Science.gov

Sample records for car wash status

  1. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are

  2. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    PubMed

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:23128624

  3. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  4. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted. PMID:26292206

  5. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

    2007-02-07

    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

  6. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities

    PubMed Central

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) blood levels of employees get affected in confined areas with relatively poor air circulation. Methods: Twenty male volunteers working in indoor parking car wash facilities were included in the study. Participants were informed about the aim of this study and their consent was obtained. Their pulse COHb levels were measured twice, at the beginning and at the end of the working day using Rad-57 pulse CO-oximeter device, allowing non-invasive measurement of COHb blood levels to compare the changes in their COHb levels before and after work. Results: The mean age of the male volunteers was 29.8 ± 11.9 (range 18-55). While the mean COHb levels measured at the start of the working day was 2.1 ± 2.0 (range 0-9), it was increased to 5.2 ± 3.3 (range 1-15) at the end of work shift (Wilcoxon test, p <0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in COHb levels between the beginning and the end of the work shift in smoker subjects, while the difference was not significant in the non-smoking group (Wilcoxon test, p=0.001, p=0.102, respectively). Conclusion: The COHb blood levels of indoor car wash facility employees is directly impacted and gets elevated by motor vechile exhaust emissions. For the health of the employees at indoor parking car wash facilities, stricter precautions are needed and the government should not give permit to such operations. PMID:25125950

  7. Pollutant removal from oily wastewater discharged from car washes through sedimentation-coagulation.

    PubMed

    Rubí, H; Fall, C; Ortega, R E

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater from car washes represents a potential problem for the sewer system due to its emulsified oils and suspended material. Treatment of wastewater discharged from four car washes was investigated by sedimentation and coagulation. The effect of the coagulants Servical P (aluminium hydroxychloride), Servican 50 (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)), aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride was evaluated. The achieved removal using sedimentation was of 82%, 88% 73% and 51% for oils, total suspended solids, COD, and turbidity, respectively. In the treatment by coagulation we achieved average efficiencies nearly to 74% for COD removal, greater than 88% in the case of total suspended solids removal and 92% in the case of turbidity and except the performance of Servican 50 greater than 90% in oil removal. We concluded that the oil residual concentration and COD in the treated water allows pouring it in the sewer system complying with the limits of the Mexican rule NOM-002-ECOL-1996 and it is possible even its reuse, at least in the case of the chassis washing of cars. PMID:19542641

  8. Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity in varying thicknesses of wood and steel cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Prussin, S

    2006-10-05

    The influence of incident neutron attenuation on signal strengths in the Nuclear Car Wash has been observed experimentally for both wood and steel-pipe mock cargos. Measured decay curves are presented for {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-rays and thermalized neutrons following neutron-induced fission of HEU through varying irradiation lengths. Error rates are extracted for delayed-{gamma} and delayed-n signals integrated to 30 seconds, assuming Gaussian distributions for the active background. The extrapolation to a field system of 1 mA deuterium current and to a 5 kg sample size is discussed.

  9. Treatment of real wastewater produced from Mobil car wash station using electrocoagulation technique.

    PubMed

    El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z; Amin, N K; Fouad, Y O

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the electrocoagulation of real wastewater produced from a car wash station using a new cell design featuring a horizontal spiral anode placed above a horizontal disc cathode. The study dealt with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and turbidity removal using electrodes in a batch mode. Various operating parameters such as current density, initial pH, NaCl concentration, temperature, and electrode material were examined to optimize the performance of the process. Also, characterization of sludge formed during electrocoagulation was carried out. The results indicated that the COD reduction and turbidity removal increase with increasing the current density and NaCl concentration; pH from 7 to 8 was found to be optimum for treating the wastewater. Temperature was found to have an insignificant effect on the process. Aluminum was superior to iron as a sacrificial electrode material in treating car wash wastewater. Energy consumption based on COD reduction ranged from 2.32 to 15.1 kWh/kg COD removed depending on the operating conditions. Finally, the sludge produced during electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis. PMID:26373303

  10. Screening of SDS-degrading bacteria from car wash wastewater and study of the alkylsulfatase enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Razieh; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Roha; Gharavi, Sara; Moosavi-Nejad, Zahra; Borzooee, Faezeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the main surfactant components in detergents and cosmetics, used in high amounts as a detergent in products such as shampoos, car wash soap and toothpaste. Therefore, its bioremediation by suitable microorganisms is important. Alkylsulfatase is an enzyme that hydrolyses sulfate -ester bonds to give inorganic sulfate and alcohol. The purpose of this study was to isolate SDSdegrading bacteria from Tehran city car wash wastewater, study bacterial alkylsulfatase enzyme activity and identify the alkylsulfatase enzyme coding gene. Materials and Methods Screening of SDS-degrading bacteria was carried out on basal salt medium containing SDS as the sole source of carbon. Amount of SDS degraded was assayed by methylene blue active substance (MBAS). Results and Conclusion Identification of the sdsA gene was carried by PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and biochemical tests identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium is able to degrade 84% of SDS after four days incubation. Bacteria isolated from car wash wastewater were shown to carry the sdsA gene (670bp) and the alkylsulfatase enzyme specific activity expressed from this gene was determined to be 24.3 unit/mg. The results presented in this research indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a suitable candidate for SDS biodegradation. PMID:23825734

  11. Influence of bentonite in polymer membranes for effective treatment of car wash effluent to protect the ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kiran, S Aditya; Arthanareeswaran, G; Thuyavan, Y Lukka; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    In this study, modified polyethersulfone (PES) and cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were used in the treatment of car wash effluent using ultrafiltration. Hydrophilic sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and bentonite as nanoclay were used as additives for the PES and CA membrane modification. Performances of modified membranes were compared with commercial PES membrane with 10kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO). The influencing parameters like stirrer speed (250-750rpm) and transmembrane pressure (100-600kPa) (TMP) were varied and their effects were studied as a function of flux. In the treatment of car wash effluent, a higher permeate flux of 52.3L/m(2)h was obtained for modified CA membrane at TMP of 400kPa and stirrer speed of 750rpm. In comparison with modified PES membrane and commercial PES membrane, modified CA membranes showed better performance in terms of flux and flux recovery ratio. The highest COD removal (60%) was obtained for modified CA membrane and a lowest COD removal (47%) was observed for commercial PES membrane. The modified membranes were better at removing COD, turbidity and maintained more stable flux than commercial PES membrane, suggesting they will provide better economic performance in car wash effluent reclamation. PMID:25869419

  12. Description of ALARMA: the alarm algorithm developed for the Nuclear Car Wash

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, T; Biltoft, P; Church, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Slaughter, D

    2006-11-28

    The goal of any alarm algorithm should be that it provide the necessary tools to derive confidence limits on whether the existence of fissile materials is present in cargo containers. It should be able to extract these limits from (usually) noisy and/or weak data while maintaining a false alarm rate (FAR) that is economically suitable for port operations. It should also be able to perform its analysis within a reasonably short amount of time (i.e. {approx} seconds). To achieve this, it is essential that the algorithm be able to identify and subtract any interference signature that might otherwise be confused with a fissile signature. Lastly, the algorithm itself should be user-intuitive and user-friendly so that port operators with little or no experience with detection algorithms may use it with relative ease. In support of the Nuclear Car Wash project at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, we have developed an alarm algorithm that satisfies the above requirements. The description of the this alarm algorithm, dubbed ALARMA, is the purpose of this technical report. The experimental setup of the nuclear car wash has been well documented [1, 2, 3]. The presence of fissile materials is inferred by examining the {beta}-delayed gamma spectrum induced after a brief neutron irradiation of cargo, particularly in the high-energy region above approximately 2.5 MeV. In this region naturally occurring gamma rays are virtually non-existent. Thermal-neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}P, on the other hand, leaves a unique {beta}-delayed spectrum [4]. This spectrum comes from decays of fission products having half-lives as large as 30 seconds, many of which have high Q-values. Since high-energy photons penetrate matter more freely, it is natural to look for unique fissile signatures in this energy region after neutron irradiation. The goal of this interrogation procedure is a 95% success rate of detection of as little as 5 kilograms of fissile material while retaining at most .1% false alarm rate. Plywood is used to simulate hydrogenous cargo material and steel (pipes) is used to simulate metallic cargo. The wood consists of 120 x 240 cm sheets and has approximately .65 g/cm{sup 3}. The steel pipes have approximately 10 cm diameters x 6.4 mm wall thickness are .6 g/cm{sup 3}. Fissile sources consist of a ''large'' (380 g) and ''small'' (250 g) sample of HEU (U{sub 3}O{sub 8} 94% enriched). Note that the masses of the HEU sources used in our experimental runs are at least an order of magnitude smaller than 5 kilograms. Runs are done with either wood or steel cargoes stacked at various heights and the HEU sources placed at various depths within the cargo.

  13. Status and progress in sludge washing: A pivotal pretreatment method

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, W.B.; MacLean, G.T.; Meng, C.D.; Winkler, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Separation of the bulk soluble chemical salts from the insoluble metal hydroxides and radionuclides is central to the strategy of disposing Hanford tank waste. Sludge washing and caustic leaching have been selected as the primary methods for processing the 230 million L (61,000,000 gal) of Hanford tank waste. These processes are very similar to those selected for processing waste at the West Valley Site in New York and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The purpose of sludge washing is to dissolve and remove the soluble salts in the waste. Leaching of the insoluble solids with caustic will be used to dissolve aluminum hydroxide and chromium hydroxide, and convert insoluble bismuth phosphate to soluble phosphate. The waste will be separated into a high-level solids fraction and a liquid fraction that can be disposed of as low-level waste after cesium removal. The washing and leaching operations involve batchwise mixing, settling, and decanting within the existing underground storage tanks.

  14. Cars, Cars, Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  15. Physical growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese and Moplah children of Andaman-Nicobar Islands in India.

    PubMed

    Sahani, R; Dinda, A; Kumar, U; Chakrabarty, S; Bharati, P

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese children and compare it with Moplah children, who live in a similar environment. A total of 436 Car Nicobarese children and 438 Moplah children, aged 6-10 years, were selected for the study. The anthropometric measurements included stature, body weight, sitting height, bi-acromial breadth, bi-iliac breadth, mid-upper arm circumference, skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps and subscapular region. 50th percentile (median) growth curves were calculated among the studied children and compared with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference. Z scores of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ) and BMI for age (BMIZ) were computed using growth references of the CDC 2000. It was observed that the Car Nicobarese children were shorter but heavier than Moplah children of both sexes all through the age range, which was also reflected in median value of anthropometric variables. Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally better compared to Moplah children based on the nutritional indices. The major differences between Car Nicobarese and Moplah children were found in their arm muscularity rather than arm adiposity. Overall, Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally in normal and better condition than Moplah children. However, present dietary change (intake of high calories and fat diet) of Car Nicobarese population may be reflected in the form of childhood obesity in the recent future, which has already been observed in their adult population. PMID:24630782

  16. The evolutionary status of Eta Car based on historical and modern optical and infrared photometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Genderen, A. M.; de Groot, M.; The, P. S.

    The authors present a photometric study of the luminous early-type star ? Car. The star's secular brightness increase is due largely to the expansion of the Homunculus. ? Car is a LBV with a possible B0.5V companion. The combined effect of Balmer-line emission, and of warm and cold dust radiation explains the star's other light variations.

  17. The evolutionary status of Eta CAR based on historical and modern optical and infrared photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Genderen, A. M.; de Groot, M.; The, P. S.

    1993-03-01

    We present a photometric study of the luminous early-type star ? Car. The star's secular brightness increase is due largely to the expansion of the Homunculus. ? Car is a LBV with a possible B0.5V companion. The combined effect of Balmer-line emission, and of warm and cold dust radiation explains the star's other light variations.

  18. [Current status and future development of CAR-T gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Keiya

    2015-10-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology is a novel approach to cancer immuno-gene therapy. CARs are hybrid proteins consisting of a target-antigen-specific single-chain antibody fragment fused to intracellular T-cell activation domains (CD28 or CD137/CD3ζ receptor). CAR-expressing engineered T lymphocytes can directly recognize and kill tumor cells in an HLA independent manner. In the United States, promising results have been obtained in clinical trials of adoptive immuno-gene therapy using CD19-CAR-T lymphocytes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and malignant lymphoma. PMID:26458458

  19. Status Report: Pretreatment chemistry evaluation-Wash and leach factors for the single-shell tank waste inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, N.G.

    1996-09-01

    This report discusses a methodology developed to depict overall wash and leach factors for the Hanford single-shell tank (SST) inventory. The factors derived from this methodology, which is based on available partitioning data, are applicable to a composite SST inventory rather than only an assumed insoluble portion. The purpose of considering the entire inventory is to provide a more representative picture of the partitioning behavior of the analytes during envisioned waste retrieval and processing activities. The work described in this report was conducted by the Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The leach factors will be used to estimate the further removal of analytes, such as sodium, aluminum, phosphate, and other minor components. Wash and leach factors are given for elements expected to drive the volume of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW).

  20. Car Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses car art and its appeal to boys and girls. Describes the popularity of customizing cars, focusing on this as a future career for students. Includes a list of project ideas that focuses on car art. (CMK)

  1. Prolidase, Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 13 Activity, Oxidative-Antioxidative Status as a Marker of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes and Chorioamnionitis in Maternal Vaginal Washing Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Soydinc, Hatice Ender; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Evsen, Mehmet S?dd?k; Turgut, Abdulkadir; zler, Ali; Y?ld?z, ?smail; Gul, Talip

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Etiology of premature preterm rupture of membranes (PPROM) is not yet completely known and chorioamnionitis is one of the most important complications of its. We aimed to evaluate whether prolidase, matrix metalloproteinases, oxidative-antioxidative status, and inflammation markers in vaginal washing fluid (VWF) were associated with etiology of PPROM and whether these markers could be used to predict chorioamnionitis in PPROM. Study Design: This prospective case control study enrolled fifty pregnant women with PPROM and 50 healthy pregnant women. The VWF samples were taken at the time of admission in the PPROM group and patients were followed for chorioamnionitis. Prolidase, matrix metalloproteinases, oxidative-antioxidative status, and inflammation markers in VWF were assayed. Results: VWF levels of prolidase, matrix metalloproteinases 1-13 (p< 0.001), oxidative stress parameters, total oxidative stress (TOS) (p < 0.001) and oxidative stress index (OSI) (p = 0.002), and hs-CRP (p = 0.045) were significantly higher in the PPROM group than in the controls. Antioxidative status parameters, levels of paroxanase (PON-1) (p < 0.001) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (p < 0.001), were significantly lower in the PPROM group than in the controls. Mean VWF levels of prolidase (p < 0.001), metalloproteinases (p<0.05), and oxidative-antioxidative status parameters (p<0.05) were significantly different in women with versus women without chorioamnionitis in the PPROM group. Prolidase, MMP-13, TOS, TAC, and PON-1 were found as important predictors for chorioamnionitis in the PPROM group by the multivariate logistic regression analysis. When the ROC curve analysis for prolidase, MMP-13, TOS, TAC, and PON-1 were performed, all of them were statistically significant for area under the curve (areas under the curve were 0.94, 0.90, 0.80, 0.25, and 0.19, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that collagen turnover mediators, especially prolidase, and increased oxidative stress are significantly associated with PPROM. Also, chorioamnionitis can be predicted with prolidase, MMP-13, TOS, TAC, and PON-1 in PPROM patients. PMID:23983595

  2. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water. PMID:26215790

  3. Nasal Wash Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at night. A saltwater nasal wash, or nasal irrigation, can help reduce this. A nasal wash: Cleans ... on a clean towel. If you feel the system is discolored or contaminated, clean the bottle, cap ...

  4. Proper hand washing (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ... for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water ...

  5. Scrap car recycling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Tai, H.S.; Fan, R.K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The official figure of registered automobiles released by the Ministry of Transportation of Taiwan, R.O.C. as of the end of April 1996, is approximately 4.8 millions. Among them, 18% of the cars are between seven and ten years old and 15% of the cars are old than ten years. The result of this large number of old cars is the problem of abandoned cars on the street of Taiwan. This phenomena not only hinders traffic flow but also undermines the living quality in the cities. To minimize these negative effects, EPA has promulgated a Scrap Motor Vehicles Management Regulation to enforce the scrap car recycling in Taiwan. Under this regulation, a buyer of a new vehicle has to pay the Scrap Motor Vehicle Disposal fee (NT$ 3000, or US$ 110 for a car; and NT$ 700, or US$ 25 for a motorcycle). This paper presents the current status of scrap car recycling in Taiwan.

  6. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  7. SOIL WASHING TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing is a water-based process for mechanically scrubbing soils ex-situ to remove undesirable contaminants. he process removes contaminants from soils in one of two ways: by dissolving or suspending them in the wash solution (which is later treated by conventional wastewat...

  8. Laundry: Washing Infected Material

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reduction of microbial contamination can be achieved at water temperatures lower than 160°F if laundry chemicals suitable for low-temperature washing are used at proper concentrations. In the home, normal washing and drying cycles including "hot" or "cold" cycles are adequate to ...

  9. Car Sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic ... Vaccine Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español ...

  10. Petroleum Car

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Petroleum first saw widespread use in the transporation industry as a lubricant. It was refined into various products depending on which part of the engine they were meant to lubricate. It was transported in tanker cars like this one....

  11. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  12. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  13. Effect of cognitive status on self-regulatory driving behavior in older adults: an assessment of naturalistic driving using in-car video recordings.

    PubMed

    Festa, Elena K; Ott, Brian R; Manning, Kevin J; Davis, Jennifer D; Heindel, William C

    2013-03-01

    Previous findings that older drivers engage in strategic self-regulatory behaviors to minimize perceived safety risks are primarily based on survey reports rather than actual behavior. This study analyzed in-car video recording of naturalistic driving of 18 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and 20 age-matched controls in order to (1) characterize self-regulatory behaviors engaged by older drivers and (2) assess how behaviors change with cognitive impairment. Only participants who were rated "safe" on a prior standardized road test were selected for this study. Both groups drove primarily in environments that minimized the demands on driving skill and that incurred the least risk for involvement in major crashes. Patients with AD displayed further restrictions of driving behavior beyond those of healthy elderly individuals, suggesting additional regulation on the basis of cognitive status. These data provide critical empirical support for findings from previous survey studies indicating an overall reduction in driving mobility among older drivers with cognitive impairment. PMID:23385363

  14. Car wars

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.

    1996-01-01

    With a 1998 deadline looming for electric vehicles to go into mass production (2% of all new cars sold in California, Massachusetts, and New York must not have tail pipe pollution), the major automakers and oil companies have started to attack. This article describes and evaluates charges used in the attacks and the alternative technology possibilities.

  15. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  16. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C. (Blackville, SC)

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  17. Car sick.

    PubMed

    Renner, M G

    1988-01-01

    The automobile is currently seen as the most desirable mode of transportation. However, this view needs to be changed since the proliferation of the automobile worldwide is leading to the poisoning of the environment and people. In the US the number of passenger cars grew 51% between 1971-86 and in the noncommunist industrialized community that figure is 71%. The gasoline and diesel fuel used to power the overwhelming majority of cars creates a variety of problems. The pollution is estimated to have a hidden cost of US $.80/gallon. Others estimate that the pollution causes 30,000 premature deaths annually just in the US. 75% of the carbon monoxide (CO), 48% of nitrogen oxides (NO2), 13% of particulates (P), and 3% of sulfur (S) emissions come from cars in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. 17% of all worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emission comes from the production and use of fossil fuels for cars. The single biggest problem associated with cars is the photochemical smog they create in urban areas. In 1986 75 million Americans lived in areas that failed to meet national air quality standards for CO, P, and ozone (03). The only area of major improvement has been the removal of lead from gasoline. It was known to cause problems from the beginning of its use in the 1920s, but remained for 50 years because of auto and oil company pressure. Ground 03 is estimated by the US government to cost US $4 billion in annual losses, just for corn, wheat, soybeans, and peanuts. Acid rain is the other major problem associated with cars, and its damage is estimated at US $5 billion annually. Both these problems are shortterm, their effects occur immediately; the longterm disadvantage is the build up of CO2 and its contribution to the greenhouse effect. While the US is at the forefront of regulation and many other countries are modeling their emission regulations after the US, the current system will not result in clean air. The government must not be guided by the auto and oil industries when determining the regulations to make the air clean. PMID:12317328

  18. Soil washing technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis.

  19. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  20. Soil washing treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  1. Saline nasal washes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... iodine) 1 tsp baking soda 1 cup warm distilled, filtered, or boiled water To use the wash: Fill the device with ... You should: Be sure you only use distilled, boiled, or filtered water. ... Always clean the neti pot or nasal bulb with distilled, ...

  2. Effects of preprocessing method on TVOC emission of car mat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Jia, Li

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the mat preprocessing method on total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) emission of car mat are studied in this paper. An appropriate TVOC emission period for car mat is suggested. The emission factors for total volatile organic compounds from three kinds of new car mats are discussed. The car mats are preprocessed by washing, baking and ventilation. When car mats are preprocessed by washing, the TVOC emission for all samples tested are lower than that preprocessed in other methods. The TVOC emission is in stable situation for a minimum of 4 days. The TVOC emitted from some samples may exceed 2500?g/kg. But the TVOC emitted from washed Polyamide (PA) and wool mat is less than 2500?g/kg. The emission factors of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) are experimentally investigated in the case of different preprocessing methods. The air temperature in environment chamber and the water temperature for washing are important factors influencing on emission of car mats.

