMID:20639352

  5. Activity and Ca˛? regulate the mobility of TRPV1 channels in the plasma membrane of sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Senning, Eric N; Gordon, Sharona E

    2015-01-01

    TRPV1 channels are gated by a variety of thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. We used optical recording of Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 to measure activity and mobility of single TRPV1 molecules in isolated dorsal root ganglion neurons and cell lines. The opening of single TRPV1 channels produced sparklets, representing localized regions of elevated Ca(2+). Unlike sparklets reported for L-type Ca(2+) channels, TRPV4 channels, and AchR channels, TRPV1 channels diffused laterally in the plasma membrane as they gated. Mobility was highly variable from channel-to-channel and, to a smaller extent, from cell to cell. Most surprisingly, we found that mobility decreased upon channel activation by capsaicin, but only in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+). We propose that decreased mobility of open TRPV1 could act as a diffusion trap to concentrate channels in cell regions with high activity. PMID:25569155

  6. Synthesis and structural optimization of multiple H-bonding region of diarylalkyl (thio)amides as novel TRPV1 antagonists

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    )amides as novel TRPV1 antagonists Fu-Nan Li a , Nam-Jung Kim a , Dong-Jo Chang a , Jaebong Jang a , Hannah Jang­activity relationship of diarylalkyl amides/thioamides as novel TRPV1 antagonists are described. In particular, we. The nerve damage and analgesic effect of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1) agonist

  7. DOI: 10.1002/asia.201200730 Heterocycle-linked Phenylbenzyl Amides as Novel TRPV1 Antagonists and

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    DOI: 10.1002/asia.201200730 Heterocycle-linked Phenylbenzyl Amides as Novel TRPV1 Antagonists and Their TRPV1 Binding Modes: Constraint-Induced Enhancement of In Vitro and In Vivo Activities Nam-Jung Kim,[a] Sun Choi,[c] and Young-Ger Suh*[a] Introduction Research on TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation

  8. Direct activation of capsaicin receptors by products of lipoxygenases: Endogenous capsaicin-like

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    neurons, and thereby produces severe pain. A nonselective cation channel activated by capsaicin has been to activate the channel. These results suggest a novel signaling mechanism un- derlying the pain sensory transduction. Capsaicin has a unique effect on the pain sensory system and is a potential candidate

  9. Wu-Tou Decoction Inhibits Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice: Participation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Chunfang; Wan, Hongye; Wang, Danhua; Sun, Danni; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yue; Qu, Yakun; Xu, Ying; Jing, Xianghong; Liu, Junling; Chen, Shuping; Liu, Zhiqiang; Lin, Na

    2015-01-01

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula and has been used effectively to treat joint diseases clinically. Previous reports indicated that WTD possesses anti-inflammatory activity; however, its actions on pain have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive activity of WTD in CFA-induced mice, and its possible mechanism of the action associated with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels was also explored. Our results showed that 1.58, 3.15, and 6.30?g/kg WTD significantly attenuated mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. Moreover, WTD effectively inhibited spontaneous nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. WTD also effectively suppressed jumping and wet-dog-shake behaviors to intraperitoneal injection of icilin. Additionally, WTD significantly reduced protein expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglia and skins of injured paw. Collectively, our data demonstrate firstly that WTD exerts antinociceptive activity in inflammatory conditions by attenuating mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. This antinociceptive effect may result in part from inhibiting the activities of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, and the suppression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 protein by WTD was also highly effective. These findings suggest that WTD might be an attractive and suitable therapeutic agent for the management of chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:25839032

  10. Wu-Tou Decoction Inhibits Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice: Participation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Chunfang; Wan, Hongye; Sun, Danni; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yue; Qu, Yakun; Xu, Ying; Jing, Xianghong; Liu, Junling; Chen, Shuping; Liu, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Wu-tou decoction (WTD) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula and has been used effectively to treat joint diseases clinically. Previous reports indicated that WTD possesses anti-inflammatory activity; however, its actions on pain have not been clarified. Here, we investigated the antinociceptive activity of WTD in CFA-induced mice, and its possible mechanism of the action associated with transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels was also explored. Our results showed that 1.58, 3.15, and 6.30?g/kg WTD significantly attenuated mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. Moreover, WTD effectively inhibited spontaneous nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of capsaicin and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. WTD also effectively suppressed jumping and wet-dog-shake behaviors to intraperitoneal injection of icilin. Additionally, WTD significantly reduced protein expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in dorsal root ganglia and skins of injured paw. Collectively, our data demonstrate firstly that WTD exerts antinociceptive activity in inflammatory conditions by attenuating mechanical, cold, and heat hypersensitivities. This antinociceptive effect may result in part from inhibiting the activities of TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, and the suppression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 protein by WTD was also highly effective. These findings suggest that WTD might be an attractive and suitable therapeutic agent for the management of chronic inflammatory pain.

  11. Thermoregulatory Phenotype of the Trpv1 Knockout Mouse: Thermoeffector Dysbalance with Hyperkinesis

    PubMed Central

    Garami, Andras; Pakai, Eszter; Oliveira, Daniela L.; Steiner, Alexandre A.; Wanner, Samuel P.; Almeida, M. Camila; Lesnikov, Vladimir A.; Gavva, Narender R.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the thermoregulatory phenotype of mice lacking transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. We used Trpv1 knockout (KO) mice and their genetically unaltered littermates to study diurnal variations in deep body temperature (Tb) and thermoeffector activities under basal conditions, as well as thermoregulatory responses to severe heat and cold. Only subtle alterations were found in the basal Tb of Trpv1 KO mice or in their Tb responses to thermal challenges. The main thermoregulatory abnormality of Trpv1 KO mice was a different pattern of thermoeffectors used to regulate Tb. On the autonomic side, Trpv1 KO mice were hypometabolic (had a lower oxygen consumption) and hypervasoconstricted (had a lower tail skin temperature). In agreement with the enhanced skin vasoconstriction, Trpv1 KO mice had a higher thermoneutral zone. On the behavioral side, Trpv1 KO mice preferred a lower ambient temperature and expressed a higher locomotor activity. Experiments with pharmacological TRPV1 agonists (resiniferatoxin and anandamide) and a TRPV1 antagonist (AMG0347) confirmed that TRPV1 channels located outside the brain tonically inhibit locomotor activity. With age (observed for up to 14 months), the body mass of Trpv1 KO mice exceeded that of controls, sometimes approaching 60 g. In summary, Trpv1 KO mice possess a distinct thermoregulatory phenotype, which is coupled with a predisposition to age-associated overweight and includes hypometabolism, enhanced skin vasoconstriction, decreased thermopreferendum, and hyperkinesis. The latter may be one of the primary deficiencies in Trpv1 KO mice. We propose that TRPV1-mediated signals from the periphery tonically suppress the general locomotor activity. PMID:21289181

  12. Cannabinoid receptor 1 suppresses transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-induced inflammatory responses to corneal injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wang, Z.; Varadaraj, K.; Kumari, S.S.; Mergler, S.; Okada, Y.; Saika, S.; Kingsley, P.J.; Marnett, L.J.; Reinach, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-induced suppression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) activation provides a therapeutic option to reduce inflammation and pain in different animal disease models through mechanisms involving dampening of TRPV1 activation and signaling events. As we found in both mouse corneal epithelium and human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) that there is CB1 and TRPV1 expression colocalization based on overlap of coimmunostaining, we determined in mouse corneal wound healing models and in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) if they interact with one another to reduce TRPV1-induced inflammatory and scarring responses. Corneal epithelial debridement elicited in vivo a more rapid wound healing response in wildtype (WT) than in CB1?/? mice suggesting functional interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. CB1 activation by injury is tenable based on the identification in mouse corneas of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) with tandem LC–MS/MS, a selective endocannabinoid CB1 ligand. Suppression of corneal TRPV1 activation by CB1 is indicated since following alkali burning, CB1 activation with WIN55,212-2 (WIN) reduced immune cell stromal infiltration and scarring. Western blot analysis of coimmunoprecipitates identified protein–protein interaction between CB1 and TRPV1. Other immunocomplexes were also identified containing transforming growth factor kinase 1 (TAK1), TRPV1 and CB1. CB1 siRNA gene silencing prevented suppression by WIN of TRPV1-induced TAK1–JNK1 signaling. WIN reduced TRPV1-induced Ca2+ transients in fura2-loaded HCEC whereas pertussis toxin (PTX) preincubation obviated suppression by WIN of such rises caused by capsaicin (CAP). Whole cell patch clamp analysis of HCEC showed that WIN blocked subsequent CAP-induced increases in nonselective outward currents. Taken together, CB1 activation by injury-induced release of endocannabinoids such as 2-AG downregulates TRPV1 mediated inflammation and corneal opacification. Such suppression occurs through protein–protein interaction between TRPV1 and CB1 leading to declines in TRPV1 phosphorylation status. CB1 activation of the GTP binding protein, Gi/o contributes to CB1 mediated TRPV1 dephosphorylation leading to TRPV1 desensitization, declines in TRPV1-induced increases in currents and pro-inflammatory signaling events. PMID:23142606

  13. Prolactin regulates TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in sensory neurons in a sex-dependent manner: Contribution of prolactin receptor to inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mayur J.; Ruparel, Shivani B.; Henry, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary but also synthesized extrapituitary where it can influence diverse cellular processes, including inflammatory responses. Females experience greater pain in certain inflammatory conditions, but the contribution of the PRL system to sex-dependent inflammatory pain is unknown. We found that PRL regulates transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in a sex-dependent manner in sensory neurons. At >20 ng/ml, PRL sensitizes TRPV1 in female, but not male, neurons. This effect is mediated by PRL receptor (PRL-R). Likewise, TRPA1 and TRPM8 were sensitized by 100 ng/ml PRL only in female neurons. We showed that complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) upregulated PRL levels in the inflamed paw of both male and female rats, but levels were higher in females. In contrast, CFA did not change mRNA levels of long and short PRL-R in the dorsal root ganglion or spinal cord. Analysis of PRL and PRL-R knockout (KO) mice demonstrated that basal responses to cold stimuli were only altered in females, and with no significant effects on heat and mechanical responses in both sexes. CFA-induced heat and cold hyperalgesia were not changed in PRL and PRL-R KO compared with wild-type (WT) males, whereas significant reduction of heat and cold post-CFA hyperalgesia was detected in PRL and PRL-R KO females. Attenuation of CFA-induced mechanical allodynia was observed in both PRL and PRL-R KO females and males. Thermal hyperalgesia in PRL KO females was restored by administration of PRL into hindpaws. Overall, we demonstrate a sex-dependent regulation of peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia by the PRL system. PMID:24022869

  14. Prolactin regulates TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in sensory neurons in a sex-dependent manner: Contribution of prolactin receptor to inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mayur J; Ruparel, Shivani B; Henry, Michael A; Akopian, Armen N

    2013-11-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary but also synthesized extrapituitary where it can influence diverse cellular processes, including inflammatory responses. Females experience greater pain in certain inflammatory conditions, but the contribution of the PRL system to sex-dependent inflammatory pain is unknown. We found that PRL regulates transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in a sex-dependent manner in sensory neurons. At >20 ng/ml, PRL sensitizes TRPV1 in female, but not male, neurons. This effect is mediated by PRL receptor (PRL-R). Likewise, TRPA1 and TRPM8 were sensitized by 100 ng/ml PRL only in female neurons. We showed that complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) upregulated PRL levels in the inflamed paw of both male and female rats, but levels were higher in females. In contrast, CFA did not change mRNA levels of long and short PRL-R in the dorsal root ganglion or spinal cord. Analysis of PRL and PRL-R knockout (KO) mice demonstrated that basal responses to cold stimuli were only altered in females, and with no significant effects on heat and mechanical responses in both sexes. CFA-induced heat and cold hyperalgesia were not changed in PRL and PRL-R KO compared with wild-type (WT) males, whereas significant reduction of heat and cold post-CFA hyperalgesia was detected in PRL and PRL-R KO females. Attenuation of CFA-induced mechanical allodynia was observed in both PRL and PRL-R KO females and males. Thermal hyperalgesia in PRL KO females was restored by administration of PRL into hindpaws. Overall, we demonstrate a sex-dependent regulation of peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia by the PRL system. PMID:24022869

  15. Analgesic effects of botulinum neurotoxin type A in a model of allyl isothiocyanate- and capsaicin-induced pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Luvisetto, Siro; Vacca, Valentina; Cianchetti, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    We evaluate analgesic effects of BoNT/A in relation to the two main transient receptor potentials (TRP), the vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and the ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), having a role in migraine pain. BoNT/A (15 pg/mouse) was injected in the inner side of the medial part of hindlimb thigh of mice, where the superficial branch of femoral artery is located. We chosen this vascular structure because it is similar to other vascular structures, such as the temporal superficial artery, whose perivascular nociceptive fibres probably contributes to migraine pain. After an interval, ranging from 7 to 30 days, capsaicin (agonist of TRPV1) or allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; agonist of TRPA1) were injected in the same region previously treated with BoNT/A and nocifensive response to chemicals-induced pain was recorded. In absence of BoNT/A, capsaicin and AITC induced extensive nocifensive response, with a markedly different temporal profile: capsaicin induced maximal pain during the first 5 min, while AITC induced maximal pain at 15-30 min after injection. Pretreatment with BoNT/A markedly reduced both the capsaicin- and AITC-induced pain for at least 21 days. These data suggest a long lasting analgesic effect of BoNT/A exerted via prevention of responsiveness of TRPV1 and TRPA1 toward their respective agonists. PMID:25529549

  16. Inhibitory effect of Iboga-type indole alkaloids on capsaicin-induced contraction in isolated mouse rectum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mee Wah Lo; Kenjiro Matsumoto; Masumi Iwai; Kimihito Tashima; Mariko Kitajima; Syunji Horie; Hiromitsu Takayama

    2011-01-01

    Voacanga africana (Apocynaceae) is used as an anti-diarrheal medicine in West Africa. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an\\u000a extract of V. africana and its constituents on smooth muscle contraction induced by capsaicin in mouse rectum, where transient receptor potential\\u000a vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1)-immunoreactive fibers are abundant. Methanol and alkaloid extracts of the root bark of V.

  17. Increased sensitivity of desensitized TRPV1 by PMA occurs through PKC?-mediated phosphorylation at S800

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sravan Mandadi; Tomoko Tominaga; Mitsuko Numazaki; Namie Murayama; Naoaki Saito; Patricia J. Armati; Basil D. Roufogalis; Makoto Tominaga

    2006-01-01

    Important mechanisms that regulate inhibitory and facilitatory effects on TRPV1-mediated nociception are desensitization and phosphorylation, respectively. Using Ca2+-imaging, we have previously shown that desensitization of TRPV1 upon successive capsaicin applications was reversed by protein kinase C activation in dorsal root ganglion neurons and CHO cells. Here, using both Ca2+-imaging and patch-clamp methods, we show that PMA-induced activation of PKC? is

  18. LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis Sensitizes Capsaicin-Sensitive Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; Diógenes, Aníbal; Henry, Michael A.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Although odontogenic infections are often accompanied by pain, little is known about the potential mechanisms mediating this effect. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that trigeminal nociceptive neurons are directly sensitized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from an endodontic pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). In vitro studies conducted with cultures of rat trigeminal neurons demonstrated that pretreatment with LPS produced a significant increase in the capsaicin-evoked release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) when compared to vehicle pretreatment, thus showing sensitization of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, by LPS. Furthermore, confocal microscopic examination of human tooth pulp samples showed the colocalization of the LPS receptor (toll-like receptor 4; TLR4) with CGRP containing nerve fibers. Collectively, these results suggest the direct sensitization of nociceptors by LPS at concentrations found in infected canal systems as one mechanism responsible for the pain associated with bacterial infections. PMID:21146075

  19. Moderate extracellular acidification inhibits capsaicin-induced cell death through regulating calcium mobilization, NF-{kappa}B translocation and ROS production in synoviocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Fen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Dan; Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Junying, E-mail: jyli04@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials of Education Ministry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate extracellular acidification regulates intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification activates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in synoviocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification depresses the ROS production induced by capsaicin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moderate acidification inhibits capsaicin-caused synoviocyte death. -- Abstract: We previously show the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in primary synoviocytes from collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. Capsaicin and lowered extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.5 induce cell death through TRPV1-mediated Ca{sup 2+} entry and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, under the pathological condition in rheumatoid arthritis, the synovial fluid is acidified to a moderate level (about pH 6.8). In the present study, we examined the effects of pH 6.8 on the TRPV1-mediated cell death. Our finding is different or even opposite from what was observed at pH 5.5. We found that the moderate extracellular acidification (from pH 7.4 to 6.8) inhibited the capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} entry through attenuating the activity of TRPV1. In the mean time, it triggered a phospholipse C (PLC)-related Ca{sup 2+} release from intracellular stores. The nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B was found at pH 6.8, and this also depends on PLC activation. Moreover, the capsaicin-evoked massive ROS production and cell death were depressed at pH 6.8, both of which are dependent on the activation of PLC and NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, these results suggested that the moderate extracellular acidification inhibited the capsaicin-induced synoviocyte death through regulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, activating NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation and depressing ROS production.

  20. Resolving TRPV1 and TNF-? Mediated Spinal Cord Synaptic Plasticity and Inflammatory Pain with Neuroprotectin D1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul-Kyu; Lü, Ning; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Liu, Tong; Serhan, Charles N.; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms of inflammatory pain are not fully understood. We investigated the role of TRPV1 and TNF-?, two critical mediators for inflammatory pain, in regulating spinal cord synaptic transmission. We found in mice lacking Trpv1 the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in lamina II neurons of spinal cord slices is reduced. Further, C-fiber-induced spinal long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo is abolished in Trpv1 knockout mice. TNF-? also increases sEPSC frequency but not amplitude in spinal lamina IIo neurons, and this increase is abolished in Trpv1 knockout mice. Single-cell PCR analysis revealed that TNF-?-responding neurons in lamina IIo are exclusively excitatory (vGluT2+) neurons. Notably, neuroprotectin-1 (NPD1), an anti-inflammatory lipid mediator derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (docosahexaenoic acid) blocks TNF-?- and capsaicin-evoked sEPSC frequency increases but has no effect on basal synaptic transmission. Strikingly, NPD1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 current (IC50=0.4 nM) in dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons, and this IC50 is ? 500 times lower than that of AMG9810, a commonly used TRPV1 antagonist. NPD1 inhibition of TRPV1 is mediated by GPCRs, since the effects were blocked by pertussis toxin. In contrast, NPD1 had not effect on mustard oil-induced TRPA1 currents. Spinal injection of NPD1, at very low doses (0.1–10 ng), blocks spinal LTP and reduces TRPV1-dependent inflammatory pain, without affecting baseline pain. NPD1 also reduces TRPV1-independent but TNF-?-dependent pain hypersensitivity. Our findings demonstrate a novel role of NPD1 in regulating TRPV1/TNF-?-mediated spinal synaptic plasticity and identify NPD1 as a novel analgesic for treating inflammatory pain. PMID:22016541

  1. The Basal Thermal Sensitivity of the TRPV1 Ion Channel Is Determined by PKC?II

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Hasan, Raquibul

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nociceptors are excited by the activation of membrane receptors and ion channels. The heat-sensitive TRPV1 ion channel responds to various noxious chemical and thermal stimuli, causing pain and itch. Here, we show that TRPV1 is coexpressed with PKC?II in a subset of mouse sensory neurons and that, in these neurons, TRPV1 binds directly to PKC?II, leading to the activation and translocation of PKC?II. Activated PKC?II, in turn, significantly increases the responsiveness of TRPV1 by phosphorylating Thr705. The heat sensitivity of TRPV1 is almost eliminated by either knocking down PKC?II or mutating Thr705; however, neither of these manipulations affects the potentiation of TRPV1 caused by the activation of PKC?. PKC?II thus acts as an auxiliary subunit of TRPV1 by forming a population-dependent TRPV1 ion channel complex controlling the sensitivity of TRPV1 and setting the threshold for pain and itch. PMID:24920628

  2. Structural Insight into Tetrameric hTRPV1 from Homology Modeling, Molecular Docking, Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Virtual Screening, and Bioassay Validations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhiwei; Pearce, Larry V; Xu, Xiaomeng; Yang, Xiaole; Yang, Peng; Blumberg, Peter M; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2015-03-23

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a heat-activated cation channel protein, which contributes to inflammation, acute and persistent pain. Antagonists of human TRPV1 (hTRPV1) represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of pain. Developing various antagonists of hTRPV1, however, has been hindered by the unavailability of a 3D structure of hTRPV1. Recently, the 3D structures of rat TRPV1 (rTRPV1) in the presence and absence of ligand have been reported as determined by cryo-EM. rTRPV1 shares 85.7% sequence identity with hTRPV1. In the present work, we constructed and reported the 3D homology tetramer model of hTRPV1 based on the cryo-EM structures of rTRPV1. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, energy minimizations, and prescreen were applied to select and validate the best model of hTRPV1. The predicted binding pocket of hTRPV1 consists of two adjacent monomers subunits, which were congruent with the experimental rTRPV1 data and the cyro-EM structures of rTRPV1. The detailed interactions between hTRPV1 and its antagonists or agonists were characterized by molecular docking, which helped us to identify the important residues. Conformational changes of hTRPV1 upon antagonist/agonist binding were also explored by MD simulation. The different movements of compounds led to the different conformational changes of monomers in hTRPV1, indicating that TRPV1 works in a concerted way, resembling some other channel proteins such as aquaporins. We observed that the selective filter was open when hTRPV1 bound with an agonist during MD simulation. For the lower gate of hTRPV1, we observed large similarities between hTRPV1 bound with antagonist and with agonist. A five-point pharmacophore model based on several antagonists was established, and the structural model was used to screen in silico for new antagonists for hTRPV1. By using the 3D TRPV1 structural model above, the pilot in silico screening has begun to yield promising hits with activity as hTRPV1 antagonists, several of which showed substantial potency. PMID:25642729

  3. Iron overload causes osteoporosis in thalassemia major patients through interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Francesca; Perrotta, Silverio; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Tortora, Chiara; Siniscalco, Dario; Francese, Matteo; Torella, Marco; Nobili, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Maione, Sabatino

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bone resorption in ?-thalassemia major is multifactorial and our understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remains incomplete. Considering the emerging importance of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system in bone metabolism, it may be instructive to examine a potential role for this system in the development of osteoporosis in patients with ?-thalassemia major and its relationship with iron overload and iron chelation therapy. This study demonstrates that, in thalassemic-derived osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression inversely correlates with femoral and lumbar bone mineral density, and directly correlates with ferritin levels and liver iron concentration. The vanilloid agonist resiniferatoxin dramatically reduces cathepsin K levels and osteoclast numbers in vitro, without affecting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression. The iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox decrease both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K expression, as well as osteoclast activity. Taken together, these data show that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 activation/desensitization influences tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression and activity, and this effect is dependent on iron, suggesting a pivotal role for iron overload in the dysregulation of bone metabolism in patients with thalassemia major. Our applied pharmacology provides evidence for the potential of iron chelators to abrogate these effects by reducing osteoclast activity. Whether iron chelation therapy is capable of restoring bone health in humans requires further study, but the potential to provide dual benefits for patients with ?-thalassemia major –preventing iron-overload and alleviating associated osteoporotic changes – is exciting. PMID:25216685

  4. Iron overload causes osteoporosis in thalassemia major patients through interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Francesca; Perrotta, Silverio; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Tortora, Chiara; Siniscalco, Dario; Francese, Matteo; Torella, Marco; Nobili, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Maione, Sabatino

    2014-12-01

    The pathogenesis of bone resorption in ?-thalassemia major is multifactorial and our understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remains incomplete. Considering the emerging importance of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system in bone metabolism, it may be instructive to examine a potential role for this system in the development of osteoporosis in patients with ?-thalassemia major and its relationship with iron overload and iron chelation therapy. This study demonstrates that, in thalassemic-derived osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression inversely correlates with femoral and lumbar bone mineral density, and directly correlates with ferritin levels and liver iron concentration. The vanilloid agonist resiniferatoxin dramatically reduces cathepsin K levels and osteoclast numbers in vitro, without affecting tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression. The iron chelators deferoxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox decrease both tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K expression, as well as osteoclast activity. Taken together, these data show that transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 activation/desensitization influences tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression and activity, and this effect is dependent on iron, suggesting a pivotal role for iron overload in the dysregulation of bone metabolism in patients with thalassemia major. Our applied pharmacology provides evidence for the potential of iron chelators to abrogate these effects by reducing osteoclast activity. Whether iron chelation therapy is capable of restoring bone health in humans requires further study, but the potential to provide dual benefits for patients with ?-thalassemia major -preventing iron-overload and alleviating associated osteoporotic changes - is exciting. PMID:25216685

  5. A synergistic effect of simultaneous TRPA1 and TRPV1 activations on vagal pulmonary C-fiber afferents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Jung; Lin, Ruei-Lung; Ruan, Ting; Khosravi, Mehdi; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors are coexpressed in vagal pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. Because both these receptors are sensitive to a number of endogenous inflammatory mediators, it is conceivable that they can be activated simultaneously during airway inflammation. This study aimed to determine whether there is an interaction between these two polymodal transducers upon simultaneous activation, and how it modulates the activity of vagal pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. In anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats, the reflex-mediated apneic response to intravenous injection of a combined dose of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, a TRPA1 activator) and capsaicin (Cap, a TRPV1 activator) was ?202% greater than the mathematical sum of the responses to AITC and Cap when they were administered individually. Similar results were also observed in anesthetized mice. In addition, the synergistic effect was clearly demonstrated when the afferent activity of single vagal pulmonary C-fiber afferents were recorded in anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats; C-fiber responses to AITC, Cap and AITC + Cap (in combination) were 0.6 ± 0.1, 0.8 ± 0.1, and 4.8 ± 0.6 impulses/s (n = 24), respectively. This synergism was absent when either AITC or Cap was replaced by other chemical activators of pulmonary C-fiber afferents. The pronounced potentiating effect was further demonstrated in isolated vagal pulmonary sensory neurons using the Ca(2+) imaging technique. In summary, this study showed a distinct positive interaction between TRPA1 and TRPV1 when they were activated simultaneously in pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. PMID:25414245

  6. Capsaicin-sensitive sensory fibers in the islets of Langerhans contribute to defective insulin secretion in Zucker diabetic rat, an animal model for some aspects of human type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gram, Dorte X; Ahrén, Bo; Nagy, Istvan; Olsen, Uffe B; Brand, Christian L; Sundler, Frank; Tabanera, René; Svendsen, Ove; Carr, Richard D; Santha, Peter; Wierup, Nils; Hansen, Anker J

    2007-01-01

    The system that regulates insulin secretion from beta-cells in the islet of Langerhans has a capsaicin-sensitive inhibitory component. As calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing primary sensory fibers innervate the islets, and a major proportion of the CGRP-containing primary sensory neurons is sensitive to capsaicin, the islet-innervating sensory fibers may represent the capsaicin-sensitive inhibitory component. Here, we examined the expression of the capsaicin receptor, vanilloid type 1 transient receptor potential receptor (TRPV1) in CGRP-expressing fibers in the pancreatic islets, and the effect of selective elimination of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents on the decline of glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, which are used to study various aspects of human type 2 diabetes mellitus. We found that CGRP-expressing fibers in the pancreatic islets also express TRPV1. Furthermore, we also found that systemic capsaicin application before the development of hyperglycemia prevents the increase of fasting, non-fasting, and mean 24-h plasma glucose levels, and the deterioration of glucose tolerance assessed on the fifth week following the injection. These effects were accompanied by enhanced insulin secretion and a virtually complete loss of CGRP- and TRPV1-coexpressing islet-innervating fibers. These data indicate that CGRP-containing fibers in the islets are capsaicin sensitive, and that elimination of these fibers contributes to the prevention of the deterioration of glucose homeostasis through increased insulin secretion in ZDF rats. Based on these data we propose that the activity of islet-innervating capsaicin-sensitive fibers may have a role in the development of reduced insulin secretion in human type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:17241282

  7. DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF TRPV1, TRPV3 AND TRPV4 SENSITIVITY THROUGH A CONSERVED BINDING SITE ON THE ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAIN

    E-print Network

    Gaudet, Rachelle

    1 DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF TRPV1, TRPV3 AND TRPV4 SENSITIVITY THROUGH A CONSERVED BINDING SITE Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which include the thermosensitive TRPV1-V4, have large show that a multiligand binding site for ATP and calmodulin previously identified in TRPV1-ARD

  8. Hypoxia-induced sensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 involves activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and PKC.

    PubMed

    Ristoiu, Violeta; Shibasaki, Koji; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Zhou, Yiming; Ton, Bich-Hoai Thi; Flonta, Maria-Luiza; Tominaga, Makoto

    2011-04-01

    The capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), acts as a polymodal detector of pain-producing chemical and physical stimuli in sensory neurons. Hyperglycemia and hypoxia are two main phenomena in diabetes associated with several complications. Although many studies on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats indicate that early diabetic neuropathy is associated with potentiation of TRPV1 activity in dorsal root ganglion neurons, its underlying mechanism and distinctive roles of hyperglycemia and hypoxia have not been completely clarified. Here, we show that hypoxic and high glucose conditions (overnight exposure) potentiate the TRPV1 activity without affecting TRPV1 expression in both native rat sensory neurons and human embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells expressing rat or human TRPV1. Surprisingly, hypoxia was found to be a more effective determinant than high glucose, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) seemed to be involved. In addition, high glucose enhanced TRPV1 sensitization only when high glucose existed together with hypoxia. The potentiation of TRPV1 was caused by its phosphorylation of the serine residues, and translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)? was clearly observed in the cells exposed to the hypoxic conditions in both cell types, which was inhibited by 2-methoxyestradiol, a HIF-1? inhibitor. These data suggest that hypoxia is a new sensitization mechanism for TRPV1, which might be relevant to diabetes-related complications, and also for other diseases that are associated with acute hypoxia. PMID:21376466

  9. LE135, a retinoid acid receptor antagonist, produces pain through direct activation of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Yu, Weihua; Hu, Hongzhen

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeRetinoids, through their activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors, regulate diverse cellular processes, and pharmacological intervention in their actions has been successful in the treatment of skin disorders and cancers. Despite the many beneficial effects, administration of retinoids causes irritating side effects with unknown mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that LE135 [4-(7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-5,7,7,10,10-pentamethyl-5H-benzo[e]naphtho[2,3-b][1,4]diazepin-13-yl)benzoic acid], a selective antagonist of RAR?, is a potent activator of the capsaicin (TRPV1) and wasabi (TRPA1) receptors, two critical pain-initiating cation channels. Experimental ApproachWe performed to investigate the excitatory effects of LE135 on TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels expressed in HEK293T cells and in dorsal root ganglia neurons with calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings. We also used site-directed mutagenesis of the channels to determine the structural basis of LE135-induced activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels and behavioural testing to examine if pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of the channels affected LE135-evoked pain-related behaviours. Key ResultsLE135 activated both the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) and the allyl isothiocyanate receptor (TRPA1) heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells and endogenously expressed by sensory nociceptors. Mutations disrupting the capsaicin-binding site attenuated LE135 activation of TRPV1 channels and a single mutation (K170R) eliminated TRPA1 activity evoked by LE135. Intraplantar injection of LE135 evoked pain-related behaviours. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels were involved in LE135-elicited pain-related responses, as shown by pharmacological and genetic ablation studies. Conclusions and ImplicationsThis blocker of retinoid acid signalling also exerted non-genomic effects through activating the pain-initiating TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. PMID:24308840

  10. Optical stimulation in mice lacking the TRPV1 channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Eul; Izzo Matic, Agnella; Otting, Margarete; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Lasers can be used to stimulate neural tissue, including the sciatic nerve or auditory neurons. Wells and coworkers suggested that neural tissue is likely stimulated by heat.[1,2] Ion channels that can be activated by heat are the TRPV channels, a subfamily of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels. TRPV channels are nonselective cation channels found in sensory neurons involved in nociception. In addition to various chemicals, TRPV channels can also be thermally stimulated. The activation temperature for the different TRPV channels varies and is 43°C for TRPV1 and 39°C for TRPV3. By performing an immunohistochemical staining procedure on frozen 20 ?m cochlear slices using a primary TRPV1 antibody, we observed specific immunostaining of the spiral ganglion cells. Here we show that in mice that lack the gene for the TRPV1 channel optical radiation cannot evoke action potentials on the auditory nerve.

