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1

Ventilation and organic solvent exposure during car washing.  

PubMed

Spray finishing operations often involve cleaning with solvents. White spirit is widely used as a solvent in car washes in Finland. The purpose of the present study was to determine the levels of solvent exposure of car washers and to evaluate the effectiveness of ventilation systems in car washing facilities. The study covered 11 car washes. Airborne solvent concentrations were measured both in workers' breathing zones and at stationary sampling sites. The solvent concentration in the breathing zones ranged from 5 to 465 mg/m3 during the washing of automobiles and from 45 to 685 mg/m3 during the washing of heavy vehicles. Brief concentration peaks up to 4,500 mg/m3 were detected. The flow rate of ventilation air ranged from 0.3 to 3.9 m3/s. The greatest reduction in solvent concentration in the workers' breathing zones was attained with a ventilation design where the supply air jets blew directly into the work zone. PMID:3433044

Niemelä, R; Pfäffli, P; Härkönen, H

1987-10-01

2

Signals and interferences in the nuclear car wash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The screening of sea-going cargo containers for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and other fissile material is a challenging problem. This is due in part to the cargo itself, which acts as an attenuator to any radiation that might signal its presence. In the nuclear car wash, ?-delayed high-energy ?-rays following neutron-induced fission are utilized as this signal. The delayed ?-rays above 3 MeV are highly penetrating and have energies above natural background radiation. In addition, the half-lives of most fission products emitting ?-rays at these energies are less than 160 s, making it feasible to construct decay curves on a time scale which preserves the flow of commerce through the port. A particular goal of the project is to understand the rate of false alarms. To this end, experiments are underway to investigate possible interferences, and to understand variations in the overall ?-ray background. The experiments and preliminary results are discussed. Work performed under the auspices of the DOE by the UC LLNL W7405Eng4,UCRL-PROC-224803.

Church, J. A.; Slaughter, D. R.; Asztalos, S.; Biltoft, P.; Descalle, M.-A.; Hall, J.; Luu, T.; Manatt, D.; Mauger, J.; Norman, E. B.; Petersen, D.; Prussin, S.

2007-08-01

3

Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

2007-02-07

4

Pollutant removal from oily wastewater discharged from car washes through sedimentation-coagulation.  

PubMed

Wastewater from car washes represents a potential problem for the sewer system due to its emulsified oils and suspended material. Treatment of wastewater discharged from four car washes was investigated by sedimentation and coagulation. The effect of the coagulants Servical P (aluminium hydroxychloride), Servican 50 (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)), aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride was evaluated. The achieved removal using sedimentation was of 82%, 88% 73% and 51% for oils, total suspended solids, COD, and turbidity, respectively. In the treatment by coagulation we achieved average efficiencies nearly to 74% for COD removal, greater than 88% in the case of total suspended solids removal and 92% in the case of turbidity and except the performance of Servican 50 greater than 90% in oil removal. We concluded that the oil residual concentration and COD in the treated water allows pouring it in the sewer system complying with the limits of the Mexican rule NOM-002-ECOL-1996 and it is possible even its reuse, at least in the case of the chassis washing of cars. PMID:19542641

Rubí, H; Fall, C; Ortega, R E

2009-01-01

5

Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity in varying thicknesses of wood and steel cargo  

SciTech Connect

The influence of incident neutron attenuation on signal strengths in the Nuclear Car Wash has been observed experimentally for both wood and steel-pipe mock cargos. Measured decay curves are presented for {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-rays and thermalized neutrons following neutron-induced fission of HEU through varying irradiation lengths. Error rates are extracted for delayed-{gamma} and delayed-n signals integrated to 30 seconds, assuming Gaussian distributions for the active background. The extrapolation to a field system of 1 mA deuterium current and to a 5 kg sample size is discussed.

Church, J; Slaughter, D; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Prussin, S

2006-10-05

6

The Nuclear Car Wash: Neutron interrogation of cargo containers to detect hidden SNM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LLNL is actively involved in the development of advanced technologies for use in detecting threats in sea-going cargo containers, particularly the presence of hidden special nuclear materials (SNM). The "Nuclear Car Wash" (NCW) project presented here uses a high-energy ( En ? 3.5-7.0 MeV) neutron probe to scan a container and then takes high-energy ( E? ? 2.5 MeV), ?-delayed ?-rays emitted during the subsequent decay of any short-lived, neutron-induced fission products as a signature of fissionable material. The components of the proposed system ( e. g. neutron source, gamma detectors, etc.) will be discussed along with data processing schemes, possible threat detection metrics and potential interference signals. Results from recent laboratory experiments using a prototype system at LLNL will also be presented.

Hall, J. M.; Asztalos, S.; Biltoft, P.; Church, J.; Descalle, M.-A.; Luu, T.; Manatt, D.; Mauger, G.; Norman, E.; Petersen, D.; Pruet, J.; Prussin, S.; Slaughter, D.

2007-08-01

7

Screening of SDS-degrading bacteria from car wash wastewater and study of the alkylsulfatase enzyme activity  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the main surfactant components in detergents and cosmetics, used in high amounts as a detergent in products such as shampoos, car wash soap and toothpaste. Therefore, its bioremediation by suitable microorganisms is important. Alkylsulfatase is an enzyme that hydrolyses sulfate -ester bonds to give inorganic sulfate and alcohol. The purpose of this study was to isolate SDS–degrading bacteria from Tehran city car wash wastewater, study bacterial alkylsulfatase enzyme activity and identify the alkylsulfatase enzyme coding gene. Materials and Methods Screening of SDS-degrading bacteria was carried out on basal salt medium containing SDS as the sole source of carbon. Amount of SDS degraded was assayed by methylene blue active substance (MBAS). Results and Conclusion Identification of the sdsA gene was carried by PCR and subsequent sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and biochemical tests identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium is able to degrade 84% of SDS after four days incubation. Bacteria isolated from car wash wastewater were shown to carry the sdsA gene (670bp) and the alkylsulfatase enzyme specific activity expressed from this gene was determined to be 24.3 unit/mg. The results presented in this research indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a suitable candidate for SDS biodegradation.

Shahbazi, Razieh; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Roha; Gharavi, Sara; Moosavi-Nejad, Zahra; Borzooee, Faezeh

2013-01-01

8

Description of ALARMA: the alarm algorithm developed for the Nuclear Car Wash  

SciTech Connect

The goal of any alarm algorithm should be that it provide the necessary tools to derive confidence limits on whether the existence of fissile materials is present in cargo containers. It should be able to extract these limits from (usually) noisy and/or weak data while maintaining a false alarm rate (FAR) that is economically suitable for port operations. It should also be able to perform its analysis within a reasonably short amount of time (i.e. {approx} seconds). To achieve this, it is essential that the algorithm be able to identify and subtract any interference signature that might otherwise be confused with a fissile signature. Lastly, the algorithm itself should be user-intuitive and user-friendly so that port operators with little or no experience with detection algorithms may use it with relative ease. In support of the Nuclear Car Wash project at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, we have developed an alarm algorithm that satisfies the above requirements. The description of the this alarm algorithm, dubbed ALARMA, is the purpose of this technical report. The experimental setup of the nuclear car wash has been well documented [1, 2, 3]. The presence of fissile materials is inferred by examining the {beta}-delayed gamma spectrum induced after a brief neutron irradiation of cargo, particularly in the high-energy region above approximately 2.5 MeV. In this region naturally occurring gamma rays are virtually non-existent. Thermal-neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}P, on the other hand, leaves a unique {beta}-delayed spectrum [4]. This spectrum comes from decays of fission products having half-lives as large as 30 seconds, many of which have high Q-values. Since high-energy photons penetrate matter more freely, it is natural to look for unique fissile signatures in this energy region after neutron irradiation. The goal of this interrogation procedure is a 95% success rate of detection of as little as 5 kilograms of fissile material while retaining at most .1% false alarm rate. Plywood is used to simulate hydrogenous cargo material and steel (pipes) is used to simulate metallic cargo. The wood consists of 120 x 240 cm sheets and has approximately .65 g/cm{sup 3}. The steel pipes have approximately 10 cm diameters x 6.4 mm wall thickness are .6 g/cm{sup 3}. Fissile sources consist of a ''large'' (380 g) and ''small'' (250 g) sample of HEU (U{sub 3}O{sub 8} 94% enriched). Note that the masses of the HEU sources used in our experimental runs are at least an order of magnitude smaller than 5 kilograms. Runs are done with either wood or steel cargoes stacked at various heights and the HEU sources placed at various depths within the cargo.

Luu, T; Biltoft, P; Church, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Manatt, D; Mauger, J; Norman, E; Petersen, D; Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Slaughter, D

2006-11-28

9

Washing and alkaline leaching of Hanford tank sludges: A status report  

SciTech Connect

Because of the assumed high cost of high-level waste (HLW) immobilization and disposal, pretreatment methods are being developed to minimize the volume of HLW requiring vitrification. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating several options for pretreating the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The pretreatment methods under study for the tank sludges include: (1) simply washing the sludges with dilute NaOH, (2) performing caustic leaching (as well as washing) to remove certain wash components, and (3) dissolving the sludges in acid and extracting key radionuclides from the dissolved sludge solutions. The data collected in this effort will be used to support the March 1998 decision on the extent of pretreatment to be performed on the Hanford tank sludges. This document describes sludge washing and caustic leaching tests conducted in FY 1994. These tests were performed using sludges from single-shell tanks (SST) B-201 and U-110. A summary is given of all the sludge washing and caustic leaching studies conducted at PNL in the last few years.

Lumetta, G.J.; Rapko, B.M.

1994-09-01

10

Cars, Cars, Cars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

McIntosh, Phyllis

2013-01-01

11

Hand Washing  

MedlinePLUS

... or from animals and animal waste. Continue Defensive Hand Washing Did you know that an estimated 1 out ... American Society for Microbiology did a survey of hand washing. They asked people questions about their hand-washing ...

12

Physical growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese and Moplah children of Andaman-Nicobar Islands in India.  

PubMed

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess growth and nutritional status of Car Nicobarese children and compare it with Moplah children, who live in a similar environment. A total of 436 Car Nicobarese children and 438 Moplah children, aged 6-10 years, were selected for the study. The anthropometric measurements included stature, body weight, sitting height, bi-acromial breadth, bi-iliac breadth, mid-upper arm circumference, skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps and subscapular region. 50th percentile (median) growth curves were calculated among the studied children and compared with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 reference. Z scores of weight for age (WAZ), height for age (HAZ) and BMI for age (BMIZ) were computed using growth references of the CDC 2000. It was observed that the Car Nicobarese children were shorter but heavier than Moplah children of both sexes all through the age range, which was also reflected in median value of anthropometric variables. Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally better compared to Moplah children based on the nutritional indices. The major differences between Car Nicobarese and Moplah children were found in their arm muscularity rather than arm adiposity. Overall, Car Nicobarese children were nutritionally in normal and better condition than Moplah children. However, present dietary change (intake of high calories and fat diet) of Car Nicobarese population may be reflected in the form of childhood obesity in the recent future, which has already been observed in their adult population. PMID:24630782

Sahani, R; Dinda, A; Kumar, U; Chakrabarty, S; Bharati, P

2014-04-01

13

Current status and future trends in More Electric Car power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing use of electrical power to drive automobile subsystems, which historically have been driven by a combination of mechanical, hydraulic, and electrical power transfer systems, is seen as a dominant trend in advanced automotive power systems. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC). Advancements in the areas of power electronics, fault tolerant electrical power distribution systems, electric drives,

J. M. Miller; A. Emadi; A. V. Rajarathnam; M. Ehsani

1999-01-01

14

Washing Dishes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment is about contaminiation. Learners will go through a series of steps in which they will test and observe how detergent breaks up contamination in a guided inquiry. Following this they will complete an open inquiry in which they ask questions about variables in washing dishes and design and conduct a test to answer these questions. Includes a teacher's guide and students handouts. Video and audio clips are provided. This lesson 4 of 10 from the Dynamic Design: The Cleanroom module.

15

Prolidase, Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 13 Activity, Oxidative-Antioxidative Status as a Marker of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes and Chorioamnionitis in Maternal Vaginal Washing Fluids  

PubMed Central

Objective: Etiology of premature preterm rupture of membranes (PPROM) is not yet completely known and chorioamnionitis is one of the most important complications of its. We aimed to evaluate whether prolidase, matrix metalloproteinases, oxidative-antioxidative status, and inflammation markers in vaginal washing fluid (VWF) were associated with etiology of PPROM and whether these markers could be used to predict chorioamnionitis in PPROM. Study Design: This prospective case control study enrolled fifty pregnant women with PPROM and 50 healthy pregnant women. The VWF samples were taken at the time of admission in the PPROM group and patients were followed for chorioamnionitis. Prolidase, matrix metalloproteinases, oxidative-antioxidative status, and inflammation markers in VWF were assayed. Results: VWF levels of prolidase, matrix metalloproteinases 1-13 (p< 0.001), oxidative stress parameters, total oxidative stress (TOS) (p < 0.001) and oxidative stress index (OSI) (p = 0.002), and hs-CRP (p = 0.045) were significantly higher in the PPROM group than in the controls. Antioxidative status parameters, levels of paroxanase (PON-1) (p < 0.001) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (p < 0.001), were significantly lower in the PPROM group than in the controls. Mean VWF levels of prolidase (p < 0.001), metalloproteinases (p<0.05), and oxidative-antioxidative status parameters (p<0.05) were significantly different in women with versus women without chorioamnionitis in the PPROM group. Prolidase, MMP-13, TOS, TAC, and PON-1 were found as important predictors for chorioamnionitis in the PPROM group by the multivariate logistic regression analysis. When the ROC curve analysis for prolidase, MMP-13, TOS, TAC, and PON-1 were performed, all of them were statistically significant for area under the curve (areas under the curve were 0.94, 0.90, 0.80, 0.25, and 0.19, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that collagen turnover mediators, especially prolidase, and increased oxidative stress are significantly associated with PPROM. Also, chorioamnionitis can be predicted with prolidase, MMP-13, TOS, TAC, and PON-1 in PPROM patients.

Soydinc, Hatice Ender; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Evsen, Mehmet S?dd?k; Turgut, Abdulkadir; Ozler, Ali; Y?ld?z, Ismail; Gul, Talip

2013-01-01

16

Car Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses car art and its appeal to boys and girls. Describes the popularity of customizing cars, focusing on this as a future career for students. Includes a list of project ideas that focuses on car art. (CMK)

Meilach, Dona Z.

2002-01-01

17

Car Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will determine the environmental effects of existing cars and a fleet consisting of their dream cars. They compute how many tons of heat-trapping gases are produced each year, how much it costs to fuel the cars, and related information. Then, students research and prepare a report about greener transportation choices.

Fund, World W.

18

Hydraulic Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build cars using syringes and water-powered hydraulics. Learners construct the car frame out of cardboard and set up a hydraulic system to raise and lower the car. Use this project to introduce learners to incompressible fluids and Pascal's Principle.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

19

Cable Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners string a line across the room and build cable cars that can move from on end to the other. Learners construct their cable cars out of wood sticks, motors, and electrical circuits. Use this activity to introduce how cable cars work as well as physics principles related to center of gravity, rotational motion, electricity, and motors.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

20

Electric cars  

SciTech Connect

This article is devoted entirely to the subject of electric cars. Some of the topics covered are alternate fuels in relation to development of electric cars, the impact of zero-emission laws, the range and performance of electric cars, historical aspects, legislative incentives, and battery technology.

Worsnop, R.L.

1993-07-09

21

Wash This Way  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 4 of the PDF, learners investigate the importance of washing their hands. Learners "dirty" their hands with cooking spray and glitter and then clean their hands using various hand-washing techniques. Learners compare the hand-washing techniques and discuss how germs can be harmful. Safety notes: Safety goggles are required. Follow all of Milli's safety tips on the bottom of the page.

Society, American C.

2011-01-01

22

Wash water recovery system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (editor)

1973-01-01

23

SOIL WASHING TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil washing is a water-based process for mechanically scrubbing soils ex-situ to remove undesirable contaminants. he process removes contaminants from soils in one of two ways: by dissolving or suspending them in the wash solution (which is later treated by conventional wastewat...

24

Proper hand washing (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... handwashing include: Take off any jewelry Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to ... Steps for proper hand washing include: Take off any jewelry. Hold your hands pointing down under warm water for 15 to 30 seconds. ...

25

Flying Cars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

Crow, Steven

1996-01-01

26

Bottle Cars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore motion, energy, and electricity by constructing bottle cars that run on motors. Learners can make two different types of cars: a 1-bottle model and a 2-bottle model. Use this activity to introduce learners to potential energy, kinetic energy, friction, and circuits. Note: a drill and drill bits may be used during this activity, but are not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2011-01-01

27

Balloon Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore force and motion by constructing cardboard cars that are propelled by balloons. Learners can experiment with balloons of various sizes and shapes to change the speeds and distances their cars can travel. Use this activity to introduce learners to Newton's Laws of Motion. Note: a drill and drill bits may be used during this activity, but these are not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2012-01-01

28

Solvent wash solution  

DOEpatents

Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

Neace, James C. (Blackville, SC) [Blackville, SC

1986-01-01

29

Solvent wash solution  

DOEpatents

A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

Neace, J.C.

1984-03-13

30

Domestic wash water reclamation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

31

Soil washing treatability study  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

Krstich, M.

1995-12-01

32

Motorized Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners build a car that uses a battery-operated motor to "drive" at least ten feet. Educators can use this activity as a fun, hands-on way to introduce the design process as well as circuitry and motors to learners.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

33

Washing Out the Competition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering. TecH2Ozone significantly reduces the amount of water and chemical used as compared to traditional commercial laundry systems. This reduction has resulted in lower cost and shorter wash cycles. And due to the reduced use of chemicals, a significant portion of the rinse water is recycled back into the system for reuse. TecH2Ozone customers, such as hotels and other large commercial laundry facilities, have felt the benefits of this equipment. Because of the reduced cycle times, fewer washers are needed and there is a notable increase in the cleanliness of the laundry. The reduction in chemical residues is a boon to customers with allergies and those prone to skin irritation from chemicals retained in regular laundry. AJT Associates, Inc. (AJT) worked with NASA to develop a revolutionary ozone-based laundry system. AJT's TecH2Ozone(R) wash system presents its customers with an energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe way to perform commercial laundering.

2001-01-01

34

Aqueous chemical wash compositions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an aqueous, substantially unfoamed chemical wash composition having properties making it suitable for use as a pre-flush in well cementing operations and/or for removal of drilling mud from a borehole at a temperature of from about 150/sup 0/F to about 270/sup 0/F, the wash a. being predominantly composed of water, b. containing an active surfactant component comprising a combination of (1) from about 0.1 to about 1.5 weight percent (total weight basis) of a water soluble anionic surfactant; (2) from about 0.1 to about 1.5 weight percent (total weight basis) of a nonionic surfactant; and (3) from about 0.05 to about 0.54 weight percent (total weight basis) of at least one water soluble amphoteric surfactant, and c. having dispersed therein a heterogeneous mixture of distinct particles comprising both a first particulate oil soluble resin which is friable and a second particulate oil soluble resin which is pliable and where the size of the friable resin particles ranges from about 0.5 to about 300 microns and the size of the pliable resin particles ranges from about 0.05 to about 30 microns. The amount of the friable-pliable resin mixture is sufficient to impart effective fluid loss control to the chemical wash composition.

Bannister, C.E.

1987-07-21

35

Estimation of Up-Wash Distribution around an Automobile by Three-Dimensional Smoke Wind Tunnel Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Estimate on the up-wash distribution around an automobile while running was made by visualizing a pattern of flow around the car model by using a three-dimensional wind tunnel. By using a coordinate Z = Z/H wherein H is height of a car model, and the dist...

K. Hozumi

1986-01-01

36

Comparison of alternative washing systems for heliostats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods are proposed for washing heliostat mirrors in a solar central receiver facility. One method involves truck mounted washing mechanisms continuously traversing the heliostat field, washing mirrors sequentially on a fixed schedule. The other concept involves a washing unit affixed to each heliostat, permitting near simultaneous washing of all heliostats on demand. The former, scheduled washing system has the

A. Kerstein

1981-01-01

37

CD28z CARs and armored CARs.  

PubMed

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are currently being tested in the clinic with very promising outcomes. However, limitations to CAR T cell therapy exist. These include lack of efficacy against some tumors, specific targeting of tumor cells without affecting normal tissue and retaining activity within the suppressive tumor microenvironment. Whereas promising clinical trials are in progress, preclinical development is focused on optimizing CAR design, to generate "armored CAR T cells," which are protected from the inhibitory tumor microenvironment. Studies investigating the expression of cytokine transgenes, combination therapy with small molecule inhibitors, or monoclonal antibodies, are aimed at improving the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cell therapy. Other strategies aimed at improving CAR T cell therapy include using dual CARs and chemokine receptors to more specifically target tumor cells. This review will describe the current clinical data and some novel armored CAR T cell approaches for improving antitumor efficacy therapy. PMID:24667958

Pegram, Hollie J; Park, Jae H; Brentjens, Renier J

2014-01-01

38

International Comparisons of Cars and Car Usage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistics relating to cars and their usage have been assembled for 19 countries for the years 1958 to 1980. These are then analysed in relation to population, national income, petrol prices and other relevant factors. Aspects considered are car ownership...

J.C. Tanner

1983-01-01

39

Modelling the Car Market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two simplified models of the secondhand car market are developed. These are then used to show some of the effects that would follow from changes in the number of company cars, in the prices of new cars and in the running costs of cars. In one model all ca...

J. C. Tanner

1984-01-01

40

Comparison of Alternative Washing Systems for Heliostats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two methods have been proposed for washing heliostat mirrors in a solar central receiver facility. One method involves truck-mounted washing mechanisms continuously traversing the heliostat field, washing mirrors sequentially on a fixed schedule. The othe...

A. Kerstein

1981-01-01

41

17. CABLE CAR #22, VIEW SHOWING CAR ROUNDING CORNER IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. CABLE CAR #22, VIEW SHOWING CAR ROUNDING CORNER IN LOADING AREA NEXT TO CAR DUMP AND CAR DUMP BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

42

Top 10 tech cars [fuel efficient cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two groups within the global automobile industry that are competing to develop the most fuel efficient car. On one hand are the US and Japanese manufacturers who have invested billions of dollars in hybrid electric technology, while on the other hand are the European makers who support light-duty diesel engines. In addition to fuel efficiency, car manufacturers are

J. Voelcker

2006-01-01

43

Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

Jensen, R.D.

1994-09-01

44

Fuelling future cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pressing need to improve the global urban air quality has prov ided the impetus for electric cars. Over the years, a great deal of research and development work has been carried out, and is still underway, on various types of electric cars. This article presents an assessment on the power and energy requirements of th e electric cars, and

A. K. SHUKLA

2005-01-01

45

Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

46

Keeping cars from crashing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive cruise control is here, the first step toward systems that can help cars keep their distance on crowded highways. These adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems use laser beams or radar to measure the distance from the vehicle they are in to the car ahead and its speed relative to theirs. If a car crosses into the lane ahead, say,

W. D. Jones

2001-01-01

47

Spectroscopic studies of southern-hemisphere cepheids: WW Car, SX Car, UZ Car, UY Car, GX Car, HW Car, YZ Car  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For seven faint southern Cepheids (WW Car, SX Car, UZ Car, UY Car, GX Car, HW Car, YZ Car), we have determined their atmospheric parameters and chemical composition for the first time based on ten high-resolution ( R = 50 000) spectra taken with the 1.5-m Hexapod telescope at the Joint Observatory of the Northern Catholic University (Antofagasta, Chile) and the Ruhr University (Bochum, Germany). Six objects from the list demonstrate atmospheric parameters and chemical composition typical of Cepheids that have passed through the first dredge-up phase, while WW Car is probably an anomalous Cepheid. According to our preliminary estimates, it has an overabundance of CNO, a deficit of sodium and aluminum, and a slight deficit of magnesium, with iron and other elements being underabundant relative to the Sun.

Usenko, I. A.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V. H.; Stahl, O.; Drass, H.

2011-10-01

48

Electric car arrives - again  

SciTech Connect

The first mass-produced electric cars in modern times are here, although they are expensive, limited in capability and unfamiliar to most prospective consumers. This article presents a brief history of the reintroduction of the modern electric car as well as discussions of the limitations of development, alternative routes to both producing and selling electric cars or some modified version of electric cars, economic incentives and governmental policies, and finally a snapshot description of the future for electric cars. 6 refs., 1 tab.

Dunn, S.

1997-03-01

49

Wash flow disturbance and summer wash flow in the Mojave Desert: Influence on dispersion, production, and physiological functioning of dominant shrubs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many Mojave Desert ecosystems, water infiltrates to root-zones in greatest proportion via washes. As such, washes have a pronounced effect on plant dispersion and size across these landscapes. Desert roads alter the natural spatial patterns of washes on alluvial fans (locally called bajadas) and potentially affect plant production and distribution. As a winter-rainfall dominated ecosystem, climate changes in the Mojave Desert that increase summer precipitation may also play an important role in altering vegetation processes influenced by washes. Road effects on the spatial distribution of desert plants on a Mojave Desert bajada were examined using remotely sensed LiDAR data and ground based measurements of plant size. Plant physiological responses to summer wash flow were also quantified by measuring gas exchange and water status of two dominant perennial species, Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa. Larrea and Ambrosia plants were nearly 7x and 4x larger where wash flow has been enhanced by road culverts, relative to undisturbed areas and areas where flow has been cut-off by the presence of a road/railroad. Clustering of large plants occurred along wash margins, with clustering most pronounced in areas of enhanced wash flow. No clustering was found where wash flow has been eliminated. For ecophysiological traits, both species showed pronounced responses to the pulse of water; however, these responses varied as a function of distance from wash. Larrea plants within 3 m and Ambrosia plants within ca. 2 m from the wash responded to the pulse of water. Leaf phenology dictated the timing of carbon gain as Larrea experienced a rapid but short-lived increase in stomatal conductance compared to a significant response for over a month following the pulse for Ambrosia. These results indicate that disturbance of desert washes has a pronounced impact on vegetation structure, and changing climatic conditions that impact plant function could potentially lead to even greater vegetation shifts through time.

Newlander, April

50

A basket for washing benthological samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since benthological samples collected with dredges are usually too large to be preserved in toto, a washing method must be employed to reduce the sample volume without losing or damaging the organisms. Traditionally, the sample is washed in a sieve until the volume is small enough for convenient handling or preservation. Most washing procedures are time-consuming and laborious. To save time in washing samples, a washing 'basket' was designed which accomadates a Ponar dredge. The only additional equipment needed to employ the washing basket effectively is a pump that delivers about 8 gallons of water per minute.

Selgeby, James H.

1971-01-01

51

Comparison of alternative washing systems for heliostats  

SciTech Connect

Two methods have been proposed for washing heliostat mirrors in a solar central receiver facility. One method involves truck-mounted washing mechanisms continuously traversing the heliostat field, washing mirrors sequentially on a fixed schedule. The other concept involves a washing unit affixed to each heliostat, permitting near-simultaneous washing of all heliostats on demand. The former, scheduled washing system has the advantage of lower capital costs, while the latter, responsive system has more operational flexibility. Cost-benefit evaluation of the two systems, taking into account the random nature of rainfall patterns and soiling processes, indicates that the scheduled system is preferable.

Kerstein, A.

1981-04-01

52

Green Cars: A Brief Guide to Shared Car Ownership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Green cars are cars shared by people who would not normally share cars, i.e., family members. The main advantage of sharing a car is economic, unless the owners could not otherwise afford a car at all and would have to rely on public transportation or wal...

S. Cousins

1978-01-01

53

What Kind of Car Am I? An Exercise to Sensitize Students to Social Class Inequality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Americans are said to have a love affair with cars. Recent magazine articles have addressed automobiles as objects of status and desire and how particular cars have become American icons. The popularity of "Car Talk" on National Public Radio and television shows like "Monster Garage" and "Overhaulin'" also suggest their ongoing fascination with…

Tiemann, Kathleen A.; Davis, Karen; Eide, Terri L.

2006-01-01

54

Building Model Solar Cars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will investigate some of the components that go into designing your own model of a solar car. This is to kindle car design ideas, not limit them. Go to Chassis 1. What is the chassis? What does it do? 2. What is one obvious consideration? 3. What is the difference between strong and stiff? Which do you want your solar car body to be? 4. Under orientation, how can you stiffen a material? 5. Under materials, what material do you ...

Benenati, Mr.

2008-05-07

55

18. CABLE CAR #21, DETAIL OF CAR COMING OUT OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. CABLE CAR #21, DETAIL OF CAR COMING OUT OF LOADING AREA OF CAR DUMP BUILDING - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

56

2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING WEST TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

57

3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VAL CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH THE VAL TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

58

21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and...Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do...

2014-04-01

59

Wash resistance of insecticide-treated materials.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of insecticide-treated materials (ITMs) for malaria control is reduced by washing them. This research in Colombia and Bolivia investigated the resistance of different insecticide formulations and, in particular, a commercially available impregnated bednet (PermaNet) which provides chemical protection for the insecticide. The fabrics studied were all polyester; the pyrethroids used for impregnation were deltamethrin (tablet and suspension concentrate both at 25 mg/m2 target dose), lambdacyhalothrin (capsule suspension at 15 mg/m2; laboratory study only), alphacypermethrin (suspension concentrate at 40 mg/m2) and, in the case of PermaNet, deltamethrin (55 mg/m2). The indicator of wash resistance was Anopheles spp. mortality (using the bioassay cone method) before and after different numbers and intensities of washing. When the fabrics were washed under controlled conditions, gently with water and a bar of soap, the wash resistance of all formulations was good (100% Anopheles mortality after 3 washes). However, when the impregnated nets were soaked for 30-60 min and washed with soap powder and tap water by local women in the usual way, the mortality after 4 washes declined considerably (43.5% and 41.3% for deltamethrin tablets and liquid respectively when washing every second day). Alphacypermethrin showed slightly better results after 3 washes every 7th day compared to deltamethrin tablets (63.8% and 43.3% mortality, respectively). The wash resistance offered by PermaNet was much better and longer lasting: Anopheles mortality after 4 washes was 92.6%, after 10 washes 83.7% and after 20 washes 87.1%. The limitations of commercially available wash-resistant nets are, however, their limited accessibility and the difficulty of replacing all existing bednets with a new product. PMID:12497971

Ordóñez González, José; Kroeger, Axel; Aviña, Ana Isabel; Pabón, Eulides

2002-01-01

60

Clickable Fuel Cell Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, students can investigate a typical hydrogen fuel cell prototype car from its fuel cell stacks to its ultracapacitor, a kind of supplementary power source. The limited-production vehicle seen in this feature is a Honda 2005 FCX, which is typical of the kinds of hydrogen fuel cell cars that some major automakers are now researching and developing.

Tyson, Peter; Novasciencenow

61

Passenger Car Fuel Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed information on the way passenger car fuel consumption is affected by how people drive and by the care taken to keep car engines and tires in proper running order was sought through highway test operations. Test operations included: (1) measuremen...