  3. Aqueous chemical wash compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, C.E.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes an aqueous, substantially unfoamed chemical wash composition having properties making it suitable for use as a pre-flush in well cementing operations and/or for removal of drilling mud from a borehole at a temperature of from about 150/sup 0/F to about 270/sup 0/F, the wash a. being predominantly composed of water, b. containing an active surfactant component comprising a combination of (1) from about 0.1 to about 1.5 weight percent (total weight basis) of a water soluble anionic surfactant; (2) from about 0.1 to about 1.5 weight percent (total weight basis) of a nonionic surfactant; and (3) from about 0.05 to about 0.54 weight percent (total weight basis) of at least one water soluble amphoteric surfactant, and c. having dispersed therein a heterogeneous mixture of distinct particles comprising both a first particulate oil soluble resin which is friable and a second particulate oil soluble resin which is pliable and where the size of the friable resin particles ranges from about 0.5 to about 300 microns and the size of the pliable resin particles ranges from about 0.05 to about 30 microns. The amount of the friable-pliable resin mixture is sufficient to impart effective fluid loss control to the chemical wash composition.

  4. Washing Out the Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering. TecH2Ozone significantly reduces the amount of water and chemical used as compared to traditional commercial laundry systems. This reduction has resulted in lower cost and shorter wash cycles. And due to the reduced use of chemicals, a significant portion of the rinse water is recycled back into the system for reuse. TecH2Ozone customers, such as hotels and other large commercial laundry facilities, have felt the benefits of this equipment. Because of the reduced cycle times, fewer washers are needed and there is a notable increase in the cleanliness of the laundry. The reduction in chemical residues is a boon to customers with allergies and those prone to skin irritation from chemicals retained in regular laundry. AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering.

  5. Car Seat Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Car Seat Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  6. CD28z CARs and Armored CARs

    PubMed Central

    Pegram, Hollie J.; Park, Jae H.; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2015-01-01

    CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are currently being tested in the clinic with very promising outcomes. However, limitations to CAR T cell therapy exist. These include lack of efficacy against some tumors, specific targeting of tumor cells without affecting normal tissue and retaining activity within the suppressive tumor microenvironment. Whilst promising clinical trials are in progress, preclinical development is focused on optimizing CAR design, to generate armored CAR T cells which are protected from the inhibitory tumor microenvironment. Studies investigating the expression of cytokine transgenes, combination therapy with small molecule inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies are aimed at improving the anti-tumor efficacy of CAR T cell therapy. Other strategies aimed at improving CAR T cell therapy include utilizing dual CARs and chemokine receptors to more specifically target tumor cells. This review will describe the current clinical data and some novel armored CAR T cell approaches for improving anti-tumor efficacy therapy. PMID:24667958

  7. Soil washing of fluorine contaminated soil using various washing solutions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Jo, Raehyun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-03-01

    Bench-scale soil washing experiments were conducted to remove fluoride from contaminated soils. Five washing solutions including hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and tartaric acid (C4H6O6) were tested. The concentration of the washing solutions used ranged from 0.1 to 3 M with a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The soil washing results showed that the most effective washing solution for the removal of fluoride from contaminated soils was HCl. The highest fluoride removal results of approximately 97 % from the contaminated soil were obtained using 3 M HCl. The fluoride removal efficiency of the washing solution increases in the following order: C4H6O6 < NaOH < H2SO4 < HNO3 < HCl. PMID:25552323

  8. Health Monitoring System for Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A health monitoring system for use with a child car seat has sensors mounted in the seat to monitor one or more health conditions of the seat's occupant. A processor monitors the sensor's signals and generates status signals related to the monitored conditions. A transmitter wireless transmits the status signals to a remotely located receiver. A signaling device coupled to the receiver produces at least one sensory (e.g., visual, audible, tactile) output based on the status signals.

  9. 17. CABLE CAR #22, VIEW SHOWING CAR ROUNDING CORNER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CABLE CAR #22, VIEW SHOWING CAR ROUNDING CORNER IN LOADING AREA NEXT TO CAR DUMP AND CAR DUMP BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. Carbonization of perchloroethylene washed coal

    SciTech Connect

    Spearin, E.Y.; Sorensen, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Pilot-scale carbonization experiments of medium-volatile coals washed in a perchloroethylene medium suggested that there was a relation between coke stability improvement and the organic content of the coal. Two significantly different coals appeared to be particularly sensitive to this treatment. Further carbonization tests at both pilot- and production-scale levels using the perchloroethylene washing technique showed significant improvements in coke quality at both levels of experimentation. It appears that the improvement is the result of a synergistic effect between ash removal caused by the solvent bath washing and interaction of the solvent with the organic component of the coal.

  11. Spectroscopic studies of southern-hemisphere cepheids: WW Car, SX Car, UZ Car, UY Car, GX Car, HW Car, YZ Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Stahl, O.; Drass, H.

    2011-10-01

    For seven faint southern Cepheids (WW Car, SX Car, UZ Car, UY Car, GX Car, HW Car, YZ Car), we have determined their atmospheric parameters and chemical composition for the first time based on ten high-resolution ( R = 50 000) spectra taken with the 1.5-m Hexapod telescope at the Joint Observatory of the Northern Catholic University (Antofagasta, Chile) and the Ruhr University (Bochum, Germany). Six objects from the list demonstrate atmospheric parameters and chemical composition typical of Cepheids that have passed through the first dredge-up phase, while WW Car is probably an anomalous Cepheid. According to our preliminary estimates, it has an overabundance of CNO, a deficit of sodium and aluminum, and a slight deficit of magnesium, with iron and other elements being underabundant relative to the Sun.

  12. Electric car arrives - again

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.

    1997-03-01

    The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat. PMID:25497767

  14. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  15. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a...

  16. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  17. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  18. 27 CFR 19.310 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wash water. 19.310 Section 19.310 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Byproducts § 19.310 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits may be run into a wash...

  19. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  20. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  1. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erika F.; Monaco, Sara E.; Khalbuss, Walid; Austin, R. Marshall; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis), lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors) or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma). Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities. PMID:23858317

  2. Abdominopelvic washings: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Monaco, Sara E; Khalbuss, Walid; Austin, R Marshall; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Intraperitoneal spread may occur with gynecological epithelial neoplasms, as well as with non-gynecological malignancies, which may result in serosal involvement with or without concomitant effusion. Therefore, washings in patients with abdominopelvic tumors represent important specimens for cytologic examination. They are primarily utilized for staging ovarian cancers, although their role has decreased in staging of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. Abdominopelvic washings can be positive in a variety of pathologic conditions, including benign conditions, borderline neoplastic tumors, locally invasive tumors, or distant metastases. In a subset of cases, washings can be diagnostically challenging due to the presence of co-existing benign cells (e.g., mesothelial hyperplasia, endosalpingiosis, or endometriosis), lesions in which there is only minimal atypia (e.g., serous borderline tumors) or scant atypical cells, and the rarity of specific tumor types (e.g., mesothelioma). Ancillary studies including immunocytochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization may be required in difficult cases to resolve the diagnosis. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary review of abdominopelvic washings in the evaluation of gynecologic and non-gynecologic tumors, including primary peritoneal and mesothelial entities. PMID:23858317

  3. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively

  4. 18. CABLE CAR #21, DETAIL OF CAR COMING OUT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CABLE CAR #21, DETAIL OF CAR COMING OUT OF LOADING AREA OF CAR DUMP BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. 3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH THE VAL TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING WEST TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. What Kind of Car Am I? An Exercise to Sensitize Students to Social Class Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemann, Kathleen A.; Davis, Karen; Eide, Terri L.

    2006-01-01

    Americans are said to have a love affair with cars. Recent magazine articles have addressed automobiles as objects of status and desire and how particular cars have become American icons. The popularity of "Car Talk" on National Public Radio and television shows like "Monster Garage" and "Overhaulin'" also suggest their ongoing fascination with

  8. What Kind of Car Am I? An Exercise to Sensitize Students to Social Class Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiemann, Kathleen A.; Davis, Karen; Eide, Terri L.

    2006-01-01

    Americans are said to have a love affair with cars. Recent magazine articles have addressed automobiles as objects of status and desire and how particular cars have become American icons. The popularity of "Car Talk" on National Public Radio and television shows like "Monster Garage" and "Overhaulin'" also suggest their ongoing fascination with…

  9. The Electric Cars Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  10. The Electric Cars Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.

  11. A basket for washing benthological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1971-01-01

    Since benthological samples collected with dredges are usually too large to be preserved in toto, a washing method must be employed to reduce the sample volume without losing or damaging the organisms. Traditionally, the sample is washed in a sieve until the volume is small enough for convenient handling or preservation. Most washing procedures are time-consuming and laborious. To save time in washing samples, a washing 'basket' was designed which accomadates a Ponar dredge. The only additional equipment needed to employ the washing basket effectively is a pump that delivers about 8 gallons of water per minute.

  12. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  13. CLAMS_CV580_CAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-28

    CLAMS_CV580_CAR Project Title: CLAMS Discipline: Field ... Radiance in 14 spectral bands Order Data: ASDC Order Tool: Order Data Relevant Documents: CV580 Flight Tracks CAR Home Page Readme Files: Readme CAR ...

  14. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  15. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  16. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  19. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing technologies are designed to transfer contaminants from soil to a liquid phase. The BloGenesis soil washing technology uses a proprietary surfactant solution to transfer organic contaminants from soil to wastewater. The surfactant used in the soil washing process wa...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  1. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  2. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  3. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  4. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  5. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-03-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element spreadsheet model for a typical mousetrap car, as shown in Fig. 1. It is hoped that the model will provide students with a tool for designing or modifying the designs of their cars, provide instructors with a means to insure students close the loop between physical principles and an understanding of their car's speed and distance performance, and, third, stimulate in students at an early stage an appreciation for the merits of computer modeling as an aid in understanding and tackling otherwise analytically intractable problems so common in today's professional world.

  6. [Allergy to car seat].

    PubMed

    Wurpts, G; Merk, H F

    2010-11-01

    This is a case report of a female patient showing a delayed allergic reaction to epoxy resin. The allergic contact dermatitis occurred after sitting in her new car equipped with artificial leather seats. PMID:20953570

  7. The Electric Car Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  8. Cars and Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You may face a choice between a mechanical/hydraulic system (like an airplane) or electronic system (like ... Scott This California based company manufactures a mechanical/hydraulic car system. Every joystick is custom made and ...

  9. Physics in a Bouncing Car.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    1984-01-01

    Defines frame of reference for the analysis of motion in a moving car, discussing the interaction of the car body, the seat springs, and the passenger when the car goes over a bump. Provides a related, but more advanced, problem with the motion of cars involving angular acceleration. (JM)

  10. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  11. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  12. 14. CAR DUMP BUILDING, SOUTHWEST CORNER, VIEW SHOWING CABLE CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CAR DUMP BUILDING, SOUTHWEST CORNER, VIEW SHOWING CABLE CAR #20 BENEATH COAL CHUTES - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BATCH CAR, BUILT BY ATLAS CAR & MANUFACTURING COMPANY. BATCH STORAGE SILOS IN BACKGROUND - Chambers Window Glass Company, Batch Plant, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. Shlepers and Car Washers: Young Israelis in the New York Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ami, Ilan

    1992-01-01

    Examines characteristics and immigration experiences of young male Israeli immigrants to New York City who find work in car washes and furniture moving, jobs requiring neither special skills nor work papers. Differences in background and long-range immigration plans between the groups are discussed. (SLD)

  15. 1. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING NORTH TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element

  17. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  18. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. Two operating scenarios were evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-VSL-T01A/B ultrafiltration feed vessels, identified as Integrated Test A. The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-VSL-T02A ultrafiltration feed preparation vessel, identified as Integrated Test B. Washing operations in PEP Integrated Tests A and B were conducted successfully as per the approved run sheets. However, various minor instrumental problems occurred, and some of the process conditions specified in the run sheet were not met during the wash operations, such as filter-loop flow-rate targets not being met. Five analytes were selected based on full solubility and monitored in the post-caustic-leach wash as successful indicators of washing efficiency. These were aluminum, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, and free hydroxide. Other analytes, including sodium, oxalate, phosphate, and total dissolved solids, showed indications of changing solubility; therefore, they were unsuitable for monitoring washing efficiency. In the post-oxidative-leach wash, two analytes with full solubility were selected as suitable indicators of washing efficiency. These were chromium and oxalate. Other analytes, including sodium, manganese, nitrate, and total dissolved solids, showed indications of changing solubility; therefore, they were unsuitable for monitoring washing efficiency. An overall wash efficiency of 1.00 ± 0.01 was determined for the post-caustic-leach wash. The overall wash efficiency for the post-oxidative-leach wash was determined also to be 0.99 ± 0.01. These wash efficiencies were based on the weighted least squares fit of the full data set for each applicable analyte and are an average of several analytes traced during the washing steps in Integrated Tests A and B. Incremental wash efficiencies as a function of wash step were also given to provide an indication of the variability during the washing process. Chemical tracer tests resulted in the major conclusion that nearly complete mixing was achieved between 2 and 4 minutes after tracer injection. With inconsistent filter-loop flow rates and other mixing parameters, future process conditions should be taken into account during further interpretation of these data. A slight decrease of 8 to 10% in the tracer concentration between 4 and 60 minutes suggests that there was a relatively small unmixed region that mixed over the course of the 1-hour test. The IW batch time interval, defined as the duration between the start of the IW wash injection for a batch to the start for the IW wash injection for the subsequent batch, was often close to or less than the required 4-minute mixing time indicated by the tracer tests. Such short batch durations did not appear to have significantly impacted the washing efficiencies.

  19. Vegetable wash water chemical characterization and chlorination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of high quality, fresh-cut produce is a key driver for the produce industry. A critical area of concern is the chlorinated wash water used during post-harvest processing in large industrial processing facilities. Predominantly using a batch process, wash water is recycled over 8hr shift...

  20. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  1. Chem-E-Car Downunder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Presents the Chem-E-Car competition in which students build a small car powered by a chemical reaction. Focuses on a controlled chemical reaction in which the car travels a required specific distance and stops. Requires participants to prepare poster presentations. (YDS)

  2. Forward-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... seat of the car properly restrained in a car seat. When used properly, car seats help keep a child from being thrown inside, or ejected from the vehicle. A car seat also absorbs some of the impact force from ...

  3. Contaminant resorption during soil washing

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.

    1993-10-01

    To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine.

  4. New developments in clinical CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

    2013-02-01

    We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

  5. Girls, Cars, and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Beth

    2005-03-01

    For the past two summers, I have run an NSF-funded residential camp for girls ages 14-17. This camp is designed to stimulate girls' interest in science by building on their interest in automobiles. The girls spend half the day in hands-on work with cars at Morrisville State College. The other half of the day is dedicated to laboratory exercises at Colgate University that have been designed to help girls learn the science behind the operation of cars. While it is impossible to assess the long-range impact of this program after only two years, the results seem promising. I will discuss the camp program, with particular emphasis on the laboratory experiments that have been developed, which could easily be incorporated into standard high school or college laboratories.

  6. Dual-CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enejder, Annika; Brackmann, Christian; Burkacky, Ondrej; keson, Madeleine

    2007-02-01

    We present a new Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy technique for label-free imaging of biomolecules in living cells; dual-CARS microscopy. The use of three synchronized laser pulses in a dual-pump/dualdetection configuration enables imaging of two species with different molecular vibrations simultaneously, as well as acquisition of images free of non-resonant background. We show the power of the method by imaging deuterated nonadecane slowly diffusing into a suspension of living yeast cells in medium, clearly distinguishing the medium and the lipid droplets in the cells by probing the CH II vibration from the D-nonadecane by probing the CD vibration. In addition, images of lipid stores in living C. elegans nematodes free of non-resonant background are shown. This results in a significant enhancement of the image contrast, allowing the visualization of emerging, low-density lipid stores in a dauer larva, difficult to distinguish in conventional CARS microscopy. The separation of the non-resonant background is shown to be beneficial also when monitoring molecules with weak vibrational modes. The improved sensitivity obtained is illustrated by probing the C=C vibration in polyunsaturated lipids extracted from fish. This enables the monitoring of the degree of unsaturation of lipids, a high value of which is reported in foods known to have positive effects on human health.

  7. Bauxite washing for the removal of clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ishaq; Hartge, Ernst-Ulrich; Werther, Joachim; Wischnewski, Reiner

    2014-11-01

    Clay impurities associated with bauxite negatively affect the Bayer process for alumina production. These impurities should be removed as far as possible by a beneficiation technique before the ore is used as feed for the Bayer process. In this current investigation, bauxite washing was conducted in the laboratory. Bauxite washing is a physical process that causes the disintegration and deagglomeration of the clay matrix, and bauxite is liberated from the clay (mainly rich in silica). Subsequently, separation occurs with the assistance of wet screening at a predetermined cut size. Three techniques were investigated in the laboratory: drum washing, water-jet washing, and ultrasonic washing. Various operating parameters were investigated for drum washing and water-jet washing, including materials retention time, drum rotation speed, solid concentration, water-jet spray duration, pressure, and height. We concluded that the retention time of bauxite inside the drum at a solid concentration of 55wt% and a drum rotation speed of 31 r/min is the dominant parameter for the removal of clay from the bauxite surface.

  8. Wash water solids removal system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    During wash water purification, surfactants tend to precipitate and foul the RO membranes, causing water flux decline and loss of salt rejection. The use of 165 to 190 ppm ferric chloride and optionally 0.25 to 1.0 ppm polymeric flocculate precipitates 92 to 96 percent of the surfactant from an Olive Leaf Soap based wash water. Crossflow filtration and pressure filtration yield good soap rejection at high water flux rates. Post-treatment of the chemically pretreated and filtered wash water with activated charcoal removes the residual soap down to an undetectable level.

  9. Development assessment of wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical study assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology is presented. It covers all non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes and subsystems currently under development by NASA. Each approach to wash water reclamation is described in detail. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. It is concluded that a simple multifiltration subsystem composed of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins is the most attractive approach for spacecraft wash water reclamation in earth orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  10. Staring eyes prompt people to wash hands.

    PubMed

    2015-12-16

    Using 'nudges' such as a picture of a man's intense staring eyes or a clean citrus smell increased the number of healthcare staff and visitors washing their hands in an intensive care unit, a study found. PMID:26669372

  11. TRUCK WASHING TERMINAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory and pilot-scale investigation of a treatment sequence, including physical, chemical, and biological treatment steps led to a full-scale installation for the treatment of tank truck washing wastewater. The system included gravity separation, equalization, neutralizati...

  12. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  13. Transportation & Work: Exploring Car Usage and Employment Outcomes in the LSAL Data. NCSALL Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kerri

    2003-01-01

    This analysis addresses the role of car usage in employment outcomes such as employment status, average weekly wages, and weeks worked per year. It postulates that car ownership is an important employment tool for adults of low educational attainment in Portland, even in the context of other factors such as social networks/resources (social

  14. Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H.

    1996-06-01

    The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city`s sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils.

  15. Benzene exposure in car mechanics and road tanker drivers.

    PubMed

    Javelaud, B; Vian, L; Molle, R; Allain, P; Allemand, B; André, B; Barbier, F; Churet, A M; Dupuis, J; Galand, M; Millet, F; Talmon, J; Touron, C; Vaissière, M; Vechambre, D; Vieules, M; Viver, D

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify professional factors related to benzene exposure and to deduce suitable safety measures. Atmospheric benzene, urinary muconic acid (tt-MA) and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase activity (LAPA) were evaluated among 66 car mechanics, 34 road tanker drivers, and 28 nonexposed workers. Professional and medical questionnaires were filled in at the same time. Atmospheric benzene was significantly higher among road tanker drivers than among car mechanics. The arithmetic mean +/- SD, median, and geometric mean values were, respectively, 0.48 +/- 1.49, 0.14, and 0.06 mg/m3 among car mechanics and 1.88 +/- 4.18, 0.68, and 0.65 mg/m3 among road tanker drivers. In the latter case the increase was caused by transport of unleaded petrol and correlated with the volume of the tank. Among car mechanics, tobacco smoking, windy conditions, dismantling of petrol filters, and handling of petrol increased atmospheric benzene levels. Urinary muconic acid was increased significantly among car mechanics (148 +/- 137, 127, and 111 micrograms/g) and among road tanker drivers (309 +/- 420, 137, and 151 micrograms/g) as compared with the controls (49 +/- 46, 33, and 33 micrograms/g). Among road tanker drivers, alcohol intake and transportation of unleaded petrol increased the excretion of muconic acid, which was also directly related to the volume of the tank. Among car mechanics, professional factors (dismantling of petrol filters, handling of and washing of hands with petrol) and nonprofessional factors (tobacco smoking and damaged skin on the hands and forearms) increased muconic acid excretion. In the control group, tobacco smoking increased its excretion. LAPA was not significantly modified among exposed workers. There was a weak but significant linear correlation between LAPA and muconic acid. These results suggest that to reduce exposure to benzene in unleaded petrol, individual and collective safety measures should be imposed in both occupations. PMID:9638485

  16. Lighting innovations in concept cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlitz, Stephan; Huhn, Wolfgang

    2005-02-01

    Concept cars have their own styling process. Because of the big media interest they give a big opportunity to bring newest technology with styling ideas to different fairgrounds. The LED technology in the concept cars Audi Pikes Peak, Nuvolari and Le Mans will be explained. Further outlook for the Audi LED strategy starting with LED Daytime Running Lamp will be given. The close work between styling and technical engineers results in those concept cars and further technical innovations based on LED technologies.