  11. [ 3H]Resiniferatoxin autoradiography in the CNS of wild-type and TRPV1 null mice defines TRPV1 (VR1) protein distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer C Roberts; John B Davis; Christopher D Benham

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution and function of the vanilloid receptor (VR-1 or TRPV1) in the CNS lacks the detailed appreciation of its role in the peripheral nervous system. The radiolabelled vanilloid agonist [3H]resiniferatoxin (RTX) has been used to indicate the presence of TRPV1 receptor protein in the brain but low specific binding has complicated interpretation of this data. Recently, support

  12. Pyridine C-region analogs of 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides as potent TRPV1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ryu, HyungChul; Seo, Sejin; Lee, Jee-Young; Ha, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Sunho; Jung, Aeran; Ann, Jihyae; Kim, Sung-Eun; Yoon, Suyoung; Hong, Mannkyu; Blumberg, Peter M; Frank-Foltyn, Robert; Bahrenberg, Gregor; Schiene, Klaus; Stockhausen, Hannelore; Christoph, Thomas; Frormann, Sven; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-03-26

    A series of pyridine derivatives in the C-region of N-((6-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-3-yl)methyl) 2-(3-fluoro-4-methylsulfonylaminophenyl)propanamides were investigated as hTRPV1 antagonists. The SAR analysis indicated that 6-difluorochloromethyl pyridine derivatives were the best surrogates of the C-region for previous leads. Among them, compound 31 showed excellent antagonism to capsaicin as well as to multiple hTRPV1 activators. It demonstrated strong analgesic activity in the formalin test in mice with full efficacy and it blocked capsaicin-induced hypothermia in vivo. PMID:25659771

  13. Ion channel TRPV1-dependent activation of PTP1B suppresses EGFR-associated intestinal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Petrus R.; Takahashi, Naoki; Harris, Alexandra R.; Lee, Jihyung; Bertin, Samuel; Jeffries, James; Jung, Michael; Duong, Jen; Triano, Amy I.; Lee, Jongdae; Niv, Yaron; Herdman, David S.; Taniguchi, Koji; Kim, Chang-Whan; Dong, Hui; Eckmann, Lars; Stanford, Stephanie M.; Bottini, Nunzio; Corr, Maripat; Raz, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a high rate of turnover, and dysregulation of pathways that regulate regeneration can lead to tumor development; however, the negative regulators of oncogenic events in the intestinal epithelium are not fully understood. Here we identified a feedback loop between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known mediator of proliferation, and the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We found that TRPV1 was expressed by IECs and was intrinsically activated upon EGFR stimulation. Subsequently, TRPV1 activation inhibited EGFR-induced epithelial cell proliferation via activation of Ca2+/calpain and resulting activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). In a murine model of multiple intestinal neoplasia (ApcMin/+ mice), TRPV1 deficiency increased adenoma formation, and treatment of these animals with an EGFR kinase inhibitor reversed protumorigenic phenotypes, supporting a functional association between TRPV1 and EGFR signaling in IECs. Administration of a TRPV1 agonist suppressed intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice, similar to — as well as in conjunction with — a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, which suggests that targeting both TRPV1 and COX-2 has potential as a therapeutic approach for tumor prevention. Our findings implicate TRPV1 as a regulator of growth factor signaling in the intestinal epithelium through activation of PTP1B and subsequent suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:25083990

  14. Shp-1 dephosphorylates TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion neurons and alleviates CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Xu, Ling-Chi; Yue, Lu-Peng; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Kong, Jin-Ge; Xing, Guo-Gang; Yi, Ming; Wan, You

    2015-04-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in nociceptive neurons of rat dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and mediate inflammatory pain. Nonspecific inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitizes TRPV1. However, less is known about tyrosine phosphorylation's implication in inflammatory pain, compared with that of serine/threonine phosphorylation. Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (Shp-1) is a key phosphatase dephosphorylating TRPV1. In this study, we reported that Shp-1 colocalized with and bound to TRPV1 in nociceptive DRG neurons. Shp-1 inhibitors, including sodium stibogluconate and PTP inhibitor III, sensitized TRPV1 in cultured DRG neurons. In naive rats, intrathecal injection of Shp-1 inhibitors increased both TRPV1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1 in DRGs and induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was abolished by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, BCTC, or AMG9810. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain in rats significantly increased the expression of Shp-1, TRPV1, and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1, as well as the colocalization of Shp-1 and TRPV1 in DRGs. Intrathecal injection of sodium stibogluconate aggravated CFA-induced inflammatory pain, whereas Shp-1 overexpression in DRG neurons alleviated it. These results suggested that Shp-1 dephosphorylated and inhibited TRPV1 in DRG neurons, contributing to maintain thermal nociceptive thresholds in normal rats, and as a compensatory mechanism, Shp-1 increased in DRGs of rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, which was involved in protecting against excessive thermal hyperalgesia. PMID:25790452

  15. Effects of Some Natural Carotenoids on TRPA1- and TRPV1-Induced Neurogenic Inflammatory Processes In Vivo in the Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Györgyi; Kemény, Ágnes; Barthó, Loránd; Molnár, Péter; Deli, József; Szente, Lajos; Bozó, Tamás; Pál, Szilárd; Sándor, Katalin; Sz?ke, Éva; Szolcsányi, János; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2015-05-01

    Mechanisms of the potent anti-inflammatory actions of carotenoids are unknown. Since carotenoids are incorporated into membranes, they might modulate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and vanilloid 1 (TRPA1 and TRPV1) activation predominantly on peptidergic sensory nerves. We therefore investigated the effects of three carotenoids (?-carotene, lutein and lycopene) on cutaneous neurogenic inflammation. Acute neurogenic edema and inflammatory cell recruitment were induced by smearing the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil (5 %) or the TRPV1 activator capsaicin (2.5 %) on the mouse ear. Ear thickness was then determined by micrometry, microcirculation by laser Doppler imaging and neutrophil accumulation by histopathology and spectrophotometric determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The effects of lutein on the stimulatory action of the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil were also tested on the guinea-pig small intestine, in isolated organ experiments. Mustard oil evoked 50-55 % ear edema and granulocyte influx, as shown by histology and myeloperoxidase activity. Swelling was significantly reduced between 2 and 4 h after administration of lutein or ?-carotene (100 mg/kg subcutane three times during 24 h). Lutein also decreased neutrophil accumulation induced by TRPA1 activation, but did not affect mustard oil-evoked intestinal contraction. Lycopene had no effect on any of these parameters. None of the three carotenoids altered capsaicin-evoked inflammation. It is proposed that the dihydroxycarotenoid lutein selectively inhibits TRPA1 activation and consequent neurogenic inflammation, possibly by modulating lipid rafts. PMID:25645682

  16. Mapping the Binding Site of TRPV1 on AKAP79: Implications for Inflammatory Hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Stott, Katherine; McNaughton, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation causes hyperalgesia, an enhanced sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a thermo-TRP ion channel activated by painful levels of heat, is an important contributor because hyperalgesia is reduced when TRPV1 is either genetically deleted or pharmacologically blocked. Inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin-E2 or bradykinin cause hyperalgesia by activating cellular kinases that phosphorylate TRPV1, a process that has recently been shown to rely on a scaffolding protein, AKAP79, to target the kinases to TRPV1. Here we use Förster resonance energy transfer, immunoprecipitation, and TRPV1 membrane trafficking experiments to identify a key region on AKAP79, between amino acids 326–336, which is responsible for its interaction with TRPV1. A peptide identical to this domain inhibited sensitization of TRPV1 in vitro, and when covalently linked to a TAT peptide to promote uptake across the cell membrane the peptide inhibited in vivo inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice. Critically, it did so without affecting pain thresholds in the absence of inflammation. These results suggest that antagonizing the TRPV1–AKAP79 interaction will be a useful strategy for inhibiting inflammatory hyperalgesia. PMID:23699529

  17. Involvement of an increased spinal TRPV1 sensitization through its up-regulation in mechanical allodynia of CCI rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihito Kanai; Etsuko Nakazato; Akiyoshi Fujiuchi; Tomokazu Hara; Aki Imai

    2005-01-01

    Vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) antagonists are known to attenuate the neuropathic pain symptoms in peripheral nerve injury models, but the mechanism(s) of their effect remains unclear. At the same time, the role of spinal TRPV1 in pain transduction system has not been fully understood. In this study, the role of spinal TRPV1 in mechanical allodynia in rat chronic constriction injury

  18. Increased capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in skin nerve fibres and related vanilloid receptors TRPV3 and TRPV4 in keratinocytes in human breast pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preethi Gopinath; Elaine Wan; Anita Holdcroft; Paul Facer; John B Davis; Graham D Smith; Chas Bountra; Praveen Anand

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast pain and tenderness affects 70% of women at some time. These symptoms have been attributed to stretching of the nerves with increase in breast size, but tissue mechanisms are poorly understood. METHODS: Eighteen patients (n = 12 breast reduction and n = 6 breast reconstruction) were recruited and assessed for breast pain by clinical questionnaire. Breast skin biopsies

  19. Positive allosteric modulation of TRPV1 as a novel analgesic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of long-term opiate use in treating chronic non-cancer pain is increasing, and prescription opioid abuse and dependence are a major public health concern. To explore alternatives to opioid-based analgesia, the present study investigates a novel allosteric pharmacological approach operating through the cation channel TRPV1. This channel is highly expressed in subpopulations of primary afferent unmyelinated C- and lightly-myelinated A?-fibers that detect low and high rates of noxious heating, respectively, and it is also activated by vanilloid agonists and low pH. Sufficient doses of exogenous vanilloid agonists, such as capsaicin or resiniferatoxin, can inactivate/deactivate primary afferent endings due to calcium overload, and we hypothesized that positive allosteric modulation of agonist-activated TRPV1 could produce a selective, temporary inactivation of nociceptive nerve terminals in vivo. We previously identified MRS1477, a 1,4-dihydropyridine that potentiates vanilloid and pH activation of TRPV1 in vitro, but displays no detectable intrinsic agonist activity of its own. To study the in vivo effects of MRS1477, we injected the hind paws of rats with a non-deactivating dose of capsaicin, MRS1477, or the combination. An infrared diode laser was used to stimulate TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals and the latency and intensity of paw withdrawal responses were recorded. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed on dorsal root ganglia to examine changes in gene expression and the cellular specificity of such changes following treatment. Results Withdrawal responses of the capsaicin-only or MRS1477-only treated paws were not significantly different from the untreated, contralateral paws. However, rats treated with the combination of capsaicin and MRS1477 exhibited increased withdrawal latency and decreased response intensity consistent with agonist potentiation and inactivation or lesion of TRPV1-containing nerve terminals. The loss of nerve endings was manifested by an increase in levels of axotomy markers assessed by qRT-PCR and colocalization of ATF3 in TRPV1+ cells visualized via immunohistochemistry. Conclusions The present observations suggest a novel, non-narcotic, selective, long-lasting TRPV1-based approach for analgesia that may be effective in acute, persistent, or chronic pain disorders. PMID:22998799

  20. Allosteric binding of capsaicin by a bis(?-cyclodextrin)-2,2'-bipyridine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Christopher; Lützen, Arne

    2014-07-14

    A new ?-cyclodextrin-based receptor that showed allosteric binding behavior towards capsaicin in aqueous solution was prepared. By NMR titration and nonlinear regression, we obtained binding constants, which increased more than fivefold when an effector (Zn(2+)) was bound to a central 2,2'-bipyridine that acts as the allosteric center. PMID:24953045

  1. Impaired Nociception and Pain Sensation in Mice Lacking the Capsaicin Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Caterina; A. Leffler; A. B. Malmberg; W. J. Martin; J. Trafton; K. R. Petersen-Zeitz; M. Koltzenburg; A. I. Basbaum; D. Julius

    2000-01-01

    The capsaicin (vanilloid) receptor VR1 is a cation channel expressed by primary sensory neurons of the ``pain'' pathway. Heterologously expressed VR1 can be activated by vanilloid compounds, protons, or heat (>43°C), but whether this channel contributes to chemical or thermal sensitivity in vivo is not known. Here, we demonstrate that sensory neurons from mice lacking VR1 are severely deficient in

  2. Increase of capsaicin-induced trigeminal Fos-like immunoreactivity by 5-HT7 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Terrón, José; Martínez-García, Esther; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore whether pharmacological stimulation of the 5-HT7 receptor modulates Fos-like immunoreactivity in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis of rats. Background The serotonin 5-HT7 receptor was proposed to be involved in migraine pathogenesis and evidence suggests it plays a role in peripheral nociception and hyperalgesia through an action on sensory afferent neurons. Methods The potential activating or sensitizing role of 5-HT7 receptors on trigeminal sensory neurons, as visualized by Fos-like immunoreactivity in the superficial layers of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats, was investigated using the 5-HT7 receptor agonist, LP-211, in the absence and the presence of intracisternal capsaicin, respectively. The agonist effect was characterized with the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB-656104A. Male Wistar rats received a subcutaneous injection of LP-211, SB-656104A, and SB-656104A + LP-211. They were then anesthetized and prepared to receive an intracisternal injection of capsaicin or its vehicle. Animals were perfused and brains removed; sections of the brain stem from the area postrema to the CI level were obtained and processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. Results Capsaicin but not its vehicle induced Fos-like immunoreactivity within laminae I and II of trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Pretreatment with LP-211 had no effect on Fos-like immunoreactivity but strongly increased the response produced by capsaicin; this effect was abolished by SB-656104A. Interestingly, capsaicin-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity was abolished by SB-656104A pretreatment thus suggesting involvement of endogenous 5-HT. Conclusions Data suggest that 5-HT7 receptors increase activation of meningeal trigeminovascular afferents and/or transmission of nociceptive information in the brain stem. This mechanism could be relevant in migraine and its prophylactic treatment. PMID:22082421

  3. NOX3 NADPH Oxidase Couples Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 to Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1-Mediated Inflammation and Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheehan, Kelly; Kaur, Tejbeer; Sheth, Sandeep; Bunch, Jennifer; Perro, Christopher; Rybak, Leonard P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is implicated in cisplatin ototoxicity. Activation of this channel by cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species generation, which contribute to loss of outer hair cells in the cochlea. Knockdown of TRPV1 by short interfering RNA protected against cisplatin ototoxicity. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying TRPV1-mediated ototoxicity using cultured organ of Corti transformed cells (UB/OC-1) and rats. Trans-tympanic injections of capsaicin produced transient hearing loss within 24?h, which recovered by 72?h. In UB/OC-1 cells, capsaicin increased NOX3 NADPH oxidase activity and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Intratympanic administration of capsaicin transiently increased STAT1 activity and expression of downstream proinflammatory molecules. Capsaicin produced a transient increase in CD14-positive inflammatory cells into the cochlea, which mimicked the temporal course of STAT1 activation but did not alter the expression of apoptotic genes or damage to outer hair cells. In addition, trans-tympanic administration of STAT1 short interfering RNA protected against capsaicin-induced hearing loss. These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 mediates temporary hearing loss by initiating an inflammatory process in the cochlea via activation of NOX3 and STAT1. Thus, these proteins represent reasonable targets for ameliorating hearing loss. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 999–1010. PMID:20712533

  4. Modulation of transient receptor vanilloid 1 activity by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Viola; Stein, Christoph; Zöllner, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel responding to noxious heat, protons, and chemicals such as capsaicin. TRPV1 is expressed in sensory neurons and plays a critical role in pain associated with tissue injury, inflammation, and nerve lesions. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is coexpressed with TRPV1. It is activated by compounds that cause a burning sensation (e.g., mustard oil) and, indirectly, by components of the inflammatory milieu eliciting nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Previous studies indicate an interaction of TRPV1 and TRPA1 signaling pathways. Here we sought to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions in nociceptive neurons. We first excluded physical interactions of both channels using radioligand binding studies. By microfluorimetry, electrophysiological experiments, cAMP measurements, and site-directed mutagenesis we found a sensitization of TRPV1 after TRPA1 stimulation with mustard oil in a calcium and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. TRPA1 stimulation enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation via the putative PKA phosphorylation site serine 116. We also detected calcium-sensitive increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 activation in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The inhibition of TRPA1 by HC-030031 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1,3-dimethyl-N-[4-(1-methylethyl)phenyl]-2,6-dioxo-7H-purine-7-acetamide, 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide) after its initial stimulation (and the calcium-insensitive TRPA1 mutant D477A) still showed increased capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity. This excludes a calcium-induced additive TRPA1 current after TRPV1 stimulation. Our study shows sensitization of TRPV1 via activation of TRPA1, which involves adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP, subsequent translocation and activation of PKA, and phosphorylation of TRPV1 at PKA phosphorylation residues. This suggests that cross-sensitization of TRP channels contributes to enhanced pain sensitivity in inflamed tissues. PMID:24275229

  5. Selective Activation of hTRPV1 by N-Geranyl Cyclopropylcarboxamide, an Amiloride-Insensitive Salt Taste Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Kweon, Hae-Jin; Suh, Byung-Chang; Lyall, Vijay; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2014-01-01

    TRPV1t, a variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been proposed as a constitutively active, non-selective cation channel as a putative amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor and shares many properties with TRPV1. Based on our previous chorda tympani taste nerve recordings in rodents and human sensory evaluations, we proposed that N-geranylcyclopropylcarboxamide (NGCC), a novel synthetic compound, acts as a salt taste enhancer by modulating the amiloride/benzamil-insensitive Na+ entry pathways. As an extension of this work, we investigated NGCC-induced human TRPV1 (hTRPV1) activation using a Ca2+-flux signaling assay in cultured cells. NGCC enhanced Ca2+ influx in hTRPV1-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner (EC50?=?115 µM). NGCC-induced Ca2+ influx was significantly attenuated by ruthenium red (RR; 30 µM), a non-specific blocker of TRP channels and capsazepine (CZP; 5 µM), a specific antagonist of TRPV1, implying that NGCC directly activates hTRPV1. TRPA1 is often co-expressed with TRPV1 in sensory neurons. Therefore, we also investigated the effects of NGCC on hTRPA1-expressing cells. Similar to hTRPV1, NGCC enhanced Ca2+ influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells (EC50?=?83.65 µM). The NGCC-induced Ca2+ influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells was blocked by RR (30 µM) and HC-030031 (100 µM), a specific antagonist of TRPA1. These results suggested that NGCC selectively activates TRPV1 and TRPA1 in cultured cells. These data may provide additional support for our previous hypothesis that NGCC interacts with TRPV1 variant cation channel, a putative amiloride/benzamil-insensitive salt taste pathway in the anterior taste receptive field. PMID:24586504

  6. Selective activation of hTRPV1 by N-geranyl cyclopropylcarboxamide, an amiloride-insensitive salt taste enhancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Kweon, Hae-Jin; Suh, Byung-Chang; Lyall, Vijay; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2014-01-01

    TRPV1t, a variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has been proposed as a constitutively active, non-selective cation channel as a putative amiloride-insensitive salt taste receptor and shares many properties with TRPV1. Based on our previous chorda tympani taste nerve recordings in rodents and human sensory evaluations, we proposed that N-geranylcyclopropylcarboxamide (NGCC), a novel synthetic compound, acts as a salt taste enhancer by modulating the amiloride/benzamil-insensitive Na(+) entry pathways. As an extension of this work, we investigated NGCC-induced human TRPV1 (hTRPV1) activation using a Ca(2+)-flux signaling assay in cultured cells. NGCC enhanced Ca(2+) influx in hTRPV1-expressing cells in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 = 115 µM). NGCC-induced Ca(2+) influx was significantly attenuated by ruthenium red (RR; 30 µM), a non-specific blocker of TRP channels and capsazepine (CZP; 5 µM), a specific antagonist of TRPV1, implying that NGCC directly activates hTRPV1. TRPA1 is often co-expressed with TRPV1 in sensory neurons. Therefore, we also investigated the effects of NGCC on hTRPA1-expressing cells. Similar to hTRPV1, NGCC enhanced Ca(2+) influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells (EC50 = 83.65 µM). The NGCC-induced Ca(2+) influx in hTRPA1-expressing cells was blocked by RR (30 µM) and HC-030031 (100 µM), a specific antagonist of TRPA1. These results suggested that NGCC selectively activates TRPV1 and TRPA1 in cultured cells. These data may provide additional support for our previous hypothesis that NGCC interacts with TRPV1 variant cation channel, a putative amiloride/benzamil-insensitive salt taste pathway in the anterior taste receptive field. PMID:24586504

  7. IB4(+) and TRPV1(+) sensory neurons mediate pain but not proliferation in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer pain severely limits function and significantly reduces quality of life. Subtypes of sensory neurons involved in cancer pain and proliferation are not clear. Methods We produced a cancer model by inoculating human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells into the hind paw of athymic mice. We quantified mechanical and thermal nociception using the paw withdrawal assays. Neurotoxins isolectin B4-saporin (IB4-SAP), or capsaicin was injected intrathecally to selectively ablate IB4(+) neurons or TRPV1(+) neurons, respectively. JNJ-17203212, a TRPV1 antagonist, was also injected intrathecally. TRPV1 protein expression in the spinal cord was quantified with western blot. Paw volume was measured by a plethysmometer and was used as an index for tumor size. Ki-67 immunostaining in mouse paw sections was performed to evaluate cancer proliferation in situ. Results We showed that mice with SCC exhibited both mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Selective ablation of IB4(+) neurons by IB4-SAP decreased mechanical allodynia in mice with SCC. Selective ablation of TRPV1(+) neurons by intrathecal capsaicin injection, or TRPV1 antagonism by JNJ-17203212 in the IB4-SAP treated mice completely reversed SCC-induced thermal hyperalgesia, without affecting mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, TRPV1 protein expression was increased in the spinal cord of SCC mice compared to normal mice. Neither removal of IB4(+) or TRPV1(+) neurons affected SCC proliferation. Conclusions We show in a mouse model that IB4(+) neurons play an important role in cancer-induced mechanical allodynia, while TRPV1 mediates cancer-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Characterization of the sensory fiber subtypes responsible for cancer pain could lead to the development of targeted therapeutics. PMID:24524628

  8. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 - a polymodal nociceptive receptor - plays a crucial role in formaldehyde-induced skin inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Haruki; Endo, Takumi; Shimouchi, Ayumi; Saito, Asaka; Tominaga, Makoto; Yamashita, Hirotaka; Nagai, Hiroichi; Inagaki, Naoki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is irritating to the skin and is the main cause of sick building syndrome. However, the cutaneous reaction induced by long-term FA exposure has not been fully investigated. In our previous study, we demonstrated that repeated painting of 2% - 10% FA on mouse ears caused marked ear swelling and increased mRNA expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and neurotrophins in the ear. TRPV1 is reported to be involved in neurogenic inflammation; therefore, in the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in FA-induced skin inflammation using TRPV1 gene-knockout mice. Mice were painted with 5% FA once a week for 5 weeks, and ear swelling and mRNA expression were investigated. Ear swelling and increased expression of neurotrophins mRNA by FA provocation in wild-type mice were attenuated by disruption of the TRPV1 gene. Furthermore, painting with a threshold dose of capsaicin, which does not induce ear swelling in intact mice, caused marked ear swelling after painting the ear 5 times with FA, indicating that inflamed tissues after FA application are hypersensitive to various ligands of TRPV1 in mice. These results demonstrated that neurogenic inflammation via TRPV1 and neurotrophins could be involved in FA-induced dermatitis. PMID:22302023

  9. Resiniferatoxin and its analogs provide novel insights into the pharmacology of the vanilloid (capsaicin) receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Szallasi, A.; Blumberg, P.M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent constituent of chili peppers, represents the paradigm for the capsaicinoids or vanilloids, a family of compounds shown to stimulate and then desensitize specific subpopulations of sensory receptors, including C-polymodal nociceptors, A-delta mechanoheat nociceptors and warm receptors of the skin, as well as enteroceptors of thin afferent fibers. An exciting recent advance in the field has been the finding that resiniferatoxin (RTX), a naturally occurring diterpene containing a homovanillic acid ester, a key structural motif of capsaicin, functions as an ultrapotent capsaicin analog. For most of the responses characteristic of capsaicin, RTX is 100-10,000 fold more potent. Structure/activity analysis indicates, however, that RTX and related homovanillyl-diterpene esters display distinct spectra of activity. Specific ({sup 3}H)RTX binding provides the first direct proof for the existence of vanilloid receptors. We expect that the RTX class of vanilloids will promote rapid progress in understanding of vanilloid structure/activity requirements and mechanism.

  10. NOCICEPTORS AND THE PERCEPTION OF PAIN Alan Fein, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Terasaki, Mark

    IN DROSOPHILA PHOTORECEPTORS MAMMALIAN TRP CHANNELS TASTE AND CHEMESTHESIS CAPSAICIN TRPV1 TRPV1 EXPRESSING THE MRGPRD RECEPTOR NOCICEPTORS EXPRESSING TRPV1 NOCICEPTORS EXPRESSING THE VOLTAGE GATED SODIUM

  11. TRPV1 is a novel target for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Matta, José A; Miyares, Rosa L; Ahern, Gerard P

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are essential for proper neuronal function, and they possess prominent analgesic properties, yet their underlying signalling mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that n-3 fatty acids interact directly with TRPV1, an ion channel expressed in nociceptive neurones and brain. These fatty acids activate TRPV1 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, enhance responses to extracellular protons, and displace binding of the ultrapotent TRPV1 ligand [3H]resiniferatoxin. In contrast to their agonistic properties, n-3 fatty acids competitively inhibit the responses of vanilloid agonists. These actions occur in mammalian cells in the physiological concentration range of 1–10 ?m. Significantly, docosahexaenoic acid exhibits the greatest efficacy as an agonist, whereas eicosapentaenoic acid and linolenic acid are markedly more effective inhibitors. Similarly, eicosapentaenoic acid but not docosahexaenoic acid profoundly reduces capsaicin-evoked pain-related behaviour in mice. These effects are independent of alterations in membrane elasticity because the micelle-forming detergent Triton X-100 only minimally affects TRPV1 properties. Thus, n-3 fatty acids differentially regulate TRPV1 and this form of signalling may contribute to their biological effects. Further, these results suggest that dietary supplementation with selective n-3 fatty acids would be most beneficial for the treatment of pain. PMID:17038422

  12. Auto-oxidation products of epigallocatechin gallate activate TRPA1 and TRPV1 in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Mako; Kawai, Yasushi; Nagatomo, Katsuhiro; Tateyama, Michihiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The sensation of astringency is elicited by catechins and their polymers in wine and tea. It has been considered that catechins in green tea are unstable and auto-oxidized to induce more astringent taste. Here, we examined how mammalian transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) and TRPA1, which are nociceptive sensors, are activated by green tea catechins during the auto-oxidation process. Neither TRPV1 nor TRPA1 could be activated by any of the freshly prepared catechin. When one of the major catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), was preincubated for 3h in Hank's balanced salt solution, it significantly activated both TRP channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Even after incubation, other catechins showed much less effects. Results suggest that only oxidative products of EGCG activate both TRPV1 and TRPA1. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons were also activated by the incubated EGCG through TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that theasinensins A and D are formed during incubation of EGCG. We found that purified theasinensin A activates both TRPV1 and TRPA1, and that it stimulates DRG neurons through TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. Results suggested a possibility that TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels are involved in the sense of astringent taste of green tea. PMID:25422365

  13. Unveiling TRPV1 Spatio-Temporal Organization in Live Cell Membranes.

    PubMed

    Storti, Barbara; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Cardarelli, Francesco; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Beltram, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that integrates several stimuli into nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Here we investigated the subtle TRPV1 interplay with candidate membrane partners in live cells by a combination of spatio-temporal fluctuation techniques and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We show that TRPV1 is split into three populations with fairly different molecular properties: one binding to caveolin-1 and confined into caveolar structures, one actively guided by microtubules through selective binding, and one which diffuses freely and is not directly implicated in regulating receptor functionality. The emergence of caveolin-1 as a new interactor of TRPV1 evokes caveolar endocytosis as the main desensitization pathway of TRPV1 receptor, while microtubule binding agrees with previous data suggesting the receptor stabilization in functional form by these cytoskeletal components. Our results shed light on the hitherto unknown relationships between spatial organization and TRPV1 function in live-cell membranes. PMID:25764349

  14. Unveiling TRPV1 Spatio-Temporal Organization in Live Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Storti, Barbara; Di Rienzo, Carmine; Cardarelli, Francesco; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Beltram, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that integrates several stimuli into nociception and neurogenic inflammation. Here we investigated the subtle TRPV1 interplay with candidate membrane partners in live cells by a combination of spatio-temporal fluctuation techniques and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. We show that TRPV1 is split into three populations with fairly different molecular properties: one binding to caveolin-1 and confined into caveolar structures, one actively guided by microtubules through selective binding, and one which diffuses freely and is not directly implicated in regulating receptor functionality. The emergence of caveolin-1 as a new interactor of TRPV1 evokes caveolar endocytosis as the main desensitization pathway of TRPV1 receptor, while microtubule binding agrees with previous data suggesting the receptor stabilization in functional form by these cytoskeletal components. Our results shed light on the hitherto unknown relationships between spatial organization and TRPV1 function in live-cell membranes. PMID:25764349

  15. Peripheral inflammation selectively increases TRPV1 function in IB4-positive sensory neurons from adult mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole M. Breese; Annette C. George; Laura E. Pauers; Cheryl L. Stucky

    2005-01-01

    C-fiber nociceptors can be divided into two groups based on growth factor dependency and isolectin B4 (IB4) binding. IB4-negative nociceptors have been proposed to contribute to inflammatory pain. Since the TRPV1 receptor is critical for inflammatory heat hyperalgesia, we hypothesized that inflammation would sensitize IB4 negative but not IB4-positive small-diameter neurons to TRPV1 stimuli. Two days after complete Freund's adjuvant

  16. The Ile585Val TRPV1 variant is involved in risk of painful knee osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M Valdes; Gert De Wilde; Sally A Doherty; Rik J Lories; Frances L Vaughn; Laura L Laslett; Rose A Maciewicz; Anushka Soni; Deborah J Hart; Weiya Zhang; Kenneth R Muir; Elaine M Dennison; Margaret Wheeler; Paul Leaverton; Cyrus Cooper; Tim D Spector; Flavia M Cicuttini; Victoria Chapman; Graeme Jones; Nigel K Arden; Michael Doherty

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess if a coding variant in the gene encoding transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) is associated with genetic risk of painful knee osteoarthritis (OA).MethodsThe Ile585Val TRPV1 variant encoded by rs8065080 was genotyped in 3270 cases of symptomatic knee OA, 1098 cases of asymptomatic knee OA and 3852 controls from seven cohorts from the UK,

  17. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 modulates nociceptive signaling through direct phosphorylation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Tej K.; Keller, Jason; Kesavapany, Sashi; Agarwal, Nitin; Kuner, Rohini; Pant, Harish C.; Iadarola, Michael J.; Brady, Roscoe O.; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

    2007-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a ligand-gated cation channel highly expressed in small-diameter sensory neurons, is activated by heat, protons, and capsaicin. The phosphorylation of TRPV1 provides a versatile regulation of intracellular calcium levels and is critical for TRPV1 function in responding to a pain stimulus. We have previously reported that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) activity regulates nociceptive signaling. In this article we report that the Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of TRPV1 at threonine-407 can modulate agonist-induced calcium influx. Inhibition of Cdk5 activity in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons resulted in a significant reduction of TRPV1-mediated calcium influx, and this effect could be reversed by restoring Cdk5 activity. Primary nociceptor-specific Cdk5 conditional-knockout mice showed reduced TRPV1 phosphorylation, resulting in significant hypoalgesia. Thus, the present study indicates that Cdk5-mediated TRPV1 phosphorylation is important in the regulation of pain signaling. PMID:17194758

  18. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of anti-serotonergic compounds on serotonin- and capsaicin-evoked thermal hyperalgesia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Loyd, D R; Chen, P B; Hargreaves, K M

    2012-02-17

    The peripheral serotonergic system has been implicated in the modulation of an array of pain states, from migraine to fibromyalgia; however, the mechanism by which serotonin (5HT) induces pain is unclear. Peripherally released 5HT induces thermal hyperalgesia, possibly via modulation of the transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) channel, which is gated by various noxious stimuli, including capsaicin. We previously reported in vitro that 5HT increases calcium accumulation in the capsaicin-sensitive population of sensory neurons with a corresponding increase in proinflammatory neuropeptide release, and both are antagonized by pretreatment with 5HT(2A) and 5HT(3) antagonists, as well as the anti-migraine drug sumatriptan. In the current study, we extended these findings in vivo using the rat hind paw thermal assay to test the hypothesis that peripheral 5HT enhances TRPV1-evoked thermal hyperalgesia that can be attenuated with 5HT(2A) and 5HT(3) receptor antagonists, as well as sumatriptan. Thermal hyperalgesia and edema were established by 5HT injection (0.1-10 nmol/100 ?l) into the rat hind paw, and the latency to paw withdrawal (PWL) from noxious heat was determined. Rats were then pretreated with either 5HT before capsaicin (3 nmol/10 ?l), the 5HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin or the 5HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron (0.0001-0.1 nmol/100 ?l) before 5HT and/or capsaicin, or the 5HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist sumatriptan (0.01-1 nmol/100 ?l) before capsaicin, and PWL was determined. We report that 5HT pretreatment enhances TRPV1-evoked thermal hyperalgesia, which is attenuated with local pretreatment with ketanserin, granisetron, or sumatriptan. We also report that peripheral 5HT induced a similar magnitude of thermal hyperalgesia in male and female rats. Overall, our results provide in vivo evidence supporting an enhancing role of 5HT on TRPV1-evoked thermal hyperalgesia, which can be attenuated by peripheral serotonergic intervention. PMID:22209919

  19. TRPV1 mediates cell death in rat synovial fibroblasts through calcium entry-dependent ROS production and mitochondrial depolarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Fen; Sun Wenwu [Department of Biophysics, School of Physics, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhao Xiao Ting [Institute of Cell Biology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Cui Zongjie [Institute of Cell Biology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zjcui@bnu.edu.cn; Yang Wenxiu [Department of Biophysics, The School of Physics, The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300071 (China)], E-mail: yangwenx@nankai.edu.cn

    2008-05-16

    Synoviocyte hyperplasia is critical for rheumatoid arthritis, therefore, potentially an important target for therapeutics. It was found in this work that a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, and acidic solution (pH 5.5) induced increases in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c}) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in synoviocytes isolated from a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis. The increases in both [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} and ROS production were completely abolished in calcium-free buffer or by a TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. Further experiments revealed that capsaicin and pH 5.5 solution caused mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reduction in cell viability; such effects were inhibited by capsazepine, or the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. Both capsaicin and pH 5.5 buffer induced apoptosis as shown by nuclear condensation and fragmentation. Furthermore, RT-PCR readily detected TRPV1 mRNA expression in the isolated synoviocytes. Taken together, these data indicated that TRPV1 activation triggered synoviocyte death by [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} elevation, ROS production, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization.