P. J. Claffey

1976-01-01

62

Fan Car Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fan-powered cars are a great way to explore the concept of motion. The handheld fan allows students to control the force acting on the car, thus eliminating a variable that would arise if students pushed the vehicles by hand. This article describes how to

Wetzel, David R.

2000-01-01

63

Powering the electric car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric car may represent major new opportunities for America and its electric utilities. Widespread use of electric cars can reduce consumption of both imported and domestic oil, substituting abundant American fuels such as coal and nuclear power. Air and noise pollution can be reduced since emissions from a single power plant are easier to control than those from thousands

G. O. Murray; G. J. Ostrowski

1981-01-01

64

Wastewater washing screens out solids  

SciTech Connect

Screening, as practiced by most municipal wastewater treatment plants, involves the manual or mechanical separation of all undesirable solids that flow into the sewer system. This consists of putresible or rotting material and inert solids such as paper, food, leaves, plastics, rubber, rocks, glass, metal and cigarette butts. These constituents, if not removed, clog downstream equipment and put a heavy load on aeration basins, dissolved air flotation equipment and digesters. Screenings washing is just entering the U.S. market with numerous benefits including increased efficiency, economics, safer work environment, and the ability to meet more stringent regulations.

Mitchell, D.G. [Hycor Corp., Lake Bluff, IL (United States)

1994-09-01

65

Three Activities: One Hand Washes Another, I'm All Washed Up and Who is All Washed Up?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ATEEC presents this problem-based lesson plan on risk assessment of environmental health issues. Students will study infectious diseases, particularly those spread via vector-borne, food-borne and water-borne means. They will learn about environmental exposures which cause various infectious diseases. The lesson consists of three individual activities: One Hand Washes Another, I'm All Washed Up... and Who is All Washed Up? Each activity stresses the importance of hand washing. Detailed instructions are provided for each activity. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

2013-07-23

66

How do CARs work?  

PubMed Central

Second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are powerful tools to redirect antigen-specific T cells independently of HLA-restriction. Recent clinical studies evaluating CD19-targeted T cells in patients with B-cell malignancies demonstrate the potency of CAR-engineered T cells. With results from 28 subjects enrolled by five centers conducting studies in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or lymphoma, some insights into the parameters that determine T-cell function and clinical outcome of CAR-based approaches are emerging. These parameters involve CAR design, T-cell production methods, conditioning chemotherapy as well as patient selection. Here, we discuss the potential relevance of these findings and in particular the interplay between the adoptive transfer of T cells and pre-transfer patient conditioning.

Davila, Marco L.; Brentjens, Renier; Wang, Xiuyan; Riviere, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

2012-01-01

67

The Electric Car Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

Diehl, Brian E.

1997-01-01

68

Kids and Car Safety  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Safety HealthDay June 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Safety Heat Illness Motor Vehicle Safety Transcript As ... parents that cars can be extremely dangerous for children even when they're in park. Council experts ...

69

Wash water waste pretreatment system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

1977-01-01

70

How Hybrid Cars Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hybrid cars and other vehicles have been around for many years. This site treats the reader to information concerning a variety of different forms of alternative energy vehicles including the gasoline-electric hybrid car, diesel-electric hybrids and the differences between the series and parallel hybrid vehicles. It also offers a table of contents for additional information dealing with nearly everything you ever wanted to know about hybrid vehicles.

Layton, Julia; Nice, Karim

2007-04-14

71

CARS in aerospace research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent applications of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) at ONERA are reviewed. The basic CARS experimental setup is described, including sources, optical system, and signal-detection equipment, and particular attention is given to rarefied-gas applications (CVD studies and diagnostics in hypersonic flow facilities) and combustion applications (multiple-species detection and trace-element detection with RECARS). Typical measurement results are presented in graphs and

B. Attal-Tretout; P. Bouchardy; M. Lefebvre; P. Magre; M. Pealat

1990-01-01

72

Propeller-Powered Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct cars that are powered by hand-made, electric propellers. Learners construct the base of the car out of a craft stick, use brass tacks and a paper clip to make a switch, and assemble a circuit using wire, a motor, and 9V battery. This project will help learners explore concepts of motion and forces including Newton's Laws of Motion, friction, and acceleration as well as circuits and electricity.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

73

Health of a team competing in the 1990 World Solar Car Challenge.  

PubMed

The health of a team participating in the 1990 World Solar Car Challenge was recorded for 10 of the 11 race days. Morbidity was collected during daily consultations with the team doctor and the diagnoses were later converted to the ICPC code. Team members' self-perceived health status was also recorded daily, using the Nottingham Health Profile. Team drivers consulted the doctor more often than the support staff and the three full-time drivers had significantly more diagnoses than the support staff. The Nottingham Health Profile scores on sleep, energy and emotional reactions showed correlations between higher minimum temperatures and sleep for all team members and for the three full-time drivers, there were significant correlations between increasing maximum temperatures and emotional reaction scores. The morbidity records and perceived health scores reflect the conditions of the race. Twenty-five per cent of full-time driver consultations dealt with skin, eyelid or finger infections probably caused by the lack of washing water. The scores on sleep and emotional reactions were affected by temperature and previous research reports degradation in concentration and dual tasks with increasing temperature. This may account for the difficulty some drivers had in continuing their shifts. Close supervision of the drivers and the recording of their perceived health status helped reduce the health problems of the team. PMID:1625264

Moorhead, R G; Laurence, C

1992-06-01

74

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25

75

Contaminant resorption during soil washing  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine.

Gombert, D.

1993-10-01

76

A fresh look at preoperative body washing.  

PubMed

National guidelines do not support preoperative body washing to reduce surgical site infections, instead recommending bathing or showering with soap. Yet preoperative body washing continues to be widely used in many hospitals across Europe. This paper suggests that existing trials of preoperative body washing, upon which guidelines are based, are dated and proposes a new investigation of preoperative body washing using modern definitions of surgical site infection with standardised patient follow up, modern surgical techniques and well designed trials. This paper provides a critique of existing guidelines and describes a randomised trial with 60 participants to compare the effect of soap and two antiseptic washing products on colony forming units (CFUs) for up to six hours. Chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine were significantly more effective than soap in reducing CFUs in the underarm, and chlorhexidine was significantly more effective than soap in reducing CFUs in the groin. PMID:22448182

Tanner, Judith; Gould, Dinah; Jenkins, Philip; Hilliam, Rachel; Mistry, Neetesh; Walsh, Susannah

2012-01-01

77

A fresh look at preoperative body washing  

PubMed Central

National guidelines do not support preoperative body washing to reduce surgical site infections, instead recommending bathing or showering with soap. Yet preoperative body washing continues to be widely used in many hospitals across Europe. This paper suggests that existing trials of preoperative body washing, upon which guidelines are based, are dated and proposes a new investigation of preoperative body washing using modern definitions of surgical site infection with standardised patient follow up, modern surgical techniques and well designed trials. This paper provides a critique of existing guidelines and describes a randomised trial with 60 participants to compare the effect of soap and two antiseptic washing products on colony forming units (CFUs) for up to six hours. Chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine were significantly more effective than soap in reducing CFUs in the underarm, and chlorhexidine was significantly more effective than soap in reducing CFUs in the groin.

Tanner, Judith; Gould, Dinah; Jenkins, Philip; Hilliam, Rachel; Mistry, Neetesh; Walsh, Susannah

2012-01-01

78

Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets  

SciTech Connect

The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

1989-07-01

79

Shlepers and Car Washers: Young Israelis in the New York Labor Market.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines characteristics and immigration experiences of young male Israeli immigrants to New York City who find work in car washes and furniture moving, jobs requiring neither special skills nor work papers. Differences in background and long-range immigration plans between the groups are discussed. (SLD)

Ben-Ami, Ilan

1992-01-01

80

Cars from the Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In some cities, especially large cities such as Los Angeles or Mexico City, visible air pollution is a major problem, both for human health and the environment. A variety of sources contribute to air pollution, but personal vehicles account for one of the main sources. Though each car has relatively low emissions when compared to vehicles of the 1970s, there are so many more cars on the road now that their emissions play a large role in overall pollution. In this activity, students think about alternate ways to power a vehicle to reduce emissions. Student teams design an eco-friendly car using the engineering design process, and make a presentation to showcase their product.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

81

1. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER CAMERA CAR, VIEW OF CAMERA CAR AND TRACK WITH CAMERA STATION ABOVE LOOKING NORTH TAKEN FROM RESERVOIR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

82

Soil washing for metal removal: a review of physical/chemical technologies and field applications.  

PubMed

Soil washing is one of the few permanent treatment alternatives to remove metal contaminants from soils. This paper reviews the various technology types and pilot/full-scale field applications of soil washing applicable to soils highly contaminated with heavy metals. The physical separation technologies, the chemical extraction processes and the integrated processes that combine both physical and chemical methods are discussed separately. This paper reviews basic principles, applicability, advantages and limitations, methods of predicting and improving performance of each physical/chemical technology. The discussion is based on a review of 30 recent laboratory investigations and 37 field applications of soil washing systems which have been undertaken, mostly in the US, for the period 1990-2007. This paper also examines and compares the status of soil washing technology for remediation of soils contaminated with metals in the US, in Canada and in Europe. PMID:18036735

Dermont, G; Bergeron, M; Mercier, G; Richer-Laflèche, M

2008-03-21

83

Wash water solids removal system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During wash water purification, surfactants tend to precipitate and foul the RO membranes, causing water flux decline and loss of salt rejection. The use of 165 to 190 ppm ferric chloride and optionally 0.25 to 1.0 ppm polymeric flocculate precipitates 92 to 96 percent of the surfactant from an Olive Leaf Soap based wash water. Crossflow filtration and pressure filtration yield good soap rejection at high water flux rates. Post-treatment of the chemically pretreated and filtered wash water with activated charcoal removes the residual soap down to an undetectable level.

1974-01-01

84

Modeling the Mousetrap Car  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

Jumper, William D.

2012-01-01

85

Car Budget Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A handout from The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. III, No. 7, July 1997 (English as a second language). The activity can easily be adapted for different countries and is designed to show the importance of good budgeting and basic common sense when planning to buy a car.

Klepinger, Lawrence

2007-03-05

86

Chem-E-Car Downunder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the Chem-E-Car competition in which students build a small car powered by a chemical reaction. Focuses on a controlled chemical reaction in which the car travels a required specific distance and stops. Requires participants to prepare poster presentations. (YDS)

Rhodes, Martin

2002-01-01

87

Fatal Car Occupant Injuries after Car Lorry Collisions  

PubMed Central

All deaths from road accidents in certain areas and periods were studied. Analysis of 224 deaths to car occupants from collisions between cars and lorries showed that such accidents were the commonest cause of death for car occupants on motorways and link roads. The impacts were such that relatively poor protection could be given by occupant restraint systems. Collisions of cars into the rear of lorries caused the most severe injuries; most of these accidents occurred at night. The traffic characteristics of cars and lorries are largely incompatible and increase the likelihood of collisions and of extremely severe injuries to car occupants. Some reduction in deaths may be expected from making lorries more conspicuous and eliminating the rear overhang. More fundamental measures are segregation of lorries from cars and return of traffic to railways. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3

Gissane, William; Bull, John

1973-01-01

88

Health Tip: Wash Hands for Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

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89

Wash water waste pretreatment system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

1976-01-01

90

TRUCK WASHING TERMINAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

A laboratory and pilot-scale investigation of a treatment sequence, including physical, chemical, and biological treatment steps led to a full-scale installation for the treatment of tank truck washing wastewater. The system included gravity separation, equalization, neutralizati...

91

New developments in clinical CARS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined two-photon fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging in a clinical hybrid multiphoton tomograph for in vivo imaging of human skin. The clinically approved TPEF/CARS system provides simultaneous imaging of endogenous fluorophores and non-fluorescent lipids. The Stokes laser for the two-beam configuration of CARS is based on spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulses in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We report on the highly flexible medical TPEF/CARS tomograph MPTflex®-CARS with an articulated arm and first in vivo measurements on human skin.

Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Darvin, Maxim; Lademann, Juergen; König, Karsten

2013-02-01

92

The role of driver sleepiness in car crashes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the available evidence for a causal role of driver sleepiness in car crashes or car crash injury, and to quantify the effect, a systematic review of the international literature was conducted. The review included all studies with a fatigue-related exposure measure, a crash or crash injury outcome measure and a comparison group, regardless of publication status, language or

Jennie Connor; Gary Whitlock; Robyn Norton; Rod Jackson

2001-01-01

93

All purpose railroad car  

SciTech Connect

An all purpose railroad car is described for transporting wheeled trailers and containers, the car comprising an elongated frame supported by wheel trucks, combined hitch and bolster means adjacent one end of the frame for selectively receiving and releasably retaining a trailer king pin and one end of a container. A means is spaced from the combined hitch and bolster means for selectively receiving and supporting the wheels of a wheeled trailer and the other end of a container. The combined hitch and bolster means is an integral rigid structure with the hitch fixed in spaced relationship to the bolster with both the hitch and the bolster permanently disposed in operative position to respectively receive and retain a trailer king pin and a container.

Terlecky, B.S.

1987-01-13

94

Electric car progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our global temperature's rise is caused by our atmosphere's ever-increasing content of carbon-dioxide, most of which comes from the exhaust of transportation vehicles. This has resulted in a worldwide search for alternatives to the high-powered gasoline fueled automobiles in wide use today. Replacing gasoline-powered cars with electric and hybrid-electric vehicles has become the most popular tool for reducing carbon-dioxide emissions

H. Oman

2002-01-01

95

Dual-CARS microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy technique for label-free imaging of biomolecules in living cells; dual-CARS microscopy. The use of three synchronized laser pulses in a dual-pump/dualdetection configuration enables imaging of two species with different molecular vibrations simultaneously, as well as acquisition of images free of non-resonant background. We show the power of the method by imaging deuterated nonadecane slowly diffusing into a suspension of living yeast cells in medium, clearly distinguishing the medium and the lipid droplets in the cells by probing the CH2 vibration from the D-nonadecane by probing the CD vibration. In addition, images of lipid stores in living C. elegans nematodes free of non-resonant background are shown. This results in a significant enhancement of the image contrast, allowing the visualization of emerging, low-density lipid stores in a dauer larva, difficult to distinguish in conventional CARS microscopy. The separation of the non-resonant background is shown to be beneficial also when monitoring molecules with weak vibrational modes. The improved sensitivity obtained is illustrated by probing the C=C vibration in polyunsaturated lipids extracted from fish. This enables the monitoring of the degree of unsaturation of lipids, a high value of which is reported in foods known to have positive effects on human health.

Enejder, Annika; Brackmann, Christian; Burkacky, Ondrej; Åkeson, Madeleine

2007-03-01

96

Washing of waste prior to landfilling.  

PubMed

The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. PMID:22245736

Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

2012-05-01

97

Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility  

SciTech Connect

A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

1992-08-10

98

Soil washing enhancement with solid sorbents  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing is a dynamic, physical process that remediates contaminated soil through two mechanisms: particle size separation and transfer of the contaminant into the (mostly) liquid stream. The performance of different sorbents and additives to remove motor oil from sea sand was tested. Hydrocyclone, attrition scrubber, and froth flotation equipment were used for the decontamination study. Sorbents and additives were mixed with soils in the attrition scrubber prior to flotation. Sorbents used were granular activated carbon, powder activated carbon, and rubber tires. Chemical additives used were calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, Alconox{reg_sign}, Triton{reg_sign} X-100 and Triton{reg_sign} X-114. When a froth flotation run was performed using no additive, washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). However, when carbon or rubber (6% by weight) was added to the contaminated soils the washed soils {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained 4000 ppm of total oil and grease (TOG). The addition of sodium carbonate or calcium hydroxide (6% by weight) had same effects as sorbents. In both cases washed soil {open_quotes}tails{close_quotes} contained total oil and grease of less than 1000 ppm. The use of these non-hazardous additives or sorbent can enhance the soil washing process and consequently saves on time (residence time in equipment design) required to achieve the target clean up levels. 18 refs., 12 figs.

El-Shoubary, Y.M. [Merck & Co., Somerset, NJ (United States); Woodmansee, D.E. [GE Corporate Research & Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

99

Response of P. falciparum to chloroquine in Car Nicobar Island.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the status of susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in Car Nicobar Island during September 1991 to September 1992. Out of 66 patients selected for the study, 7 showed resistance according to the standard WHO extended field test. Among them five showed RI level of resistance and one each showed RII and RIII levels of resistance. PMID:7958126

Giri, A; Das, M K

1994-03-01

100

Lead removal via soil washing and leaching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A soil washing and leaching process was tested for removing lead from soils. A soil-washing circuit, including size and gravity separations, was employed to remove the coarse metallic lead particles, while the leaching was applied to remove fine metallic lead particles and other lead species. The soil-washing tests proved that the metallic lead particles larger than 0.15 mm (100 mesh) could be effectively removed. The sodium-chloride-based leaching solution with ferric chloride or sodium hypochlorite as oxidants was adopted in the leaching. The leaching experimental results indicated that under the pH of 2 and Eh of 1,300 mV, the metallic lead particles smaller than 0.15 mm and other lead species can be dissolved in the leaching solution within 60 minutes.

Lin, H. K.; Man, X. D.; Walsh, D. E.

2001-12-01

101

Wash solvent reuse in paint production  

SciTech Connect

The project evaluated solvent used to clean paint manufacture equipment for its utility in production of subsequent batches of solvent-borne paint. Reusing wash solvent would reduce the amount of solvent disposed of as waste. The evaluation of this wash-solvent recovery technology was conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Pollution Prevention Research Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The evaluation was conducted with the cooperation and assistance of Vanex Color, Inc. The product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic impacts of this technology change, as it has been implemented by Vanex, were examined. Two batches of a solvent-borne alkyd house paint were prepared at Vanex--one batch made with 100%-new solvent and the other with 30%-wash solvent--and sampled for laboratory analysis at Battelle.

Parsons, A.B.; Heater, K.J.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

1994-04-01

102

The "nuclear car wash": a scanner to detect illicit special nuclear material in cargo containers  

SciTech Connect

There is an urgent need to improve the reliability of screening cargo containers for illicit nuclear material that may be hidden there for terrorist purposes. A screening system is described for detection of fissionable material hidden in maritime cargo containers. The system makes use of a low intensity neutron beam for producing fission; and the detection of the abundant high-energy {gamma} rays emitted in the {beta}-decay of short-lived fission products and {beta}-delayed neutrons. The abundance of the delayed {gamma} rays is almost an order of magnitude larger than that of the delayed neutrons normally used to detect fission and they are emitted on about the same time scale as the delayed neutrons, i.e., {approx}1 min. The energy and temporal distributions of the delayed {gamma} rays provide a unique signature of fission. Because of their high energy, these delayed {gamma} rays penetrate low-Z cargoes much more readily than the delayed neutrons. Coupled with their higher abundance, the signal from the delayed {gamma} rays escaping from the container is predicted to be as much as six decades more intense than the delayed neutron signal, depending upon the type and thickness of the intervening cargo. The {gamma} rays are detected in a large array of scintillators located along the sides of the container as it is moved through them. Measurements have confirmed the signal strength in somewhat idealized experiments and have also identified one interference when 14.5 MeV neutrons from the D, T reaction are used for the interrogation. The interference can be removed easily by the appropriate choice of the neutron source.

Slaughter, D R; Accatino, M R; Bernstein, A; Dougan, A D; Hall, J M; Loshak, A; Manatt, D R; Pohl, B A; Prussin, S G; Walling, R S; Weirup, D L

2004-01-28

103

The nuclear car wash: A system to detect nuclear weapons in commercial cargo shipments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material ( 235U or 239Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers has been developed, studied, and recent performance results are described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 3-7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and subsequent detection of their ?-delayed neutron emission or ?-delayed high-energy ?-radiation reveals the presence of fissionable material. Fission product ?-delayed ?-rays above 3 MeV are nearly 10 times more abundant than ?-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. Their impact on detection sensitivity is relatively minor and can be addressed readily. Components of a simple laboratory prototype have been assembled, tested with the most challenging cargo threat scenarios, and results compared to computer simulations. Preliminary results will be presented.

Slaughter, D. R.; Accatino, M. R.; Bernstein, A.; Biltoft, P.; Church, J. A.; Descalle, M. A.; Hall, J. M.; Manatt, D. R.; Mauger, G. J.; Moore, T. L.; Norman, E. B.; Petersen, D. C.; Pruet, J. A.; Prussin, S. G.

2007-08-01

104

Sparks fly over electric cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the US automobile industry scrambles to meet 1998 deadlines to put electric vehicles on the market, controversy about the environmental benefits and commercial viability of battery-operated cars is mounting. Circumstances in the US increasingly favor the electric car. Air quality laws in California and Massachusetts now demand that {open_quotes}zero-emission{close_quotes} vehicles comprise 2 percent of total sales in the car

1994-01-01

105

Plastic Race Car Competition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, presented by WGBH, looks at a high school outreach program to get students interested in plastic manufacturing by having them make plastic race cars. The students go through the entire process of design from both technical and hands-on perspectives. This video also serves as an overview of the different types of plastic manufacturing processes that are utilized in the industry. This video would be great for anyone interested in plastic manufacturing, or just looking to learn a little bit more about it. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 4:32.

2010-10-05

106

RADIOACTIVE TRACER TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING AND MEASUREING DETERGENT RESIDUE ON WASHED FOODS AND EVALUATION OF FOOD WASHING PRACTICES. Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial food washing procedures were evaluated to determine the ; effect of variations in washing conditfons on the final cleanliness of the washed ; foods. Asparagus was selected as the test food. The extent of removal of ; bacterial spores measured the effectiveness of the washing conditions in removal ; of natural contaminants. Alkyl benzene suifate, labeled with S³⁵, was

1960-01-01

107

54. VAL COUNTERWEIGHT CAR DURING CONSTRUCTION SHOWING CAR FRAME, WHEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. VAL COUNTERWEIGHT CAR DURING CONSTRUCTION SHOWING CAR FRAME, WHEEL ASSEMBLIES AND METAL REINFORCING, December 19, 1947. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

108

Secondary froth wash. [Oil Sand Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the removal of bitumen from secondary froth formed during the hot-water processing of Athabasca tar sands. More particularly, the process utilizes the intimate contacting of a hot water wash with a secondary froth and subsequent intimate contacting of the bitumen with the fresh hot water. The amount of solids in a secondary froth is reduced

Kaminsky

1973-01-01

109

TANK 4 CHARACTERIZATION, SETTLING, AND WASHING STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank

C. Bannochie; J. Pareizs; D. Click; J. Zamecnik

2009-01-01

110

Washed Out Bridge, Snake Creek Near Whitesburg  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Tributary to Snake Creek, near Whitesburg, Georgia, showing a washed out bridge. When bridges such as this one collapse during a flood, it is rarely the pressure of the rushing water against the bridge that causes the bridge to fail. Rather, the rushing water erodes the ground underneath and surroun...

2009-10-01

111

Washing treatment of automotive shredder residue (ASR).  

PubMed

Worldwide, the amount of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) reaches 50 million units per year. Once the ELV has been processed, it may then be shredded and sorted to recover valuable metals that are recycled in iron and steelmaking processes. The residual fraction, called automotive shredder residue (ASR), represents 25% of the ELV and is usually landfilled. In order to deal with the leachable fraction of ASR that poses a potential threat to the environment, a washing treatment before landfilling was applied. To assess the potential for full-scale application of washing treatment, tests were carried out in different conditions (L/S = 3 and 5L/kgTS; t = 3 and 6 h). Moreover, to understand whether the grain size of waste could affect the washing efficiency, the treatment was applied to ground (<4 mm) and not-ground samples. The findings obtained revealed that, on average, washing treatment achieved removal rates of more than 60% for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN). With regard to metals and chlorides, sulphates and fluoride leachable fraction, a removal efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained, as confirmed also by EC values. The comparison between the results for ground and not-ground samples did not highlight significant differences. PMID:23706987

Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

2013-08-01

112

Wash resistance of insecticide-treated materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of insecticide-treated materials (ITMs) for malaria control is reduced by washing them. This research in Colombia and Bolivia investigated the resistance of different insecticide formulations and, in particular, a commercially available impregnated bednet (PermaNet®) which provides chemical protection for the insecticide. The fabrics studied were all polyester; the pyrethroids used for impregnation were deltamethrin (tablet and suspension concentrate

JoséOrdóñez González; Axel Kroeger; Ana Isabel Aviña; Eulides Pabón

2002-01-01

113

Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids  

SciTech Connect

BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume.

GJ Lumetta

2000-03-31

114

Lysimeter washing of MSW incinerator bottom ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stockpiled municipal waste incinerator bottom ash is frequently considered for utilization as a construction material. Two 360 kg lysimeter experiments were conducted to study percolation washing of contaminants from stockpiled MSW bottom ash. One lysimeter was leached with a concentrated sodium hydroxide solution, as a possible pre-treatment for improvement of the bottom ash characteristics prior to utilization, while the other

J. A. Stegemann; J. Schneider; B. W. Baetz; K. L. Murphy

1995-01-01

115

EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. he demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrole...

116

EVALUATION OF THE BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. (BioGenesis) soil washing technology was demonstrated as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in November 1992. The demonstration was conducted over three days at a petrol...

117

Prototype wash water renovation system integration with government-furnished wash fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements of a significant quantity of proposed life sciences experiments in Shuttle payloads for available wash water to support cleansing operations has provided the incentive to develop a technique for wash water renovation. A prototype wash water waste renovation system which has the capability to process the waste water and return it to a state adequate for reuse in a typical cleansing fixture designed to support life science experiments was investigated. The resulting technology is to support other developments efforts pertaining to water reclamation by serving as a pretreatment step for subsequent reclamation procedures.

1984-01-01

118

PASSENGER CAR HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS SPECIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Emission factors for over 60 individual hydrocarbon compounds were determined for four passenger cars. The cars included a 1963 Chevrolet, a 1977 Mustang, and 1978 Monarch, and 1979 LTD II. The speciation data is reported for both tailpipe and evaporative emissions. The tailpipe ...

119

Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

120

Science Nation: Cars Without Drivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine a car that can drive itself, that knows the rules of the road, where to go and how to get there safely! Sound farfetched? Not for the robot wizards at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). They call their car with a brain, 'Boss.' And yes, it does drive itself.

121

Comparison of reactive oxygen species in neat and washed semen of infertile men  

PubMed Central

Background: Male are involved in near 50% of cases of infertility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) playing an important role in decreasing fertility potential. Accurate measurement of ROS seems to be important in evaluation of infertile male patients. Objective: To compare ROS measurement in neat and washed semen samples of infertile men and define the best method for evaluation of ROS in these patients. Materials and Methods: We measured the level of ROS in semen samples of thirty five non-azoospermic men with infertility. The semen samples were divided into two parts and the semen parameters and ROS levels in neat and washed samples were evaluated. We also evaluated the presence of pyospermia using peroxidase test. Results: The differences regarding sperm count and quick motility were significant in neat and washed semen samples. The mean ROS level was significantly higher in neat samples compared with washed spermatozoa (7.50 RLU vs. 1.20 RLU respectively). Difference in ROS levels was more significant in patients with pyospermia compared to whom with no pyospermia (378.67 RLU vs. 9.48 RLU respectively). Conclusion: Our study confirmed that neat or unprocessed samples are better index of normal oxidative status of semen samples. Because we do not artificially add or remove factors that may play an important role in oxidative equilibrium status.

Moein, Mohammad Reza; Vahidi, Serajedin; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Tabibnejad, Nasim

2014-01-01

122

Clinical multiphoton and CARS microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on clinical CARS imaging of human skin in vivo with the certified hybrid multiphoton tomograph CARSDermaInspect. The CARS-DermaInspect provides simultaneous imaging of non-fluorescent intradermal lipid and water as well as imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence from intrinsic molecules. Two different excitation schemes for CARS imaging have been realized: In the first setup, a combination of fs oscillator and optical parametric oscillator provided fs-CARS pump and Stokes pulses, respectively. In the second setup a fs oscillator was combined with a photonic crystal fiber which provided a broadband spectrum. A spectral range out of the broadband-spectrum was selected and used for CARS excitation in combination with the residual fs-oscillator output. In both setups, in addition to CARS, single-beam excitation was used for imaging of two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. Both CARS-excitation systems were successfully used for imaging of lipids inside the skin in vivo.

Breunig, H. G.; Weinigel, M.; Darvin, M. E.; Lademann, J.; König, K.

2012-02-01

123

Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes

2000-03-31

124

4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

125

Without Blue Crabs, Southern Salt Marshes Wash Away  

NSF Publications Database

... of this News Tip: Without Blue Crabs, Southern Salt Marshes Wash Away Ocean Drilling Program ... Technology Research Without Blue Crabs, Southern Salt Marshes Wash Away The blue crab harvest needs ...

126

6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GENE WASH DAM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. SURVEY REFLECTOR IN FOREGROUND FOR MONITORING MOVEMENT OF DAM AND EARTH. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

127

Health Care Workers Wash Hands More When Patients Watching  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Care Workers Wash Hands More When Patients Watching Canadian ... hospital, keep an eye out for hygiene practices: Health care workers are more likely to wash their hands ...

128

3. VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF WASH HOUSE TO RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF WASH HOUSE TO RIGHT, BERWIND-WHITE SITE OFFICE ON LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Eureka No. 40, Wash House, East of State Route 56, North of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

129

2. VIEW OF WEST SIDE AND NORTH FACADE OF WASH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF WEST SIDE AND NORTH FACADE OF WASH HOUSE. TO RIGHT IS BERWIND-WHITE SITE OFFICE - Eureka No. 40, Wash House, East of State Route 56, North of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

130

Interrupting habitual car use: The importance of car habit strength and moral motivation for personal car use reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, habitual car use was interrupted by means of an intervention attempting to induce a deliberate consideration to reduce personal car use and forming implementation intentions for the planned changes in travel behavior. The importance of car habit strength and of moral motivation for reducing car use was analyzed. The study was conducted as a field experiment where

Louise Eriksson; Jörgen Garvill; Annika M. Nordlund

2008-01-01

131

Compatibility problems in frontal, side, single car collisions and car-to-pedestrian accidents in Japan.  

PubMed

Compatibility problems in car-to-car frontal, side, single car and car-to-pedestrian collisions in Japan are discussed using traffic accident data. The number of serious and fatal injuries is investigated for the subject car and other cars, which are categorized by their class and mass. The aggressivity of the cars is calculated by the number of fatalities, fatality rates and by the number of car registrations. The results show that in car-to-car frontal collisions, cars with a mass of 1150 kg are the most compatible among the current car population. In both car-to-car frontal and side collisions, the sports utility vehicle and mini car are found to be the most incompatible car types with high and low aggressivity, respectively. On the other hand, the accident data show that the wagon and midsize sedan are the most compatible car types. The compatibility of fixed objects in the road environment with cars and cars with pedestrians is also discussed. In a single car collision with a fixed object, the guardrail is the most compatible object and can reduce the fatality rate on prefecture roads by about 60%. The front geometry of the car has large effect on compatibility with a pedestrian. PMID:10384231

Mizuno, K; Kajzer, J

1999-07-01

132

Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries  

SciTech Connect

SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

Siler, J.L.