  17. Response of P. falciparum to chloroquine in Car Nicobar Island.

    PubMed

    Giri, A; Das, M K

    1994-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the status of susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in Car Nicobar Island during September 1991 to September 1992. Out of 66 patients selected for the study, 7 showed resistance according to the standard WHO extended field test. Among them five showed RI level of resistance and one each showed RII and RIII levels of resistance. PMID:7958126

  18. Sparks fly over electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, V.

    1994-10-01

    While the US automobile industry scrambles to meet 1998 deadlines to put electric vehicles on the market, controversy about the environmental benefits and commercial viability of battery-operated cars is mounting. Circumstances in the US increasingly favor the electric car. Air quality laws in California and Massachusetts now demand that {open_quotes}zero-emission{close_quotes} vehicles comprise 2 percent of total sales in the car market by 1998. Electric cars are the only vehicles to meet such standards so far. Other states are considering similar laws. This article examines the pros and cons of electric vehicle use.

  19. 54. VAL COUNTERWEIGHT CAR DURING CONSTRUCTION SHOWING CAR FRAME, WHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VAL COUNTERWEIGHT CAR DURING CONSTRUCTION SHOWING CAR FRAME, WHEEL ASSEMBLIES AND METAL REINFORCING, December 19, 1947. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  1. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  2. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  3. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  4. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  5. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants). Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with provision of soap) at child day-care facilities or schools prevents around one-third of diarrhoea episodes in high income countries (rate ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.85; nine trials, 4664 participants, high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in LMICs but only two trials from urban Egypt and Kenya have evaluated this (rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.99; two trials, 45,380 participants, low quality evidence). Only three trials reported measures of behaviour change and the methods of data collection were susceptible to bias. In one trial from the USA hand washing behaviour was reported to improve; and in the trial from Kenya that provided free soap, hand washing did not increase, but soap use did (data not pooled; three trials, 1845 participants, low quality evidence). Hand washing promotion among communities in LMICs probably prevents around one-quarter of diarrhoea episodes (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.83; eight trials, 14,726 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, six of these eight trials were from Asian settings, with only single trials from South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In six trials, soap was provided free alongside hand washing education, and the overall average effect size was larger than in the two trials which did not provide soap (soap provided: rate ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78; six trials, 11,422 participants; education only: rate ratio: 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.05; two trials, 3304 participants). There was increased hand washing at major prompts (before eating/cooking, after visiting the toilet or cleaning the baby's bottom), and increased compliance to hand hygiene procedure (behavioural outcome) in the intervention groups than the control in community trials (data not pooled: three trials, 3490 participants, high quality evidence). Hand washing promotion for the one trial conducted in a hospital among high-risk population showed significant reduction in mean episodes of diarrhoea (1.68 fewer) in the intervention group (Mean difference 1.68, 95% CI 1.93 to 1.43; one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). There was increase in hand washing frequency, seven times per day in the intervention group versus three times in the control in this hospital trial (one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). We found no trials evaluating or reporting the effects of hand washing promotions on diarrhoea-related deaths, all-cause-under five mortality, or costs. Authors' conclusions Hand washing promotion probably reduces diarrhoea episodes in both child day-care centres in high-income countries and among communities living in LMICs by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea Review question This Cochrane Review summarises trials evaluating the effects of promoting hand washing on the incidence of diarrhoea among children and adults in day-care centres, schools, communities, or hospitals. After searching for relevant trials up to 27 May 2015, we included 22 randomized controlled trials conducted in both high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These trials enrolled 69,309 children and 148 adults. How does hand washing prevent diarrhoea and how might hand washing be promoted Diarrhoea causes many deaths in children below five years of age, mostly in LMICs. The organisms causing diarrhoea are transmitted from person to person through food and water contaminated with faeces, or through person-to-person contact. Hand washing after defecation, or after cleaning a baby's bottom, and before preparing and eating food, can therefore reduce the risk of diarrhoea. Hand washing can be promoted through group or individual training on hygiene education, germ-health awareness, use of posters, leaflets, comic books, songs, and drama. What this review says Hand washing promotion at child day-care facilities or schools in HICs probably prevents around 30% of diarrhoea episodes (high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in schools in LMICs (low quality evidence). Among communities in LMICs hand washing promotion prevents around 28% of diarrhoea episodes (moderate quality evidence). In the only hospital-based trial included in this review, hand washing promotion also had important reduction in the mean episodes of diarrhoea (moderate quality evidence). This is based on only a single trial with few participants and thus there is need for more trials to confirm this. Effects of hand washing promotion on related hand hygiene behaviour changes improved more in the intervention groups than in the control in all the settings (low to high quality evidence). None of the included trials assessed the effect of handwashing promotion on diarrhoeal-related deaths, all-cause under-five mortality, or the cost-effectiveness of hand washing promotions. Conclusion Hand washing promotion in HICs and LMICs settings may reduce incidence of diarrhoea by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term. PMID:26346329

  6. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  8. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  12. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  15. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  16. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  17. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  18. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  19. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  20. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section 1206.260 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must...

  1. Soil washing enhancement with solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    El-Shoubary, Y.M.; Woodmansee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Soil washing is a dynamic, physical process that remediates contaminated soil through two mechanisms: particle size separation and transfer of the contaminant into the (mostly) liquid stream. The performance of different sorbents and additives to remove motor oil from sea sand was tested. Hydrocyclone, attrition scrubber, and froth flotation equipment were used for the decontamination study. Sorbents and additives were mixed with soils in the attrition scrubber prior to flotation. Sorbents used were granular activated carbon, powder activated carbon, and rubber tires. Chemical additives used were calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, Alconox{reg_sign}, Triton{reg_sign} X-100 and Triton{reg_sign} X-114. When a froth flotation run was performed using no additive, washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). However, when carbon or rubber (6% by weight) was added to the contaminated soils the washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). The addition of sodium carbonate or calcium hydroxide (6% by weight) had same effects as sorbents. In both cases washed soil {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained total oil and grease of less than 1000 ppm. The use of these non-hazardous additives or sorbent can enhance the soil washing process and consequently saves on time (residence time in equipment design) required to achieve the target clean up levels. 18 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  3. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the smart car, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  4. PASSENGER CAR HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe ...

  5. ENTEROBACTERIACEAE AND RELATED ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM SHELL EGGS WASHED IN COOLER WASH WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing guidelines in 7 CFR part 56 dictate that shell eggs be washed in water at 32- 49 C. As they pass through the dual commercial washers, egg temperatures often rise to levels conducive to bacterial growth. A commercial study was conducted to determine if washing eggs with cooler water woul...

  6. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  7. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  8. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  9. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  10. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with...

  11. Diesel cars come clean

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1997-08-01

    The diesel engine`s outstanding fuel economy explains two decades of combustion engineering research to eliminate well-known drawbacks. Concern about global warming has brought even greater impetus to these efforts, since greater fuel efficiency translates directly into reduced emissions of carbon dioxide -- the principal greenhouse gas. Resulting advances in diesel design -- particularly the injection of fuel directly into the cylinders -- have in recent years produced downscaled, higher-speed diesels that offer demonstrable exhaust emissions and fuel-economy gains as well as substantial drivability and noise/vibration/harshness improvements. Despite their reputation for being dirty and noise, modern diesel engines offer high fuel efficiency, low noise and exhaust levels, and improved drivability. This article examines why new smaller diesel could soon power many European car models.

  12. Lead removal via soil washing and leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. K.; Man, X. D.; Walsh, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    A soil washing and leaching process was tested for removing lead from soils. A soil-washing circuit, including size and gravity separations, was employed to remove the coarse metallic lead particles, while the leaching was applied to remove fine metallic lead particles and other lead species. The soil-washing tests proved that the metallic lead particles larger than 0.15 mm (100 mesh) could be effectively removed. The sodium-chloride-based leaching solution with ferric chloride or sodium hypochlorite as oxidants was adopted in the leaching. The leaching experimental results indicated that under the pH of 2 and Eh of 1,300 mV, the metallic lead particles smaller than 0.15 mm and other lead species can be dissolved in the leaching solution within 60 minutes.

  13. Wash solvent reuse in paint production

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, A.B.; Heater, K.J.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1994-04-01

    The project evaluated solvent used to clean paint manufacture equipment for its utility in production of subsequent batches of solvent-borne paint. Reusing wash solvent would reduce the amount of solvent disposed of as waste. The evaluation of this wash-solvent recovery technology was conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Pollution Prevention Research Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The evaluation was conducted with the cooperation and assistance of Vanex Color, Inc. The product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic impacts of this technology change, as it has been implemented by Vanex, were examined. Two batches of a solvent-borne alkyd house paint were prepared at Vanex--one batch made with 100%-new solvent and the other with 30%-wash solvent--and sampled for laboratory analysis at Battelle.

  14. The Research of Road Traffic Based on Floating Car Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junyou; Jian, Meng; Tang, Rui

    Based on the analysis of floating car traffic information acquisition and processing system structure and construction frame, combining the Zibo floating car features and road conditions, using historical data provided by Zibo city bus companies, adopting the ArcGIS Engine of ESRI company as a map components, putting forward the nearest point estimate map matching algorithms, combining data fusion technology based on Kalman filter and road running speed calibration algorithm, predicting road traffic running status in certain period and express it in the GIS map, this paper completed the design, the practice has proved the suggested method is feasible.

  15. Safety upgrades plug car leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    To lessen the chance of a chemical leak occurring during rail transport, some companies are improving tank car sturdiness and safety by adding such features as top-loading valves, on-board monitoring devices, and thicker, more impact-resistant hulls. Results include a dramatic drop in the number of rail incidents and leak tank cars. Chemicals Division of Olin Corporation (Stamford, Connecticut) has assigned its name to a new fleet of chlorine, caustic soda and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) tank cars. Each car carries the company's Care[trademark]Car registered trademark. The upgrade is part of a company-wide quality improvement process started in 1986. The company requires acoustic emissions (AE) testing on all hazardous materials tank cars. If an area has a defect, it expands and makes a slight sound when subjected to stress. In an AE test, cars are subject to simulated bumps and jolts as in rail shipment. Electronic sensors transfer any stress noises onto a computer screen, where an operator can pinpoint the trouble source.

  16. Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

    2012-03-01

    We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

  17. SOIL-WASHING TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing in the United States has been studied and evaluated with increasing thoroughness during the last 15 to 20 years. It is now entering a phase of actual use and acceptance as its applicability and economics become clearer. This paper reviews the principles behind soil...

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL WASHING SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three component technologies of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS). Tested in the SITE demonstration were a Soil Washer (SW), and Aqueous Treatment System (ATS), and a Slurry Bio-Reactor (SBR). The Soil Washer operates on the principle that a significant fraction of the...

  19. FIELD STUDIES OF IN SITU SOIL WASHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA and US Air Force conducted a research test program to demonstrate the removal of hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons from a sandy soil by in situ soil washing using surfactants. Contaminated soil from the fire training area of Volk Air National Guard Base, WI, was f...

  20. EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. he demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrole...

  1. An Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presently, commercial eggs are washed with water containing an alkali detergent at approximately pH 11 followed by a chlorine rinse. At this pH, it is likely that there is little, if any, free chlorine in the final rinse to act as an antimicrobial against pathogens like Salmonella. Using a chlorine ...

  2. PROPELLER WASH EFFECTS ON SPRAY DRIFT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For aerial spray application, there is some question if off-target drift (both near and far) is influenced by which boom is spraying and the direction of propeller wash rotation. This information may be useful when switching off one boom close to a field boundary. The effect of alternate boom switch...

  3. EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. The demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrol...

  4. Washed Out Bridge, Snake Creek Near Whitesburg

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Tributary to Snake Creek, near Whitesburg, Georgia, showing a washed out bridge. When bridges such as this one collapse during a flood, it is rarely the pressure of the rushing water against the bridge that causes the bridge to fail. Rather, the rushing water erodes the ground underneath and surroun...

  5. Late Wash Filter Demonstration Unit program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A.; Budenstein, S.A.; Boersma, M.D.

    1992-11-10

    This report details a planned a non-radioactive engineering demonstration of the DWPF Late Wash Facility (LWF) for washing salt precipitate feed, and of the In-Tank Precipitate (ITP) filters. The scale will be 0.05 to 0.1, with some larger components, prototypical instruments, and full-length filter elements. Precipitate slurry for late wash tests will be fully irradiated (3EO8 rads). Program needs and objectives are to demonstrate LWF design, optimize LWF process operations including filter cleaning and benzene sparging, test actual instruments including benzene and nitrite monitors, and test advanced design concepts such as etched filters. In addition, the Late Wash Filter Demonstration Unit (LWFDU) will support the operation and long-term improvement of ITP filtration. The expected cost of the LWFDU is $1.8 million. Operating costs in FY 1993 are expected to be $1.0 million. Testing is expected to begin 3QFY93, with LWF design confirmation and LWF operations bases completed by the end of 1QFY94.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - BIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesisSM soil washing technology was developed by BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. to remove organic compounds from soil. The technology uses a proprietary solution (BioGenesisSM cleaner) to transfer organic compounds from the soil matrix to a liquid phase. BioGenesis claims...

  7. Prototype wash water renovation system integration with government-furnished wash fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of a significant quantity of proposed life sciences experiments in Shuttle payloads for available wash water to support cleansing operations has provided the incentive to develop a technique for wash water renovation. A prototype wash water waste renovation system which has the capability to process the waste water and return it to a state adequate for reuse in a typical cleansing fixture designed to support life science experiments was investigated. The resulting technology is to support other developments efforts pertaining to water reclamation by serving as a pretreatment step for subsequent reclamation procedures.

  8. Involvement rate in two-car crashes versus driver age and car mass of each involved car.

    PubMed

    Evans, L

    1985-04-01

    This work was performed to investigate how the likelihood of a two-car crash depends on the driver age and car mass for each of the two involved cars, and also to examine the special case of cars of similar mass crashing into each other. Data on 108 044 cars involved in police reported two-car crashes occurring in New York State in 1971 and 1972 were fitted to a function of the driver age and car mass for each of the two involved cars. Car registrations are used to estimate exposure. The special case of crashes between cars of similar mass is considered because of prior results on driver injuries in such crashes. It is found that "small-small" crashes (defined as a 900 kg car crashing into another 900 kg car) are about 0.3 times as likely as "big-big" crashes (an 1800 kg car crashing into another 1800 kg car), assuming equal numbers of cars driven by drivers of the same age. Combining the present results with earlier findings of increased injury risk in small-small crashes gives that such crashes injure about 70% as many drivers as big-big crashes when normalized for numbers of cars and driver age. That is, it is concluded that small-small crashes produce 30% fewer injuries than do big-big crashes. PMID:4096783

  9. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  10. Car Safety for Special Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Suzanne Hauser

    1983-01-01

    Various car seats, harnesses, and vests that can be used with handicapped children are described. Suggestions are also made for improvment when existing equipment is not appropriate. A list of resources on the topic is also provided. (CL)

  11. CARS applications to combustion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckbreth, Alan C.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to broadband or multiplex CARS of combustion processes, using pulsed lasers whose intensity is sufficiently great for instantaneous measurement of medium properties. This permits probability density functions to be assembled from a series of single-pulse measurements, on the basis of which the true parameter average and the magnitude of the turbulent fluctuations can be ascertained. CARS measurements have been conducted along these lines in diesel engines, gas turbine combustors, scramjets, and solid rocket propellants.

  12. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass

  13. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  14. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  15. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  16. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  17. Getting More Mileage out of Mousetrap Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Wylo, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    Building and racing mousetrap cars is a common activity in many eighth- and ninth-grade physical science classrooms. However, once students have raced their cars, most mousetrap assignments come to an end. In this article, the authors developed a project to help teachers get more mileage out of mousetrap cars. The Mousetrap Car Project addresses

  18. Getting More Mileage out of Mousetrap Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Wylo, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    Building and racing mousetrap cars is a common activity in many eighth- and ninth-grade physical science classrooms. However, once students have raced their cars, most mousetrap assignments come to an end. In this article, the authors developed a project to help teachers get more mileage out of mousetrap cars. The Mousetrap Car Project addresses…

  19. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  20. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  1. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  2. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  3. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  4. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  5. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  6. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  7. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  8. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  9. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars....

  10. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  11. Comparison of the Laboratory Standard Washing Using CIPAC Washing Agent and the Domestic Washing on Three Recommended Types of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nablni; Louwagie, Johanna; Pigeon, Olivier; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is Savon de Marseille, because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized CIPAC washing agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient. Methods Interceptor, Permanet2.0 and Netprotect nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography. Results The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor and Permanet2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide. Conclusion Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect nets. All net types seemed to be effectively protected against UV-light. PMID:24130671

  12. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. 6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  15. Opposing Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Expression by CAR and PXR in Hypothyroid Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moore, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR-/- mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR-/- mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR-/- hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR-/- mice and in and CAR-/- PXR-/- double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR-/- mice and lowest in WT and PXR-/- mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR-/- mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR-/- and CAR-/- PXR-/- mice died, with CAR-/-PXR-/- mice surviving longer than CAR-/- mice (12.3 3.3 days vs. 6.3 2.1 days, p=0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. PMID:22503787

  16. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moore, David D

    2012-09-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR-/- mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR-/- mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR-/- hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR-/- mice and in and CAR-/- PXR-/- double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR-/- mice and lowest in WT and PXR-/- mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR-/- mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR-/- and CAR-/- PXR-/- mice died, with CAR-/-PXR-/- mice surviving longer than CAR-/- mice (12.33.3 days vs. 6.32.1 days, p=0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. PMID:22503787

  17. Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young Joo; Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul ; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moore, David D.

    2012-09-01

    Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR{sup −/−} mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR{sup −/−} hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR{sup −/−} mice and in and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR{sup −/−} mice and lowest in WT and PXR{sup −/−} mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR{sup −/−} mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR{sup −/−} and CAR{sup −/−} PXR{sup −/−} mice died, with CAR{sup −/−}PXR{sup −/−} mice surviving longer than CAR{sup −/−} mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ► Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ► Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ► These responses balance each other out in normal mice. ► Hypothyroidism sensitizes CAR null mice to toxic effects of carbamazepine.

  18. Modelling the wash from a ship's propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewster, Paul Michael

    The characteristics of the velocity field produced by a ship's propeller were investigated using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software package. A CFD model of the propeller wash was developed using a sliding mesh technique to simulate the rotating blades of the propeller. Experimental measurements using Laser Doppler Anemometry and Pitot tube methods were used to validate the computational approach. Measurements and predictions of the axial and radial velocity fields for two propellers operating over a range of speeds were used in the validation. The results from the CFD simulation are in reasonable agreement. However, improvements to the approach used to model the turbulence in the flow may lead to a more accurate simulation. The validated CFD approach is used to investigate the propeller wash where an experimental study has been difficult or impossible to undertake. The velocity field close to the rotating blades was found to exhibit a pulsing behaviour. The characteristics of the pulsing are related to the speed of rotation and the geometrical characteristics of the rotating propeller. The tangential velocity field was found to be more prominent in the wash than the radial component of velocity. However, the axial component of velocity is the largest contributor to the resultant velocity field in the propeller wash. The formation of the tangential velocity field is related to the geometrical characteristics of the rotating blades. The diffusion characteristics of the tangential velocity field appear to be influenced by the behaviour of the axial velocity field. The maximum tangential velocity decays exponentially. The simulation of a full-size propeller was used to verify the scaling approach adopted for previous experimental investigations. The results indicated that scale effects due to viscosity were negligible, and the use of Froudian scaling for the experimental investigations was justified.

  19. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    SciTech Connect

    GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

  20. Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, J.L.

    1999-12-08

    SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

  1. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    DOEpatents

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14

    Abstract A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-0-3 wt % La.sub.2O.sub.3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO.sub.2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO.sub.4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-3-40% TiO.sub.2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  2. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM e?uent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the e?uent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering. PMID:26696989

  3. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S.; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering. PMID:26696989

  4. EPA'S MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT FOR SOIL WASHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the design and initial operation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency'S (EPA) Mobile Volume Reduction Unit (VRU) for soil washing. oil washing removes contaminants from soils by dissolving or suspending them in the wash solutions (which can be later tr...

  5. BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil washing technologies are designed to transfer contaminants from soil to a liquid phase. he BioGenesis Soil Washing Technology uses soil washing with a proprietary surfactant solution to transfer organic contaminants from soils to wastewater. ontaminant levels are further red...

  6. 7 CFR 3201.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 3201.51 Section 3201.51... Designated Items 3201.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in... wash solutions. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  7. 7 CFR 3201.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 3201.51 Section 3201.51... Designated Items 3201.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in... wash solutions. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 3201.51 Section 3201.51... Designated Items 3201.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in... wash solutions. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.457 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 1206.457 Washing allowancesgeneral. (a... wash coal, unless the value determined pursuant to 1206.456 of this subpart was based upon like-quality unwashed coal. Under no circumstances will the authorized washing allowance and the...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 1206.458 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 1206.458 Determination of washing allowances. (a) Arm's... washing allowance shall be the reasonable actual costs incurred by the lessee for washing the coal...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.258 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 1206.258 Washing allowancesgeneral. (a... wash coal, unless the value determined pursuant to 1206.257 of this subpart was based upon like-quality unwashed coal. Under no circumstances will the authorized washing allowance and the...

  12. Application of Chinese Ink Wash Drawing in Product Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Huang, Qiming; Qin, Chuan

    Based on the analysis of the art of Chinese Ink Wash Drawing style, then explains the purpose and meaning of the study for product design with Ink Wash Drawing, in the end combined with actual cases, describes the application of product design using Chinese Ink Wash Drawing.

