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Sample records for carayaca estado vargas

  1. Canonizing Latin American Literature: Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Mario Vargas Llosa Enter the English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellini, Alva V.

    As Latin American literature progressively enters into the English curriculum, two writers deserve special commentary for their representative contribution to the literary world. Through their works, the Columbian author, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and the Peruvian author, Mario Vargas Llosa clearly convey the Latin American writer's desire to be…

  2. [Last instar larva, pupa and a new distribution record of Periploca otrebla Vargas (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae)].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2007-01-01

    A description and figures of the last instar larva and pupa of Periploca otrebla Vargas are presented, based on specimens collected on Acacia macracantha (Fabaceae) in the type locality, Azapa valley, Arica Province, northern Chile. The Chaca valley, Arica Province, northern Chile, is mentioned as a new locality for the geographic distribution of P. otrebla, previously known only from the type locality. PMID:18246263

  3. Effective Teaching, Effective Living: A Review of Behavior Analysis for Effective Teaching by Julie S. Vargas

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Jennifer L; Soeda, Jennifer M

    2009-01-01

    Elevated academic standards and expectations, along with competing contingencies outside the classroom, have given the teaching profession new and demanding challenges with which to contend. Although previous textbooks have addressed behavior analytic techniques specifically directed for the classroom environment, few have done so with comprehensive overviews of both instructional and basic behavioral strategies from a teacher's perspective. This review describes Julie Vargas' book in terms of its contribution to the educational field, as well as its impressive style for reaching its target audience.

  4. The path to modernity: a personal testimony to the restructuring of the Department of Dermatology, Vargas Hospital, Caracas, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Kerdel-Vegas, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In the late 1950s and early1960s, there was a concerted effort to modernize teaching, training, and patient care in the Vargas Hospital of Caracas, Venezuela. The above included the development of research in the frame of postgraduate training. This effort was to be helped by USA funds and institutions but could only be achieved by the work of Venezuelans, sharing a vision of progress. Dermatology spearheaded this initiative, and the fruit of this was the exponential development of Venezuelan Dermatology and the creation of the National Institute of Dermatology on the grounds of the Vargas Hospital. The purpose of this contribution is to review these events that happened more than half a century ago from my own perspective. I sincerely hope that these lines could serve as an inspiration to the younger generations that toil today under less-than-favorable conditions. PMID:24559570

  5. José María Vargas (1786-1854): Reformer of anatomical studies in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Reverón, Rafael Romero

    2014-03-01

    José María Vargas (1786-1854): Venezuelan medical doctor, surgeon, optician, anatomist, chemist, botanist, professor, geologist, mineralogist, and mathematician. Second President of Venezuela (1835-1836), First republican dean, he reformed medicine studies in 1827 establishing human anatomical dissection in the Universidad Central de Venezuela where he taught human anatomy between 1827 and 1853 along with surgery and chemistry. In 1838, he wrote Curso de Lecciones y demostraciones Anatómicas, the first book on the subject printed in Venezuela for the teaching of human anatomy. PMID:23650143

  6. [Milk and modernity: ideology and nutrition policies during the Vargas era].

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Sören

    2014-01-01

    In the 1930s the new science of nutrition was disseminated in Brazil, which also introduced the conviction that cow's milk was the most important of staple foods. Despite the campaign promoted by the Ministério de Educação e Saúde Pública (Ministry of Education and Public Health) in the mid-1930s, the consumption of milk in Rio de Janeiro remained far short of the recommendations of experts due to the poor quality of the product and its high price. This paper analyzes the efforts of the Estado Novo to improve the milk supply system of the Brazilian capital as well as to mitigate the causes and effects of its ultimate failure. PMID:24554137

  7. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    SciTech Connect

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-11-15

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000.

  8. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus evolution in the context of contemporary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2013-11-01

    Recent resurgence of interest in applications of dense plasma focus and doubts about the conventional view of dense plasma focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow have re-opened questions concerning device optimization. In this context, this paper re-appraises and extends the analytical snowplow model of plasma focus sheath evolution developed by F. Gratton and J. M. Vargas [Energy Storage, Compression and Switching, edited by V. Nardi, H. Sahlin, and W. H. Bostick (Plenum, New York, 1983), Vol. 2, p. 353)] and shows its relevance to contemporary research. The Gratton-Vargas (GV) model enables construction of a special orthogonal coordinate system in which the plasma flow problem can be simplified and a model of sheath structure can be formulated. The Lawrenceville Plasma Physics (LPP) plasma focus facility, which reports neutron yield better than global scaling law, is shown to be operating closer to an optimum operating point of the GV model as compared with PF-1000.

  9. Re-appraisal and extension of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus. II. Looking at the singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2015-11-01

    The Gratton-Vargas snowplow model, recently revisited and expanded [S. K. H. Auluck, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112501 (2013)], has given rise to significant new insights into some aspects of the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF), in spite of being a purely kinematic description having no reference to plasma phenomena. It is able to provide a good fit to the experimental current waveforms in at least 4 large facilities. It has been used for construction of a local curvilinear frame of reference, in which conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy can be reduced to effectively-one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations. Its utility in global parameter optimization of device parameters has been demonstrated. These features suggest that the Gratton-Vargas model deserves a closer look at its supposed limitations near the singular phase of the DPF. This paper presents a discussion of its development near the device axis, based on the original work of Gratton and Vargas, with some differences. It is shown that the Gratton-Vargas partial differential equation has solutions for times after the current singularity, which exhibit an expanding bounded volume (which can serve as model of an expanding plasma column) and decreasing dynamic inductance of the discharge, in spite of having no built-in hydrodynamics. This enables the model to qualitatively reproduce the characteristic shape of the current derivative in DPF experiments without reference to any plasma phenomena, such as instabilities, anomalous resistance, or reflection of hydrodynamic shock wave from the axis. The axial propagation of the solution exhibits a power-law dependence on the dimensionless time starting from the time of singularity, which is similar to the power-law relations predicted by theory of point explosions in ideal gases and which has also been observed experimentally.

  10. [The Vargas Dictatorship in Brazil (1937-1945) and the Primer Franquismo in Spain (1939-1945): power and counter-power of nurses].

    PubMed

    Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Gomes, Maria da Luz Barbosa; Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa de; Almeida Filho, Antonio José de

    2012-01-01

    This is a historical and social study, which aimed to describe the main characteristics of the Vargas and Franco dictatorships, and to analyze the implications of these to the institutionalization of nursing in Brazil and Spain. As fonts, it was used written documents located in the historical Brazilian and Spanish archives, in addition to the literature on the subject. Data analysis, supported by concepts of Pierre Bourdieu's World Social Theory, showed that, in Brazil and Spain, in referring to the social division of labor, the meeting point between Church and the State was the seclusion of women in private space. It is concluded that the feminine qualities were capitalized by the nurses to legitimize their actions in public space, even to reproduce in that space, consented to by the State and Church, occupations appropriate to femininity. PMID:22911420

  11. Macaria mirthae Vargas et al (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): Confirmation of the Use of an Invasive Host Plant in the Northern Atacama Desert of Chile Based on DNA Barcodes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Cabello, D; Huanca-Mamani, W; Vargas, H A

    2015-08-01

    Macaria mirthae Vargas et al (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a geometrid moth native to the northern Atacama Desert of Chile. Its oligophagous larvae are associated with native hosts of the plant family Fabaceae, the most important of which is Acacia macracantha. The invasive tree Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae) was recently recorded as a host plant for M. mirthae based on morphology. The taxonomic status of larvae collected on A. macracantha and L. leucocephala was assessed using sequences of the DNA barcode fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Genetic divergence between samples from the host plants was found to be 0%-0.8% (Kimura 2-parameter model). Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analyses were also performed, including additional barcode sequences of Neotropical geometrid moths from GenBank and BOLD databases. Sequences of the larvae from both host plants clustered in a single clade with high statistical support in both analyses. Based on these results, it is concluded that M. mirthae has effectively expanded its host range and its larvae are currently feeding on the exotic tree L. leucocephala. Additionally, the importance of this new host association in a highly disturbed habitat is briefly discussed in terms of the field biology of this native geometrid moth. PMID:26174961

  12. Global parameter optimization of a Mather-type plasma focus in the framework of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional snowplow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) is known to produce highly energetic ions, electrons and plasma environment which can be used for breeding short-lived isotopes, plasma nanotechnology and other material processing applications. Commercial utilization of DPF in such areas would need a design tool that can be deployed in an automatic search for the best possible device configuration for a given application. The recently revisited (Auluck 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 112501) Gratton-Vargas (GV) two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus provides a numerical formula for dynamic inductance of a Mather-type plasma focus fitted to thousands of automated computations, which enables the construction of such a design tool. This inductance formula is utilized in the present work to explore global optimization, based on first-principles optimality criteria, in a four-dimensional parameter-subspace of the zero-resistance GV model. The optimization process is shown to reproduce the empirically observed constancy of the drive parameter over eight decades in capacitor bank energy. The optimized geometry of plasma focus normalized to the anode radius is shown to be independent of voltage, while the optimized anode radius is shown to be related to capacitor bank inductance.