  20. SYM 2081, an agonist that desensitizes kainate receptors, attenuates capsaicin and inflammatory hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michelle S; Hamamoto, Darryl T; Hodges, James S; Maccecchini, Maria L; Simone, Donald A

    2003-05-30

    Excitatory amino acids acting at non-NMDA receptors contribute to transmission of nociceptive information. SYM 2081 ((2S,4R)-4-methyl glutamic acid) desensitizes kainate receptors, one subtype of non-NMDA receptors, to subsequent release of excitatory amino acids and thus may attenuate transmission of nociceptive information. To determine if SYM 2081 can prevent development of hyperalgesia, SYM 2081 (10, 50 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered prior to injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw of rats, which produces mechanical and heat hyperalgesia. To determine if SYM 2081 can reduce ongoing inflammatory hyperalgesia, SYM 2081 (10 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered after development of carrageenan-evoked hyperalgesia. Intraplantar injection of capsaicin produced an increase in hindpaw withdrawal frequency to mechanical stimuli (from 4+/-2 to 41+/-7%; mean+/-S.E.M.) and a decrease in withdrawal latency to heat (from 12.3+/-0.3 to 5.9+/-0.4 s) in rats that received vehicle. In contrast, rats that received SYM 2081 (100 mg/kg) prior to injection of capsaicin exhibited a lower hindpaw withdrawal frequency (18+/-4%) and a longer withdrawal latency (7.7+/-0.5 s). Intrathecal (1-100 microg/5 microl), but not intraplantar (10 or 100 microg/50 microl), injection of SYM 2081 attenuated the development of capsaicin-evoked heat hyperalgesia suggesting that SYM 2081's antihyperalgesic effects were due to its central effects. Furthermore, SYM 2081 completely reversed ongoing carrageenan-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia and partially (approximately 50%) reversed ongoing heat hyperalgesia. The present study demonstrates that administration of a high-potency ligand that selectively desensitizes kainate receptors attenuates the development of mechanical and heat hyperalgesia and attenuates ongoing inflammatory hyperalgesia. PMID:12738069

  1. The functions of TRPA1 and TRPV1: moving away from sensory nerves

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, ES; Fernandes, MA; Keeble, JE

    2012-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and ankyrin 1 (TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively) channels are members of the TRP superfamily of structurally related, non-selective cation channels. It is rapidly becoming clear that the functions of TRPV1 and TRPA1 interlink with each other to a considerable extent. This is especially clear in relation to pain and neurogenic inflammation where TRPV1 is coexpressed on the vast majority of TRPA1-expressing sensory nerves and both integrate a variety of noxious stimuli. The more recent discovery that both TRPV1 and TRPA1 are expressed on a multitude of non-neuronal sites has led to a plethora of research into possible functions of these receptors. Non-neuronal cells on which TRPV1 and TRPA1 are expressed vary from vascular smooth muscle to keratinocytes and endothelium. This review will discuss the expression, functionality and roles of these non-neuronal TRP channels away from sensory nerves to demonstrate the diverse nature of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in addition to a direct role in pain and neurogenic inflammation. PMID:22233379

  2. TRPV1 and SP: key elements for sepsis outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Bodkin, Jennifer Victoria; Fernandes, Elizabeth Soares

    2013-01-01

    Sensory neurons play important roles in many disorders, including inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis. Sepsis is a potentially lethal systemic inflammatory reaction to a local bacterial infection, affecting thousands of patients annually. Although associated with a high mortality rate, sepsis outcome depends on the severity of systemic inflammation, which can be directly influenced by several factors, including the immune response of the patient. Currently, there is a lack of effective drugs to treat sepsis, and thus there is a need to develop new drugs to improve sepsis outcome. Several mediators involved in the formation of sepsis have now been identified, but the mechanisms underlying the pathology remain poorly understood. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor and the neuropeptide substance P (SP) have recently been demonstrated as important targets for sepsis and are located on sensory neurones and non-neuronal cells. Herein, we highlight and review the importance of sensory neurones for the modulation of sepsis, with specific focus on recent findings relating to TRPV1 and SP, with their distinct abilities to alter the transition from local to systemic inflammation and also modify the overall sepsis outcome. We also emphasize the protective role of TRPV1 in this context. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Neuropeptides. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-7 PMID:23145480

  3. External QX-314 inhibits evoked cranial primary afferent synaptic transmission independent of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Fawley, Jessica A; Andresen, Michael C

    2014-12-01

    The cell-impermeant lidocaine derivative QX-314 blocks sodium channels via intracellular mechanisms. In somatosensory nociceptive neurons, open transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors provide a transmembrane passageway for QX-314 to produce long-lasting analgesia. Many cranial primary afferents express TRPV1 at synapses on neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and caudal trigeminal nucleus (Vc). Here, we investigated whether QX-314 interrupts neurotransmission from primary afferents in rat brain-stem slices. Shocks to the solitary tract (ST) activated highly synchronous evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (ST-EPSCs). Application of 300 ?M QX-314 increased the ST-EPSC latency from TRPV1+ ST afferents, but, surprisingly, it had similar actions at TRPV1- ST afferents. Continued exposure to QX-314 blocked evoked ST-EPSCs at both afferent types. Neither the time to onset of latency changes nor the time to ST-EPSC failure differed between responses for TRPV1+ and TRPV1- inputs. Likewise, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine failed to prevent the actions of QX-314. Whereas QX-314 blocked ST-evoked release, the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs remained unaltered. In neurons exposed to QX-314, intracellular current injection evoked action potentials suggesting a presynaptic site of action. QX-314 acted similarly at Vc neurons to increase latency and block EPSCs evoked from trigeminal tract afferents. Our results demonstrate that QX-314 blocked nerve conduction in cranial primary afferents without interrupting the glutamate release mechanism or generation of postsynaptic action potentials. The TRPV1 independence suggests that QX-314 either acted extracellularly or more likely entered these axons through an undetermined pathway common to all cranial primary afferents. PMID:25185814

  4. The Effects of Capsaicin and Capsiate on Energy Balance: Critical Review and Meta-analyses of Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ludy, Mary-Jon; Moore, George E.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of spicy foods containing capsaicin, the major pungent principle in hot peppers, reportedly promotes negative energy balance. However, many individuals abstain from spicy foods due to the sensory burn and pain elicited by the capsaicin molecule. A potential alternative for nonusers of spicy foods who wish to exploit this energy balance property is consumption of nonpungent peppers rich in capsiate, a recently identified nonpungent capsaicin analog contained in CH-19 Sweet peppers. Capsiate activates transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the gut but not in the oral cavity. This paper critically evaluates current knowledge on the thermogenic and appetitive effects of capsaicin and capsiate from foods and in supplemental form. Meta-analyses were performed on thermogenic outcomes, with a systematic review conducted for both thermogenic and appetitive outcomes. Evidence indicates that capsaicin and capsiate both augment energy expenditure and enhance fat oxidation, especially at high doses. Furthermore, the balance of the literature suggests that capsaicin and capsiate suppress orexigenic sensations. The magnitude of these effects is small. Purposeful inclusion of these compounds in the diet may aid weight management, albeit modestly. PMID:22038945

  5. Mechanisms of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation and sensitization by allyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Sanchez, Alicia; Everaerts, Wouter; Segal, Andrei; Xue, Fenqin; Janssens, Annelies; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; aka, mustard oil) is a powerful irritant produced by Brassica plants as a defensive trait against herbivores and confers pungency to mustard and wasabi. AITC is widely used experimentally as an inducer of acute pain and neurogenic inflammation, which are largely mediated by the activation of nociceptive cation channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Although it is generally accepted that electrophilic agents activate these channels through covalent modification of cytosolic cysteine residues, the mechanism underlying TRPV1 activation by AITC remains unknown. Here we show that, surprisingly, AITC-induced activation of TRPV1 does not require interaction with cysteine residues, but is largely dependent on S513, a residue that is involved in capsaicin binding. Furthermore, AITC acts in a membrane-delimited manner and induces a shift of the voltage dependence of activation toward negative voltages, which is reminiscent of capsaicin effects. These data indicate that AITC acts through reversible interactions with the capsaicin binding site. In addition, we show that TRPV1 is a locus for cross-sensitization between AITC and acidosis in nociceptive neurons. Furthermore, we show that residue F660, which is known to determine the stimulation by low pH in human TRPV1, is also essential for the cross-sensitization of the effects of AITC and low pH. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that not all reactive electrophiles stimulate TRPV1 via cysteine modification and help understanding the molecular bases underlying the surprisingly large role of this channel as mediator of the algesic properties of AITC. PMID:23757176

  6. Role of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor and stretch-activated ion channels in nitric oxide release from endothelial cells of the aorta and heart in rats

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Narváez, Juan Carlos; Mondragón, Leonardo del Valle; Varela López, Elvira; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Díaz Juárez, Julieta Anabell; Suárez, Jorge; Hernández, Gustavo Pastelín

    2012-01-01

    Shear stress stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release in endothelial cells. Stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor respond to mechanical stimulus and are permeable to Na+, Ca2+ and K+. The influence of SACs and the TRPV1 receptor on NO release on the heart and on the vascular reactivity of the thoracic aorta (TA) was studied. Experiments were performed in isolated perfused heart, cultured endothelial cells and TA rings from Wistar rats. Capsaicin (10 ?M, 30 ?M) was used as a NO release stimulator, capsazepine (6 ?M, 10 ?M) was used as a capsaicin antagonist and gadolinium (3 ?M, 5 ?M) was used as an inhibitor of SACs. NO was measured by the Kelm and Tenorio methods. Left ventricular pressure was recorded and coronary vascular resistance was calculated. Capsaicin increased NO release in the heart by 58% (395±8 pmol/mL to 627±23 pmol/mL). Capsazepine and gadolinium inhibited NO release by 74% and 82%, respectively. This tendency was similar in all experimental models. Capsaicin attenuated the effects of norepinephrine (10 M to 7 M) on TA and had no effect in the presence of N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Therefore, the authors conclude that SACs and the TRPV1 receptor are both present in the coronary endothelium and that both participate in Ca2+-dependent NO release. PMID:23620694

  7. Distribution of TRPV1 and TRPV2 in the human stellate ganglion and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Souichi; Sato, Tadasu; Ogawa, Chikara; Kudo, Kai; Goto, Koju; Fujii, Yuki; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-17

    Immunohistochemistry for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and 2 (TRPV2) was performed on the stellate ganglion and spinal cord in human cadavers. In the stellate ganglion, 25.3% and 16.2% of sympathetic neurons contained TRPV1- and TRPV2-immunoreactivity, respectively. The cell size analysis also demonstrated that proportion of TRPV1- or TRPV2-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons among large (>600?m(2)) sympathetic neurons (TRPV1, 30.7%; TRPV2, 27.0%) was higher than among small (<600?m(2)) sympathetic neurons (TRPV1, 22.0%; TRPV2, 13.6%). The present study also demonstrated that 10.0% of sympathetic neurons in the stellate ganglion had pericellular TRPV2-IR nerve fibers. Fourteen percent of large neurons and 7.8% of small neurons were surrounded by TRPV2-IR nerve fibers. TRPV2-immunoreactivity was also detected in about 40% of neuronal cell bodies with pericellular TRPV2-IR nerve fibers. In the lateral horn of the human thoracic spinal cord, TRPV2-immunoreactivity was expressed by some neurons and many varicose fibers surrounding TRPV2-immunonegative neurons. TRPV2-IR pericellular fibers in the stellate ganglion may originate from the lateral horn of the spinal cord. There appears to be TRPV1- or TRPV2-IR sympathetic pathway in the human stellate ganglion and spinal cord. PMID:25641129

  8. Neuroprotection induced by vitamin E against oxidative stress in hippocampal neurons: involvement of TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Crouzin, Nadine; Ferreira, Marie-Céleste de Jesus; Cohen-Solal, Catherine; Barbanel, Gérard; Guiramand, Janique; Vignes, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Pretreatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with a low concentration of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TP), the major component of vitamin E, results in a long-lasting protection against oxidative damages, via genomic effects. This neuroprotection is associated with the attenuation of a calcium influx triggered by oxidative agents such as Fe(2+) ions. This Ca(2+) influx is supported by a TRP-like channel, also partly involved in capacitive calcium entry within neurons. Here, we evidence the contribution of TRPV1 channels in this mechanism. TRPV1 channels are activated by various agents including capsaicin, the pungent component of hot chili peppers and blocked by capsazepine (CPZ) or 5'-iodo-resiniferatoxin. Both TRPV1 inhibitors strongly reduced Fe(2+) ion-mediated toxicity and Ca(2+) influx, in the same way as to alpha-TP pretreatment. Moreover, CPZ also decreased capacitive calcium entry in hippocampal neurons. Finally, both CPZ and 5'-iodo-resiniferatoxin reduced spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission; this depression of synaptic transmission being largely occluded in alpha-TP-pretreated neurons. In conclusion, in our experimental model, TRPV1 channels are involved in the Fe(2+) ion-induced neuronal death and a negative modulation of this channel activity by alpha-TP pretreatment may account, at least in part, for the long-lasting neuroprotection against oxidative stress. PMID:20087852

  9. TRPV1 mediates cellular uptake of anandamide and thus promotes endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Nicole A.; Barth, Sonja; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Klec, Christiane; Strunk, Dirk; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anandamide (N-arachidonyl ethanolamide, AEA) is an endogenous cannabinoid that is involved in various pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases and tumor-angiogenesis. Herein, we tested the involvement of classical cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) and the Ca2+-channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) on cellular AEA uptake and its effect on endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation. Uptake of the fluorescence-labeled anandamide (SKM4-45-1) was monitored in human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and a human endothelial-vein cell line (EA.hy926). Involvement of the receptors during AEA translocation was determined by selective pharmacological inhibition (AM251, SR144528, CID16020046, SB366791) and molecular interference by TRPV1-selective siRNA-mediated knock-down and TRPV1 overexpression. We show that exclusively TRPV1 contributes essentially to AEA transport into endothelial cells in a Ca2+-independent manner. This TRPV1 function is a prerequisite for AEA-induced endothelial cell proliferation and network-formation. Our findings point to a so far unknown moonlighting function of TRPV1 as Ca2+-independent contributor/regulator of AEA uptake. We propose TRPV1 as representing a promising target for development of pharmacological therapies against AEA-triggered endothelial cell functions, including their stimulatory effect on tumor-angiogenesis. PMID:25395667

  10. Capsaicin-induced relaxation in the rat isolated external urethral sphincter: characterization of the vanilloid receptor and mediation by CGRP.

    PubMed Central

    Parlani, M.; Conte, B.; Goso, C.; Szallasi, A.; Manzini, S.

    1993-01-01

    1. The potential role of capsaicin-sensitive nerves in the relaxation of the rat external urethral sphincter (REUS) was evaluated by demonstrating the existence of specific vanilloid (capsaicin) receptors and by investigating the sensory neurotransmitter(s) putatively involved in this relaxation. 2. Capsaicin (1 microM) relaxed REUS strips precontracted with noradrenaline (NA) (0.1 mM). This effect underwent desensitization and it was absent in preparations taken from adult capsaicin-pretreated rats. 3. Capsaicin-induced relaxation of NA-precontracted REUS was mimicked by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, 0.3-10 microM), but not by substance P (1 microM), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, 1 microM), alpha-beta methylene ATP (10 microM), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 3 mM) or galanin (1 microM). A cross-tachyphylaxis between capsaicin (1 microM) and CGRP (1 microM) was observed. Both capsaicin and CGRP-induced relaxation were partially antagonized by the proposed CGRP antagonist, CGRP (8-37) (10 microM). 4. Electrical field stimulation (EFS, 2.5 Hz, 60 V, 1 ms, trains of 5 s every 5 min) of REUS evoked a contraction characterized by a largely adrenergic slowly developing tonic contraction with superimposed fast twitches due to the striated component of the strips. Both capsaicin (1 microM) and CGRP (0.01-1 microM) produced an almost complete inhibition of EFS-induced tonic contraction. A cross-tachyphylaxis between capsaicin and CGRP was observed. Furthermore, these inhibitory actions were unaffected by CGRP (8-37) (10 microM). 5. [3H]-resiniferatoxin displayed specific, saturable binding to rat urethral membranes. Data were consistent with a single site with a Kd of 105 pM and a Bmax of 40 fmol mg-1 protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7905345

  11. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Expression and Functionality in MCF-7 Cells: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Raffaella; Cuniberti, Barbara; Racca, Silvia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Piccione, Francesca; Re, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel belonging to the transient receptor potential family, and it is expressed in different neoplastic tissues. Its activation is associated with regulation of cancer growth and progression. The aim of this research was to study the expression and pharmacological characteristics of TRPV1 in cells derived from human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods TRPV1 presence was assessed by binding studies and Western blotting. Receptor binding characteristics were evaluated through competition assays, while 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5,-dipheyltetrazolium bromide reduction assays were performed to confirm an early hypothesis regarding the modulation of cancer cell proliferation. The functionality of TRPV1 was evaluated by measuring Ca2+ uptake in the presence of increasing concentrations of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists. Results Binding studies identified a single class of TRPV1 (Bmax 1,492±192 fmol/mg protein), and Western blot showed a signal at 100 kDa corresponding to the molecular weight of human TRPV1. Among the different tested agonists and antagonists, anandamide (Ki: 2.8×10-11 M) and 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (5-I-RTX) (Ki: 5.6×10-11 M) showed the highest degrees of affinity for TRPV1, respectively. All tested TRPV1 agonists and antagonists caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in cell growth rate in MCF-7 cells. For agonists and antagonists, the efficacy of tested compounds displayed the following rank order: resiniferatoxin>anandamide>capsaicin and 5-I-RTX=capsazepine, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that both TRPV1 agonists and antagonists induce significant inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth. Even though the mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative effects of TRPV1 agonists and antagonists should be further investigated, it has been suggested that agonists cause desensitization of the receptor, leading to alteration in Ca2+-influx regulation. By contrast, antagonists cause a functional block of the receptor with consequent fatal dysregulation of cell homeostasis. PMID:25548580

  12. Subgroup-Elimination Transcriptomics Identifies Signaling Proteins that Define Subclasses of TRPV1-Positive Neurons and a Novel Paracrine Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Isensee, Jörg; Wenzel, Carsten; Buschow, Rene; Weissmann, Robert; Kuss, Andreas W.; Hucho, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Normal and painful stimuli are detected by specialized subgroups of peripheral sensory neurons. The understanding of the functional differences of each neuronal subgroup would be strongly enhanced by knowledge of the respective subgroup transcriptome. The separation of the subgroup of interest, however, has proven challenging as they can hardly be enriched. Instead of enriching, we now rapidly eliminated the subgroup of neurons expressing the heat-gated cation channel TRPV1 from dissociated rat sensory ganglia. Elimination was accomplished by brief treatment with TRPV1 agonists followed by the removal of compromised TRPV1(+) neurons using density centrifugation. By differential microarray and sequencing (RNA-Seq) based expression profiling we compared the transcriptome of all cells within sensory ganglia versus the same cells lacking TRPV1 expressing neurons, which revealed 240 differentially expressed genes (adj. p<0.05, fold-change>1.5). Corroborating the specificity of the approach, many of these genes have been reported to be involved in noxious heat or pain sensitization. Beyond the expected enrichment of ion channels, we found the TRPV1 transcriptome to be enriched for GPCRs and other signaling proteins involved in adenosine, calcium, and phosphatidylinositol signaling. Quantitative population analysis using a recent High Content Screening (HCS) microscopy approach identified substantial heterogeneity of expressed target proteins even within TRPV1-positive neurons. Signaling components defined distinct further subgroups within the population of TRPV1-positive neurons. Analysis of one such signaling system showed that the pain sensitizing prostaglandin PGD2 activates DP1 receptors expressed predominantly on TRPV1(+) neurons. In contrast, we found the PGD2 producing prostaglandin D synthase to be expressed exclusively in myelinated large-diameter neurons lacking TRPV1, which suggests a novel paracrine neuron-neuron communication. Thus, subgroup analysis based on the elimination rather than enrichment of the subgroup of interest revealed proteins that define subclasses of TRPV1-positive neurons and suggests a novel paracrine circuit. PMID:25551770

  13. Application of RNA Interference to Treat Conditions Associated with Dysregulation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vickram Ramkumar; Debashree Mukherjea; Sarvesh Jajoo; Tejbeer Kaur; Leonard P. Rybak

    \\u000a Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of proteins\\u000a and is most notably the target of capsaicin, the active ingredient of “hot” pepper such as jalapeńo and habanero. The channel\\u000a is expressed primarily in small diameter neurons (A? and C fibers) within sensory ganglia comprising the pain pathway but\\u000a expression is

  14. Cannabinoid type 1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels in fear and anxiety-two sides of one coin?

    PubMed

    Moreira, F A; Aguiar, D C; Terzian, A L B; Guimarăes, F S; Wotjak, C T

    2012-03-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1; originally vanilloid receptor VR1) is activated in peripheral terminals of nociceptive fibers by noxious heat, low pH, and natural products such as capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red-hot chilli peppers. Evidence has been accumulating that TRPV1 is expressed also in the brain, where it seems to be involved in antinociception, locomotor control, and regulation of affective behaviors. This ion channel might be activated by arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide), the endogenous agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB(1)) receptor. However, while CB(1) activation leads to a decrease in intracellular calcium and attenuation of synaptic transmission, anandamide binding to TRPV1 results in elevated calcium levels and potentiated synaptic transmission. This suggests a tripartite regulatory system with antagonistic effects of CB(1) and TRPV1, which are tied together by the same endogenous ligand. Such a system may have important implication for the modulation of behavioral responses. The present commentary elaborates on this interplay between CB(1) receptors and TRPV1 channels in the context of fear- and anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:21906661

  15. Fufang Kushen injection inhibits sarcoma growth and tumor-induced hyperalgesia via TRPV1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizheng; Fan, Huiting; Higgins, Tim; Qi, Jia; Haines, Diana; Trivett, Anna; Oppenheim, Joost J; Wei, Hou; Li, Jie; Lin, Hongsheng; Howard, O M Zack

    2014-12-28

    Cancer pain is a deleterious consequence of tumor growth and related inflammation. Opioids and anti-inflammatory drugs provide first line treatment for cancer pain, but both are limited by side effects. Fufang Kushen injection (FKI) is GMP produced, traditional Chinese medicine used alone or with chemotherapy to reduce cancer-associated pain. FKI limited mouse sarcoma growth both in vivo and in vitro, in part, by reducing the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT kinases and BAD. FKI inhibited TRPV1 mediated capsaicin-induced ERK phosphorylation and reduced tumor-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Thus, FKI limited cancer pain both directly by blocking TRPV1 signaling and indirectly by reducing tumor growth. PMID:25242356

  16. Restriction of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 to the peptidergic subset of primary afferent neurons follows its developmental downregulation in nonpeptidergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Daniel J; Chesler, Alexander T; Bráz, Joao M; Shah, Nirao M; Julius, David; Basbaum, Allan I

    2011-07-13

    Primary afferent "pain" fibers (nociceptors) are divided into subclasses based on distinct molecular and anatomical features, and these classes mediate noxious modality-specific contributions to behaviors evoked by painful stimuli. Whether the heat and capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is expressed heterogeneously across several sensory populations, or is selectively expressed by a unique nociceptor subclass, however, is unclear. Here we used two lines of Trpv1 reporter mice to investigate the primary afferent expression of TRPV1, both during development and in the adult. We demonstrate, using Cre-induced lineage tracing, that during development TRPV1 is transiently expressed in a wide range of dorsal root ganglion neurons, and that its expression is gradually refined, such that TRPV1 transcripts become restricted to a specific subset of peptidergic sensory neurons. Finally, the remarkable sensitivity that is characteristic of these reporter mice revealed an innervation of central and peripheral targets by TRPV1+ primary afferents in the adult that is considerably more extensive than has previously been appreciated. PMID:21752988

  17. Capsaicin stimulates the non-store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry but inhibits the store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry in neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-P. [Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Sec. 3, Chung Kang Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China) and Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Taichung, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: w1994@vghtc.gov.tw; Tseng, C.-S. [Department of Anesthesiology, and Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Sun, S.-P. [Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Sec. 3, Chung Kang Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.-S. [Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160, Sec. 3, Chung Kang Road, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C.-R. [Department of Pediatrics, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsu, M.-F. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2005-12-01

    Rat neutrophils express the mRNA encoding for transient receptor potential (TRP) V1. However, capsaicin-stimulated [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation occurred only at high concentrations ({>=}100 {mu}M). This response was substantially decreased in a Ca{sup 2+}-free medium. Vanilloids displayed similar patterns of Ca{sup 2+} response with the rank order of potency as follows: scutigeral>resiniferatoxin>capsazepine>capsaicin=olvanil>isovelleral. Arachidonyl dopamine (AAD), an endogenous ligand for TRPV1, failed to desensitize the subsequent capsaicin challenge. Capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} response was not affected by 8-bromo-cyclic ADP-ribose (8-Br-cADPR), the ryanodine receptor blocker, but was slightly attenuated by 1-[6-[17{beta}-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,= 5-dione (U-73122), the inhibitor of phospholipase C-coupled processes, 1-[{beta}-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole (SKF-96365), the blocker of receptor-gated and store-operated Ca{sup 2+} (SOC) channels, 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate (2-APB), the blocker of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphospahte (IP{sub 3}) receptor and Ca{sup 2+} influx, and by ruthenium red, a blocker of TRPV channels, and enhanced by the Ca{sup 2+} channels blocker, cis-N-(2-phenylcyclopentyl)azacyclotridec-1-en-2-amine (MDL-12330A) and Na{sup +}-deprivation. In addition, capsaicin had no effect on the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity or the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) or on the total thiols content. Capsaicin ({>=}100 {mu}M) inhibited the cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-induced store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE). In the absence of external Ca{sup 2+}, the robust Ca{sup 2+} entry after subsequent addition of Ca{sup 2+} was decreased by capsaicin in CPA-activated cells. Capsaicin alone increased the actin cytoskeleton, and also increased the actin filament content in cell activation with CPA. These results indicate that capsaicin activates a TRPV1-independent non-SOCE pathway in neutrophils. The reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is probably involved in the capsaicin inhibition of SOCE.

  18. Sex Differences in Serotonin Enhancement of Capsaicin-evoked Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Release from Human Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Loyd, Dayna R.; Sun, Xiaoling X.; Locke, Erin E.; Salas, Margaux M.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5HT) is a pronociceptive mediator in the periphery and evidence implicates involvement in trigeminal pain processing. However, the mechanism(s) by which 5HT modulates trigeminal nociceptors remains unclear. Trigeminal pain can be evoked by the transient receptor potential V1 channel (TRPV1), which is expressed by nociceptive trigeminal neurons and induces release of proinflammatory calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). In our preclinical models, 5HT evoked thermal hyperalgesia and enhanced calcium influx and CGRP release from the TRPV1 population of trigeminal nociceptors. Whether this occurs in humans is unknown. As dental pulp is densely innervated by trigeminal nociceptors, routine tooth extractions offer a unique opportunity to examine whether 5HT enhances CGRP release from human nociceptors. Pulpal tissue was collected from 140 extracted molar teeth from men and women and basal release samples were collected prior to treatment with saline or 5HT 100 ?M. CGRP release was then stimulated with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin 1 ?M and quantitated by enzyme immunoassay. Additional samples were collected for western blots to examine 5HT receptor expression. We report that 5HT induced a significant increase in capsaicin-evoked CGRP release and this enhancement was observed only in female dental pulp, with no effect of 5HT on male dental pulp. The greatest amount of CGRP release occurred in dental pulp from women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. These results indicate that 5HT enhances capsaicin-evoked CGRP release from human trigeminal nociceptors in a sexually dimorphic manner providing a mechanistic basis for prevalence of trigeminal pain disorders in women. PMID:22819536

  19. Brief Communications A Transient Receptor Potential-Like Channel Mediates

    E-print Network

    Heimel, Jan-Alexander

    or glutamate. The transduction current was suppressed by ruthenium red and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and SB-366791. Furthermore, focal application of the TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and anandamide evoked1channel.To test the possibility that the transduction channel is TRPV1, we measured rod bipolar

  20. Protective effects of the flavonoid hesperidin methyl chalcone in inflammation and pain in mice: Role of TRPV1, oxidative stress, cytokines and NF-?B.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Borghi, Sergio M; Zarpelon, Ana C; Guazelli, Carla F S; Manchope, Marilia F; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-02-25

    Cytokines and reactive oxygen species are inflammatory mediators that lead to increased sensitivity to painful stimuli, and their inhibition represents a therapeutic approach in controlling acute and chronic pain. The water-soluble flavonone hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) is used in the treatment of venous diseases, but its bioactivity as anti-inflammatory and analgesic is poorly understood. The present study evaluated the protective effects of HMC in widely used mouse models of acute and prolonged inflammation and pain. Male Swiss mice were treated with HMC (3-100 or 30mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle (saline) 1h before inflammatory stimuli. In overt pain-like behavior tests, HMC inhibited acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone-induced writhing, and capsaicin-, Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)- and formalin-induced paw flinching and licking. HMC also inhibited carrageenan-, capsaicin- and CFA-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanistically, HMC inhibited carrageenan-induced cytokine (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-10) production, oxidative stress and NF-?B activation. Furthermore, HMC did not cause gastric or hepatic injury in a 7days treatment protocol. Thus, this is the first report that HMC reduces inflammation and inflammatory pain by targeting TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) receptor activity, oxidative stress, cytokine production, and NF-?B activity, which suggests its potential applicability in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25617481

  1. Astrocytic TRPV1 ion channels detect blood-borne signals in the sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse brains.

    PubMed

    Mannari, Tetsuya; Morita, Shoko; Furube, Eriko; Tominaga, Makoto; Miyata, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    The circumventricular organs (CVOs), including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), subfornical organ (SFO), and area postrema (AP) sense a variety of blood-borne molecules because they lack typical blood-brain barrier. Though a few signaling pathways are known, it is not known how endogenous ligands for transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 ion channel (TRPV1) are sensed in the CVOs. In this study, we aimed to examine whether or not astrocytic TRPV1 senses directly blood-borne molecules in the OVLT, SFO, and AP of adult mice. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western analysis revealed the expression of TRPV1 in the CVOs. Confocal microscopic immunohistochemistry further showed that TRPV1 was localized prominently at thick cellular processes of astrocytes rather than fine cellular processes and cell bodies. TRPV1-expressing cellular processes of astrocytes surrounded the vasculature to constitute dense networks. The expression of TRPV1 was also found at neuronal dendrites but not somata in the CVOs. The intravenous administration of a TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) prominently induced Fos expression at astrocytes in the OVLT, SFO, and AP and neurons in adjacent related nuclei of the median preoptic nuclei (MnPO) and nucleus of the solitary tract (Sol) of wild-type but not TRPV1-knockout mice. The intracerebroventricular infusion of RTX induced Fos expression at both astrocytes and neurons in the CVOs, MnPO, and Sol. Thus, this study demonstrates that blood-borne molecules are sensed directly by astrocytic TRPV1 of the CVOs in adult mammalians. PMID:23468425

  2. Role of the outer pore domain in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 dynamic permeability to large cations.