  13. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of the video cameras would be transmitted by radio or infrared to a portable, miniature receiver/video monitor unit that would be attached to the dashboard of the car. The video-camera subsystem can also be used within transmission/reception range when the seat was removed from the car. The system would include a biotelemetric and tracking subsystem, which would include a Global Positioning System receiver for measuring its location. This subsystem would transmit the location of the infant car seat (even if the seat were not in a car) along with such biometric data as the baby s heart rate, perspiration rate, urinary status, temperature, and rate of breathing. Upon detecting any anomalies in the biometric data, this subsystem would send a warning to a paging device installed in the car or carried by the driver, so that the driver could pull the car off the road to attend to the baby. A motion detector in this subsystem would send a warning if the infant car seat were to be moved or otherwise disturbed unexpectedly while the infant was seated in it: this warning function, in combination with the position- tracking function, could help in finding a baby who had been kidnapped with the seat. Removable rechargeable batteries would enable uninterrupted functioning of all parts of the system while transporting the baby to and from the car. The batteries could be recharged via the cigarette-lighter outlet in the car or by use of an external AC-powered charger.

  14. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    PubMed Central

    Minagawa, Kentaro; Zhou, Xiaoou; Mineishi, Shin; Di Stasi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application. PMID:26110321

  15. [What pediatricians should know about car seats?: car safety seats].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Lucas David

    2013-06-01

    In Argentina more than 7,000 people die each year due to traffic injuries. It is an endemic disease, a serious public health problem. There are evidence-based recommendations about how children should ride safety in cars; children through 8 years or 4 feet 9 inches cannot be fastened by the seat belt so they should ride in a child restraint system. These devices significantly reduce the chances of suffering serious injuries and fatalities. Although in our country the use of car safety seats is not yet legislated nor compulsory, pediatricians should recommend parents how and why to use them. PMID:23732352

  16. Fresh produce washing aid, T-128, enhances inactivation of salmonella and pseudomonas biofilms on stainless steel in chlorinated wash solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of chlorine wash solutions, with/without the washing aid, T-128, on inactivation of Salmonella and Pseudomonas populations in biofilms on stainless steel coupons was evaluated under conditions of increasing organic matter loads in the wash water. Biofilms were formed statically on stai...

  17. Face washing promotion for preventing active trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Ejere, Henry OD; Alhassan, Mahmoud B; Rabiu, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma remains a major cause of avoidable blindness among underprivileged populations in many developing countries. It is estimated that about 146 million people have active trachoma and nearly six million people are blind due to complications associated with repeat infections. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of face washing promotion for the prevention of active trachoma in endemic communities. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015), PubMed (January 1948 to January 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) (accessed 10 January 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 26 January 2015. To identify further relevant trials we checked the reference lists of the included trials. Also, we used the Science Citation Index to search for references to publications that cited the trials included in the review. We contacted investigators and experts in the field to identify additional trials. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared face washing with no treatment or face washing combined with antibiotics against antibiotics alone. Trial participants were residents of endemic trachoma communities. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. We contacted trial authors for additional information when needed. Two trials met our inclusion criteria; but we did not conduct meta-analysis due to methodological heterogeneity. Main results We included two cluster-RCTs, which provided data from 2447 participants. Both trials were conducted in areas endemic to trachoma: Northern Australia and Tanzania. The follow-up period was three months in one trial and 12 months in the other; both trials had about 90% participant follow-up at final visit. Overall the quality of the evidence is uncertain due to the trials not reporting many design methods and the differences in outcomes reported between trials. Face washing combined with topical tetracycline was compared with topical tetracycline alone in three pairs of villages in one trial. The trial found that face washing combined with topical tetracycline reduced severe active trachoma compared with topical tetracycline alone at 12 months (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.97); however, the trial did not find any important difference between the intervention and control villages in reducing other types of active trachoma (adjusted OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.59). Intervention villages had a higher prevalence of clean faces than the control villages among children with severe trachoma (adjusted OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.59) and any trachoma (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.72) at 12 months follow-up. The second trial compared eye washing to no treatment or to topical tetracycline alone or to a combination of eye washing and tetracycline drops in children with follicular trachoma. At three months, the trial found no evidence of benefit of eye washing alone or in combination with tetracycline eye drops in reducing follicular trachoma amongst children with follicular trachoma (risk ratio (RR) 1.03, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.11; one trial, 1143 participants). Authors conclusions There is evidence from one trial that face washing combined with topical tetracycline may be effective in reducing severe active trachoma and in increasing the prevalence of clean faces at one year follow-up. Current evidence is inconclusive as to the effectiveness of face washing alone or in combination with topical tetracycline in reducing active or severe trachoma. PMID:25697765

  18. Car hits boy on bicycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-11-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of the car from the accident data. Relevant features for discussion include kinematics, conservation of momentum, energy, assessing the elasticity of the collision, the medical report, and knowledge of the scene of the accident through a photograph and an aerial perspective.

  19. Hand washing practices in a college town environment.

    PubMed

    Borchgrevink, Carl P; Cha, JaeMin; Kim, SeungHyun

    2013-04-01

    Many people do not wash their hands when the behavior in which they engage would warrant it. Most research of hand washing practices to date has taken place in high-traffic environments such as airports and public attraction venues. These studies have established a persistent shortcoming and a gender difference in hand washing compliance. Using field observations of 3,749 people in a college town environment, the research described in this article replicates and extends earlier work while identifying potential environmental and demographic predictors of hand washing compliance. Additionally, the authors' research suggests that proper hand washing practices, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are not being practiced. Finally, the authors' research raises a question as to the accuracy of earlier measurements of "proper" hand washing practices, suggesting that compliance rates are inflated. The results can help increase hand washing rates for the general public and thus decrease the risk of transmitting disease. PMID:23621052

  20. Driving kids to smoke? Children's reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; Min, Sandar; Kira, Anette; Nosa, Vili; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2011-11-01

    The health risks associated with second hand smoke (SHS) are well-known. However, little is known about exposure to SHS in cars and risk of smoking uptake. This paper investigates the association between pre-adolescents reported exposure to smoking in cars and prevalence of early stage smoking activity. Data from Keeping Kids Smokefree baseline surveys of students were used to investigate smoking status and reported exposure to smoking in cars. Log binomial regression analyses were used to investigate if reported exposure to SHS in cars was associated with smoking prevalence. 83% of 5676 students invited took part. After controlling for all variables reported exposure to smoking in cars and homes were significantly associated with increased risk of initiated smoking (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.43-2.44, and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.13-1.97, respectively). Exposure to smoking in cars was substantially and significantly associated with risk of current smoking (RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.45-7.08). Early smoking uptake is associated with students' reported exposure to smoking in cars which confirms the importance of protecting children from SHS. Smoking in cars is under parental control and therefore modifiable. Moreover, children's reports of SHlS exposure offer a simple way of identifying families who can be targeted for tobacco control interventions. PMID:21733632

  1. Coke quench car emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coke quench car emission control system includes a coke car and a filter car connected in tandem for joint movement on rails disposed adjacent a coke oven. A hood and recuperator are mounted on a third car disposed on auxiliary rails which extend longitudinally along the upper portions of both the quench car and the filter car and in end-wise alignment. The hood is adapted to be coupled to the coke oven for receiving coke during a pushing operation. The recuperation has an inlet coupled to the hood for receiving emissions and withdrawing heat therefrom. The recuperator also has an outlet which is disposed adjacent the inlet of a filter system mounted on the filter car, when the third car is positioned atop the quench car. The third car is sized so that it can be moved on the auxiliary rails from a position atop the quench car to a position atop the filter car whereby the quench car can be exposed for a quenching operation.

  2. Problem of regenerating coal wash oil

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The main problems associated with the recovery of benzene hydrocarbons from coking gas using coal wash oil are seen as oil polymerization and the effects of placement of coolers on the quality of oil. The worsening condition of the oil is a result of insufficient effectiveness of its regeneration, and no immediate solution to this problem is suggested. The immediate concern is seen as bringing losses of ammonia gas into line with standards of technical operation. The use of a separate tubular furnace with flame-heater is deemed much more satisfactory than regeneration coil pipes in the oven.

  3. TANK 4 CHARACTERIZATION, SETTLING, AND WASHING STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2009-09-29

    A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an insoluble or undissolved form. (3) There is 19% more S than can be accounted for by IC sulfate measurement. This additional soluble S is detected by ICP-AES analysis of the supernate. (4) Total supernate and slurry sulfur by ICP-AES should be monitored during washing in addition to supernate sulfate in order to avoid under estimating the amount of sulfur species removed or remaining in the supernate. (5) OLI simulation calculations show that the presence of undissolved Burkeite in the Tank 4 sample is reasonable, assuming a small difference in the Na concentration that is well within the analytical uncertainties of the reported value. The following conclusions were drawn from the blend studies of Tank 4 and decanted Tank 51-E1: (1) The addition of Tank 4 slurry to a decanted Tank 51-E1 sample significantly improved the degree and time for settling. (2) The addition of Tank 4 slurry to a decanted Tank 51-E1 sample significantly improved the plastic viscosity and yield stress. (3) The SRNL washing test, where nearly all of the wash solution was decanted from the solids, indicates that approximately 96% or more of the total S was removed from the blend in these tests, and the removal of the sulfur tracks closely with that of Na. Insoluble (undissolved) S remaining in the washed sludge was calculated from an estimate of the final slurry liquid fraction, the S result in the slurry digestion, and the S in the final decant (which was very close to the method detection limit). Based on this calculated result, about 4% of the initial total S remained after these washes; this amount is equivalent to about 18% of the initially undissolved S.

  4. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of

  5. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown

  6. Physics Fun with Toy Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Education Standards, students should be able to describe an object by its position, direction of motion, and speed (NRC 1996). During a unit on motion, the author decided to use Hot Wheels cars as the object students would describe. The first two activities are used to introduce students to the equipment and the

  7. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  8. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  9. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of

  10. Friction in a Moving Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)

  11. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics

  12. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  13. Automated Car Park Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  14. Symmetry in the Car Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

  15. A Demonstration of Car Braking Instabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Jack; Swinson, Derek

    1990-01-01

    Detailed are the construction of a demonstration car, apparatus and procedures used in the demonstration, and the analysis of the effects of car braking. The cases of rear-wheel and front-wheel braking are considered. (CW)

  16. Solar-powered car. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Plank, D.

    1982-03-30

    The work reported was to modify a commercially available electric vehicle to use power generated by solar cells. Besides the technical and financial aspects of constructing the car, media publicity and public showings of the car are discussed. (LEW)

  17. Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

    2006-08-01

    Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanfords pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data.

  18. Shuttle-Car System for Continuous Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Buffer storage catches coal production between loadings. Telescoping reservoir filled continuously. With tailgate down, shuttle car slides into place along sides and bottom of reservoir. Reservoir retracts along inside of car and out through tailgate, leaving coal behind in car. System not restricted to coal mining and may prove economical for hauling other solid materials.

  19. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a

  20. Video monitoring system for car seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A video monitoring system for use with a child car seat has video camera(s) mounted in the car seat. The video images are wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver/display encased in a portable housing that can be removably mounted in the vehicle in which the car seat is installed.

  1. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  2. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  3. Determining the Air Drag on a Car.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Students' cars and wristwatches are used as "apparatus" to introduce and demonstrate Newton's second law of motion. Forces acting on cars are discussed and typical student data (for different makes of cars) are provided. Data could also be used in discussions of work, horsepower, efficiency, and energy cost. (JN)

  4. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  5. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  6. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  7. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  8. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed....

  9. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  10. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  11. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials in quantity not exceeding 68 kg (150 pounds) may be carried in construction or repair cars if...

  12. Increased erythrocyte volume in car repair painters and car mechanics.

    PubMed

    Beving, H; Tornling, G; Olsson, P

    1991-07-01

    The biological effect of occupational long term low level exposure to organic solvents was studied in 17 car repair painters and 28 car mechanics, and compared with a control group consisting of 46 healthy men not exposed to organic solvents. The erythrocyte count (RBC) was significantly decreased for both the painters and the mechanics compared with the control group, and a significant increase in the mean erythrocyte volume (MCV) was seen in painters. The mode in size distribution of the erythrocytes (MAXRBC) was shifted towards larger cell volumes for both painters and mechanics. When data from painters and mechanics were combined, the exposed group showed a significantly reduced erythrocyte count (RBC), an increased mean erythrocyte volume (MVC), and an increased mean platelet volume (MPV) compared with the controls. Exposure measurements in combination with analysis of haematological parameters may be a tool for early detection of cellular changes in the blood caused by exposure to solvents, before the appearance of clinical symptoms. PMID:1854652

  13. Entwurfskonzept einer Car2Car-Multiband-Dachantenne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Reit, M.; Mathis, W.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the vastly increasing use of wireless services in the car, such as WiFi, Car2Car and LTE, the requirements on bandwidth and radiation pattern of the roof antenna systems become more challenging. In this work, a design concept for multi-band roof antenna systems is presented. We aim to get a higher bandwidth and an almost circular radiation pattern on the horizontal plane. Moreover, the antenna length is considered in order to fulfill the requirements set by construction ECE-regulations (ECE, 2010). The applicability of the design concept is not limited to multi-band roof antennas, it can also be used for a general wideband antenna design. For illustration of this concept, a multi-band roof antenna with a bandwidth of 780 MHz to 5.9 GHz and a near circular radiation pattern with an average gain of G = 3 dBi (at 5.9 GHz) on the horizontal plane is designed. The simulation and measurement results are presented.

  14. Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Pummer, Bernhard; Grothe, Hinrich; Niedermeier, Dennis; Clauss, Tina; Voigtlnder, Jens; Tomsche, Laura; Wex, Heike; Stratmann, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Up to now, the importance of pollen for atmospheric ice nucleation was considered to be minor, as they are too large to stay in the atmosphere for a long time. But as recent investigations have shown, not the pollen grains themselves are responsible for freezing, but easily suspendable macromolecules on their surfaces (Pummer et al., 2012). Due to the bursting of pollen grains these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules could be numerous in the atmosphere. In the present study, the immersion freezing behavior of birch pollen, i.e. its ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, was investigated at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011). For this, washing water of two different birch pollen samples with different origin (Northern birch and Southern birch) were used. Immersion freezing of droplets generated from the pollen washing water was observed at temperatures higher than -20 C for both samples. The main difference between the Northern and the Southern birch pollen was the temperature dependence of the immersion freezing process. Our results suggest that the ice nucleating potential of the Southern birch is controlled by a single type of INA macromolecule, while the Northern birch pollen seem to feature two distinctively different types of INA macromolecules. We determined the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types and thereby consistently describe the ice nucleation behavior of both, the Southern and the Northern birch pollen washing water. Furthermore we will suggest a theoretical framework for describing e.g. single INA macromolecule related ice nucleation in atmospheric models. References: Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S. and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2541-2550, doi:10.5194/acp-12-2541-2012, 2012. Hartmann, S., Niedermeier, D., Voigtlnder, J., Clauss, T., Shaw, R. A., Wex, H., Kiselev, A., and Stratmann, F.: Homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation at LACIS: operating principle and theoretical studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1753-1767, doi:10.5194/acp-11-1753-2011, 2011.

  15. Halochemical processes upon washing of calcareous gypsiferous solonchaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minashina, N. G.; Gavrilova, G. K.

    2008-01-01

    Data on changes in the contents of carbonates, gypsum, and soluble salts upon washing of gypsiferous solonchaks were obtained in laboratory and field experiments. Chemical methods and micromorphological study of thin sections were applied. Stages of the halochemical changes upon the soil washing were identified. It was found that the soil washing results in the formation of secondary magnesium sulfate and pseudomorphic substitution of calcite for gypsum.

  16. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion...

  17. Comparative alkali washing of simulated radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, G.A.; Ensor, D.D.; Egan, B.Z.

    1996-10-01

    The treatment of large volumes of radioactive sludge generated from uranium and plutonium recovery processes is a pressing problem in the environmental restoration currently planned at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. This sludge, commonly stored in underground tanks, is mainly in the form of metal oxides or precipitated metal hydroxides and the bulk of this material is nonradioactive. One method being developed to pretreat this waste takes advantage of the amphoteric character of aluminum and other nonradioactive elements. Previous studies have reported on the dissolution of eleven elements from simulated sludge using NaOH solutions up to 6M. This work provides a comparative study using KOH. The effectiveness of the alkali washing as a treatment method to reduce the bulk of radioactive sludge requiring long term isolation will be discussed.

  18. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  19. Landscape of WASH-relevant Training for Humanitarian Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Dorea, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both employed humanitarian personnel as well as those seeking to start a career as an aid worker are often provided with or seek training on the theme of humanitarian water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The objective of this study was to conduct a landscaping exercise of the available WASH-relevant training for humanitarian emergencies. Methods: An open internet search was performed with specific terms related to humanitarian WASH. Retained search results included those training opportunities (including past ones) that were themed around or with a mentioned relevance to humanitarian WASH. Results and Discussion: A total of 42 training courses relevant to humanitarian emergency WASH were retained. In addition to the more generic/introductory trainings, some provided thematic variations such as coordination of WASH responses, project management, risk reduction, information, education and communication (IEC), and complex emergencies. Timely topics such as urban WASH, Ebola, and WASH innovations were also observed indicating the responsiveness of the training providers to the changing needs of humanitarian WASH response programmes. This survey also revealed a large variety in terms of target audience, duration, fees, location, and language of courses. There was no centralised listing of courses available on the Internet. Limitations of this exercise were also discussed. PMID:26064781

  20. Hand eczema in car mechanics.

    PubMed

    Meding, B; Barregrd, L; Marcus, K

    1994-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of hand eczema, a questionnaire was distributed to 901 male car mechanics. Of the 801 persons who responded, 15% reported hand eczema on some occasion in the previous 12 months, and 57% admitted dry skin on the hands. In a 2nd part of the study, those who reported hand eczema were examined and patch tested with a standard series and a special "car mechanics' series". The most common diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis, 55%, and 2nd was allergic contact dermatitis, 19%. 35/105 (33%) had a total of 51 positive patch test reactions, all to substances in the standard series, except for 2 persons who reacted to oxidized d-limonene. The most frequent reactions were to thimerosal (9%), nickel (8%) and colophony (5%). One plausible explanation for the high prevalence of nickel allergy was the common use of nickel-plated tools. 5 individuals had a history of contact urticaria, but scratch tests were negative. It was concluded that car mechanics are at high risk for contact dermatitis on the hands, irritant as well as allergic. PMID:8187510

  1. Prototype wash water renovation system integration with goverment-furnished wash fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A total renovation concept for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water to make the water reusable was developed. This concept included ferric chloride pretreatment to coagulate suspended solids such as soap and lint, pressure filtration, and carbon adsorption and ion exchange to remove trace dissolved organics and inorganic salts. A breadboard model which was developed to demonstrate the design adequacy of the various system components and the limits on system capacities and efficiencies.

  2. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent.

  3. 'I wash until it feels right' the phenomenology of stopping criteria in obsessive-compulsive washing.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Karina; Salkovskis, Paul M; Cotter, Imogen

    2008-01-01

    Recent elaborations of cognitive behavioral theory in OCD suggest that difficulties in deciding when to stop a compulsive action may be related to the use of counter-productive termination criteria by obsessional patients [Salkovskis, P. M. (1999). Understanding and treating obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, s29-s52]. Such criteria are characterized by their subjective nature, i.e. a primarily internal reference point (e.g. 'just right' feelings), and are conceptualized as the "top level" of a general strategy involving elevated evidence requirements. Thirty-eight obsessional washers, 41 obsessionals with other problems and 43 healthy controls were interviewed about and rated two situations varying in the degree of urgency to wash; they also washed their hands in a behavioral test. Washers reported using subjective criteria more frequently and rated them as more important for the termination of the washes than the other groups in questionnaire, interview and laboratory data. Both obsessional groups considered more criteria before stopping than the healthy controls, suggesting that using multiple criteria is a general strategy. The data are consistent with the predictions of the elaborated cognitive-behavioral model of OCD. They indicate that the use of subjective criteria and elevated evidence requirements is affected by the perceived significance of the situation in a similar way for obsessional and non-obsessional individuals. PMID:17403596

  4. Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a screened porch with the original sinks extant. Light and ventilation was borrowed from the wash room into the toilets and bathing rooms. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  5. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BIOTROL SOIL WASHING PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrate on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstra...

  6. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 2902.51 Section 2902.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts...

  7. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING WEST. THE NONHISTORIC CHEMICAL BUILDING IS SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  8. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 2902.51 Section 2902.51 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts...

  9. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  10. 1. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT CHINA WASH FLUME ON MAIN CANAL. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  11. Egg wash wastewater: Estrogenic risk or environmental asset?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial production of eggs and egg products requires the washing of eggs to remove urinary / fecal material and broken egg residue. In the case of one Ohio farming facility, 1.6 million birds produce 1.4 million eggs per day, using ~50mL of wash water / egg or ~ 70,000 liters per day. The aqueo...

  12. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  13. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING IN FOREGROUND IS NOT RELATED TO THE MACHINE. THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS SEEN AT THE LOWER LEFT. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  14. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  15. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  16. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  17. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b) The COW machines in each tank must have sufficient nozzles with the proper diameter, working...