  13. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  14. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  15. Radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Sharp, William N.; Rodriguez, Carlos Ponte

    1953-01-01

    This report summarizes the data available on radioactive source materials in Los Estados Unidos de Venezuela accumulated by geologists of the Direccions Tecnica de Geolgia and antecedent agencies prior to June 1951, and the writers from June to November 1951. The investigation comprised preliminary study, field examination, office studies, and the preparation of this report, in which the areas and localities examined are described in detail, the uranium potentialities of Venezuela are summarized, and recommendations are made. Preliminary study was made to select areas and rock types that were known or reported to be radioactive or that geologic experience suggests would be favorable host for uranium deposits, In the office, a study of gamma-ray well logs was started as one means of amassing general radiometric data and of rapidly scanning many of ye rocks in northern Venezuela; gamma-ray logs from about 140 representative wells were examined and their peaks of gamma intensity evaluated; in addition samples were analyzed radiometrically, and petrographically. Radiometic reconnaissance was made in the field during about 3 months of 1951, or about 12 areas, including over 100 localities in the State of Miranda, Carabobo, Yaracuy, Falcon, Lara, Trujillo, Zulia, Merida, Tachira, Bolivar, and Territory Delta Amacuro. During the course of the investigation, both in the filed and office, information was given about geology of uranium deposits, and in techniques used in prospecting and analysis. All studies and this report are designed to supplement and to strengthen the Direccion Tecnica de Geologias's program of investigation of radioactive source in Venezuela now in progress. The uranium potentialities of Los Estados de Venezuela are excellent for large, low-grade deposits of uraniferous phospahtic shales containing from 0.002 to 0.027 percent uranium; fair, for small or moderate-sized, low-grade placer deposits of thorium, rare-earth, and uranium minerals; poor, for high-grade hydrothermal pitchblende deposits; and highly possible for small, medium- to high-grade despots of carnotite-or copper-uranium bearing sandstone. Recommendations for the Venezuelan uranium program include 1) the systematic collection of a mass general radiometric data by examining sample collections, expanding the gamma-ray program, encouraging the use of Geiger counter by field geologists, and by enlisting the aid of the general public; 2) , the examination of specific areas or localities, chosen on the basis of geologic favorability from the results of the amassing of data, or obtained by hints and rumors; 3), the organization of a unit within the Direccion Tecnica de Geologica to direct, collection, and collate metric data. It is emphasized that to be most fruitful the program requires the application of sounds and imaginative geologic theory.

  16. H3+: superficies de energía potencial, estados y transiciones rovibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, M. Paniagua Y. A.

    Hemos calculado varias superficies globales de energía potencial para el estado fundamental y excitados del sistema H3+ en más de ocho mil geometrías diferentes usando una base (9s 3p 1d)/[4s 3p 1d] en cada átomo de Hidrógeno y mediante un método de cálculo de interacción de configuraciones completa (FCI). Hemos ajustado las superficies a formas analíticas del tipo Aguado y Paniagua con un error promedio menor de 50 cm-1 y menor en el pozo de potencial del estado fundamental. Finalmente hemos calculado y analizado los niveles vibracionales para los dos estados electrónicos más bajos, siendo la desviación respecto de los mejores valores publicados, tanto experimentales como teóricos, de unos pocos números de onda.

  17. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975 a 2012, es una actualización de los índices de casos nuevos, muertes y tendencias de los cánceres más comunes en los Estados Unidos.

  18. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXIÓN

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vayá, Maria; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El análisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magnética funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realización de una tarea, la percepción de un estímulo o en estado de reposo. Estos análisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matemáticos, estadísticos, físicos) para seleccionar los vóxeles activados. El estudio de la señal de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a través del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intrínseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad científica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuirán mediante este análisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtención de diagnósticos y tratamientos más precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  19. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  20. Developing Flexible Dual Master's Degree Programs at UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas-Janeiro, Maria G.; de la Parra, Pablo Nuno

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, UPAEP (Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla) and OSU (Oklahoma State University) signed a MOU (memorandum of understanding) to develop more than 20 dual master's degree programs. This special partnership has allowed students from Mexico and the United States to study two master degree programs, in two languages, in two…

  1. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  2. [Men of the sugarcane fields and their hospitals: the architecture of health under the Estado Novo].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marcia Rocha

    2011-12-01

    The article explores the emergence of an architectural heritage in the realm of healthcare assistance for workers in the sugarcane agroindustry in Brazil following enactment of the law known as the Estatuto da Lavoura Canavieira (1941), under the auspices of the Instituto do Açúcar e do Álcool and as part of Estado Novo policies (1937-1945). The institute proposed solutions based on surveys conducted at sugarcane mills in cane-producing states and on the medical and hospital system adopted by the institute's enlightened bureaucracy in the 1940s, which took the U.S. system as its model. Special focus is given to the central hospitals in Pernambuco and especially in Alagoas, which opposed institute guidelines. PMID:22240948

  3. Susceptibility mapping in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Aceves Quesada, F.

    2013-12-01

    In volcanic terrains, dormant stratovolcanoes are very common and can trigger landslides and debris flows continually along stream systems, thereby affecting human settlements and economic activities. It is important to assess their potential impact and damage through the use of landslide inventory maps and landslide models. This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory and produce a landslide susceptibility map by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 5° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The method encompasses two main levels of analysis to assess landslide susceptibility. The first level builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 100 landslides was mapped from interpretation of multi-temporal aerial orthophotographs and local field surveys to assess and describe landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a GIS, and the spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. The second level calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR) was used to examine the relationship between landsliding and several independent variables (elevation, slope, terrain curvature, flow direction, saturation, contributing area, land use, and geology) to create the susceptibility map. Finally, the model was compared with the reality expressed by the inventory map. The technique and its implementation of each level in a GIS-based technology is presented and discussed.

  4. El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, 1975-2012

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975-2012) indica que continuó la baja de tasas de mortalidad de todos los cánceres juntos, así como de la mayoría de los cánceres en hombres y mujeres de todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales.

  5. Late Quaternary glaciation history of Isla de los Estados, southeasternmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Per; Hjort, Christian; Björck, Svante; Rabassa, Jorge; Ponce, Juan Federico

    2010-05-01

    Isla de los Estados is a mountainous island southeast of Tierra del Fuego, in southernmost South America. Its central and eastern parts have an alpine topography, transected by U-shaped valleys, small, partly over-deepened fjords, and a multitude of abandoned cirques, all associated with extensive former local glaciations. Traces of glacial erosion generally reach 400-450 m a.s.l., and above that trimline a distinct sharp-edged nunatak derived landscape is present. The westernmost part of the island has a lower, more subdued topography, reflecting its "softer" geology but possibly also over-running and erosion by mainland-derived ice streams. The present study concentrated on glacigenic sediment sequences exposed along coastal erosional cliffs. A combination of OSL and 14C datings show that these sediments mostly date from the latest (Wisconsinan/Weichselian) glacial cycle, i.e. from the last ca. 100 ka with the oldest (glaciolacustrine) deposits possibly as old as 90-80 ka. The upper parts of overlying tills, with associated lateral and terminal moraines from glaciers that expanded onto an eustatically exposed dry shelf north of the island, date from the last global glacial maximum (LGM). Radiocarbon ages of peat and lake sediments indicate that deglaciation began 17-16 cal ka BP.

  6. Nuevos escenarios de la migración México-Estados Unidos. Las consecuencias de la guerra antiinmigrante

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, Douglas S.; PREN, Karen A.; DURAND, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    La historia de la migración México-Estados Unidos se caracteriza por una serie de periodos durante los cuales los patrones migratorios se transforman y evolucionan como respuesta a los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos. En la década de 1990 se dio uno de estos cambios, lo que provocó el paso de la ‘era de la contradicción’ a la ‘era de la marginalización’. Actualmente, un gran número de migrantes indocumentados permanecen al margen de la ley, precisamente en un periodo en el que las penas se han incrementado y la persecución ha alcanzado niveles récord. De manera cada vez más notoria, los migrantes indocumentados, por la represión interna y fronteriza, quedan obligados a romper los lazos que los vinculaban con sus lugares de destino, pero al mismo tiempo se sienten cada vez más extraños en una tierra donde la aplicación de políticas antiinmigrantes es cosa de todos los días, lo que los sitúa en una posición de marginalización y gran vulnerabilidad. PMID:21209790

  7. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed…

  8. Petrogenesis of fertile mantle peridotites from the Monte del Estado massif (southwest Puerto Rico): a preserved section of Proto-Caribbean oceanic lithospheric mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Jolly, Wayne T.; Lewis, John F.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín. A.; Lidiak, Edward G.