    PubMed

    Munns, Clare H; Chung, Man-Kyo; Sanchez, Yuly E; Amzel, L Mario; Caterina, Michael J

    2015-02-27

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) has been shown to alter its ionic selectivity profile in a time- and agonist-dependent manner. One hallmark of this dynamic process is an increased permeability to large cations such as N-methyl-d-glucamine (NMDG). In this study, we mutated residues throughout the TRPV1 pore domain to identify loci that contribute to dynamic large cation permeability. Using resiniferatoxin (RTX) as the agonist, we identified multiple gain-of-function substitutions within the TRPV1 pore turret (N628P and S629A), pore helix (F638A), and selectivity filter (M644A) domains. In all of these mutants, maximum NMDG permeability was substantially greater than that recorded in wild type TRPV1, despite similar or even reduced sodium current density. Two additional mutants, located in the pore turret (G618W) and selectivity filter (M644I), resulted in significantly reduced maximum NMDG permeability. M644A and M644I also showed increased and decreased minimum NMDG permeability, respectively. The phenotypes of this panel of mutants were confirmed by imaging the RTX-evoked uptake of the large cationic fluorescent dye YO-PRO1. Whereas none of the mutations selectively altered capsaicin-induced changes in NMDG permeability, the loss-of-function phenotypes seen with RTX stimulation of G618W and M644I were recapitulated in the capsaicin-evoked YO-PRO1 uptake assay. Curiously, the M644A substitution resulted in a loss, rather than a gain, in capsaicin-evoked YO-PRO1 uptake. Modeling of our mutations onto the recently determined TRPV1 structure revealed several plausible mechanisms for the phenotypes observed. We conclude that side chain interactions at a few specific loci within the TRPV1 pore contribute to the dynamic process of ionic selectivity. PMID:25568328

  3. Blocking TRPV1 in Nucleus Accumbens Inhibits Persistent Morphine Conditioned Place Preference Expression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lian-Ting; Yuan, Wei-Xin; Song, Jian; Wang, Peng; Xu, Guo-Zheng; Gao, Guo-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The function of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily, member 1) in the central nervous system is gradually elucidated. It has been recently proved to be expressed in nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region playing an essential role in mediating opioid craving and taking behaviors. Based on the general role of TRPV1 antagonist in blocking neural over-excitability by both pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms, TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ) was tested for its ability to prohibit persistent opioid craving in rats. In the present study, we assessed the expression of TRPV1 in nucleus accumbens and investigated the effect of CPZ in bilateral nucleus accumbens on persistent morphine conditioned place preference (mCPP) in rats. We also evaluated the side-effect of CPZ on activity by comparing cross-beam times between groups. We found that morphine conditioned place preference increased the TRPV1 expression and CPZ attenuated morphine conditioned place preference in a dose-dependent and target–specific manner after both short- and long-term spontaneous withdrawal, reflected by the reduction of the increased time in morphine-paired side. CPZ (10 nM) could induce prolonged and stable inhibition of morphine conditioned place preference expression. More importantly, CPZ did not cause dysfunction of activity in the subjects tested, which indicates the inhibitory effect was not obtained at the sacrifice of regular movement. Collectively, these results indicated that injection of TRPV1 antagonist in nucleus accumbens is capable of attenuating persistent morphine conditioned place preference without affecting normal activity. Thus, TRPV1 antagonist is one of the promising therapeutic drugs for the treatment of opioid addiction. PMID:25118895

  4. Microtopographical features generated by photopolymerization recruit RhoA/ROCK through TRPV1 to direct cell and neurite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufeng; Tuft, Bradley W; Xu, Linjing; Polacco, Marc A; Clarke, Joseph C; Guymon, C Allan; Hansen, Marlan R

    2015-06-01

    Cell processes, including growth cones, respond to biophysical cues in their microenvironment to establish functional tissue architecture and intercellular networks. The mechanisms by which cells sense and translate biophysical cues into directed growth are unknown. We used photopolymerization to fabricate methacrylate platforms with patterned microtopographical features that precisely guide neurite growth and Schwann cell alignment. Pharmacologic inhibition of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) or reduced expression of TRPV1 by RNAi significantly disrupts neurite guidance by these microtopographical features. Exogenous expression of TRPV1 induces alignment of NIH3T3 fibroblasts that fail to align in the absence of TRPV1, further implicating TRPV1 channels as critical mediators of cellular responses to biophysical cues. Microtopographic features increase RhoA activity in growth cones and in TRPV1-expressing NIH3T3 cells. Further, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) phosphorylation is elevated in growth cones and neurites on micropatterned surfaces. Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK by pharmacological compounds or reduced expression of either ROCKI or ROCKII isoforms by RNAi abolishes neurite and cell alignment, confirming that RhoA/ROCK signaling mediates neurite and cell alignment to microtopographic features. These studies demonstrate that microtopographical cues recruit TRPV1 channels and downstream signaling pathways, including RhoA and ROCK, to direct neurite and cell growth. PMID:25890710

  5. TRPV1-Dependent and -Independent Alterations in the Limbic Cortex of Neuropathic Mice: Impact on Glial Caspases and Pain Perception

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Catia; Cristino, Luigia; Luongo, Livio; Siniscalco, Dario; Petrosino, Stefania; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Marabese, Ida; Gatta, Luisa; Rossi, Francesca; Imperatore, Roberta; Palazzo, Enza; de Novellis, Vito; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    During neuropathic pain, caspases are activated in the limbic cortex. We investigated the role of TRPV1 channels and glial caspases in the mouse prelimbic and infralimbic (PL-IL) cortex after spared nerve injury (SNI). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blots, and immunfluorescence showed overexpression of several caspases in the PL-IL cortex 7 days postinjury. Caspase-3 release and upregulation of AMPA receptors in microglia, caspase-1 and IL-1? release in astrocytes, and upregulation of Il-1 receptor-1, TRPV1, and VGluT1 in glutamatergic neurons, were also observed. Of these alterations, only those in astrocytes persisted in SNI Trpv1?/? mice. A pan-caspase inhibitor, injected into the PL-IL cortex, reduced mechanical allodynia, this effect being reduced but not abolished in Trpv1?/? mice. Single-unit extracellular recordings in vivo following electrical stimulation of basolateral amygdala or application of pressure on the hind paw, showed increased excitatory pyramidal neuron activity in the SNI PL-IL cortex, which also contained higher levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Intra-PL-IL cortex injection of mGluR5 and NMDA receptor antagonists and AMPA exacerbated, whereas TRPV1 and AMPA receptor antagonists and a CB1 agonist inhibited, allodynia. We suggest that SNI triggers both TRPV1-dependent and independent glutamate- and caspase-mediated cross-talk among IL-PL cortex neurons and glia, which either participates or counteracts pain. PMID:22139792

  6. Neuronal Osmotransduction: Push-Activating TRPV1 with Microtubules

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    Neuronal Osmotransduction: Push-Activating TRPV1 with Microtubules Marta Andre´ s1 and Martin C. Go channel TRPV1 and microtubules, which seem to directly push open the channel. Mammals employ sophisticated in ONs is medi- ated by the TRPV1 channel (Sharif Naeini et al., 2006), whose carboxy terminus was found

  7. Capsaicinoids Cause Inflammation and Epithelial Cell Death through Activation of Vanilloid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Christopher A.; Taylor, Jack L.; Lanza, Diane L.; Carr, Brian A.; Crouch, Dennis J.; Yost, Garold S.

    2008-01-01

    Capsaicinoids, found in less-than-lethal self-defense weapons, have been associated with respiratory failure and death in exposed animals and people. The studies described herein provide evidence for acute respiratory inflammation and damage to epithelial cells in experimental animals, and provide precise molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects using human bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells. Inhalation exposure of rats to pepper sprays (capsaicinoids) produced acute inflammation and damage to nasal, tracheal, bronchiolar, and alveolar cells in a dose-related manner. In vitro cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that cultured human lung cells (BEAS-2B and A549) were more susceptible to necrotic cell death than liver (HepG2) cells. Transcription of the human vanilloid receptor type-1, VR1 or TRPV1, was demonstrated by RT-PCR in all of these cells, and the relative transcript levels were correlated to cellular susceptibility. TRPV1 receptor activation was presumably responsible for cellular cytotoxicity, but prototypical functional antagonists of this receptor were cytotoxic themselves, and did not ameliorate capsaicinoid-induced damage. Conversely, the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, as well as calcium chelation by EGTA ablated cytokine (IL-6) production after capsaicin exposure. To address these seemingly contradictory results, recombinant human TRPV1 was cloned and overexpressed in BEAS-2B cells. These cells exhibited dramatically increased cellular susceptibility to capsaicinoids, measured using IL-6 production and cytotoxicity, and an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Surprisingly, the cytotoxic effects of capsaicin in TRPV1 overexpressing cells were also not inhibited by TRPV1 antagonists or by treatments that modified extracellular calcium. Thus, capsaicin interacted with TRPV1 expressed by BEAS-2B and other airway epithelial cells to cause the calcium-dependent production of cytokines and, conversely, calcium-independent cell death. These results have demonstrated that capsaicinoids contained in pepper spray products produce airway inflammation and cause respiratory epithelial cell death. The mechanisms of these cellular responses to capsaicinoids appear to proceed via distinct cellular pathways, but both pathways are initiated by TRPV1. PMID:12721390

  8. Effect of the TRPV1 antagonist SB-705498 on the nasal parasympathetic reflex response in the ovalbumin sensitized guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Changani, Kumar; Hotee, Sarah; Campbell, Simon; Pindoria, Kashmira; Dinnewell, Laura; Saklatvala, Paula; Thompson, Sally-Anne; Coe, Diane; Biggadike, Keith; Vitulli, Giovanni; Lines, Marion; Busza, Albert; Denyer, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nasal sensory nerves play an important role in symptoms associated with rhinitis triggered by environmental stimuli. Here, we propose that TRPV1 is pivotal in nasal sensory nerve activation and assess the potential of SB-705498 as an intranasal therapy for rhinitis. Experimental Approach The inhibitory effect of SB-705498 on capsaicin-induced currents in guinea pig trigeminal ganglion cells innervating nasal mucosa was investigated using patch clamp electrophysiology. A guinea pig model of rhinitis was developed using intranasal challenge of capsaicin and hypertonic saline to elicit nasal secretory parasympathetic reflex responses, quantified using MRI. The inhibitory effect of SB-705498, duration of action and potency comparing oral versus intranasal route of administration were examined. Key Results SB-705498 concentration-dependently inhibited capsaicin-induced currents in isolated trigeminal ganglion cells (pIC50 7.2). In vivo, capsaicin ipsilateral nasal challenge (0.03–1 mM) elicited concentration-dependent increases in contralateral intranasal fluid secretion. Ten per cent hypertonic saline initiated a similar response. Atropine inhibited responses to either challenge. SB-705498 inhibited capsaicin-induced responses by ?50% at 10 mg·kg?1 (oral), non-micronized 10 mg·mL?1 or 1 mg·mL?1 micronized SB-705498 (intranasal) suspension. Ten milligram per millilitre intranasal SB-705498, dosed 24 h prior to capsaicin challenge produced a 52% reduction in secretory response. SB-705498 (10 mg·mL?1, intranasal) inhibited 10% hypertonic saline responses by 70%. Conclusions and Implications The paper reports the development of a guinea pig model of rhinitis. SB-705498 inhibits capsaicin-induced trigeminal currents and capsaicin-induced contralateral nasal secretions via oral and intranasal routes; efficacy was optimized using particle-reduced SB-705498. We propose that TRPV1 is pivotal in initiating symptoms of rhinitis. PMID:23441756

  9. Acute Heat-Evoked Temperature Sensation Is Impaired but Not Abolished in Mice Lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation. PMID:24925072

  10. Involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in Incisional Intraoral and Extraoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Urata, K; Shinoda, M; Honda, K; Lee, J; Maruno, M; Ito, R; Gionhaku, N; Iwata, K

    2015-03-01

    Thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured region is a common complication. Although it is well known clinically that thermal and mechanical sensitivity of the oral mucosa is different from that of the skin, the mechanisms underlying injured pain of the oral mucosa remain poorly understood. The transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in primary afferent neurons are known to contribute to pathological pain. Therefore, we investigated whether TRPV1 and/or TRPA1 contribute to thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity following oral mucosa or whisker pad skin incision. Strong heat and mechanical and cold hypersensitivity was caused in the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin following incisions. On day 3 after the incisions, the number of TRPV1-immunoreactive (IR) and TRPA1-IR trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin was significantly increased, and the number of TRPV1/TRPA1-IR TG neurons innervating whisker pad skin, but not the buccal mucosa, was significantly increased. Administration of the TRPV1 antagonist, SB366791, to the incised site produced a significant suppression of heat hyperalgesia in both the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin, as well as mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin. Administration of the TRPA1 antagonist, HC-030031, to the incised site suppressed mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in both the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin, as well as heat hyperalgesia in the whisker pad skin. These findings indicate that altered expressions of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in TG neurons are involved in thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity following the buccal mucosa and whisker pad skin incision. Moreover, diverse changes in the number of TRPV1 and TRPA1 coexpressed TG neurons in whisker pad skin-incised rats may contribute to the intracellular interactions of TRPV1 and TRPA1 associated with whisker pad skin incision, whereas TRPV1 and TRPA1 expression in individual TG neurons is involved in buccal mucosa-incised pain. PMID:25576470

  11. A single N-terminal cysteine in TRPV1 determines activation by pungent compounds from onion and garlic

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Héctor; Llorente, Itzel; Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; García-Villegas, Refugio; Munari, Mika; Gordon, Sharona E; Islas, León D; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Some members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels mediate sensory responses to irritant substances. Although it is well known that TRPA1 channels are activated by pungent compounds found in garlic, onion, mustard and cinnamon extracts, activation of TRPV1 by these extracts remains controversial. Here we establish that TRPV1 is activated by pungent extracts from onion and garlic, as well as by allicin, the active compound in these preparations, and participates together with TRPA1 in the pain-related behavior induced by this compound. We found that in TRPV1 these agents act by covalent modification of cysteine residues. In contrast to TRPA1 channels, modification of a single cysteine located in the N-terminal region of TRPV1 was necessary and sufficient for all the effects we observed. Our findings point to a conserved mechanism of activation in TRP channels, which provides new insights into the molecular basis of noxious stimuli detection. PMID:18297068

  12. Positive allosteric modulation of GABA-A receptors reduces capsaicin-induced primary and secondary hypersensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Rikke R; Erichsen, Helle K; Brown, David T; Mirza, Naheed R; Munro, Gordon

    2012-12-01

    GABA-A receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) mediate robust analgesia in animal models of pathological pain, in part via enhancing injury-induced loss of GABA-A-?2 and -?3 receptor function within the spinal cord. As yet, a lack of clinically suitable tool compounds has prevented this concept being tested in humans. Prior to assessing the efficacy of GABA-A receptor PAMs in a human volunteer pain model we have compared compounds capable of variously modulating GABA-A receptor function in comparable rat models of capsaicin-induced acute nocifensive flinching behaviour and secondary mechanical hypersensitivity. The subtype-selective PAM NS11394 (0.3-10 mg/kg), and the non-selective PAM diazepam (1-5 mg/kg) variously reduced capsaicin-induced secondary mechanical hypersensitivity (180 min post-injection). However, the low efficacy subtype-selective PAM TPA023 (3-30 mg/kg) was completely ineffective. This was surprising as both NS11394 and TPA023 robustly attenuated late phase (6-30 min post-injection) capsaicin-induced flinching, a pain-like behaviour that is putatively driven by peripheral and central sensitizing mechanisms. Diazepam also attenuated capsaicin-induced nocifensive behaviours, albeit at doses previously shown to impair locomotor function. Our data indicate that GABA-A receptor PAMs with optimal selectivity and efficacy profiles reduce centrally-mediated mechanical hypersensitivity in capsaicin-injected rats, an observation that we expect can translate directly to human volunteer studies. PMID:22985969

  13. The effect of topical capsaicin-induced sensitization on heat-evoked cutaneous vasomotor responses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Thomas A; da Silva, Larissa Bittencourt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Brief, localized, cutaneous, non-painful thermal stimuli can evoke a transient vasomotor response, causing increased cutaneous blood flow and elevated skin temperature. The aims of this study were to investigate 1) if cutaneous sensitization by topical application of capsaicin (TRPV1 receptor agonist) can facilitate the size, duration and spatial extent of this vasomotor response and 2) if males and females respond differently. Thermal pulses (43°C for 60 seconds) were applied on left/right volar forearms of 15 age-matched males and females. Skin temperature and cutaneous blood flow were measured 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after heat application before and after topical capsaicin (1%, 30 min application) with contralateral arm serving as the control. Recordings were made from the region of interest at distances of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm from the capsaicin application site. Sensitization significantly enhanced skin temperature for up to 30 min and compared with non-sensitized skin at 10 min. Females showed the strongest response after sensitization, but the response lasted longer and spread more widely in males. The blood flow responses were significantly longer after capsaicin (from 5 to 30 minutes after thermal application). This increased blood flow extended outside the treated area up to 10 min after stimulation. After sensitization, the area under the blood flow response curves showed significantly stronger responses in females, spreading 4 cm outside the stimulation site. Cutaneous sensitizing caused prolonged and spatially expanded vasomotor responses to standardized thermal stimulation with sex specific differences. PMID:24044034

  14. The effect of topical capsaicin-induced sensitization on heat-evoked cutaneous vasomotor responses

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Thomas A; da Silva, Larissa Bittencourt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Brief, localized, cutaneous, non-painful thermal stimuli can evoke a transient vasomotor response, causing increased cutaneous blood flow and elevated skin temperature. The aims of this study were to investigate 1) if cutaneous sensitization by topical application of capsaicin (TRPV1 receptor agonist) can facilitate the size, duration and spatial extent of this vasomotor response and 2) if males and females respond differently. Thermal pulses (43°C for 60 seconds) were applied on left/right volar forearms of 15 age-matched males and females. Skin temperature and cutaneous blood flow were measured 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after heat application before and after topical capsaicin (1%, 30 min application) with contralateral arm serving as the control. Recordings were made from the region of interest at distances of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm from the capsaicin application site. Sensitization significantly enhanced skin temperature for up to 30 min and compared with non-sensitized skin at 10 min. Females showed the strongest response after sensitization, but the response lasted longer and spread more widely in males. The blood flow responses were significantly longer after capsaicin (from 5 to 30 minutes after thermal application). This increased blood flow extended outside the treated area up to 10 min after stimulation. After sensitization, the area under the blood flow response curves showed significantly stronger responses in females, spreading 4 cm outside the stimulation site. Cutaneous sensitizing caused prolonged and spatially expanded vasomotor responses to standardized thermal stimulation with sex specific differences. PMID:24044034

  15. ?CGRP is essential for algesic exocytotic mobilization of TRPV1 channels in peptidergic nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Devesa, Isabel; Ferrándiz-Huertas, Clotilde; Mathivanan, Sakthikumar; Wolf, Christoph; Luján, Rafael; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Proalgesic sensitization of peripheral nociceptors in painful syndromes is a complex molecular process poorly understood that involves mobilization of thermosensory receptors to the neuronal surface. However, whether recruitment of vesicular thermoTRP channels is a general mechanism underlying sensitization of all nociceptor types or is subtype-specific remains controversial. We report that sensitization-induced Ca2+-dependent exocytotic insertion of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors to the neuronal plasma membrane is a mechanism specifically used by peptidergic nociceptors to potentiate their excitability. Notably, we found that TRPV1 is present in large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) that were mobilized to the neuronal surface in response to a sensitizing insult. Deletion or silencing of calcitonin-gene–related peptide alpha (?CGRP) gene expression drastically reduced proalgesic TRPV1 potentiation in peptidergic nociceptors by abrogating its Ca2+-dependent exocytotic recruitment. These findings uncover a context-dependent molecular mechanism of TRPV1 algesic sensitization and a previously unrecognized role of ?CGRP in LDCV mobilization in peptidergic nociceptors. Furthermore, these results imply that concurrent secretion of neuropeptides and channels in peptidergic C-type nociceptors facilitates a rapid modulation of pain signaling. PMID:25489075

  16. Low Frequency Electroacupuncture Alleviated Spinal Nerve Ligation Induced Mechanical Allodynia by Inhibiting TRPV1 Upregulation in Ipsilateral Undamaged Dorsal Root Ganglia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is an intractable problem in clinical practice. Accumulating evidence shows that electroacupuncture (EA) with low frequency can effectively relieve neuropathic pain. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) plays a key role in neuropathic pain. The study aimed to investigate whether neuropathic pain relieved by EA administration correlates with TRPV1 inhibition. Neuropathic pain was induced by right L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. 2?Hz?EA stimulation was administered. SNL induced mechanical allodynia in ipsilateral hind paw. SNL caused a significant reduction of TRPV1 expression in ipsilateral L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), but a significant up-regulation in ipsilateral L4 and L6 DRGs. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) change was consistent with that of TRPV1. EA alleviated mechanical allodynia, and inhibited TRPV1 and CGRP overexpressions in ipsilateral L4 and L6 DRGs. SNL did not decrease pain threshold of contralateral hind paw, and TRPV1 expression was not changed in contralateral L5 DRG. 0.001, 0.01?mg/kg TRPV1 agonist 6?-IRTX fully blocked EA analgesia in ipsilateral hind paw. 0.01?mg/kg 6?-IRTX also significantly decreased pain threshold of contralateral paw. These results indicated that inhibition of TRPV1 up-regulation in ipsilateral adjacent undamaged DRGs contributed to low frequency EA analgesia for mechanical allodynia induced by spinal nerve ligation. PMID:23935654

  17. No requirement of TRPV1 in long-term potentiation or long-term depression in the anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    One major interest in the study of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in sensory system is that it may serve as a drug target for treating chronic pain. While the roles of TRPV1 in peripheral nociception and sensitization have been well documented, less is known about its contribution to pain-related cortical plasticity. Here, we used 64 multi-electrode array recording to examine the potential role of TRPV1 in two major forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We found that pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 with either [(E)-3-(4-t-Butylphenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)acrylamide] (AMG9810, 10 ?M) or N-(3-methoxyphenyl)-4-chlorocinnamide (SB366791, 20 ?M) failed to affect LTP induced by strong theta burst stimulation in the ACC of adult mice. Similarly, neither AMG9810 nor SB366791 blocked the cingulate LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation. Analysis of the results from different layers of the ACC obtained the same conclusions. Spatial distribution of LTP or LTD-showing channels among the ACC network was also unaltered by the TRPV1 antagonists. Since cortical LTP and LTD in the ACC play critical roles in chronic pain triggered by inflammation or nerve injury, our findings suggest that TRPV1 may not be a viable target for treating chronic pain, especially at the cortical level. PMID:24708859

  18. Increased expression of TRPV1 in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in orofacial pain during experimental tooth movement in rats.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hu; Gao, YuNan; Zhang, Caidi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is involved in pain induced by experimental tooth movement, experiments were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g. Directed face-grooming behavior was used to evaluate nocifensive behavior in rats during experimental tooth movement. The distribution of TRPV1 in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and its expression was detected by western blotting at several time points following the application of various magnitudes of force during tooth movement. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TRPV1 was expressed in TG, and its expression was increased after experimental tooth movement. Western blot results also showed that experimental tooth movement led to a statistically significant increase in expression of TRPV1 protein in TG. Meanwhile, the time spent on directed face-grooming peaked on day 1 and thereafter showed a gradual decrease. In addition, both the change in TRPV1 expression in the TG and directed face-grooming behavior were modulated in a force-dependent manner and in concert with initial orthodontic pain responses. Our results reveal that TRPV1 expression is modulated by experimental tooth movement and is involved in tooth-movement pain. PMID:25407056

  19. Protein kinase C activation potentiates gating of the vanilloid receptor VR1 by capsaicin, protons, heat and anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Vellani, Vittorio; Mapplebeck, Sarah; Moriondo, Andrea; Davis, John B; McNaughton, Peter A

    2001-01-01

    The effects of activation of protein kinase C (PKC) on membrane currents gated by capsaicin, protons, heat and anandamide were investigated in primary sensory neurones from neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and in HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney cell line) transiently or stably expressing the human vanilloid receptor hVR1. Maximal activation of PKC by a brief application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased the mean membrane current activated by a low concentration of capsaicin by 1.65-fold in DRG neurones and 2.18-fold in stably transfected HEK293 cells. Bradykinin, which activates PKC, also enhanced the response to capsaicin in DRG neurones. The specific PKC inhibitor RO31-8220 prevented the enhancement caused by PMA. Activation of PKC did not enhance the membrane current at high concentrations of capsaicin, showing that PKC activation increases the probability of channel opening rather than unmasking channels. Application of PMA alone activated an inward current in HEK293 cells transiently transfected with VR1. The current was suppressed by the VR1 antagonist capsazepine. PMA did not, however, activate a current in the large majority of DRG neurones nor in HEK293 cells stably transfected with VR1. Removing external Ca2+ enhanced the response to a low concentration of capsaicin 2.40-fold in DRG neurones and 3.42-fold in HEK293 cells. Activation of PKC in zero Ca2+ produced no further enhancement of the response to capsaicin in either DRG neurones or HEK293 cells stably transfected with VR1. The effects of PKC activation on the membrane current gated by heat, anandamide and low pH were qualitatively similar to those on the capsaicin-gated current. The absence of a current activated by PMA in most DRG neurones or in stably transfected HEK293 cells suggests that activation of PKC does not directly open VR1 channels, but instead increases the probability that they will be activated by capsaicin, heat, low pH or anandamide. Removal of calcium also potentiates activation, and PKC activation then has no further effect. The results are consistent with a model in which phosphorylation of VR1 by PKC increases the probability of channel gating by agonists, and in which dephosphorylation occurs by a calcium-dependent process. PMID:11483711

  20. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2-expressing primary afferents stimulates synaptic transmission in the deep dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord and elicits mechanical hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, Hugues; Hugel, Sylvain; Barthas, Florent; Bohren, Yohann; Barrot, Michel; Yalcin, Ipek; Schlichter, Rémy

    2014-10-01

    Probenecid, an agonist of transient receptor vanilloid (TRPV) type 2, was used to evaluate the effects of TRPV2 activation on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn (DH) of the rat spinal cord and on nociceptive reflexes induced by thermal heat and mechanical stimuli. The effects of probenecid were compared with those of capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist. Calcium imaging experiments on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and DH cultures indicated that functional TRPV2 and TRPV1 were expressed by essentially non-overlapping subpopulations of DRG neurons, but were absent from DH neurons and DH and DRG glial cells. Pretreatment of DRG cultures with small interfering RNAs against TRPV2 suppressed the responses to probenecid. Patch-clamp recordings from spinal cord slices showed that probenecid and capsaicin increased the frequencies of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a subset of laminae III-V neurons. In contrast to capsaicin, probenecid failed to stimulate synaptic transmission in lamina II. Intrathecal or intraplantar injections of probenecid induced mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia without affecting nociceptive heat responses. Capsaicin induced both mechanical hyperalgesia/allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Activation of TRPV1 or TRPV2 in distinct sets of primary afferents increased the sEPSC frequencies in a largely common population of DH neurons in laminae III-V, and might underlie the development of mechanical hypersensitivity following probenecid or capsaicin treatment. However, only TRPV1-expressing afferents facilitated excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in a subpopulation of lamina II neurons, and this phenomenon might be correlated with the induction of thermal heat hyperalgesia. PMID:25104469

  1. TRPV1 gene required for thermosensory transduction and anticipatory secretion from vasopressin neurons during hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Sharif-Naeini, Reza; Ciura, Sorana; Bourque, Charles W

    2008-04-24

    Increases in core body temperature promote thermoregulatory cooling by stimulating sweat production and preemptive renal water reabsorption through the release of vasopressin (VP, antidiuretic hormone). The mechanism by which the hypothalamus orchestrates this anticipatory VP release during hyperthermia is unknown but has been linked to a central thermosensory mechanism. Here, we report that thermal stimuli spanning core body temperatures activate a calcium-permeable, ruthenium red- and SB366791-sensitive nonselective cation conductance in hypothalamic VP neurons. This response is associated with a depolarizing receptor potential and an increase in action potential firing rate, indicating that these neurons are intrinsically thermosensitive. The thermosensitivity of VP neurons isolated from trpv1 knockout (Trpv1(-/-)) mice was significantly lower than that of wild-type counterparts. Moreover, Trpv1(-/-) mice showed an impaired VP response to hyperthermia in vivo. Channels encoded by the trpv1 gene thus confer thermosensitivity in central VP neurons and contribute to the thermal control of VP release in vivo. PMID:18439403

  2. Assessment of the biological similarity of three capsaicin analogs (Capsinoids) found in non-pungent chili pepper (CH-19 Sweet) fruits.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Ikuko; Furuhata, Yasufumi; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Inoue, Naohiko; Sato, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Michio

    2010-01-01

    CH-19 Sweet is a newly found chili pepper breed bearing much less pungent fruits. Because CH-19 Sweet fruits were found to contain three analogs (capsinoids) of capsaicin, a major component of pungency of hot peppers (the analogs are capsiate or CST, dihydrocapsiate or DCT, and nordihydrocapsiate or NDCT), we assessed in this study the bio-potencies of these three capsinoids by comparing them with capsaicin. The three capsinoids bound to transient potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors expressed in cultured cells and activated Ca(2+) influx in a concentration-dependent manner with similar magnitudes. In contrast to capsaicin, capsinoids at the same concentration induced virtually no nociceptive responses when applied to the eyes or the oral cavities of mice. Intravenous administration of capsaicin or 20-fold increased doses of each capsinoid to rats induced significant increases in plasma catecholamine levels. Orally administered, each capsinoid enhanced oxygen consumption in mice. Based on the present results, capsaicin and these three capsinoids should have similar bio-potency, though capsinoids do not generate pungency or sensory irritation. PMID:20139632

  3. Dietary agonists of TRPV1 inhibit gastric acid secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Okumi, Hirokuni; Tashima, Kimihito; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Namiki, Takao; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Horie, Syunji

    2012-11-01

    Capsaicin and 6-gingerol, pungent components of chilli pepper and ginger, are known as dietary agonists of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 nerve fibers are recognized to play a role in gastric mucosal integrity in rats. In the present studies, we examined the acute effects of peroral administration of capsaicin and 6-gingerol on gastric acid secretion in conscious mice. These agents were given p.?o. 30?min before the pylorus was ligated. Oral administration of capsaicin (1.0-100?mg/kg) or 6-gingerol (1.5-50?mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited basal acid secretion. Pretreatment with BCTC, a transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 antagonist, significantly reversed the reduced basal acid secretion by capsaicin or 6-gingerol. The combination of the lowest doses of capsaicin and 6-gingerol markedly inhibited basal acid secretion in conscious mice and this was also significantly reversed by BCTC. Moreover, the combination of the maximal dose of capsaicin and 6-gingerol inhibited basal acid secretion only to the level of a single administration of the maximal dose of capsaicin. These results suggest that the combination of capsaicin and 6-gingerol has an additive effect on the inhibition of gastric acid secretion through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1. In separate experiments, intraduodenal administration of either capsaicin (30?mg/kg) or 6-gingerol (15?mg/kg), whose doses were observed to have a significant inhibitory effect by oral administration, tended to inhibit basal acid secretion compared with the vehicle. These results suggest that the combination of capsaicin and 6-gingerol has an additive effect on inhibition of gastric acid secretion through activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1, and oral administration of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 agonists directly stimulates transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 in the gastric lumen, resulting in a potent reduction of gastric acid secretion. PMID:23047250

  4. Suppression of network activity in dorsal horn by gabapentin permeation of TRPV1 channels: implications for drug access to cytoplasmic targets.

    PubMed

    Biggs, James E; Stemkowski, Patrick L; Knaus, Edward E; Chowdhury, Morshed A; Ballanyi, Klaus; Smith, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of gabapentin (GBP) in the treatment of neuropathic pain depends on access to the ?2?-1 accessory subunit of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Access may be limited by its rate of entry via the neuronal system L-neutral amino acid transporter. The open pore of capsaicin-activated TRPV1 channel admits organic molecules such as local anesthetics and we calculated that GBP entry via this route would be 500× more rapid than via the transporter. Capsaicin should therefore increase GBP effectiveness. We used a quaternary GBP derivative (Q-GBP) as sole charge carrier in whole-cell recording experiments on rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Under these conditions, capsaicin produced a capsazepine-sensitive inward current thereby confirming Q-GBP permeation of TRPV1 channels. We have previously established that 5-6 days exposure to 100 ?M GBP decreases excitability of dorsal horn neurons whereas 10 ?M is ineffective. Excitability was monitored using confocal Ca(2+) imaging of rat spinal cord slices in organotypic culture. GBP effectiveness was augmented by transient exposures of cultures to capsaicin and robust suppression of excitability was seen with 10 ?M GBP. Experiments with an inhibitor of the neutral amino acid transporter, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH 300 ?M), showed the actions of GBP seen in the presence of capsaicin were independent of its entry by this route. Capsaicin potentiation of GBP depression of dorsal horn activity may therefore reflect drug permeation of TRPV1 channels. Agonist activation of TRP channels may provide a means for improving drug access to cytoplasmic targets in selective neuronal populations defined on the basis of type of TRP channel expressed. PMID:25079903

  5. Loosening Pain's Grip by Tightening TRPV1-TRPA1 Interactions.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Andy D; Stucky, Cheryl L

    2015-02-18

    TRPA1 and TRPV1 are ion channels crucial for pain sensation. In this issue of Neuron, Weng et al. (2015) demonstrate that the activity of TRPA1-TRPV1 heteromers is governed by Tmem100 and that disabling Tmem100 may be a novel pharmacologic strategy to combat pain. PMID:25695265

  6. Dynamic changes in heat transducing channel TRPV1 expression regulate mechanically insensitive, heat sensitive C-fiber recruitment after axotomy and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, Michael P.; Soneji, Deepak J.; Ekmann, Katrina M.; Anderson, Collene E.; Koerber, H. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral injury leads to a significant increase in the prevalence of mechanically insensitive, heat sensitive C-fibers (CH) that contain the heat transducing TRPV1 channel in mice. We have recently shown that this recruitment of CH fibers is associated with increased expression of the receptor for GDNF family neurotrophic factor artemin (GFR?3), and that in vivo inhibition of GFR?3 prevented the increase in TRPV1 expression normally observed following axotomy. Here we have directly tested the hypothesis that the recruitment of functional CH-fibers following nerve regeneration requires enhanced TRPV1 levels. We utilized in vivo siRNA-mediated knockdown to inhibit the injury-induced expression of TRPV1 coupled with ex-vivo recording to examine response characteristics and neurochemical phenotypes of different functionally defined cutaneous sensory neurons after regeneration. We confirmed that inhibition of TRPV1 did not affect the axotomy induced decrease in CPM heat threshold, but transiently prevented the recruitment of CH neurons. Moreover, a recovery of TRPV1 protein was observed following resolution of siRNA-mediated inhibition that was correlated with a concomitant rebound in CH neuron recruitment. Thus dynamic changes in TRPV1 expression, not absolute levels, may underlie the functional alterations observed in CH neurons and may contribute to the development of heat hyperalgesia after nerve injury. PMID:23223305

  7. Nociceptors Lacking TRPV1 and TRPV2 Have Normal Heat Responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jeffery Woodbury; Melissa Zwick; Shuying Wang; Jeffrey J. Lawson; Michael J. Caterina; Martin Koltzenburg; Kathryn M. Albers; H. Richard Koerber; Brian M. Davis

    2004-01-01

    Vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) has been proposed to be the principal heat-responsive channel for nociceptive neurons. The skin of both rat and mouse receives major projections from primary sensory afferents that bind the plant lectin isolectin B4 (IB4). The majority of IB4-positive neurons are known to be heat-responsive nociceptors. Previous studies suggested that, unlike rat, mouse IB4-positive cutaneous afferents did

  8. Hypertonicity sensing in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis neurons: a mechanical process involving TRPV1 but not TRPV4.