1999-12-08

133

Thyroid Function in Nurses: The Influence of PovidoneIodine Hand Washing and Gargling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) hand washing and gargling on thyroid function was assessed. In 16 nurses using PVP-I products and 16 control subjects, serum inorganic iodine levels and thyroid functions were investigated. The status of PVP-I use was also surveyed in the nurses. Clinical symptoms considered to be attributable to thyroid dysfunctions were seen in none of the subjects,

Keigo Nobukuni; Shin Kawahara

2002-01-01

134

EPA'S MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT FOR SOIL WASHING  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses the design and initial operation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency'S (EPA) Mobile Volume Reduction Unit (VRU) for soil washing. oil washing removes contaminants from soils by dissolving or suspending them in the wash solutions (which can be later tr...

135

Why Do I Need to Wash My Hands?  

MedlinePLUS

... Society Why Do I Need to Wash My Hands? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > Why Do I Need to Wash My Hands? Print A A A Text Size "Did you wash your hands?" How many times did you hear that today? ...

136

Washing Exposure Trails of Polyethylene and Poly (Vinyl Chloride).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were carried out to determine the effects, if any, of regular washing of exposed samples of polyethylene and PVC sheet. It was shown that washing, either by rain or regularly by hand over an eighteen month period does not wash away or leach ou...

M. P. Bladen E. J. Hill

1973-01-01

137

Food Worker Hand Washing Practices: An Observation Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of food worker hand washing practices is critical to the reduction of foodborne illness and is dependent upon a clear understanding of current hand washing practices. To that end, this study collected detailed observational data on food worker hand washing practices. Food workers (n 321) were observed preparing food, and data were recorded on specific work activities for which

LAURA R. GREEN; CAROL A. SELMAN; VINCENT RADKE; DANNY RIPLEY; JAMES C. MACK; DAVID W. REIMANN; TAMMI STIGGER; MICHELLE MOTSINGER; LISA BUSHNELL

2006-01-01

138

BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil washing technologies are designed to transfer contaminants from soil to a liquid phase. he BioGenesis Soil Washing Technology uses soil washing with a proprietary surfactant solution to transfer organic contaminants from soils to wastewater. ontaminant levels are further red...

139

Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

Stienecker, Dawn

2010-01-01

140

49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615 Transportation...Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After...poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned...

2013-10-01

141

Controlled Tank Car Impact Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of controlled tank car impact tests were performed by the Association of American Railroads as part of a Federal Railroad Administration Task Order entitled Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Research Test Program. The objective of these t...

R. K. Larson B. R. Rajkumar

1992-01-01

142

Opposing regulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CAR and PXR in hypothyroid mice  

SciTech Connect

Clinical hypothyroidism affects various metabolic processes including drug metabolism. CYP2B and CYP3A are important cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes that are regulated by the xenobiotic receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) and pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2). We evaluated the regulation of the hepatic expression of CYPs by CAR and PXR in the hypothyroid state induced by a low-iodine diet containing 0.15% propylthiouracil. Expression of Cyp3a11 was suppressed in hypothyroid C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice and a further decrement was observed in hypothyroid CAR{sup ?/?} mice, but not in hypothyroid PXR{sup ?/?} mice. In contrast, expression of Cyp2b10 was induced in both WT and PXR{sup ?/?} hypothyroid mice, and this induction was abolished in CAR{sup ?/?} mice and in and CAR{sup ?/?} PXR{sup ?/?} double knockouts. CAR mRNA expression was increased by hypothyroidism, while PXR expression remained unchanged. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a commonly used antiepileptic that is metabolized by CYP3A isoforms. After CBZ treatment of normal chow fed mice, serum CBZ levels were highest in CAR{sup ?/?} mice and lowest in WT and PXR{sup ?/?} mice. Hypothyroid WT or PXR{sup ?/?} mice survived chronic CBZ treatment, but all hypothyroid CAR{sup ?/?} and CAR{sup ?/?} PXR{sup ?/?} mice died, with CAR{sup ?/?}PXR{sup ?/?} mice surviving longer than CAR{sup ?/?} mice (12.3 ± 3.3 days vs. 6.3 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.04). All these findings suggest that hypothyroid status affects xenobiotic metabolism, with opposing responses of CAR and PXR and their CYP targets that can cancel each other out, decreasing serious metabolic derangement in response to a xenobiotic challenge. -- Highlights: ? Hypothyroid status activates CAR in mice and induces Cyp2b10 expression. ? Hypothyroid status suppresses PXR activity in mice and represses Cyp3a11 expression. ? These responses balance each other out in normal mice. ? Hypothyroidism sensitizes CAR null mice to toxic effects of carbamazepine.

Park, Young Joo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Kyung [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon Kwang [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Moore, David D., E-mail: moore@bcm.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

2012-09-01

143

Washing Away Bioprocessing Cost: Pressurized Hot Wash Improves Cellulosic Ethanol Technology  

SciTech Connect

Thermochemical pretreatment is a key step in biotechnology for converting lignocellulosic biomass to fuel ethanol and other valuable chemicals. U.S. Department of Energy Biofuels Program researchers have found that adding a Pressurized Hot Wash (PHW) step immediately following pretreatment--while the pretreated material is still at high temperature and pressure--significantly improves the overall process. The ''hot-washed'' pretreated material can be more efficiently digested by cellulase enzymes. Additionally, soluble lignins with potentially valuable unique reactive properties are separated out.

Not Available

2002-09-01

144

Hand washing practices in a college town environment.  

PubMed

Many people do not wash their hands when the behavior in which they engage would warrant it. Most research of hand washing practices to date has taken place in high-traffic environments such as airports and public attraction venues. These studies have established a persistent shortcoming and a gender difference in hand washing compliance. Using field observations of 3,749 people in a college town environment, the research described in this article replicates and extends earlier work while identifying potential environmental and demographic predictors of hand washing compliance. Additionally, the authors' research suggests that proper hand washing practices, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are not being practiced. Finally, the authors' research raises a question as to the accuracy of earlier measurements of "proper" hand washing practices, suggesting that compliance rates are inflated. The results can help increase hand washing rates for the general public and thus decrease the risk of transmitting disease. PMID:23621052

Borchgrevink, Carl P; Cha, JaeMin; Kim, SeungHyun

2013-04-01

145

Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of the video cameras would be transmitted by radio or infrared to a portable, miniature receiver/video monitor unit that would be attached to the dashboard of the car. The video-camera subsystem can also be used within transmission/reception range when the seat was removed from the car. The system would include a biotelemetric and tracking subsystem, which would include a Global Positioning System receiver for measuring its location. This subsystem would transmit the location of the infant car seat (even if the seat were not in a car) along with such biometric data as the baby s heart rate, perspiration rate, urinary status, temperature, and rate of breathing. Upon detecting any anomalies in the biometric data, this subsystem would send a warning to a paging device installed in the car or carried by the driver, so that the driver could pull the car off the road to attend to the baby. A motion detector in this subsystem would send a warning if the infant car seat were to be moved or otherwise disturbed unexpectedly while the infant was seated in it: this warning function, in combination with the position- tracking function, could help in finding a baby who had been kidnapped with the seat. Removable rechargeable batteries would enable uninterrupted functioning of all parts of the system while transporting the baby to and from the car. The batteries could be recharged via the cigarette-lighter outlet in the car or by use of an external AC-powered charger.

Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

2004-01-01

146

Axial Dispersion during Hanford Saltcake Washing  

SciTech Connect

Clean up of Hanford salt cake wastes begins with dissolution retrieval of the sodium rich salts that make up the dominant majority of mass in the tanks. Water moving through the porous salt cake dissolves the soluble components and also displaces the soluble radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 99TcO4- ). The separation that occurs from this displacement, known as Selective dissolution, is an important component in Hanford’s pretreatment of low activity wastes for subsequent Supplemental treatment. This paper describes lab scale testing conducted to evaluate Selective dissolution of cesium from non-radioactive Hanford tank 241-S-112 salt cake simulant containing the primary chemicals found the the actual tank. An modified axial dispersion model with increasing axial dispersion was developed to predict cesium removal. The model recognizes that water dissolves the salt cake during washing, which causes an increase in the axial dispersion during the wash. This model was subsequently compared with on-line cesium measurements from the retrieval of tank 241-S-112. The model had remarkably good agreement with both the lab scale and full scale data.

Josephson, Gary B.; Geeting, John GH; Lessor, Delbert L.; Barton, William B.

2006-08-01

147

Sensitive and Specific Detection of Early Gastric Cancer Using DNA Methylation Analysis of Gastric Washes  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Aberrant DNA methylation is an early and frequent process in gastric carcinogenesis and could be useful for detection of gastric neoplasia. We hypothesized that methylation analysis of DNA recovered from gastric washes could be used to detect gastric cancer. Methods We studied 51 candidate genes in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 24 samples (training set) and identified 6 for further studies. We examined the methylation status of these genes in a test set consisting of 131 gastric neoplasias at various stages. Finally, we validated the 6 candidate genes in a different population of 40 primary gastric cancer samples and 113 non-neoplastic gastric mucosa samples. Results 6 genes (MINT25, RORA, GDNF, ADAM23, PRDM5, MLF1) showed frequent differential methylation between gastric cancer and normal mucosa in the training, test and validation sets. GDNF and MINT25 were most sensitive molecular markers of early stage gastric cancer while PRDM5 and MLF1 were markers of a field defect. There was a close correlation (r=0.5 to 0.9, p=0.03 to 0.001) between methylation levels in tumor biopsy and gastric washes. MINT25 methylation had the best sensitivity (90%), specificity (96%), and area under the ROC curve (0.961) in terms of tumor detection in gastric washes. Conclusions These findings suggest MINT25 is a sensitive and specific marker for screening in gastric cancer. Additionally we have developed a new methodology for gastric cancer detection by DNA methylation in gastric washes.

Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kim, Hyun Soo; Castoro, Ryan J.; Chung, Woonbok; Estecio, Marcos R. H.; Kondo, Kimie; Guo, Yi; Ahmed, Saira S.; Toyota, Minoru; Itoh, Fumio; Suk, Ki Tae; Cho, Mee-Yon; Shen, Lanlan; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

2009-01-01

148

Improving Hand-Washing Performance - A Crossover Study of Hand-Washing in the Orthopaedic Department  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Effective hand-washing is essential for reducing the spread of infection in hospitals. We aimed to evaluate hand-washing performance of hospital personnel and to determine if this could be improved by education. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 55 personnel working in the orthopaedic department were asked to clean their hands using an alcohol gel containing a clear fluorescent substance. They were unaware of the assessment method. Performance was assessed by examining their hands under UV light to identify areas that had been neglected. Subjects could visualise which areas they had missed and were then educated regarding hand-washing technique and retested after 7 days. RESULTS Of the 55 subjects, 53 completed the study. Individual performance varied widely. Following a simple educational intervention, 49 out of 53 subjects improved from an average of 7.8% to 2.3% area missed (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS We suggest that hand-washing effectiveness needs to be improved and that a simple educational intervention can be effective.

Macdonald, Duncan JM; McKillop, Elisabeth CA; Trotter, Sylvia; Gray, Alastair JR

2006-01-01

149

Hand Washing in the Child Care Setting. When Should Hands Be Washed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The product is a poster showing children how to wash their hands in order to reduce the spread of infections. The poster contains pictures and written explanations of proper handwashing steps. The poster lists the occasions when children and staff should ...

1994-01-01

150

[What pediatricians should know about car seats?: car safety seats].  

PubMed

In Argentina more than 7,000 people die each year due to traffic injuries. It is an endemic disease, a serious public health problem. There are evidence-based recommendations about how children should ride safety in cars; children through 8 years or 4 feet 9 inches cannot be fastened by the seat belt so they should ride in a child restraint system. These devices significantly reduce the chances of suffering serious injuries and fatalities. Although in our country the use of car safety seats is not yet legislated nor compulsory, pediatricians should recommend parents how and why to use them. PMID:23732352

Navarro, Lucas David

2013-06-01

151

Driving kids to smoke? Children's reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation.  

PubMed

The health risks associated with second hand smoke (SHS) are well-known. However, little is known about exposure to SHS in cars and risk of smoking uptake. This paper investigates the association between pre-adolescents reported exposure to smoking in cars and prevalence of early stage smoking activity. Data from Keeping Kids Smokefree baseline surveys of students were used to investigate smoking status and reported exposure to smoking in cars. Log binomial regression analyses were used to investigate if reported exposure to SHS in cars was associated with smoking prevalence. 83% of 5676 students invited took part. After controlling for all variables reported exposure to smoking in cars and homes were significantly associated with increased risk of initiated smoking (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.43-2.44, and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.13-1.97, respectively). Exposure to smoking in cars was substantially and significantly associated with risk of current smoking (RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.45-7.08). Early smoking uptake is associated with students' reported exposure to smoking in cars which confirms the importance of protecting children from SHS. Smoking in cars is under parental control and therefore modifiable. Moreover, children's reports of SHlS exposure offer a simple way of identifying families who can be targeted for tobacco control interventions. PMID:21733632

Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; Min, Sandar; Kira, Anette; Nosa, Vili; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

2011-11-01

152

Knowledge of neonatal car seat location in a predominantly disadvantaged prenatal population.  

PubMed

In order to assess knowledge of correct car seat location in prenatal patients of predominant lower socioeconomic status, an anonymous survey was performed at 2 inner city obstetric clinics. The survey participants (n = 688) were asked to select from among 3 drawings the correct location of a neonatal car seat. The choices showed an infant facing backward in the rear seat, forward in the rear seat, and backward in the front seat. The correct location of the car seat was selected by 61% of the participating subjects. Knowledge of correct location was related to age (p = 0.047), race (p = 0.002), and parity (p = 0.001) on univariate analysis. Education, survey site, and attendance at prenatal classes did not significantly correlate with car seat knowledge. Multiple regression analysis revealed that Caucasian race compared to African-American race predicted correct knowledge of car seat location with an Odds Ratio of 2.11 (CI 1.38-3.24). Multiparous women were more likely to know where to install a car seat relative to nulliparous women with an Odds Ratio of 1.63 (CI 1.12-2.38). Age was not significantly correlated with car seat knowledge on multivariate analysis. Knowledge of neonatal car seat location was suboptimal in our predominantly disadvantaged population, particularly in nulliparous, African-American women. Further prenatal education is needed during pregnancy or before hospital discharge to address this knowledge deficit. PMID:12365306

Robinson, Dale C; Reitan, Rachel E; Jones, Glenn N; Gist, Richard S

2002-09-01

153

Environmental implications of electric cars  

SciTech Connect

California and the Northeast states have passed laws requiring 2% of 1998 cars be `0` emissions vehicles such as electric cars. Electric vehicle technology also can move emissions to less crowd and less polluted locations. However, some other problems remain. The authors focus on the environmental consequences of producing and reprocessing large quantities of batteries to power electric cars, including discussions of both characteristics of Electric Vehicles and batteries and the life cycle of lead and the problems of environmental releases. The authors conclude that electric vehicles will not be in the public interest until they pose no greater threat to public health and the environment than do alternative technologies such as vehicles using low-emission gasoline. 19 refs., 1 tab.

Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; McMichael, F.C. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-05-19

154

PXR, CAR and drug metabolism.  

PubMed

Mechanisms that protect the body from a diverse array of harmful chemicals are also involved in drug metabolism, and can cause adverse drug-drug interactions. Two closely related orphan nuclear hormone receptors--the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)--have recently emerged as transcriptional regulators of cytochrome P450 expression that couple xenobiotic exposure to oxidative metabolism. In this review, we provide an examination of the roles of PXR and CAR as xenobiotic sensors, and discuss the application of this knowledge to toxicological screening in drug discovery. PMID:12120277

Willson, Timothy M; Kliewer, Steven A

2002-04-01

155

Microbial contamination of a hexetidine mouth wash.  

PubMed

Twenty different bottles of a mouth wash containing 0.05% hexetidine as an active ingredient were examined for their microbiral contents. The results showed that all the tested bottles were contaminated with bacteria. Nine out of the twenty bottles contained more than 10(4) CFU/ml. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in one bottle, while Pseudomonas species were found in four bottles. Fungi were detected in 10 bottles, a fungal count of more than 100 fungus/ml were found in 12 out of the 19. Yeasts were detected in 16 bottles, Candida species were the most predominant with a rate of 11 out of the 16, while Saccharomyces species were found in 5 out of the 16. C. albicans, a definite oral pathogen, was found in 3 bottles. PMID:3116786

Abdelaziz, A A; Ashour, M S

1987-06-01

156

Development of a mobile heliostat mirror washing system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development, design and fabrication of an experimental system for washing heliostats. The economics of heliostat cleaning, the design requirements and the design and testing of the wash system are discussed. The heliostat wash system was designed to wash the heliostats located at the 10 MWe Central Receiver Pilot Plant located near Barstow, California. The plant, called Solar One, is a cooperative activity between the Department of Energy and the Associates: Southern California Edison, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, and the California Energy Commission. 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1988-02-01

157

Thyroid function in nurses: the influence of povidone-iodine hand washing and gargling.  

PubMed

The effect of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) hand washing and gargling on thyroid function was assessed. In 16 nurses using PVP-I products and 16 control subjects, serum inorganic iodine levels and thyroid functions were investigated. The status of PVP-I use was also surveyed in the nurses. Clinical symptoms considered to be attributable to thyroid dysfunctions were seen in none of the subjects, nor was a goiter observed in any of the subjects. In nurses, serum inorganic iodine levels were slightly increased as compared to those in the control subjects, although the difference was not significant. The iodine incorporated during working hours of nurses appears to be attributable to gargling rather than to hand washing. The long-term use of PVP-I for gargling should be avoided by (1) people with a high risk of developing thyroid dysfunction due to the excessive intake of iodine, (2) pregnant women and (3) breast-feeding mothers. PMID:12011531

Nobukuni, Keigo; Kawahara, Shin

2002-01-01

158

Solar-Powered Car. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work reported was to modify a commercially available electric vehicle to use power generated by solar cells. Besides the technical and financial aspects of constructing the car, media publicity and public showings of the car are discussed. (ERA citati...

D. Plank

1982-01-01

159

Solar-powered car. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work reported was to modify a commercially available electric vehicle to use power generated by solar cells. Besides the technical and financial aspects of constructing the car, media publicity and public showings of the car are discussed. (LEW)

Plank

1982-01-01

160

49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121 Transportation...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121...

2013-10-01

161

49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180.507 Transportation...PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting...

2013-10-01

162

Friction in a Moving Car  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an out-of-doors, partially unstructured experiment to determine the coefficient of friction for a moving car. Presents the equation which relates the coefficient of friction to initial velocity, distance, and time and gives sample computed values as a function of initial speed and tire pressure. (GS)

Goldberg, Fred M.

1975-01-01

163

Riding in Cars Between Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an analysis of public discourse surrounding two different controversies featuring professional race car driver, Deborah Renshaw, this article foregrounds contemporary relationships between gender and (auto)mobility. It draws on both theories of gender performativity and media ecology to outline the ways in which the automobile as a technology influences gender performance and the ways in which the automobile is understood

John M. Sloop

2005-01-01

164

Fueling the Car of Tomorrow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It is no secret that many high school students are fascinated with automobiles. The activities in Fueling the Car of Tomorrow --a free high school science curriculum, available online--(see "On the web")--capitalize on this heightened awareness and p

Haman, Arthur; Maggio, Daniel; Graves, James; Benvenuto, Mark; Schumack, Mark; Baker, Stokes

2010-09-01

165

Physics Fun with Toy Cars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Science Education Standards, students should be able to describe an object by its position, direction of motion, and speed (NRC 1996). During a unit on motion, the author decided to use Hot Wheels cars as the object students would describe. The first two activities are used to introduce students to the equipment and the…

Herald, Christine

2010-01-01

166

Symmetry in the Car Park  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a lesson on rotational symmetry which she developed for her students. The aim of the lesson was "to identify objects with rotational symmetry in the staff car park" and the success criteria were "pictures or sketches of at least six objects with different orders of rotation". After finding examples of…

Hancock, Karen

2007-01-01

167

The City and the Car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The social sciences have generally ignored the motor car and its awesome consequences for social life, especially in their analysis of the urban. Urban studies in particular has failed to consider the overwhelming impact of the automobile in transforming the time-space 'scapes' of the modern urban\\/suburban dweller. Focusing on forms of mobility into, across and through the city, we consider

Mimi Sheller; John Urry

2000-01-01

168

Robust control prevents car skidding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses a system of robust unilateral decoupling of car steering dynamics. Its effect is that the driver has to concern himself much less with disturbance attenuation. The important quick reaction to disturbance torques is done by the automatic feedback system. The yaw dynamics no longer interfere with the path-following task of the driver. The safety advantages have been

J. Ackermann

1997-01-01

169

Cartel Car Bombings in Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improvised explosive devices and car bombs have long been identified as threats to U.S. Army personnel deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan. They have gained considerable attention and notoriety, even infamy, among our troops, who have had to learn the approp...

J. P. Sullivan R. J. Bunker

2013-01-01

170

Light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus: evidence that CarS acts as an anti-repressor of CarA.  

PubMed

In the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, carotenoids are produced in response to illumination, as a result of expression of the crt carotenoid biosynthesis genes. The majority of crt genes are clustered in the crtEBDC operon, which is repressed in the dark by CarA. Genetic data suggest that, in the light, CarS is synthesized and achieves activation of the crtEBDC operon by removing the repressive action of CarA. As CarS contains no known DNA-binding motif, the relief of CarA-mediated repression was postulated to result from a direct interaction between these two proteins. Use of the yeast two-hybrid system demonstrated direct interaction between CarA and CarS. The two-hybrid system also implied that CarA and, possibly, CarS are capable of homodimerization. Direct evidence for CarS anti-repressor action was provided in vitro. A glutathione S-transferase (GST)-CarA protein fusion was shown to bind specifically to a palindromic operator sequence within the crtEBDC promoter. CarA was prevented from binding to its operator, and prebound CarA was removed by the addition of purified CarS. CarS is therefore an anti-repressor. PMID:11722744

Whitworth, D E; Hodgson, D A

2001-11-01

171

Hybrid electric cars, combustion engine driven cars and their impact on environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper stresses the negative influence of cars on the environment. Hybrid cars technology can diminish the fuel consumption and green house gases production. Different types of electric hybrid powertrains are described Special attention is paid to electric power splitting. Comparison of fuel consumption and CO2 production of one hybrid car and one classic car on European driving cycle is published.

Z. Cerovsky; P. Mindl

2008-01-01

172

Prototype wash water renovation system integration with goverment-furnished wash fixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total renovation concept for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water to make the water reusable was developed. This concept included ferric chloride pretreatment to coagulate suspended solids such as soap and lint, pressure filtration, and carbon adsorption and ion exchange to remove trace dissolved organics and inorganic salts. A breadboard model which was developed to demonstrate the design adequacy of the various system components and the limits on system capacities and efficiencies.

1983-01-01

173

The Science of Speed: Car Safety  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Science of Speed explains the scientific principles that are so essential to the NASCAR experience. Viewers learn how science makes cars powerful, agile, fast and safe--and how these same principles affect their own cars. Conservation of energy explains how NASCAR's new car helped driver Michael McDowell walk away from a scary crash at Texas Motor Speedway in 2008.

Productions, Santa F.

174

Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

Ong, Paul M.

2002-01-01

175

Critical Speed Control of a Solar Car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Solar Challenge is a 3000 km race for solar powered cars across the Australian continent from Darwin to Adelaide. Each car is powered by a panel of photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight into electrical power. The power can be used directly to drive the car or stored in a battery for later use. Previous papers (P. Howlett, P.

Peter Pudney; Phil Howlett

2002-01-01

176

Optimal energy management for solar car race  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a solar car simulation and race strategy program developed for the University of Illinois Sunrayce 95 solar car race team. The goal is to complete the ten-day race course in the minimum total running time, using solar energy alone. In cloudy weather, even the most competitive cars can become energy-limited. The strategic choice in that case, is

G. S. Wright

1996-01-01

177

49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the...

2013-10-01

178

49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation Other...RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be...

2013-10-01

179

49 CFR 212.217 - Car inspector.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car inspector. 212.217 Section 212.217 Transportation...REGULATIONS State Inspection Personnel § 212.217 Car inspector. (a) The car inspector is required, at a minimum, to be...

2013-10-01

180

An alternative paper based tissue washing method for mass spectrometry imaging: localized washing and fragile tissue analysis.  

PubMed

Surface treatment of biological tissue sections improves detection of peptides and proteins for mass spectrometry imaging. However, liquid surface treatments can result in diffusion of surface analytes and fragile tissue sections can be easily damaged by typical washing solvents. Here, we present a new surface washing procedure for mass spectrometry imaging. This procedure uses solvent wetted fiber-free paper to enable local washing of tissue sections for mass spectrometry imaging and tissue profiling experiments. In addition, the method allows fragile tissues that cannot be treated by conventional washing techniques to be analyzed by mass spectrometry imaging. PMID:21952901

van Hove, Erika R Amstalden; Smith, Donald F; Fornai, Lara; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M A

2011-10-01

181

Crud in Solvent Washing Process for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a solvent washing process for nuclear fuel reprocessing, one of the important problems is a formation of stable emulsions between organic and aqueous phases. These emulsions are called interfacial “crud”. Crud is defined as an emulsion stabilized by finely dispersed solids. These stable emulsions lead to decreased washing efficiency, lower phase separation, disturbance of the interfacial control at the

Hiroshi SUGAI

1992-01-01

182

EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BIOTROL SOIL WASHING PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrate on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstra...

183

Compliance of hand washing practices: Theory versus practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand washing remains an important preventative method for making the transmission of nosocomial infections redundant. Despite awareness by health workers of the practices required and of the legislation governing hand washing, the study reported here found that compliance to these procedures was quite poor. The results of two surveys distributed to health workers and direct observation by clinical staff in

Lorette Roberts; Patrick Bolton; Sonia Asman

1998-01-01

184

Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Wash room, bunkhouse, first floor interior. This room is a screened porch with the original sinks extant. Light and ventilation was borrowed from the wash room into the toilets and bathing rooms. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

185

33 CFR 207.750 - Puget Sound Area, Wash.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound Area, Wash. 207.750 Section 207...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.750 Puget Sound Area, Wash. (a) Waterway connecting...vessels approaching the locks from Puget Sound shall be alert to receive and shall...

2013-07-01

186

33 CFR 162.235 - Puget Sound Area, Wash.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound Area, Wash. 162.235 Section 162...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.235 Puget Sound Area, Wash. (a) Waterway connecting...one short whistle. Southbound boats shall sound the signal within 600 yards of Port...

2013-07-01

187

Getting More Mileage Out of Mousetrap Cars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building and racing mousetrap cars is a common activity in many eighth- and ninth-grade physical science classrooms. However, once students have raced their cars, most mousetrap assignments come to an end. The project described here was developed to help teachers get more mileage out of mousetrap cars. The project enables students to investigate the physics behind car construction and performance and is completed in four stages: assembly and materials, the race, data collection for the laboratory, and a final assignment that includes a to-scale diagram of the car and reflective essay.

Wylo, Bonnie; Rutherford, Sandra

2004-10-01

188

Entwurfskonzept einer Car2Car-Multiband-Dachantenne  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the vastly increasing use of wireless services in the car, such as WiFi, Car2Car and LTE, the requirements on bandwidth and radiation pattern of the roof antenna systems become more challenging. In this work, a design concept for multi-band roof antenna systems is presented. We aim to get a higher bandwidth and an almost circular radiation pattern on the horizontal plane. Moreover, the antenna length is considered in order to fulfill the requirements set by construction ECE-regulations (ECE, 2010). The applicability of the design concept is not limited to multi-band roof antennas, it can also be used for a general wideband antenna design. For illustration of this concept, a multi-band roof antenna with a bandwidth of 780 MHz to 5.9 GHz and a near circular radiation pattern with an average gain of G = 3 dBi (at 5.9 GHz) on the horizontal plane is designed. The simulation and measurement results are presented.

Wang, Y.; Reit, M.; Mathis, W.

2012-09-01

189

Metabolism of Red Beet Slices I. Effects of Washing 1  

PubMed Central

The changes in relative participation of pathways of glucose catabolism in red beet slices during washing have been examined using specifically 14C labeled glucoses. Washing of these slices brings about an increase in participation of the pentose phosphate pathway. The composition of the washing medium influences slightly the extent of change in pathway participation. The activity level of certain enzymes participating in the initial stages of glucose catabolism has been measured in fresh and washed beet slices. Fresh slices which barely metabolized gluconate were found to have very little 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity. Washing brings about a dramatic increase in 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity and this increase was accompanied by a marked increase in the ability of the slices to metabolize gluconate. In red beet slices the TPNH generated via pentose phosphate pathway appears to be utilized for biosynthetic reductions rather than as respiratory substrate.

Reed, D. J.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

1966-01-01

190

Heterodyne effect in Hybrid CARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the interaction between the resonant Raman signal and non-Raman field, either the concomitant nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background or an applied external field, in our recently developed scheme of coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering, a hybrid CARS. Our technique combines instantaneous coherent excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations with subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped, time-delayed, narrowband

Xi Wang; Aihua Zhang; Miaochan Zhi; Alexei Sokolov; George Welch; Marlan Scully

2009-01-01

191

The compulsive habit of cars.  

PubMed

The car dependence of people living in contemporary cities is a major concern for policy makers, who often find it difficult to persuade people into more sustainable transport modes. By contrast, recent insights from neuroscience have shown that a broad spectrum of behaviors can become habitual and, thus, resistant to change. Here, we outline the potential of collaboration between neuroscience and human geography aiming at a better understanding of habits that determine everyday commuting routines. PMID:24767180

Yalachkov, Yavor; Naumer, Marcus J; Plyushteva, Anna

2014-05-01

192

RP-CARS: label-free optical readout of the myelin intrinsic healthiness.  