    2010-05-01

    The Monte del Estado massif is the largest and northernmost serpentinized peridotite belt in southwest Puerto Rico. It is mainly composed of spinel lherzolite and minor harzburgite with variable clinopyroxene modal abundances. Mineral and whole rock major and trace element compositions of peridotites coincide with those of fertile abyssal peridotites from mid ocean ridges. Peridotites lost 2-14 wt% of relative MgO and variable amounts of CaO by serpentinization and seafloor weathering. HREE contents in whole rock indicate that the Monte del Estado peridotites are residues after low to moderate degrees (2-15%) of fractional partial melting in the spinel stability field. However, very low LREE/HREE and MREE/HREE in clinopyroxene cannot be explained by melting models of a spinel lherzolite source and support that the Monte del Estado peridotites experienced initial low fractional melting degrees (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field. The relative enrichment of LREE in whole rock is not due to secondary processes but probably reflects the capture of percolating melt fractions along grain boundaries or as microinclusions in minerals, or the presence of exotic micro-phases in the mineral assemblage. We propose that the Monte del Estado peridotite belt represents a section of ancient Proto-Caribbean (Atlantic) lithospheric mantle originated by seafloor spreading between North and South America in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This portion of oceanic lithospheric mantle was subsequently trapped in the forearc region of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc generated by the northward subduction of the Caribbean plate beneath the Proto-Caribbean ocean. Finally, the Monte del Estado peridotites belt was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous probably as result of the change in subduction polarity of the Greater Antilles paleo-island arc without having been significantly modified by subduction processes.

  9. Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer con una sección especial sobre la prevalencia d

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  10. Geospatial tools for the identification of a malaria corridor in Estado Sucre, a Venezuelan north-eastern state.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor Hugo; Martinez, Néstor; Córdova, Karenia; Ramos, Santiago

    2011-05-01

    Landscape ecology research relies on frameworks based on geographical information systems (GIS), geostatistics and spatial-feature relationships. With regard to health, the approach consists of systems analysis using a set of powerful tools aimed at the reduction of community vulnerability through improved public policies. The north-oriental malaria focus, one of five such foci in Venezuela, situated in the north-eastern part of the Estado Sucre state, unites several social and environmental features and functions as an epidemiological corridor, i.e. an endemic zone characterised by permanent interaction between the mosquito vector and the human host allowing a continuous persistence of the malaria lifecycle. A GIS was developed based on official cartography with thematic overlays depicting malaria distribution, socio-economic conditions, basic environmental information and specific features associated with the natural wetlands present in the area. Generally, malaria foci are continuously active but when the malaria situation was modelled in the north-oriental focus, a differential, spatio-temporal distribution pattern situation was found, i.e. a situation oscillating between very active and dormant transmission. This pattern was displayed by spatial and statistical analysis based on the model generated in this study and the results were confirmed by municipal and county malaria records. Control of malaria, keeping the incidence at a permanently low level within the regional population, should be possible if these results are taken into account when designing and implementing epidemiological surveillance policies. PMID:21590666

  11. Global Vulnerability Assessment in Santa María Tixmadeje, Estado de México, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monroy Salazar, S.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Santa María Tixmadejé (SMT), Estado de México, Mexico is a town located very close to the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault. This fault is located in the middle of the Trans Volcanic Belt in the center of the Mexican territory and generated a large seismic event in 1912 with magnitude 6.9 which combined with the local vulnerability, caused a disaster. In this work we measure the different vulnerabilities of the SMT community: structural, economical, social and educational. In addition, we determinate the total vulnerability, by summing all estimated vulnerabilities, for the critical facilities identified in this town. Vulnerability was determined using the methodology proposed by National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and by Disaster Prevention National Center (CENAPRED). Besides, we considered a minimum sample statistically significant of the total houses with a random sampling for our survey. Our results indicate that 50% of the critical facilities have high and very high and the other 50% between low and moderate level of total vulnerability. The results for independent vulnerabilities are as follows: (1) Near to 75% of the community has high and very high level of social vulnerability and the range for the another 25% is between low and moderate; (2) About 43% of the community has high and very high economical vulnerability and 57% low and moderate; (3) Approximately 38% of the population has high and very high educational vulnerability. The 62% present low and moderate vulnerability; and (4) About 42% of the community has very high structural vulnerability and 58% between low and moderate.

  12. Assessing landslide susceptibility, hazards and sediment yield in the Río El Estado watershed, Pico de Orizaba volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Lugo Hubp, J.; Aceves Quesada, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    This work provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT # 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, analyze the distribution of landslides, and characterize landforms that are prone to slope instability by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study area is the Río El Estado watershed that covers 5.2 km2 and lies on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano.The watershed was studied by using aerial photographs, fieldwork, and adaptation of the Landslide Hazard Zonation Protocol of the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, USA. 107 gravitational slope failures of six types were recognized: shallow landslides, debris-avalanches, deep-seated landslides, debris flows, earthflows, and rock falls. This analysis divided the watershed into 12 mass-wasting landforms on which gravitational processes occur: inner gorges, headwalls, active scarps of deep-seated landslides, meanders, plains, rockfalls, non-rule-identified inner gorges, non-rule-identified headwalls, non-rule-identified converging hillslopes and three types of hillslopes classified by their gradient: low, moderate, and high. For each landform the landslide area rate and the landslide frequency rate were calculated as well as the overall hazard rating. The slope-stability hazard rating has a range that goes from low to very high. The overall hazard rating for this watershed was very high. The shallow slide type landslide was selected and area and volume of individual landslides were retrieved from the watershed landslide inventory geo-database, to establish an empirical relationship between area and volume that takes the form of a power law. The relationship was used to estimate the total volume of landslides in the study area. The findings are important to understand the long-term evolution of the southwestern flank stream system of Pico de Orizaba, and may prove useful in the assessment of landslide susceptibility and hazard in volcanic terrains.

  13. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  14. Las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado para la materia extraña

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugones, G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Se estudian las propiedades generales de las estrellas constituídas por materia extraña (ME) en el marco de una nueva ecuación de estado (EOS) en la que consideramos la masa de los quarks como dependiente del número medio de bariones por unidad de volumen. Se asume esta dependencia de forma que los quarks sean livianos (pesados) a densidades altas (bajas). En esta aproximación, la EOS de la ME es similar a la predicha por el modelo de la Bolsa del MIT, pero es significativamente mas dura a bajas densidades. Esta propiedad modifica las propiedades de las estrellas extrañas en forma notable. Encontramos que, con esta nueva EOS, los objetos pueden ser más masivos que en el caso de la EOS de la bolsa del MIT y que, además, pueden presentar mayores redshifts gravitatorios en hasta un 10%. En el caso de las oscilaciones radiales de estos objetos, calculamos la relación período vs. redshift gravitacional y encontramos una expresión analítica simple para el caso de las oscilaciones de objetos de baja masa. Encontramos que, aún con hipótesis muy diferentes en cuanto a la ecuación de estado de la materia extraña, las propiedades generales de estos objetos no se ve afectada en forma fundamental, y, por lo tanto, no deberían ser muy diferentes de las aquí expuestas.