    PubMed

    Ciura, Sorana; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Bourque, Charles W

    2011-10-12

    Primary osmosensory neurons in the mouse organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) transduce hypertonicity via the activation of nonselective cation channels that cause membrane depolarization and increased action potential discharge, and this effect is absent in mice lacking expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (Trpv1) gene (Ciura and Bourque, 2006). However other experiments have indicated that channels encoded by Trpv4 also contribute to central osmosensation in mice (Liedtke and Friedman, 2003; Mizuno et al., 2003). At present, the mechanism by which hypertonicity modulates cation channels in OVLT neurons is unknown, and it remains unclear whether Trpv1 and Trpv4 both contribute to this process. Here, we show that physical shrinking is necessary and sufficient to mediate hypertonicity sensing in OVLT neurons isolated from adult mice. Steps coupling progressive decreases in cell volume to increased neuronal activity were quantitatively equivalent whether shrinking was evoked by osmotic pressure or mechanical aspiration. Finally, modulation of OVLT neurons by tonicity or mechanical stimulation was unaffected by deletion of trpv4 but was abolished in cells lacking Trpv1 or wild-type neurons treated with the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Thus, hypertonicity sensing is a mechanical process requiring Trpv1, but not Trpv4. PMID:21994383

  9. Selective Targeting of TRPV1 Expressing Sensory Nerve Terminals in the Spinal Cord for Long Lasting Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Sikand, Parul; Parihar, Arti; Evans, M. Steven; Premkumar, Louis S.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major clinical problem and opiates are often the only treatment, but they cause significant problems ranging from sedation to deadly respiratory depression. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), a potent agonist of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), causes a slow, sustained and irreversible activation of TRPV1 and increases the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents, but causes significant depression of evoked EPSCs due to nerve terminal depolarization block. Intrathecal administration of RTX to rats in the short-term inhibits nociceptive synaptic transmission, and in the long-term causes a localized, selective ablation of TRPV1-expressing central sensory nerve terminals leading to long lasting analgesia in behavioral models. Since RTX actions are selective for central sensory nerve terminals, other efferent functions of dorsal root ganglion neurons can be preserved. Preventing nociceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord can be a useful strategy to treat chronic, debilitating and intractable pain. PMID:19753113

  10. Citral Sensing by TRANSient Receptor Potential Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Stephanie C.; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1–3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin. PMID:18461159

  11. Permeation and dynamics of an open-activated TRPV1 channel.

    PubMed

    Darré, Leonardo; Furini, Simone; Domene, Carmen

    2015-01-30

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels constitute a large and diverse protein family, found in yeast and widespread in the animal kingdom. TRP channels work as sensors for a wide range of cellular and environmental signals. Understanding how these channels respond to physical and chemical stimuli has been hindered by the limited structural information available until now. The three-dimensional structure of the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) was recently determined by single particle electron cryo-microscopy, offering for the first time the opportunity to explore ionic conduction in TRP channels at atomic detail. In this study, we present molecular dynamics simulations of the open-activated pore domain of TRPV1 in the presence of three cationic species: Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+). The dynamics of these ions while interacting with the channel pore allowed us to rationalize their permeation mechanism in terms of a pathway involving three binding sites at the intracellular cavity, as well as the extracellular and intracellular entrance of the selectivity filter. Furthermore, conformational analysis of the pore in the presence of these ions reveals specific ion-mediated structural changes in the selectivity filter, which influences the permeability properties of the TRPV1 channel. PMID:25479373

  12. Anandamide Capacitates Bull Spermatozoa through CB1 and TRPV1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Gervasi, María Gracia; Osycka-Salut, Claudia; Caballero, Julieta; Vazquez-Levin, Mónica; Pereyra, Elba; Billi, Silvia; Franchi, Ana; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    Anandamide (AEA), a major endocannabinoid, binds to cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors (CB1, CB2 and TRPV1) and affects many reproductive functions. Nanomolar levels of anandamide are found in reproductive fluids including mid-cycle oviductal fluid. Previously, we found that R(+)-methanandamide, an anandamide analogue, induces sperm releasing from bovine oviductal epithelium and the CB1 antagonist, SR141716A, reversed this effect. Since sperm detachment may be due to surface remodeling brought about by capacitation, the aim of this paper was to investigate whether anandamide at physiological concentrations could act as a capacitating agent in bull spermatozoa. We demonstrated that at nanomolar concentrations R(+)-methanandamide or anandamide induced bull sperm capacitation, whereas SR141716A and capsazepine (a TRPV1 antagonist) inhibited this induction. Previous studies indicate that mammalian spermatozoa possess the enzymatic machinery to produce and degrade their own AEA via the actions of the AEA-synthesizing phospholipase D and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) respectively. Our results indicated that, URB597, a potent inhibitor of the FAAH, produced effects on bovine sperm capacitation similar to those elicited by exogenous AEA suggesting that this process is normally regulated by an endogenous tone. We also investigated whether anandamide is involved in bovine heparin-capacitated spermatozoa, since heparin is a known capacitating agent of bovine sperm. When the spermatozoa were incubated in the presence of R(+)-methanandamide and heparin, the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa was similar to that in the presence of R(+)-methanandamide alone. The pre-incubation with CB1 or TRPV1 antagonists inhibited heparin-induced sperm capacitation; moreover the activity of FAAH was 30% lower in heparin-capacitated spermatozoa as compared to control conditions. This suggests that heparin may increase endogenous anandamide levels. Our findings indicate that anandamide induces sperm capacitation through the activation of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors and could be involved in the same molecular pathway as heparin in bovines. PMID:21347292

  13. TRPV1 and TRPV4 Play Pivotal Roles in Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Hiroki; Katanosaka, Kimiaki; Murase, Shiori; Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Mizumura, Kazue

    2013-01-01

    Unaccustomed strenuous exercise that includes lengthening contraction (LC) often causes tenderness and movement related pain after some delay (delayed-onset muscle soreness, DOMS). We previously demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) are up-regulated in exercised muscle through up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and they sensitized nociceptors resulting in mechanical hyperalgesia. There is also a study showing that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are involved in DOMS. Here we examined whether and how TRPV1 and/or TRPV4 are involved in DOMS. We firstly evaluated a method to measure the mechanical withdrawal threshold of the deep tissues in wild-type (WT) mice with a modified Randall-Selitto apparatus. WT, TRPV1?/? and TRPV4?/? mice were then subjected to LC. Another group of mice received injection of murine NGF-2.5S or GDNF to the lateral gastrocnemius (LGC) muscle. Before and after these treatments the mechanical withdrawal threshold of LGC was evaluated. The change in expression of NGF, GDNF and COX-2 mRNA in the muscle was examined using real-time RT-PCR. In WT mice, mechanical hyperalgesia was observed 6–24 h after LC and 1–24 h after NGF and GDNF injection. LC induced mechanical hyperalgesia neither in TRPV1?/? nor in TRPV4?/? mice. NGF injection induced mechanical hyperalgesia in WT and TRPV4?/? mice but not in TRPV1?/? mice. GDNF injection induced mechanical hyperalgesia in WT but neither in TRPV1?/? nor in TRPV4?/? mice. Expression of NGF and COX-2 mRNA was significantly increased 3 h after LC in all genotypes. However, GDNF mRNA did not increase in TRPV4?/? mice. These results suggest that TRPV1 contributes to DOMS downstream (possibly at nociceptors) of NGF and GDNF, while TRPV4 is located downstream of GDNF and possibly also in the process of GDNF up-regulation. PMID:23799042

  14. Hydrogen sulfide causes vanilloid receptor 1-mediated neurogenic inflammation in the airways

    PubMed Central

    Trevisani, Marcello; Patacchini, Riccardo; Nicoletti, Paola; Gatti, Raffaele; Gazzieri, David; Lissi, Nicola; Zagli, Giovanni; Creminon, Christophe; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Harrison, Selena

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is described as a mediator of diverse biological effects, and is known to produce irritation and injury in the lung following inhalation. Recently, H2S has been found to cause contraction in the rat urinary bladder via a neurogenic mechanism. Here, we studied whether sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), used as donor of H2S, produces responses mediated by sensory nerve activation in the guinea-pig airways. NaHS evoked an increase in neuropeptide release in the airways that was significantly attenuated by capsaicin desensitization and by the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. In addition, NaHS caused an atropine-resistant contraction of isolated airways, which was completely prevented by capsaicin desensitization. Furthermore, NaHS-induced contraction was reduced by TRPV1 antagonism (ruthenium red, capsazepine and SB366791), and was abolished by pretreatment with the combination of tachykinin NK1 (SR140333) and NK2 (SR48968) receptor antagonists. In anesthetized guinea-pigs, intratracheal instillation of NaHS increased the total lung resistance and airway plasma protein extravasation. These two effects were reduced by TRPV1 antagonism (capsazepine) and tachykinin receptors (SR140333 and SR48968) blockade. Our results provide the first pharmacological evidence that H2S provokes tachykinin-mediated neurogenic inflammatory responses in guinea-pig airways, and that this effect is mediated by stimulation of TRPV1 receptors on sensory nerves endings. This novel mechanism may contribute to the irritative action of H2S in the respiratory system. PMID:15937520

  15. TRPV1-lineage neurons are required for thermal sensation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Santosh K; Tisel, Sarah M; Orestes, Peihan; Bhangoo, Sonia K; Hoon, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    The ion-channel TRPV1 is believed to be a major sensor of noxious heat, but surprisingly animals lacking TRPV1 still display marked responses to elevated temperature. In this study, we explored the role of TRPV1-expressing neurons in somatosensation by generating mice wherein this lineage of cells was selectively labelled or ablated. Our data show that TRPV1 is an embryonic marker of many nociceptors including all TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons as well as many Mrg-expressing neurons. Mutant mice lacking these cells are completely insensitive to hot or cold but in marked contrast retain normal touch and mechanical pain sensation. These animals also exhibit defective body temperature control and lose both itch and pain reactions to potent chemical mediators. Together with previous cell ablation studies, our results define and delimit the roles of TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons in thermosensation, thermoregulation and nociception, thus significantly extending the concept of labelled lines in somatosensory coding. PMID:21139565

  16. LASSBio-1135: A Dual TRPV1 Antagonist and Anti-TNF-Alpha Compound Orally Effective in Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Cleverton K. F.; Silva, Rafael M.; Lacerda, Renata B.; Santos, Bruna L. R.; Silva, Rafaela V.; Amaral, Luciana S.; Quintas, Luís E. M.; Fraga, Carlos A. M.; Barreiro, Eliezer J.; Guimaraes, Marília Z. P.; Miranda, Ana L. P.

    2014-01-01

    LASSBio-1135 is an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivative with high efficacy in screening models of nociception and inflammation, presumed as a weak COX-2 inhibitor. In order to tease out its mechanism of action, we investigated others possible target for LASSBio-1135, such as TNF-? and TRPV1, to better characterize it as a multitarget compound useful in the treatment of chronic pain. TRPV1 modulation was assessed in TRPV1-expressing Xenopus oocytes against capsaicin and low pH-induced current. Modulation of TNF-? production was evaluated in culture of macrophages stimulated with LPS. In vivo efficacy of LASSBio-1135 was investigated in carrageenan and partial sciatic ligation-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Corroborating its previous demonstration of efficacy in a model of capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia, LASSBio-1135 blocks capsaicin-elicited currents in a non-competitive way with an IC50 of 580 nM as well as low pH-induced current at 50 µM. As an additional action, LASSBio-1135 inhibited TNF-? release in these cells stimulated by LPS with an IC50 of 546 nM by reducing p38 MAPK phosphorilation. Oral administration of 100 µmol.Kg?1 LASSBio-1135 markedly reduced thermal hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, however at 10 µmol.Kg?1 only a partial reduction was observed at the 4th h. Neutrophil recruitment and TNF-? production after carrageenan stimulus was also inhibited by the treatment with LASSBio-1135. Modulating TRPV1 and TNF-? production, two key therapeutic targets of neuropathic pain, 100 µmol.Kg?1 LASSBio-1135 was orally efficacious in reversing thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia produced by partial sciatic ligation 7–11 days after surgery without provoking hyperthermia, a common side effect of TRPV1 antagonists. In conclusion LASSBio-1135, besides being a weak COX-2 inhibitor, is a non-competitive TRPV1 antagonist and a TNF-? inhibitor. As a multitarget compound, LASSBio-1135 is orally efficacious in a model of neuropathic pain without presenting hyperthermia. PMID:24941071

  17. A multi-target approach for pain treatment: dual inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase and TRPV1 in a rat model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek, Natalia; Mrugala, Monika; Makuch, Wioletta; Kolosowska, Natalia; Przewlocka, Barbara; Binkowski, Marcin; Czaja, Martyna; Morera, Enrico; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Starowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    The pharmacological inhibition of anandamide (AEA) hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) attenuates pain in animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) but has failed in clinical trials. This may have occurred because AEA also activates transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), which contributes to pain development. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of the dual FAAH-TRPV1 blocker OMDM-198 in an MIA-model of osteoarthritic pain. We first investigated the MIA-induced model of OA by (1) characterizing the pain phenotype and degenerative changes within the joint using X-ray microtomography and (2) evaluating nerve injury and inflammation marker (ATF-3 and IL-6) expression in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia of osteoarthritic rats and differences in gene and protein expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptors FAAH and TRPV1. Furthermore, we compared OMDM-198 with compounds acting exclusively on FAAH or TRPV1. Osteoarthritis was accompanied by the fragmentation of bone microstructure and destroyed cartilage. An increase of the mRNA levels of ATF3 and IL-6 and an upregulation of AEA receptors and FAAH in the dorsal root ganglia were observed. OMDM-198 showed antihyperalgesic effects in the OA model, which were comparable with those of a selective TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366,791, and a selective FAAH inhibitor, URB-597. The effect of OMDM-198 was attenuated by the CB1 receptor antagonist, AM-251, and by the nonpungent TRPV1 agonist, olvanil, suggesting its action as an "indirect" CB1 agonist and TRPV1 antagonist. These results suggest an innovative strategy for the treatment of OA, which may yield more satisfactory results than those obtained so far with selective FAAH inhibitors in human OA. PMID:25719612

  18. TRPV1 Antagonism by Capsazepine Modulates Innate Immune Response in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Elizabeth S.; Brito, Carolina X. L.; Teixeira, Simone A.; Barboza, Renato; dos Reis, Aramys S.; Azevedo-Santos, Ana Paula S.; Muscará, Marcelo; Costa, Soraia K. P.; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Brain, Susan D.; Grisotto, Marcos A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of people suffer from severe malaria every year. The innate immune response plays a determinant role in host's defence to malaria. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) modulates macrophage-mediated responses in sepsis, but its role in other pathogenic diseases has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, in malaria. C57BL/6 mice received 105 red blood cells infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA intraperitoneally. Noninfected mice were used as controls. Capsazepine or vehicle was given intraperitoneally for 6 days. Mice were culled on day 7 after infection and blood and spleen cell phenotype and activation were evaluated. Capsazepine decreased circulating but not spleen F4/80+Ly6G+ cell numbers as well as activation of both F4/80+and F4/80+Ly6G+ cells in infected animals. In addition, capsazepine increased circulating but not spleen GR1+ and natural killer (NK) population, without interfering with natural killer T (NKT) cell numbers and blood NK and NKT activation. However, capsazepine diminished CD69 expression in spleen NKT but not NK cells. Infection increased lipid peroxidation and the release of TNF? and IFN?, although capsazepine-treated group exhibited lower levels of lipid peroxidation and TNF?. Capsazepine treatment did not affect parasitaemia. Overall, TRPV1 antagonism modulates the innate immune response to malaria. PMID:25242870

  19. Structure of the TRPV1 ion channel determined by electron cryo-microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Maofu; Cao, Erhu; Julius, David; Cheng, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are sensors for a wide range of cellular and environmental signals, but elucidating how these channels respond to physical and chemical stimuli has been hampered by a lack of detailed structural information. Here, we exploit advances in electron cryo-microscopy to determine the structure of a mammalian TRP channel, TRPV1, at 3.4Ĺ resolution, breaking the side-chain resolution barrier for membrane proteins without crystallization. Like voltage-gated channels, TRPV1 exhibits four-fold symmetry around a central ion pathway formed by transmembrane helices S5–S6 and the intervening pore loop, which is flanked by S1–S4 voltage sensor-like domains. TRPV1 has a wide extracellular ‘mouth’ with short selectivity filter. The conserved ‘TRP domain’ interacts with the S4–S5 linker, consistent with its contribution to allosteric modulation. Subunit organization is facilitated by interactions among cytoplasmic domains, including N-terminal ankyrin repeats. These observations provide a structural blueprint for understanding unique aspects of TRP channel function. PMID:24305160

  20. Attenuation of TRPV1 and TRPV4 Expression and Function in Mouse Inflammatory Pain Models Using Electroacupuncture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Tzen, Jason T C; Hsieh, Ching Liang; Chen, Yung Hsiang; Lin, Tzu-Jou; Chen, Shih-Yin; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Although pain is a major human affliction, our understanding of pain mechanisms is limited. TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) and TRPV4 are two crucial receptors involved in inflammatory pain, but their roles in EA- (electroacupuncture-) mediated analgesia are unknown. We injected mice with carrageenan (carra) or a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to model inflammatory pain and investigated the analgesic effect of EA using animal behavior tests, immunostaining, Western blotting, and a whole-cell recording technique. The inflammatory pain model mice developed both mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Notably, EA at the ST36 acupoint reversed these phenomena, indicating its curative effect in inflammatory pain. The protein levels of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons were both increased at day 4 after the initiation of inflammatory pain and were attenuated by EA, as demonstrated by immunostaining and Western blot analysis. We verified DRG electrophysiological properties to confirm that EA ameliorated peripheral nerve hyperexcitation. Our results indicated that the AP (action potential) threshold, rise time, and fall time, and the percentage and amplitude of TRPV1 and TRPV4 were altered by EA, indicating that EA has an antinociceptive role in inflammatory pain. Our results demonstrate a novel role for EA in regulating TRPV1 and TRPV4 protein expression and nerve excitation in mouse inflammatory pain models. PMID:23258994

  1. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 co-localize and interact on nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Govea, R M; Zhou, S; Carlton, S M

    2012-08-16

    Several lines of evidence indicate group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have systemic anti-hyperalgesic effects. We hypothesized this could occur through modulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors on nociceptors. To address this question we performed anatomical studies to determine if group III mGluRs were expressed on cutaneous axons and if they co-localized with TRPV1. Immunostaining at the electron microscopic level demonstrated that 22% of unmyelinated axons labeled for mGluR8. Immunostaining at the light microscopic level in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) demonstrated that 80% and 28% of neurons labeled for mGluR8 or TRPV1, respectively. Of those neurons labeled for mGluR8, 25% labeled for TRPV1; of those labeled for TRPV1, 71% labeled for mGluR8. In behavior studies intraplantar injection of the group III mGluR agonist, L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP-4: 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 ?M) had no effect on paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to heat in naďve rats but administration of 10 ?M L-AP-4 prior to 0.05% capsaicin (CAP), significantly attenuated CAP-induced lifting/licking and reduced flinching behavior. The L-AP-4 effect was specific since administration of a group III antagonist ?-methyl-3-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (UBP1112) (100?M) blocked the L-AP-4 effect on CAP, resulting in behaviors similar to CAP alone. Intraplantar injection of UBP1112 alone did not result in nociceptive behaviors, indicating group III mGluRs are not tonically active. Finally, the anti-hyperalgesic effect of group III in this paradigm was local and not systemic since intraplantar administration of L-AP-4 in one hind paw did not attenuate nociceptive behaviors following CAP injection in the contralateral hind paw. Adenyl cyclase/cyclic AMP/PKA may be the second messenger pathway linking these two receptor families because intraplantar injection of forskolin (FSK, 10 ?M) reduced PWL to heat and L-AP-4 reversed this FSK effect. Taken together, these results suggest group III mGluRs can negatively modulate TRPV1 through inhibition of adenyl cyclase and downstream intracellular activity, blocking TRPV1-induced activation of nociceptors. PMID:22609935

  2. Thermo-Sensitive Receptor Protein: Role of TRPVs in Control of Body Temperature under Heat Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Kusuno, Tomoyuki; Hanada, Tsunehisa; Tominaga, Makoto; Tominaga, Tomoko; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamada, Hisao; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-01

    In vertebrate peripheral nervous system, skin heating and cooling are detected by thermo-sensitive neurons tuned to respond over distinct temperature ranges. TRP-family is thermo-sensitive receptor protein which is Ca2+-permeable ion channels expressing in cellular membrane. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat above 42 °C, whereas TRPV3 and TRPV4 are sensitive to moderate temperatures (<34 °C). Although the amino acid sequence and the channel properties have been characterized, the molecular mechanism of temperature sensation remains poorly understood. In environment, mid and far infrared radiation act as physical stimuli. Here we examined the role of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in regulation of body temperature (BT) by using infrared laser as mild heat stimuli. In wild type mouse, the laser irradiation which caused the increase in skin temperature up to 55 °C did not induce the change in BT without any treatment of TRPVs. However, desensitization of TRPV1 with capsaicin resulted in the increase in BT by laser irradiation. On the other hand, in TRPV4-knockout mouse, moderate thermal stimulus (skin surface temperature <43 °C) caused the increase in the BT. These results suggest that the processing of noxious and moderate thermal radiation stimuli may depend on the TRPV1 and TRPV4, respectively.

  3. Lesioning of TRPV1 Expressing Primary Afferent Neurons Prevents PAR-2 Induced Motility, but Not Mechanical Hypersensitivity in the Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Suckow, Shelby K.; Anderson, Ethan M.; Caudle, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is expressed by many neurons in the colon, including primary afferent neurons that co-express transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Activation of PAR-2 receptors was previously found to enhance colonic motility, increase secretion and produce hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli. This study examined the functional role of TRPV1/PAR-2 expressing neurons that innervate the colon by lesioning TRPV1 bearing neurons with the highly selective and potent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin. Methods Colonic motility in response to PAR-2 activation was evaluated in vitro using isolated segments of descending colon and in vivo using manometry. Colonic mechanical nociceptive thresholds were measured using colorectal distension. TRPV1 expressing neurons were selectively lesioned with resiniferatoxin. Key Results In vitro the PAR-2 agonists trypsin and SLIGRL did not alter contractions of colon segments when applied alone, however, the agents enhanced acetylcholine stimulated contraction. In vivo, PAR-2 agonists administered intraluminally induced contractions of the colon and produced hypersensitivity to colorectal distention. The PAR-2 agonist enhancement of colonic contraction was eliminated when TRPV1 expressing neurons were lesioned with resiniferatoxin, but the PAR-2 agonist induced hypersensitivity remained in the lesioned animals. Conclusions and Inferences Our findings indicate that TRPV1/PAR-2 expressing primary afferent neurons mediate an extrinsic motor reflex pathway in the colon. These data, coupled with our previous studies, also indicate that the recently described colospinal afferent neurons are nociceptive, suggesting that these neurons may be useful targets for the pharmacological control of pain in diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:22168801

  4. The monoterpene (-)-carvone: a novel agonist of TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juan Carlos R; Silveira, Alethéia L; de Souza, Héllio D N; Nery, Arthur A; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Ulrich, Henning; Araújo, Demetrius A M

    2013-02-01

    (-)-Carvone is an antinociceptive monoterpene found as the main active constituent of essential oils obtained from plants of the genus Mentha. Here, we have investigated the pharmacology of this monoterpene in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and TRPV1-expressing HEK293 cells. (-)-carvone at pharmacological active concentrations did not reveal significant cytotoxicity to the cells used in this study, as investigated by neutral red and propidium iodide flow cytometry assays. In calcium imaging experiments 1 mM (-)-carvone increased the cytosolic calcium levels in DRG neurons from 120.6 ± 5.0 nM (basal) to 310.7 ± 23.1 nM (P < 0.05). These effects were completely abolished when neurons were preincubated with calcium-free bath solution or ruthenium-red (5 µM) and capsazepine (10 µM), suggesting the possibility of TRPV1 channel-activation by (-)-carvone. Activity of (-)-carvone on TRPV1 channels was further investigated in HEK293 cells expressing recombinant human TRPV1 channels revealing dose-dependent calcium transients with an EC(50) of 1.3 ± 0.2 mM (Hill coefficient = 2.5). In conclusion, we show for the first time the ability of (-)-carvone to induce increases in cytosolic calcium concentration through TRPV1 activation. PMID:23307583

  5. Role of Endogenous TRPV1 Agonists in a Post-Burn Pain Model of Partial-Thickness Injury

    PubMed Central

    Green, Dustin; Ruparel, Shivani; Roman, Linda; Henry, Michael A.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OLAMs) are a class of endogenous transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonists released upon exposure of tissue to transient noxious temperatures. These lipid compounds also contribute to inflammatory and heat allodynia. As persistent pain after a burn injury represents a significant clinical challenge for treatment, we developed an in vivo rat model of partial thickness cutaneous thermal injury and examined whether TRPV1 and specific OLAM metabolites play a role in mediating post-burn pain injury. This peripheral model of burn injury had marked thermal allodynia peaking at 24 hours post thermal injury, with allodynia being maintained for up to 7 days. Immunohistochemical characterization of tissue taken from injury site revealed an increase of leukocyte/macrophage infiltration that was co-localized with TRPV1-positive fibers. Utilizing this peripheral thermal injury model we found that pharmacological blockade of peripheral TRPV1 receptors reduced thermal allodynia by about 67%. Moreover, there was a significant increase in OLAM levels compared to naďve controls in hindpaw skin biopsies. Additional studies on metabolism of [C14]-linoleic acid in skin biopsies revealed the role of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system in mediating the metabolism of linoleic acid post thermal injury. Finally, we demonstrated direct inhibition of OLAMs using OLAM antibodies and indirect inhibition using the CYP inhibitor ketoconazole significantly reduced post-burn thermal allodynia. Collectively, these findings point to a novel role of the OLAMs and CYP-related enzymes in generating post-burn allodynia via activation of peripheral TRPV1. PMID:23891895

  6. VGLUT2 controls heat and punctuate hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury via TRPV1-Cre primary afferents

    PubMed Central

    Rogoz, Katarzyna; Stjärne, Ludvig; Kullander, Klas; Lagerström, Malin C.

    2015-01-01

    Nerve injury induces a state of prolonged thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the innervated area, causing distress in affected individuals. Nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity is partially due to increased activity and thereby sustained release of neurotransmitters from the injured fibers. Glutamate, a prominent neurotransmitter in primary afferents, plays a major role in development of hypersensitivity. Glutamate is packed in vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) to enable controlled release upon depolarization. While a role for peripheral VGLUTs in nerve injury-induced pain is established, their contribution in specific peripheral neuronal populations is unresolved. We investigated the role of VGLUT2, expressed by transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) fibers, in nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity. Our data shows that removal of Vglut2 from Trpv1-Cre neurons using transgenic mice abolished both heat and punctuate hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury. In contrast, the development of cold hypersensitivity after nerve injury was unaltered. Here, we show that, VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission from Trpv1-Cre neurons selectively mediates heat and mechanical hypersensitivity associated with nerve injury. Our data clarifies the role of the Trpv1-Cre population and the dependence of VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission in nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:25615623

  7. Epilepsy but not mobile phone frequency (900 MHz) induces apoptosis and calcium entry in hippocampus of epileptic rat: involvement of TRPV1 channels.

    PubMed

    Naz?ro?lu, Mustafa; Özkan, Fatma Feyza; Hapil, Seher Rabia; Ghazizadeh, Vahid; Çi?, Bilal

    2015-02-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and epilepsy are reported to mediate the regulation of apoptosis and oxidative stress through Ca(2+) influx. Results of recent reports indicated that EMR can increase temperature and oxidative stress of body cells, and TRPV1 channel is activated by noxious heat, oxidative stress, and capsaicin (CAP). We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 MHz) EMR exposure on Ca(2+) influx, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and TRPV1 channel activations in the hippocampus of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic rats. Freshly isolated hippocampal neurons of twenty-one rats were used in study within three groups namely control, PTZ, and PTZ + EMR. The neurons in the three groups were stimulated by CAP. Epilepsy was induced by PTZ administration. The neurons in PTZ + EMR group were exposed to the 900 MHz EMR for 1 h. The apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase-3 and caspase-9 values were higher in PTZ and PTZ + EMR groups than in control. However, EMR did not add additional increase effects on the values in the hippocampal neurons. Intracellular-free Ca(2+) concentrations in fura-2 analyses were also higher in PTZ + CAP group than in control although their concentrations were decreased by TRPV1 channel blocker, capsazepine. However, there were no statistical changes on the Ca(2+) concentrations between epilepsy and EMR groups. In conclusion, apoptosis, mitochondrial, ROS, and Ca(2+) influx via TRPV1 channel were increased in the hippocampal neurons by epilepsy induction although the mobile phone did not change the values. The results indicated that TRPV1 channels in hippocampus may possibly be a novel target for effective target of epilepsy. PMID:25381485

  8. Silicon switch approach in TRPV1 antagonist MK-056 and its analogues Minsun Chang b

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    Silicon switch approach in TRPV1 antagonist MK-056 and its analogues Minsun Chang b , Seol-Rin Park switch TRPV1 Antagonist 1,3-Dibenzylthiourea a b s t r a c t In searching for opportunities to exploit the benefits of silicon in TRPV1 research, we tried to investigate the pharmacological effects of sila

  9. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel diarylalkyl amides as TRPV1 antagonists

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel diarylalkyl amides as TRPV1 antagonists Fu 2009 Available online 11 April 2009 Keywords: Diarylalkyl amides TRPV1 antagonists a b s t r a c t We have developed a new class of diarylalkyl amides as novel TRPV1 antagonists. They exhibited potent 45

  10. ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature12822 Structure of the TRPV1 ion channel

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature12822 Structure of the TRPV1 ion channel determined by electron cryo channel, TRPV1, at 3.4 A° resolution, breaking the side-chain resolution barrier for membrane proteins without crystalli- zation. Like voltage-gated channels, TRPV1 exhibits four-fold symmetry around a central

  11. Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers

    E-print Network

    Kharasch, Evan

    LETTERS Inhibition of nociceptors by TRPV1-mediated entry of impermeant sodium channel blockers lidocaine derivative QX-314 through the pore of the noxious-heat-sensitive TRPV1 channel. Here we show that charged sodium-channel blockers can be targeted into nociceptors by the application of TRPV1 agonists

  12. A role for the anandamide membrane transporter in TRPV1-mediated neurosecretion from

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    A role for the anandamide membrane transporter in TRPV1-mediated neurosecretion from trigeminal neurons transported AEA in a FAAH- and AMT-inhibitable fashion. Although TRPV1-positive TG neurons were for the pharmacological action of AEA and NADA at native TRPV1 channels. Ă? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  13. The response of PKD1L3?/?PKD2L1 to acid stimuli is inhibited by capsaicin and its pungent analogs

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Sho; Kurokawa, Azusa; Kishi, Mikiya; Yamagami, Keigo; Okada, Shinji; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) 2L1 protein is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family. In circumvallate and foliate papillae, PKD2L1 is coexpressed with PKD1L3. PKD2L1 and PKD1L3 interact through their transmembrane domain and the resulting heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 owns a unique channel property called ‘off-responses’ to acid stimulation, although PKD2L1 does not own this property by itself. To define the pharmacological properties of the PKD1L3/PKD2L1 channel, we developed a new method to effectively evaluate channel activity using human embryonic kidney 293T cells in which the channel was heterologously expressed. This method was applied to screen substances that potentially regulate it. We found that capsaicin and its analogs, which are TRPV1 agonists, inhibited the response to acid stimuli and that the capsaicin inhibition was reversible with an IC50 of 32.5 ?m. Capsaicin and its analogs are thus useful tools for physiological analysis of PKD1L3/PKD2L1 function. Database Nucleotide sequence data are available in the GenBank database under the accession numbers hTRPA1, BC148423 and hTRPV3, BC104866. PMID:22420714

  14. House dust mite potentiates capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ transients in mouse pulmonary sensory neurons via activation of protease-activated receptor-2

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qihai; Lee, Lu-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) is a major source of allergen in house dust and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether HDM can modulate the sensitivity of pulmonary sensory neurons, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Fura-2 based ratiometric Ca2+ imaging was carried out to determine the effect of HDM extract on the capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ transient in mouse vagal pulmonary sensory neurons. Pretreatment with HDM (50 ?g/ml, 5 min) significantly enhanced the Ca2+ transient evoked by capsaicin in these neurons isolated from wildtype mice. This potentiating effect of HDM was not antagonized by E-64, a selective cysteine protease inhibitor, but was completely prevented by AEBSF, a specific serine protease inhibitor. In addition, the potentiating effect of HDM on capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ transient was absent in the pulmonary sensory neurons isolated from protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) knockout mice. Further, the sensitizing effect of HDM was completely abolished by U73122, a PLC inhibitor, or chelerythrine, a PKC inhibitor. In summary, our results demonstrate that HDM, mainly through its serine protease activity, potentiates capsaicin-evoked Ca2+ transient in mouse pulmonary sensory neurons via the activation of PAR2 and PLC-PKC intracellular transduction cascade. PMID:22125310

  15. Double peak sensory responses: effects of capsaicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Aprile; P. Tonali; E. Stalberg; E. Di Stasio; P. Caliandro; M. Foschini; G. Vergili; L. Padua

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify whether degeneration of skin receptors or intradermal nerve endings by topical application\\u000a of capsaicin modifies the double peak response obtained by submaximal anodal stimulation. Five healthy volunteers topically\\u000a applied capsaicin to the finger-tip of digit III (on the distal phalanx) four times daily for 4–5 weeks. Before and after\\u000a local capsaicin applications,

  16. Bladder Cancer and Urothelial Impairment: The Role of TRPV1 as Potential Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Mistretta, Francesco; Buffi, Nicolň Maria; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Lista, Giuliana; Larcher, Alessandro; Fossati, Nicola; Abrate, Alberto; Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Montorsi, Francesco; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Urothelium, in addition to its primary function of barrier, is now understood to act as a complex system of cell communication that exhibits specialized sensory properties in the regulation of physiological or pathological stimuli. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that bladder inflammation and neoplastic cell growth, the two most representative pathological conditions of the lower urinary tract, may arise from a primary defective urothelial lining. Transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1), a receptor widely distributed in lower urinary tract structures and involved in the physiological micturition reflex, was described to have a pathophysiological role in inflammatory conditions and in the genesis and development of urothelial cancer. In our opinion new compounds, such as curcumin, the major component of turmeric Curcuma longa, reported to potentiate the effects of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the management of recurrent urothelial cancer in vitro and also identified as one of several compounds to own the vanillyl structure required to work like a TRPV1 agonist, could be thought as complementary in the clinical management of both the recurrences and the inflammatory effects caused by the endoscopic resection or intravesical chemotherapy administration or could be combined with adjuvant agents to potentiate their antitumoral effect. PMID:24901005

  17. Critical Evaluation of the Colocalization Between Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide, Substance P, Transient Receptor Potential

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    and the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily type 1 (TRPV1) channel and to compare this colocalization fewer CGRP-immunoreactive neurons in the DRG colocalized TRPV1 immunoreactivity (49.2%) compared

  18. A putative antipruritic mechanism of the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor E6005 by attenuating capsaicin-induced depolarization of C-fibre nerves.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Hisashi; Ohkuro, Masayoshi; Ishii, Naoto; Hishinuma, Ieharu; Shirato, Manabu

    2015-03-01

    E6005, a potent, selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, has been developed as a novel topical agent of atopic dermatitis (AD). It has been shown to inhibit itching in patients with AD as well in mouse models. To study the mechanism underlying the anti-pruritic effect of E6005, we examined its effect on the activation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons associated with the itch sensation. Depolarization of DRG neurons by a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV 1) activator, capsaicin was attenuated by E6005 as well as by a 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) elevator, forskolin. E6005 elevated intracellular levels of cAMP in DRG cells. Taken together, these results suggest that E6005 suppresses TRPV1-mediated C-fibre depolarization through elevation of cAMP levels, thereby exerting an anti-pruritic effect. Thus, E6005 shows the potential to be a new agent for managing pruritus in various skin disorders, including AD. PMID:25431172

  19. Differences in the Chemesthetic Subqualities of Capsaicin, Ibuprofen, and Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Samantha M.