PubMed

Here we present a method based on Rotating-Polarization Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (RP-CARS) imaging to assess the myelin health status in mouse sciatic nerves. Differently from the existing techniques, our method is based on the readout of intrinsic molecular architecture rather than on the image analysis, relying on the fact that healthy myelin is characterized by a high degree of molecular order. We exploit RP-CARS imaging to demonstrate that the degree of spatial anisotropy of the CARS signal displays a strong correlation with the g-ratio (a well-known image-based index of myelin damage) in a chemical-damage model and therefore that the former is a good indicator for the local myelin health status. PMID:24921566

de Vito, Giuseppe; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Cecchini, Marco; Piazza, Vincenzo

2014-06-01

193

Laboratory testing in-tank sludge washing, summary letter report  

SciTech Connect

In-tank washing is being considered as a means of pretreating high-level radioactive waste sludges, such as neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) sludge. For this process, the contents of the tank will be allowed to settle, and the supernatant solution will be decanted and removed. A dilute sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrite wash solution will be added to the settled sludge and the tank contents will be mixed with a mixer pump system to facilitate washing of the sludge. After thorough mixing, the mixer pumps will be shut off and the solids will be allowed to re-settle. After settling, the supernatant solution will be withdrawn from the tank, and the wash cycle will be repeated several times with fresh wash solution. Core sample data of double shell tank 241-AZ-101 indicate that settling of NCAW solids may be very slow. A complicating factor is that strong thermal currents are expected to be generated from heat produced by radionuclides in the sludge layer at the bottom of the tank. Additionally, there are concerns that during the settling period (i.e., while mixing pumps and air-lift re-circulators are shut off), the radionuclides may heat the residual interstitial water in the sludge to the extent that violent steam discharges (steam bumping) could occur. Finally, there are concerns that during the washing steps sludge settling may be hindered as a result of the reduced ionic strength of the wash solution. To overcome the postulated reduced settling rates during the second and third washing steps, the use of flocculants is being considered. To address the above concerns and uncertainties associated with in-tank washing, PNL has conducted laboratory testing with simulant tank waste to investigate settling rates, steam bump potential, and the need for and use of flocculating agents.

Norton, M.V.; Torres-Ayala, F.

1994-09-01

194

Experimental study of the constituents of space wash water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents experimental data, obtained under controlled conditions, which quantify the various constituents of human origin that may be expected in space wash water. The experiments were conducted with a simulated crew of two male and two female subjects. The data show that the expected wash water contaminants originating from human secretions are substantially lower than theoretical projections indicated. The data presented are immediately useful and may have considerable impact on the tradeoff comparisons among various unit processes and systems under consideration by NASA for recycling space wash water.

Putnam, D. F.; Colombo, G. V.

1975-01-01

195

Macroscopic car condensation in a parking garage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An asymmetric exclusion process type process, where cars move forward along a closed road that starts and terminates at a parking garage, displays dynamic phase transitions into two types of condensate phases where the garage becomes macroscopically occupied. The total car density ?o and the exit probability ? from the garage are the two control parameters. At the transition, the number of parked cars Np diverges in both cases, with the length of the road Ns, as Np~Nyps with yp=1/2. Towards the transition, the number of parked cars vanishes as Np~?? with ?=1, ?=|?-?*| or ?=|?*o-?o| being the distance from the transition. The transition into the normal phase represents also the onset of transmission of information through the garage. This gives rise to unusual parked car autocorrelations and car density profiles near the garage, which depend strongly on the group velocity of the fluctuations along the road.

Ha, Meesoon; den Nijs, Marcel

2002-09-01

196

46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces...205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces...Private facilityâ means a toilet, washing, or shower space that is...water. (j) Adjacent toilets must be separated...

2010-10-01

197

37. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden SIDE ELEVATION OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR W. C. PRATT, ESQr - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

198

38. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Photocopy of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden REAR ELEVATION OF W. C. PRATT'S COUNTRY SEAT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

199

PARTS WASHING ALTERNATIVES STUDY - UNITED STATES COAST GUARD  

EPA Science Inventory

This report has been written to assist the United States Coast Guard (USCG) industrial managers in determining the most cost effective and environmentally acceptable parts washing alternatives for their specific applications. n evaluation was conducted on four different cleaners ...

200

7. PRESSURE CONDUIT ACROSS SCHOOL HOUSE WASH ON THE POWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. PRESSURE CONDUIT ACROSS SCHOOL HOUSE WASH ON THE POWER CANAL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, February 21, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

201

Study of efficient washing machines, dishwashers and driers. Interim report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This interim report provides the preliminary results of a study on energy efficiency of wet appliances (washing machines, dishwashers and driers) carried out by the Group for Efficient Appliances (GEA). More specifically, the study aims at establishing a ...

1994-01-01

202

Many Anesthesiologists Fail to Wash Hands, Study Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Many Anesthesiologists Fail to Wash Hands, Study Shows Research documents numerous missed opportunities with ... HealthDay News) -- Anesthesiologists may need to improve their hand hygiene habits during surgery, because they might be ...

203

Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

Brothers, A.J.

1995-12-31

204

30 CFR 1206.259 - Determination of washing allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. Allowable capital costs are generally those for depreciable fixed assets (including costs of delivery and installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the wash...

2013-07-01

205

30 CFR 1206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. Allowable capital costs are generally those for depreciable fixed assets (including costs of delivery and installation of capital equipment) which are an integral part of the wash...

2013-07-01

206

49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STB-54, Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated, together with the accompanying certification, with the Office of Economics, Environmental Analysis, and Administration (OEEAA), Surface Transportation Board, Washington, DC 20243,...

2013-10-01

207

The Optimization of a Three-Phase Surfactant Washing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this analysis, the economics of MBI International's three-phase surfactant washing system for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sediment was optimized. The system, which consists of a screw washer, an oil\\/water separator, and a vacuum filter, transfers PCBs to a sacrificial oil layer through two individual two-phase partitioning steps. At the completion of the washing process, the sacrificial

Tylisha Baber; Melinda Baker; Keya Belcher; Rebekah Stephenson

208

Adverse Selection in the Wholesale Used Car Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical investigation of adverse selection in the wholesale used car market. New car dealers (who sell both new and used cars) differ from used car dealers (who sell only used cars) in the propensity to sell trade-ins on the wholesale market. Models of adverse selection suggest that the dealer type that sells a higher proportion of

David Genesove

1993-01-01

209

WASH inhibits autophagy through suppression of Beclin 1 ubiquitination.  

PubMed

Autophagy degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle cellular components that are required for cell survival and tissue homeostasis. However, it is not clear how autophagy is regulated in mammalian cells. WASH (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and SCAR homologue) plays an essential role in endosomal sorting through facilitating tubule fission via Arp2/3 activation. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of WASH in modulation of autophagy. We show that WASH deficiency causes early embryonic lethality and extensive autophagy of mouse embryos. WASH inhibits vacuolar protein sorting (Vps)34 kinase activity and autophagy induction. We identified that WASH is a new interactor of Beclin 1. Beclin 1 is ubiquitinated at lysine 437 through lysine 63 linkage in cells undergoing autophagy. Ambra1 is an E3 ligase for lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of Beclin 1 that is required for starvation-induced autophagy. The lysine 437 ubiquitination of Beclin 1 enhances the association with Vps34 to promote Vps34 activity. WASH can suppress Beclin 1 ubiquitination to inactivate Vps34 activity leading to suppression of autophagy. PMID:23974797

Xia, Pengyan; Wang, Shuo; Du, Ying; Zhao, Zhenao; Shi, Lei; Sun, Lei; Huang, Guanling; Ye, Buqing; Li, Chong; Dai, Zhonghua; Hou, Ning; Cheng, Xuan; Sun, Qingyuan; Li, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Fan, Zusen

2013-10-16

210

Heterodyne effect in Hybrid CARS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the interaction between the resonant Raman signal and non-Raman field, either the concomitant nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background or an applied external field, in our recently developed scheme of coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering, a hybrid CARS. Our technique combines instantaneous coherent excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations with subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped, time-delayed, narrowband laser pulse. This pulse configuration mitigates the non-resonant FWM background while maximizing the Raman-resonant signal, and allows rapid and highly specific detection even in the presence of multiple scattering. We apply this method to non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. Under certain conditions we find that the measured signal is linearly proportional to the glucose concentration due to optical interference with the residual background light, which allows reliable detection of spectral signatures down to medically-relevant glucose levels. We also study the interference between the CARS field and an external field (the local oscillator) by controlling their relative phase and amplitude. This control allows direct observation of the real and imaginary components of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (?^(3)) of the sample. We demonstrate that the heterodyne method can be used to amplify the signal and thus increase detection sensitivity.

Wang, Xi; Zhang, Aihua; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Scully, Marlan

2009-10-01

211

Remediation of cadmium-contaminated paddy soils by washing with calcium chloride: verification of on-site washing.  

PubMed

We developed a new, three-step soil-wash method to remediate Cd-contaminated paddy fields. The method comprises (1) chemically washing the field soil with a CaCl2 solution; (2) washing the treated soil with water to eliminate residual Cd and CaCl2; and (3) on-site treatment of wastewater using a portable wastewater treatment system. Cd concentrations in the treated water were below Japan's environmental quality standard (0.01 mg Cd L-1), and the removal of Cd from the exchangeable fraction was 55% and from the acid-soluble fraction 15%. While soil fertility properties were affected by the soil washing, adverse effects were not crucial and could be corrected. The washing had no affect on rice growth, and reduced the average Cd concentration in rice grains by about two-thirds compared to a control plot. These results confirmed the effectiveness of the soil-wash method in remediating Cd-contaminated paddy fields. PMID:17141928

Makino, Tomoyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki; Sasaki, Kouta; Maejima, Yuji; Sugahara, Kazuo

2007-05-01

212

7. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA INSIDE CAMERA CAR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

213

6. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT INSIDE CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT INSIDE CAMERA CAR WITH CAMERA MOUNT IN FOREGROUND. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

214

49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215.303 Transportation...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad...

2013-10-01

215

49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215.119 Transportation...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119...

2013-10-01

216

1. GENERAL VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING LARRY CARS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING LARRY CARS BELOW HOPPER BIN. GRAY FITZSIMONS, HAER HISTORIAN, IS STANDING ON PLATFORM NEXT TO LARRY CARS - Lucernemines Coke Works, Larry Car Tipple, East of Lucerne, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

217

5. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF HOIST AT SIDE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VAL CAMERA CAR, DETAIL OF HOIST AT SIDE OF BRIDGE AND ENGINE CAR ON TRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

218

Pervasive car pooling system using push strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car-pooling is a possible solution to lack of transportation convenience faced by Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) community. The remote location of the university creates the need to travel very occasionally in order to run errands. Observation indicates that the popular mode of transport in UTP is by car but often with vacant passenger seats. Obstacles are difficulty of offering and

K. H. Yew; Y. Y. Chen; E. E. Mustapha; D. K. Do

2008-01-01

219

Testing device for electrical car networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the production steps in DSE Draexlmaier Company (http:\\/\\/www.draexlmaier.de\\/), which is – besides other activities – a global player in producing electrical car networks is to make a final test of their products after manufacture process. The problem was connected with designing a mechatronic fixing and checking device for plugs of electrical car networks. The available testing device, on

J. ?wider; G. Wszo?ek; A. Baier; G. Ciupka; O. Winter

2005-01-01

220

New Electric Drive for Car Shredder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses performance aspects of a brushless double fed cage induction motor as a new driving alternative to the classical wound rotor induction motor used in a car shredder drive. It focuses in a real application of 3150 kW - 4160 V - 60 Hz - 514 rpm wound rotor induction motor. Firstly it analyses the car shredder duty

F. Runcos; R. Carlson; H. Voltolini; N. Sadowski; P. Kuo-Peng

2006-01-01

221

The fatal injuries of car drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We often refer to road fatalities without knowing exactly what injuries are responsible for them. Based on the Rhône Road Trauma Registry this paper sets out to describe the topography, nature and frequency of the fatal injuries sustained by car drivers.Mean annual mortality at the wheel of a car, computed by dividing the total number of drivers killed (n=383) by

A. Ndiaye; M. Chambost; M. Chiron

2009-01-01

222

Performance monitoring in UMR's solar car  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the instrumentation in UMR's solar car. Accurate knowledge of the operating parameters inside the solar car is shown to be crucial to maintaining high efficiency and reliability. The power trackers keep the solar array operating at its highest efficiency by conditioning the input and maintaining the maximum power point of the solar cells

L. McCarthy; J. Pieper; A. Rues; Cheng Hsiao Wu

2000-01-01

223

A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

Roman, Harry T.

2010-01-01

224

NTNU Java: Pendulum in an accelerated car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this applet a pendulum is in a vertical position when put in a stopped car. When the car is accelerated, it will swing with a new equilibrium position. The user can change the acceleration and the drag coefficient (assume drag force proportional to velocity put in the opposite direction).

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2008-09-27

225

Car-following: a historical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the topic of car-following has become of increased importance in traffic engineering and safety research. Models of this phenomenon, which describe the interaction between (typically) adjacent vehicles in the same lane, now form the cornerstone for many important areas of research including (a) simulation modelling, where the car-following model (amongst others) controls the motion of the vehicles

Mark Brackstone; Mike McDonald

1999-01-01

226

Car Detection in Low Resolution Aerial Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

e We present a system to detect passenger cars in aerial im- ages ,whe,re cmrs appear as small objects. We pose this as a 3D object recognition problem to account for the uariation in viezupoint and the shadow. We started from. psychologi- cal tests to find important features for human detection of cars. Based on these observations, we selected the

Tao Zhao; Ramakant Nevatia

2001-01-01

227

Car size or car mass: which has greater influence on fatality risk?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Proposed increases in corporate average fuel economy standards would probably lead to lighter cars. Well-established relationships between occupant risk and car mass predict consequent additional casualties. However, if size, not mass, is the causative factor in these relationships, then decreasing car mass need not increase risk. This study examines whether mass or size is the causative factor. METHODS. Data from the Fatal Accident Reporting System are used to explore relationships between car mass, car size (as represented by wheelbase), and driver fatality risk in two-car crashes. RESULTS. When cars of identical (or similar) wheelbase but different mass crash into each other, driver fatality risk depends strongly on mass; the relationship is quantitatively similar to that found in studies that ignore wheelbase. On the other hand, when cars of similar mass but different wheelbase crash into each other, the data reveal no dependence of driver fatality risk on wheelbase. CONCLUSIONS. Mass is the dominant causative factor in relationships between driver risk and car size in two-car crashes, with size, as such, playing at most a secondary role. Reducing car mass increases occupant risk.

Evans, L; Frick, M C

1992-01-01

228

Entertainment and Pacification System For Car Seat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An entertainment and pacification system for use with a child car seat has speakers mounted in the child car seat with a plurality of audio sources and an anti-noise audio system coupled to the child car seat. A controllable switching system provides for, at any given time, the selective activation of i) one of the audio sources such that the audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers, and ii) the anti-noise audio system such that an ambient-noise-canceling audio signal generated thereby is coupled to one or more of the speakers. The controllable switching system can receive commands generated at one of first controls located at the child car seat and second controls located remotely with respect to the child car seat with commands generated by the second controls overriding commands generated by the first controls.

Elrod, Susan Vinz (Inventor); Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

229

Coal cars - the first three hundred years  

SciTech Connect

This is the comprehensive study of the freight cars that conveyed coal across broad swaths of land that had been impassible before the invention of the steam engine. This volume traces the history and evolution of coal cars from their earliest use in England to the construction of major railways for the purpose of coal hauling and the end of the steam era on American railroads. In addition to contextualizing coal cars in the annals of industrial history, the book features extensive design specifications and drawings as well as a complete history of the various safety and mechanical innovations employed on these freight cars. It concludes with a photographic essay illustrating the development of the coal car over its first 300 years of use. 608 photos.

Martin Robert Karig III

2007-12-15

230

Lavage, Rincage et Sechage de la Laine avec Recyclage des Eaux de Rincage et Traitement des Eaux de Lavage (Counter-Current Rinsing and Washing Including Recycling of Rinsewater and Treatment of Washing Water from Wool Washing).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The company washes and rinses wool with recycling of the rinse water and treatment of wash water permitting the recovery of suint and fertilizer and the elimination of all aqueous wastes. Beaten wool is washed and rinsed in successive vats with running wa...

1981-01-01

231

Hand Washing Among School Children in Bogot?, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed hand-washing behaviors and intentions among school children in Bogotá, Colombia, to help identify and overcome barriers to proper hygiene practices. Methods. Data on hand-washing behavior and intentions and individual and contextual factors were collected from 2042 sixth- through eighth-grade students in 25 schools in Bogotá via anonymous questionnaires. A member of the school administration or teaching staff completed a questionnaire about the school environment. Site inspections of bathroom facilities were conducted. Results. Only 33.6% of the sample reported always or very often washing hands with soap and clean water before eating and after using the toilet. About 7% of students reported regular access to soap and clean water at school. A high level of perceived control was the strongest predictor of positive hand-washing intentions (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 7.5). Students with proper hand-washing behavior were less likely to report previous-month gastrointestinal symptoms (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9) or previous-year school absenteeism (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). Conclusions. Scarcity of adequate facilities in most schools in Bogotá prevents children from adopting proper hygienic behavior and thwarts health promotion efforts. The current renovation program of public schools in Bogotá provides a unique opportunity to meet the challenges of providing a supportive environment for adoption of healthy behaviors.

Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Freeman, Paul

2009-01-01

232

Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

1992-08-10

233

Treatment of tunnel wash water and implications for its disposal.  

PubMed

The use of road tunnels in urban areas creates water pollution problems, since the tunnels must be frequently cleaned for traffic safety reasons. The washing generates extensive volumes of highly polluted water, for example, more than fivefold higher concentrations of suspended solids compared to highway runoff. The pollutants in the wash water have an affinity for particulate material, so sedimentation should be a viable treatment option. In this study, 12 in situ sedimentation trials were carried out on tunnel wash water, with and without addition of chemical flocculent. Initial suspended solids concentration ranged from 804 to 9,690 mg/L. With sedimentation times of less than 24 hours and use of a chemical flocculent, it was possible to reach low concentrations of suspended solids (<15 mg/L), PAH (<0.1 ?g/L), As (<1.0 ?g/L), Cd (<0.05 ?g/L), Hg (<0.02 ?g/L), Fe (<200 ?g/L), Ni (<8 ?g/L), Pb (<0.5 ?g/L), Zn (<60 ?g/L) and Cr (<8 ?g/L). Acute Microtox(®) toxicity, mainly attributed to detergents used for the tunnel wash, decreased significantly at low suspended solids concentrations after sedimentation using a flocculent. The tunnel wash water did not inhibit nitrification. The treated water should be suitable for discharge into recipient waters or a wastewater treatment plant. PMID:24845317

Hallberg, M; Renman, G; Byman, L; Svenstam, G; Norling, M

2014-01-01

234

Apparatus for controlling electric cars  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for controlling electric cars comprising: d-c shunt-wound motors adapted to be connected to a d-c source and having armatures and field windings; first chopper circuit means connected in series with the armatures of the d-c shunt-wound motors and controlling the flow of armature currents in both directions upon receipt of timing signals; second chopper circuit means connected in series with the field windings of the d-c shunt-wound motors and controlling the flow of field currents in both directions upon receipt of timing signals; reactors having first and second coils, the first coils being connected in series with the armatures, and the second coils being connected in series with the field windings. The first coils and second coils and magnetically coupled together maintaining such a relation that the field currents decrease with the decrease in the armature currents.

Naruto, M.

1987-01-06

235

Healing Initial of Appendectomy Infection Wounds With Aggressive Washing Method  

PubMed Central

Background Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of mortality, despite medical advances it continues to be a major problem. Objectives The main goal of this study was healing initial of appendectomy infection wounds with aggressive washing method. Patients and Methods This study is a semiexperimental investigation which was performed on 300 patients with perforated appendicitis and infected ulcers who were selected randomly during 2001-2005. Patients were investigated with aggressive washing and primary repair, and necessary data was collected and analyzed. Results From all patients, 284 were improved, and 16 cases were complicated, from them 10 patients in the first week, 4 patients in the second week, and 2 patients in the third week had ulcer infection. Conclusions The results showed that aggressive washing method is an effective technique in patients with perforated appendicitis and wound infection.

Feizi, Iraj; Poorfarzan, Iraj; Shahbazzadegan, Bita; Amani, Firouz

2013-01-01

236

Gravity and magnetic study of Yucca Wash, southwest Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Gravity and ground magnetic data were collected along five traverses across and one traverse along Yucca Wash in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. Two additional ground magnetic profiles were collected approximately 100 m to either side of the longitudinal profile. These data do not indicate major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. A broad magnetic high coincides with the location of the hydrologic gradient. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Yucca Wash is about 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}.

Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

237

Design, development and demonstration of an improved bird washing machine.  

PubMed

Since oil was first extracted, pollution of the seas and oceans or adjacent coasts has been an obstacle for the oil industry and environmental activists. The major concern is oil discharge into the water which may lead to birds' affliction or death, besides putting marine life in jeopardy. This paper presents the first description of the design and implementation of a new bird washing machine that can be utilized for cleaning of oil-coated birds with the minimum of stress. The machine is equipped with a pneumatic system comprised of 19 moving nozzles which evenly cover the bird's body and is designed to be used in contaminated environments where a vast number of birds are affected. Experimental trials show an improvement in operation efficiency compared to other methods in a reduction in washing time, energy consumption and a decrease in fatality rate of washed birds. PMID:24729024

Rajabi, H; Monsef, H; Moghadami, M; Zare, M; Armandei, A

2014-07-01

238

Wash-out in N2-dominated leptogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the wash-out of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by subsequent interactions. Therefore we focus on a scenario in which a lepton asymmetry is established in the out-of-equilibrium decays of the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino. We apply the full classical Boltzmann equations without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors to calculate the wash-out of the lepton asymmetry by interactions of the lightest right-handed state. We include scattering processes with top quarks in our analysis. This is of particular interest since the wash-out is enhanced by scatterings and the use of mode equations with quantum statistical distribution functions. In this way we provide a restriction on the parameter space for this scenario.

Hahn-Woernle, F.

2010-08-01

239

Release of titanium dioxide from textiles during washing.  

PubMed

Nano-TiO(2) has the highest production of all nanomaterials, and pigment-TiO(2) is a commodity used on the million tons/year scale. Information on the release of TiO(2) from consumer products is therefore an important part of analyzing the potential environmental exposure to TiO(2). For this study, we investigated the release of TiO(2) from six different functional textiles during washing. TiO(2) is used in textiles because of its UV-absorbing properties and as pigment. Analysis of fiber cross sections showed that the TiO(2) was contained in the fiber matrix. The sun-protection textiles had Ultraviolet Protection Factors that were between 58 and 6100 after washing and therefore above the labeled factor of 50+. Five of the textiles (sun-protection clothes) released low amounts of Ti (0.01 to 0.06 wt % of total Ti) in one wash cycle. One textile (with antimicrobial functionality) released much higher amounts of Ti (5 mg/L, corresponding to 3.4 wt % of total Ti in one wash cycle). Size fractionation showed that about equal amounts were released as particles below and above 0.45 ?m. After 10 washings, only in two textiles significantly lower Ti contents were measured. Electron microscopy showed that the TiO(2) particles released into washing solution had a roundish appearance with primary particle sizes between 60 and 350 nm that formed small aggregates with up to 20 particles. The results indicate that functional textiles release some TiO(2) particles, but that the amounts are relatively low and mostly not in the nanoparticulate range. PMID:22746197

Windler, L; Lorenz, C; von Goetz, N; Hungerbühler, K; Amberg, M; Heuberger, M; Nowack, B

2012-08-01

240

Improving protein array performance: focus on washing and storage conditions.  

PubMed

For protein microarrays, maintaining protein stability during the slide processing steps of washing, drying, and storage is of major concern. Although several studies have focused on the stability of immobilized antibodies in antibody microarrays, studies on protein-protein interaction arrays and enzyme arrays are lacking. In this paper we used five bait-prey protein interaction pairs and three enzymes to optimize the washing, drying, and storage conditions for protein arrays. The protein arrays for the study were fabricated by combining HaloTag technology and cell-free protein expression. The HaloTag technology, in combination with cell-free expression, allowed rapid expression and immobilization of fusion proteins on hydrogel-coated glass slides directly from cell extracts without any prior purification. Experimental results indicate enzyme captured on glass slides undergoes significant loss of activity when washed and spin-dried using only phosphate buffer, as is typically done with antibody arrays. The impact of washing and spin-drying in phosphate buffer on protein-protein interaction arrays was minimal. However, addition of 5% glycerol to the wash buffer helps retain enzyme activity during washing and drying. We observed significant loss of enzyme activity when slides were stored dry at 4 degrees C, however immobilized enzymes remained active for 30 days when stored at -20 degrees C in 50% glycerol. We also found that cell-free extract containing HaloTag-fused enzymes could undergo multiple freeze/thaw cycles without any adverse impact on enzyme activity. The findings indicate that for large ongoing studies, proteins of interest expressed in cell-free extract can be stored at -70 degrees C and repeatedly used to print small batches of protein array slides to be used over a few weeks. PMID:18774839

Nath, Nidhi; Hurst, Robin; Hook, Brad; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Zhao, Kate Q; Nassif, Nadine; Bulleit, Robert F; Storts, Douglas R

2008-10-01

241

100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures  

SciTech Connect

This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

1993-03-01

242

BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BLAISDELL SLOW SAND FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THE SUCTION (INTAKE) HOSE IS SEEN AT THE LEFT RESTING ON THE FILTER BED SURFACE; THE DISCHARGE HOSE IS AT THE RIGHT, RUNNING FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE CENTRAL VERTICAL AXLE TO THE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. FROM THE PUMP WATER IS DISCHARGED THROUGH THE HORIZONTAL PIPE LOCATED UNDER THE EDGE OF PLATFORM DECK INTO THE WASTE-WATER TROUGH (NOT SEEN IN THIS VIEW). - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow Sand Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

243

PC-based car license plate reader  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

1992-11-01

244

Multimodal CARS microscopy of structured carbohydrate biopolymers  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the utility of multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for the study of structured condensed carbohydrate systems. Simultaneous second-harmonic generation (SHG) and spectrally-scanned CARS microscopy was used to elucidate structure, alignment, and density in cellulose cotton fibers and in starch grains undergoing rapid heat-moisture swelling. Our results suggest that CARS response of the O-H stretch region (3000 cm?1–3400 cm?1), together with the commonly-measured C-H stretch (2750 cm?1–2970 cm?1) and SHG provide potentially important structural information and contrast in these materials.

Slepkov, Aaron D.; Ridsdale, Andrew; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Moffatt, Douglas J.; Stolow, Albert

2010-01-01

245

Application and evaluation of the washing effect in the collector well using pilot plant with washing device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Riverbed/bank filtration (RBF) is a natural process used as a first step in drinking water treatment. RBF systems consist of well fields that draw water from an aquifer that is hydraulically connected to surface waters. The benefits of RBF are multiple and include a reduction of turbidity, total coliform, microbial contaminants natural organic matter, and organic contaminants. Some of the disadvantages of RBF include the difficulty of preventing river water from infiltrating the aquifer in in-stances of severe river contamination, the geochemical reaction of the infiltrate with aquifer materials that may raise the aqueous concentrations of Fe2+, Mn2+, As, NH4+, CH4, Ca2+ and HCO3- , and clogging of the riverbed. For example, has demonstrated that riverbed clogging may decrease the specific capacity of RBF wells (flow reduction in the collector well etc.). The objective of this study is to optimization and evaluation the washing effect on various nozzle type and intervals, soil retention rate in the collector well using pilot plant with washing device for prevention flow reduction in the collector well. The Pilot plant experiments were conducted under various conditions; two kinds nozzle type (spray nozzle of circle type (single - Full Cone, multi - Hollow Cone) and spray nozzle of fan shape type (Veejet)), two different nozzle intervals (200 mm, 400mm) and a various soil retention rate in the collector well (10 ~ 40%). The results of experiment showed that in the nozzle type case, the washing effect of the veeject nozzle was more effective than other (Full Cone, Hollow Cone) nozzle through spray results (range, strength and height). In the nozzle interval conditions, washing effect is 200 mm better than 400 mm through spray distance and soil height. The washing efficiency in the collector well increased on soil retention rate decreased and the nozzle injection pressure increased using washing device

Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Lee, S. J.; Lee, B. H.

2012-04-01

246

Photocatalytic Process for Silver Recovery and Wash Water Reuse.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A photo catalytic process incorporating a titanium dioxide (TiO2) based catalyst can be an effective part of a management program for photo processing wash water. The process can rapidly reduce ionic silver to elemental silver, and it can oxidize thiosulf...

P. R. Anderson B. Kim C. O'Connor

2000-01-01

247

Ultrasonic system for continuous washing of textiles in liquid layers.  

PubMed

The use of ultrasonic energy for washing of textiles has been tried several times without achieving practical development. In fact, the softness of the fibres makes the cavitation to produce small erosion effect and the reticulate structure of the fabric favours the formation of air bubble layers which obstruct wave penetration. In addition, a high proportion of water with respect to the wash load and a certain water degassing is required to assure efficiency and homogeneity in the wash performance. Such requirements have hindered the commercial development of the ultrasonic washing machines for domestic purposes. For specific industrial applications, a great part of these limitations may be overcome. This article deals with a new process in which the fabric is exposed to the ultrasonic field in a flat format. Such process has been implemented at laboratory and at semi-industrial stage by using specially designed power ultrasonic transducers with rectangular plate radiators. The cleaning effect is produced by the intense cavitation field generated by the plate radiator within a thin layer of liquid where the fabric is introduced. The homogeneity of such effect is achieved by the successive exposure of all the fabric areas to the intense acoustic field. In this paper the structure and performance of the developed system are shown. PMID:19574081

Gallego-Juarez, Juan A; Riera, Enrique; Acosta, Victor; Rodríguez, Germán; Blanco, Alfonso

2010-01-01

248

36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - DRIVE FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

249

35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Photocopy of detail of ink and wash rendering by N. G. Starkwether in collection of Mr. & Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, Camden ELEVATIONS OF ITALIAN VILLA FOR WILLIAM C. PRATT - CAMDEN PLACE - RIVER FRONT - Camden, Rappahannock River, Port Royal, Caroline County, VA

250

23. Road view at Jim Camp Wash. Note Rainbow Museum ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Road view at Jim Camp Wash. Note Rainbow Museum at rear. Road is on east-west axis here as original design of Rainbow Museum area. Long Logs Road to left foreground. Park Road to right foreground. Looking W. - Petrified Forest National Park Roads & Bridges, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

251

Understanding wash efficiency and chloride transfer in copper solvent extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carryover of entrained aqueous from primary leaching operations into copper electrowinning electrolytes introduces impurities that can affect cathode quality and cause corrosion. As a result, more operations are introducing wash stages in their solvent extraction circuits in an attempt to dilute these entrainments with high-quality water.

Burkhardt, D. J.

2003-07-01

252

Accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines  

PubMed Central

Two clinical cases of accidental entrapment of cats in front-loading washing machines are described. One cat died the day after presentation as a result of aspiration pneumonia and head trauma, despite supportive care. The second cat survived with supportive treatment, but developed dermatologic complications 10 d later.

Stewart, Sarah A.; Gaunt, Matthew C.; Taylor, Susan M.; Snead, Elizabeth C.R.