  15. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  16. Description of the population structure and genetic diversity of tuberculosis in Estado de México, a low prevalence setting from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; Mendoza-Damián, Fabiola; Muñoz, Irving Cansino; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Pérez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Ramírez-Hernández, Ma Dolores; Vázquez-Medina, Karen; Widrobo-García, Lorena; Lauzardo, Michael; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio

    2015-02-01

    In order to identify the genetic characteristics of the strains of mycobacteria circulating in the Estado de México, one of the states with the lowest prevalence of tuberculosis in Mexico, spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR typing were used to genotype tuberculosis clinical isolates. The average age of the 183 patients analyzed was 50 (± 17) years, drug resistance was noted in 57 (31%) and multidrug resistance in 22 (12%) individuals. The results from the isolates recovered showed that 80% were located in four major Euro-American lineages: Haarlem (17%), LAM (15%), T (20%) and X (29%). Other lineages found in lower proportions were: EAI, S, Beijing, West African, Turkey, Vole and Bovis. Eighteen isolates were orphans. Only 57 isolates were grouped in nine clusters and the SIT119 (X1) showed the highest number of members (23). The LAM lineage showed an increased risk for development of drug resistance (RR=4, IC: 95%: 1.05-14.2, p = 0.03). Despite the important prevalence of four major lineages found and the diversity of strains circulating in the population, we found the presence of one of the largest populations of isolates clustered to the X lineage in a setting from a Latin American country. PMID:25257651

  17. Analysis of the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation variability and malaria in the Estado Sucre, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Petrocelli, Laura; Córdova, Karenia; Camardiel, Alberto; Aguilar, Víctor H; Hernández, Denise; Ramos, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The last decade has seen an unprecedented, worldwide acceleration of environmental and climate changes. These processes impact the dynamics of natural systems, which include components associated with human communities such as vector-borne diseases. The dynamics of environmental and climate variables, altered by global change as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, affect the distribution of many tropical diseases. Complex systems, e.g. the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), in which environmental variables operate synergistically, can provoke the reemergence and emergence of vector-borne diseases at new sites. This research investigated the influence of ENSO events on malaria incidence by determining the relationship between climate variations, expressed as warm, cold and neutral phases, and their relation to the number of malaria cases in some north-eastern municipalities of Venezuela (Estado Sucre) during the period 1990-2000. Significant differences in malaria incidence were found, particularly in the La Niña ENSO phases (cold) of moderate intensity. These findings should be taken into account for surveillance and control in the future as they shed light on important indicators that can lead to reduced vulnerability to malaria. PMID:23032283

  18. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  19. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called “La Compañía (CC)” in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five years. About 83% of families have a high level of economic vulnerability. Regarding the structural vulnerability, approximately 25% of the structures have high, and 39% moderate vulnerability. These results indicate that the community has a low standard for living and the resilience is very low. Considering an overall vulnerability estimated by summing the results of the four types of analyzed vulnerabilities, we found that 53% of the sampled population has moderate vulnerability, 34% low, about 2% very low, 10% high and less than 1% very high.

  20. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXII. Genus Downsiomyia Vargas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the genus Downsiomyia was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. Downsiomyia is divided into two groups. The type species of the genus, Do. nivea (Ludlow), is ill...

  1. An overview of a GIS method for mapping landslides and assessing landslide hazards at Río El Estado watershed, on the SW flank of Pico de Orizaba Volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legorreta Paulin, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Contreras, T.; Polenz, M.; Ramírez Herrera, M.; Paredes Mejía, L.; Arana Salinas, L.

    2012-12-01

    This poster provides an overview of the on-going research project (Grant SEP-CONACYT no 167495) from the Institute of Geography at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) that seeks to conduct a multi-temporal landslide inventory, produce a landslide susceptibility map, and estimate sediment production by using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico, is selected as a study area. The catchment covers 5.2 km2 with elevations ranging from 2676.79 to 4248.2 m a.s.l. and hillslopes between 0° and 56°. The stream system of Río El Estado catchment erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits. The geologic and geomorphologic factors in combination with high seasonal precipitation, high degree of weathering, and steep slopes predispose the study area to landslides. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis to assess landslide hazards: Stage 1 builds a historic landslide inventory. In the study area, an inventory of more than 170 landslides is created from multi-temporal aerial-photo-interpretation and local field surveys to assess landslide distribution. All landslides were digitized into a geographic information system (GIS), and a spatial geo-database of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. Stage 2 Calculates the susceptibility for the watershed. During this stage, Multiple Logistic Regression and SINMAP) will be evaluated to select the one that provides scientific accuracy, technical accessibility, and applicability. Stage 3 Estimate the potential total material delivered to the main stream drainage channel by all landslides in the catchment. Detailed geometric measurements of individual landslides visited during the field work will be carried out to obtain the landslide area and volume. These measurements revealed an empirical relationship between area and volume that took the form of a power law. This relationship will be used to estimate the potential volume of material delivered to the catchment. The technique and its implementation of each stage in a GIS-based technology is presented and discussed.

  2. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  3. Medicina integrativa en América: De qué forma se está practicando la medicina integrativa en los centros clínicos en los Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Horrigan, Bonnie; Lewis, Sheldon; Abrams, Donald I.; Pechura, Constance

    2012-01-01

    RESUMEN EJECUTIVO El impulso para desarrollar e implementar estrategias de medicina integrativa está enraizado en el deseo de mejorar la atención al paciente. The Bravewell Collaborative, una organización sin ánimo de lucro dedicada a la mejora de la atención sanitaria, define la medicina integrativa como “un enfoque de la medicina que coloca al paciente en el centro y se dirige al conjunto completo de influencias físicas, emocionales, mentales, sociales, espirituales y ambientales que afectan a la salud de la persona. Con una estrategia personalizada que considera las condiciones, necesidades y circunstancias únicas del paciente, utiliza las intervenciones más apropiadas de una variedad de disciplinas científicas para curar la afección y la enfermedad y ayudar a las personas a recobrar y mantener una salud óptima”. En las pasadas dos décadas, se ha documentado un número creciente de centros clínicos que proporcionan medicina integrativa, el número de facultades y escuelas médicas que enseñan estrategias integrativas, el número de investigadores que estudian intervenciones integrativas, y el número de pacientes que solicitan cuidados integrativos. Pero se desconocía si la medicina integrativa se estaba ofreciendo de manera igual, similar, o dispar. Además, mientras que los estudios anteriores se centraban en la prevalencia y el uso de la medicina complementaria o alternativa (MCA) por parte de los pacientes1,2 o de los médicos en hospitales3, enumerando la utilización de terapias MCA individuales, se había recogido muy poca información con respecto a la práctica real de la medicina integrativa que, por definición, trata a la persona en su conjunto. En 2011, The Bravewell Collaborative encargó una encuesta para determinar la forma en que la medicina integrativa se estaba practicando en los Estados Unidos: (1) describiendo las poblaciones de pacientes y las afecciones sanitarias tratadas más habitualmente; (2) definiendo las prácticas y modelos fundamentales de atención; (3) determinando cómo se reembolsaban los servicios; (4) identificando los valores y los principios subyacentes a la atención; y (5) determinando los factores principales que impulsan una implementación satisfactoria.

  4. Physical, Structural and Operational Vulnerability of Critical Facilities in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case of study: Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Rodriguez, F.; Benitez-Olivares, I.

    2010-12-01

    Valle de Chalco Solidaridad is located in Mexico City Metropolitan Area in Estado de Mexico, Mexico. In this town there is a sewage canal called “La Compañía”. A wall of this canal collapsed on February 5, 2010 due to heavy rains creating the flooding of four surrounding communities. It is important to point out that this area is frequently exposed to floods. In this work, we consider a critical facility as an essential structure for performance, health care and welfare within a community or/and as a place that can be used as shelter in case of emergency or disaster. Global vulnerability (the sum of the three measured vulnerabilities) of the 25 critical facilities identified in the locations of Avándaro, San Isidro and El Triunfo was assessed using the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). For each critical facility we determined its operational, structural and physical vulnerabilities. For our analysis, we considered the four main natural hazards to which Valle de Chalco is exposed: earthquakes, floods, landslides and sinking. We considered five levels of vulnerability using a scale from 1 to 5, where values range from very low to very high vulnerability, respectively. A critical facilities database was generated by collecting general information for three categories: schools, government and church. Each facility was evaluated considering its location in relation to identified high-risk areas. Our results indicate that in average, the global vulnerability of all facilities is low, however, there are particular cases in which this global vulnerability is high. The average operational vulnerability of the three communities is moderate. The global structural vulnerability (sum of the structural vulnerability for the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. In particular, the structural vulnerability to earthquakes is low, to landslides is very low, to flooding is moderate and to sinking is low. Due to the location of the critical facilities, its global physical vulnerability (sum of the physical vulnerability to the four analyzed hazards) is moderate. Only three facilities have very high physical vulnerability to floods. Churches (six facilities) have the highest operational vulnerability, whereas its structural vulnerability is the lowest. Schools (13 facilities) have the lowest operational vulnerability, nevertheless, there are two schools with very high vulnerability. Regarding the six government facilities, we identified that their structural vulnerability range from moderate to high. As a result of this work, we believe in the importance of strengthening the culture of civil protection within the critical facilities of the communities of Valle de Chalco.

  5. Diversity Initiatives in Higher Education: Deconstructing "The Down Low"--People of Color "Coming Out" and "Being Out" on Campus: A Conversation with Mark Brimhall-Vargas, Sivagami Subbaraman, and Robert Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article emerges from an extensive conversation with three people of color--one Latino, one South Asian, and one African American--about their experiences of "coming out" and "being out" as gay, lesbian, and bisexual in a variety of higher education contexts. The article is divided into three parts. Part one offers a brief overview of…

  6. Giving something back.

    PubMed

    Varga, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    Gabriel Varga leads the team that developed AFSCAN--the African Small Companion Animal Network, which aims to 'transform the veterinary landscape across Africa'. Dr Varga's veterinary journey began in Košice, which at the time was part of Czechoslovakia; he is now director of business operations for Zoetis north Europe. PMID:26429833

  7. Observatorio Pierre Auger: motivación y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Etchegoyen, A.; García, B.