    2012-01-01

    Chemesthetic sensations elicited by ibuprofen, extra-virgin olive oil, and capsaicin were compared to quantify perceptual differences between known agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Extra virgin olive oil contains a phenolic compound, oleocanthal, which is thought to share unique chemesthetic qualities with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen. Pilot work suggested participants had difficulty distinguishing between multiple chemesthetic subqualities (e.g., burn, sting, itch, tickle, etc.) in a multiattribute rating task. Here, we assessed overall irritation via direct scaling, and a check all that apply task was used to collect information about chemesthetic subqualities over time. Replicated ratings were collected at discrete intervals using the generalized labeled magnitude scale to generate time-intensity curves; maximum intensity (Imax) and area under the curve were extracted for each participant. Intensity responses varied substantially across participants, and within a participant, the relationship was strongest between ibuprofen and olive oil. However, there were also positive, albeit weaker, correlations between capsaicin and ibuprofen and capsaicin and olive oil. The correlation found between olive oil and capsaicin may suggest the presence of unknown TRPV1 agonists in olive oil. This view was also supported by the qualitative data: Capsaicin was described most often as burning and warm/hot, whereas ibuprofen was numbing and tickling. Olive oil shared characteristics with both capsaicin (warm/hot) and ibuprofen (tickle). PMID:22281531

  20. Lessons from peppers and peppermint: the molecular logic of thermosensation

    E-print Network

    Jordt, Sven-Eric

    transient receptor potential TRPV1 capsaicin receptor Introduction At any given moment we can experience]. The cloning and functional analysis of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 (also known as vanilloid receptor 1; VR1 temperature at the molecular level [6]. When expressed in heterologous systems, TRPV1 can be activated

  1. Epidermal keratinocyte polarity and motility require Ca2+ influx through TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David M.; Huang, Ling; Robinson, Kenneth R.; Messerli, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ca2+ has long been known to play an important role in cellular polarity and guidance. We studied the role of Ca2+ signaling during random and directed cell migration to better understand whether Ca2+ directs cell motility from the leading edge and which ion channels are involved in this function by using primary zebrafish keratinocytes. Rapid line-scan and time-lapse imaging of intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i) during migration and automated image alignment enabled us to characterize and map the spatiotemporal changes in Ca2+i. We show that asymmetric distributions of lamellipodial Ca2+ sparks are encoded in frequency, not amplitude, and that they correlate with cellular rotation during migration. Directed migration during galvanotaxis increases the frequency of Ca2+ sparks over the entire lamellipod; however, these events do not give rise to asymmetric Ca2+i signals that correlate with turning. We demonstrate that Ca2+-permeable channels within these cells are mechanically activated and include several transient receptor potential family members, including TRPV1. Last, we demonstrate that cell motility and Ca2+i activity are affected by pharmacological agents that target TRPV1, indicating a novel role for this channel during cell migration. PMID:23943873

  2. Cannabinoid receptor-independent actions of the aminoalkylindole WIN 55,212-2 on trigeminal sensory neurons

    E-print Network

    Price, Theodore

    ruthenium red but not by the vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine, suggesting that, unlike certain endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids, WIN-2 is not a TRPV1 agonist but rather acts1, CB2 or TRPV1 receptors, but by a novel calcium- dependent mechanism. The ramifications

  3. Photochemical gating of heterologous ion channels: Remote control over genetically designated

    E-print Network

    Nesnas, Nasri

    the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, the menthol receptor, TRPM8, or the ionotropic purinergic receptor P2X2 pharmacologically or, in the cases of TRPV1 and P2X2, optically, through photorelease of the active compounds from

  4. Peripheral Receptor Mechanisms Underlying Orofacial Muscle Pain and Hyperalgesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saloman, Jami L.

    Musculoskeletal pain conditions, particularly those associated with temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders (TMD) are severely debilitating and affect approximately 12% of the population. Identifying peripheral nociceptive mechanisms underlying mechanical hyperalgesia, a prominent feature of persistent muscle pain, could contribute to the development of new treatment strategies for the management of TMD and other muscle pain conditions. This study provides evidence of functional interactions between ligand-gated channels, P2X3 and TRPV1/TRPA1, in trigeminal sensory neurons, and proposes that these interactions underlie the development of mechanical hyperalgesia. In the masseter muscle, direct P2X3 activation, via the selective agonist ??meATP, induced a dose- and time-dependent hyperalgesia. Importantly, the ??meATP-induced hyperalgesia was prevented by pretreatment of the muscle with a TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, or the TRPA1 antagonist, AP18. P2X3 was co-expressed with both TRPV1 and TRPA1 in masseter muscle afferents confirming the possibility for intracellular interactions. Moreover, in a subpopulation of P2X3 /TRPV1 positive neurons, capsaicin-induced Ca2+ transients were significantly potentiated following P2X3 activation. Inhibition of Ca2+-dependent kinases, PKC and CaMKII, prevented P2X3-mechanical hyperalgesia whereas blockade of Ca2+-independent PKA did not. Finally, activation of P2X3 induced phosphorylation of serine, but not threonine, residues in TRPV1 in trigeminal sensory neurons. Significant phosphorylation was observed at 15 minutes, the time point at which behavioral hyperalgesia was prominent. Similar data were obtained regarding another nonselective cation channel, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR). Our data propose P2X3 and NMDARs interact with TRPV1 in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization underlying masseter hyperalgesia. This study offers novel mechanisms by which individual pro-nociceptive ligand gated ion channels form functional complexes in nociceptors. It is also important to further elucidate peripheral anti-nociceptive mechanisms to improve clinical utilization of currently available analgesics and uncover additional therapeutic targets. A side project examined the mechanisms underlying sex differences in the anti-hyperalgesic effects of delta opioid receptors (DORs). This study provides evidence of a sex difference in the potency at DORs that is mediated by differences in the expression of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Collectively, understanding detailed molecular events that underlie the development of pathological pain conditions could benefit future pharmacotherapies.

  5. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and activity predictions of human TRPV1 channel antagonists: comparative molecular field analysis and comparative molecular similarity index analysis of cinnamides.

    PubMed

    Viswanadhan, Vellarkad N; Sun, Yaxiong; Norman, Mark H

    2007-11-15

    3D-QSAR models for human TRPV1 channel antagonists were developed based on comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity analysis (CoMSIA), using a training set of 61 cinnamide TRPV1 antagonists and tested on an independent test set of 47 antagonists. Molecular alignment procedure included weights for both internal energy and atom-to-atom matching against a reference or probe. Sensitivity of results on partial charge assignments was explored using multiple charge sets. AM1-BCC charge assignments gave better results for both CoMFA and CoMSIA models. For the best CoMFA model, the statistics are, r2 = 0.96, q2 = 0.58, n = 61 for the training set and r2 = 0.50, n = 47 for the test set. For the best CoMSIA model, the statistics are r2 = 0.95, q2 = 0.57, n = 61 for the training set and r2 = 0.48, n = 47 for the test set. These models are consistent with the proposed binding modes and interactions of known activators of the TRPV1 channel such as capsaicin, in a structural model of the TM3/4 helical region of TRPV1. PMID:17948977

  6. Capsaicin induces cytotoxicity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells via mitochondrial action.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, M; Sassek, M; Abdelmessih, S; Mergler, S; Grötzinger, C; Metzke, D; Wojciechowicz, T; Nowak, K W; Strowski, M Z

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), the pungent ingredient of chili peppers, inhibits growth of various solid cancers via TRPV1 as well as TRPV1-independent mechanisms. Recently, we showed that TRPV1 regulates intracellular calcium level and chromogranin A secretion in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cells. In the present study, we characterize the role of the TRPV1 agonist - CAP - in controlling proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic BON and QGP-1 NET cells. We demonstrate that CAP reduces viability and proliferation, and stimulates apoptotic death of NET cells. CAP causes mitochondrial membrane potential loss, inhibits ATP synthesis and reduces mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein production. In addition, CAP increases cytochrome c and cleaved caspase 3 levels in cytoplasm. CAP reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) acts synergistically with CAP to reduce ROS generation, without affecting CAP-induced toxicity. TRPV1 protein reduction by 75% reduction fails to attenuate CAP-induced cytotoxicity. In summary, these results suggest that CAP induces cytotoxicity by disturbing mitochondrial potential, and inhibits ATP synthesis in NET cells. Stimulation of ROS generation by CAP appears to be a secondary effect, not related to CAP-induced cytotoxicity. These results justify further evaluation of CAP in modulating pancreatic NETs in vivo. PMID:24075930

  7. Endocannabinoid-Dependent LTD in a Nociceptive Synapse Requires Activation of a Presynaptic TRPV-Like Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Sharleen

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found that some forms of endocannabinoid-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus are mediated through activation of transient potential receptor vanilloid (TRPV) receptors instead of cannabinoid receptors CB1 or CB2. The potential role for synaptic localization of TRPV receptors during endocannabinoid modulation of nociceptive synapses was examined in the leech CNS where it is possible to record from the same pair of neurons from one preparation to the next. Long-term depression (LTD) in the monosynaptic connection between the nociceptive (N) sensory neuron and the longitudinal (L) motor neuron was found to be endocannabinoid-dependent given that this depression was blocked by RHC-80267, an inhibitor of DAG lipase that is required for 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) synthesis. Intracellular injection of a second DAG lipase inhibitor, tetrahyrdolipstatin (THL) was also able to block this endocannabinoid-dependent LTD (ecLTD) when injected postsynaptically but not presynaptically. N-to-L ecLTD was also inhibited by the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and SB 366791. Bath application of 2AG or the TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and resiniferatoxin mimicked LTD and both capsaicin- and 2AG-induced depression were blocked by capsazepine. In addition, pretreatment with 2AG or capsaicin occluded subsequent expression of LTD induced by repetitive activity. Presynaptic, but not postsynaptic, intracellular injection of capsazepine blocked both activity- and 2AG-induced ecLTD, suggesting that a presynaptic TRPV-like receptor in the leech mediated this form of synaptic plasticity. These findings potentially extend the role ecLTD to nociceptive synapses and suggest that invertebrate synapses, which are thought to lack CB1/CB2 receptor orthologues, utilize a TRPV-like protein as an endocannabinoid receptor. PMID:20884761

  8. Capsaicin and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA) decrease tension by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors in fast skeletal muscle fibers of the frog.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Xóchitl; Ortiz-Mesina, Mónica; Uribe, Tannia; Castro, Elena; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Urzúa, Zorayda; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Huerta, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that vanilloid receptor (VR1) mRNA is expressed in muscle fibers. In this study, we evaluated the functional effects of VR1 activation. We measured caffeine-induced contractions in bundles of the extensor digitorum longus muscle of Rana pipiens. Isometric tension measurements showed that two VR1 agonists, capsaicin (CAP) and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA), reduced muscle peak tension to 57 ± 4 % and 71 ± 3% of control, respectively. The effect of CAP was partially blocked by a VR1 blocker, capsazepine (CPZ), but the effect of NADA was not changed by CPZ. Because NADA is able to act on cannabinoid receptors, which are also present in muscle fibers, we tested the cannabinoid antagonist AM281. We found that AM281 antagonized both CAP and NADA effects. AM281 alone reduced peak tension to 80 ± 6 % of control. With both antagonists, the CAP effect was completely blocked, and the NADA effect was partially blocked. These results provide pharmacological evidence of the functional presence of the VR1 receptor in fast skeletal muscle fibers of the frog and suggest that capsaicin and NADA reduce tension by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. PMID:25228331

  9. Lack of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 Enhances Th2Biased Immune Response of the Airways in Mice Receiving Intranasal, but Not Intraperitoneal, Sensitization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Mori; Katsuyo Saito; Yasushi Ohki; Hirokazu Arakawa; Makoto Tominaga; Kenichi Tokuyama

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) may modulate allergic airway inflammation because it is expressed not only on the nerve endings but also on several cells of the immune system. We wanted to know the characteristics of airway and systemic responses against sensitization and challenge with allergens in TRPV1 receptor gene knockout mice (TRPV1–\\/–). Methods: TRPV1–\\/– and their wild-type counterparts

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ATP release from the human ureter on distension and P2X3

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    . Sections of ureter were stained using antibodies against P2X3 and capsaicin receptors (TRPV1). [ATP] rose TRPV1 transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 Introduction Pain due to a calculus causing an acute

  11. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel may modulate opioid reward.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Lien; Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Sa-Ik; Ma, Shi-Xun; Jung, Yang-Hee; Hwang, Ji-Young; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2014-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel, is a well-known pain-related receptor. TRPV1 involvement in morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms has been previously reported. Emerging evidence indicates that TRPV1 may be related to both the cellular and behavioral effects of addictive drugs. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in morphine reward using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in mice. Repeated morphine treatments upregulated TRPV1 expression in the dorsal striatum (DSt). Treatment with a TRPV1 agonist potentiated morphine reward, and pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists attenuated these effects. Microinjection of a selective TRPV1 antagonist into the DSt significantly inhibited morphine-CPP. In addition, treatment with a TRPV1 antagonist suppressed morphine-induced increases in ?-opioid receptor binding, adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) expression in the DSt. Administering a p38 inhibitor not only prevented morphine-CPP, but also prevented morphine-induced NF-?B and TRPV1 activation in the DSt. Furthermore, injecting an NF-?B inhibitor significantly blocked morphine-CPP. Our findings suggest that TRPV1 in the DSt contribute to morphine reward via AC1, p38 MAPK, and NF-?B. Brain TRPV1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target to treat morphine-addictive disorders. PMID:24732880

  12. Contribution of the TRPV1 channel to salt taste quality in mice as assessed by conditioned taste aversion generalization and chorda tympani nerve responses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kimberly R.; Treesukosol, Yada; Paedae, A. Brennan; Contreras, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, at least two transduction mechanisms are involved in salt taste: 1) the sodium-selective epithelial sodium channel, blocked by topical amiloride administration, and 2) one or more amiloride-insensitive cation-nonselective pathways. Whereas electrophysiological evidence from the chorda tympani nerve (CT) has implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as a major component of amiloride-insensitive salt taste transduction, behavioral results have provided only equivocal support. Using a brief-access taste test, we examined generalization profiles of water-deprived C57BL/6J (WT) and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice conditioned (via LiCl injection) to avoid 100 ?M amiloride-prepared 0.25 M NaCl and tested with 0.25 M NaCl, sodium gluconate, KCl, NH4Cl, 6.625 mM citric acid, 0.15 mM quinine, and 0.5 M sucrose. Both LiCl-injected WT and TRPV1 KO groups learned to avoid NaCl+amiloride relative to controls, but their generalization profiles did not differ; LiCl-injected mice avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine suggesting that a TRPV1-independent pathway contributes to the taste quality of the amiloride-insensitive portion of the NaCl signal. Repeating the experiment but doubling all stimulus concentrations revealed a difference in generalization profiles between genotypes. While both LiCl-injected groups avoided the nonsodium salts and quinine, only WT mice avoided the sodium salts and citric acid. CT responses to these stimuli and a concentration series of NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride did not differ between genotypes. Thus, in our study, TRPV1 did not appear to contribute to sodium salt perception based on gustatory signals, at least in the CT, but may have contributed to the oral somatosensory features of sodium. PMID:23054171

  13. Inhibition of airway hyper-responsiveness by TRPV1 antagonists (SB-705498 and PF-04065463) in the unanaesthetized, ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Delescluse, I; Mace, H; Adcock, JJ

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Airway sensory nerves play a key role in respiratory cough, dyspnoea, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), all fundamental features of airway diseases [asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ]. Vagally mediated airway reflexes such as cough, bronchoconstriction and chest tightness originate from stimulation of airway sensory nerve endings. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) is present on peripheral terminals of airway sensory nerves and modulation of its activity represents a potential target for the pharmacological therapy of AHR in airway disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH As guinea pig models can provide some of the essential features of asthma, including AHR, we have established the model with some classical pharmacological agents and examined the effect of the TRPV1 antagonists, SB-705498 and PF-04065463 on AHR to histamine evoked by ovalbumin (OA) in unanaesthetized sensitized guinea pigs restrained in a double chamber plethysmograph. Specific airway conductance (sGaw) derived from the airflow was calculated as a percentage of change from baseline. KEY RESULTS Cetirizine and salbutamol significantly inhibited OA-evoked bronchoconstriction [sGaw area under the curve (AUC): 70 and 78%, respectively]. Atropine, SB-705498 and PF-04065463 significantly inhibited OA-evoked AHR to histamine in unanaesthetized, OA-sensitized guinea pigs (sGaw AUC: 94%, 57% and 73%, respectively). Furthermore, this effect was not related to antagonism of histamine's activity. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These data suggest that TRPV1 receptors located on airway sensory nerves are important in the development of AHR and that modulation of TRPV1-receptor activity represents a potential target for the pharmacological therapy of AHR in airway disease. PMID:22320181

  14. Tmem100 Is a Regulator of TRPA1-TRPV1 Complex and Contributes to Persistent Pain.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hao-Jui; Patel, Kush N; Jeske, Nathaniel A; Bierbower, Sonya M; Zou, Wangyuan; Tiwari, Vinod; Zheng, Qin; Tang, Zongxiang; Mo, Gary C H; Wang, Yan; Geng, Yixun; Zhang, Jin; Guan, Yun; Akopian, Armen N; Dong, Xinzhong

    2015-02-18

    TRPA1 and TRPV1 are crucial pain mediators, but how their interaction contributes to persistent pain is unknown. Here, we identify Tmem100 as a potentiating modulator of TRPA1-V1 complexes. Tmem100 is coexpressed and forms a complex with TRPA1 and TRPV1 in DRG neurons. Tmem100-deficient mice show a reduction in inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia and TRPA1- but not TRPV1-mediated pain. Single-channel recording in a heterologous system reveals that Tmem100 selectively potentiates TRPA1 activity in a TRPV1-dependent manner. Mechanistically, Tmem100 weakens the association of TRPA1 and TRPV1, thereby releasing the inhibition of TRPA1 by TRPV1. A Tmem100 mutant, Tmem100-3Q, exerts the opposite effect; i.e., it enhances the association of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and strongly inhibits TRPA1. Strikingly, a cell-permeable peptide (CPP) containing the C-terminal sequence of Tmem100-3Q mimics its effect and inhibits persistent pain. Our study unveils a context-dependent modulation of the TRPA1-V1 complex, and Tmem100-3Q CPP is a promising pain therapy. PMID:25640077

  15. 2012NatureAmerica,Inc.Allrightsreserved. nAture methods | ADVANCEONLINEPUBLICATION |

    E-print Network

    Trauner, Dirk

    to noxious stimuli7. For example, the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, which is sensitive to noxious heat, protons elsewhere in the nervous system8. TRPV1 enters into a pore-dilated state upon prolonged agonist activation

  16. Calcium regulation by thermo- and osmosensing transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPVs) in human conjunctival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Garreis, Fabian; Sahlmüller, Monika; Lyras, Ekaterini-Maria; Reinach, Peter S; Dwarakanath, Abhilash; Paulsen, Friedrich; Pleyer, Uwe

    2012-06-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels respond to polymodal stresses to induce pain, inflammation and tissue fibrosis. In this study, we probed for their functional expression in human conjunctival epithelial (HCjE) cells and ex vivo human conjunctivas. Notably, patients suffering from dry eye syndrome experience the same type of symptomology induced by TRPV channel activation in other ocular tissues. TRPV gene and protein expression were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in HCjE cells and human conjunctivas (body donors). The planar patch-clamp technique was used to record nonselective cation channel currents. Ca(2+) transients were monitored in fura-2 loaded cells. Cultivated HCjE cells and human conjunctiva express TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 mRNA. TRPV1 and TRPV4 localization was identified in human conjunctiva. Whereas the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP) (5-20 ?M) -induced Ca(2+) transients were blocked by capsazepine (CPZ) (10 ?M), the TRPV4 activator 4?-PDD (10 ?M) -induced Ca(2+) increases were reduced by ruthenium-red (RuR) (20 ?M). Different heating (<40°C or >43°C) led to Ca(2+) increases, which were also reduced by RuR. Hypotonic challenges of either 25 or 50% induced Ca(2+) transients and nonselective cation channel currents. In conclusion, conjunctiva express TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 channels which may provide novel drug targets for dry eye therapeutics. Their usage may have fewer side effects than those currently encountered with less selective drugs. PMID:22327830

  17. Visceral hypersensitivity induced by activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 is mediated through the serotonin pathway in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong-yan; Luo, Jia-lie; Qi, Sheng-da; Xu, Hong-xi; Sung, Joseph J Y; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2010-11-25

    This study aimed to clarify the relationship between TRPV1 activation-induced visceral pain and the serotonin pathway in the colon of rats. The effects of para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) on visceral pain threshold pressure were assessed in capsaicin -induced visceral pain of rats. The expression of TRPV1 in the colon was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, and TRPV1 excitability in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was examined by whole-cell patch-clamp recording in pCPA-treated rats. Calcineurin and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), the important proteins in maintaining TRPV1 function in the colon, were also tested by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Results showed that pCPA significantly increased the capsaicin-induced visceral pain threshold by 2.3-fold, and the enhanced visceral pain threshold corresponded with decreased 5-HT content (58% depleted) and enterochromaffin cell number (80% reduced). The reduced excitability of TRPV1 in DRG neurons, instead of changed TRPV1 expression, is responsible for the enhanced visceral pain threshold in 5-HT-depleted rats, and the mechanism may be related to the decreased expression of pCaMKII. These results indicate that visceral hypersensitivity induced by TRPV1 activation is modulated through 5-HT pathways and the attenuated function of TRPV1 and decreased protein expression of pCaMKII may play an important role in capsaicin-induced TRPV1 desensitization under 5-HT-depleted condition. The important role of TRPV1 and 5-HT in generating and maintaining visceral hypersensitivity may provide insights for the treatment of visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:20826151

  18. Rutaecarpine prevented dysfunction of endothelial gap junction induced by Ox-LDL via activation of TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Jie; Liu, Yong; Yu, Yan-Rong; Fu, Yan-Qi; Zhao, Yan; Kuang, Hai-Bing; Huang, Qi-Ren; He, Ming; Luo, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Gap junctions, which is formed by connexins, has been proved to play an important role in the atherogenesis development. Rutaecarpine was reported to inhibited monocyte migration, which indicates its potential for anti-atherosclerosis activity. This study evaluated the effect of rutaecarpine on endothelial dysfunction, and focused on the regulation of connexin expression in endothelial cells by rutaecarpine. Endothelia damage was induced by exposing HUVEC-12 to Ox-LDL (100mg/l) for 24h, which decreased the expression of protective proteins Cx37 and Cx40, but induced atherogenic Cx43 expression, in both mRNA and protein levels, concomitant with the impaired propidium iodide diffusion through the gap junctions. Pretreatment with rutaecarpine effectively recovered the expression of Cx37 and Cx40, but inhibited Cx43 expression, thereby improving gap junction communication and significantly prevented the endothelial dysfunction. Consequently, the cell viability and nitric oxide production were increased, lactate dehydrogenase production was decreased and monocyte adhesion was inhibited. These protective effects of rutaecarpine were remarkably attenuated by pretreatment with capsazepine, a competitive antagonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). In summary, this study is the first to report that rutaecarpine prevents endothelial injury and gap junction dysfunction induced by Ox-LDL in vitro, which is related to regulation of connexin expression patterns via TRPV1 activation. These results suggest that rutaecarpine has the potential for use as an anti-atherosclerosis agent with a novel mechanism. PMID:25794845

  19. Inhibition of FAAH, TRPV1, and COX2 by NSAID-serotonin conjugates.

    PubMed

    Rose, Tyler M; Reilly, Christopher A; Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Brewster, Clinton; Brewster, Chelsea

    2014-12-15

    Serotonin was linked by amidation to the carboxylic acid groups of a series of structurally diverse NSAIDs. The resulting NSAID-serotonin conjugates were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit FAAH, TRPV1, and COX2. Ibuprofen-5-HT and Flurbiprofen-5-HT inhibited all three targets with approximately the same potency as N-arachidonoyl serotonin (AA-5-HT), while Fenoprofen-5-HT and Naproxen-5-HT showed activity as dual inhibitors of TRPV1 and COX2. PMID:25467164

  20. Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Channel Localized to Non-Neuronal Airway Cells Promotes Non-Neurogenic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Camilla; Carnini, Chiara; Facchinetti, Fabrizio; Viscomi, Arturo Roberto; Pisano, Anna Rita; Stokesberry, Susan; Brunmark, Charlott; Svitacheva, Naila; McGarvey, Lorcan; Patacchini, Riccardo; Damholt, Anders B.; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Materazzi, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Background The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, localized to airway sensory nerves, has been proposed to mediate airway inflammation evoked by allergen and cigarette smoke (CS) in rodents, via a neurogenic mechanism. However the limited clinical evidence for the role of neurogenic inflammation in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease raises an alternative possibility that airway inflammation is promoted by non-neuronal TRPA1. Methodology/Principal Findings By using Real-Time PCR and calcium imaging, we found that cultured human airway cells, including fibroblasts, epithelial and smooth muscle cells express functional TRPA1 channels. By using immunohistochemistry, TRPA1 staining was observed in airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells in sections taken from human airways and lung, and from airways and lung of wild-type, but not TRPA1-deficient mice. In cultured human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, acrolein and CS extract evoked IL-8 release, a response selectively reduced by TRPA1 antagonists. Capsaicin, agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a channel co-expressed with TRPA1 by airway sensory nerves, and acrolein or CS (TRPA1 agonists), or the neuropeptide substance P (SP), which is released from sensory nerve terminals by capsaicin, acrolein or CS), produced neurogenic inflammation in mouse airways. However, only acrolein and CS, but not capsaicin or SP, released the keratinocyte chemoattractant (CXCL-1/KC, IL-8 analogue) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of wild-type mice. This effect of TRPA1 agonists was attenuated by TRPA1 antagonism or in TRPA1-deficient mice, but not by pharmacological ablation of sensory nerves. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that, although either TRPV1 or TRPA1 activation causes airway neurogenic inflammation, solely TRPA1 activation orchestrates an additional inflammatory response which is not neurogenic. This finding suggests that non-neuronal TRPA1 in the airways is functional and potentially capable of contributing to inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:22905134

  1. Bioavailability of capsaicin and its implications for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Rollyson, William D; Stover, Cody A; Brown, Kathleen C; Perry, Haley E; Stevenson, Cathryn D; McNees, Christopher A; Ball, John G; Valentovic, Monica A; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2014-12-28

    The dietary compound capsaicin is responsible for the "hot and spicy" taste of chili peppers and pepper extracts. It is a valuable pharmacological agent with several therapeutic applications in controlling pain and inflammation. Emerging studies show that it displays potent anti-tumor activity in several human cancers. On a more basic research level, capsaicin has been used as a ligand to activate several types of ion-channel receptors. The pharmacological activity of capsaicin-like compounds is dependent on several factors like the dose, the route of administration and most importantly on its concentration at target tissues. The present review describes the current knowledge involving the metabolism and bioavailability of capsaicinoids in rodents and humans. Novel drug delivery strategies used to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic index of capsaicin are discussed in detail. The generation of novel capsaicin-mimetics and improved drug delivery methods will foster the hope of innovative applications of capsaicin in human disease. PMID:25307998

  2. The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 Channel in Thermoregulation: A Thermosensor It Is Not

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Maria C.; Garami, Andras; Steiner, Alexandre A.; Norman, Mark H.; Morrison, Shaun F.; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Burmeister, Jeffrey J.; Nucci, Tatiane B.

    2009-01-01

    The development of antagonists of the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel as pain therapeutics has revealed that these compounds cause hyperthermia in humans. This undesirable on-target side effect has triggered a surge of interest in the role of TRPV1 in thermoregulation and revived the hypothesis that TRPV1 channels serve as thermosensors. We review literature data on the distribution of TRPV1 channels in the body and on thermoregulatory responses to TRPV1 agonists and antagonists. We propose that two principal populations of TRPV1-expressing cells have connections with efferent thermoeffector pathways: 1) first-order sensory (polymodal), glutamatergic dorsal-root (and possibly nodose) ganglia neurons that innervate the abdominal viscera and 2) higher-order sensory, glutamatergic neurons presumably located in the median preoptic hypothalamic nucleus. We further hypothesize that all thermoregulatory responses to TRPV1 agonists and antagonists and thermoregulatory manifestations of TRPV1 desensitization stem from primary actions on these two neuronal populations. Agonists act primarily centrally on population 2; antagonists act primarily peripherally on population 1. We analyze what roles TRPV1 might play in thermoregulation and conclude that this channel does not serve as a thermosensor, at least not under physiological conditions. In the hypothalamus, TRPV1 channels are inactive at common brain temperatures. In the abdomen, TRPV1 channels are tonically activated, but not by temperature. However, tonic activation of visceral TRPV1 by nonthermal factors suppresses autonomic cold-defense effectors and, consequently, body temperature. Blockade of this activation by TRPV1 antagonists disinhibits thermoeffectors and causes hyperthermia. Strategies for creating hyperthermia-free TRPV1 antagonists are outlined. The potential physiological and pathological significance of TRPV1-mediated thermoregulatory effects is discussed. PMID:19749171

  3. Regulation of Transient Receptor Potential channels by the phospholipase C pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rohacs, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels were discovered while analyzing visual mutants in drosophila. The protein encoded by the transient receptor potential (trp) gene is a Ca2+ permeable cation channel activated downstream of the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. While searching for homologues in other organisms, a surprisingly large number of mammalian TRP channels were cloned. The regulation of TRP channels is quite diverse, but many of them are either activated downstream of the PLC pathway, or modulated by it. This review will summarize the current knowledge on regulation of TRP channels by the PLC pathway, with special focus on TRPC-s, which can be considered as effectors of the PLC pathway, and the heat and capsaicin sensitive TRPV1, which is modulated by the PLC pathway in a complex manner. PMID:23916247

  4. Roles of ASIC3, TRPV1, and NaV1.8 in the transition from acute to chronic pain in a mouse model of fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tissue acidosis is effective in causing chronic muscle pain. However, how muscle nociceptors contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain is largely unknown. Results Here we showed that a single intramuscular acid injection induced a priming effect on muscle nociceptors of mice. The primed muscle nociceptors were plastic and permitted the development of long-lasting chronic hyperalgesia induced by a second acid insult. The plastic changes of muscle nociceptors were modality-specific and required the activation of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) or transient receptor potential cation channel V1 (TRPV1). Activation of ASIC3 was associated with increased activity of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels but not protein kinase C? (PKC?) in isolectin B4 (IB4)-negative muscle nociceptors. In contrast, increased activity of TTX-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels with ASIC3 or TRPV1 activation in NaV1.8-positive muscle nociceptors was required for the development of chronic hyperalgesia. Accordingly, compared to wild type mice, NaV1.8-null mice showed briefer acid-induced hyperalgesia (5 days vs. >27 days). Conclusion ASIC3 activation may manifest a new type of nociceptor priming in IB4-negative muscle nociceptors. The activation of ASIC3 and TRPV1 as well as enhanced NaV1.8 activity are essential for the development of long-lasting hyperalgesia in acid-induced, chronic, widespread muscle pain. PMID:24957987

  5. Thermal stimulation of primary sensory neurons in the rat hind paw: effect of morphine on ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TRPV1 and TRPA1 channel expression.