  18. EPA site demonstration of the Biotrol Soil Washing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.; Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, was demonstrated on soil that was contaminated by wood treating waste. The BioTrol Soil Washing was demonstrated in a treatment train sequence with two other pilot-scale units of BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The three technologies of the treatment train were: The BioTrol Soil Washer (BSW), the BioTrol Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), and the Slurry Bioreactor (SBR). The BioTrol processes were evaluated on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were the primary soil contaminants at the site. The sandy site soil, consisting of less than 10% of fines, was well suited for treatment by soil washing. The BSW successfully separated the feed soil (100% by weight) into 83% of washed soil, 10% of woody residues, and 7% of fines. The soil washer achieved up to 89% removal of PCP and PAHs, based on the difference between their levels in the feed soil and in the washed soil. The BATS degraded up to 94% of PCP in the process water from soil washing. The SBR achieved over 90% removals of PCP and 70-90% removals of PAHs, respectively from the soil washing. Cost of a commercial-scale soil washing, assuming use of all three technologies, was estimated to be $168 per ton of treated soil.

  19. 2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WASH TANKS Skins are brought in through hatches, seen on rear wall, and washed of blood and flesh in redwood tanks, with wooden grates to hold skins down in water. Superstructure and screening on tanks are a later alteration, unrelated to this process. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  20. 30 CFR 1206.258 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1206.258 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 1206.258 Washing allowancesgeneral. (a) For ad valorem... deduction in determining value for royalty purposes for the reasonable, actual costs incurred to wash...

  1. 30 CFR 1206.258 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1206.258 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 1206.258 Washing allowancesgeneral. (a) For ad valorem... deduction in determining value for royalty purposes for the reasonable, actual costs incurred to wash...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.457 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1206.457 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 1206.457 Washing allowancesgeneral. (a) For ad valorem... deduction in determining value for royalty purposes for the reasonable, actual costs incurred to wash...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.258 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1206.258 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal 1206.258 Washing allowancesgeneral. (a) For ad valorem... deduction in determining value for royalty purposes for the reasonable, actual costs incurred to wash...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.457 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1206.457 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal 1206.457 Washing allowancesgeneral. (a) For ad valorem... deduction in determining value for royalty purposes for the reasonable, actual costs incurred to wash...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.457 - Washing allowances-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Washing allowances-general. 1206.457 Section 1206.457 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.457 Washing allowances—general. (a) For ad valorem leases subject to § 1206.456 of this...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of washing allowances. 1206.259 Section 1206.259 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.259 Determination of washing allowances. (a) Arm's-length contracts. (1) For...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allowances. (a) Arm's-length contracts. (1) For washing costs incurred by a lessee pursuant to an arm's-length contract, the washing allowance shall be the reasonable actual costs incurred by the lessee for.... ONRR' prior approval is not required before a lessee may deduct costs incurred under an...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-length contracts. (1) For washing costs incurred by a lessee pursuant to an arm's-length contract, the... approval is not required before a lessee may deduct costs incurred under an arm's-length contract. However... determines that the consideration paid pursuant to an arm's-length washing contract does not reflect...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-length contracts. (1) For washing costs incurred by a lessee pursuant to an arm's-length contract, the... approval is not required before a lessee may deduct costs incurred under an arm's-length contract. However... determines that the consideration paid pursuant to an arm's-length washing contract does not reflect...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-length contracts. (1) For washing costs incurred by a lessee under an arm's-length contract, the washing... burden of demonstrating that its contract is arm's-length. ONRR' prior approval is not required before a lessee may deduct costs incurred under an arm's-length contract. The lessee must claim a...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-length contracts. (1) For washing costs incurred by a lessee under an arm's-length contract, the washing... burden of demonstrating that its contract is arm's-length. ONRR' prior approval is not required before a lessee may deduct costs incurred under an arm's-length contract. The lessee must claim a...

  12. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges. PMID:26313128

  13. Behavior of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli relevant to lettuce washing processes and consideration of factors for evaluating washing process surrogates.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kaiping; Wang, Xue; Yen, Li-Han; Ding, Hongliu; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2014-11-01

    Postharvest processes for fresh produce commonly include washing in water containing antimicrobial chemicals, such as chlorine; however, if the antimicrobials are not present in sufficient levels, washing can promote the spread of contamination that might be present. To understand cross-contamination risk during washing, we tested a collection of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), including O157:H7 and other non-O157 strains, for certain traits during washing of fresh-cut lettuce, i.e., sensitivity to sublethal chlorine levels and ability to cross-contaminate (detach from and attach to) lettuce in the presence of sublethal chlorine levels. Nonpathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and Pediococcus pentosaceus lactic acid bacterial species (LAB) were included as potential washing process validation surrogates. As measured by extension of the lag phase of growth in media containing 0.15 ppm of chlorine, chlorine sensitivity varied among the STECs. Cross-contamination was assessed by evaluating transfer of bacteria from inoculated to uninoculated leaves during washing. Without chlorine, similar transfer to wash water and uninoculated leaves was shown. In 1 ppm of chlorine, cross-contamination was not detected with most strains, except for the substantial transfer by a STEC O111 strain and EcN in some replicates. Strain O111 and EcN showed less inactivation in 0.25 ppm of chlorine water compared with O157 (P < 0.05). LAB showed similar transfer and similar chlorine inactivation to O157. Considering together the sublethal chlorine sensitivity and detachment/attachment traits, neither EcN nor LAB displayed optimal characteristics as washing process surrogates for the STEC strains, although further evaluation is needed. This work demonstrated a range of behaviors of STEC strains during lettuce washing and may be helpful in hazard characterization, identifying factors to consider for evaluating washing process efficacy, and identifying phenotypic traits to select surrogates to validate washing processes. PMID:25364918

  14. Tobacco use and asking prices of used cars: prevalence, costs, and new opportunities for changing smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Matt, Georg E; Romero, Romina; Ma, Debbie S; Quintana, Penelope Je; Hovell, Melbourne F; Donohue, Michael; Messer, Karen; Salem, Simon; Aguilar, Mauricio; Boland, Justin; Cullimore, Jennifer; Crane, Marissa; Junker, Jonathan; Tassinario, Peter; Timmermann, Vera; Wong, Kristen; Chatfield, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and disease in children and adults, and the scientific evidence indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Smoking tobacco in a car can pollute the microenvironment of the car with residual SHS, leaving telltale signs to potential buyers (e.g., odor, used ash tray). This study examined (a) the proportion of used cars sold in the private party market that may be polluted with tobacco smoke and (b) whether asking prices of smoker and nonsmoker cars differed for cars of otherwise equivalent value. A random sample of 1,642 private party sellers were interviewed by telephone, and content analyses of print advertisements were conducted. Findings indicate that 22% of used cars were advertised by smokers or had been smoked in during the previous year. Among nonsmokers, 94% did not allow smoking in their car during the past year. Only 33% of smokers had the same restrictions. The smoking status of the seller and tobacco use in the car were significantly (p < .01) associated with the asking price independent of a car's Kelley Blue Book value (KBB). Used nonsmoker cars were offered at a considerable premium above their KBB value (>11%) and above comparable smoker cars (7-9%). These findings suggest that community preferences are affecting the value of smoke-free cars. New directions for research, tobacco control policies, and health education are discussed to further reduce smoking behavior, to help consumers make informed purchasing decisions, and to protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure. PMID:18822157

  15. Comparison between positive and negative 50-k eV E-beam CAR for 0.1-?m generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Denis; Hung, Kevin; Lee, Don; Chou, Rex L.; Unno, Hiromasa; Yang, Samuel C.

    2002-07-01

    Most advanced EB masks enhanced resolution are fabricated by CAR photo resist recently. The non-CAR resist would be unsatisfied with making the 0.1 micrometers -below advanced mask fabrication, even for the current 0.13 micrometers -generation high-end masks. Although CAR has the well-known advantages of high-contrast resolution and sensitivity, the complex process behaviors related with different CAR types need to be further investigated. Negative-type CAR ha been widely used to fabricate advanced masks in mask shops. However, positive-type CAR is not well developed to apply for production since it is not investigated yet very well. Therefore, there is an essential necessity to realize the discrepancy between positive and negative CAR. This paper describes the different process phenomenon existing between positive CAR and negative CAR. We made the comparison of difference between t them by conducting ga series of simple experiments: the dose sensitivity test was produced by writing the dose matrix pattern on masks with three different baking temperatures and measuring the selectivity by depth profiler. This selectivity defined here was the thickness of resist after developing, which is indicative of completeness of development, but not the etching selectivity. All process-regarding SEM pictures were captured to determine the best ADI pattern resolution and the related CD measurement was also performed by CD-SEM. From the OPC resolution and available CD information we would set an appropriate process condition for these CAR. After that, a critical layer pattern on the mask was designed to find the optimal process settings. Moreover, all defects were inspected with KLA Tencor Tera Star SLF27 inspection system to give the defect status of CAR. The test masks were written by JBX-9000MV E-beam writing system. The basic property of CAR process for mask fabrication was evaluated in this study.

  16. Tobacco use and asking prices of used cars: prevalence, costs, and new opportunities for changing smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Georg E; Romero, Romina; Ma, Debbie S; Quintana, Penelope JE; Hovell, Melbourne F; Donohue, Michael; Messer, Karen; Salem, Simon; Aguilar, Mauricio; Boland, Justin; Cullimore, Jennifer; Crane, Marissa; Junker, Jonathan; Tassinario, Peter; Timmermann, Vera; Wong, Kristen; Chatfield, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and disease in children and adults, and the scientific evidence indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Smoking tobacco in a car can pollute the microenvironment of the car with residual SHS, leaving telltale signs to potential buyers (e.g., odor, used ash tray). This study examined (a) the proportion of used cars sold in the private party market that may be polluted with tobacco smoke and (b) whether asking prices of smoker and nonsmoker cars differed for cars of otherwise equivalent value. A random sample of 1,642 private party sellers were interviewed by telephone, and content analyses of print advertisements were conducted. Findings indicate that 22% of used cars were advertised by smokers or had been smoked in during the previous year. Among nonsmokers, 94% did not allow smoking in their car during the past year. Only 33% of smokers had the same restrictions. The smoking status of the seller and tobacco use in the car were significantly (p < .01) associated with the asking price independent of a car's Kelley Blue Book value (KBB). Used nonsmoker cars were offered at a considerable premium above their KBB value (>11%) and above comparable smoker cars (79%). These findings suggest that community preferences are affecting the value of smoke-free cars. New directions for research, tobacco control policies, and health education are discussed to further reduce smoking behavior, to help consumers make informed purchasing decisions, and to protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure. PMID:18822157

  17. Genesis Eco Systems, Inc. soil washing process

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.

    1994-10-11

    The Genesis soil washing system is an integrated system of modular design allowing for maximum material handling capabilities, with optimized use of space for site mobility. The Surfactant Activated Bio-enhanced Remediation Equipment-Generation 1 (SABRE-1, Patent Applied For) modification was developed specifically for removing petroleum byproducts from contaminated soils. Scientifically formulated surfactants, introduced by high pressure spray nozzles, displace the contaminant from the surface of the soil particles into the process solution. Once the contaminant is dispersed into the liquid fraction of the process, it is either mechanically removed, chemically oxidized, or biologically oxidized. The contaminated process water is pumped through the Genesis Biosep (Patent Applied For) filtration system where the fines portion is flocculated, and the contaminant-rich liquid portion is combined with an activated mixture of nutrients and carefully selected bacteria to decompose the hydrocarbon fraction. The treated soil and dewatered fines are transferred to a bermed stockpile where bioremediation continues during drying. The process water is reclaimed, filtered, and recycled within the system.

  18. Eggshell bacterial levels of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacteria levels of non-washed and washed eggs obtained from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on either all shavings or all wire slat floors were determined. On eight sample days (from 22 to 52 weeks at 4 week intervals), 20 eggs were collected from each pen (n=120/sample day). Ten eggs p...

  19. Eggshell bacterial contamination of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiology of non-washed and washed table eggs obtained from caged and cage-free laying hens housed on either all shavings or all wire slat environments. Both Hy-Line W-37 white and Hy-Line brown strains were used. On each of four replication sample days ...

  20. 40 CFR 52.472 - Approval status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval status. 52.472 Section 52.472... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia 52.472 Approval status. Link to an amendment..., the Administrator approves the measures for parking surcharge, car pool locator, vehicle...

  1. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. ); Natsis, M.E. ); Walker, J.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  2. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Natsis, M.E.; Walker, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  3. Room environment influence on eggshell bacterial levels of non-washed and washed eggs from caged and cage-free laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacteria levels of non-washed and washed eggs obtained from caged and cage-free hens housed in either wire slats or shaving-covered pens were determined. On eight days (from 22 to 52 wk), 20 eggs were collected from each pen. Ten eggs/pen were washed with a commercial egg washing solution, whi...

  4. Heterodyne effect in Hybrid CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Aihua; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Scully, Marlan

    2009-10-01

    We study the interaction between the resonant Raman signal and non-Raman field, either the concomitant nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background or an applied external field, in our recently developed scheme of coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering, a hybrid CARS. Our technique combines instantaneous coherent excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations with subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped, time-delayed, narrowband laser pulse. This pulse configuration mitigates the non-resonant FWM background while maximizing the Raman-resonant signal, and allows rapid and highly specific detection even in the presence of multiple scattering. We apply this method to non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. Under certain conditions we find that the measured signal is linearly proportional to the glucose concentration due to optical interference with the residual background light, which allows reliable detection of spectral signatures down to medically-relevant glucose levels. We also study the interference between the CARS field and an external field (the local oscillator) by controlling their relative phase and amplitude. This control allows direct observation of the real and imaginary components of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ^(3)) of the sample. We demonstrate that the heterodyne method can be used to amplify the signal and thus increase detection sensitivity.

  5. Microbiological aspects of washing hands in slaughter-houses.

    PubMed

    de Wit, J C; Kampelmacher, E H

    1982-01-01

    The hand hygiene of workers in a number of chicken-, pig-, calf- and cattle slaughter-houses was investigated. The number of E. coli and salmonellae on hands was determined before and after washing hands in order to measure the washing effect on the number of these faecal bacteria. All workers examined carried E. coli on their hands during work. The average logarithmic E. coli count on hands before washing was about 5.0 in chicken-and calf-slaughter-houses, about 3.5 in pig-and 3.0 in cattle-slaughter-houses. Hand washing decreased the E. coli count per hand by about 1.5 log cycle. Salmonellae were isolated from the hands in chicken- (59 pos./145 samples), pig-(42 pos./116 samples) and calf-slaughter-houses (11 pos./68 samples). Even after washing salmonellae were found to be present. Generally 'normal' washing causes a considerable reduction in the number of transient bacteria on hands. The presence of E. coli and Salmonella after washing, however, indicates that the effectiveness of the procedure needs to be improved. PMID:6760622

  6. A double method sperm wash for artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Chan, P J; Tredway, D R; Su, B C; Corselli, J; Pang, S C

    1992-01-01

    Recently, there have been concerns regarding the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during sperm processing for insemination. However, the sperm wash methods that yielded low ROS levels also had low sperm recovery after processing. The objective of this study was to compare sperm recovery after swim-up from pellet, overlay, and 2-layer Percoll wash methods with the recovery after the double method wash. The latter method consisted of a combination of 2 sperm wash methods, namely, the overlay and the Percoll method. Motile sperm were first collected through the overlay method. The leftover semen was then processed through the 2-layer Percoll method to scavenge motile sperm and the resultant pellet combined with the pellet from the overlay method. In this manner, the level of ROS was kept to a minimal, sperm recovery was improved, and a mixture of sperm with different surface properties was produced as a result of using different processing methods. The results indicated an improvement in sperm recovery and in total sperm motility in noncryopreserved sperm after using the double method wash when compared with the other wash methods. The study suggests that the double method wash is a feasible method for processing sperm for insemination. PMID:1503523

  7. Washing of soils spiked with various pollutants by surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.C.C.; Chang, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, the batch-type of washing with surfactant solutions was employed for the treatment of soils artificially contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. 15 industrial grade surfactants were tested. Washing was conducing by adding surfactant solution to the soils and mixing for one hour, then centrifuging it and analyzing the supernatant. Deionized water was used for soil washing for comparison. Results indicated that deionized water performed as well as Surfactant No. 1 in washing VOC-contaminated soils. Therefore, it is concluded that the VOCs tested can be easily washed from soils by rain water. In washing PAH-contaminated soils, nonionic surfactants performed better than anionic surfactants in terms of removal efficiency. The amphoteric surfactant performed worst in washing PAH-contaminated soils. Generally, surfactants are useful in removing cadmium from soils, but are not useful for the removal of lead and copper. Amphoteric, anionic, and low pH cationic surfactants were the most effective of those tested. For PAH/heavy metals-contaminated soils, removal efficiencies were lower than that of soils containing a single contaminant.

  8. An improved car-following model with two preceding cars' average speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shao-Wei; Shi, Zhong-Ke

    2015-01-01

    To better describe cooperative car-following behaviors under intelligent transportation circumstances and increase roadway traffic mobility, the data of three successive following cars at a signalized intersection of Jinan in China were obtained and employed to explore the linkage between two preceding cars' average speed and car-following behaviors. The results indicate that two preceding cars' average velocity has significant effects on the following car's motion. Then an improved car-following model considering two preceding cars' average velocity was proposed and calibrated based on full velocity difference model and some numerical simulations were carried out to study how two preceding cars' average speed affected the starting process and the traffic flow evolution process with an initial small disturbance, the results indicate that the improved car-following model can qualitatively describe the impacts of two preceding cars' average velocity on traffic flow and that taking two preceding cars' average velocity into account in designing the control strategy for the cooperative adaptive cruise control system can improve the stability of traffic flow, suppress the appearance of traffic jams and increase the capacity of signalized intersections.

  9. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car...

  10. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used for the...

  11. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used for the...

  12. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used for the...

  13. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used for the...

  14. Laboratory testing in-tank sludge washing, summary letter report

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, M.V.; Torres-Ayala, F.

    1994-09-01

    In-tank washing is being considered as a means of pretreating high-level radioactive waste sludges, such as neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) sludge. For this process, the contents of the tank will be allowed to settle, and the supernatant solution will be decanted and removed. A dilute sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrite wash solution will be added to the settled sludge and the tank contents will be mixed with a mixer pump system to facilitate washing of the sludge. After thorough mixing, the mixer pumps will be shut off and the solids will be allowed to re-settle. After settling, the supernatant solution will be withdrawn from the tank, and the wash cycle will be repeated several times with fresh wash solution. Core sample data of double shell tank 241-AZ-101 indicate that settling of NCAW solids may be very slow. A complicating factor is that strong thermal currents are expected to be generated from heat produced by radionuclides in the sludge layer at the bottom of the tank. Additionally, there are concerns that during the settling period (i.e., while mixing pumps and air-lift re-circulators are shut off), the radionuclides may heat the residual interstitial water in the sludge to the extent that violent steam discharges (steam bumping) could occur. Finally, there are concerns that during the washing steps sludge settling may be hindered as a result of the reduced ionic strength of the wash solution. To overcome the postulated reduced settling rates during the second and third washing steps, the use of flocculants is being considered. To address the above concerns and uncertainties associated with in-tank washing, PNL has conducted laboratory testing with simulant tank waste to investigate settling rates, steam bump potential, and the need for and use of flocculating agents.

  15. Hygiene for the newborn--to bath or to wash?

    PubMed Central

    Hylén, A. M.; Karlsson, E.; Svanberg, L.; Walder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Appropriate skin care of newborns is performed partly to prevent infection but also for aesthetic and cleansing purposes. Skin care should involve cleansing with a non-toxic, non-abrasive neutral material. This study compared the relative risks and benefits of washing versus bathing with regard to bacterial colonization rate, clinical infection rate, body temperature and crying. The results confirm our clinical impression that bathing and washing routines do not differ with regard to signs of infection or other clinical complications. However, the washing routine does increase the babies heat loss and make them less comfortable. PMID:6663065

  16. Experimental study of the constituents of space wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.; Colombo, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents experimental data, obtained under controlled conditions, which quantify the various constituents of human origin that may be expected in space wash water. The experiments were conducted with a simulated crew of two male and two female subjects. The data show that the expected wash water contaminants originating from human secretions are substantially lower than theoretical projections indicated. The data presented are immediately useful and may have considerable impact on the tradeoff comparisons among various unit processes and systems under consideration by NASA for recycling space wash water.

  17. Experimental study of the constituents of space wash water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented that quantify some of the various constituents of human origin that may be expected in space wash water. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with a simulated crew of two male and two female subjects. The data show that the expected wash water constituents originating from human secretions are substantially lower than theoretical projections have indicated. Average daily quantities as well as individual extremes are given for both shower and laundry water. In addition, concentrations are presented for a projected model of wash water usage in a space station.

  18. Endotoxins in cotton: washing effects and size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Olenchock, S.A.; Mull, J.C.; Jones, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Endotoxin contamination was measured in washed and unwashed cottons from three distinct growing areas, California, Mississippi, and Texas. The data show differences in endotoxin contamination based upon the geographic source of the cotton. It is also shown that washing bulk cotton before the carding process results in lower endotoxin in the cotton dust. Washing conditions can affect the endotoxin levels, and all size fractions of the airborne dust contain quantifiable endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin analyses provide a simple and reliable method for monitoring the cleanliness of cotton or airborne cotton dusts.