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is aiming to understand the origin, nature and acceleration mechanisms of the most energetic cosmic rays (E>10 E18 eV). It will consist of one hybrid detector in each hemisphere, giving a total acceptance of 14200 km2 sr. The southern observatory is being constructed in Malargue, Mendoza, Argentina, and will be finished in 2006. No final statement can be made so far about any feature in the most energetic part of the spectrum. However, good candidate events were observed to have a primary energy of about 10 E20 eV.

  8. Biomass, productivity and density of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum at three sites in Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Paynter, C K; Cortés, J; Engels, M

    2001-12-01

    The basic ecology of seagrass beds was investigated by comparing biomass, productivity and density of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass) at three sites: Puerto Vargas, Punta Cahuita and Rio Perezoso, in Cahuita National Park, Limón, Costa Rica, over a two month period (March-April 1999). Above ground biomass, density, and productivity were highest in the Puerto Vargas site while Punta Cahuita had the least non-green above ground biomass was significantly lower in total biomass than Puerto Vargas. Punta Cahuita was distinguished by the largest grain size, a very hard substrate, and shallower water. Rio Perezoso, on the other hand, had extremely fine sediment and lower salinity, while Puerto Vargas was intermediate both in sediment size and environmental conditions. It appears, therefore, that higher biomass and productivity result from a combination of moderate environmental characteristics and an intermediate sediment size. PMID:15264540

  9. El Estado de la Educacion para los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos (The Condition of Education for Hispanics in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George H.; And Others

    Organized into 4 chapters, the report provides tabular data portraying the educational condition for about 12 million Hispanic Americans in the United States, and shows how Hispanics compare with the majority population on various measures of educational participation and achievement. Providing an overview of Hispanic Americans in the U.S.,…

  10. Comunicado de prensa del Informe Anual sobre el Estado del Cáncer 2015

    Cancer.gov

    Por primera vez, los investigadores han usado datos a nivel nacional para determinar la incidencia de los cuatro subtipos moleculares principales de cáncer de seno (mama) por edad, raza y grupo étnico, nivel de pobreza y varios otros factores. El informe

  11. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  12. One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Mark L.

    The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education…

  13. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  14. One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Mark L.

    The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education

  15. Múltiples estados de desorden en el etanol sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, R.

    El diagrama de fases del etanol por debajo de los 169 K será presentado. Se mostrará que el etanol puede solidificarse en tres fases con diversos niveles de desorden,(como un vidrio(G), como un vidrio orientacional (OG) y como un cristal de fase rotora (RP)) además de en una fase totalmente cristalina. Las estructuras de estas tres fases serán presentadas tal y como se deducen a partir de diversas medidas de difracción de neutrones al igual que las proporciones de los isómeros de dicho material en las fases desordenadas y se compararán con los resultados de la fase cristalina y del líquido superenfriado. Igualmente diversas medidas sobre su dinámica serán presentadas, tanto de dispersión de neutrones, como de capacidad calorífica y de medidas dieléctricas y comparadas con modelos teóricos y simulaciones para tratar de explicar los procesos de relajación observados y las transiciones entre las diversas fases.

  16. Búsqueda de sitio en el Noroeste Argentino: estado de avance al 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; Vrech, R.; García Lambas, D.; Sarazin, M.; Giovanelli, R.

    We report the activities corresponding to the site testing project that the IATE group in collaboration with ESO and IAR have developed during the last year. We report the installation of a weather station at 4600 meters over the sea level in the Macon mountain range near the small town of Tolar Grande. We discuss the adopted criteria for the election of this site as well as the future plans.

  17. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  18. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  19. Estado y rendimiento del espectrógrafo infrarrojo criogénico F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Gomez, P.; Schirmer, M.; Navarrete, F.; Stephens, A.; Bosch, G.; Gaspar, G.; Camperi, J.; Gunthardt, G.

    First results related to the commissioning phase of Flamingos-2 spectrograph are reported. The available operation modes for observation and expected performance for 2014 are also presented. After the replacement of the first collimator lens; broken in 2012; a problem persisted in the optical alignment. The troubleshooting will require a new instrument refurbishing schedule; meanwhile; the available operation modes are limited to direct image and longslit spectroscopy. We found that the direct image () achieves its highest quality (0.4'') only in the inner 3' of the field and resolution drops toward the spectrum ends. The longslit mode provides for the / ranges; and for the R3k grism in the ranges ; or . We also determine the uncertainties for emission line kinematics; and study the relative flexion between the guiding system; the slit and the detector. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Cuentos Hispanos de los Estados Unidos (Hispanic Stories of the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Julian, Ed.

    This anthology of 21 short stories is intended for Spanish-speaking students of Spanish, other students in intermediate and advanced Spanish-language courses, and students commencing study of the Hispanic literature of the United States. Twelve of the 15 authors are, by birth or descent, of Mexican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican origin. Eight were born…

  1. Su Nueva Vida en los Estados Unidos. (Your New Life in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Vivian; And Others

    An illustrated guide to aspects of life in the United States is presented in Spanish for recent Hispanic arrivals. The guidelines address such topics as resettlement agencies, community relations and national customs, the U.S. government, local and long distance transport, mail and telephone communication systems, employment practices, the…

  2. Sistemas binarios viuda negra: conectando sus orígenes con su estado final

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    ``Black widow'' systems are located in a well determined region of the plane (where is the mass of the pulsar companion and is the orbital period of the system). An attempt has been made to understand which are the mechanisms that lead to companions of ``black widows'' to be located in this region; since standard binary evolution does not provide a satisfactory response. From our evolutionary calculations; we study the path performed in the plane by a binary system to reach the state of ``black widow''. We also discuss whether there is a connection between ``redbacks'' and ``black widows''. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Nebraska State Report Card, 1999-2000 = Tarjeta informativa del Estado de Nebraska, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This report, printed in English and Spanish versions, is the first Nebraska State Report Card. It provides a snapshot of Nebraska schools using statewide averages. Nebraska students scored better than students nationwide in reading, with 60% of Nebraska students in grades 3-4, 7-8, and 10-12 scoring above the median on a standardized reading test.…

  4. La Lengua Espanol en los Estados Unidos (The Spanish Language in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnach-Calbo, Ernesto

    This report on the use of the Spanish language in the United States discusses the Spanish-speaking population, the language itself, and bilingual education in the United States. The background about the Spanish-speaking population includes the following topics: (1) "A Nations of Immigrants," (2) "The Population of the Spanish-Speaking Minority,"…

  5. Estado evolutivo de estrellas con fenómeno B[e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidelman, Y. J.; Cidale, L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Kraus, M.

    The B[e] phenomenon is related to certain peculiar features observed in the spectrum of some B stars, which are mainly linked to the physical conditions of their circumstellar medium. As these stars are embedded in dense and optically thick circumstellar media, the determination of the spectral type and luminosity class of the central objects is quite difficult. As a consequence, their evolutionary stage and distances present huge uncertainties. In this work we study 4 B[e] stars and discuss their stellar fundamental parameters and evolutionary stages using the BCD spectrophotometric system. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. A new species of Lilloiconcha Weyrauch, 1965 (Pulmonata: Charopidae) from central Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Aliaga, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Most recent research concerning terrestrial mollusks from Chile has focused in species from southern areas of the country (Vargas-Almonacid 2000, Vargas-Almonacid & Stuardo 2007, Miquel & Barker 2009, Miquel & Cdiz-Lorca 2009, among others), all of them involving charopid or punctid snails, with only a few works reviewing species from northern Chile (Miquel & Araya, 2013, Araya & Cataln, 2014). In this study we describe the occurrence of a new charopid species, the second record of the genus Lilloiconcha in the country, living near Los Molles in central Chile. This small species lives buried in humus and underneath stones, large boulders and rotten leaves. PMID:26623811

  7. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),

  8. Women Faculty of Color in the White Classroom: Narratives on the Pedagogical Implications of Teacher Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Lucila, Ed.