    PubMed

    Donnerer, Josef; Liebmann, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels or 'thermo-TRP' were stimulated on rat sensory afferents, and the effects on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, on the regulation of TRPV1 and TRPA1, as well as the pharmacological modulation by the opioid analgesic morphine were investigated. The thermal stimuli were applied to the rat hind paw by immersion into either hot or cold water. Phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) was measured by fluorescence-immunohistochemistry in the lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. TRP channel mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR in the innervating DRGs, and the protein content of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was determined by Western blot in the DRGs and in the sciatic nerve. The thermal stimuli led to a time-dependent increase in the number of DRG cells displaying cytoplasmic and nuclear staining for p-ERK1/2. Morphine partly prevented this increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, exerting its effect mainly on the nuclear staining. The mRNA expression for TRPV1 and TRPA1 in the DRG did not change within 24 h following the thermal stimuli. However, the protein content of both TRPV1 and TRPA1 was regulated by the thermal stimulation and by morphine. In the DRGs and in the sciatic nerve, heat or cold stimuli per se tended to decrease TRP protein levels, whereas with morphine pretreatment protein levels were raised. The present findings shed new light on the time-dependent reactions of primary sensory neurons towards irritant thermal stimuli to the skin and on their opioid modulation. PMID:23037317

  6. Mitochondrial fission augments capsaicin-induced axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hao; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Hsieh, Yu-Lin; Mahad, Don J; Kikuchi, Shin; Komuro, Hitoshi; Hsieh, Sung-Tsang; Trapp, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1, induces axonal degeneration of peripheral sensory nerves and is commonly used to treat painful sensory neuropathies. In this study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial dynamics in capsaicin-induced axonal degeneration. In capsaicin-treated rodent sensory axons, axonal swellings, decreased mitochondrial stationary site length and reduced mitochondrial transport preceded axonal degeneration. Increased axoplasmic Ca(2+) mediated the alterations in mitochondrial length and transport. While sustaining mitochondrial transport did not reduce axonal swellings in capsaicin-treated axons, preventing mitochondrial fission by overexpression of mutant dynamin-related protein 1 increased mitochondrial length, retained mitochondrial membrane potentials and reduced axonal loss upon capsaicin treatment. These results establish that mitochondrial stationary site size significantly affects axonal integrity and suggest that inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent mitochondrial fission facilitates mitochondrial function and axonal survival following activation of axonal cationic channels. PMID:25322817

  7. Pulmonary diesel particulate increases susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via activation of sensory TRPV1 and ?1 adrenoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical studies have now confirmed the link between short-term exposure to elevated levels of air pollution and increased cardiovascular mortality, but the mechanisms are complex and not completely elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that activation of pulmonary sensory receptors and the sympathetic nervous system underlies the influence of pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particulate on blood pressure, and on the myocardial response to ischemia and reperfusion. Methods & Results 6 h after intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particulate (0.5 mg), myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was performed in anesthetised rats. Blood pressure, duration of ventricular arrhythmia, arrhythmia-associated death, tissue edema and reperfusion injury were all increased by diesel exhaust particulate exposure. Reperfusion injury was also increased in buffer perfused hearts isolated from rats instilled in vivo, excluding an effect dependent on continuous neurohumoral activation or systemic inflammatory mediators. Myocardial oxidant radical production, tissue apoptosis and necrosis were increased prior to ischemia, in the absence of recruited inflammatory cells. Intratracheal application of an antagonist of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 (AMG 9810, 30 mg/kg) prevented enhancement of systolic blood pressure and arrhythmia in vivo, as well as basal and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury ex vivo. Systemic ?1 adrenoreceptor antagonism with metoprolol (10 mg/kg) also blocked enhancement of myocardial oxidative stress and reperfusion injury. Conclusions Pulmonary diesel exhaust particulate increases blood pressure and has a profound adverse effect on the myocardium, resulting in tissue damage, but also increases vulnerability to ischemia-associated arrhythmia and reperfusion injury. These effects are mediated through activation of pulmonary TRPV1, the sympathetic nervous system and locally generated oxidative stress. PMID:24568236

  8. Receptor-targeting mechanisms of pain-causing toxins: How ow?

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Christopher J.; Julius, David

    2012-01-01

    Venoms often target vital processes to cause paralysis or death, but many types of venom also elicit notoriously intense pain. While these pain-producing effects can result as a byproduct of generalized tissue trauma, there are now multiple examples of venom-derived toxins that target somatosensory nerve terminals in order to activate nociceptive (pain-sensing) neural pathways. Intriguingly, investigation of the venom components that are responsible for evoking pain has revealed novel roles and/or configurations of well-studied toxin motifs. This review serves to highlight pain-producing toxins that target the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, or members of the acid-sensing ion channel family, and to discuss the utility of venom-derived multivalent and multimeric complexes. PMID:22538196

  9. Nociception and inflammatory hyperalgesia evaluated in rodents using infrared laser stimulation after Trpv1 gene knockout or resiniferatoxin lesion.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kendall; Lebovitz, Evan E; Keller, Jason M; Mannes, Andrew J; Nemenov, Michael I; Iadarola, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    TRPV1 is expressed in a subpopulation of myelinated A? and unmyelinated C-fibers. TRPV1+ fibers are essential for the transmission of nociceptive thermal stimuli and for the establishment and maintenance of inflammatory hyperalgesia. We have previously shown that high-power, short-duration pulses from an infrared diode laser are capable of predominantly activating cutaneous TRPV1+ A?-fibers. Here we show that stimulating either subtype of TRPV1+ fiber in the paw during carrageenan-induced inflammation or following hind-paw incision elicits pronounced hyperalgesic responses, including prolonged paw guarding. The ultrapotent TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) dose-dependently deactivates TRPV1+ fibers and blocks thermal nociceptive responses in baseline or inflamed conditions. Injecting sufficient doses of RTX peripherally renders animals unresponsive to laser stimulation even at the point of acute thermal skin damage. In contrast, Trpv1-/- mice, which are generally unresponsive to noxious thermal stimuli at lower power settings, exhibit withdrawal responses and inflammation-induced sensitization using high-power, short duration A? stimuli. In rats, systemic morphine suppresses paw withdrawal, inflammatory guarding, and hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent fashion using the same A? stimuli. The qualitative intensity of A? responses, the leftward shift of the stimulus-response curve, the increased guarding behaviors during carrageenan inflammation or after incision, and the reduction of A? responses with morphine suggest multiple roles for TRPV1+ A? fibers in nociceptive processes and their modulation of pathological pain conditions. PMID:24434730

  10. Ablation of rat TRPV1-expressing Adelta/C-fibers with resiniferatoxin: analysis of withdrawal behaviors, recovery of function and molecular correlates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ablation of TRPV1-expressing nociceptive fibers with the potent capsaicin analog resiniferatoxin (RTX) results in long lasting pain relief. RTX is particularly adaptable to focal application, and the induced chemical axonopathy leads to analgesia with a duration that is influenced by dose, route of administration, and the rate of fiber regeneration. TRPV1 is expressed in a subpopulation of unmyelinated C- and lightly myelinated Adelta fibers that detect changes in skin temperature at low and high rates of noxious heating, respectively. Here we investigate fiber-type specific behaviors, their time course of recovery and molecular correlates of axon damage and nociception using infrared laser stimuli following an RTX-induced peripheral axonopathy. Results RTX was injected into rat hind paws (mid-plantar) to produce thermal hypoalgesia. An infrared diode laser was used to stimulate Adelta fibers in the paw with a small-diameter (1.6 mm), high-energy, 100 msec pulse, or C-fibers with a wide-diameter (5 mm), long-duration, low-energy pulse. We monitored behavioral responses to indicate loss and regeneration of fibers. At the site of injection, responses to C-fiber stimuli were significantly attenuated for two weeks after 5 or 50 ng RTX. Responses to Adelta stimuli were significantly attenuated for two weeks at the highest intensity stimulus, and for 5 weeks to a less intense Adelta stimulus. Stimulation on the toe, a site distal to the injection, showed significant attenuation of Adelta responses for 7- 8 weeks after 5 ng, or 9-10 weeks after 50 ng RTX. In contrast, responses to C-fiber stimuli exhibited basically normal responses at 5 weeks after RTX. During the period of fiber loss and recovery, molecular markers for nerve regeneration (ATF3 and galanin) are upregulated in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) when behavior is maximally attenuated, but markers of nociceptive activity (c-Fos in spinal cord and MCP-1 in DRG), although induced immediately after RTX treatment, returned to normal. Conclusion Behavioral recovery following peripheral RTX treatment is linked to regeneration of TRPV1-expressing Adelta and C-fibers and sustained expression of molecular markers. Infrared laser stimulation is a potentially valuable tool for evaluating the behavioral role of Adelta fibers in pain and pain control. PMID:21167052

  11. Ruthenium red and capsazepine antinociceptive effect in formalin and capsaicin models of pain in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adair R. S Santos; Joăo B Calixto

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the antinociception caused by intradermal (i.d) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of the capsaicin receptor antagonist capsazepine (CPZ), and ruthenium red (RR) (a cation-selective antagonist coupled to vanilloid receptor of capsaicin), on the chemical nociception caused by i.d. injection of formalin (FM) and capsaicin (CAP) into the mouse paw. The i.d. injection of either CPZ or RR in

  12. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 localisation and agonist-mediated inhibition of capsaicin responses in human sensory neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma Anand; William R. Otto; Daniel Sanchez-Herrera; Paul Facer; Yiangos Yiangou; Yuri Korchev; Rolfe Birch; Christopher Benham; Chas Bountra; Iain P. Chessell; Praveen Anand

    2008-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists provide the potential for treating chronic pain states without CNS effects associated with CB1 receptor activation. Animal models suggest that they act mainly via non-neuronal cells, possibly inhibition of inflammatory cells in the periphery or CNS, or via release of ?-endorphin; however, the clinical relevance and mechanism of analgesic action is uncertain. Here, we demonstrate

  13. Identification of a Tetramerization Domain in the C Terminus of the Vanilloid Receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuria Garcia-Sanz; Asia Fernandez-Carvajal; Cruz Morenilla-Palao; Rosa Planells-Cases; Emmanuel Fajardo-Sanchez; Gregorio Fernandez-Ballester; Antonio Ferrer-Montiel

    2004-01-01

    TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor subtype 1) is a member of the TRP channel family gated by vanilloids, protons, and heat. Structurally, TRPV1 appears to be a tetramer formed by the assembly of four identical subunits around a central aqueous pore. The molecular determinants that govern its subunit oligomerization remain elusive. Here, we report the identification of a segment

  14. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1–Dependent Regulation of Liver-Related Neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus Diminished in the Type 1 Diabetic Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong; Miyata, Kayoko; Bhaskaran, Muthu D.; Derbenev, Andrei V.; Zsombok, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus controls the autonomic neural output to the liver, thereby participating in the regulation of hepatic glucose production (HGP); nevertheless, mechanisms controlling the activity of liver-related PVN neurons are not known. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is involved in glucose homeostasis and colocalizes with liver-related PVN neurons; however, the functional role of TRPV1 regarding liver-related PVN neurons has to be elucidated. A retrograde viral tracer was used to identify liver-related neurons within the brain-liver circuit in control, type 1 diabetic, and insulin-treated mice. Our data indicate that TRPV1 regulates liver-related PVN neurons. This TRPV1-dependent excitation diminished in type 1 diabetic mice. In vivo and in vitro insulin restored TRPV1 activity in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase C–dependent manner and stimulated TRPV1 receptor trafficking to the plasma membrane. There was no difference in total TRPV1 protein expression; however, increased phosphorylation of TRPV1 receptors was observed in type 1 diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that TRPV1 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of liver-related PVN neurons. Moreover, TRPV1-dependent excitation of liver-related PVN neurons diminishes in type 1 diabetes, thus indicating that the brain-liver autonomic circuitry is altered in type 1 diabetes and may contribute to the autonomic dysfunction of HGP. PMID:22492526

  15. Discovery of Novel TRPV1 Ligands Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2010, Vol. 31, No. 6 1501 DOI 10.5012/bkcs.2010.31.6.1501

    E-print Network

    Suh, Young-Ger

    Discovery of Novel TRPV1 Ligands Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2010, Vol. 31, No. 6 1501 DOI 10.5012/bkcs.2010.31.6.1501 Discovery of Novel TRPV1 Ligands through Rational Approach Based on Its Putative, Accepted March 31, 2010 We report design and synthesis of the novel TRPV1 ligands through a rational

  16. TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels: potential therapeutic targets for ischemic conditioning-induced cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Besides the involvement of TRPV channels in exhibiting various cellular functions including thermoregulation, pain perception, maintenance of bone homeostasis and gastrointestinal function; certain studies have also implicated the putative role of these channels in mediating ischemic conditioning-induced cardioprotection. The potential role of TRPV1 channels in different forms of ischemic conditioning (pre/post/remote)-induced cardioprotection has been described by employing TRPV1 knockout mice and various pharmacological modulators. The cardioprotective effects of TRPV1 activation during ischemic conditioning have been linked with increased CGRP, substance P release and augmented ALOX expression. Furthermore, the role of TRPV4 channels in mediating preconditioning-induced preservation of vascular function in terms restoring NO- and further improving EDH(F)-mediated endothelial relaxation has been described. The present review discusses the putative role of TRPV1 and TRPV4 channels in mediating different forms of conditioning (pre/post/remote)-induced cardioprotection along with the possible mechanisms. Future perspectives have also been described to fully understand the cascade of signaling and contribution of TRPV channel activation during myocardial ischemic conditioning. PMID:25449039

  17. Effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation in bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Young; Suresh, Sekar; Park, Mi Na; Jang, Mi; Park, Sungkwon; Gobianand, Kuppannan; You, Seungkwon; Yeon, Sung-Heom; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Capsaicin is a major constituent of hot chili peppers that influences lipid metabolism in animals. In this study, we explored the effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The BMSCs were treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (0, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 ?M) for 2, 4, and 6 days. Capsaicin suppressed fat deposition significantly during adipogenic differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine/enhancer binding protein alpha, fatty acid binding protein 4, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression decreased after capsaicin treatment. We showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we found that capsaicin increased the expression levels of apoptotic genes, such as B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein and caspase 3. Overall, capsaicin inhibits fat deposition by triggering apoptosis. PMID:25358373

  18. Effects of Capsaicin on Adipogenic Differentiation in Bovine Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin Young; Suresh, Sekar; Park, Mi Na; Jang, Mi; Park, Sungkwon; Gobianand, Kuppannan; You, Seungkwon; Yeon, Sung-Heom; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin is a major constituent of hot chili peppers that influences lipid metabolism in animals. In this study, we explored the effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The BMSCs were treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (0, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 ?M) for 2, 4, and 6 days. Capsaicin suppressed fat deposition significantly during adipogenic differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine/enhancer binding protein alpha, fatty acid binding protein 4, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression decreased after capsaicin treatment. We showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we found that capsaicin increased the expression levels of apoptotic genes, such as B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein and caspase 3. Overall, capsaicin inhibits fat deposition by triggering apoptosis. PMID:25358373

  19. Capsaicin binds to prohibitin 2 and displaces it from the mitochondria to the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuramori, Chikanori; Azuma, Motoki; Kume, Kanako; Kaneko, Yuki; Inoue, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Yuki [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Kabe, Yasuaki [Department of Integrative Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Hosoya, Takamitsu [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Kizaki, Masahiro [Department of Hematology, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Kawagoe, Saitama (Japan); Suematsu, Makoto [Department of Integrative Medical Biology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Integrated Research Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan)], E-mail: hhanda@bio.titech.ac.jp

    2009-02-06

    Capsaicin is widely used as a food additive and as an analgesic agent. Besides its well-known role in nociception, which is mediated by vanilloid receptor 1 specifically expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons, capsaicin has also been considered as a potential anticancer agent, as it inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. Here we identified a new molecular target of capsaicin from human myeloid leukemia cells. We show that capsaicin binds to prohibitin (PHB) 2, which is normally localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane, and induces its translocation to the nucleus. PHB2 is implicated in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and the control of apoptosis. We also provide evidence suggesting that capsaicin causes apoptosis directly through the mitochondria and that PHB2 contributes to capsaicin-induced apoptosis at multiple levels. This work will serve as an important foundation for further understanding of anticancer activity of capsaicin.

  20. TRPA1 receptors in cough.

    PubMed

    Grace, Megan S; Belvisi, Maria G

    2011-06-01

    In the early 1990's ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) class were implicated in the afferent sensory loop of the cough reflex and in the heightened cough sensitivity seen in disease. Agonists of the TRPV1 capsaicin receptor such as vanilloids and protons were demonstrated to be amongst the most potent chemical stimuli which cause cough. However, more recently, the TRPA1 receptor (not activated by capsaicin) has become of interest in the cough field because it is known to be activated by ligands such as acrolein which is present in air pollution and the acrid smoke from organic material. TRPA1 is a Ca(2+)-permeant non-selective cation channel with 14 ankyrin repeats in its amino terminus which belongs to the larger TRP family. TRPA1 has been characterised as a thermoreceptor which is activated by cold temperature, environmental irritants and reactive electrophilic molecules which can be generated by oxidant stress and inflammation. TRPA1 is primarily expressed in small diameter, nociceptive neurons where its activation probably contributes to the perception of noxious stimuli and the phenomena known as inflammatory hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation. The respiratory tract is innervated by primary sensory afferent nerves which are activated by mechanical and chemical stimuli. Activation of these vagal sensory afferents leads to central reflexes including dyspnoea, changes in breathing pattern and cough. Recently, it has been demonstrated that stimulating TRPA1 channels activates vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibres in the guinea pig and rodent lung, and recent data have shown that TRPA1 ligands cause cough in both animal models and normal volunteers. In summary, due to their activation by a wide range of irritant and chemical substances, either by exogenous agents, endogenously produced mediators during inflammation or by oxidant stress, we suggest TRPA1 channels should be considered as one of the most promising targets currently identified for the development of novel anti-tussive drugs. PMID:21074632

  1. Capsaicin-like effects of N-arachidonoyl-dopamine in the isolated guinea pig bronchi and urinary bladder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selena Harrison; Luciano De Petrocellis; Marcello Trevisani; Francesca Benvenuti; Maurizio Bifulco; Pierangelo Geppetti; Vincenzo Di Marzo

    2003-01-01

    A capsaicin-like endogenous ligand of vanilloid (VR1) receptors, N-arachidonoyl-dopamine, was recently identified in bovine and rat nervous tissue, and found to be almost as potent as capsaicin, and 5–10-fold more potent than anandamide, on these receptors, both in isolated cells and in vivo. Here we have investigated if N-arachidonoyl-dopamine also exerts other capsaicin-like effects at VR1 receptors in some isolated

  2. Structure of the N-terminal Ankyrin Repeat Domain of the

    E-print Network

    Gaudet, Rachelle

    on sequence identity and function, including the TRPV subfamily (named after the vanilloid receptor, TRPV1, TRPV1 and TRPV2 are both activated at noxious temperatures ( 43 °C and 52 °C, respectively) (2, 3). TRPV1 is also gated by exogenous ligands such as capsaicin and resinif- eratoxin (reviewed in Ref. 4

  3. Development/Plasticity/Repair Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Activates ERK in Primary

    E-print Network

    Clapham, David E.

    Neurons and Mediates Inflammatory Heat Hyperalgesia through TRPV1 Sensitization Zhi-Ye Zhuang,1 Haoxing Xu and NGF produce heat hyperalgesia by activating their respective TRPV1 (transient receptor potential early induction of hyperalgesia. In acutely dissociated DRG neurons, the capsaicin- induced TRPV1

  4. Brief Communications TRPA1 Is a Component of the Nociceptive Response to CO2

    E-print Network

    Liman, Emily

    responses to CO2 as TRPA1 channels expressed in HEK-293 cells, but not TRPV1 channels, were activated the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, which is expressed in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia and activated a cation channel expressed by a subset of TRPV1-containing neurons (Bautista et al., 2006; Bandell et al

  5. Effect of TRPV1 gene mutation on bronchial asthma in children before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Liang; Li, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Hong; Guan, Hai-Shan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2015-03-01

    Bronchial asthma is a worldwide disease with high incidence. It not only harms children's physical and mental health, but it also brings a heavy burden to their families as well as the society. However, the trigger and pathogenesis of the disease remain unclear. This study aimed to analyze TRPV1 gene mutation and expression of cytokines in children with acute bronchial asthma before and after treatment, thus providing theoretical guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of bronchial asthma in children. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was adopted to detect TRPV1 mRNA expression level and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay was used to detect the serum total IgE level, eosinophil (EOS) number, IL-4, IL-5, and interferon (IFN) gamma levels in peripheral venous blood of children in the healthy control group and asthma group before and after treatment. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the most essential factor inducing bronchial asthma in children. TRPV1 mRNA level of peripheral blood in the asthma group was higher than that in the control group before treatment (p < 0.01). The IL-4, IL-5, and EOS levels in serum were markedly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.01), whereas the IFN-gamma level was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.01). After conventional treatment, TRPV1 mRNA level increased significantly (p < 0.01). The levels of serum IL-4, IL-5, and EOS were significantly lower than those before treatment (p < 0.01), whereas, IFN-gamma level was higher than that before treatment (p < 0.01). Compared with that before treatment, the expression level of IgE showed a significant decrease after treatment (p < 0.01). The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that TRPV1 expression level, IL-4 level, and rs4790522 site mutation were the main risk factors inducing bronchial asthma in children. TRPV1 gene mutation was closely related to bronchial asthma in children, which provided a theoretical basis for the treatment and prognosis of children with bronchial asthma. PMID:25715236

  6. Capsaicin Treatment Attenuates Cholangiocarcinoma Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Barat, Samarpita; Chen, Xi; El Khatib, Mona; Götze, Julian; Belahmer, Hanane; Zender, Steffen; Bozko, Przemyslaw; Malek, Nisar P.; Plentz, Ruben R.

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, the most abundant pungent molecule produced by pepper plants, represents an important ingredient in spicy foods consumed throughout the world. Studies have shown that capsaicin can relieve inflammation and has anti-proliferative effects on various human malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a cancer disease with rising incidence. The prognosis remains dismal with little advance in treatment. The aim of the present study is to explore the anti-tumor activity of capsaicin in cultured human CC cell lines. Capsaicin effectively impaired cell proliferation, migration, invasion, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and growth of softagar colonies. Further, we show that capsaicin treatment of CC cells regulates the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Conclusion: Our results provide a basis for capsaicin to improve the prognosis of CCs in vivo and present new insights into the effectiveness and mode of action of capsaicin. PMID:24748170

  7. Lipoic-Based TRPA1/TRPV1 Antagonist to Treat Orofacial Pain.

    PubMed

    Gualdani, Roberta; Ceruti, Stefania; Magni, Giulia; Merli, Davide; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Francesconi, Oscar; Richichi, Barbara; la Marca, Giancarlo; Ghelardini, Carla; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Nativi, Cristina

    2015-03-18

    Inflammation of the trigeminal nerve is considered one of the most painful conditions known to humankind. The diagnosis is often difficult; moreover, safe and effective pharmacological treatments are lacking. A new molecule, ADM_12, formed by a lipoic and omotaurine residues covalently linked, is here reported. In vitro and in vivo tests showed that ADM_12 is a very attractive original compound presenting (i) a remarkable safety profile; (ii) a high binding constant versus TRPA1; (iii) an intriguing behavior versus TRPV1; and (iv) the ability to significantly and persistently reduce mechanical facial allodynia in rats. Noteworthy, by testing ADM_12, we shed light on the unprecedented involvement of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels in orofacial pain. PMID:25546551

  8. Ganglion-specific splicing of TRPV1 underlies infrared sensation in vampire bats

    PubMed Central

    Gracheva, Elena O.; Cordero-Morales, Julio F.; González-Carcacía, José A.; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Manno, Carlo; Aranguren, Carla I.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Julius, David

    2012-01-01

    Vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are obligate blood feeders that have evolved specialized systems to suit their unique sanguinary lifestyle 1–3. Chief among such adaptations is the ability to detect infrared radiation as a means of locating hot spots on warm-blooded prey. Among vertebrates, only vampire bats, boas, pythons, and pit vipers are capable of detecting infrared radiation 1,4. In each case, infrared heat is detected by trigeminal nerve fibers that innervate specialized pit organs on the animal’s face 5–10. Thus, vampire bats and snakes have taken thermosensation to the extreme by developing specialized systems for detecting infrared radiation. As such, these creatures provide a window into the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying evolutionary tuning of thermoreceptors in a species or cell type specific manner. Previously, we have shown that snakes co-opt a non-heat sensitive channel (vertebrate TRPA1) to produce an infrared detector 6. Here we show that vampire bats tune an already heat sensitive channel (TRPV1) by lowering its thermal activation threshold to ~30°C. This is achieved through alternative splicing of TRPV1 transcripts to produce a channel with a truncated C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Remarkably, these splicing events occur exclusively in trigeminal ganglia (TG), and not dorsal root ganglia (DRG), thereby maintaining a role for TRPV1 as a detector of noxious heat in somatic afferents. This reflects a unique organization of the bat TRPV1 gene that we show to be characteristic of Laurasiatheria mammals (cows, dogs, and moles), supporting a close phylogenetic relationship with bats. These findings reveal a unique molecular mechanism for physiological tuning of thermosensory nerve fibers. PMID:21814281

  9. Dexamethasone Rapidly Increases GABA Release in the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus via Retrograde Messenger-Mediated Enhancement of TRPV1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Derbenev, Andrei V.; Smith, Bret N.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids influence vagal parasympathetic output to the viscera via mechanisms that include modulation of neural circuitry in the dorsal vagal complex, a principal autonomic regulatory center. Glucocorticoids can modulate synaptic neurotransmitter release elsewhere in the brain by inducing release of retrograde signalling molecules. We tested the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX) modulates GABA release in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that DEX (1-10 µM) rapidly (i.e. within three minutes) increased the frequency of tetrodotoxin-resistant, miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in 67% of DMV neurons recorded in acutely prepared slices. Glutamate-mediated mEPSCs were also enhanced by DEX (10 µM), and blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors reduced the DEX effect on mIPSC frequency. Antagonists of type I or II corticosteroid receptors blocked the effect of DEX on mIPSCs. The effect was mimicked by application of the membrane-impermeant BSA-conjugated DEX, and intracellular blockade of G protein function with GDP ?S in the recorded cell prevented the effect of DEX. The enhancement of GABA release was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists, 5’-iodoresiniferatoxin or capsazepine, but was not altered by the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist AM251. The DEX effect was prevented by blocking fatty acid amide hydrolysis or by inhibiting anandamide transport, implicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the response. These findings indicate that DEX induces an enhancement of GABA release in the DMV, which is mediated by activation of TRPV1 receptors on afferent terminals. The effect is likely induced by anandamide or other ‘endovanilloid’, suggesting activation of a local retrograde signal originating from DMV neurons to enhance synaptic inhibition locally in response to glucocorticoids. PMID:23936221

  10. Differential effects of TRPV channel block on polymodal activation of rat cutaneous nociceptors in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael St. Pierre; Peter W. Reeh; Katharina Zimmermann

    2009-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a polymodal sensory transducer molecule in the pain pathway. TRPV1 integrates noxious heat,\\u000a tissue acidosis and chemical stimuli which are all known to cause pain. Studies on TRPV1-deficient mice suggest that TRPV1\\u000a is essential for acid sensing by nociceptors and for thermal hyperalgesia in inflammation of the skin, but not for transducing\\u000a noxious heat. After

  11. Impact of capsaicin on mast cell inflammation.

    PubMed

    Frydas, S; Varvara, G; Murmura, G; Saggini, A; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Tete', S; Tripodi, D; Conti, F; Cianchetti, E; Toniato, E; Rosati, M; Speranza, L; Pantalone, A; Saggini, R; Di Tommaso, L M; Theoharides, T C; Conti, P; Pandolfi, F

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells are inflammatory cells, and they are prominent in inflammatory diseases such as allergy and asthma. Mast cells possess high-affinity receptors for IgE (FcERI) and the cross-linking of these receptors is essential to trigger the secretion of granules containing arachidonic acid metabolism (such as prostaglandin (PG) D2, leukotriene (LT) B4, and LTC4), histamine, cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, including mast cell-specific chymases and tryptases. Activation of mast cells provokes the secretion of cytokines and mediators that are responsible for the pathologic reaction of immediate hypersensitivity. Sensory nerve stimulation by irritants and other inflammatory mediators provokes the release of neuropeptides, causing an increase in vascular permeability, plasma extravasation and edema. Trigeminal nerve stimulation actives dura mast cells and increases vascular permeability, effects inhibited by capsaicin. Capsaicin causes release of sensory neuropeptide, catecholamines and vasodilation. Several studies have reported that capsaicin is effective in relief and prevention of migraine headaches, improves digestion, helps to prevent heart disease, and lowers blood cholesterol and blood pressure levels. The findings reported in these studies may have implications for the pathophysiology and possible therapy of neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:24067456

  12. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Patanč; Filippo Marte; Felice Carmelo La Rosa; Roberto La Rocca

    2010-01-01

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment can deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also

  13. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 gene deficiency ameliorates hepatic injury in a mouse model of chronic binge alcohol-induced alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huilin; Beier, Juliane I; Arteel, Gavin E; Ramsden, Christopher E; Feldstein, Ariel E; McClain, Craig J; Kirpich, Irina A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental alcohol-induced liver injury is exacerbated by a high polyunsaturated fat diet rich in linoleic acid. We postulated that bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OXLAMs) play a critical role in the development/progression of alcohol-mediated hepatic inflammation and injury. OXLAMs are endogenous ligands for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Herein, we evaluated the role of signaling through TRPV1 in an experimental animal model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Chronic binge alcohol administration increased plasma OXLAM levels, specifically 9- and 13-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids. This effect was associated with up-regulation of hepatic TRPV1. Exposure of hepatocytes to these OXLAMs in vitro resulted in activation of TRPV1 signal transduction with increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Genetic depletion of TRPV1 did not blunt hepatic steatosis caused by ethanol, but prevented hepatic injury. TRPV1 deficiency protected from hepatocyte death and prevented the increase in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression, including tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. TRPV1 depletion markedly blunted ethanol-mediated induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, an important alcohol-induced hepatic inflammation mediator, via fibrin accumulation. This study indicates, for the first time, that TRPV1 receptor pathway may be involved in hepatic inflammatory response in an experimental animal model of ALD. TRPV1-OXLAM interactions appear to play a significant role in hepatic inflammation/injury, further supporting an important role for dietary lipids in ALD. PMID:25447051

  14. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress.

    PubMed

    Krizanova, Olga; Steliarova, Iveta; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Michal; Hudecova, Sona

    2014-02-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 µM capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  15. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress

    PubMed Central

    KRIZANOVA, OLGA; STELIAROVA, IVETA; CSADEROVA, LUCIA; PASTOREK, MICHAL; HUDECOVA, SONA

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 ?M capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  16. [Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 serves as a novel pathway to modulate secretion in submandibular gland].