2010-01-01

253

Study of Salt Wash Water Toxicity on Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research effort focused on evaluating the toxicity of the saline waste water generated from washing of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) deicing trucks and to study the feasibility of discharging it into wastewater treatment plants. Performance of activated sludge treating wastewater under varying levels of salt concentration was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), activated sludge oxygen

Mostafa F. Hashad; Surabhi Sharma; Loring F. Nies; James E. Alleman

2006-01-01

254

Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F

1991-09-01

255

Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA-FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually washed during the harvest process. An average 18.75 L (2.49 SD) and a maximum of 23.88 L were required to cleanse the heads to USDA-FSIS standards. Digital images were captured before and after manual washing then evaluated for percentage red saturation using commercially available image analysis software. A decaying exponential curve extracted from these data indicated that as wash water increased beyond 20 L the impact on red saturation decreased. At 4 sigma from the mean of 18.75 L, red saturation is 16.0 percent, at which logistic regression analysis indicates 99.994 percent of heads would be accepted for inspection, or less than 1 head in 15,000 would be rejected. Reducing to 3 sigma would increase red saturation to 27.6 percent, for which 99.730 percent of heads likely would be accepted (less than 1 in 370 would be rejected). PMID:20374798

DeOtte, R E; Spivey, K S; Galloway, H O; Lawrence, T E

2010-03-01

256

Hand washing understanding and behaviour by Australian consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correct hand washing procedures with soap and water have been a major part of public health campaigns since the 19th century. More recently the importance of thoroughly drying hands has also been recognised. A national survey of 1250 respondents commissioned by the Food Safety Information Council found that 98% of males and 97% of females correctly recognised that it was

Lydia Buchtmann

257

CONTAMINATION OF HAND WASH DETERGENT LINKED TO OCCUPATIONALLY ACQUIRED MELIOIDOSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mechanics working at a garage in tropical northern Australia simultaneously developed upper limb melioidosis ulcers. Both patients had Burkholderia pseudomallei of identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type (Spe I). Environmental sampling identified B. pseudomallei in a container of commercial hand wash detergent as the likely source of infection, although there were multiple isolates of different PFGE types to the

DANIEL GAL; MARK MAYO; HEIDI SMITH-VAUGHAN; PALLAVE DASARI; MELITA MCKINNON; SUSAN P. JACUPS; ANDREW I. URQUHART; MARILYN HASSELL; BART J. CURRIE

258

Late wash cross-flow filter organic balance  

SciTech Connect

A recent DOE-Savannah River review of the results and data from the Late Washing Crossflow Fitter assessment identified the fate of biphenyl as a concern in the Late Washing material balance. The concern arose because after the late washing operation only about 40% of the biphenyl remained in the irradiated precipitate and analyses of the spent wash water stream did not account for the missing biphenyl [2]. This document summarizes the results of subsequent filtration studies on the behavior and fate of all known organic precipitate feed components including biphenyl. The study employed a statistically designed material balance across a laboratory crossflow fitter. Data from two separate experiments are presented here. Results of the first study indicated no statistically significant loss of biphenyl, diphenylmercury, 0-terphenyl, diphenylamine, or aniline. Results did indicate minor losses of phenylboric acid, M-terphenyl, P-terphenyl, and a significant production of phenol, believed to be due to the way in which the experiment was performed. A second experiment demonstrated no statistically significant lose of any of the organic compounds.

Baich, M.A.

1992-11-16

259

MAGNETITE RECOVERY IN COAL WASHING BY HIGH GRADIENT MAGNETIC SEPARATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a demonstration of the successful recovery of magnetite from mixtures of magnetite and coal, like those found in a coal-washing circuit, by High Gradient Magnetic Separation. The demonstration was part of a research program at Francis Bitter National Magnet L...

260

Conservation of water for washing beef heads at harvest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to develop methods to conserve water necessary to cleanse beef heads prior to USDA–FSIS inspection. This was to be accomplished by establishing a baseline for the minimum amount of water necessary to adequately wash a head and application of image analysis to provide an objective measure of head cleaning. Twenty-one beef heads were manually

R. E. DeOtte; K. S. Spivey; H. O. Galloway; T. E. Lawrence

2010-01-01

261

Creating a Customized and Sustainable Interface for CARLI Digital Collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

CARLI Digital Collections (CDC) is a repository of digital content created and shared by member libraries of the Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois (CARLI). CARLI currently hosts and manages over to sixty-five primary-source research collections in CONTENTdm digital collection management software. The CDC collections are hosted on a central CARLI server with the vast majority of collection

Kerri Willette; Jessica Gibson

2010-01-01

262

49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218.80 Transportation...OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or...

2009-10-01

263

49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218.80 Transportation...OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or...

2010-10-01

264

A Pool Segmentation Method for Car Rental Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale and networked car rental companies are emerging continuously along with the rapid development of car rental industry. In order to improve the efficiency of logistics management, it is imperative to find a method which can implement the pool segmentation assignment. According to the developing mode of car rental enterprises and distribution of car rental locations, proposed a three-tier

Yazao Yang; Wenzhou Jin; Xiaoni Hao

2008-01-01

265

Efcient Acquisition and Realistic Rendering of Car Paint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outside appearance of cars is mostly dened through only two distinct materials ñ glass and car paint. While glass can rather easily be simulated by the simple physical laws of reection and refrac- tion, modeling car paint is more challenging. In this paper we present a framework for the ef- cient acquisition and realistic rendering of real- world car

Tongbo Chen; Michael Goesele; Ingo Wald; Hans-Peter Seidel

2005-01-01

266

49 CFR 174.67 - Tank car unloading.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...secured and the cars are in proper condition...such as âTank Car Connectedâ or âCrew...in white letters under the word âSTOP...removed from a tank car, the car must be...of all interior pressure by cooling the tank with water or by venting...

2009-10-01

267

49 CFR 174.67 - Tank car unloading.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...secured and the cars are in proper condition...such as âTank Car Connectedâ or âCrew...in white letters under the word âSTOP...removed from a tank car, the car must be...of all interior pressure by cooling the tank with water or by venting...

2010-10-01

268

Emotions as determinants of electric car usage intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sample of 1202 Belgians, the determining factors of the usage intention of an electric car and the differences between early and late usage intention segments are investigated. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) framework is extended with emotional reactions towards the electric car and car driving in general. Emotions and the attitude towards the electric car are the

Ingrid Moons; Patrick De Pelsmacker

2012-01-01

269

Economical comparison of three hybrid electric car solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the benchmark of hybrid solutions adopted by most manufacturers in China, three hybrid electric car solutions, which are parallel system with ISG and single clutch (SCP), parallel system with ISG and dual clutches (DCP), and plug-in series system (PIS), are selected to be analyzed. A mid-size car is chosen as the baseline car for developing hybrid electric car.

Weiwei Xiong; Zhiwei Wu; Chengliang Yin; Li Chen

2008-01-01

270

Energy parameters of a solar car for Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

All parameters related to car energy were investigated in this work, and the power basics of a car design powered by solar energy are laid down. Year-round weather conditions, car weight, road roughness and road inclination were taken as variable parameters used to calculate the car speed and working hours (year round). Fixed parameters taken for the design were: a

M. Hammad; T. Khatib

1996-01-01

271

49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218.80 Transportation...OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat...

2013-10-01

272

49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311 Transportation...Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger...

2013-10-01

273

49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Use of tank cars. 173.31 Section 173.31 Transportation...Transportation § 173.31 Use of tank cars. (a) General. (1) No person...hazardous material for transportation in a tank car unless the tank car meets the...

2013-10-01

274

What to Do After a Car Crash  

MedlinePLUS

... and move around your car, set up orange cones, warning triangles, or emergency flares around the crash ... of your situation. Set up your warning signs (cones, triangles, or flares) behind your vehicle so others ...

275

Robot car learns as it travels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A robotic car under development at Oxford University, interprets its surroundings and makes decisions about where to go. The scientists behind it say the technology could eliminate the agony and cost of traffic jams. Stuart McDill reports.

n/a n/a (Scientific American;)

2011-10-12

276

How to Buy a Car 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article elaborates on the basics of problem-based learning units and tips for implementation. The problem-based learning unit described focuses on the course of action involved in purchasing a new car. (Contains 2 figures.)

Flores, Charity A.

2006-01-01

277

EcoCAR Challenge Profile: Virginia Tech  

ScienceCinema

Since childhood, Lynn Gantt has had a deep seeded passion for cars and the mechanics that drive them. The Virginia native spent his weekends rebuilding antique tractors with his dad to race at tractor pulls across the state, and now the Virginia Tech graduate student is the proud team co-leader of Virginia Tech's EcoCAR Challenge team -- the winners of the three-year long competition, as announced last night at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C..

Gantt, Lynn

2013-05-29

278

Projected characteristics of hybrid-electric cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance and costs are projected for future hybrid-electric cars in which a small internal-combustion engine (ICE) is added to the basic electric propulsion system to permit unlimited highway range. In most driving these hybrids would be operated in the all-electric mode without use of the ICE, thus providing most of the benefits of electric cars without their range limitation. The

W. F. Hamilton; R. L. Curtis

1979-01-01

279

EcoCAR Challenge Profile: Virginia Tech  

ScienceCinema

Since childhood, Lynn Gantt has had a deep seeded passion for cars and the mechanics that drive them. The Virginia native spent his weekends rebuilding antique tractors with his dad to race at tractor pulls across the state, and now the Virginia Tech graduate student is the proud team co-leader of Virginia Tech's EcoCAR Challenge team -- the winners of the three-year long competition, as announced last night at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C..

280

On Subalgebras of the Car-Algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every nuclear unital separable C*-algebra A is unitally and completely isometrically ismorphic to the range of a unital completely positive projection on the CAR-algbra B = M2 ? M2 ? ···. Let C be a nuclearly imbeddable separable unital C*-algebra in the sense of Voiculescu [VO13]. Then there exists a C*-subalgebra E of the CAR-algebra B such that C is

E. Kirchberg

1995-01-01

281

EcoCAR Challenge Profile: Virginia Tech  

SciTech Connect

Since childhood, Lynn Gantt has had a deep seeded passion for cars and the mechanics that drive them. The Virginia native spent his weekends rebuilding antique tractors with his dad to race at tractor pulls across the state, and now the Virginia Tech graduate student is the proud team co-leader of Virginia Tech's EcoCAR Challenge team -- the winners of the three-year long competition, as announced last night at an awards ceremony in Washington, D.C..

Gantt, Lynn

2011-01-01

282

Multivariate statistical analyses of groundwater surrounding Forty mile wash  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater chemistry data from 211 sampling locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed using multivariate statistical methods in order to better understand groundwater chemical evolution, ascertain potential flow paths and determine hydrochemical facies. Correspondence analysis of the major ion chemistry is used to define relationships between and among major ions and sampling locations. A k-means cluster analysis is used to determine hydrochemical facies based on correspondence analysis dimensions. The derived dimensions and hydrochemical facies are presented as bi-plots and overlaid on a digital elevation model of the region giving a visual picture of potential interactions and flow paths. A distinct signature of the groundwater chemistry along the extended flow path of Fortymile Wash can be observed along with some potential interaction at possible fault lines near Highway I-95. The signature from Fortymile Wash is believed to represent the relict of water that infiltrated during past pluvial periods when the amount of runoff in the wash was significantly larger than during the current drier period. This hypothesis appears to be supported by hydrogen-2 and oxygen-18 data which indicate that younger groundwater is found in the upper part of the wash near Yucca Mountain and older groundwater is found in the lower region of the wash near Amargosa River. The range of the hydrogen-2 data corresponds to precipitation in a period of relatively cold climate and has a similar spatial signature to the oxygen-18 data. If the hypothesis that current groundwater chemistry primarily reflects past focused infiltration of surface runoff rather than regional groundwater migration is correct, then saturated zone transport from Yucca Mountain may be much slower than is currently anticipated. (authors)

Woocay, A.; Walton, J.C. [El Paso Univ. of Texas, Environmental Science and Engineering, TX (United States)

2007-07-01

283

A thermophotovoltaic generator for use in a lightweight electric car: Year 1 progress report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the nine months since the start of this project significant progress toward the completion of the tasks scheduled in the first year has been made and in some cases exceeded. A number of unforeseen problems have been isolated and solved with redesign of components and specification of different materials. This project has been running concurrently with a Phase 1 DOE Green Car SBIR grant to JX Crystals in which WWU is the sub-contractor to do burner design, construction and testing. As a result of this concurrent project, the design of the single burner for the TPV8 which is nearing completion at this time, incorporates the improvements of the Phase 1 Green Car burner. The status of the tasks scheduled for the first nine months of the contract and the current status are shown.

Seal, M. R.

1995-05-01

284

Are Weeds Hitchhiking a Ride on Your Car? A Systematic Review of Seed Dispersal on Cars  

PubMed Central

When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

2013-01-01

285

49 CFR 179.300 - General specifications applicable to multi-unit tank car tanks designed to be removed from car...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General specifications applicable to multi-unit tank car tanks designed to be removed from car structure for filling and emptying (Classes DOT-106A...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car...

2013-10-01

286

Social prejudice hindering proper use of car safety seats.  

PubMed

The compliance of parents with child passenger safety (CPS) has been mainly explained by their level of knowledge. Social, ethnic and cultural factors have not been investigated in detail. This study investigated the rate of compliance of parents with CPS guidelines, as well as the factors hindering it. Parents of infants aged 2-10 days were enrolled. The proportions of families obtaining a car safety seat (CSS; 57%) and complying with CPS recommendations (2%) were very low. Most of the parents thought CSS were harmful for infants (mother, 57%; father, 63%), despite having already purchased one. Parents believed their children to be too small to use CSS and cannot sit in CSS because they should lie flat on their backs at all times. These prejudices may be due to the social and cultural circumstances specific to Turkey, or corresponding findings may be found in countries with similar socioeconomic status. PMID:24330293

Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Akelma, Ahmet Zulfikar; Orun, Emel; Yesilyurt, Kubra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

2013-12-01

287

Defining the mammalian CArGome  

PubMed Central

Serum response factor (SRF) binds a 1216-fold degenerate cis element known as the CArG box. CArG boxes are found primarily in muscle- and growth-factor-associated genes although the full spectrum of functional CArG elements in the genome (the CArGome) has yet to be defined. Here we describe a genome-wide screen to further define the functional mammalian CArGome. A computational approach involving comparative genomic analyses of human and mouse orthologous genes uncovered >100 hypothetical SRF-dependent genes, including 10 previously identified SRF targets, harboring a conserved CArG element within 4000 bp of the annotated transcription start site (TSS). We PCR-cloned 89 hypothetical SRF targets and subjected each of them to at least two of several validations including luciferase reporter, gel shift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and mRNA expression following RNAi knockdown of SRF; 60/89 (67%) of the targets were validated. Interestingly, 26 of the validated SRF target genes encode for cytoskeletal/contractile or adhesion proteins. RNAi knockdown of SRF diminishes expression of several SRF-dependent cytoskeletal genes and elicits an attending perturbation in the cytoarchitecture of both human and rodent cells. These data illustrate the power of integrating existing algorithms to interrogate the genome in a relatively unbiased fashion for cis-regulatory element discovery. In this manner, we have further expanded the mammalian CArGome with the discovery of an array of cyto-contractile genes that coordinate normal cytoskeletal homeostasis. We suggest one function of SRF is that of an ancient master regulator of the actin cytoskeleton.

Sun, Qiang; Chen, Guang; Streb, Jeffrey W.; Long, Xiaochun; Yang, Yumei; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Miano, Joseph M.

2006-01-01

288

Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

2011-04-01

289

49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...loading line by the use of proper scales. If by calculation...calculated weights by use of proper scales. The use of a fixed tube...for hydrogen sulphide. Each multi-unit tank car must be equipped...deterioration by the lading. Multi-unit tank car tanks must...

2010-10-01

290

Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the

Christoph J. Meinrenken; Klaus S. Lackner

2011-01-01

291

Driving experience and perception of the lead car's braking when looking at in-car targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perception of the lead car's braking was measured on-road when subjects of various levels of driving experience were looking at a digital display located at the lower part of the windscreen, at the speedometer level, or in the mid-console. The brake lights of the lead car were either working normally or switched off. The results indicated that the detection of

Heikki Summala; Dave Lamble; Matti Laakso

1998-01-01

292

Characterization of three-color CARS in a two-pulse broadband CARS spectrum.  

PubMed

We demonstrate that a broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectrum generated with a typical two-pulse scheme contains two distinct, significant signals: '2-color' CARS, where the pump and probe are provided by a narrowband pulse and the continuum pulse constitutes the Stokes light, and '3-color' CARS, where the pump and Stokes are provided by two different frequency components in the continuum pulse and the narrowband pulse serves as the probe. The CARS spectra from the two different mechanisms show distinct characteristics in Raman shift range, laser power dependence, and chirping dependence. We discuss the potential for a 3-color CARS signal to cover the fingerprint region with reduced photodamage of live cells. Official contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology; not subject to copyright in the United States. PMID:18026311

Lee, Young Jong; Liu, Yuexin; Cicerone, Marcus T

2007-11-15

293

COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

HARRINGTON SJ

2011-01-06

294

Waste washing pre-treatment of municipal and special waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term pollution potential in landfills is mainly related to the quality of leachate. Waste can be conveniently treated prior to landfilling with an aim to minimizing future emissions. Washing of waste represents a feasible pre-treatment method focused on controlling the leachable fraction of residues and relevant impact. In this study, non-recyclable plastics originating from source segregation, mechanical–biological treated municipal solid

Raffaello Cossu; Tiziana Lai; Kostyantyn Pivnenko

295

Enhanced Chemical Dispersion Using the Propeller Wash from Response Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated ice cover in a marine environment reduces the wave energy needed to disperse chemically-treated oil slicks. ExxonMobil\\u000a is currently evaluating a concept to utilize the propeller wash from vessels to enhance chemical dispersion. Tests in an arctic\\u000a basin utilizing a 1:25 scale model of an azimuthal-stern-drive platform-standby icebreaker resulted in effective dispersion\\u000a (over 90% in most cases) on light

T. Nedwed; W. Spring

296

Fine Coal Cleaning by Spiral and Water Washing Cyclone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of three different types of spirals and a 200 mm diameter water washing cyclone have been assessed in open-circuit on-site testwork at the Norwich Park preparation plant on nominally 500 µ x 75 µm sized coal. The study is part of a program investigating alternative methods to heavy media cyclones and froth flotation for removing ash from fine coal from Central

D. T. HORNSBY; S. J. WATSON; C. J. CLARKSON

1993-01-01

297

Detection of Helicobacter in gastric washing of cats.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of gastric washing for detecting the presence of Helicobacter spp. in feline gastric mucus. Gastric fluids were collected from 11 cats undergoing routine surgical procedures. The fluids were centrifuged and the pellets were subjected to cytological examination by May-Grünwald/Giemsa (MGG) staining and testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Helicobacter after DNA extraction. Helicobacter spp. were detected in 8 of 11 samples by MGG staining and in 10 of 11 samples by PCR. Gastric washing proved to be a useful sampling technique and a valuable alternative to the gold-standard method of gastric biopsy, which has the risk of missing colonized spots in the case of patchy Helicobacter colonization. Gastric washing, a noninvasive way of sampling, could be applied to cats undergoing general anesthesia for different causes. Detection of Helicobacter in cats could allow epidemiological investigations, and sequencing of samples could assist in assessing the distribution of various Helicobacter species. PMID:18987228

Pregel, Paola; Rota, Ada; Palmerini, Domenico; Guarda, Franco; Appino, Simonetta

2008-11-01

298

Transtracheal wash from a puppy with respiratory disease.  

PubMed

A 4-month-old, intact male Boxer puppy was presented to the Animal Emergency and Critical Care Services of South Florida because of nasal discharge, dehydration, dyspnea, and coughing. The dog had been diagnosed with intestinal parasites and kennel cough approximately 10 days before presentation. Lateral and ventrodorsal radiographs of the thorax revealed an increased bronchointerstitial pattern throughout the lungs. A transtracheal wash was performed. On cytologic examination of direct, Wright-Giemsa-stained smears, small basophilic coccoid structures (0.3-0.9 microm in diameter) were observed in low to moderate numbers within neutrophils and adherent to epithelial cells. The small size of the organisms raised suspicion for Mycoplasma. Culture of the transtracheal wash fluid resulted in growth of a Mycoplasma sp. The patient was treated with enrofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate and made a full recovery. Recognizing Mycoplasma in transtracheal washes could aid in recommending the appropriate culture media or immunologic techniques, which could result in an accurate diagnosis of mycoplasmosis. PMID:17123258

Williams, Matthew; Olver, Christine; Thrall, Mary Anna

2006-12-01

299

Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.  

PubMed

In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. PMID:24837657

Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

2014-06-01

300

Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium.

Gombert, D. II

1994-03-01

301

Increase in best practice child car restraint use for children aged 2-5 years in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of mandatory child restraint laws.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES : To examine changes in child car restraint practices in low socioeconomic areas following the introduction of mandatory child car restraint legislation in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS : Data from two cross-sectional studies of child car restraint use at pre-schools, early childhood centres and primary schools before and after the introduction of legislating mandatory age-appropriate car restraint use for children up to the age of seven years was used in this analysis. All included observations were from local government areas with socioeconomic status in the lowest 30% of urban Sydney. Children aged 2-5 years were observed in their vehicles as they arrived at observation sites (107 pre-legislation, 360 post-legislation). Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine changes in observed age-appropriate and correct use of car restraints. RESULTS : Age-appropriate car restraint use was higher post-legislation than pre-legislation. After controlling for child's age, parental income, language spoken at home and adjusting for clustering, the odds of children being appropriately restrained post-legislation were 2.3 times higher than in the pre-legislation sample, and the odds of them being correctly restrained were 1.6 times greater. CONCLUSIONS : Results indicate an improvement in car restraint practices among children aged 2-5 in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of child restraint laws. Implications : Despite improvements observed with enhanced legislation, further efforts are required to increase optimal child car restraint use. PMID:23731111

Brown, Julie; Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Ivers, Rebecca

2013-06-01

302

Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene  

DOEpatents

Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.

1983-12-29

303

Comparison of Washed and Unwashed Specimens in the 'Plasmodium falciparum' in vitro Microculture Drug Assay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dose response of Plasmodium falciparum isolates in the standard in vitro assay for drug resistance was compared using blood specimens which were centrifuged using blood specimens which were centrifuged and washed before cultivation. Washing of the cul...

G. W. Long S. Mama N. Sy R. P. Sangalang C. P. Ranoa

1987-01-01

304

Gravity and magnetic data of Fortymile Wash, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along six traverses across Fortymile Wash, in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site suggest that there are no significant vertical offsets below Fortymile Wash. The largest gravity and magnetic anomaly, ...

D. A. Ponce S. B. Kohrn S. Waddell

1992-01-01

305

21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. 864.9285 Section 864.9285...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used...cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An...

2009-04-01

306

21 CFR 864.9285 - Automated cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. 864.9285 Section 864.9285...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used...cell-washing centrifuge for immuno-hematology. (a) Identification. An...

2010-04-01

307

If Kids Think Someone's Watching, They're More Likely to Wash Their Hands  

MedlinePLUS

... and Hygiene SATURDAY, April 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Hand washing is one of the best ways to prevent ... a number of ways to improve rates of hand washing among students in developing nations. These include: providing ...

308

Human Subtelomeric WASH Genes Encode a New Subclass of the WASP Family  

PubMed Central

Subtelomeres are duplication-rich, structurally variable regions of the human genome situated just proximal of telomeres. We report here that the most terminally located human subtelomeric genes encode a previously unrecognized third subclass of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein family, whose known members reorganize the actin cytoskeleton in response to extracellular stimuli. This new subclass, which we call WASH, is evolutionarily conserved in species as diverged as Entamoeba. We demonstrate that WASH is essential in Drosophila. WASH is widely expressed in human tissues, and human WASH protein colocalizes with actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. The VCA domain of human WASH promotes actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex in vitro. WASH duplicated to multiple chromosomal ends during primate evolution, with highest copy number reached in humans, whose WASH repertoires vary. Thus, human subtelomeres are not genetic junkyards, and WASH's location in these dynamic regions could have advantageous as well as pathologic consequences.

Linardopoulou, Elena V; Parghi, Sean S; Friedman, Cynthia; Osborn, Gregory E; Parkhurst, Susan M; Trask, Barbara J

2007-01-01

309

The effect of washing water on bonding to etched enamel.  

PubMed

There is current concern about bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines. This research hypothesized that the presence of increasing concentrations of bacteria in water used to wash etched enamel would result in a corresponding decrease in both shear bond strength (SBS) and critical surface tension (gammaC) of enamel. A further hypothesis was made that there is a correlation between SBS and gammaC. The effect of 3.5 ppm iodine in the water as a bacteriostatic agent was also assessed. Five groups of 10 samples of bovine enamel were etched, washed, and a resin composite bonded to them. The control group was washed with distilled water. Another group was washed with the dilute iodine solution. The remaining three groups used a different concentration of Escherichia coli DH5alpha as follows (in cfu mL(-1)): group 1: 10(2); group 2: 10(4); group 3: 10(6). Shear bond strength data were measured on an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm min(-1). Adhesion data were (MPa): control: 24.6 +/- 6.0; with iodine: 20.8 +/- 2.7; group 1: 19.8 +/- 2.7; group 2: 13.5 +/- 3.0; group 3: 13.9 +/- 3.6. The F-test yielded a highly significant difference between control group, iodine group and group 1, compared with groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.0001). Tukey's Studentized Range Test was used for pairwise comparison testing between groups. Using a Cahn dynamic contact angle analyzer and linear regression analysis, the plots of surface tension versus costheta were extrapolated to costheta = 1 to give gammaC data for the control group and groups 1-3. In all cases reasonable linearity was observed (r2 > or = 0.87). Data (mN m(-1)) were: control group: 50.8; group 1: 45.1; group 2: 43.2; group 3: 39.5. The SBS and gammaC were then plotted against each other and linear regression analysis performed. It was concluded that increasing concentrations of bacteria in wash water decreased both SBS and gammaC and that a linear correlation (R2 = 0.84) was found between the values of these two parameters. PMID:15125603

Schneider, D J; Combe, E C; Martens, L V

2004-01-01

310

Analysis of a model race car  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the motion of a gravity powered model race car on a downhill track of variable slope. Using a simple algebraic function to approximate the height of the track as a function of the distance along the track, and taking account of the rotational energy of the wheels, rolling friction, and air resistance, we obtain analytic expressions for the velocity and time of the car as functions of the distance traveled along the track. Photogates are used to measure the time at selected points along the track, and the measured values are in excellent agreement with the values predicted from theory. The design and analysis of model race cars provides a good application of principles of mechanics and suggests interesting projects for classes in introductory and intermediate mechanics.

Coletta, Vincent P.; Evans, Jonathan

2008-10-01

311

ChemMatCARS Data Archive  

DOE Data Explorer

ChemMatCARS is a high-brilliance national synchrotron x-ray facility dedicated primarily to static and dynamic condensed matter chemistry and materials science. The scientific focus of the facility includes the study of surface and interfacial properties of liquids and solids as well as their bulk structure at atomic, molecular and mesoscopic length scales with high spatial and energy resolution. Experimental techniques supported by the facility include: 1) Liquid Surface X-ray Scattering; 2) Solid Surface X-ray Scattering; 3) Time-Resolved Crystallography; 4) Micro-Crystal Diffraction; 5) Small and Wide-angle X-ray Scattering. The data archive referenced here contains data for various components along the beamline within the First Optics Enclosure and is intended to be input or parameter data. See the Science Nuggets at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/chemmat/pages/nuggets.html for leads to some of the research conducted at the ChemMatCARS beamline.

312

Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by continuously adding approximately 5 L of 0.01-M NaOH and then removing it through the filter as permeate. The purpose of this washing step with 0.01-MNaOH was to remove water-soluble components that might inhibit dissolution of salts during caustic leaching, while avoiding peptization of the solids that occurs at a pH below 12. After washing the sludge with dilute caustic, it was combined with 3-M caustic, and the slurry was leached in a stainless steel vessel at 85 C for 8 hours. This leaching was followed by two 0.01-M caustic washes, each conducted in a stainless steel vessel to dilute remaining analytes from the interstitial liquids. Each rinse was performed at 85 C for 8 hours. Permeate from each of these process steps was removed using the crossflow filter system. Samples of the permeate from each slurry-washing activity and all intermediate process steps were taken and analyzed for chemical and radiochemical constituents. The fraction of each component removed was calculated. Key results are presented in Table S.1.

KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

2000-06-09

313

Residues of maneb in potatoes and lettuce and their persistence during cooking, washing and uv exposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lettuce plants were treated each with 0,186 mg of 14C maneb and 1,86 mg unlabelled maneb. The plants were analyzed 30 days later and subjected to washing. Washing eliminates 17,46% of total 14C maneb applied. No Etu was observed in water.Washing and bakin...

M. Bennaceur Z. Sennaoui B. Zennouche J. W. Hylin

1992-01-01

314

SEPARATION OF HAZARDOUS ORGANICS BY LOW PRESSURE MEMBRANES: TREATMENT OF SOIL-WASH RINSE WATER LEACHATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil washing is a promising technology for treating contaminated soils. n the present work, low-pressure, thin-film composite membranes were evaluated to treat he soil-wash leachates so that the treated water could be recycled back to the soil washing step. Experiments were done ...

315

STAGEWISE COUNTERCURRENT WASHING OF CHEMICAL PULP: A MULTICOMPONENT MASS TRANSFER ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The washing of chemical pulp in a countercurrent cascade of rotary vacuum filters is described in terms of a model of the multicomponent mass transfer process occurring in the wash zone of each stage. The classical Norden Efficiency Factor method is extended to the multicomponent case. Relationships among the system loss ratios, wash and recycle ratios, and the number of

HARRY T. CULLINAN JR

1979-01-01

316

Online monitoring of torpedo car shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The on-line monitoring of temperature permits increasing the campaign and operational stability of the torpedo cars, as well as optimizing the consumption of refractory, thus reducing maintenance costs. It has become an indispensable tool in the productive process at Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao - CST. This technique was implemented in 1996 with the purpose of following up the evolution of refractory wear in the torpedo cars, using two fixed thermographic cameras (infrared sensors) with a scanning system. The system captures, records and transmits the thermal images of the body surfaces for analysis by computer, besides sounding the alarm when the temperature reaches pre- set values.

Botelho, Romero A.; Calente, Aderaldo

2001-03-01

317

130. Photocopied July 1978. 'CAR NO. 8 PARKED AT QUINCY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. Photocopied July 1978. 'CAR NO. 8 PARKED AT QUINCY NO. 2 SHAFT.' CAR NO. 8 CARRIED BUREAU OF MINES EMERGENCY TEAM TO QUINCY TO HELP FIGHT AN UNDERGROUND FIRE. JULY 1927. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

318

CAR MACHINE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF WOOD COLUMN AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAR MACHINE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF WOOD COLUMN AND INVERTED KING-POST TRUSS TO PROVIDE INCREASED SPAN BETWEEN COLUMNS, LOOKING SOUTH. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

319

3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. GENERAL VIEW OF PASSENGER CAR SHOP; RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

320

Car Crash Risk May Go Up During Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Car Crash Risk May Go Up During Pregnancy Second ... News) -- A woman's risk of having a serious car accident may increase in her second trimester of ...