    This book compiles narratives by women professors of color who examine their classroom experiences in predominantly white U.S. campuses, focusing on the impact of their social positions upon their classroom practices and teaching-learning selves. The 19 papers are (1) "Introduction" (Lucila Vargas); (2) "Why Are We Still So Few and Why Has Our…

  9. Exploring the Cultural Content of French Feature Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Thomas M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Presents strategies for exploring the cultural content of feature foreign films in the language or culture and civilization classroom. Examples are taken from Francois Truffaut's "L'Argent de poche" and from Agnes Varga's "L'Une Chante, L'autre pas." (AM)

  10. Deficiencies of Natural Anticoagulants, Protein C, Protein S, and Antithrombin

    MedlinePlus

    ... V Leiden . Circulation . 2003 ; 107 : e94 – e97 FREE Full Text 2. ↵ Varga EA , Moll S . Prothrombin 20210 mutation (factor II mutation) . Circulation . 2004 ; 110 : e15 – e18 FREE Full Text CiteULike Delicious Digg Facebook Google+ Mendeley Reddit StumbleUpon ...

  11. El Escritor y las Normas del Canon Literario (The Writer and the Norms of the Literary Canon).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policarpo, Alcibiades

    This paper speculates about whether a literary canon exists in contemporary Latin American literature, particularly in the prose genre. The paper points to Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa as the three authors who might form this traditional and liberal canon with their works "La Muerte de Artemio Cruz" (Fuentes),…

  12. A Response to Steubing et al., "Effects of Systematic Phonics Instruction are Practically Significant": The Origin of the National Reading Panel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilli, Gregory; Kim, Sun Hee; Vargas, Sadako

    2008-01-01

    A recent article by Stuebing, Barth, Cirino, Francis and Fletcher critiqued the findings of Camilli, Vargas, and Yurecko (2003) and Camilli, Wolfe, and Smith (2006). With a methodological argument, they attempted to resolve the conflict between these studies and the original report Teaching Children to Read (National Reading Panel, 2000). In…

  13. A Response to Recent Reanalyses of the National Reading Panel Report: Effects of Systematic Phonics Instruction Are Practically Significant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Karla K.; Barth, Amy E.; Cirino, Paul T.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the reassessments of the National Reading Panel (NRP) report (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2000) by G. Camilli, S. Vargas, and M. Yurecko (2003); G. Camilli, P. M. Wolfe, and M. L. Smith (2006); and D. D. Hammill and H. L. Swanson (2006) that disagreed with the NRP on the magnitude of the effect of…

  14. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),…

  15. New records of the genus Polysphincta Gravenhorst, 1829 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from the Oriental region.

    PubMed

    Varga, Oleksandr; Reshchikov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Polysphincta punctigaster Varga & Reshchikov sp. n., the second known species of the genus from the Oriental region, is described from Thailand. Polysphincta asiatica Kusigemati, 1984 is considered to be a junior synonym of P. boops Tschek, 1869 (syn. nov.). Polysphincta longa Kasparyan, 1976 is recorded from the Oriental region for the first time. PMID:25947864

  16. H1N1: a Mexican perspective.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Parada, Laura

    2009-12-24

    In April this year, a new influenza virus of swine origin emerged in Mexico and spread rapidly around the world. As the Northern hemisphere winter flu season kicks off, Laura Vargas-Parada reports on the measures that Mexico is taking to combat the H1N1 pandemic. PMID:20064360

  17. Entrevista/Interview: Q: How to Raise Money for Your Hispanic Students? A: Involve Your Alumni and Their Corporate Contacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Karla

    1983-01-01

    An interview with Raul Vargas, the director of the University of Southern California's Office for Mexican American Programs is presented. The office provides scholarships for some of USC's Hispanic undergraduates, raises scholarship money through alumni and corporate contacts, and acts as a liaison between the university and the Hispanic…

  18. Perspectivas Pedagogicas. Documentos-Ponencias Y Ensayos Proyecto Teacher Corps, Ciclo XII (Pedagogical Perspectives. Documents, Papers and Essays, Teacher Corps Project, Cycle XII).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albino, Isidra, Ed.; Davila, Sonia, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to stimulate ideas leading to a sharing of approaches, strategies, and methodologies applicable to the education of Puerto Ricans. Following introductory material, 18 papers are presented, the first 10 of which are in Spanish. Titles and authors are: (1) "El maestro que Puerto Rico necesita," Leonides Santos Vargas; (2)

  19. No Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Born and raised in Los Angeles, Dan Vargas spent his twenties going to punk shows at King's Palace, Club 88, the Cathay de Grand, the Vex, the Starwood, the Hong Kong Cafe, Base's Hall, and the Masque. He has produced for several bands and is currently a songwriter and singer for an LA rock band. In this article, he reflects on the "original"

  20. Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954.

  1. Perspectivas Pedagogicas. Documentos-Ponencias Y Ensayos Proyecto Teacher Corps, Ciclo XII (Pedagogical Perspectives. Documents, Papers and Essays, Teacher Corps Project, Cycle XII).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albino, Isidra, Ed.; Davila, Sonia, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to stimulate ideas leading to a sharing of approaches, strategies, and methodologies applicable to the education of Puerto Ricans. Following introductory material, 18 papers are presented, the first 10 of which are in Spanish. Titles and authors are: (1) "El maestro que Puerto Rico necesita," Leonides Santos Vargas; (2)…

  2. Development Communication Report, Winter 1985, No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This newsletter discusses development projects in developing nations, including the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Peru. The following major articles are included: (1) "Radio Santa Maria: A Case Study of Participatory Evaluation" (John K. Mayo, Charles B. Green, and Miguel E. Vargas); (2) "Instruction by Audio Conference: An Alaskan Example"…

  3. Demographic Variables Associated with Eligibility for Preschool Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferro, Pamela M.

    2012-01-01

    Many preschool children are affected by disabilities requiring intervention through Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE; Camilli, Vargas, Ryan, & Barnett, 2010). Such interventions can include speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, counseling, and special education. Earlier delivery of these special education services…

  4. Determination of elemental impurities and U and O isotopic compositions with a view to identify the geographical and industrial origins of uranium ore concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaun, A.; Hubert, A.; Pointurier, F.; Aupiais, J.; Pili, E.; Richon, P.; Fauré, A.; Diallo, S.

    2012-12-01

    First events of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials occurred 50 years ago. Nuclear forensics expertise are aiming at determining the use of seized material, its industrial history and provenance (geographical area, place of production or processing), at assisting in the identification and dismantling of illicit trafficking networks. This information is also valuable in the context of inspections of declared facilities to verify the consistency of operator's declaration. Several characteristics can be used to determine the origin of uranium ore concentrates such as trace elemental impurity patterns (Keegan et al., 2008 ; Varga et al., 2010a, 2010b) or uranium, oxygen and lead isotopic compositions (Tamborini et al., 2002a, 2002b ; Wallenius et al., 2006; Varga et al., 2009). We developed analytical procedures for measuring the isotopic compositions of uranium (234U/238U and 235U/238U) and oxygen (18O/16O) and levels of elemental impurities (e.g. REE, Th) from very small amounts of uranium ore concentrates (or yellow cakes). Micrometer particles and few milligrams of material are used for oxygen isotope measurements and REE determination, respectively. Reference materials were analyzed by mass spectrometry (TIMS, SF-ICP-MS and SIMS) to validate testing protocols. Finally, materials of unknown origin were analyzed to highlight significant differences and determine whether these differences allow identifying the origin of these ore concentrates. References: Keegan, E., et al. (2008). Applied Geochemistry 23, 765-777. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002a). Analytical Chemistry 74, 6098-6101. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002b). Microchimica Acta 139, 185-188. Varga, Z., et al. (2009). Analytical Chemistry 81, 8327-8334. Varga, Z., et al. (2010a). Talanta 80, 1744-1749. Varga, Z., et al. (2010b). Radiochimica Acta 98, 771-778 Wallenius, M., et al. (2006). Forensic Science International 156, 55-62.