  19. Percutaneous penetration and pharmacodynamics: Wash-in and wash-off of sunscreen and insect repellent.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jocelyn; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of skin cancer and mosquito-transmitted diseases has increased use of insect repellents and sunscreens. The challenge in setting recommendations for use and reapplication, especially when used concomitantly, lies in finding the balance between applying a durable product effective in withstanding natural and physical factors such as water, sweat, temperature and abrasion, while limiting percutaneous absorption and decreasing risk of potential dermal and systemic toxicity. Inorganic sunscreens show no or little percutaneous absorption or toxic effects in comparison to organic sunscreens, which show varying levels of dermal penetration and cutaneous adverse effects. An alternative to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the traditional gold standard compound in insect repellents, picaridin appears as efficacious, has lower risk of toxicity, and when used simultaneously with sunscreen may decrease percutaneous absorption of both compounds. Conversely, combined use of DEET and sunscreen results in significantly higher absorption of both compounds. It is important to increase consumer awareness of "washing in" of various compounds leading to increased risk of toxicity, as well as differences in reapplication need due to "washing off" caused by water, sweat and abrasion. Although much remains to be studied, to maximize efficacy and decrease toxicity, contemporary research tools, including dermatopharmokinetics, should aid these prospective advances. PMID:26811157

  20. Cross contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 between lettuce and wash water during home-scale washing.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dane A; Friedrich, Loretta M; Harris, Linda J; Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2015-04-01

    Lettuce and leafy greens have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study quantifies cross contamination between lettuce pieces in a small-scale home environment. A five-strain cocktail of relevant Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains was used. Bacterial transfer between single inoculated lettuce leaf pieces to 10 non-inoculated lettuce leaf pieces that were washed in a stainless steel bowl of water for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, and 5 min was quantified. Regardless of washing time, the wash water became contaminated with 90-99% of bacteria originally present on the inoculated lettuce leaf piece. The E. coli O157:H7 concentration on initially inoculated leaf pieces was reduced ∼ 2 log CFU. Each initially uncontaminated lettuce leaf piece had ∼ 1% of the E. coli O157:H7 from the inoculated lettuce piece transferred to it after washing, with more transfer occurring during the shortest (30 s) and longest (5 min) wash times. In all cases the log percent transfer rates were essentially normally distributed. In all scenarios, most of the E. coli O157:H7 (90-99%) transferred from the inoculated lettuce pieces to the wash water. Washing with plain tap water reduces levels of E. coli O157:H7 on the inoculated lettuce leaf pieces, but also spreads contamination to previously uncontaminated leaf pieces. PMID:25475312

  1. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  2. Automated Coal-Mine Shuttle Car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Cable-guided car increases efficiency in underground coal mines. Unmanned vehicle contains storage batteries in side panels for driving traction motors located in wheels. Batteries recharged during inactive periods or slid out as unit and replaced by fresh battery bank. Onboard generator charges batteries as car operates.

  3. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  4. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  5. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-05-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking.

  6. Apparatus for controlling electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Naruto, M.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for controlling electric cars comprising: d-c shunt-wound motors adapted to be connected to a d-c source and having armatures and field windings; first chopper circuit means connected in series with the armatures of the d-c shunt-wound motors and controlling the flow of armature currents in both directions upon receipt of timing signals; second chopper circuit means connected in series with the field windings of the d-c shunt-wound motors and controlling the flow of field currents in both directions upon receipt of timing signals; reactors having first and second coils, the first coils being connected in series with the armatures, and the second coils being connected in series with the field windings. The first coils and second coils and magnetically coupled together maintaining such a relation that the field currents decrease with the decrease in the armature currents.

  7. Coal cars - the first three hundred years

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Robert Karig III

    2007-12-15

    This is the comprehensive study of the freight cars that conveyed coal across broad swaths of land that had been impassible before the invention of the steam engine. This volume traces the history and evolution of coal cars from their earliest use in England to the construction of major railways for the purpose of coal hauling and the end of the steam era on American railroads. In addition to contextualizing coal cars in the annals of industrial history, the book features extensive design specifications and drawings as well as a complete history of the various safety and mechanical innovations employed on these freight cars. It concludes with a photographic essay illustrating the development of the coal car over its first 300 years of use. 608 photos.

  8. Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

  9. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  10. 7. PRESSURE CONDUIT ACROSS SCHOOL HOUSE WASH ON THE POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PRESSURE CONDUIT ACROSS SCHOOL HOUSE WASH ON THE POWER CANAL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, February 21, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  11. View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking downstream, southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  12. PARTS WASHING ALTERNATIVES STUDY - UNITED STATES COAST GUARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report has been written to assist the United States Coast Guard (USCG) industrial managers in determining the most cost effective and environmentally acceptable parts washing alternatives for their specific applications. An; evaluation was conducted on four different cleane...

  13. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  14. 37. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden SIDE ELEVATION OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR W. C. PRATT, ESQr - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  15. 7. CLOSEUP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, THREE BEARS LAKE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  16. 6. VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING WASHED UP 12' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING WASHED UP 12' x 12' DAM SUPPORT TIMBERS, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF LAKE - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  17. PARTS WASHING ALTERNATIVES STUDY - UNITED STATES COAST GUARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report has been written to assist the United States Coast Guard (USCG) industrial managers in determining the most cost effective and environmentally acceptable parts washing alternatives for their specific applications. n evaluation was conducted on four different cleaners ...

  18. 29. CIRCULAR WASH BASIN, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. CIRCULAR WASH BASIN, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Car size or car mass: which has greater influence on fatality risk?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, L; Frick, M C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposed increases in corporate average fuel economy standards would probably lead to lighter cars. Well-established relationships between occupant risk and car mass predict consequent additional casualties. However, if size, not mass, is the causative factor in these relationships, then decreasing car mass need not increase risk. This study examines whether mass or size is the causative factor. METHODS. Data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System are used to explore relationships between car mass, car size (as represented by wheelbase), and driver fatality risk in two-car crashes. RESULTS. When cars of identical (or similar) wheelbase but different mass crash into each other, driver fatality risk depends strongly on mass; the relationship is quantitatively similar to that found in studies that ignore wheelbase. On the other hand, when cars of similar mass but different wheelbase crash into each other, the data reveal no dependence of driver fatality risk on wheelbase. CONCLUSIONS. Mass is the dominant causative factor in relationships between driver risk and car size in two-car crashes, with size, as such, playing at most a secondary role. Reducing car mass increases occupant risk. PMID:1636830

  20. 6. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT INSIDE CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT INSIDE CAMERA CAR WITH CAMERA MOUNT IN FOREGROUND. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING LARRY CARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING LARRY CARS BELOW HOPPER BIN. GRAY FITZSIMONS, HAER HISTORIAN, IS STANDING ON PLATFORM NEXT TO LARRY CARS - Lucernemines Coke Works, Larry Car Tipple, East of Lucerne, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  2. 5. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF HOIST AT SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF HOIST AT SIDE OF BRIDGE AND ENGINE CAR ON TRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 7. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA INSIDE CAMERA CAR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Wash interacts with lamin and affects global nuclear organization

    PubMed Central

    Verboon, Jeffrey M.; Rincon-Arano, Hector; Werwie, Timothy R.; Delrow, Jeffrey J.; Scalzo, David; Nandakumar, Vivek; Groudine, Mark; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The cytoplasmic functions of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome family (WAS) proteins are well established and include roles in cytoskeleton reorganization and membrane-cytoskeletal interactions important for membrane/vesicle trafficking, morphogenesis, immune response and signal transduction. Mis-regulation of these proteins is associated with immune deficiency and metastasis [1-4]. Cytoplasmic WAS proteins act as effectors of Rho family GTPases and polymerize branched actin through the Arp2/3 complex [1, 5]. Previously, we identified Drosophila washout (wash) as a new member of the WAS family with essential cytoplasmic roles in early development [6, 7]. Studies in mammalian cells and Dictyostelium suggest that WASH functions primarily in a multiprotein complex that regulates endosome shape and trafficking in an Arp2/3-dependent manner [8-11]. However, roles for classically cytoplasmic proteins in the nucleus are beginning to emerge, in particular as participants in the regulation of gene expression [12, 13]. Here we show that Drosophila Wash is present in the nucleus where it plays a key role in global nuclear organization. wash mutant and knockdown nuclei disrupt sub-nuclear structures/organelles and exhibit the abnormal wrinkled morphology reminiscent of those observed in diverse laminopathies [14-16]. We find that nuclear Wash interacts with B-type Lamin (Lamin Dm0), and like Lamin, Wash associates with constitutive heterochromatin. Wash knockdown increases chromatin accessibility of repressive compartments and results in a global redistribution of repressive histone modifications. Thus, our results reveal a novel role for Wash in modulating nucleus morphology and in the organization of both chromatin and non-chromatin nuclear sub-structures. PMID:25754639

  5. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE OUTSIDE FACE OF THE NORTH WALL OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS SEEN AT THE RIGHT. THE SETTLING RESERVOIR IS ELEVATED ABOVE THE FILTERING RESERVOIR TO ACHIEVE GRAVITY WATER FLOW FROM THE SETTLING RESERVOIR INTO THE FILTERING RESERVOIR. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  6. A shift in designing cage-washing operations.

    PubMed

    Zynda, Jeffrey R

    2015-04-01

    Support systems for animal research facilities are often complex and resource-intensive operations whose successful design and implementation require substantial experience. The cage-washing center is at the heart of these support spaces and is not only one of the largest spaces found in an animal facility but also one of the greatest consumers of resources, in terms of both utilities and human labor. Certain methodologies and systems for cage-wash operations have become 'go-to' solutions, but alternative approaches have the potential to reduce utility consumption and human labor. The author's firm analyzed cage-washing operations at an academic institution with the goal of reducing consumption of resources, both human labor and utilities such as water, steam and electricity. Here he describes the analysis and design process as a case study and shows that substantial savings can be achieved by using alternative systems in cage-washing systems. He recommends that cage-washing operations can be optimized by thoroughly investigating the anticipated cage-washing throughput and then thoughtfully selecting the most efficient means to handle that workload. PMID:25793681

  7. Slurry filtration and cake washing after the HCl-leach of magnesite and serpentine—continuous washing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Denis; Nagamori, Meguru

    1994-06-01

    Four different ores of magnesite and serpentine were leached with hydrochloric acid to produce concentrated magnesium chloride liquors. The neutralized slurries were filtered at a constant pressure, and the cakes were washed with water. As for filtration, the mass balance was calculated based on magnesium analyses, while the Darcy-Ruth equation was used to investigate the kinetics and assess the specific resistance of cakes. As for washing, the mass balance and kinetics were accounted for in terms of a continuous mathematical model, which is compatible with the Moncrieff equation. This new model explains well the washing test results. Washing operations can be optimized only in economical terms, and a complete set of mathematical formulae was presented for the optimization procedure.

  8. Improvement of Vehicle Positioning Using Car-to-Car Communications in Consideration of Communication Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hontani, Hidekata; Higuchi, Yuya

    In this article, we propose a vehicle positioning method that can estimate positions of cars even in areas where the GPS is not available. For the estimation, each car measures the relative distance to a car running in front, communicates the measurements with other cars, and uses the received measurements for estimating its position. In order to estimate the position even if the measurements are received with time-delay, we employed the time-delay tolerant Kalman filtering. For sharing the measurements, it is assumed that a car-to-car communication system is used. Then, the measurements sent from farther cars are received with larger time-delay. It follows that the accuracy of the estimates of farther cars become worse. Hence, the proposed method manages only the states of nearby cars to reduce computing effort. The authors simulated the proposed filtering method and found that the proposed method estimates the positions of nearby cars as accurate as the distributed Kalman filtering.

  9. Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm?13400 cm?1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm?12970 cm?1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials. PMID:21258555

  10. The human controller in car following

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, G. O.; Bekey, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The man machine interface between the human driver and his automobile during car following tasks was examined. A direct connection between models of the human operator and the theory of optimal control was established for car following situations involving both linear and nonlinear car dynamics. Results obtained from several types of mathematical models are discussed. Conventional parameter identification techniques were used to obtain the parameters of these models by comparing their performance to data obtained by aerial photogrammetry. The results indicate that there are two general classes of model structures: models assumed to have preview information and models without preview.

  11. Effect of Plasma Washing Rotor on Characteristics of Three Phase Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Jun-Ichi; Nagasawa, Takeshi

    In this paper, the effect of the plasma washing on the characteristics of unused three phase induction motor is clarified. We make plasma washing on the rotor and compare the characteristics of the motor after the washing with before the washing.

  12. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations 157.162 Crude oil washing... 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  13. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations 157.162 Crude oil washing... 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  14. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations 157.162 Crude oil washing... 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  15. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations 157.162 Crude oil washing... 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  16. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations 157.162 Crude oil washing... 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  17. 16 CFR 1630.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Alternatively the selected sample or oversized specimens thereof may be washed... washing procedure. 1630.62 Section 1630.62 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...) Washing Procedures § 1630.62 Wool flokati carpets and rugs—alternative washing procedure. (a) The...

  18. 16 CFR 1631.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Alternatively the selected sample or oversized specimens thereof may be washed... washing procedure. 1631.62 Section 1631.62 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...) Washing Procedures § 1631.62 Wool flokati carpets and rugs—alternative washing procedure. (a) The...

  19. 16 CFR 1631.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Alternatively the selected sample or oversized specimens thereof may be washed... washing procedure. 1631.62 Section 1631.62 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...) Washing Procedures § 1631.62 Wool flokati carpets and rugs—alternative washing procedure. (a) The...

  20. 16 CFR 1631.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Alternatively the selected sample or oversized specimens thereof may be washed... washing procedure. 1631.62 Section 1631.62 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...) Washing Procedures § 1631.62 Wool flokati carpets and rugs—alternative washing procedure. (a) The...

  1. 16 CFR 1630.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Alternatively the selected sample or oversized specimens thereof may be washed... washing procedure. 1630.62 Section 1630.62 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...) Washing Procedures § 1630.62 Wool flokati carpets and rugs—alternative washing procedure. (a) The...

  2. 16 CFR 1630.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Alternatively the selected sample or oversized specimens thereof may be washed... washing procedure. 1630.62 Section 1630.62 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...) Washing Procedures § 1630.62 Wool flokati carpets and rugs—alternative washing procedure. (a) The...

  3. WASHING CONDITIONS AFFECT THE INACTIVATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 ON FRUIT SURFACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Washing with sanitizers is an important step to reduce microbial populations during postharvest handling of produce. The washing efficacy of sanitizers has been extensively studied in the contexts of produce-to-sanitizer ratio, washing time, and washing temperature. Little attention has been paid to...

  4. Treatment of tunnel wash water and implications for its disposal.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, M; Renman, G; Byman, L; Svenstam, G; Norling, M

    2014-01-01

    The use of road tunnels in urban areas creates water pollution problems, since the tunnels must be frequently cleaned for traffic safety reasons. The washing generates extensive volumes of highly polluted water, for example, more than fivefold higher concentrations of suspended solids compared to highway runoff. The pollutants in the wash water have an affinity for particulate material, so sedimentation should be a viable treatment option. In this study, 12 in situ sedimentation trials were carried out on tunnel wash water, with and without addition of chemical flocculent. Initial suspended solids concentration ranged from 804 to 9,690 mg/L. With sedimentation times of less than 24 hours and use of a chemical flocculent, it was possible to reach low concentrations of suspended solids (<15 mg/L), PAH (<0.1 ?g/L), As (<1.0 ?g/L), Cd (<0.05 ?g/L), Hg (<0.02 ?g/L), Fe (<200 ?g/L), Ni (<8 ?g/L), Pb (<0.5 ?g/L), Zn (<60 ?g/L) and Cr (<8 ?g/L). Acute Microtox() toxicity, mainly attributed to detergents used for the tunnel wash, decreased significantly at low suspended solids concentrations after sedimentation using a flocculent. The tunnel wash water did not inhibit nitrification. The treated water should be suitable for discharge into recipient waters or a wastewater treatment plant. PMID:24845317

  5. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  6. Dioxin removal from contaminated soils by ethanol washing.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Sofia; Lind, Henrik; Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential utility of ethanol washing for remediating soils contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as a cost-efficient alternative to conventional remediation methods of PCDD/F-contaminated soils. Initially, screening experiments were performed with a two-level full factorial design to examine the effects of temperature, extraction time and ethanol concentration on the removal efficiency. The screening experiments showed that the ethanol concentration was the most important parameter. In addition, repeated washing cycles considerably improved the results. Ethanol washing conditions were then selected (10 wash cycles with 75% ethanol at 60 degrees C), and applied to four soils with different soil characteristics and contamination levels to test the robustness of the selected method. Treatment efficiencies of 81% and 85% were obtained for a lightly contaminated sandy-silty soil and a highly contaminated clay soil rich in graphite particles, respectively. Even higher treatment efficiencies (> or = 97%) were obtained for two other highly contaminated soils, one of which contained high amounts of organic matter. PCDD/Fs were found to both dissolve in the solvent and migrate into it as species adsorbed to particles. The relative contributions of these mechanisms and the overall efficiency of the removal seem to depend on contaminant concentration, the types of carbon in the soil matrix and the particle size distribution. The study shows that ethanol washing has effective remediation potential for a variety of PCDD/F-contaminated soils. PMID:20399556

  7. The potential impact of washing machines on laundry malodour generation.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, K; Hill, K; Day, K; Perry, J D; Dean, J R

    2013-04-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has been adopted to investigate and identify the source of malodour in washing machines and the potential for cross-contamination of laundry. Four washing machines were olfactively graded, and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) bacteria was determined in four specific locations. Then, samples of terry-towel and fleece were washed, without the use of detergent, in the machines, and the occurrence of malodour over a 52-h period was assessed. Analysis of the scrapings from the four locations in the two malodorous machines identified a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by either olfactory detection or mass spectral identification post-gas chromatographic separation. In addition, microbiological analysis from the swabs from the four locations within all four washing machines was carried out. Quantitative analysis of VOCs from 66 microbiological isolates from either the washing machines or fabrics was carried out. In total, 10 VOCs were identified: dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2,4-dithiapentane, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-tridecanone, indole, 2-phenylethanol, isovaleric acid, isobutyric acid and 1-undecene. PMID:23350695

  8. CAR-T Cell Therapy for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos A; Heslop, Helen E; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2016-01-14

    Lymphomas arise from clonal expansions of B, T, or NK cells at different stages of differentiation. Because they occur in the immunocyte-rich lymphoid tissues, they are easily accessible to antibodies and cell-based immunotherapy. Expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on T cells is a means of combining the antigen-binding site of a monoclonal antibody with the activating machinery of a T cell, enabling antigen recognition independent of major histocompatibility complex restriction, while retaining the desirable antitumor properties of a T cell. Here, we discuss the basic design of CARs and their potential advantages and disadvantages over other immune therapies for lymphomas. We review current clinical trials in the field and consider strategies to improve the in vivo function and safety of immune cells expressing CARs. The ultimate driver of CAR development and implementation for lymphoma will be the demonstration of their ability to safely and cost-effectively cure these malignancies. PMID:26332003

  9. How to Buy a Car 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Charity A.

    2006-01-01

    This article elaborates on the basics of problem-based learning units and tips for implementation. The problem-based learning unit described focuses on the course of action involved in purchasing a new car. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. EcoCAR Challenge Profile: Virginia Tech

    ScienceCinema

    Gantt, Lynn

    2013-05-29

    Since childhood, Lynn Gantt has had a deep seeded passion for cars and the mechanics that drive them. The Virginia native spent his weekends rebuilding antique tractors with his dad to race at tractor pulls across the state, and now the Virginia Tech graduate student is the proud team co-leader of Virginia Tech's EcoCAR Challenge team -- the winners of the three-year long competition, as announced last night at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C..

  11. EcoCAR Challenge Profile: Virginia Tech

    SciTech Connect

    Gantt, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Since childhood, Lynn Gantt has had a deep seeded passion for cars and the mechanics that drive them. The Virginia native spent his weekends rebuilding antique tractors with his dad to race at tractor pulls across the state, and now the Virginia Tech graduate student is the proud team co-leader of Virginia Tech's EcoCAR Challenge team -- the winners of the three-year long competition, as announced last night at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C..

  12. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., occupied caboose, or carload of undeveloped film by at least one non-placarded car. (c) A tank car... least one rail car other than a placarded tank car. (d) Position of rail cars in a train. In the... Group 1 Rail Car Placard Group 2 Tank Car Rail Car Placard Group 3 Tank Car Rail Car Placard......

  13. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., occupied caboose, or carload of undeveloped film by at least one non-placarded car. (c) A tank car... least one rail car other than a placarded tank car. (d) Position of rail cars in a train. In the... Group 1 Rail Car Placard Group 2 Tank Car Rail Car Placard Group 3 Tank Car Rail Car Placard......

  14. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., occupied caboose, or carload of undeveloped film by at least one non-placarded car. (c) A tank car... least one rail car other than a placarded tank car. (d) Position of rail cars in a train. In the... Group 1 Rail Car Placard Group 2 Tank Car Rail Car Placard Group 3 Tank Car Rail Car Placard......

  15. 49 CFR 38.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.109 Section 38.109... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not...

  16. 49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (1) Market rate cars shall not be subject to prescribed rates or to the provisions of 49 CFR 1039.14... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a)...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Between-car barriers. 1192... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not provided, devices or systems shall...

  18. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  19. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  1. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  2. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage....

  4. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  5. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  6. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  7. 49 CFR 38.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.109 Section 38.109... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not...

  8. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  9. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  10. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  11. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  12. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Between-car barriers. 1192... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not provided, devices or systems shall...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Between-car barriers. 1192.109... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not provided, devices or systems shall...

  15. 49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (1) Market rate cars shall not be subject to prescribed rates or to the provisions of 49 CFR 1039.14... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a)...

  16. 49 CFR 38.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.109 Section 38.109... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not...