    PubMed

    Cong, X; Zhang, Y; Yu, G Y; Wu, L L

    2015-02-18

    Our work focused on the studies on the expression and function of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) in the submandibular gland. By using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and immunofluorescence, our data demonstrated the expression and distribution characteristics of TRPV1 in rabbit and human submandibular glands, as well as rat submandibular gland cell line SMG-C6. Furthermore, the possible intracellular signal molecules involved in the TRPV1-modulated saliva secretion were explored. Activation of TRPV1 increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, upregulated the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), the main transporter that mediate water secretion through transcellular pathway, and led to AQP5 redistribution. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was involved in the TRPV1-regulated AQP5 content. Besides, TRPV1 activation also modulated the expression, distribution, and function of tight junction protein, and increased paracellular permeability. ERK1/2 and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) were responsible for the regulation of TRPV1on tight junction properties. Taken together, our work suggested that TRPV1 was a potential target to promote saliva secretion, and activation of TRPV1 might provide a new and safe therapeutic strategy to ameliorate submandibular gland hypofunction. PMID:25686321

  17. TRPV1 as a key determinant in ciguatera and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, Eva; Yanagihara, Angel; Rainier, Jon D.; Tytgat, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning are distinct clinical entities characterized by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances, following the consumption of certain reef fish and shellfish containing toxic polyether compounds sporadically present in certain toxic marine dinoflagellates. The biotransformation and bioaccumulation of gambierol and brevetoxin, and their congeners, are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of these “food-chain diseases”, for which no effective treatments are available. Here, we describe for the first time the potent effect of gambierol and brevetoxin on TRPV1 channels, a key player in thermal and pain sensation. Our findings may lead to promising new therapeutic interventions. PMID:17659256

  18. Capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory neurons in the mouse express N-Acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, B.; Fedonidis, C.; Photiou, A.; Wahba, J.; Paule, C.C.; Ma, D.; Buluwela, L.; Nagy, I.

    2009-01-01

    Our previous finding, that the capsaicin- and KCl-induced Ca2+-dependent production of the intra- and intercellular signaling molecule N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide) in cultured primary sensory neurons could be abolished and reduced by ?2/3 by capsaicin-induced degeneration of capsaicin-sensitive neurons, respectively suggests that a major sub-population of capsaicin-sensitive cells together with a group of non-capsaicin-sensitive cells should express enzymes involved in Ca2+-dependent anandamide synthesis. N-acyl phosphotidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is known to be involved in Ca2+-dependent anandamide production. Hence, here, we used reverse transcriptase and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to study NAPE-PLD expression in dorsal root ganglia and to clarify the sub-population of cells expressing this enzyme. Cultures prepared from mouse dorsal root ganglia were grown either in the absence or presence of the neurotoxin, capsaicin (10 ?M) overnight. We report, that NAPE-PLD is expressed both in dorsal root ganglia and cultures prepared from dorsal root ganglia and grown in the absence of capsaicin. Furthermore, we also report that capsaicin application downregulates the expression of NAPE-PLD as well as the capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel, by about 70% in the cultures prepared from dorsal root ganglia. These findings indicate that a major sub-population of capsaicin-sensitive primary sensory neurons expresses NAPE-PLD, and suggest that NAPE-PLD is expressed predominantly by capsaicin-sensitive neurons in dorsal root ganglia. These data also suggest that NAPE-PLD might be a target to control the activity and excitability of a major sub-population of nociceptive primary sensory neurons. PMID:19327387

  19. The transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 is localized at excitatory synapses in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Puente, Nagore; Reguero, Leire; Elezgarai, Izaskun; Canduela, Miren-Josune; Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Juan; Ramos-Uriarte, Almudena; Fernández-Espejo, Emilio; Grandes, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel that plays an important role in pain perception and modulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity in the brain. TRPV1 function must lay on its anatomical distribution in the peripheral and central nervous system regions involved in the physiological roles of the channel. However, the anatomical localization of TRPV1 is well established in the periphery, but in the brain it is a matter of debate. While some studies support the presence of TRPV1 in several brain regions, recent evidences suggest a restricted distribution of the channel in the central nervous system. To investigate to what extent central TRPV1 function stands on a precise brain distribution of the channel, we examined the mouse hippocampal dentate molecular layer (ML) where TRPV1 mediates long-term synaptic plasticity. Using pre-embedding immunocytochemistry for high resolution electron microscopy, we show that TRPV1 immunoparticles are highly concentrated in postsynaptic dendritic spines to asymmetric perforant path synapses in the outer 2/3 of the ML. However, TRPV1 is poorly expressed at the excitatory hilar mossy cell synapses in the inner 1/3 of this layer. Importantly, the TRPV1 pattern distribution disappeared in the ML of TRPV1-knockout mice. Taken together, these findings support the notion of the presence of TRPV1 in a brain region where the channel has been shown to have a functional role, such as the perforant path synapses in the hippocampal dentate ML. PMID:24487914

  20. Disruption of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Subtype-1 Can Affect Survival, Bacterial Clearance, and Cytokine Gene Expression during Murine Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Guptill, Virginia; Cui, Xizhong; Khaibullina, Alfia; Keller, Jason M.; Spornick, Nicholas; Mannes, Andrew; Iadarola, Michael; Quezado, Zenaide M.N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has a role in sepsis but it is unclear whether its effect on survival and immune response is beneficial or harmful. Methods We studied the effects of genetic (Trpv1-knock out vs. wild-type mice) and pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 with resiniferatoxin (an agonist) or capsazepine (an antagonist) on mortality, bacterial clearance, and cytokine expression during lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Results After CLP, genetic disruption of TRPV1 in Trpv1-knock out mice was associated with increased mortality risk [2.17 (1.23 to 3.81) hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p=0.01] compared with wild-type. Further, pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 with intrathecal resiniferatoxin, compared with vehicle, increased mortality risk [1.80 (1.05 to 3.2) hazard-ratio (95% confidence interval), p=0.03] in wild-type animals, but not in Trpv1-knock out mice. After lipopolysaccharide, neither genetic (Trpv1-knock out) nor pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 with resiniferatoxin had significant effect on survival compared with respective controls. In contrast, after lipopolysaccharide, pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 with capsazepine, compared with vehicle, increased mortality risk [1.92 (1.02 to 3.61) hazard-ratio (95% confidence interval), p=0.04] in wild-type animals. Further, after CLP, increased mortality in resiniferatoxin-treated-wild-type animals was associated with higher blood bacterial count (p=0.0004) and nitrate/nitrite levels and downregulation of tumor necrosis factor ? expression (p=0.004) compared with controls. Conclusions Genetic or pharmacologic disruption of TRPV1 can affect mortality, blood bacteria clearance, and cytokine response in sepsis in patterns that may vary according to the sepsis-inducing event and the method of TRPV1 disruption. PMID:21383614

  1. Human sensory neuron-specific Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors-X1 sensitize and directly activate transient receptor potential cation channel V1 via distinct signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Solinski, Hans Jürgen; Zierler, Susanna; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2012-11-30

    Sensory neuron-specific Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors-X1 (MRGPR-X1) are primate-specific proteins that are exclusively expressed in primary sensory neurons and provoke pain in humans. Hence, MRGPR-X1 represent promising targets for future pain therapy, but signaling pathways activated by MRGPR-X1 are poorly understood. The transient receptor potential cation channel V1 (TRPV1) is also expressed in primary sensory neurons and detects painful stimuli such as protons and heat. G(q)-promoted signaling has been shown to sensitize TRPV1 via protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation. In addition, recent studies suggested TRPV1 activation via a G(q)-mediated mechanism involving diacylglycerol (DAG) or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). However, it is not clear if DAG-promoted TRPV1 activation occurs independently from classic TRPV1 activation modes induced by heat and protons. Herein, we analyzed putative functional interactions between MRGPR-X1 and TRPV1 in a previously reported F11 cell line stably over-expressing MRGPR-X1. First, we found that MRGPR-X1 sensitized TRPV1 to heat and protons in a PKC-dependent manner. Second, we observed direct MRGPR-X1-mediated TRPV1 activation independent of MRGPR-X1-induced Ca(2+)-release and PKC activity or other TRPV1 affecting enzymes such as lipoxygenase, extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2, sarcoma, or phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Investigating several TRPV1 mutants, we observed that removal of the TRPV1 binding site for DAG and of the putative PIP(2) sensor decreased MRGPR-X1-induced TRPV1 activation by 71 and 43%, respectively. Therefore, we demonstrate dual functional interactions between MRGPR-X1 and TRPV1, resulting in PKC-dependent TRPV1 sensitization and DAG/PIP(2)-mediated activation. The molecular discrimination between TRPV1 sensitization and activation may help improve the specificity of current pain therapies. PMID:23074220

  2. Constrained TRPV1 agonists synthesized via silver-mediated intramolecular azo-methine ylide cycloaddition of ?-iminoamides.

    PubMed

    Painter, Thomas O; Kaszas, Krisztian; Gross, Jacklyn; Douglas, Justin T; Day, Victor W; Iadarola, Michael J; Santini, Conrad

    2014-02-01

    As part of an effort to identify agonists of TRPV1, a peripheral sensory nerve ion channel, high throughput screening of the NIH Small Molecule Repository (SMR) collection identified MLS002174161, a pentacyclic benzodiazepine. A synthesis effort was initiated that ultimately afforded racemic seco analogs 12 of the SMR compound via a silver mediated intramolecular [3+2] cycloaddition of an azo-methine ylide generated from ?-iminoamides 11. The cycloaddition set four contiguous stereocenters and, in some cases, also spontaneously afforded imides 13 from 12. The synthesis of compounds 12, the features that facilitated the conversion of 12-13, and their partial agonist activity against TRPV1 are discussed. PMID:24412067

  3. Implication of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 in 14,15-Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acid-induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kuo-Hui; Lee, Kuan-I; Shyue, Song-Kun; Chen, Hsiang-Ying; Wei, Jeng; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2014-01-01

    14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET) is implicated in regulating physiological functions of endothelial cells (ECs), yet the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects in ECs are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) is involved in 14,15-EET-mediated Ca2+ influx, nitric oxide (NO) production and angiogenesis. In human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs), 14,15-EET time-dependently increased the intracellular level of Ca2+. Removal of extracellular Ca2+, pharmacological inhibition or genetic disruption of TRPV1 abrogated 14,15-EET-mediated increase of intracellular Ca2+ level in HMECs or TRPV1-transfected HEK293 cells. Furthermore, removal of extracellular Ca2+ or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 decreased 14,15-EET-induced NO production. 14,15-EET-mediated tube formation was abolished by TRPV1 pharmacological inhibition. In an animal experiment, 14,15-EET-induced angiogenesis was diminished by inhibition of TRPV1 and in TRPV1-deficient mice. TRPV1 may play a crucial role in 14,15-EET-induced Ca2+ influx, NO production and angiogenesis. PMID:25210497

  4. Alveolar epithelial permeability in baboons: histamine and capsaicin.

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, D B; Hameister, W M

    1992-01-01

    1. We investigated if changes in alveolar epithelial permeability could be initiated by various doses of the irritant capsaicin through stimulation of pulmonary afferent nerves either directly, or indirectly through the release of an intermediate cell mediator, and whether mediation of permeability involved histamine H1 and/or H2 receptors. 2. Alveolar epithelial permeability was indicated by the clearance of peripherally deposited 99mTc-DTPA (technetium-99m-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate) aerosol in baboons. Aerosol challenge experiments were performed twice with histamine (32 mg/ml), once each with capsaicin (10(-6), 10(-5), 10(-4) and 10(-3) M), and once each with histamine (32 mg/ml) preceded by H1 (terfenadine) and H2 (ranitidine) antagonists alone and combined. 3. Mean half-time for 99mTc-DTPA clearance was 66 +/- 4 min. After histamine, it decreased to 41 +/- 5 min (P < 0.05), and after capsaicin it was 70 +/- 5 min (combined doses). Pretreatment with the H1 and H2 antagonists, either separately or in combination, did not consistently inhibit increases in 99mTc-DTPA permeability. 4. Capsaicin caused tachypnoea only at 10(-3) M (P < 0.05). Inhibition of histamine-induced tachypnoea required both antagonists (P < 0.05) suggesting the existence of a population of peripheral sensory neurons possessing H1 and H2 receptors. Changes in permeability were unrelated to the changes in respiratory frequency. Thus, neither the mechanisms that stimulate respiratory frequency, nor the respiratory frequency per se, were responsible for increased alveolar epithelial permeability. 5. Capsaicin did not change epithelial permeability at doses that cause capsaicin-sensitive C fibre stimulation as delineated by increases in respiratory frequency. Nor does C fibre stimulation, induced by mediators released from pulmonary cells activated by low doses of capsaicin, increase epithelial permeability. These data suggest that in the primate, histamine increases epithelial permeability to small solutes by a mechanism independent of the activation of capsaicin-sensitive C fibres and capsaicin-initiated release of cell mediators. 6. These findings do not support a role for C fibre activation in regulating epithelial permeability of small solutes. PMID:1432713

  5. The two faces of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2011-04-15

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the principal pungent component in hot peppers, including red chili peppers, jalapeńos, and habaneros. Consumed worldwide, capsaicin has a long and convoluted history of controversy about whether its consumption or topical application is entirely safe. Conflicting epidemiologic data and basic research study results suggest that capsaicin can act as a carcinogen or as a cancer preventive agent. Capsaicin is unique among naturally occurring irritant compounds because the initial neuronal excitation evoked is followed by a long-lasting refractory period, during which the previously excited neurons are no longer responsive to a broad range of stimuli. This process is referred to as desensitization and has been exploited for its therapeutic potential. Capsaicin-containing creams have been in clinical use for many years to relieve a variety of painful conditions. However, their effectiveness in pain relief is also highly debated and some adverse side effects have been reported. We have found that chronic, long-term topical application of capsaicin increased skin carcinogenesis in mice treated with a tumor promoter. These results might imply that caution should be exercised when using capsaicin-containing topical applications in the presence of a tumor promoter, such as, for example, sunlight. PMID:21487045

  6. Pharmacokinetic analysis of capsaicin after topical administration of a high-concentration capsaicin patch to patients with peripheral neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Sunita; Marier, Jean-Francois; Mouksassi, Mohamad-Samer; Beliveau, Martin; Vanhove, Geertrui F; Chanda, Sanjay; Bley, Keith

    2009-08-01

    Capsaicin, a pungent compound in chili peppers, is a highly selective agonist for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor expressed in nociceptive sensory nerves. A high-concentration (640 microg/cm2) capsaicin patch, designated NGX-4010, is in clinical evaluation for the management of peripheral neuropathic pain. To determine systemic capsaicin exposure after single 60- or 90-minute NGX-4010 applications, plasma samples were collected from 173 patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), painful human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathy (HIV-AN), and painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). The percentages of patients with quantifiable levels of capsaicin at any time point were 31% for PHN (30 of 96), 7% for HIV-AN (3 of 44), and 3% for PDN (1 of 33). The maximum plasma concentration observed in any patient was 17.8 ng/mL. Due to the limited number of quantifiable levels, a population analysis was performed to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of capsaicin. Plasma concentrations were fitted adequately using a 1-compartment model with first-order absorption and linear elimination. Capsaicin levels declined very rapidly, with a mean population elimination half-life of 1.64 hours. Mean area under the curve and C max values after a 60-minute application were 7.42 ng x h/mL and 1.86 ng/mL, respectively. Only a few correlations between calculated PK parameters and patient characteristics were observed. Duration and area of application of the patch were detected as significant covariates explaining the PK of capsaicin. Ninety-minute applications of NGX-4010 resulted in capsaicin area under the curve and Cmax values approximately 1.78- and 2.15-fold higher than those observed in patients treated for 60 minutes. Treatment on the feet (patients with HIV-AN and PDN) produced far lower systemic exposure than treatment on the trunk (patients with PHN). Finally, larger treatment areas were associated with statistically higher Vc/F values. The low systemic exposure and very rapid elimination half-life of capsaicin after NGX-4010 administration are unlikely to result in systemic effects and support the overall safety profile of this investigational cutaneous patch. PMID:19494795

  7. Biochem. J. (2010) 432, 549556 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20100936 549 PP2B/calcineurin-mediated desensitization of TRPV1 does not require

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    /calcineurin-mediated desensitization of TRPV1 does not require AKAP150 Elaine D. POR*, Bret K. SAMELSON, Sergei BELUGIN, Armen N. Recent evidence indicates that AKAP150-anchored PKA and PKC phosphorylate and sensitize the TRPV1 the dephosphorylation and desensitization of TRPV1. Biochemical, electrophysiological and cell-based experiments

  8. Capsaicin, from Hot to Not; Can New Pain-Relieving Drugs Be Derived from This Substance Known to Cause Pain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusterholz, David B.

    2006-01-01

    The systematic developments of synthetically modified structures related to capsaicin known to have pungent properties found in chili peppers that could be useful as analgesic drug are described. It is found that identification of the receptor for capsaicin and the mechanism of its action greatly contributed to an understanding of the role…

  9. Mechanisms of capsaicin- and lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog

    PubMed Central

    Nault, M A; Vincent, S G; Fisher, J T

    1999-01-01

    Capsaicin activation of the pulmonary C fibre vanilloid receptor (VR1) evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex and reflex bronchoconstriction. Among potential endogenous ligands of C fibre afferents, lactic acid has been suggested as a promising candidate. We tested the hypotheses that (a) lactic acid behaves as a stimulant of C fibre receptors in the newborn dog to cause reflex bronchoconstriction, and (b) lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction via the same pulmonary C fibre receptor mechanism as capsaicin using the competitive capsaicin/VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. Right heart injection of lactic acid caused a significant increase (47 ± 8.0%) in lung resistance (RL) that was atropine sensitive (reduced by 75%; P < 0.05), consistent with reflex activation of muscarinic efferents by stimulation of C fibre afferents. Infusion of the competitive capsaicin antagonist capsazepine caused an 80% reduction (P < 0.01) in the control bronchoconstrictor response (41 ± 8.5% increase in RL) to right heart injections of capsaicin. The effects of capsazepine are consistent with reversible blockade of the VR1 receptor to abolish C fibre-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. Lactic acid-evoked increases in RL were unaffected by VR1 blockade with capsazepine, consistent with a separate lactic acid-induced reflex mechanism. We conclude that (a) putative stimulation of C fibres with lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog, (b) capsazepine reversibly antagonizes reflex bronchoconstriction elicited by right heart injection of capsaicin, presumably by attenuating capsaicin-induced activation of the C fibre ‘capsaicinreceptor (VR1), and (c) capsazepine resistance of lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction indicates that lactic acid evokes reflex bronchoconstriction by a separate mechanism, possibly via the acid-sensing ionic channel. PMID:10050022

  10. New Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Subfamily Member 1 Positron Emission Tomography Radioligands: Synthesis, Radiolabeling, and Preclinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) cation channel is known to be involved in pain nociception and neurogenic inflammation, and accumulating evidence suggests that it plays an important role in several central nervous system (CNS)-related disorders. TRPV1-specific positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands can serve as powerful tools in TRPV1-related (pre)clinical research and drug design. We have synthesized several potent TRPV1 antagonists and accompanying precursors for radiolabeling with carbon-11 or fluorine-18. The cinnamic acid derivative [11C]DVV24 and the aminoquinazoline [18F]DVV54 were successfully synthesized, and their biological behavior was studied. In addition, the in vivo behavior of a 123I-labeled analogue of iodo-resiniferatoxin (I-RTX), a well-known TRPV1 antagonist, was evaluated. The binding affinities of DVV24 and DVV54 for human TRPV1 were 163 ± 28 and 171 ± 48 nM, respectively. [11C]DVV24, but not [18F]DVV54 or 123I-RTX, showed retention in the trigeminal nerve, known to abundantly express TRPV1. Nevertheless, it appears that ligands with higher binding affinities will be required to allow in vivo imaging of TRPV1 via PET. PMID:23421633

  11. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630 activate TRPA1 in sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mayur; Patwardhan, Amol; Salas, Margaux M.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Akopian, Armen N.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have been utilized extensively in vivo as well as in vitro, but their selectivity has not been fully examined. We investigated activation of sensory neurons by two cannabinoid antagonists – AM251 and AM630. AM251 and AM630 activated trigeminal (TG) sensory neurons in a concentration-dependent fashion (threshold 1 ?M). AM251 and AM630 responses are mediated by the TRPA1 channel in a majority (90–95%) of small-to-medium TG sensory neurons. AM630 (1–100 ?M), but not AM251, was a significantly more potent agonist in cells co-expressing both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. We next evaluated AM630 and AM251 effects on TRPV1- and TRPA1-mediated responses in TG neurons. Capsaicin (CAP) effects were inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251. Mustard oil (MO) and WIN55,212-2 (WIN) TRPA1 mediated responses were also inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251 (25uM each). Co-treatment of neurons with WIN and either AM630 or AM251 had opposite effects: AM630 sensitized WIN responses, whereas AM251 inhibited WIN responses. WIN-induced inhibition of CAP responses in sensory neurons was reversed by AM630 pre-treatment and AM251 co-treatment (25?M each), as these conditions inhibit WIN responses. Hindpaw injections of AM630 and AM251 did not produce nocifensive behaviors. However, both compounds modulated CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in wild-type mice and rats, but not TRPA1 null-mutant mice. AMs also partially regulate WIN inhibition of CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in a TRPA1-dependent fashion. In summary, these findings demonstrate alternative targets for the cannabinoid antagonists, AM251 and AM630, in peripheral antihyperalgesia which involve certain TRP channels. PMID:21645531

  12. Capsaicin stimulates glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells via the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/AMPK/p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Hee; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, Hee Sook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny

    2013-09-13

    Capsaicin has been reported to regulate blood glucose levels and to ameliorate insulin resistance in obese mice. This study demonstrates that capsaicin increases glucose uptake directly by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in C2C12 muscle cells, which manifested as an attenuation of glucose uptake when compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, was co-administered with capsaicin. However, the insulin signaling molecules insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and Akt were not affected by capsaicin. Additional results showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is also involved in capsaicin-induced glucose transport downstream of AMPK because capsaicin increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation significantly and its specific inhibitor SB203580 inhibited capsaicin-mediated glucose uptake. Treatment with an AMPK inhibitor reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but the p38 MAPK inhibitor had no effect on AMPK. Capsaicin stimulated ROS generation in C2C12 muscle cells, and when ROS were captured using the nonspecific antioxidant NAC, the increase in both capsaicin-induced AMPK phosphorylation and capsaicin-induced glucose uptake was attenuated, suggesting that ROS function as an upstream activator of AMPK. Taken together, these results suggest that capsaicin, independent of insulin, increases glucose uptake via ROS generation and consequent AMPK and p38 MAPK activations. PMID:23958300

  13. Capsaicin sensitizes malignant glioma cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via DR5 upregulation and survivin downregulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Yeop; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Seung U; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Choi, Kyeong Sook

    2010-03-01

    Capsaicin, a pungent ingredient of red chili peppers, has been reported to possess antitumor activities. Here, we show that subtoxic doses of capsaicin effectively sensitize multiple malignant glioma cell lines to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. Although TRAIL alone mediated partial proteolytic processing of procaspase-3 in glioma cells, cotreatment with capsaicin and TRAIL efficiently restored complete activation of caspases. We found that treatment of various gliomas with capsaicin significantly upregulated DR5, a death receptor of TRAIL, and downregulated the caspase inhibitor survivin. The induction of DR5 was mediated by CHOP/GADD153. The reduction in survivin protein level was associated with downregulation of cyclin B and Cdc2 expression, suggesting that inhibition of Cdc2 activity might contribute to capsaicin-induced survivin downregulation. Taken together, these results indicate that the activity of capsaicin toward DR5 and survivin contributes to the amplification of caspase cascades, thereby restoring TRAIL sensitivity in malignant glioma cells. Interestingly, normal astrocytes were resistant to combined treatment with capsaicin and TRAIL. Neither capsaicin-induced DR5 upregulation/survivin downregulation nor the partial processing of procaspase-3 by TRAIL was induced in astrocytes. Thus, a combined regimen using capsaicin and TRAIL may provide a safe and effective strategy for treating malignant gliomas. PMID:19939880

  14. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Patanč, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; La Rocca, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment can deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs have significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls, and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. A case has also been reported of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a patient with a large ingestion of peppers and chili peppers the day before. We present a case of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a 19-year-old Italian man with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers the preceding day. This case describes an unusual pattern of arterial hypertensive crisis due to capsaicin. PMID:19168246

  15. THE TRPV1 RECEPTOR: THE INTERAGENCY, INTERNATION SYMPOSIUM ON CYANOBACTERIAL HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Significance Evidence indicates that the frequency of occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CHABs) is increasing in spatial and temporal extent in the US and worldwide. Cyanotoxins are among the most potent toxins known, causing death through ...

  16. Protease activated receptors 1 and 4 sensitize TRPV1 in nociceptive neurones

    E-print Network

    Vellani, Vittorio; Kinsey, Anna M; Prandini, Massimiliano; Hechtfischer, Sabine C; Reeh, Peter; Magherini, Pier C; Giacomoni, Chiara; McNaughton, Peter A

    2010-09-27

    to us by Prof. M. Steinhoff. DRGs were incubated in 0.25% collage- nase (type IV, Worthington, Reading, UK) in PBS followed by mechanical trituration. Cells were centrifuged and resuspended in culture medium (DMEM containing 10% FBS, 1% penicillin... confocal microscope (Leica SP2). To characterize subpopulations of protease-responsive neurons, double immunostaining on DRG cultures was performed. Coverslips processed for PKC? immunoreac- tivity as above were incubated overnight at 4°C with the following...

  17. p38 MAPK Activation by NGF in Primary Sensory Neurons after Inflammation Increases TRPV1 Levels and Maintains Heat Hyperalgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ru-Rong Ji; Tarek A. Samad; Shan-Xue Jin; Raymond Schmoll; Clifford J. Woolf

    2002-01-01

    Peripheral inflammation induces p38 MAPK activation in the soma of C fiber nociceptors in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after 24 hr. Inflammation also increases protein, but not mRNA levels, of the heat-gated ion channel TRPV1 (VR1) in these cells, which is then transported to peripheral but not central C fiber terminals. Inhibiting p38 activation in the DRG reduces the

  18. Bortezomib treatment produces nocifensive behavior and changes in the expression of TRPV1, CGRP, and substance P in the rat DRG, spinal cord, and sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Quartu, M; Carozzi, V A; Dorsey, S G; Serra, M P; Poddighe, L; Picci, C; Boi, M; Melis, T; Del Fiacco, M; Meregalli, C; Chiorazzi, A; Renn, C L; Cavaletti, G; Marmiroli, P

    2014-01-01

    To investigate neurochemical changes associated with bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (PN), we examined the effects of a single-dose intravenous administration of bortezomib and a well-established "chronic" schedule in a rat model of bortezomib-induced PN. The TRPV1 channel and sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P (SP) were studied in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), spinal cord, and sciatic nerve. Behavioral measures, performed at the end of the chronic bortezomib treatment, confirmed a reduction of mechanical nociceptive threshold, whereas no difference occurred in thermal withdrawal latency. Western blot analysis showed a relative increase of TRPV1 in DRG and spinal cord after both acute and chronic bortezomib administration. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a decrease of TRPV1 and CGRP mRNA relative levels after chronic treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the DRGs, TRPV1-, CGRP-, and SP-immunoreactive neurons were mostly small- and medium-sized and the proportion of TRPV1- and CGRP-labeled neurons increased after treatment. A bortezomib-induced increase in density of TRPV1- and CGRP-immunoreactive innervation in the dorsal horn was also observed. Our findings show that bortezomib-treatment selectively affects subsets of DRG neurons likely involved in the processing of nociceptive stimuli and that neurochemical changes may contribute to development and persistence of pain in bortezomib-induced PN. PMID:24877063

  19. Bortezomib Treatment Produces Nocifensive Behavior and Changes in the Expression of TRPV1, CGRP, and Substance P in the Rat DRG, Spinal Cord, and Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Quartu, M.; Carozzi, V. A.; Dorsey, S. G.; Serra, M. P.; Poddighe, L.; Picci, C.; Boi, M.; Melis, T.; Del Fiacco, M.; Meregalli, C.; Chiorazzi, A.; Renn, C. L.; Cavaletti, G.; Marmiroli, P.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate neurochemical changes associated with bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy (PN), we examined the effects of a single-dose intravenous administration of bortezomib and a well-established “chronic” schedule in a rat model of bortezomib-induced PN. The TRPV1 channel and sensory neuropeptides CGRP and substance P (SP) were studied in L4-L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), spinal cord, and sciatic nerve. Behavioral measures, performed at the end of the chronic bortezomib treatment, confirmed a reduction of mechanical nociceptive threshold, whereas no difference occurred in thermal withdrawal latency. Western blot analysis showed a relative increase of TRPV1 in DRG and spinal cord after both acute and chronic bortezomib administration. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed a decrease of TRPV1 and CGRP mRNA relative levels after chronic treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the DRGs, TRPV1-, CGRP-, and SP-immunoreactive neurons were mostly small- and medium-sized and the proportion of TRPV1- and CGRP-labeled neurons increased after treatment. A bortezomib-induced increase in density of TRPV1- and CGRP-immunoreactive innervation in the dorsal horn was also observed. Our findings show that bortezomib-treatment selectively affects subsets of DRG neurons likely involved in the processing of nociceptive stimuli and that neurochemical changes may contribute to development and persistence of pain in bortezomib-induced PN. PMID:24877063

  20. Absence of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 Accelerates Stress-Induced Axonopathy in the Optic Projection

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Nicholas J.; Ho, Karen W.; Lambert, Wendi S.; Weitlauf, Carl

    2014-01-01

    How neurons respond to stress in degenerative disease is of fundamental importance for identifying mechanisms of progression and new therapeutic targets. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation-selective ion channels are candidates for mediating stress signals, since different subunits transduce a variety of stimuli relevant in both normal and pathogenic physiology. We addressed this possibility for the TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) subunit by comparing how the optic projection of Trpv1?/? mice and age-matched C57 controls responds to stress from elevated ocular pressure, the critical stressor in the most common optic neuropathy, glaucoma. Over a 5 week period of elevated pressure induced by microbead occlusion of ocular fluid, Trpv1?/? accelerated both degradation of axonal transport from retinal ganglion cells to the superior colliculus and degeneration of the axons themselves in the optic nerve. Ganglion cell body loss, which is normally later in progression, occurred in nasal sectors of Trpv1?/? but not C57 retina. Pharmacological antagonism of TRPV1 in rats similarly accelerated ganglion cell axonopathy. Elevated ocular pressure resulted in differences in spontaneous firing rate and action potential threshold current in Trpv1?/? ganglion cells compared with C57. In the absence of elevated pressure, ganglion cells in the two strains had similar firing patterns. Based on these data, we propose that TRPV1 may help neurons respond to disease-relevant stressors by enhancing activity necessary for axonal signaling. PMID:24573275

  1. Mice lacking the transient receptor vanilloid potential 1 channel display normal thirst responses and central Fos activation to hypernatremia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A Caitlynn; McCarthy, John J; Stocker, Sean D

    2008-04-01

    Neurons of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) are necessary for thirst and vasopressin secretion during hypersmolality in rodents. Recent evidence suggests the osmosensitivity of these neurons is mediated by a gene product encoding the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether mice lacking the TRPV1 channel had blunted thirst responses and central Fos activation to acute and chronic hyperosmotic stimuli. Surprisingly, TRPV1-/- vs. wild-type mice ingested similar amounts of water after injection (0.5 ml sc) of 0.5 M NaCl and 1.0 M NaCl. Chronic increases in plasma osmolality produced by overnight water deprivation or sole access to a 2% NaCl solution for 48 h produced similar increases in water intake between wild-type and TRPV1-/- mice. There were no differences in cumulative water intakes in response to hypovolemia or isoproterenol. In addition, the number of Fos-positive cells along the lamina terminalis, including the OVLT, as well as the supraoptic nucleus and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, was similar between wild-type and TRPV1-/- mice after both acute and chronic osmotic stimulation. These findings indicate that TRPV1 channels are not necessary for osmotically driven thirst or central Fos activation, and thereby suggest that TRPV1 channels are not the primary ion channels that permit the brain to detect changes in plasma sodium concentration or osmolality. PMID:18272658

  2. Effect of capsaicin on prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Laviada, Inés

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, natural products have emerged as modulators of many cellular responses, with potential applications as therapeutic drugs in many disorders. Among them, capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been demonstrated to have a role as a tumor suppressor for prostate cancer. Capsaicin potently suppresses the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The antiproliferative activity of capsaicin correlates with oxidative stress induction and apoptosis. Capsaicin also induces ceramide accumulation and endoplasmic reticulum stress in androgen-resistant prostate cells. In androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells, capsaicin exerts a biphasic effect, promoting growth at low doses and inducing apoptosis at doses over 200 µM. This article will draw upon multiple lines of evidence to provide a comprehensive description on the current state of knowledge that implicates the effect of capsaicin on prostate cancer cells. PMID:21062154

  3. Electroacupuncture suppresses capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia through an endogenous spinal opioid mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Young; Wang, Jigong; Lee, Inhyung; Kim, Hee Kee; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2009-01-01

    Central sensitization, caused either by tissue inflammation or peripheral nerve injury, plays an important role in persistent pain. An animal model of capsaicin-induced pain has well-defined peripheral and central sensitization components, thus is useful for studying the analgesic effect on two separate components. The focus of this study is to examine the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia, which represents central sensitization. Capsaicin (0.5%, 10 ?l) was injected into the plantar side of the left hind paw, and foot withdrawal thresholds in response to von Frey stimuli (mechanical sensitivity) were determined for both primary and secondary hyperalgesia in rats. EA (2 Hz, 3 mA) was applied to various pairs of acupoints, GB30-GB34, BL40-BL60, GV2-GV6, LI3-LI6 and SI3-TE8, for 30 min under isofluraine anesthesia and then the effect of EA on mechanical sensitivity of paw was determined. EA applied to the ipsilateral SI3-TE8, but none the other acupoints, significantly reduced capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia but not primary hyperalgesia. EA analgesic effect was inhibited by a systemic non-specific opioid receptor (OR) antagonist or an intrathecal ?- or ?-OR antagonist. EA analgesic effect was not affected by an intrathecal ?-OR antagonist or systemic a