  5. DNA barcoding of Neotropical black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): Species identification and discovery of cryptic diversity in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Triana, Luis M

    2015-01-01

    Although correct taxonomy is paramount for disease control programs and epidemiological studies, morphology-based taxonomy of black flies is extremely difficult. In the present study, the utility of a partial sequence of the COI gene, the DNA barcoding region, for the identification of species of black flies from Mesoamerica was assessed. A total of 32 morphospecies were analyzed, one belonging to the genus Gigantodax and 31 species to the genus Simulium and six of its subgenera (Aspathia, Eusimulium, Notolepria, Psaroniocompsa, Psilopelmia, Trichodagmia). The Neighbour Joining tree (NJ) derived from the DNA barcodes grouped most specimens according to species or species groups recognized by morphotaxonomic studies. Intraspecific sequence divergences within morphologically distinct species ranged from 0.07% to 1.65%, while higher divergences (2.05%-6.13%) in species complexes suggested the presence of cryptic diversity. The existence of well-defined groups within S. callidum (Dyar & Shannon), S. quadrivittatum Loew, and S. samboni Jennings revealed the likely inclusion of cryptic species within these taxa. In addition, the suspected presence of sibling species within S. paynei Vargas and S. tarsatum Macquart was supported. DNA barcodes also showed that specimens of species that are difficult to delimit morphologically such as S. callidum, S. pseudocallidum Díaz Nájera, S. travisi Vargas, Vargas & Ramírez-Pérez, relatives of the species complexes such as S. metallicum Bellardi s.l. (e.g., S. horacioi Okazawa & Onishi, S. jobbinsi Vargas, Martínez Palacios, Díaz Nájera, and S. puigi Vargas, Martínez Palacios & Díaz Nájera), and S. virgatum Coquillett complex (e.g., S. paynei and S. tarsatum) grouped together in the NJ analysis, suggesting they represent valid species. DNA barcoding combined with a sound morphotaxonomic framework provided an effective approach for the identification of medically important black flies species in Mesoamerica and for the discovery of hidden diversity within this group. PMID:25947423

  6. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities. PMID:22003472

  7. [Psychiatry and mental health in the Institutp de Seguridad Social para los Trabajadores del Estado. Philosophy of its development].

    PubMed

    Dallal y Castillo, E

    1977-01-01

    In 1972, prepaid medical care for government employees provided by their social security institute, ISSSTE, was reorganized. A division of planning and technical standards was established, within which a Department of Psychiatry was included. Psychiatric care was restructured at three levels: psychiatric hospital, psychiatric OPD at clinic and hospital level and a pilot program in community psychiatry. A three-year psychiatric residency program was established, in addition to participation in other postgraduate, in-service training and monographic courses. Systematic research was started, as well as a publications program, working relationship with other institutions and societies were enhanced. A descriptive example is Child Psychiatry. Most frequent diagnoses are reviewed, and development of services is followed in relation to pediatric departments. PMID:327343

  8. [Family psychotherapy in medical institutions of the Instituto del Servicio de Seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado].

    PubMed

    Serrano, H

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of family therapy in Mexico is briefly reviewed. It is considered that the reach of this method is limited in institutions due to the lack of qualified psychotherapists with the different orientations of this speciality. The illness, as a sign of family imbalance within the humanistic concept, acquires an even if the treatment is given to the marital couple, the adolescent or the child. Family therapy helps in marital disagreements, behavior problems, anorexia, reactive depression, drug addictions, alcoholism and many other problems. The ISSSTE population has a stable location and is more or less homogeneous; in it family therapy is stimulating and possible; even though the institution imposes certain limitations to family therapy, the enthusiasm for this therapeutic method prevails. PMID:917203

  9. [Group psychotherapy. Operative groups at the Instituto del servico de seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE)].

    PubMed

    Margolis, J

    1977-01-01

    An operational group is defined; how operational groups theory was applied at an ISSSTE clinic is described. It is underlined how operational groups promote change around the corerstone of a "task". The vicissitudes of an operational group with four psychiatrists who worked in community psychiatry at the ISSSTE, are described. PMID:917195

  10. Geoquímica orgánica de los carbones de fila maestra, estado anzoátegui, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, O.; Martinezy, M.; Escobar, M.

    1995-04-01

    The vertical and lateral variability of organic geochemical parameters was established for the Seam 4 of the Fila Maestra coal deposit (Quebradon Formation, Oligocene-Early Miocene age) through the study of coals and carbonaceous shales collected in different outcrops of the coal seam. Chemical and physical analysis included moisture and ash contents, maceral groups, vitrinite reflectance, total carbon, bitumen and its fractions, as well as characterization of saturated hydrocarbons by gas chromatography ( n-alkane distributions and {pristane}/{phytane} ratios). A production sample, representative of the Seam 4, was further analyzed for S, Cl, C, H, O and its calorific value determined. The data collected allowed us to classify these samples as high-volatile bituminous coals, types B and C, according to ASTM classification. The results of the analysis showed little vertical or lateral variation in the properties studied. A gradual increase in ash content in the westward direction, together with a thinning of the coal seam, suggest a greater proximity of the basin border in this direction. High values in {pristane}/{phytane} ratio (4-7), predominance of heavy alkanes and high contents in vitrinites clearly indicates that primigenic organic matter was essentially continental in character. However, the bimodal n-alkane distribution, together with a nigh sulfur (2.7%) and chlorine (0.12%) contents suggest a marine-influenced environment. In consequence, it is proposed that these coals were formed in a transitional environment, as salt-marshs in coastal lagoons or in low deltaic plains. These results are in agreement with the stratigraphic analysis of the sedimentary unit.

  11. Atlas de Recursos Eólicos del Estado de Oaxaca (The Spanish version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2004-04-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  12. Hacia una adaptación cultural para el tratamiento de trastornos alimentarios en latinos en Estados Unidos.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders affect all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. However, evidence based treatments for eating disorders have been developed and tested exclusively on Caucasian populations. With the purpose to develop a culturally sensitive framework for the eating disorders treatment in Latinos/as, the objectives of this work were: 1) identify and describe some of the relevant cultural elements for eating disorders in the Latino population and, 2) to draft a culturally sensitive intervention model for eating disorders in Latino population in the United States. Providing culturally sensitive treatments for Latinos with psychiatric disorders is essential to reverse public health disparities. PMID:22003472

  13. Bienvenido a los Estados Unidos. Una Guia para Refugiados (Welcome to the United States. A Guide for Refugees). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic and Social Research Council, Edinburgh (Scotland). Centre for Educational Sociology.

    This guidebook provides Spanish-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. This is the Spanish version, and is available in several other languages. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies,…

  14. Situacion del Chicano en las Universidades de Los Estados Unidos (Situation of the Chicano in the United States Universities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolz-Blackburn, Ines

    Chicanos attending universities in the United States are, in general, frustrated individuals. With two languages and two cultures, they feel uneasy in both and usually go to the university with an inferiority complex. In spite of these shortcomings, Chicanos are, generally, subjected to the same entrance exams and requirements as the rest of the…

  15. Women of Spanish Origin in the United States, 1976. La Mujer de Origen Hispano en los Estados Unidos, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    The report presents data on selected social, economic, and demographic characteristics of women of Spanish origin in the United States. Derived from the population reports of the U.S. Census Bureau and the March 1973 Manpower Report of the President, the statistical data pertain to age, residence, marital status, heads of families and households,…

  16. Guia para su incorporacion a los Estados Unidos de America (A Guide to Resettlement in the United States. Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This resettlement guide, entirely in Spanish, describes the initial stage of resettlement and the processes that refugees undergo as new arrivals. Subjects covered in this guide include pre-arrival procedures, admissions criteria, immigrant's statement of understanding, travel costs and U.S. Customs; resettlement procedures, immigrants'…

  17. Alternancia entre el estado de emisión de Rayos-X y Pulsar en Sistemas Binarios Interactuantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vito, M. A.; Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-08-01

    Redbacks belong to the family of binary systems in which one of the components is a pulsar. Recent observations show redbacks that have switched their state from pulsar - low mass companion (where the accretion of material over the pulsar has ceased) to low mass X-ray binary system (where emission is produced by the mass accretion on the pulsar), or inversely. The irradiation effect included in our models leads to cyclic mass transfer episodes, which allow close binary systems to switch between one state to other. We apply our results to the case of PSR J1723-2837, and discuss the need to include new ingredients in our code of binary evolution to describe the observed state transitions.

  18. Perspectiva Historica de la Educacion Bilingue en los Estados Unidos (A Historical Perspective of Bilingual Education in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Juan Clemente

    1978-01-01

    This article defines bilingualism and bilingual education and traces the history of bilingual education in the United States, starting with the Spanish missions in the west. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  19. Rutinas para reducción de observaciones polarimétricas: evolución y estado actual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.

    I briefly review the evolution experimented by the software for reduction of observational data obtained with the CasProf photopolarimeter, ten years after its "first light" at the Jorge Sahade telescope. Our original routines for the calculation of Stokes parameters were complemented with new ones used to improve the quality of our results, and to adapt the software to different needs, in particular, to obtain polarimetric variability curves (applied to blazar studies). FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Innovative manure treatments in the USA – state of the art (Tratamientos Innovadores de estiercoles en USA - estado del arte)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the potential impact of manure on the environment represents one of the world agriculture’s major challenges. Treatment technologies can play an important role in the management of livestock manure by providing a more flexible approach to land application and acreage limitations and by so...