321

CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, LYE TANKS FOR CLEANING METAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, LYE TANKS FOR CLEANING METAL PRIOR TO PLATING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ATTIC. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

322

20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR BAY & TAYLOR: View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR - BAY & TAYLOR: View to northwest of the Bay and Taylor turntable. The gripman and conductor are turning the car around. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

323

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

324

5. CAR DUMP, VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DETAIL BELOW CONTROL HOUSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CAR DUMP, VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DETAIL BELOW CONTROL HOUSE, BARNEY CAR CAN BE SEEN IN BACKROUND - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

325

10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR WITH CIRCULAR CAR SHOP IN BACKGROUND LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

326

14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

327

33. VAL, DETAIL OF PERSONNEL CAR AT THE TOP OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. VAL, DETAIL OF PERSONNEL CAR AT THE TOP OF THE COUNTERWEIGHT SLAB WITH THE COUNTERWEIGHT CAR IN DISTANCE LOOKING NORTH. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

328

23. POWELLTYPE CAR THROUGH GRIP REMOVAL DOOR: View looking through ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. POWELL-TYPE CAR THROUGH GRIP REMOVAL DOOR: View looking through grip removal door into interior of a Powell-type cable car. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

329

CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ATTIC FLOOR SUPPORT COLUMNS AND BEAMS, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

330

CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, LYE TANKS FOR CLEANING METAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, LYE TANKS FOR CLEANING METAL PRIOR TO PLATING, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ATTIC. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

331

8. VAL CAMERA CAR, CLOSEUP VIEW OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VAL CAMERA CAR, CLOSE-UP VIEW OF 'FLARE' OR TRAJECTORY CAMERA ON SLIDING MOUNT. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Car & Track, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

332

11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX CARS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

333

Paint shop, coach shop, car shop, and blacksmith shop (all ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Paint shop, coach shop, car shop, and blacksmith shop (all car department), all north of the roadhouse and locomotive shops. Photographed between 1880 and 1888 - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

334

9. CAR DUMP CONTRO ROOM SHOWING REDUCTION GEARS AND MOTORS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. CAR DUMP CONTRO ROOM SHOWING REDUCTION GEARS AND MOTORS FOR CABLES THAT RUN CAR DUMPING MACHINERY - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

335

35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

336

34. BARGE LOADING PIER, DETAIL SHOWING CABLE CAR TRACKS, CABLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. BARGE LOADING PIER, DETAIL SHOWING CABLE CAR TRACKS, CABLE CARS AND WALKWAYS. LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST END FROM THE WEST END - Pennsylvania Railroad, Canton Coal Pier, Clinton Street at Keith Avenue (Canton area), Baltimore, Independent City, MD

337

1. GENERAL VIEW OF SAND HOUSE, TANK AND CAR SHELTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF SAND HOUSE, TANK AND CAR SHELTER LOOKING NORTHWEST. MINE CARS IN FOREGROUND. - Eureka No. 40, Sand House & Tank, East of State Route 56, North of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA

338

Physicochemical Quality and Chemical Safety of Chlorine as a Reconditioning Agent and Wash Water Disinfectant for Fresh-Cut Lettuce Washing  

PubMed Central

Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 ?g/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.

Van Haute, Sam; Holvoet, Kevin; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2013-01-01

339

49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31 Section 231.31 Transportation... Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph... -inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

2009-10-01

340

49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31 Section 231.31 Transportation... Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph... -inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

2010-10-01

341

49 CFR 180.509 - Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...inspection and test of specification tank cars. 180.509 Section 180.509 Transportation...Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.509 Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars. (a) General. Each tank car...

2013-10-01

342

Protection of Solar Electric Car DC Motor with PIC Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The electric car may represent new opportunities for any country and its electric utilities. Widespread use of electric cars\\u000a can reduce the consumption of both imported and domestic oil, substitute abundant fuels such as coal and nuclear power. Since\\u000a the charging of electric cars DC motor can be accomplished to a large extent during utility off-peak hours, electric cars\\u000a can

Ahmed M. A. Haidar; Ramdan Razali; Ahmed Abdalla; Hazizulden Abdul Aziz; Khaled M. G. Noman; Rashad A. Al-Jawfi

343

An Automatic Washing Machine to Remove Aluminum From Astronomical Mirrors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cleaning of large astronomical mirrors, before aluminization, required in the past a large amount of manual operations on the surface. With very large mirrors, 8 meter or more, manual operations become time consuming, expensive and often dangerous, both for mirror surface and operators. A fully automated procedure is thus mandatory when handling large mirrors. To this aim we experimented on a small scale (60 cm) an automatic procedure, free from any manual contact with the mirror, capable of removing old aluminum and leaving a clean, wet surface ready for a successful new aluminization. First we manually treated small borosilicate mirrors, obtained from the LBT primary mirror glass batch, with different sequences of chemicals, commonly used to this purpose. These small mirrors were checked with a Wyko interferometer before and after treating, to trace change in roughness of the surface. Quality and stability of the new aluminum deposition after cleaning was also checked. The washing machine prototype is composed by a water proof box on rigid PVC with a moving arm, a pump and a series of tanks containing the used chemicals. All the adopted components can be used with acids and other corrosive fluids. The machine is designed to hold the mirror in vertical position. An arm with 10 cm spaced nozzles moves up and down in front of the mirror spraying the adopted chemicals in a defined sequence. A pump forces the liquid through the circuit. After the washing, the mirror is left, protected from the dust in the washing machine, for about 2 hours to drip the water, then is moved into the vacuum pump to check the final result of aluminizing the cleaned surface. A homogeneous layer of aluminum follows only after a careful cleaning, otherwise a fast oxidize process, or a inhomogeneous aluminum coating appear. Scaling times, fluxes and costs from this experiment to large size mirrors leads to realistic, affordable figures.

Zitelli, Valentina

344

A curving simulation for a monorail car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A curving simulation for a straddle-type monorail car has been developed. It uses a moving coordinate system defined by the positions of the guide tires tracing along the guideway. An algorithm for deriving the equation of motion for the curving simulation was devised by using a multi-body dynamics method taking account of the forced input from the guideway to the

Kenjiro Goda; Takaomi Nishigaito; Motomi Hiraishi; Katuyuki Iwasaki

2000-01-01

345

A Two Dimensional Car Crash Victim Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a two dimensional mathematical model of an unrestrained, right, front seat, passenger car occupant, subjected to frontal collision. A 10 degrees of freedom linkage system made of 8 rigid segments connected with revolute joints was used as occupant model. Relative rotation between links were constrained by torsional springs, dampers, Coulomb frictions and

M. Batman; R. Seliktar

1990-01-01

346

New Car Buyer: The Determinants of Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was carried out in Great Britain into the decision-making processes guiding the purchasing of cars and into the role of expectancy value theory in aiding the understanding of the mechanisms involved in choice. Samples were taken as close as possi...

J. G. Towriss

1981-01-01

347

Dimensions in appreciation of car interior design  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We report two studies in which the interplay between stimulus properties and perceiver character- istics in the appreciation car interiors was investigated. In Experiment 1 three design components, complexity, curvature and innovativeness, which are all thought to affect design appreciation were combined in a fully factorial design. All dimensions were confirmed to affect ratings, and curvature and innovativeness particularly

Helmut Leder; Claus-Christian Carbon

2005-01-01

348

Car cockpit equalization by warping filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound reproduction within a car inside is a difficult task. Reverberation, reflection, echo, noise and vibration are some of the issues to account for. A first step in the direction of increasing sound comfort is that of equalizing the acoustic pressure response in the frequency domain. A direct solution is that of implementing with a convolution filter the inverse of

Alberto Bellini; G. Cibelli; E. Armelloni; Emanuele Ugolotti; Angelo Farina

2001-01-01

349

Car Loans - Real World Exponential Equation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has been modified from Real World Learning Objects, Internet-based Activities for Higher Education. The need to access an online calculator has been removed. Students are asked to price a car, determine an acceptable monthly payment and then using the formula calculate the number of months needed to pay off the loan. This requires solving an exponential equation using logarithms.

2011-01-01

350

Curving Performance Analysis of Freight Car Trucks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model of steady-state curve negotiation was used to simulate experimental curving tests of one conventional and six new concept railway freight car trucks. The report describes the model parameters used to characterize the trucks and test c...

R. Young P. P. Marcotte

1981-01-01

351

Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same

Guy H. Walker; Neville A. Stanton; Paul M. Salmon

2011-01-01

352

Model A Car (1 of 9)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

2009-07-22

353

Model A Car (9 of 9)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

2009-07-22

354

Model A Car (6 of 9)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

2009-07-22

355

Model A Car (3 of 9)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

2009-07-22

356

Model A Car (2 of 9)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

2009-07-22

357

Model A Car (8 of 9)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

2009-07-22

358

Model A Car (5 of 9)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

2009-07-22

359

Model A Car (7 of 9)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

2009-07-22

360

Model A Car (4 of 9)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Levi Noble used this car to map the Mohave Desert. It was originally gray but later painted it red so he would be able to find it in the desert. More information can be found at http://www.usgs.gov/aboutusgs/who_we_are/museum/exhibits.asp Object ID: USGS-004041...

2009-07-22

361

House and Car Destroyed by Tsunami  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A house and a car were destroyed by a tsunami in the coastal city of Dichato, Chile, located about 15 km north of Concepcion, Chile. The tsunami height was about 10 meters (32 feet). Several hundred homes were destroyed in this city as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010...

2010-03-30

362

Projected Characteristics of Hybrid-Electric Cars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance and costs are projected for future hybrid-electric cars in which a small internal-combustion engine (ICE) is added to the basic electric propulsion system to permit unlimited highway range. In most driving these hybrids would be operated in th...

W. F. Hamilton R. L. Curtis

1979-01-01

363

Driving Electric Car by Using EMG Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a useful method driving the electric car by using EMG interface, which is used as living body interface. The EMG signal can be measured from all the people easily, even physically handicapped people, elderly and so on. The EMG signals are measured from both hand palms and neck using a simple electrode. In our interface, the effective

Shinichi Aso; Akinori Sasaki; Hiroshi Hashimoto; Chiharu Ishii

2006-01-01

364

Progress in railroad freight car engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the result of an annual survey, conducted by the author on behalf of the Rail Transportation Division (RTD), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to document progress in the design, construction and use of freight cars and components. Typically, the design must be at a prototype stage or beyond in order for it to be included here.

S. K. Punwani

1997-01-01

365

Converter Design for a Model Solar Car  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide our students with practical experience in power electronic design they undertake an assignment that involves a model solar car race. The students are required to design, build and demonstrate a dc-dc converter that matches the output from a 10W solar panel to a permanent magnet DC motor. The converter must step down the output voltage from the panel

Richard Duke; Simon Round

366

MARKETING STRATEGY FOR LOGAN CARS IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case deals with a how an Indian company mainly into manufacturing tractors and farm equipments, and multi-utility vehicles went in for a single passenger car brand launch through a joint venture with a French multinational automobile company. The French multinational do not have presence in India and the Indian company do not have presence in fast growing Indian passenger

Zillur Rahman

367

Continuum approach to car-following models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuum version of the car-following Bando model is developed using a series expansion of the headway in terms of the density. This continuum model obeys the same stability criterion as its discrete counterpart. To compare both models we show that traveling wave solutions of the Bando model are very similar to those of the continuum model in the limit

Peter Berg; Anthony Mason; Andrew Woods

2000-01-01

368

Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)

Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

1996-01-01

369

Wireless traffic service communication platform for cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing weather conditions, especially in winter, have caused numerous disastrous traffic accidents in Northern Europe and in the Alpine region during recent years. Information about hazardous weather and road conditions is often potentially available but difficult or sometimes even impossible to deliver to drivers. This paper presents the international CARLINK (wireless platform for linking cars) project of the Celtic

Djamel Khadraoui; T. Sukuvaara

2009-01-01

370

Picasso, Car Classics, and the Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a college course which introduces engineering and business students to abstract art. Students study the relationships between abstract styles in painting and abstract styles in twentieth-century architecture and industrial design. The relevance of abstract design principles is shown by referring students to "Car and Driver" magazine. (AM)

Wosk, Julie H.

1982-01-01

371

Hybrid car with electric and heat engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for economical travel and minimization of atmospheric degradation by internal combustion exhaust products. A car which has, in combination, a heat engine driving a set of front wheels, storage batteries and an electric motor driving a set of rear wheels. There is also a system for selecting electric or heat engine drive either manually or automatically and a

G. M. Fields; R. G. Metzner

1982-01-01

372

Sequential extraction evaluation of soil washing for radioactive contamination  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an experimental plan for evaluating soil washing technology for potential application to radioactively contaminated soils at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sequential extraction methodology is based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. A mechanism-specific extractant has the potential for greater removal efficiency than a broad-spectrum extractant, such as acid, while using a less aggressive chemistry and reducing resultant water treatment and dissolved solids handling problems.

Gombert, D.

1992-10-01

373

Sequential extraction evaluation of soil washing for radioactive contamination  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an experimental plan for evaluating soil washing technology for potential application to radioactively contaminated soils at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sequential extraction methodology is based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. A mechanism-specific extractant has the potential for greater removal efficiency than a broad-spectrum extractant, such as acid, while using a less aggressive chemistry and reducing resultant water treatment and dissolved solids handling problems.

Gombert, D.

1992-01-01

374

Geomorphology of Upper Palm Wash, Anza Borrego Desert, California  

SciTech Connect

The Anza Borrego Desert has many geomorphic features to attract the attention of earth scientists. Deep, narrow stream channels, cut into Tertiary sedimentary rocks exposed west of the Salton Sea, have reaches that are almost devoid of alluvium and therefore are unprotected from the erosive work of running water. The usually dry, relatively small channels provide a microcosm in which to study desert landforms and processes associated with stream erosion and canyon formation. The processes and characteristics associated with these channels in Palm Wash are described in this article. 7 references.

Clarke, A.O.; Hansen, C.L.

1988-05-01

375

Development of a preprototype hyperfiltration wash water recovery subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of hyperfiltration as a mode of reclamation of waste water on board an extended mission spacecraft was investigated. Two basic approaches are considered with respect to hyperfiltration of wash water recovery. The initial approach involves the use of a hollow fiber permeator and a tubular module, operating at ambient temperature. In this system, relatively large doses of biocides are used to control microbial activity. Since biocides require a long contact time, and many have adverse dematological effects as well as many interact with membrane material, a second approach is considered which involves operating at pasturization temperature.

1981-01-01

376

Cellular automaton model considering the velocity effect of a car on the successive car  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a cellular automata model for one-lane traffic flow. The update rules of velocity of a car depend not only on the positions of this car and the car ahead of it, but also on the velocities of the two cars. Using computer simulations we obtain some basic qualitative results and the fundamental diagram of the proposed model. In comparison with those of the existing models in the literature, we find that the fundamental diagram of the proposed model is more consistent with the results measured in the real traffic, and the model is able to reproduce some relevant macroscopic states that are found in the real traffic flow but cannot be predicted by the existing models.

Li, Xiaobai; Wu, Qingsong; Jiang, Rui

2001-12-01

377

Can a road-driven car outrace a free-falling car?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by an advertising scenario in which a luxury sports sedan races against a similar car falling under the influence of gravity, a calculation using undergraduate physics and calculus is performed to theoretically predict the outcome.

Castaño, Diego J.

2011-11-01

378

49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for loading or unloading a tank car must secure access to the track to prevent entry by other...signs must be displayed on the track or on the tank cars to warn persons approaching...cars from the open end of the track and must be left up until...

2009-10-01

379

Fusion of Sensor Data in Siemens Car Navigation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car navigation systems have three main tasks, namely 1) positioning; 2) routing; and 3) navigation (guidance). Positioning of the car is carried out by appropriately combining information from several sensors and information sources, including odometers, gyroscopes, Global Positioning System (GPS) information, and digital maps. This paper describes two sensor-fusion steps implemented in commercial Siemens car navigation systems. The first step

Dragan Obradovic; Henning Lenz; Markus Schupfner

2007-01-01

380

Truck frontal underride protection – compatibility factors influencing passenger car safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontal collisions between passenger cars and trucks are the severest vehicle-to-vehicle collisions observed in accident statistics. Regulation 93 was developed to reduce the risk of fatal injury by preventing passenger cars from underriding heavy truck structures. The regulation does not fully address the higher energy of content in these collisions where passenger car structures cannot be expected to have sufficient

Aleksandra Krusper; Robert Thomson

2012-01-01

381

Operation of a radio-controlled car by voice commands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research is to operate a radio-controlled car (RC car) by using Thai voice commands. The research was conducted by sending a user's voice commands to a computer machine, and then the computer converted the voice commands into digital signal. After that, the digital signal was converted into a radio wave commands. Finally, an RC car operated

Parichart Leechor; Chomtip Pornpanomchai; Phichate Sukklay

2010-01-01

382

Buying a Car: Using On-Line Tools. Technology Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan was created to assist learners in adult basic and literacy education programs with the car-buying process. The goal for the lesson is to "effectively use the Internet to research necessary items before purchasing a car." These nine learning objectives are set: (1) determine what kind of car is needed; (2) determine how much one…

McCoy, Kimberly

383

Potential demand and cost-benefit analysis of electric cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an analysis of electric family car performances is carried out. In particular, the aim of this research is to appraise the possibility of introducing electric cars in urban mobility and the evaluation of its economic feasibility. First of all, we determined the potential electric car demand, which was forecasted using a stated preference (SP) analysis. The survey

Pietro Zito; Silvia Salerno

2004-01-01

384

Modeling and Simulation about an Electric Car's Regenerative Braking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of regenerative braking system of an electric car is studied in the paper. The car's speed, acceleration, the hydraulic accumulator's pressure and volume are simulated with Matlab while the electric car is braking or accelerating from stop. The hydraulic accumulator can absorb all of the braking energy when braking and the energy stored in the hydraulic accumulator can

Zuowu Ding; Dongbiao Zhao; Jianmin Zuo

2007-01-01

385

Development of aerodynamics for a solar race car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant factor of a solar car is running resistance, especially aerodynamic drag; and the reduction of the CD (drag coefficient)× A (frontal projected area) value is a crucial task to maximize the performance of a solar car. This paper will introduce the aerodynamic approach of the '96 Honda solar car which participated in the World Solar Challenge, the world's

Hiroyuki Ozawa; Sumio Nishikawa; Dai Higashida

1998-01-01

386

Partner Selection for car industry Logistics Alliance in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives to form car logistics alliance are confirmed and the factors affecting the partner selection for Chinese car industry logistics alliance have been analyzed. Considering the interdependence and feedback between the factors, we build an ANP model of partner selection for car industry logistics alliance. The elements priorities of the model are obtained by applying the super decisions system

Zhang Bixi; Li Jing; Song Jing; Liu Hongwei

2008-01-01

387

49 CFR 38.109 - Between-car barriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Between-car barriers. 38.109 Section 38.109 Transportation...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a...

2013-10-01

388

49 CFR 1033.2 - Car service orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car service orders. 1033.2 Section 1033.2 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.2 Car service orders. Emergency and temporary...

2013-10-01

389

36 CFR 1192.109 - Between-car barriers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Between-car barriers. 1192.109 Section 1192.109...GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.109 Between-car barriers. Where vehicles operate in a...

2013-07-01

390

49 CFR 173.10 - Tank car shipments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank car shipments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Transportation...SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.10 Tank car shipments. (a) Tank cars containing any 2.1 material (including...

2013-10-01

391

49 CFR 1033.1 - Car hire rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Car hire rates. 1033.1 Section 1033.1 Transportation...OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS CAR SERVICE § 1033.1 Car hire rates. (a) Definitions applicable to...

2013-10-01

392

49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231.22 Transportation... § 231.22 Operation of track motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963...permit to be operated on its line track motor cars to pull or haul trailers, push...

2013-10-01

393

49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232.305...and Testing Requirements § 232.305 Single car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a...

2013-10-01

394

49 CFR 174.67 - Tank car unloading.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank car unloading. 174.67 Section 174.67...Loading Requirements § 174.67 Tank car unloading. For transloading operations...movement in any direction. If multiple tank cars are coupled together, sufficient...

2013-10-01

395

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

396

49 CFR 37.93 - One car per train rule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false One car per train rule. 37.93 Section 37...Vehicles By Public Entities § 37.93 One car per train rule. (a) The definition of accessible for purposes of meeting the one car per train rule is spelled out in the...

2013-10-01

397

Looking north toward Locomotive Shop (2 tracks on left), Car ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking north toward Locomotive Shop (2 tracks on left), Car Shop on right, and flat car in foreground. Note locomotive and car tires leaning on stock shed at left - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

398

Exact results for car accidents in a traffic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of a recent model for car accidents on single-lane highway traffic, we study analytically the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. Exact results are obtained. Various scaling behaviours are observed. The linear dependence of the occurrence of car accidents on density is understood as the dominance of a single velocity in the distribution.

Huang, Ding-wei

1998-07-01

399

A joystick type car drive interface for wheelchair users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a joystick car drive system for a handicapped person using a wheelchair. The joystick drive system enables handicapped person to drive a car with his\\/her single hand. The joystick operation in back and force direction controls acceleration or deceleration of a car while that in left and right direction turns a steering wheel. Therefore a person, who

M. Wada; F. Kameda

2009-01-01

400

A joystick car drive system with seating in a wheelchair  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a joystick car drive system for a handicapped person. The joystick drive system enables handicapped person to drive a car by his\\/her single hand with seating in an electric wheelchair. The joystick operation in back and force direction controls acceleration or deceleration of a car while that in left and right direction turns a steering wheel. Therefore

M. Wada; F. Kameda

2009-01-01

401

Development, Control, and Evaluation of an Actuated Car Door  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actuated car doors are a promising way to increase the convenience of access to cars. We propose an advanced actuation and control concept which can easily be integrated into conventional car doors. By utilizing a linear, nonbackdrivable actuator and various sensors, both automatic and manual door operations are enabled. A discrete state controller ensures a safe operation of the door,

Michael Strolz; Alexander Mortl; Michael Graf; Martin Buss

2009-01-01

402

Control of an actuated car door providing outstanding haptic interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actuated car doors are a promising way to increase the convenience of access to cars. In this paper, an advanced door concept which can easily be integrated into conventional car doors is presented. Using a linear, non-backdrivable actuator and various sensors, both auto- matic and manual door operations can be realized. The principal part is the realization of a high-quality

Michael Strolz; Alexander Mortl; Michael Graf; Martin Buss

2009-01-01

403

A joystick car drive system for wheelchair users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a joystick car drive system for wheelchair users with severe handicaps. The joystick drive system enables handicapped person to drive a car with his\\/her single hand. The joystick operation in back and force direction controls acceleration or deceleration of a car while that in left and right direction turns a steering wheel. Therefore a person, who has

M. Wada; F. Kameda

2009-01-01

404

IEEE 802.11p based physical layer simulator for Car-to-Car communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a well working Car-to-Car (C2C) communica- tion system the handling of the radio channel is a challenging task. The fast changing environment as a result of a time variant behavior of the channel, and the antennas, are the two most important factors influencing the C2C transmission channel. To analyze the impact of both on the performance of such a

Lars Reichardt; Leen Sit; Tom Schipper; Thomas Zwick

2011-01-01

405

City CarShare: Longer-Term Travel Demand and Car Ownership Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four years after the introduction of City CarShare in the San Francisco, Bay area in California, 29% of carshare members had gotten rid of one or more cars, and 4.8% of members’ trips and 5.4% of their vehicle miles traveled were in carshare vehicles. Matched-pair comparisons with a statistical control group suggest that, over time, members have reduced total vehicular

Robert Cervero; Aaron Golub; Brendan Nee

2007-01-01

406

Final wash precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is scheduled to start non-radioactive process operation in September, 1992. The Cold Chemical Runs will demonstrate acceptable process operation and provide data required to satisfy the Waste Compliance Plan. Five basic sludge simulants will be required for these tests. Two basic precipitate simulants will be needed to operate the Salt Processing Cell with and without mercury in the precipitate feed. Precipitate feed simulant specifications for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs are revised in this report. All previous specifications of precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) are superceded by this document. The revision is needed to (1) eliminate use of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) in the precipitate process operation, (2) simulate the projected composition of the precipitate feed to DWPF produced by final washing to reduce the nitrite concentration to {le} 0.01M without washing the simulated feed, (3) delete organic trim chemical additions to the precipitate feed and (4) specify an additive to prevent foaming of the precipitate. Two specifications are provided to operate the Salt Processing Cell with mercury (Tests 5&6) and without mercury (Tests 1--4) in the precipitate feed.

Marek, J.C.

1992-05-15

407

Final wash precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is scheduled to start non-radioactive process operation in September, 1992. The Cold Chemical Runs will demonstrate acceptable process operation and provide data required to satisfy the Waste Compliance Plan. Five basic sludge simulants will be required for these tests. Two basic precipitate simulants will be needed to operate the Salt Processing Cell with and without mercury in the precipitate feed. Precipitate feed simulant specifications for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs are revised in this report. All previous specifications of precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) are superceded by this document. The revision is needed to (1) eliminate use of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) in the precipitate process operation, (2) simulate the projected composition of the precipitate feed to DWPF produced by final washing to reduce the nitrite concentration to [le] 0.01M without washing the simulated feed, (3) delete organic trim chemical additions to the precipitate feed and (4) specify an additive to prevent foaming of the precipitate. Two specifications are provided to operate the Salt Processing Cell with mercury (Tests 5 6) and without mercury (Tests 1--4) in the precipitate feed.

Marek, J.C.

1992-05-15

408

Washing with contaminated bar soap is unlikely to transfer bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Recent reports of the isolation of microorganisms from used soap bars have raised the concern that bacteria may be transferred from contaminated soap bars during handwashing. Since only one study addressing this question has been published, we developed an additional procedure to test this concern. In our new method prewashed and softened commercial deodorant soap bars (0.8% triclocarban) not active against Gram-negative bacteria were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to give mean total survival levels of 4.4 X 10(5) c.f.u. per bar which was 70-fold higher than those reported on used soap bars. Sixteen panelists were instructed to wash with the inoculated bars using their normal handwashing procedure. After washing, none of the 16 panelists had detectable levels of either test bacterium on their hands. Thus, the results obtained using our new method were in complete agreement with those obtained with the previously published method even though the two methods differ in a number of procedural aspects. These findings, along with other published reports, show that little hazard exists in routine handwashing with previously used soap bars and support the frequent use of soap and water for handwashing to prevent the spread of disease.

Heinze, J. E.; Yackovich, F.

1988-01-01

409

Car Builder: Design, Construct and Test Your Own Cars. School Version with Lesson Plans. [CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Car Builder is a scientific CD-ROM-based simulation program that lets students design, construct, modify, test, and compare their own cars. Students can design sedans, four-wheel-drive vehicles, vans, sport cars, and hot rods. They may select for aerodynamics, power, and racing ability, or economic and fuel efficiency. It is a program that teaches…

Highsmith, Joni Bitman

410

Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Cars Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the field enhancement effect due to plasmon polariton excitation on a metallic nanostructure in order to improve the diffraction limited spatial resolution of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. A cantilever probe tip coated with a 25 nm-thick gold film is utilized as a near-field light source to locally excite the CARS polarizations near the tip. Our CARS microscope has effectively enhanced the CARS signals and realized vibrational imaging of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) beyond the spatial resolution of far-field CARS microscopy.

Kawata, Satoshi; Ichimura, Taro; Hayazawa, Norihiko; Inouye, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Mamoru

411

Car Accident Reconstruction and Head Injury Correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of brain damage remains an elusive issue and controlled tests leading to brain damage cannot be carried out on volunteers. This study reconstructs real-world car accidents to estimate the kinematics of the head impact. This data is to be used to estimate the head injury measures through computer simulations and then correlate reported skull as well as brain damage to impact measures; whence validating the head FE model (Willinger, IJCrash 8:605-617, 2003). In this study, two crash cases were reconstructed. Injury correlation was successful in one of these cases in that the injuries to the brain of one of the car drivers could be correlated in terms of type, location and severity when compared with the tolerance limits of relevant injury parameters (Willinger, IJCrash 8:605-617, 2003).

Chawla, A.; Grover, V.; Mukherjee, S.; Hassan, A. M.

2013-04-01

412

Multispecies CARS measurements in turbulent combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) instrument was upgraded to more accurately measure the number density of oxygen molecules. This instrument is designed to simultaneously measure nitrogen number density, oxygen number density, and the ro-vibrational temperature of nitrogen. The CARS is a nonintrusive diagnostic technique which utilizes a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, broadband dye lasers, a complex optical system, and an intensified photodiode array detector to sample hostile combustion environments. Measurements were made in a flame produced by a coaxial subsonic diffusion hydrogen-air burner. These data were used as a data base for comparison with the results of two separate computational fluid dynamics calculations. Complications which had arisen in previous studies with regard to interpretation of the oxygen data were eliminated.

Antcliff, Richard R.; Jarrett, Olin, Jr.; Rogers, R. Clayton; Vanoverbeck, Thomas

1986-01-01

413

Simultaneous CARS and Interferometric Rayleigh Scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports for the first time the combination of a dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering system with an interferometric Rayleigh scattering system (CARS - IRS) to provide time-resolved simultaneous measurement of multiple properties in combustion flows. The system uses spectrally narrow green (seeded Nd:YAG at 532 nm) and yellow (552.9 nm) pump beams and a spectrally-broad red (607 nm) beam as the Stokes beam. A spectrometer and a planar Fabry-Perot interferometer used in the imaging mode are used to record the spectrally broad CARS spectra and the spontaneous Rayleigh scattering spectra, respectively. Time-resolved simultaneous measurement of temperature, absolute mole fractions of N2, O2, and H2, and two components of velocity in a Hencken burner flame were performed to demonstrate the technique.

Bivolaru, Daniel; Danehy, Paul M.; Grinstead, Keith D., Jr.; Tedder, Sarah; Cutler, Andrew D.

2006-01-01

414

Real-time car detection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a car detection system that is able to work in close to real-time on a smart camera. A cascade of histograms of oriented gradients was used as a detector. The algorithm and code were optimized for speed to meet the real-time constraints, without loosing too much on detection quality. The system is now able to process 10 frames per second on an Atom Z530 (1.6 GHz) processor used in the smart camera. The application on which the paper is based is ready to detect cars in real world scenarios. It is planned to extend it to also track and analyze the driver behavior patterns.

Rosner, Marcin

2011-01-01

415

EVALUATION OF EFFECT OF WASHING PROCEDURES ON MINERAL ANALYSIS OF ORANGE AND PEACH LEAVES SPRAYED WITH SEAWEED EXTRACTS ENRICHED WITH IRON  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of five washing treatments (unwashed, water washed, Tween 80 washed, 0.1 M HCl acid washed, and Tween 80-acid washed) is evaluated to remove nutrient element deposits from orange and peach leaves. Untreated leaves and leaves sprayed with a seaweed extract iron fertilizer in two dosages are compared. Micronutrients were more affected by the washing procedures than macronutrients. Acid

A. Álvarez-Fernández; A. Pérez-Sanz; J. J. Lucena

2001-01-01

416

Effects of motivation on car-following  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Speed- and distance control by automobile-drivers is described best by linear models when the leading vehicles speed varies randomly and when the driver is motivated to keep a large distance. A car-following experiment required subjects to follow at 'safe' or at 'close' distance. Transfer-characteristics of the driver were extended by 1 octave when following 'closely'. Nonlinear properties of drivers control-movements are assumed to reflect different motivation-dependent control strategies.