  17. 49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (1) Market rate cars shall not be subject to prescribed rates or to the provisions of 49 CFR 1039.14... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a)...

  18. 49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (1) Market rate cars shall not be subject to prescribed rates or to the provisions of 49 CFR 1039.14... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a)...

  19. 36 CFR 1192.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Between-car barriers. 1192... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not provided, devices or systems shall...

  20. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  1. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Between-car barriers. 1192... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not provided, devices or systems shall...

  3. 49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (1) Market rate cars shall not be subject to prescribed rates or to the provisions of 49 CFR 1039.14... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a)...

  4. 49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material... facilities which have been equipped for piping the liquid from tank cars to permanent storage tanks...

  5. 49 CFR 38.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.109 Section 38.109... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not...

  6. 49 CFR 38.109 - Between-car barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.109 Section 38.109... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a high-platform, level-boarding mode, and where between-car bellows are not...

  7. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  8. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  9. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a)...

  10. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  11. Composite car carriers ride the rails

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of an advanced-technology rail-car that does a better, more cost-effective job of shipping motor vehicles. After assembling a team of specialist suppliers to design and build the major subassemblies the prototype SMART car (Secured Modular Automotive Rail Transport) was completed. The SMART car design team adopted a clean sheet approach. The innovative new auto carrier is built around a two-unit articulated spine car, which is a lightweight and efficient design based on a single center sill (the spine) and cantilevered outriggers to support he load. Low-mass corrosion-resistant thermoplastic resin-composite modules for housing the autos---the largest poltruded-composite structures ever built---are triple-stacked on the spine car platforms. Both features help make the SMART car's tare weight from 5 to 10 percent less than conventional equipment, which saves fuel. The truck/suspension system is designed to be stable up to 80 miles per hour, with suspension and shock-damping systems designed around the natural frequency response of auto components to limit damage.

  12. Design, development and demonstration of an improved bird washing machine.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Monsef, H; Moghadami, M; Zare, M; Armandei, A

    2014-07-01

    Since oil was first extracted, pollution of the seas and oceans or adjacent coasts has been an obstacle for the oil industry and environmental activists. The major concern is oil discharge into the water which may lead to birds' affliction or death, besides putting marine life in jeopardy. This paper presents the first description of the design and implementation of a new bird washing machine that can be utilized for cleaning of oil-coated birds with the minimum of stress. The machine is equipped with a pneumatic system comprised of 19 moving nozzles which evenly cover the bird's body and is designed to be used in contaminated environments where a vast number of birds are affected. Experimental trials show an improvement in operation efficiency compared to other methods in a reduction in washing time, energy consumption and a decrease in fatality rate of washed birds. PMID:24729024

  13. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions. PMID:26066704

  14. Gravity and magnetic study of Yucca Wash, southwest Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-12-31

    Gravity and ground magnetic data were collected along five traverses across and one traverse along Yucca Wash in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. Two additional ground magnetic profiles were collected approximately 100 m to either side of the longitudinal profile. These data do not indicate major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. A broad magnetic high coincides with the location of the hydrologic gradient. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Yucca Wash is about 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}.

  15. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-06-01

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions.

  16. Electrical Switchability and Dry-Wash Durability of Conductive Textiles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangting; Zhang, Bowu; Wu, Jingxia; Wang, Ziqiang; Ma, Hongjuan; Yu, Ming; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the area of conductive textiles in the scientific and industrial community. Herein, we successfully prepared a conductive textile via covalently grafting polyaniline (PANI) onto cotton by a multi-step treatment process. The conductivity of the resultant fabric could be tuned by immersing in water having different pH values. The conductive and insulating properties of the textile could be conveniently switched by alternately immersing in acidic and alkaline bath solutions. Most importantly, the resultant conductive fabrics were able to withstand 40 simulated dry-wash cycles, with almost no decay in the electrical conductivity, indicating their excellent dry-wash durability. The present strategy for fabricating conductive fabrics with excellent switchability of electrical properties and dry-wash durability is expected to provide inspiration for the production of multifunctional conductive textiles for use in hash or sensitive conditions. PMID:26066704

  17. Wash-out in N2-dominated leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn-Woernle, F.

    2010-08-01

    We study the wash-out of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by subsequent interactions. Therefore we focus on a scenario in which a lepton asymmetry is established in the out-of-equilibrium decays of the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino. We apply the full classical Boltzmann equations without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors to calculate the wash-out of the lepton asymmetry by interactions of the lightest right-handed state. We include scattering processes with top quarks in our analysis. This is of particular interest since the wash-out is enhanced by scatterings and the use of mode equations with quantum statistical distribution functions. In this way we provide a restriction on the parameter space for this scenario.

  18. Synergetic effect of a novel wash aid, T-128, in improving chlorine efficacy against bacterial pathogens in wash solution containing high organic loads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine is widely used as a sanitizer in commercial fresh-cut wash water for produce processing of bagged leafy greens. However, free chlorine depletion occurs rapidly when high organic content loads are introduced directly into the wash solution as part of the washing operation process. This chl...

  19. Conformational changes in proteins recovered from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle through pH shift washing treatments.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Ruiz, Juan A; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Ramírez-Suárez, Juan C; Lugo-Sánchez, Maria E; García-Orozco, Karina D; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Peña-Ramos, Aida

    2016-04-01

    Conformational and thermal-rheological properties of acidic (APC) and neutral (NPC) protein concentrates were evaluated and compared to those of squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle proteins (SM). Surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl status, secondary structure profile, differential scanning calorimetry and oscillatory dynamic rheology were used to evaluate the effect of treatments on protein properties. Acidic condition during the washing process (APC) promoted structural and conformational changes in the protein present in the concentrate produced. These changes were enhanced during the heat setting of the corresponding sol. Results demonstrate that washing squid muscle under the proposed acidic conditions is a feasible technological alternative for squid-based surimi production improving its yield and gel-forming ability. PMID:26593553

  20. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE ELECTRIC TROLLEY IS SEEN AT THE LEFT. THE BULKHEAD SEEN AT THE LOWER RIGHT IS NOT PART OF THE MACHINE; IT WAS INSTALLED TO RETAIN THE FILTER SAND AFTER THE MACHINE WAS NO LONGER USED. THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 4 IS SEEN IN THE DISTANCE BELOW THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE TROLLEY. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  1. Direct evidence of "washing out" of nuclear shell effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Bhattacharya, C.; Kundu, S.; Meena, J. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Pandey, R.; Rana, T. K.; Roy, P.; Roy, T.; Srivastava, V.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2015-04-01

    Constraining the excitation energy at which the nuclear shell effect washes out has important implications on the production of superheavy elements and many other fields of nuclear physics research. We report the fission fragment mass distribution in α induced reaction on an actinide target for wide excitation range in close energy interval and show direct evidence that the nuclear shell effect washes out at excitation energy ˜40 MeV. The calculation shows that the second peak of the fission barrier also vanishes around similar excitation energy.

  2. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  3. BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE SUCTION (INTAKE) HOSE IS SEEN AT THE LEFT RESTING ON THE FILTER BED SURFACE; THE DISCHARGE HOSE IS AT THE RIGHT, RUNNING FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE CENTRAL VERTICAL AXLE TO THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. FROM THE PUMP WATER IS DISCHARGED THROUGH THE HORIZONTAL PIPE LOCATED UNDER THE EDGE OF PLATFORM DECK INTO THE WASTE-WATER TROUGH (NOT SEEN IN THIS VIEW). - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  4. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. 180.519 Section 180.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank...

  5. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see §...

  6. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see §...

  7. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see §...

  8. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars. PMID:24265803

  9. Are Weeds Hitchhiking a Ride on Your Car? A Systematic Review of Seed Dispersal on Cars

    PubMed Central

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars. PMID:24265803

  10. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter for a DOT-113C120W tank car apply to a DOT-113D120W tank car. (49 U.S.C. 1803, 1804, 1808; 49 CFR... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section... cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not...

  11. Defining the mammalian CArGome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiang; Chen, Guang; Streb, Jeffrey W.; Long, Xiaochun; Yang, Yumei; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Miano, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Serum response factor (SRF) binds a 1216-fold degenerate cis element known as the CArG box. CArG boxes are found primarily in muscle- and growth-factor-associated genes although the full spectrum of functional CArG elements in the genome (the CArGome) has yet to be defined. Here we describe a genome-wide screen to further define the functional mammalian CArGome. A computational approach involving comparative genomic analyses of human and mouse orthologous genes uncovered >100 hypothetical SRF-dependent genes, including 10 previously identified SRF targets, harboring a conserved CArG element within 4000 bp of the annotated transcription start site (TSS). We PCR-cloned 89 hypothetical SRF targets and subjected each of them to at least two of several validations including luciferase reporter, gel shift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and mRNA expression following RNAi knockdown of SRF; 60/89 (67%) of the targets were validated. Interestingly, 26 of the validated SRF target genes encode for cytoskeletal/contractile or adhesion proteins. RNAi knockdown of SRF diminishes expression of several SRF-dependent cytoskeletal genes and elicits an attending perturbation in the cytoarchitecture of both human and rodent cells. These data illustrate the power of integrating existing algorithms to interrogate the genome in a relatively unbiased fashion for cis-regulatory element discovery. In this manner, we have further expanded the mammalian CArGome with the discovery of an array of cyto-contractile genes that coordinate normal cytoskeletal homeostasis. We suggest one function of SRF is that of an ancient master regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:16365378

  12. Application and evaluation of the washing effect in the collector well using pilot plant with washing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Lee, B. H.

    2012-04-01

    Riverbed/bank filtration (RBF) is a natural process used as a first step in drinking water treatment. RBF systems consist of well fields that draw water from an aquifer that is hydraulically connected to surface waters. The benefits of RBF are multiple and include a reduction of turbidity, total coliform, microbial contaminants natural organic matter, and organic contaminants. Some of the disadvantages of RBF include the difficulty of preventing river water from infiltrating the aquifer in in-stances of severe river contamination, the geochemical reaction of the infiltrate with aquifer materials that may raise the aqueous concentrations of Fe2+, Mn2+, As, NH4+, CH4, Ca2+ and HCO3- , and clogging of the riverbed. For example, has demonstrated that riverbed clogging may decrease the specific capacity of RBF wells (flow reduction in the collector well etc.). The objective of this study is to optimization and evaluation the washing effect on various nozzle type and intervals, soil retention rate in the collector well using pilot plant with washing device for prevention flow reduction in the collector well. The Pilot plant experiments were conducted under various conditions; two kinds nozzle type (spray nozzle of circle type (single - Full Cone, multi - Hollow Cone) and spray nozzle of fan shape type (Veejet)), two different nozzle intervals (200 mm, 400mm) and a various soil retention rate in the collector well (10 ~ 40%). The results of experiment showed that in the nozzle type case, the washing effect of the veeject nozzle was more effective than other (Full Cone, Hollow Cone) nozzle through spray results (range, strength and height). In the nozzle interval conditions, washing effect is 200 mm better than 400 mm through spray distance and soil height. The washing efficiency in the collector well increased on soil retention rate decreased and the nozzle injection pressure increased using washing device

  13. A thermophotovoltaic generator for use in a lightweight electric car: Year 1 progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, M. R.

    1995-05-01

    In the nine months since the start of this project significant progress toward the completion of the tasks scheduled in the first year has been made and in some cases exceeded. A number of unforeseen problems have been isolated and solved with redesign of components and specification of different materials. This project has been running concurrently with a Phase 1 DOE Green Car SBIR grant to JX Crystals in which WWU is the sub-contractor to do burner design, construction and testing. As a result of this concurrent project, the design of the single burner for the TPV8 which is nearing completion at this time, incorporates the improvements of the Phase 1 Green Car burner. The status of the tasks scheduled for the first nine months of the contract and the current status are shown.

  14. 49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars. 173.314 Section 173.314 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  15. 49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars. 173.314 Section 173.314 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  16. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  17. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  18. Social prejudice hindering proper use of car safety seats.

    PubMed

    Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Orun, Emel; Yesilyurt, Kubra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2013-12-01

    The compliance of parents with child passenger safety (CPS) has been mainly explained by their level of knowledge. Social, ethnic and cultural factors have not been investigated in detail. This study investigated the rate of compliance of parents with CPS guidelines, as well as the factors hindering it. Parents of infants aged 2-10 days were enrolled. The proportions of families obtaining a car safety seat (CSS; 57%) and complying with CPS recommendations (2%) were very low. Most of the parents thought CSS were harmful for infants (mother, 57%; father, 63%), despite having already purchased one. Parents believed their children to be too small to use CSS and cannot sit in CSS because they should lie flat on their backs at all times. These prejudices may be due to the social and cultural circumstances specific to Turkey, or corresponding findings may be found in countries with similar socioeconomic status. PMID:24330293

  19. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY FOR PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1987 Record of Decision for Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides and metals. nitial treatability tests conducted to assess the application of soi...

  20. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. he high sand content and low...

  1. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA–FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provi...

  2. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and lo...

  3. Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest.

    PubMed

    DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected). PMID:20374798

  4. 35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - RIVER FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  5. 36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - DRIVE FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF ENTEROBACTERICEAE FROM WASHED AND UNWASHED COMMERCIAL SHELL EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, little attention has been given to the microbiology of commercial processed eggs. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. For each of three repetitions, shell...

  7. BERGMANN USA SOIL SEDIMENT WASHING TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides an evaluation of the performance of the Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System and its applicability for the treatment of soils or sediments contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspects of the technology w...

  8. BERGMAN USA SOIL SEDIMENT WASHING TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides an evaluation of the performance of the Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System and its applicability for the treatment of soils or sediments contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. oth the technical and economic aspects of the technology we...

  9. Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F

    1991-09-01

    Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Ultrasonic system for continuous washing of textiles in liquid layers.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A; Riera, Enrique; Acosta, Victor; Rodríguez, Germán; Blanco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic energy for washing of textiles has been tried several times without achieving practical development. In fact, the softness of the fibres makes the cavitation to produce small erosion effect and the reticulate structure of the fabric favours the formation of air bubble layers which obstruct wave penetration. In addition, a high proportion of water with respect to the wash load and a certain water degassing is required to assure efficiency and homogeneity in the wash performance. Such requirements have hindered the commercial development of the ultrasonic washing machines for domestic purposes. For specific industrial applications, a great part of these limitations may be overcome. This article deals with a new process in which the fabric is exposed to the ultrasonic field in a flat format. Such process has been implemented at laboratory and at semi-industrial stage by using specially designed power ultrasonic transducers with rectangular plate radiators. The cleaning effect is produced by the intense cavitation field generated by the plate radiator within a thin layer of liquid where the fabric is introduced. The homogeneity of such effect is achieved by the successive exposure of all the fabric areas to the intense acoustic field. In this paper the structure and performance of the developed system are shown. PMID:19574081

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL/SEDIMENT WASHING SYSTEM BERGMANN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System is a waste minimization technique designed to separate or "partition" soils and sediments by grain size and density. In this water-based volume reduction process, hazardous contaminants are concentrated into a small residual portion...

  12. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  13. 21 CFR 211.52 - Washing and toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washing and toilet facilities. 211.52 Section 211.52 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and...

  14. Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later. PMID:21119868

  15. Decay kinetics of free chlorine in fresh produce wash system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorinated water wash is a critical step employed in the production of fresh-cut produce. The efficacy of chlorinated water was affected largely by the concentration of active chlorine ingredients, which degrades due to the presence of microorganisms, as well as inorganic and organic matters. It is...

  16. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... as often as the water conditions require, but not less frequently than at each 31 service day... B of this part.) (b) Plug removal. All washout plugs, arch tube plugs, thermic siphon plugs, circulator plugs and water bar plugs must be removed whenever locomotive boilers are washed. (c)...

  17. MAGNETITE RECOVERY IN COAL WASHING BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a demonstration of the successful recovery of magnetite from mixtures of magnetite and coal, like those found in a coal-washing circuit, by High Gradient Magnetic Separation. The demonstration was part of a research program at Francis Bitter National Magnet L...

  18. 23. Road view at Jim Camp Wash. Note Rainbow Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Road view at Jim Camp Wash. Note Rainbow Museum at rear. Road is on east-west axis here as original design of Rainbow Museum area. Long Logs Road to left foreground. Park Road to right foreground. Looking W. - Petrified Forest National Park Roads & Bridges, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  19. Hospital green salads and the effects of washing them.

    PubMed

    Houang, E; Bodnaruk, P; Ahmet, Z

    1991-02-01

    Each week from April 1989 to February 1990, a plate of green salad prepared in the hospital kitchen was examined microbiologically. Of the 256 plates examined, 51% had total viable counts (TVCs) of greater than or equal to 10(5) colony forming units (cfu) g-1. Staphylococcus aureus was present in 13 samples and Escherichia coli in one sample. No Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella spp. were isolated. The effect of washing mustard and cress, cucumber and the different layers of lettuce leaves was examined. Washing the salad by agitating it under running tap water in a colander for 2 min reduced the total bacterial counts by 10-fold. The inner leaves of a lettuce had TVCs less than 10(4)cfu g-1, at least 10-100-fold less than the outer leaves. Cucumber after washing had similar TVCs as after peeling. Five of six samples of mustard and cress had TVCs of at least 10(6)cfu g-1 before washing. As a consequence, mustard and cress was no longer used in our salads. PMID:1674258

  20. Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  1. Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  2. 30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allowances. (a) Arm's-length contracts. (1) For washing costs incurred by a lessee under an arm's-length... lessee shall have the burden of demonstrating that its contract is arm's-length. ONRR' prior approval is not required before a lessee may deduct costs incurred under an arm's-length contract. The lessee...

  3. Efficacy of Post-Wash Shell Egg Sanitizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine (Cl) solutions of 100-200 ppm are the standard by which post-wash shell egg sanitizers are measured. Any facility that packages eggs with the USDA grade shields must use a comparable sanitizer. While chlorine solutions are inexpensive, non-corrosive, and safe to handle, they are not very ...

  4. 62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly reticulated. Tree behind fence is common fig, Ficus carica.) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  5. 1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW FROM BONY PILE LOOKING SOUTH. WASH HOUSE IN LEFT BACKGROUND. TIPPLE AND CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT. IN CENTER IS A TANK USED FOR TREATING MINE REFUSE AND ACID RUNOFF. - Eureka No. 40, Tipple & Cleaning Plant, East of State Route 56, north of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

  6. Environmental Impacts Of Zirab Coal Washing Plant, Mazandaran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Esmaeili, A.

    2009-04-01

    Extraction and beneficiation operations associated with coal mining increase the rate of chemical reaction of waste material to air and water media. Zirab coal washing plant is located on the bank of the Cherat stream in Mazandaran province, Iran. coal Mined from central Alborz coalfield mines is not suitable for use in Iranian Steel Corporation. Hence, coal ash content is reduced by physical and chemical processes in this plant. These processes leave a large quantity of liquid and solid wastes that accumulate in waste dump and tailing dam. sediment and water samples taken from Sheshrudbar and Cherat streams and also from Talar river show high concentration of Cd, Mo and As in water samples of coal washing plant and the associated drainage. Eh-pH diagrams revealed the chemical species of elements in water. The enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show that Cd, Hg, Mo and V are enriched in bottom sediments of the coal washing plant and decrease with increasing distance from the plant. Sequential extraction analysis Results of three sediment samples of Cherat stream show that silicate bound is the major phase in samples taken before and after the plant, but adjacent to the plant, organic bound is dominant. The high concentration of Cd and Mo in the water soluble phase, is noticeable and may result in high mobility and bioavailability of these elements. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests on six samples, before and after the coal washing plant support the obtained results. Keywords: Zirab; coal washing plant; Sequential extraction analysis; Mann-whitney; Wilcoxon; Enrichment factor; Geoaccumulation index.

  7. Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors. PMID:19008513

  8. Multivariate statistical analyses of groundwater surrounding Forty mile wash

    SciTech Connect

    Woocay, A.; Walton, J.C.