Boesser, T.

1982-01-01

417

AC MultipleUnit Car Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major factor in the development of the 4-motor equipment for use on a-c multiple-unit cars was the design of a suitable truck-mounted traction motor. Numerous electrical and mechanical problems had to be solved. The resultant design differs radically from the conventional axle-hung motor employed in such applications for the past 20 years. Preliminary operating experience indicates advantages comparable to

F. C. Kreitler

1951-01-01

418

Wireless Traffic Service Communication Platform for Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing weather conditions, especially in winter, have caused numerous disastrous traffic accidents in Northern Europe\\u000a and in the Alpine region during recent years. Information about hazardous weather and road conditions is often potentially\\u000a available but difficult or sometimes even impossible to deliver to drivers. This paper presents the international CARLINK\\u000a (Wireless Platform for Linking Cars) project [1] of the

Timo Sukuvaara; Pertti Nurmi; Daria Stepanova; Sami Suopajärvi; Marjo Hippi; Pekka Eloranta; Esa Suutari; Kimmo Ylisiurunen

2008-01-01

419

Assessment of resist outgassing related EUV optics contamination for CAR and non-CAR material chemistries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUV lithography is expected to be the key lithography option for sub-22nm device manufacturing. In order to meet the required imaging capability, resist performance improvements are being investigated by exploring both chemically amplified resists (CAR) and non-CAR chemistries. Another critical item related to resist chemistry is the EUV irradiation induced outgassing and its risk for optics contamination, especially towards high source power (pre-) productions tools. In this area it is important to characterize for the different chemistries which resist components are critical for EUV induced outgassing and - more important - which can result in non-cleanable mirror contamination. In this paper, we will explore the outgassing and contamination behavior of CAR and non-CAR resist by using Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) for identifying the resist outgassing characteristics, and by Witness Sample (WS) testing to evaluate the tendency for contamination. For CAR resists, it has been found that the PAG cation is a key component contributing to the contamination, but its impact can be changed by changing the resist formulation. In this investigation several model resists have been evaluated in order to understand which chemical components have - or don't have - an impact on the contamination. This has led to a proposal of a definition for a resist family. For non-CAR materials, the investigation has focused to a number of example resists. Most results are related to poly(-olefin sulfones), which have been proven to be good candidate materials for outgassing and contamination learning. The tests have confirmed that aromatic groups present in resist outgassing are playing an important role. As an opposite example of non-CAR material, the inorganic Inpria resist was tested, which revealed that its resist outgassing (water and oxygen) can remove carbon contamination. The combined work on CAR and non-CAR outgassing and contamination has learned significantly on the relationship between resist chemistry, its outgassing and contamination, and provided understanding on how to design good performing EUV resists with minimal risk for optics contamination in EUV device manufacturing.

Pollentier, I.; Neira, I.; Gronheid, R.

2011-03-01

420

Effect of car speed on amount of air supplied by ventilation system to the space of car cabin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of air supplied by ventilation system (HVAC system) of a car into a cabin is one of the main parameters for the correct simulation and prediction of a car cabin heat load. This amount is not based only on the current setting of the HVAC system, but also on the actual operating conditions and speed of the car. The authors therefore carried out experiments in the cabin of a passenger car in real traffic, while observing the amount of air on the speed of the car and setting of flap in mixing chamber. In a subsequent analysis the authors defined dependence of the airflow rate supplied by HVAC system on the speed of the car. Obtained empirical formulas were then used as a part of the code which calculates the data for the HVAC boundary conditions in the simulation of the car cabin environment.

Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan

2014-03-01

421

CARS microscopy of Alzheimer's diseased brain tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder currently without cure, characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques surrounded by dystrophic neurites. In an effort to understand the underlying mechanisms, biochemical analysis (protein immunoblot) of plaque extracts reveals that they consist of amyloid-beta (A?) peptides assembled as oligomers, protofibrils and aggregates. Their spatial distribution has been confirmed by Thioflavin-S or immuno-staining with fluorescence microscopy. However, it is increasingly understood that the protein aggregation is only one of several mechanism that causes neuronal dysfunction and death. This raises the need for a more complete biochemical analysis. In this study, we have complemented 2-photon fluorescence microscopy of Thioflavin-S and A? immuno-stained human AD plaques with CARS microscopy. We show that the chemical build-up of AD plaques is more complex and that A? staining does not provide the complete picture of the spatial distribution or the molecular composition of AD plaques. CARS images provide important complementary information to that obtained by fluorescence microscopy, motivating a broader introduction of CARS microscopy in the AD research field.

Enejder, Annika; Kiskis, Juris; Fink, Helen; Nyberg, Lena; Thyr, Jakob; Li, Jia-Yi

2014-02-01

422

New Life For The Cable Cars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Arnes' major recommendations involved ways of extending cable life in the interests of safety and economy. Other recommendations included redesign of the cablegripping device, substitution of modern braking mechanisms, improvements in cable pulleys and other components, and new inspection and repair procedures. Ames followed up by designing and installing new equipment to lengthen cable life, which averages only about two months. These cables-four of them for four different car routes--are endless belts, like ski lift cables, running from the downtown car barn to the end of each line. When a cable is installed, the loop is closed by splicing the ends together in a 72-footlong splice. The splice is the weakest part of the cable and a source of problems. When the car operator applies his grip while over a splice, the resulting friction sometimes causes the splice to "unbraid" and fail; this means shutting down the line until the splice can be repaired. Even when unbraiding does not occur, gripping a splice shortens cable life by friction wear. Worn cables are a safety hazard and must be replaced, which is expensive at $1.60 a foot for 10,000 to 20,000 feet of cable.

1979-01-01

423

EcoCAR Challenge: Finish Line  

ScienceCinema

The EcoCAR Challenege is a competition that challenges participating students from across North America to re-engineer a vehicle donated by General Motors. With the goal of minimizing the vehicle's fuel consumption and emissions, while maintaining its utility, safety and performance, teams had to find the best combination of cutting-edge technologies to meet these objectives. In the final year, the vehicles ran through a series of safety and technical tests at GM's Proving Ground in Milford, Michigan very similar to those GM's own production vehicles undergo. As EcoCAR wraps up, it is only the beginning for the next chapter in the DOE's 23-year history of advanced vehicle technology competitions. In April, Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs David Sandalow announced the launch of EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future http://www.ecocar2.org/index.html . We look forward to seeing the new and innovative designs that students bring to this challenge and know they will find a way to exceed even our highest expectations.

424

EcoCAR Challenge: Finish Line  

ScienceCinema

The EcoCAR Challenege is a competition that challenges participating students from across North America to re-engineer a vehicle donated by General Motors. With the goal of minimizing the vehicle's fuel consumption and emissions, while maintaining its utility, safety and performance, teams had to find the best combination of cutting-edge technologies to meet these objectives. In the final year, the vehicles ran through a series of safety and technical tests at GM's Proving Ground in Milford, Michigan very similar to those GM's own production vehicles undergo. As EcoCAR wraps up, it is only the beginning for the next chapter in the DOE's 23-year history of advanced vehicle technology competitions. In April, Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs David Sandalow announced the launch of EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future http://www.ecocar2.org/index.html . We look forward to seeing the new and innovative designs that students bring to this challenge and know they will find a way to exceed even our highest expectations.

None

2013-05-29

425

Microsatellite instability analysis in uterine cavity washings to detect endometrial cancer in lynch syndrome.  

PubMed

Aim: To assess the feasibility of Microsatellite Instability (MSI) analysis in uterine cavity washings for detecting endometrial cancer in Lynch syndrome. Materials and Methods: This was a proof-of-concept study in Lynch syndrome patients, scheduled for hysterectomy. At the beginning of surgical procedure, uterine cavity washings were performed, and sent for MSI analysis. Pathological examination of the uterus was associated with mismatch repair protein expression and MSI analysis. Results; Nine patients were included in the study. Uterine cavity washings were feasible and interpretable in all cases. Final histological report identified 2 endometrial cancers and 7 benign specimens. There was no atypical hyperplasia. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MSI analysis in uterine washings reached 100% in all cases. Concordance of MSI presence or absence was absolute between uterine washings and final histology. Conclusion; MSI analysis in uterine cavity washings may be a promising screening tool for Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial cancer diagnosis. PMID:24922696

Bats, Anne-Sophie; Blons, Helene; Narjoz, Celine; LE Frere-Belda, Marie-Aude; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Lecuru, Fabrice

2014-06-01

426

1. Photocopy of undated wash drawing. The largest building is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of undated wash drawing. The largest building is the Hotel Williams. Next to it is the Williams House (Williams Hotel Annex), HABS No. MI-258 A. Below them are the log cabins built by the American Fur Company (from left to right): Log Building No. 1 (MI-258 C), Log Building No. 2 (MI-258 D), Log Building No. 3 (not documented), Log Building No. 4 (MI-258 E), and Log Building No. 5 (MI-258 F). (Williams Log House, MI-258 B, and Log Building No. 8, MI-258 G, are not shown). The drawing is in the collection of the Michigan Historical Commission. Although it does not have a date, it was painted in the early 20th century after the main building was constructed. - Hotel Williams, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

427

Tests of disinfection by heat in a bedpan washing machine.  

PubMed

Tests of effectiveness of disinfection of metal and polypropylene bedpans were made in a washer fitted with a steam generator. Broth cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus faecalis (approximately 4 x 10(8) organisms) were sealed in lengths of capillary tubing and attached to the surface of the pans. In other tests, pans were contaminated with an artificial soil containing Str. faecalis (10(8) organisms/ml). In both series of tests, counts of surviving organisms were made at the end of the washing and disinfection cycle. The tests using capillary tubes showed that the Gram-negative bacilli were effectively killed, but not necessarily Gram-positive cocci. However, when incorporated in standard soil, Str. faecalis was killed or removed during the cycle. The results indicate that the disinfection process was effective for metal bedpans, but less so for polypropylene. Possible disadvantages and modification of the machine are suggested. PMID:4214841

Ayliffe, G A; Collins, B J; Deverill, C E

1974-09-01

428

Tips on hybridizing, washing, and scanning affymetrix microarrays.  

PubMed

Starting in the late 1990s, Affymetrix, Inc. produced a commercial system for hybridizing, washing, and scanning microarrays that was designed to be easy to operate and reproducible. The system used arrays packaged in a plastic cassette or chamber in which the prefabricated array was mounted and could be filled with fluid through resealable membrane ports either by hand or by an automated "fluidics station" specially designed to handle the arrays. A special rotating hybridization oven and a specially designed scanner were also required. Primarily because of automation and standardization the Affymetrix system was and still remains popular. Here, we provide a skeleton protocol with the potential pitfalls identified. It is designed to augment the protocols provided by Affymetrix. PMID:24492781

Ares, Manuel

2014-02-01

429

Wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an analytical study and assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft is presented. All non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes, and subsystems currently under development by NASA are considered. Included among these are: filtration, ultrafiltration, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, chemical pretreatment, reverse osmosis, hyperfiltration, and certain urea removal techniques. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. In the final assessment, a simple multifiltration approach consisting of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins receives the highest rating for six-man orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

Putnam, D. F.

1977-01-01

430

Cryoprotective effect of trehalose on washed chicken meat.  

PubMed

The cryoprotective effects of trehalose (w?=?0-10%) on washed chicken meat (WCM) were investigated. WCM was produced from broiler, frozen and stored for 360 days on -30 °C. Myofibrillar protein functional stability was monitored by salt extractable protein (SEP) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Salt extractable protein (SEP) showed that the addition of trehalose caused smaller decrease in protein solubility during frozen storage. Peak thermal transition (T p) and denaturation enthalpy (?H) of myofibrillar proteins were evaluated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed a shift in peak thermal transition temperature (T p) of myosin and actin to higher temperature as the mass fraction of trehalose increases. The transitions enthalpies of myosin and actin of WCM samples showed higher increase with the increase of mass fraction of trehalose. Since the value of denaturation enthalpy is directly related to amount of native proteins, higher values of ?H indicates to the higher cryoprotective effects of trehalose. PMID:24803712

Kova?evi?, Dragan; Mastanjevi?, Krešimir

2014-05-01

431

The Effects of Chemical Wash Additives on the Corrosion of Aerospace Alloys in Marine Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the methodology for comparing the relative effectiveness of four chemical products used for rinsing airplanes and helicopters. The products were applied on a weekly basis to a series of flat alloy panels exposed to an oceanfront marine environment for one year. The results are presented along with comparisons of exposures of the same alloys that were not washed, were washed with seawater, or washed with de-ionized water.

MacDowell, Louis; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran, Joseph; Hodge, Tim; Barile, Ronald; Heidersbach, Robert; Steinrock, T. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

432

Live-line insulator washing: Experimental investigation to assess safety and efficiency requirements  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation was carried out to study live-line washing of insulators, with special attention to the two washing procedures which adopt hand-held jet nozzles and helicopter mounted nozzles. The aspects related to safety and those related to efficiency and reliability were considered. On the basis of the results, site working distances and indications to define optimal washing procedures were derived.

Perin, D.; Pigini, A.; Visintainer, I. [CESI, Milano (Italy)] [CESI, Milano (Italy); Ramamoorty, C.M. [CPRI, Bangalore (India)] [CPRI, Bangalore (India)

1995-01-01

433

Effect of washing treatments on pesticide residues and antioxidant compounds in Yuja ( Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the removal efficiency of pesticide residues and microorganisms, and changes of the amount of antioxidant\\u000a compounds on yuja (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) by various washing methods. The washing methods were mechanical washing (MW), mechanical washing after soaking\\u000a in SAcEW, strong acidic electrolyzed water (SAcEW+MW), and soaking detergent solution (DW), with a tap water washing (TW)\\u000a as

Jung-Min Sung; Ki-Hyun Kwon; Jong-Hoon Kim; Jin-Woong Jeong

2011-01-01

434

10 Years of Car-2-X Communication - a Success Story?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than ten years, car-2-x communication has been a major topic of research in the scientific community and an important development focus for the automotive industry. First, this article takes a retrospective look at the evolution of car-2-x and the two different communication paradigms: decentralized car-2-car communication and centralized cellular solutions. Afterwards, a comparison of their technical advantages and limitations is presented, respectively. The result shows that in order to implement safety-relevant applications, car-2-car communication has strong advantages compared to cellular technologies but requires high market penetration. However, its introduction solely for safety applications is difficult since the required penetration will not be achieved until several years after initial deployment. Therefore, car-2-car communication must provide a benefit to the customer, even in the phase of market introduction. For this purpose, the article outlines an approach called SODAD (Segment-Oriented Data Abstraction and Dissemination). It offers a possibility to introduce decentralized vehicular applications with early customer benefit, in order to enable safety applications based on car-2-car communication on a long term.

Wischhof, Lars; Ebner, André

2012-05-01

435

Effects of sheep fleece washings on the germination and growth of Beauveria bassiana.  

PubMed

The development of biopesticides against ectoparasites must take into account the effect that an animal host's secretions and host associated micro-organisms may have on the viability of the applied agent. In this study, the effects of secretions washed from the pelt of sheep on the viability and growth of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana, were assessed. The fungal isolate had been obtained from the parasitic sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis. It was added to 0.05% Tween 80 in which sheep fleece had been washed up to six times, to ascertain whether successive washings had any effect on the viability of conidia over 6 days. The effects of sterile and non-sterile washings on viability and growth were also investigated. Results indicated that substances in the sheep fleece may cause a significant reduction in the viability of conidia. Viability was linked to the number of times the sheep pelt had been washed in the Tween, with conidia incubated in the first wash from the sheep pelt showing a significantly greater decrease in viability compared to those incubated in the sixth wash. Viability was not linked to the sterility of the washes, although there was a significant difference between length of germ tube growth from viable conidia in sterile and non-sterile washings. PMID:19041656

Taylor, B; Luke, B; Wall, R; Taylor, M; Moore, D

2009-02-01

436

Potential benefit of surfactants in a hydrocarbon contaminated soil washing process: fluorescence spectroscopy based assessment.  

PubMed

Soil washing is an ex situ soil remediation treatment process. The purpose of soil washing is to clean the major gravel and sand fractions, concentrating contamination into the fine silt and clay fractions. The addition of surfactants can improve the efficiency of this method. Here we report the use of UV fluorescence spectroscopy to assess the hydrocarbon cleaning process as a rapid and cost effective alternative to gas chromatography. Three wash solutions were tested on a total petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil: water, Sea Power 101 (SP101) at 1% (v/v) and Tween80 at 0.5% (w/v). The most effective to wash the gravel and sand was SP101 (54 and 65% improvement over the water only wash, respectively) which moved contamination to the silt fraction (94% of contaminants). Tween80 appeared not to enhance TPH removal efficiency from the gravel and sand fractions but did concentrate TPH in the effluent (95% more than water wash). In addition to TPH removal from gravel and sand, SP101 also showed potential benefit in the soil washing sedimentation process, enhancing sludge/water volume separation by 10% over the water only wash. In summary, fluorescence spectroscopy proved an effective technique to compare TPH removal efficiencies as part of soil washing laboratory based treatability testing. PMID:22503218

Uhmann, Amandine; Aspray, Thomas J

2012-06-15

437

Actin Polymerization Controls the Organization of WASH Domains at the Surface of Endosomes  

PubMed Central

Sorting of cargoes in endosomes occurs through their selective enrichment into sorting platforms, where transport intermediates are generated. The WASH complex, which directly binds to lipids, activates the Arp2/3 complex and hence actin polymerization onto such sorting platforms. Here, we analyzed the role of actin polymerization in the physiology of endosomal domains containing WASH using quantitative image analysis. Actin depolymerization is known to enlarge endosomes. Using a novel colocalization method that is insensitive to the heterogeneity of size and shape of endosomes, we further show that preventing the generation of branched actin networks induces endosomal accumulation of the WASH complex. Moreover, we found that actin depolymerization induces a dramatic decrease in the recovery of endosomal WASH after photobleaching. This result suggests a built-in turnover, where the actin network, i.e. the product of the WASH complex, contributes to the dynamic exchange of the WASH complex by promoting its detachment from endosomes. Our experiments also provide evidence for a role of actin polymerization in the lateral compartmentalization of endosomes: several WASH domains exist at the surface of enlarged endosomes, however, the WASH domains coalesce upon actin depolymerization or Arp2/3 depletion. Branched actin networks are thus involved in the regulation of the size of WASH domains. The potential role of this regulation in membrane scission are discussed.

Henriot, Veronique; Gautreau, Alexis

2012-01-01

438

Efficacy of hand washing procedures on bacterial contamination of hydrogel contact lenses.  

PubMed

The effect of various hand washing regimens on transfer of bacterial contaminants from the hands to a hydrogel contact lenses was evaluated. Each of 47 subjects performed 5 different hand washing procedures, and then handled a new, sterile hydrogel contact lens. The lenses were cultured to determine colony-forming units (CFUs) and microbial identity. Median CFUs on lenses handled after washing with water, soap and water, or soap and water followed by towel drying were higher than the median CFU for lenses handled after no hand washing. The median CFU for lenses handled after soap and water washing followed by an alcohol wipe was not different from the no washing group. The majority of the contaminants were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis. These results show that ordinary hand washing alone does not decrease, and may even increase, the amount of contaminants transferred from the hands to a hydrogel lens. Use of an alcoholic wipe after hand washing reverses this effect. Hand washing is still recommended in contact lens hygiene for removal of more pathogenic contaminants. PMID:9219287

Ly, V T; Simmons, P A; Edrington, T B; Wechsler, S; De Land, P N

1997-05-01

439

Sudden unexpected infant deaths associated with car seats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency, circumstances, demographics, and causes of death of infants dying while seated in car safety seats. A retrospective review of a pediatric autopsy database at a specialist center over a 16-year period was undertaken to identify any infant deaths (aged <1 year), in whom death occurred while seated in a car safety seat. Fourteen car seat-associated deaths were identified from a total of 1,465 coronial infant autopsies (0.96 %). Four involved infants were being appropriately transported in the car seat, all of whom had a medical underlying cause of death (one infection and three congenital heart disease). The majority (10 cases; 70 %) occurred while car seats were being inappropriately used, outside of the car, including as an alternative to a cot or high-chair. Five of these infants died of explained causes, but four deaths remained unexplained after autopsy, and in one no cause of death was available. There were no cases of previously healthy infants dying unexpectedly in a car seat when it was being used appropriately, and in this series there were no cases of traumatic death associated with car seats, either during road traffic accidents, or from falling or being suspended from a car seat. Infant deaths in car seats are rare. These data support the recommendation that car seats be used only for transport and not as alternatives for cots or high-chairs. More research is required to investigate the effect of travel in car seats on infants with underlying conditions. There appears to be no increased risk of unexpected deaths of healthy infants transported appropriately in car seats. PMID:24435952

Bamber, Andrew R; Pryce, Jeremy; Ashworth, Michael T; Sebire, Neil J

2014-06-01

440

CAR2 Displays Unique Ligand Binding and RXR? Heterodimerization Characteristics  

PubMed Central

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) regulates the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Alternative splicing of the human CAR gene yields an array of mRNAs that encode structurally diverse proteins. One form of CAR, termed CAR2, contains an additional four amino acids (SPTV) that are predicted to reshape the ligand-binding pocket. The current studies show a marked, ligand-independent, CAR2-mediated transactivation of reporters containing optimal DR-3, DR-4, and DR-5 response elements, and reporters derived from the natural CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 gene promoters. Overexpression of the RxR? ligand binding domain was critical for achieving these effects. CAR2 interaction with SRC-1 was similarly dependent on the coexpression of RxR?. Mutagenesis of Ser233 (SPTV) to an alanine residue yielded a receptor possessing higher constitutive activity. Alternatively, mutating Ser233 to an aspartate residue drastically reduced the transactivation capacity of CAR2. The respective abilities of these mutagenized forms of CAR2 to transactivate a DR-4 × 3 reporter element correlated with their ability to interact with RxR? and to recruit SRC-1 in a ligand-regulated manner. Together, these results demonstrate a robust RxR?-dependent recruitment of coactivators and transactivation by CAR2. In addition, CAR2 displays novel dose responses to clotrimazole and androstanol compared with the reference form of the receptor while at the same time retaining the ability to bind CITCO. This result supports a hypothesis whereby the four-amino-acid insertion in CAR2 structurally modifies its ligand binding pocket, suggesting that CAR2 is regulated by a set of ligands distinct from those governing the activity of reference CAR.

Auerbach, Scott S.; DeKeyser, Joshua G.; Stoner, Matthew A.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.

2014-01-01

441

Production of lightweight aggregates from washing aggregate sludge and fly ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing generation of wastes is one of the main environmental problems in industrialised countries. Heat treatment at high temperatures can convert some types of wastes into ceramic products with a wide range of microstructural features and properties (Bethanis et al., 2004). A lightweight aggregate (LWA) is a granular material with a bulk density (bd) not exceeding 1.20 g/cm3 or with a particle density not exceeding 2.00 g/cm3 (UNE-EN-13055-1, 2003). They have become a focus of interest because the low particle density and the low bulk density entail a decrease in the load transmitted to the ground, and less work and effort are required to transport them (De' Gennaro et al., 2004). The benefits associated with these low densities, which are due to the formation of voids and pores, are very good thermal and acoustic insulation and materials with a good resistance to fire (Benbow, 1987; Fakhfakh et al., 2007). The objective was to recycle fly ash, used motor oil from cars and mineral wastes from washing aggregate sludge, in order to obtain a usable material such as lightweight aggregates, and also to ensure that they are of good quality for different applications. Raw materials have been physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. On the basis of the results obtained, they were mixed, milled to a grain size of less than 200 ?m (Yasuda, 1991), formed into pellets, pre-heated for 5 min and sintered in a rotary kiln at 1150°C, 1175°C, 1200°C and 1225°C for 10 and 15 min at each temperature (Theating). Effects of raw material characteristics, heating temperature and dwell time on the following LWAs properties were determined: loss on ignition (LOI), bloating index (BI), loose bulk density (bd), apparent and dry particle density (ad, dd), voids (H), water absorption (WA24h) and compressive strength (S). The products obtained were lightweight aggregates in accordance with norm UNE-EN-13055-1 (bd ?1.20 g/cm3 or particle density ?2.00 g/cm3). LWAs manufactured with 75%:25% and 50%:50% proportions of washing aggregate sludge:fly ash, heated at different temperatures and dwell times, were expanded LWAs (BI > 0). They showed the lowest loose bulk density, the lowest dry and apparent particle density, the lowest water absorption and the highest compressive strength. The possible applications of sintered pellets, taking into consideration compressive strength and water absorption values, could be similar to those of Arlita G3 (insulation, geotechnical applications, gardening and/or horticulture) and/or Arlita F3 (prefabricated lightweight structures and insulation lightweight concretes), two varieties of the most widely marketed LWAs in Spain. References - Benbow, J., September 1987. Mineral in fire protection construction support market. Industrial Minerals, 61-73. - Bethanis, S., Cheeseman, C.R., Sollars, C.J., 2004. Effect of sintering temperature on the properties and leaching of incinerator bottom ash. Waste Management and Research 22 (4), 255-264. - De' Gennaro, R., Cappelletti, P., Cerri, G., De' Gennaro, M., Dondi, M., Langella, A., 2004. Zeolitic tuffs as raw materials for lightweight aggregates. Applied Clay Science 25 (1-2), 71-81. - Fakhfakh, E., Hajjaji, W., Medhioub, M., Rocha, F., López-Galindo, A., Setti, M.,Kooli, F., Zargouni, F., Jamoussi, F., 2007. Effects of sand addition on production of lightweight aggregates from Tunisian smectite-rich clayey rocks. Applied Clay Science 35, 228-237. - UNE-EN-13055-1, 2003. Lightweight aggregates - lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar and grout. - Yasuda, Y., 1991. Sewage-sludge utilization in Tokyo. Water Science and Technology 23 (10-12), 1743-1752.

González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena

2010-05-01

442

Code Status  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Clinical Critical Care Information for Patients | | More Code Status Information for Patients Introduction General Information Common ... Approaches in Critical Care Commonly Asked Questions Credits "Code status" are the words used by hospital staff ...

443

The survival of foodborne pathogens during domestic washing-up and subsequent transfer onto washing-up sponges, kitchen surfaces and food  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the survival of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157: H7, when exposed to a range of constant temperatures (47–60 °C), in hard or soft water, in the presence\\/absence of detergent (0–0.3%) and organic matter, and during drying, was investigated. Further experiments used a washing-up process simulation, where soiled dishes contaminated with bacteria were washed in a bowl

Karen Mattick; Karen Durham; Gil Domingue; Frieda Jørgensen; Mithu Sen; Donald W. Schaffner; Tom Humphrey

2003-01-01

444

How often do you wash your hands? A review of studies of hand-washing practices in the community during and after the SARS outbreak in 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed evidence of hand-washing compliance in community settings during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Literature was searched through PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wan Fang database and Google. English and Chinese papers were reviewed. Studies containing data on hand-washing, self-reported or directly observed, in community settings were selected. Case-control studies and studies in healthcare settings were excluded. Fourteen studies were reviewed. Self-reported

Isaac C.-H. Fung; Sandy Cairncross

2007-01-01

445

Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

2008-01-01

446

No damage to rail cars or SRB segments in derailment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After being involved in a minor derailment incident during a routine movement on the tracks, rail cars carrying solid rocket booster segments sit idle. The rail cars were being moved as part of a standard operation to '''order''' the cars, placing them into a proper sequence for upcoming segment processing activities. The rear wheels of one car and the front wheels of the car behind it slid off the tracks while passing through a railway switch onto a siding. They were traveling approximately 3 miles per hour at the time, about normal walking speed. No damage occurred to the SRB segments, or to the devices that secure the segments to the rail cars. The incident occurred on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area.

2000-01-01

447

No damage to rail cars or SRB segments in derailment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of two solid rocket booster rail cars is off the track after being involved in a minor derailment incident during a routine movement on the tracks. The rail cars were being moved as part of a standard operation to '''order''' the cars, placing them into a proper sequence for upcoming segment processing activities. The rear wheels of one car and the front wheels of the car behind it slid off the tracks while passing through a railway switch onto a siding. They were traveling approximately 3 miles per hour at the time, about normal walking speed. No damage occurred to the SRB segments, or to the devices that secure the segments to the rail cars. The incident occurred on KSC property, just north of the NASA Causeway in the KSC Industrial Area.

2000-01-01

448

Performance requirements of automotive batteries for future car electrical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The further increase in the number of power-consuming functions which has been announced for future vehicle electrical systems, and in particular the effects of new starting systems on battery performance, requires a further optimization of the lead acid system coupled with effective energy management, and enhanced battery operating conditions. In the face of these increased requirements, there are proven benefits to splitting the functions of a single SLI battery between two separate, special-purpose batteries, each of which are optimized, for high power output and for high energy throughput, respectively. This will bring about a marked improvement in weight, reliability, and state of charge (SOC). The development of special design starter and service batteries is almost completed and will lead to new products with a high standard of reliability. The design of the power-optimized lead acid accumulator is particularly suitable for further development as the battery for a 42/36 V electrical system. This is intended to improve the efficiency of the generator and the various power-consuming functions and to improve start/stop operation thereby bringing about a marked reduction in the fuel consumption of passenger cars. This improvement can also be assisted by a charge management system used in conjunction with battery status monitoring.

Friedrich, R.; Richter, G.

449

Heterogeneous photocatalytic disinfection of wash waters from the fresh-cut vegetable industry.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of photocatalytic disinfection for control of natural and potentially pathogenic microflora in wash waters used for fresh-cut vegetables was evaluated. Wash waters for lettuce, escarole, chicory, carrot, onion, and spinach from a fresh-cut vegetable processing plant were treated with a titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalytic system. The vegetable wash waters were impelled out with a pump at a flow rate of 1,000 liters/h and conducted through a stainless steel circuit to the filtration system to reach the TiO2 photocatalyst fiber, which was illuminated with a 40-W UV-C lamp. The microbial and physicochemical qualities of the wash water were analyzed. Heterogeneous photocatalysis was an effective disinfection method, reducing counts of bacteria, molds, and yeasts. Most of the treated wash waters had total bacteria reductions of 4.1 +/- 1.3 to 4.8 +/- 0.4 log CFU/ml after 10 min of treatment when compared with untreated water. Higher decontamination efficacy was observed in carrot wash water (6.2 +/- 0.1-log reductions), where turbidity and organic matter were lower than those in the wash waters for other vegetables. The tested heterogeneous photocatalytic system also was effective for reducing water turbidity, although chemical oxygen demand was unaffected after the treatments. The efficacy of the photocatalytic system for reducing microbial load depended on the physicochemical characteristics of the wash water, which depended on the vegetable being washed. The conclusions derived from this study illustrate that implementation of a heterogeneous photocatalytic system in the fresh-cut vegetable washing processes could allow the reuse of wash water. PMID:18326177

Selma, María Victoria; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María Angeles; Gil, María Isabel

2008-02-01

450

VIEW OF TRANSFER CAR (BATTERYELECTRIC POWERED) FROM BILLET YARD POSITIONED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF TRANSFER CAR (BATTERY-ELECTRIC POWERED) FROM BILLET YARD POSITIONED FOR LOADING BILLETS INTO FURNACE; HEATER (BEHIND SCREEN IN CENTER) MOVES THE TRANSFER CAR INTO POSITION. BILLETS FROM THE TRANSFER CAR ARE PLACED ON HAND-OPERATED TURNTABLE. THE FURNACE IS NATURAL-GAS FIRED, WITH BILLETS HEATED AT NOT MORE THAN 2400 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

451

Racing with the Sun: Creating a Solar Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use engineering design principles to construct and test a fully solar-powered car. Solar car kits usually include a photovoltaic cell and motor; some include a chassis as well. Encourage learners to design their own chassis from balsa wood or other materials. Time for activity can be split between multiple meetings. Note: There are multiple sources for solar car kits. Most of the cost is in the photovoltaic cell. A larger, more powerful cell will allow greater flexibility for learners' designs.