    2007-07-01

    Groundwater chemistry data from 211 sampling locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed using multivariate statistical methods in order to better understand groundwater chemical evolution, ascertain potential flow paths and determine hydrochemical facies. Correspondence analysis of the major ion chemistry is used to define relationships between and among major ions and sampling locations. A k-means cluster analysis is used to determine hydrochemical facies based on correspondence analysis dimensions. The derived dimensions and hydrochemical facies are presented as bi-plots and overlaid on a digital elevation model of the region giving a visual picture of potential interactions and flow paths. A distinct signature of the groundwater chemistry along the extended flow path of Fortymile Wash can be observed along with some potential interaction at possible fault lines near Highway I-95. The signature from Fortymile Wash is believed to represent the relict of water that infiltrated during past pluvial periods when the amount of runoff in the wash was significantly larger than during the current drier period. This hypothesis appears to be supported by hydrogen-2 and oxygen-18 data which indicate that younger groundwater is found in the upper part of the wash near Yucca Mountain and older groundwater is found in the lower region of the wash near Amargosa River. The range of the hydrogen-2 data corresponds to precipitation in a period of relatively cold climate and has a similar spatial signature to the oxygen-18 data. If the hypothesis that current groundwater chemistry primarily reflects past focused infiltration of surface runoff rather than regional groundwater migration is correct, then saturated zone transport from Yucca Mountain may be much slower than is currently anticipated. (authors)

  9. Safety and the car size effect: a fundamental explanation.

    PubMed

    Wood, D P

    1997-03-01

    In this paper the passive safety of cars is examined in the context of the influence of car size and mass on the relative safety of cars. The fundamental relationships of Newtonian mechanics are used to derive a generalized equation for the relative safety of cars of different sizes when involved in frontal collisions. Further equations are derived for collisions between cars of similar size and for single vehicle crashes. These are combined with overall injury criteria to give a series of predicted Relative Injury Risk relationships. Theory shows that in collisions between cars of similar size and in single vehicle accidents the fundamental parameter which determines Relative Injury Risk is the size, i.e. the length of the car whereas in collisions between dissimilar sized cars the fundamental parameters are the masses and the structural energy absorption properties of the cars. The predictions from the theoretical models are compared with the results of field evaluations of Relative Injury Risk to car occupants carried out in the U.S.A. and in Europe for car to car and single vehicle collisions. There is a high level of correlation between the theory and the field evaluations of Relative Injury Risk. Finally the overall structural crush behaviour of cars is reviewed and ways of further improving the overall passive safety of cars proposed. PMID:9088353

  10. ChemMatCARS Data Archive

    DOE Data Explorer

    ChemMatCARS is a high-brilliance national synchrotron x-ray facility dedicated primarily to static and dynamic condensed matter chemistry and materials science. The scientific focus of the facility includes the study of surface and interfacial properties of liquids and solids as well as their bulk structure at atomic, molecular and mesoscopic length scales with high spatial and energy resolution. Experimental techniques supported by the facility include: 1) Liquid Surface X-ray Scattering; 2) Solid Surface X-ray Scattering; 3) Time-Resolved Crystallography; 4) Micro-Crystal Diffraction; 5) Small and Wide-angle X-ray Scattering. The data archive referenced here contains data for various components along the beamline within the First Optics Enclosure and is intended to be input or parameter data. See the Science Nuggets at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/chemmat/pages/nuggets.html for leads to some of the research conducted at the ChemMatCARS beamline.

  11. Analysis of a model race car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Evans, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    We analyze the motion of a gravity powered model race car on a downhill track of variable slope. Using a simple algebraic function to approximate the height of the track as a function of the distance along the track, and taking account of the rotational energy of the wheels, rolling friction, and air resistance, we obtain analytic expressions for the velocity and time of the car as functions of the distance traveled along the track. Photogates are used to measure the time at selected points along the track, and the measured values are in excellent agreement with the values predicted from theory. The design and analysis of model race cars provides a good application of principles of mechanics and suggests interesting projects for classes in introductory and intermediate mechanics.

  12. Track-train dynamics. [railroad car design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, P. W.; Morosow, G.; Macpherson, J.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline one of the serious dynamic problems involving railroad cars and to propose an orderly approach to the definition of a dynamic model through analysis and testing that can be used to investigate various fixes. The problem in question is the hunting phenomenon involving lateral instability of the car suspension (trucks). This phenomenon has been recognized as a major contributing factor in a significant number of derailments causing millions of dollars in losses. This paper expounds on the mechanics and characteristics of hunting. The planned solution is outlined as a building block approach directed at formulating a test verified dynamic model of an open hopper freight car-truck assembly. Results obtained to date are presented together with conclusions related to the program.

  13. Leica solution: CARS microscopy at video rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurquin, V.

    2008-02-01

    Confocal and multiphoton microscopy are powerful techniques to study morphology and dynamics in cells and tissue, if fluorescent labeling is possible or autofluorescence is strong. For non-fluorescent molecules, Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy provides chemical contrast based on intrinsic and highly specific vibrational properties of molecules eliminating the need for labeling. Just as other multiphoton techniques, CARS microscopy possesses three-dimensional sectioning capabilities. Leica Microsystems has combined the CARS imaging technology with its TCS SP5 confocal microscope to provide several advantages for CARS imaging. For CARS microscopy, two picosecond near-infrared lasers are overlapped spatially and temporally and sent into the scanhead of the confocal system. The software allows programmed, automatic switching between these light sources for multi-modal imaging. Furthermore the Leica TCS SP5 can be equipped with a non-descanned detector which will significantly enhance the signal. The Leica TCS SP5 scanhead combines two technologies in one system: a conventional scanner for maximum resolution and a resonant scanner for high time resolution. The fast scanner allows imaging speeds as high as 25 images/per second at a resolution of 512512 pixel. This corresponds to true video-rate allowing to follow processes at these time-scales as well as the acquisition of three-dimensional stacks in a few seconds. This time resolution is critical to study live animals or human patients for which heart beat and muscle movements lead to a blurring of the image if the acquisition time is high. Furthermore with the resonant scanhead the sectioning is truly confocal and does not suffer from spatial leakage. In summary, CARS microscopy combined with the tandem scanner makes the Leica TCS SP5 a powerful tool for three-dimensional, label-free imaging of chemical and biological samples in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Stress Markers During a Rally Car Competition.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, Sebastián; Abreu, Laurinda; Webb, Heather E; Zouhal, Hassane; Boullosa, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    Del Rosso, S, Abreu, L, Webb, HE, Zouhal, H, and Boullosa, DA. Stress markers during a rally car competition. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 605-614, 2016-The aim of the study was to assess the stress responses in drivers during an official rally car race and the influence of fitness and body composition on stress hormones. Fitness and body composition were assessed in 9 rally car drivers with an incremental exercise test for determination of maximum aerobic speed (MAS) and 6-site skinfold method, respectively. Before (pre) and after (post) the first stage of an official rally car race, data were collected for heart rate (HR), blood samples were collected for analysis of hormones (i.e., epinephrine [EPI], norepinephrine [NE], cortisol, and aldosterone) and metabolites (i.e., lactate [LA], glucose, and ammonia). There were significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in all assessed variables except glucose at postrace. Heart rate increased 93% (p ≤ 0.05) at the end of the race stage, reaching 88.77 ± 4.96% of HRpeak. Also, EPI and NE significantly (p = 0.001) increased by 45 and 65%, respectively, and LA increased by 395% (p < 0.001). Significant correlations between percent body fat (%BF) and postrace EPI (r = 0.95; p < 0.001), and percentage change of EPI (r = 0.83; p = 0.012) were observed. The MAS was not associated to any metabolic or hormonal variable. These results suggest that psycho-physiological stress induced by the race elicited important changes in hormonal and metabolic variables and that %BF could be an important mediator of psycho-physiological stress in rally car drivers. Specific programs, including both strength and aerobic training, and nutritional plans should be implemented for appropriate conditioning of rally car drivers. PMID:26907834

  15. Passenger car hydrocarbon emissions speciation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Black, F.; High, L.

    1980-05-01

    Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe emissions were for the urban driving conditions of the Federal Test Procedure used in motor vehicle certification. The evaporative emissions were for both diurnal and hot soak conditions, also prescribed in the Federal Test Procedure for certification. The vehicle tests involved four gasoline fuels of varying composition.

  16. CARS system for turbulent flame measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antcliff, R. R.; Jarrett, O., Jr.; Rogers, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Simultaneous nitrogen number density and rotational-vibrational temperatures were measured in a turbulent diffusion flame with a Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) instrument. The fuel jet was diluted with nitrogen (20 percent by volume) to allow temperature measurements across the entire jet mixing region. These measurements were compared with fluid dynamics computations. The CARS system incorporated a neodymium YAG laser, an intensified silicon photodiode array detector, and unique dynamic range enhancement methods. Theoretical calculations were based on a parabolic Navier-Stokes computer code. The comparison of these techniques will aid their development in the study of complex flowfields.

  17. Studies of clobazam and car-driving

    PubMed Central

    Biehl, B.

    1979-01-01

    1 The methodology used in studies to assess the effects of drugs on car-driving performance is reviewed. 2 Clobazam 20 mg, diazepam 10 mg or placebo were administered daily for 3 d to 24 male students with a high neuroticism score (on the Cattell Personality Factors Questionnaire). 3 Car-driving performance was assessed on the second day in real traffic conditions; tests of attention and concentration and subjective assessments were made on the third day. 4 Diazepam 10 mg significantly impaired braking reaction time in comparison with clobazam 20 mg and placebo (P < 0.01). Subjects also reported feeling more `depressed' and lethargic after diazepam. PMID:35213

  18. Rainfall Estimation Using Moving Cars as Rain Gauges - State of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberlandt, U.; Rabiei, E.; Sester, M.; Fitzner, D.

    2013-12-01

    Recently a new idea for rainfall estimation using motorcars as moving rain gauges with windscreen wipers or optical devices as sensors to detect precipitation has been proposed (Haberlandt & Sester, 2010). Those data may facilitate the estimation of high space-time resolution areal rainfall. One main research hypothesis is the assumption, that a large number of inaccurate measurements may provide more information about the spatial rainfall distribution than a few very accurate observations. In a first step the theoretical benefit of this idea could be shown by computer experiments comparing dynamic car networks against stationary rain gauge networks of different densities for the estimation of areal rainfall using radar data as reference. However, these experiments have assumed relationships between wiper speed and rainfall rate with arbitrary measurement errors. In a second step laboratory experiments have been carried out to establish valid relationships between wiper speed or optical sensor signals (W) and rainfall rate (R) under controlled conditions. A rain simulator is used to produce a variety of rainfall intensities which are measured by wiper frequency and signals from optical sensors mounted on cars. Also a rotating machine simulating different car speeds is employed. The results show quite strong relationships between rainfall rate and sensor signals. In parallel field experiments have been carried out using a set of cars driven by volunteers which were equipped with those sensors. Data have been collected and analyzed from the cars and from reference rain gauges in the Hanover area over a period of about one year. Compared to the laboratory experiments the derived W-R relationships are weaker. This is due to the many factors in nature which influence the measurements and the poor reference network. More data need to be collected in the field experiments to separate the different factors and classify the results. This contribution will report about current status and the results of the computer-, lab- and field experiments to estimate rainfall from moving cars as rain gauges.

  19. High Resolution fMRI Reveals Holistic Car Representations in the anterior FFA of Car Experts.

    PubMed

    Ross, David; Tamber-Rosenau, Benjamin; Palmeri, Thomas; Zhang, Jiedong; Xu, Yaoda; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    Perceptual expertise with an object category correlates with increased neural selectivity to that category in several visual areas, with the most robust effects in the fusiform face area (FFA). While expertise effects in FFA are well established, little is known about the representations that underlie these effects. Prior work in training studies with novel objects found that acquired behavioral holistic processing effects correlated with selectivity in FFA. Here, we probe the neural representations of cars for evidence of holistic information as a function of car expertise. With high-resolution 7T fMRI, in a sample of 26 participants, we measured the activation patterns elicited by whole cars, scrambled cars and car parts (top or bottom halves). We trained a SVM classifier to differentiate whole and scrambled cars in several face and object selective ROIs (FFA1, FFA2, OFA and LO). We then tested the classifier on the average of the part-evoked fMRI patterns. If the neural representations consisted only of part information, the classifier should classify the average as being equally like the whole car as the scrambled car. However, if the neural representations included information about the configural information of the parts, then the average of the parts should look more like the scrambled image than the whole. In line with this second prediction, we found a strong correlation between the tendency for the classifier to classify an averaged part pattern as scrambled and behavioral car expertise (r = 0.58, p< 0.01) in the anterior FFA (FFA2), bilaterally. FFA1, OFA and LO did not show expertise effects (p.40). These results go beyond the correlation of neural signals with behavioral holistic effects, providing direct evidence that the neural representations of objects in FFA of perceptual experts are more holistic than in novices. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326302

  20. Pyrene is a Novel Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Activator and Causes Hepatotoxicity by CAR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Zhe; Lyv, Jing-Xi; He, Xuyan; Englert, Neal A; Zhang, Shu-Yun

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of ubiquitous persistent environmental pollutants which are primarily formed from the incomplete combustion of organic materials. Many potential sources of human exposure to PAHs exist, including daily exposures from the ambient environment or occupational settings. PAHs have been found to cause harmful effects on human health. Here, we evaluated the adverse effects of pyrene, a common PAH, on the liver. The present study demonstrates that pyrene is able to activate mouse constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). CAR protein, as measured by Western blot analysis, was observed to translocate into the nucleus from the cytoplasm in mouse liver after exposure to pyrene. Utilizing CAR null mice, we identified that CAR mediates pyrene-induced hepatotoxicity. Increased relative liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels were found in wild-type but not CAR null mice after orally administered pyrene. We further show that pyrene induced the expression of mouse liver metabolism enzymes including CYP2B10, CYP3A11, GSTm1, GSTm3, and SULT1A1, and caused hepatic glutathione depletion in wild-type but not CAR null mice. Moreover, by luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time PCR analysis, pyrene was found to be a potential inducer of CYP2B6 expression via activation of human CAR in HepG2 cells and human primary hepatocytes. Our observations suggest that pyrene is a novel CAR activator and that CAR is essential for mediating pyrene-induced liver injury. PMID:26160115

  1. A tool for the culturally competent assessment of suicide: the Cultural Assessment of Risk for Suicide (CARS) measure.

    PubMed

    Chu, Joyce; Floyd, Rebecca; Diep, Hy; Pardo, Seth; Goldblum, Peter; Bongar, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Despite important differences in suicide presentation and risk among ethnic and sexual minority groups, cultural variations have typically been left out of systematic risk assessment paradigms. A new self-report instrument for the culturally competent assessment of suicide, the Cultural Assessment of Risk for Suicide (CARS) measure, was administered to a diverse sample of 950 adults from the general population. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 39-item, 8-factor structure subsumed under and consistent with the Cultural Theory and Model of Suicide (Chu, Goldblum, Floyd, & Bongar, 2010), which characterizes the vast majority of cultural variation in suicide risk among ethnic and sexual minority groups. Psychometric properties showed that the CARS total and subscale scores demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity with scores on other suicide-related measures (the Suicide Ideation Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory suicide item, and the Beck Hopelessness Scale), and an ability to discriminate between participants with versus without history of suicide attempts. Regression analyses indicated that the CARS measure can be used with a general population, providing information predictive of suicidal behavior beyond that of minority status alone. Minorities, however, reported experiencing the CARS cultural risk factors to a greater extent than nonminorities, though effect sizes were small. Overall, results show that the CARS items are reliable, and the instrument identifies cultural suicide risk factors not previously attended to in suicide assessment. The CARS is the first to operationalize a systematic model that accounts for cultural competency across multiple cultural identities in suicide risk assessment efforts. PMID:23356681

  2. A systematic review of secondhand smoke exposure in a car: Attributable changes in atmospheric and biological markers.

    PubMed

    Raoof, Sana A; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) has been linked to disease, disability, and premature death. While several countries have enacted smoke-free legislations, exposure to SHS may still occur in unregulated private environments, such as in the family car. We performed a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature in PubMed and Web of Science up to May 2013. Articles were selected if they provided a quantitative measure of SHS exposure (biological or atmospheric markers); the study was conducted inside a car; and the assessed exposure was attributable to cigarette combustion. From 202 articles identified, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Among all studies that assessed smoking in cars with at least one window partially open, the particulate matter 2.5 ?m or less in diameter (PM2.5) concentrations ranged from 47 ?g/m(3) to 12,150 ?g/m(3). For studies with all windows closed, PM2.5 ranged from 203.6 ?g/m(3) to 13,150 ?g/m(3). SHS concentration in a car was mediated by air-conditioning status, extent of airflow, and driving speed. Smoking in cars leads to extremely high exposure to SHS and increased concentration of atmospheric markers of exposure-even in the presence of air-conditioning or increased airflow from open windows. This clearly shows that the only way to protect nonsmokers, especially children, from SHS within cars is by eliminating tobacco smoking. PMID:25758677

  3. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene

    DOEpatents

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.

    1983-12-29

    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  4. INFLUENCE OF CHICKEN TRANSPORTATION CAGE WASHING SYSTEM ON WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA RECOVERY FROM CAGE FLOORING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface swabs of fiberglass flooring in chicken transport cages (5 high, 3 door) were collected before and after washing and again after sanitizer application to evaluate the microbiological effectiveness of a commercial cage washing system....

  5. Human Subtelomeric WASH Genes Encode a New Subclass of the WASP Family

    PubMed Central

    Linardopoulou, Elena V; Parghi, Sean S; Friedman, Cynthia; Osborn, Gregory E; Parkhurst, Susan M; Trask, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    Subtelomeres are duplication-rich, structurally variable regions of the human genome situated just proximal of telomeres. We report here that the most terminally located human subtelomeric genes encode a previously unrecognized third subclass of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein family, whose known members reorganize the actin cytoskeleton in response to extracellular stimuli. This new subclass, which we call WASH, is evolutionarily conserved in species as diverged as Entamoeba. We demonstrate that WASH is essential in Drosophila. WASH is widely expressed in human tissues, and human WASH protein colocalizes with actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. The VCA domain of human WASH promotes actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex in vitro. WASH duplicated to multiple chromosomal ends during primate evolution, with highest copy number reached in humans, whose WASH repertoires vary. Thus, human subtelomeres are not genetic junkyards, and WASH's location in these dynamic regions could have advantageous as well as pathologic consequences. PMID:18159949

  6. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  7. Washing away your sins: threatened morality and physical cleansing.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chen-Bo; Liljenquist, Katie

    2006-09-01

    Physical cleansing has been a focal element in religious ceremonies for thousands of years. The prevalence of this practice suggests a psychological association between bodily purity and moral purity. In three studies, we explored what we call the "Macbeth effect"-that is, a threat to one's moral purity induces the need to cleanse oneself. This effect revealed itself through an increased mental accessibility of cleansing-related concepts, a greater desire for cleansing products, and a greater likelihood of taking antiseptic wipes. Furthermore, we showed that physical cleansing alleviates the upsetting consequences of unethical behavior and reduces threats to one's moral self-image. Daily hygiene routines such as washing hands, as simple and benign as they might seem, can deliver a powerful antidote to threatened morality, enabling people to truly wash away their sins. PMID:16960010

  8. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    PubMed

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study. PMID:11420346

  9. Effect of Ultrasound on Surfactant-Aided Soil Washing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Seungmin; Park, Yongwoon; Hwang, Anna; Ha, Jeongsook; Kim, Younguk; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2007-07-01

    The use of ultrasound as an enhancement mechanism in the surfactant-aided soil-washing process was examined by conducting desoption tests of soils contaminated with naphthalene or diesel-oil. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the effect of ultrasound on the mass transfer from soil to the aqueous phase using naphthalene-contaminated soil. In addition, the use of ultrasound for the diesel-oil-contaminated soil was investigated under a range of conditions of surfactant concentration, sonication power, duration, soil/liquid ratio, particle size and initial diesel-oil concentration. The ultrasound used in the soil-washing process significantly enhanced the mass transfer rate from the solid phase to the aqueous phase. The removal efficiency of diesel-oil from the soil phase generally increased with longer sonication time, higher power intensity, and large particle size.

  10. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26722373

  11. A Wash-Free Homogeneous Colorimetric Immunoassay Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqiao; Rong, Pengfei; Jia, Hongwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Bo; Dong, Qiong; Yang, Cejun; Hu, Pengzhi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haitao; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and convenient biosensing platforms could be beneficial to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases in virtually any care settings. Sandwich immunoassays, the most commonly used methods for protein detection, often rely on expensive tags such as enzyme and tedious wash and incubation procedures operated by skilled labor. In this report, we revolutionized traditional sandwich immunoassays by providing a wash-free homogeneous colorimetric immunoassay method without requirement of any separation steps. The proposed strategy was realized by controlling the growth of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to mediate the interparticle spacing in the protein-AuNP oligomers. We have demonstrated the successful in vitro detection of cancer biomarker in serum samples from patients with high clinical sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26722373

  12. Electric hybrid module based specialty car design

    SciTech Connect

    Bohan, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    The vast majority of automobiles made in the United states today are manufactured by one of three major auto manufacturers. It is intrinsic in their nature to act conservatively. The big three`s large production runs represents a huge amount of capitalization. The amount of capital being invested is the real driving factor behind the conservative nature of these companies. In the computer industries we have seen a significant number of small start up companies as the driving force behind technological change. If a large company does not do it, a small venture capital company will certainly fill the vacuum. Unfortunately, the existing auto industry does not have a strong startup company presence. Even into the 1920`s, the specialty car or custom coach work manufactures represented a lively part of the auto economy. It was not until the coming of the great depression that the small specialty car manufacture was virtually eliminated. Today we see the beginnings of a comeback of the specialty car manufacturer in the kit car industry of today.

  13. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)

  14. Model A Car (8 of 9)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

  15. Model A Car (5 of 9)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

  16. House and Car Destroyed by Tsunami

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A house and a car were destroyed by a tsunami in the coastal city of Dichato, Chile, located about 15 km north of Concepcion, Chile. The tsunami height was about 10 meters (32 feet). Several hundred homes were destroyed in this city as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010...

  17. Picasso, Car Classics, and the Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wosk, Julie H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a college course which introduces engineering and business students to abstract art. Students study the relationships between abstract styles in painting and abstract styles in twentieth-century architecture and industrial design. The relevance of abstract design principles is shown by referring students to "Car and Driver" magazine. (AM)

  18. 49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (ii) The Freight Car Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223... Safety Standards (49 CFR part 215), Safety Glazing Standards (49 CFR part 223), Safety Appliance Standards (49 CFR part 231) and Power Brake Standards (49 CFR part 232), to make reports of...

  19. Colleges Drive Research on Electric Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the General Motors Corporation shuts assembly plants and veers toward bankruptcy, the lonely remnants of one of its top technological achievements--the first modern mass-produced electric car--lie scattered across a few dozen American college campuses. GM produced and leased to customers more than 1,000 "EV1" automobiles beginning in 1996. In…

  20. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... proposed rule published on October 13, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 52541). The document is also... Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 44 / Monday, March 8, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 48...