Sarabi, Rahmin; Prucz, Roni

2004-01-01

452

MAG ONE novel energy storage for high tech sports car  

SciTech Connect

A solar-powered car, the MAG ONE, is discussed. Photovoltaic cells would cover 100 square feet of the car`s body. Solar cells would cover the entire vehicle to intake as much solar energy as possible. By using computerized series-parallel switching of the solar cell system should yield 2-3 horsepower per-hour on a sunny day. An important concept is the proprietary continuously variable hydrostatic transmission capable of 90 percent efficiency.

Siuru, B.

1993-03-01

453

MAG ONE novel energy storage for high tech sports car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar-powered car, the MAG ONE, is discussed. Photovoltaic cells would cover 100 square feet of the car`s body. Solar cells would cover the entire vehicle to intake as much solar energy as possible. By using computerized series-parallel switching of the solar cell system should yield 2-3 horsepower per-hour on a sunny day. An important concept is the proprietary continuously

Siuru

1993-01-01

454

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

455

On the road performance simulation of hydrogen and hybrid cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment is made of on-the-road performance, for a pure hydrogen fuel cell car, a pure battery operated car, and a hydrogen fuel cell-battery hybrid car. The tool used for this study is the modular software-package ADVISOR [Markel T, et al. ADVISOR. J Power Sources 2002; 110:255–66], which is well tested and offers a range of simple, parametrized sub-models or

Bent Sørensen

2007-01-01

456

Are cannabinoids detected in hair after washing with Cannabio shampoo?  

PubMed

Today, cannabis plants are used in shampoo preparations, in foodstuffs (e.g., oils, noodles, crackers, etc.), and in beverages (e.g., tea). These products often contain < 1% delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in order to eliminate psychoactive effects, but some of them can include 1 to 3% of THC. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Cannabio shampoo revealed the presence of THC (412 ng/mL) and two constituents of cannabis plants, cannabidiol (CBD, 4079 ng/mL) and cannabinol (CBN, 380 ng/mL). In order to verify if normal hygiene practices with Cannabio shampoo can result in positive tests for cannabinoids in hair, three subjects washed their hair with this shampoo once daily for two weeks. After this period, hair specimens were collected. In the three hair specimens, THC, CBD, and CBN were never detected within their limits of detection, 0.05, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/mg, respectively. We concluded that the use of Cannabio shampoo during normal hygiene practices cannot be considered as a source of potential contamination of hair. In a second experiment, drug-free hair specimens (200 mg) were incubated in 10 mL water/Cannabio shampoo (20:1, v/v) for 30 min, 2 h, and 5 h. After incubation, hair strands were washed with water and separated into two portions. One portion was extracted directly; the second was decontaminated with methylene chloride and then extracted. After an incubation period of 30 min, the analysis of hair by GC-MS did not reveal the presence of THC, CBD, and CBN in hair, regardless of whether the hair was decontaminated. After an incubation period of 2 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.11 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.10 ng/mg with decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). After an incubation period of 5 h, specimens tested positive for CBD (0.25 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.14 ng/mg after decontamination) and CBN (0.02 ng/mg without decontamination and 0.02 ng/mg after decontamination). In all cases, THC was never detected. Extensive but unrealistic use of Cannabio shampoo can cause drug-free hair to test positive for CBD and CBN but not for the primary psychoactive drug THC. PMID:10488922

Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Jamey, C; Ludes, B

1999-09-01

457

Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.  

PubMed

Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control of the crash forces acting on a racing car. NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc) implemented crash recording in stock car racing in its three national series in 2002. Data from 2925 crashes from 2002 through the 2005 season are summarized in terms of crash severity, crash direction, injury outcome, and protective system performance. PMID:17311172

Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

2006-11-01

458

CARS Temperature Measurements in Turbulent and Supersonic Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper documents the development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Langley Research Center ( LaRC) Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) systems for measurements of temperature in a turbulent subsonic or supersonic reacting hydrogen-air environment. Spectra data provides temperature data when compared to a precalculated library of nitrogen CARS spectra. Library validity was confirmed by comparing CARS temperatures derived through the library with three different techniques for determination of the temperature in hydrogen-air combustion and an electrically heated furnace. The CARS system has been used to survey temperature profiles in the simulated flow of a supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) model. Measurement results will be discussed.

Jarrett, O., Jr.; Antcliff, R. R.; Smith, M. W.; Cutler, A. D.; Diskin, G. S.; Northam, G. B.

1991-01-01

459

9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

460

Aluminium in Cars â Unlocking the Light-Weighting Potential  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this brochure, the European Aluminium Association (EAA) evaluates the need for vehicle lightweighting to reduce CO2 emissions. Since the 70âs aluminum has been used for some car components (radiators, cylinder heads, and bumper beams), but now has grown to the average amount of 140 kg per car produced in Europe. Aluminum castings, extrusions, forgings and sheets can now be found nearly everywhere, including in car bodies, closures, chassis, suspensions and wheels. This resource explains why, now more than ever, reducing vehicle mass is necessary and how aluminum can be used to further improve the sustainability and the safety of future generations of cars.

Association, European A.

461

Blasting Rocks and Blasting Cars Applied Engineering  

ScienceCinema

June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated ... June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated a program at Berkeley Lab funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a collaboration between the federal government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Nondestructive evaluation techniques to test a car's structural integrity are being developed for auto assembly lines.

LBNL

2009-09-01

462

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Car Meets Train  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics students relating to position and displacement. Students are asked to determine distance required for a car to overtake a slower-moving train, given times of departure for each. Both are traveling at constant velocity in the same direction. The problem is accompanied by a Socratic-dialog "help" sequence designed to encourage critical thinking as users do a guided conceptual analysis before attempting the mathematics. It is part of a larger collection of interactive physics problems.

Gladding, Gary

2008-09-12

463

Application of CARS to scramjet combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic (CARS) instrument has been developed for measuring simultaneously temperature and N2 - O2 species concentration in hostile flame environments. A folded BOXCARS arrangement was employed to obtain high spatial resolution. Polarization discrimination against the nonresonant background decreased the lower limits of O2 detectivity. The instrument has been primarily employed for validation of computational fluid-dynamics computer-model codes. Comparisons have been made to both the CHARNAL and TEACH codes on a hydrogen diffusion flame with good results.

Antcliff, R. R.

1987-01-01

464

Multiplex CARS spectroscopy of Rochelle salt crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical four-wave mixing (FWM) described by the nonlinear susceptibility x(3) ( ?as = 2 ?p - ?s) is studied in a single crystal of Rochelle salt (NaKC 4H 4O 6·H 2O). In addition to the coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) structure, the FWM spectra consist of nonvibrational (background) components. After analysis of the FWM spectra in the range from 1100 to 1450 cm -1, the nonresonant (electronic) susceptibility elements xelzzzz and xelxxxx of Rochelle salt single crystal are estimated.

Hadjichristov, G. B.; Kircheva, P. P.; Kirov, N.

1996-08-01

465

Blasting Rocks and Blasting Cars Applied Engineering  

SciTech Connect

June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated ... June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated a program at Berkeley Lab funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a collaboration between the federal government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Nondestructive evaluation techniques to test a car's structural integrity are being developed for auto assembly lines.

LBNL

2008-07-02

466

Car use: lust and must. Instrumental, symbolic and affective motives for car use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results of two questionnaire studies aimed at examining various motives for car use. In the first study, a random selection of 185 respondents who possess a driving licence were interviewed. Respondents were recruited from the cities of Groningen and Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The sample of the second study comprised a random selection of 113 commuters who regularly

Linda Steg

2005-01-01

467

49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...105 105J600I, 112S600I Hydrogen Sulphide Note 3 105, 106, 110, 112, 114, 120 105J600I Hydrogen sulphide, liquefied 68 106 Methyl bromide...Special requirements for hydrogen sulphide. Each multi-unit tank car...

2009-10-01

468

Gas chromatographic evaluation of pesticide residue contents in nectarines after non-toxic washing treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washing with aqueous solutions of citric acid, ethanol, glycerol, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, sodium metabisulfite, sodium laurylsulfate (SLS), sodium hypochlorite, and urea is evaluated for pesticide residue reduction in nectarines and compared with simple tap water washing. Residues of pesticides commonly utilized in nectarines (chlorpyrifos, fenarimol, iprodione, malathion, methidathion, myclobutanil, parathion and pirimicarb) are extracted with ethyl acetate and anhydrous

P. Pugliese; J. C. Moltó; P. Damiani; R. Marín; L. Cossignani; J. Mañes

2004-01-01

469

Soil washing using various nonionic surfactants and their recovery by selective adsorption with activated carbon.  

PubMed

The performance of activated carbon in soil washing and subsequent selective adsorption for surfactant recovery from the washed solution was investigated. Sandy loam soil contaminated with phenanthrene at 200 mg kg(-1) was washed with four different nonionic surfactants: Tween 40, Tween 80, Brij 30 and Brij 35. The efficiency of soil washing was highest when using Brij 30 with the highest solubilizing ability for phenanthrene and low adsorption onto soil. In the selective adsorption step, surfactant recovery was quite effective for all surfactants ranging from 85.0 to 89.0% at 1 g L(-1) of activated carbon (Darco 20-40 mesh). Phenanthrene removal from the solution washed with Brij 30 was only 33.9%, even though it was 54.1-56.4% with other surfactants. The selectivity was larger than 7.02 except for Brij 30 (3.60). The overall performance considering both the washing and surfactant recovery step was effective when using Tween 80 and Brij 35. The results suggest that higher solubilizing ability of surfactants is a requirement for soil washing but causes negative effects on phenanthrene removal in the selective adsorption. Therefore, if a surfactant recovery process by selective adsorption is included in soil remediation by washing, the overall performance including the two steps should be considered for properly choosing the surfactant. PMID:18006231

Ahn, C K; Kim, Y M; Woo, S H; Park, J M

2008-06-15

470

WASH is required for lysosomal recycling and efficient autophagic and phagocytic digestion  

PubMed Central

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) is an important regulator of vesicle trafficking. By generating actin on the surface of intracellular vesicles, WASH is able to directly regulate endosomal sorting and maturation. We report that, in Dictyostelium, WASH is also required for the lysosomal digestion of both phagocytic and autophagic cargo. Consequently, Dictyostelium cells lacking WASH are unable to grow on many bacteria or to digest their own cytoplasm to survive starvation. WASH is required for efficient phagosomal proteolysis, and proteomic analysis demonstrates that this is due to reduced delivery of lysosomal hydrolases. Both protease and lipase delivery are disrupted, and lipid catabolism is also perturbed. Starvation-induced autophagy therefore leads to phospholipid accumulation within WASH-null lysosomes. This causes the formation of multilamellar bodies typical of many lysosomal storage diseases. Mechanistically, we show that, in cells lacking WASH, cathepsin D becomes trapped in a late endosomal compartment, unable to be recycled to nascent phagosomes and autophagosomes. WASH is therefore required for the maturation of lysosomes to a stage at which hydrolases can be retrieved and reused.

King, Jason S.; Gueho, Aurelie; Hagedorn, Monica; Gopaldass, Navin; Leuba, Florence; Soldati, Thierry; Insall, Robert H.

2013-01-01

471

Flood potential of Fortymile Wash and its principal southwestern tributaries, Nevada Test Site, Southern Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flood hazards for a 9-mile reach of Fortymile Wash and its principal southwestern tributaries - Busted Butte, Drill Hole, and Yucca Washes - were evaluated to aid in determining possible sites for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes on the Nevada Test Site. Data from 12 peak-flow gaging stations adjacent to the Test Site were used to develop regression relations

R. R. Squires; R. L. Young

1984-01-01

472

Tolerance and Safety of Different Concentrations of Chlorhexidine for Peripartum Vaginal and Infant Washes: HIVNET025  

PubMed Central

Background There is a continuing need to evaluate sustainable interventions for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV type 1. We evaluated different concentrations (0.25%, 1%, and 2%) of chlorhexidine (CHX) for perinatal maternal and infant washes to identify the maximum tolerable concentration of CHX for such an intervention. Methods Women were enrolled during their third trimester at the maternity unit of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa, and perinatal maternal and infant washes were completed. Subjective maternal symptoms as well as infant examinations were used to assess tolerability of the washes. Results The 0.25% concentration of CHX was well tolerated by the mothers (n = 29). Ten of 79 women (13%) with 1% CHX washes complained of mild vaginal area burning or itching, and washes were stopped in 5 (6%). Twenty-three of 75 women (31%) in the 2% CHX wash group had subjective complaints, and the washes were stopped in 12 (16%). There were no clinical indications of toxicity of the CHX washes among infants. Conclusion A 1% solution of CHX appears to be a safe and tolerable concentration of CHX for consideration in an MTCT prevention trial.

Wilson, Craig M.; Gray, Glenda; Read, Jennifer S.; Mwatha, Anthony; Lala, Sanjay; Johnson, Saul; Violari, Avye; Sibiya, Portia Mabali; Fleming, Thomas R.; Koonce, Ann; Vermund, Sten H.; McIntyre, James

2009-01-01

473

Degraded TBP Solvent Regeneration Technology using Butylamine as a Solvent Washing to Reduce Solid Salt Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Normal butylamine compounds are studied as salt-free wash reagents for degraded solvent used in PUREX process in spent fuel reprocessing. The solvent wash tests were carried out with two types of butylamine compounds, n-butylamine oxalate and n-butylamine...

T. Asakura Y. Itoh S. Hotoku Y. Morita G. Uchiyama

2005-01-01

474

A multi-class SVM classifier ensemble for automatic hand washing quality assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand washing is a critical activity in preventing the spread of infection in health-care environments. Several guidelines recommended a hand washing protocol consisting of six steps that ensure that all areas of the hands are thoroughly cleaned. In this paper, we describe a novel approach that uses a computer vision system to monitor the user's hands motions in order to

D. F. Llorca; F. Vilarino; Z. Zhou; G. Lacey

475

Three kinds of psychological determinants for hand-washing behaviour in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washing hands with soap at the right times – primarily after contact with faeces, but also before handling food or feeding an infant – can significantly reduce the incidence of childhood infectious disease. Here, we present empirical results which substantiate a recent claim that washing hands can be the consequence of different kinds of psychological causes. Such causes can be

Robert Aunger; Wolf-Peter Schmidt; Ashish Ranpura; Yolande Coombes; Peninnah Mukiri Maina; Carol Nkatha Matiko; Valerie Curtis

2010-01-01

476

Increased hand washing reduces influenza virus surface contamination in Bangkok households, 2009-2010.  

PubMed

Within a hand-washing clinical trial, we evaluated factors associated with fomite contamination in households with an influenza-infected child. Influenza virus RNA contamination was higher in households with low absolute humidity and in control households, suggesting that hand washing reduces surface contamination. PMID:24373290

Levy, Jens W; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Simmerman, James M; Jarman, Richard G; Johnson, Kara; Olsen, Sonja J; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee

2014-01-01

477

16 CFR 1630.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of approval of an alternative washing procedure under FF 1-70...the back of the specimen with hand for 1 minute. Water level and...wringer, hydroextractor or gentle hand squeezing and dry in circulating...in FF 1-70. (e) This washing procedure and labeling...

2013-01-01

478

16 CFR 1631.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of approval of an alternative washing procedure under FF 2-70...the back of the specimen with hand for 1 minute. Water level and...wringer, hydroextractor or gentle hand squeezing and dry in circulating...in FF 2-70. (e) This washing procedure and labeling...

2013-01-01

479

16 CFR 1630.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of approval of an alternative washing procedure under FF 1-70...the back of the specimen with hand for 1 minute. Water level and...wringer, hydroextractor or gentle hand squeezing and dry in circulating...in FF 1-70. (e) This washing procedure and labeling...

2014-01-01

480

16 CFR 1631.62 - Wool flokati carpets and rugs-alternative washing procedure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of approval of an alternative washing procedure under FF 2-70...the back of the specimen with hand for 1 minute. Water level and...wringer, hydroextractor or gentle hand squeezing and dry in circulating...in FF 2-70. (e) This washing procedure and labeling...

2014-01-01

481

The Investigation of Coal Washing Plant Equipment by Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal washing plant equipment, regardless of its type, is frequently broken down in accordance with use and age. Maintenance and repair durations for broken equipment account for a large ratio among the total working period. In this study, the repair data for coal sieves used in a fine coal washing plant has been analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques, including cluster

S. Yerel

2010-01-01

482

Evaluating the Utility of Commercial Videotapes for Teaching Hand Washing to Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the effects of using a commercially available video model to teach three preschoolers with autism to wash their hands. While one child learned 80% of the hand washing steps, 2 of the 3 children did not learn from the commercial model. All were subsequently exposed to a customized video model, which resulted in at least some…

Rosenberg, Nancy E.; Schwartz, Ilene S.; Davis, Carol A.

2010-01-01

483

Increasing solar gains by using hot water to heat dishwashers and washing machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy to ninety percent of the electric energy used by dishwashers and washing machines heats the water, the crockery, the laundry and the machine and could just as well be replaced by heating energy from solar collectors, district heating or a boiler. A dishwasher and a washing machine equipped with a heat exchanger and heated by a hot water circulation

Tomas Persson; Mats Rönnelid

2007-01-01

484

Dishwasher and washing machine heated by a hot water circulation loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric energy (70–90%) used by electrically heated dishwashers and washing machines is used for heating the water, the crockery, the laundry and the machine and could as well be replaced by heat from other sources than electricity. This article evaluates prototypes of a dishwasher and a washing machine, where the machines are heated by a hot water circulation loop and

Tomas Persson

2007-01-01

485

REMOVAL OF TOXIC METALS IN ELECTROPLATING WASH WATER BY A DONNAN DIALYSIS PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A program was conducted to develop anion-exchange membranes to be used in the removal of copper, cadmium, and zinc, as their complex cyanide anions, from cyanide process electroplating wash waters by a Donnan dialysis process. For these laboratory studies, simulated wash waters p...

486

High efficiency flocculation treatment of gas washing wastewater from iron and steel plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical coagulatory coprecipitation method was used in the treatment of blast-furnace gas washing water. The treatment of gas washing wasterwater from iron and steel plant with polymeric aluminum-calcium chloride coagulation and coprecipitation united with PAM, at the same time the optimum quantity of agents and process conditions to treat such wastewater through experiments is established. The optimum quantity of

Liu Meiying; Su Yongbo

2011-01-01

487

Fostering Hand Washing before Lunch by Students Attending a Special Needs Young Adult Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple baseline across groups design was used to investigate the effects of a treatment package on hand washing before lunch by five students with disabilities who attended a young adult educational program. To evaluate hand washing, a lotion called Glo Germ was applied to participants' hands. Glo Germ is visible under a black light, which…

Walmsley, Christopher; Mahoney, Amanda; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

2013-01-01

488

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BESCORP SOIL WASHING SYSTEM ALASKAN BATTERY ENTERPRISES SITE - BRICE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES CORPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The BESCORP Soil Washing System is an aqueous volume reduction system that utilizes trommel agitation, high-pressure washing, sizing, and density separation to remove lead, lead compounds, and battery casing chips from soil contaminated by broken lead batteries. The basic concept...

489

WASH is required for lysosomal recycling and efficient autophagic and phagocytic digestion.  

PubMed

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) is an important regulator of vesicle trafficking. By generating actin on the surface of intracellular vesicles, WASH is able to directly regulate endosomal sorting and maturation. We report that, in Dictyostelium, WASH is also required for the lysosomal digestion of both phagocytic and autophagic cargo. Consequently, Dictyostelium cells lacking WASH are unable to grow on many bacteria or to digest their own cytoplasm to survive starvation. WASH is required for efficient phagosomal proteolysis, and proteomic analysis demonstrates that this is due to reduced delivery of lysosomal hydrolases. Both protease and lipase delivery are disrupted, and lipid catabolism is also perturbed. Starvation-induced autophagy therefore leads to phospholipid accumulation within WASH-null lysosomes. This causes the formation of multilamellar bodies typical of many lysosomal storage diseases. Mechanistically, we show that, in cells lacking WASH, cathepsin D becomes trapped in a late endosomal compartment, unable to be recycled to nascent phagosomes and autophagosomes. WASH is therefore required for the maturation of lysosomes to a stage at which hydrolases can be retrieved and reused. PMID:23885127

King, Jason S; Gueho, Aurélie; Hagedorn, Monica; Gopaldass, Navin; Leuba, Florence; Soldati, Thierry; Insall, Robert H

2013-09-01

490

Flow of Cars Crossing with Unequal Velocities in a Two-Dimensional Cellular Automaton Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation has been performed for traffic flow in two-dimensional cellular automaton models including cars with unequal velocities: the northbound cars with a normal speed and the eastbound cars with a high speed. For the eastbound high speed cars, two models are considered. In the model I, the intrinsic velocity is defined for all eastbound cars. In the model II, the

Minoru Fukui; Hirokazu Oikawa; Yoshihiro Ishibashi

1996-01-01

491

Extraction of car license plate using motor vehicle regulation and character pattern recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of car license plate is important for identifying a car. Since there are some problems such as poor ambient lighting problem, bad weather problem and so on, the car images can be distorted and the car license plate difficult to extract. This paper proposes a method of extracting car license plate using motor vehicle regulation. In this method, some

T. Sirithinaphong; K. Chamnongthai

1998-01-01

492

Efficacy of low-concentration iodophors for germicidal hand washing.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of iodophor germicides containing different concentrations of available iodine against transient (inoculated) bacteria and the natural hand microflora was compared with chlorhexidine gluconate (2 and 4%) liquid detergent (Hibitane), non-germicidal soap and a tap water rinse. The tap water rinse was ineffective compared with all other treatments. Only 4% chlorhexidine gluconate liquid detergent and iodophor containing 0.75% available iodine were significantly better than the non-germicidal soap for reduction of transient bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens, that had been inoculated onto hands. These agents also caused a significant reduction in the number of 'natural' microorganisms released from hands after a standard 15 s hand wash. The low-concentration iodophor products and the product containing 2% chlorhexidine gluconate failed to give results significantly better than the non-germicidal control soap. Baird-Parker medium and standard aerobic plate counts were highly correlated (r = 0.82), so that for studies of Gram-negative bacteria inoculated onto hands as a transient microflora, counts on Baird-Parker medium give a reasonable indication of the natural (residual) hand microflora.

Stiles, M. E.; Sheena, A. Z.

1985-01-01

493

Washing of Rocky Flats Combustible Residues (Conducted March - May 1995)  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this project is to determine the feasibility of washing plutonium-containing combustible residues using ultrasonic disruption as a method for dislodging particulate. Removal of plutonium particulate and, to a lesser extent, solubilized plutonium from the organic substrate should substantially reduce potential fire, explosion or radioactive release hazards due to radiolytic hydrogen generation or high flammability. Tests were conducted on polypropylene filters which were used as pre-filters in the rich-residue ion-exchange process at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. These filters are similar to the Ful-Flo{reg_sign} cartridges used at Rocky Flats that make up a substantial fraction of the combustible residues with the highest hazard rating. Batch experiments were run on crushed filter material in order to determine the amount of Pu removed by stirring, stirring and sonication, and stirring and sonication with the introduction of Pu-chelating water-soluble polymers or surfactants. Significantly more Pu is removed using sonication and sonication with chelators than is removed with mechanical stirring alone.

Mary E. Barr; Ann R. Schake; David A. Romero; Gordon D. Jarvinen

1999-03-01

494

Chelant soil-washing technology for metal-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

We demonstrate here, in a pilot-scale experiment, the feasibility of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)based washing technology for soils contaminated with potentially toxic metals. Acid precipitation coupled to initial alkaline toxic metal removal and an electrochemical advanced oxidation process were used for average recovery of 76 +/- 2% of EDTA per batch and total recycle of water in a closed process loop. No waste water was generated; solid wastes were efficiently bitumen-stabilized before disposal. The technology embodiment, using conventional process equipment, such as a mixer for soil extraction, screen for soil/gravel separation, filter chamber presses for soil/liquid and recycled EDTA separation and soil rinsing, continuous centrifuge separator for removal of precipitated metals and electrolytic cells for process water cleansing, removed up to 72%, 25% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd from garden soil contaminated with up to 6960, 3797 and 32.6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, in nine 60kg soil batches. Concentrations of Pb and Zn remaining in the remediated soil and bioaccessible from the simulated human intestinal phase soil were reduced by 97% and 96% and were brought under the level of determination for Cd. In the most cost-effective operation mode, the material and energy costs of remediation amounted to 50.5 Euros ton(-1) soil and the total cost to 299 Euros ton(-1). PMID:24701937

Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

2014-01-01

495

Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes.  

PubMed

2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car(-/-)) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car(-/-) livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. PMID:21672546

Smetanina, Mariya A; Pakharukova, Mariya Y; Kurinna, Svitlana M; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P; Moore, David D; Merkulova, Tatyana I

2011-08-15

496

Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

Hall, J. B., Jr.

1973-01-01

497

Sensitivity of detection of asbestos bodies in sputa and bronchial washings  

SciTech Connect

While asbestos bodies (ABs) in sputum and/or bronchial washings are highly specific markers for significant asbestos exposure, comparison of the sensitivity between sputum cytology and bronchial washing cytology for the detection of ABs had not been documented. Review of the files of the Cytopathology Laboratory, Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, for the period 1973 to 1984 identified 11 patients with slides available for review who (1) had been examined by both sputum cytology and bronchial washing cytology and (2) had at least one specimen positive for ABs. Of the 11 evaluable cases, all had ABs in the bronchial washings but ony 6 had ABs in the sputum. In addition, iron stain (e.g., the Prussian blue stain) was found to be more sensitive than the Papanicolaou stain for the detection of ABs in these cases. These findings indicate that iron-stained bronchial washing specimens should be preferred for the cytologic detection of asbestos exposure.

Wheeler, T.M.; Johnson, E.H.; Coughlin, D.; Greenberg, S.D.

1988-09-01

498

The role of driver sleepiness in car crashes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

To assess the available evidence for a causal role of driver sleepiness in car crashes or car crash injury, and to quantify the effect, a systematic review of the international literature was conducted. The review included all studies with a fatigue-related exposure measure, a crash or crash injury outcome measure and a comparison group, regardless of publication status, language or date of the study. Eighteen cross-sectional studies and one case-control study fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The fatigue-related exposures investigated in these studies were sleep disorders (n = 14), shift work (n = 2), sleep deprivation/fragmentation (n = 1), and excessive daytime sleepiness (n = 2). Only one study used an injury outcome measure. Studies were limited in their ability to establish a causal relationship by their design, by biases, and in many cases, by small sample sizes. The better quality cross-sectional studies were suggestive of a positive relationship between fatigue and crash risk, but could not provide reliable estimates of the strength of the association. The case-control study provided moderately strong evidence for an association between sleep apnoea and risk of driver injury, with an adjusted odds ratio of 7.2 (95% confidence interval 2.4-21.8). We conclude that the direct epidemiological evidence for a causal role of fatigue in car crashes is weak, but suggestive of an effect. To estimate the burden of injury due to fatigue-related crashes in the population, information is required from well-designed observational epidemiological studies about the prevalence of fatigue in the car driving population and the size of the risk this confers. PMID:11189120

Connor, J; Whitlock, G; Norton, R; Jackson, R

2001-01-01

499

Effect of egg washing on the cuticle quality of brown and white table eggs.  

PubMed

Egg washing is currently not permitted within the European Union, with few exceptions. This is mainly because there are concerns that cuticle damage could occur during or after the washing process, as a result of a suboptimal operation. In this study, the cuticle coverage levels of 400 washed or unwashed eggs, derived from either a brown or a white egg-laying flock at the end of lay, were compared. The eggs from older hens inherently have poorer cuticle coverage and as a result arguably constitute a greater risk to consumer safety if they are then washed. Thus, the effects of the washing procedure used in this study on cuticle quality were tested under the worst-case scenario. A standard Swedish egg washing process was used. The cuticle coverage of the eggs was assessed by a colorimeter by quantifying the color difference before and after staining with Tartrazine and Green S. The cuticle of an additional 30 eggs from each of the four groups was then visually assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The staining characteristics of the cuticle varied greatly within each group of eggs and showed that the washing process did not lead to cuticle damage. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that there was no irreversible damage to the cuticle of the washed eggs and that it was not possible to correctly assign the treatment (washed or not) based on a visual assessment. In conclusion, no evidence could be found to suggest that the washing procedure used in this investigation irreversibly changed the quality of the cuticle. PMID:22004811

Leleu, S; Messens, W; De Reu, K; De Preter, S; Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; De Baerdemaeker, J; Michiels, C W; Bain, M

2011-10-01

500

Electrothermal ring burn from a car battery.  

PubMed

Despite prevention efforts, burn injuries among auto mechanics are described in the literature. Electrothermal ring burns from car batteries occur by short-circuiting through the ring when it touches the open terminal or metal housing. This article describes a 34-year-old male auto mechanic who was holding a wrench when his gold ring touched the positive terminal of a 12-volt car battery and the wrench touched both his ring and the negative terminal. He felt instant pain and had a deep partial-thickness circumferential burn at the base of his ring finger. No other soft tissues were injured. He was initially managed conservatively, but after minimal healing at 3 weeks, he underwent a full-thickness skin graft. The graft incorporated well and healed by 4 weeks postoperatively. He had full range of motion. The cause of ring burns has been controversial, but based on reports similar to the current patient's mechanism, they are most likely electrothermal burns. Gold, a metal with high thermal conductivity, can heat up to its melting point in a matter of seconds. Many treatments have been described, including local wound care to split- and full-thickness skin grafts. Because most burns are preventable, staff should be warned and trained about the potential risks of contact burns. All jewelry should be removed, and the live battery terminal should be covered while working in the vicinity of the battery. PMID:23937760

Sibley, Paul A; Godwin, Kenneth A

2013-08-01