  1. [Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Acosta, María; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Garvett, María

    2002-09-01

    Between may and july 2001, a survey was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection and its relationship with the socio-economic status and household crowding of 154 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from a rural village in Falcon State, Venezuela. The Graham technique (perianal swabs with an adhesive cellulose tape) was used to perform the parasitological diagnosis. The overall prevalence was high (57.79%). There was no difference in the prevalence between sexes (X2 = 0.005; d.f. = 1) or ages (X2 = 3.63; d.f. = 6) (p > 0.05), suggesting similar risk conditions for all individuals. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (53.9%). Other less frequent manifestations were the following: perianal lesions (34.8%) and vulvovaginitis (32.6%). Graffar analysis revealed that the majority of schoolchildren belong to the poorer socioeconomic strata: IV (55.9%) and V (29.87%), with overcrowded living conditions. The correlation between E. vermicularis infection and crowding rates was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.98; p < 0.001). In the light on these results, it can be concluded that poverty, overcrowding, anal pruritus, scarcity of water, inadequate personal and community hygiene play a relevant role on the transmission dynamics and endemic maintenance of enterobiasis among schoolchildren from Sabaneta. PMID:12229279

  2. Parameter calibration for synthesizing realistic-looking variability in offline handwriting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wen; Lopresti, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the widely accepted principle that the more training data, the better a recognition system performs, we conducted experiments asking human subjects to do evaluate a mixture of real English handwritten text lines and text lines altered from existing handwriting with various distortion degrees. The idea of generating synthetic handwriting is based on a perturbation method by T. Varga and H. Bunke that distorts an entire text line. There are two purposes of our experiments. First, we want to calibrate distortion parameter settings for Varga and Bunke's perturbation model. Second, we intend to compare the effects of parameter settings on different writing styles: block, cursive and mixed. From the preliminary experimental results, we determined appropriate ranges for parameter amplitude, and found that parameter settings should be altered for different handwriting styles. With the proper parameter settings, it should be possible to generate large amount of training and testing data for building better off-line handwriting recognition systems.

  3. A new genus of Neelidae (Collembola) from Mexican caves

    PubMed Central

    Papáč, Vladimír; Palacios-Vargas, José G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The new genus Spinaethorax, whose proposal is based on specimens of Megalothorax spinotricosus Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999, is given a new name combination and a redescription. The type species comes from two caves in Campeche State, México. A new combination is also suggested for Megalothorax tonoius Palacios-Vargas & Sánchez, 1999. The new genus is similar to Megalothorax Willem, 1900 and Neelus Folsom, 1896, but it clearly differs from all genera within family Neelidae by a peculiar combination of characters and the presence of some new features, e.g. globular sensillum on Ant. III, sword-like macrosetae on oral fold. A comparative table and an identification key for all Neelidae genera as well as some summary tables of antennae chaetotaxy and legs setation for type species are provided. PMID:27110149

  4. No Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Born and raised in Los Angeles, Dan Vargas spent his twenties going to punk shows at King's Palace, Club 88, the Cathay de Grand, the Vex, the Starwood, the Hong Kong Cafe, Base's Hall, and the Masque. He has produced for several bands and is currently a songwriter and singer for an LA rock band. In this article, he reflects on the "original"…

  5. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement

  6. [Group psychotherapy. Experience with a changing process at a clinic of the Instituto del Servicio de Seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE)].

    PubMed

    Velasco de Ongay, M E

    1977-01-01

    The problems of an ISSSTE clinic were approached within the general systems theory and it was observed that within the group there existed forces to maintain the status-quo and forces towards change; to produce the latter the group was handled during 20 hours with a slightly directive technique. The goals were to improve interpersonal relationships, to increase communication, to make known to individuals their attitudes within a group and make them sensitive to problems they shared with others. The results were good, the status-quo was broken and change started occurring. PMID:917198

  7. El Mantenimiento o Desplazamiento Linguistico: El Futuro del Espanol en los Estados Unidos. (Linguistic Maintenance or Replacement: The Future of Spanish in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Bruce A.

    1976-01-01

    What is the probability that Spanish, as a vernacular language, will survive in the U.S. with an increasing usage and prestige? Or will its usage, its speakers and its importance diminish rapidly in number and geographical extension? Can it be retained or will there be a shift into English? This article, written in Spanish, addresses these…

  8. The Assessment of the Intelligence of Latinos in the United States. (La Medicion de la Inteligencia de los Latinos en los Estados Unidos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauce, Ana M.; And Others

    Most of the research on the assessment of the intelligence of Latinos in the United States appears to be based on some possibly erroneous or at least dubious assumptions. Among these are the following: (1) the assumption of bilinguality; (2) the assumption of equal proficiency in the English language; (3) the assumption of the equivalence of…

  9. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  10. Parent's Guide to Special Education in Washington State, 1985-86 [and] Guia para Padres: Para Educacion Especial en el Estado de Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This pamphlet guides parents of children with disabilities through the procedures for acquiring special education services in the state of Washington. Following an overview of special education, the pamphlet presents information on notice and consent procedures, confidentiality of records, individualized education programs (IEP), the placement…

  11. Latino Families in the United States. A Resourcebook for Family Life Education = Las Familias Latinas en los Estados Unidos. Recursos para la Capacitacion Familiar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Sally J., Ed.

    The primary objectives of this resource book are to increase family life educators' knowledge and understanding of Latinos and to encourage advocacy by Latinos for appropriate family life programs in their communities. English and Spanish versions of the same text are included. There are six chapters. Chapter 1 outlines the book's objectives and…

  12. A Transferencia do Controle da Educacao da Igreja para o Estado (The Transfer of Educational Control from the Church to the State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the principal phases in the historical process of the occidental world that resulted in the transfer of educational control from the church to the state, demonstrating some of the consequences of this historic turn. (BT)

  13. Queridos Padres: En Los Estados Unidos...La Escuela es Nuestra Tambien (Dear Parents: In the United States...It's Our School Too).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolau, Siobhan; Ramos, Carmen Lydia

    This guidebook for Hispanic parents advises that children's success in school may depend on the home environment during the formative years. Hispanic youth drop out of school at a rate of 40 percent; 25 percent of those who graduate are not qualified for good jobs. In Latin American countries, parents are expected to leave education to the…

  14. Modelo Crosscultural de Pasantias para Lideres de la Educacion: Cooperacion entre Estados Unidos y Venezuela (Designing an Effective School Administrator Internship Program: United States and Venezuela Cooperation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil; Thompson, Eugene W.

    A model was developed of an internship program designed to give valuable cross-cultural experience to school administrators in training at universities in the United States and Venezuela. A naturalistic approach was used to develop the model. Leading school administrators and educational leadership theorists in both countries were interviewed by…

  15. Estados unidos puede tomar la delantera en la educacion: 50 consejos utiles (The United States Can Take the Lead in Education: 50 Suggestions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Excellence Partnership, Washington, DC.

    The Spanish-language booklet lists ways that parents, employers, teachers, administrators, principals, and grandparents, neighbors, and concerned citizens can help America reach the National Educational Goals. First, the booklet summarizes the National Education Goals in the areas of school readiness; school completion; student achievement and…

  16. Alzheimer's disease and modern lifestyle: what is the role of stress?

    PubMed

    Marcello, Elena; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Di Luca, Monica

    2015-09-01

    This Editorial highlights a study by Baglietto-Vargas et al. 2015 published in this issue of J. Neurochem. Stress is one of the environmental factors that can contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, the role of modern-life stress has not been investigated yet. The authors reveal that modern-life stress reduces the number of dendritic spines in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. The mechanism underlying such effect involves an increase in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release that stimulates the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and fosters the generation of Amyloid-β, which negatively affects dendritic spines. PMID:26206000

  17. Geochronologic and paleontologic evidence for a Pacific-Atlantic connection during the late Oligocene-early Miocene in the Patagonian Andes (43-44°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encinas, Alfonso; Pérez, Felipe; Nielsen, Sven N.; Finger, Kenneth L.; Valencia, Victor; Duhart, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Cenozoic marine strata occur in the western, eastern, and central parts of the North Patagonian Andes between ˜43°S and 44°S. Correlation of these deposits is difficult because they occur in small and discontinuous outcrops and their ages are uncertain. In order to better understand the age and sedimentary environment of these strata, we combined U-Pb (LA-MC-ICPMS) geochronology on detrital zircons with sedimentologic and paleontologic (foraminifers and molluscs) studies. Sedimentologic analyses suggest that the Puduhuapi Formation on the western flank of the Andean Cordillera was deposited in a deep-marine setting, the Vargas Formation in the central part of the Andes was deposited at outer-neritic or bathyal depths, and the La Cascada Formation on the eastern flank of the range was deposited in a shallow-marine environment. Geochronologic and paleontologic results indicate that the three marine units were deposited during the late Oligocene-early Miocene interval, although it is not clear whether this occurred during one or more marine incursions in the area. The alluvial(?) conglomeratic deposits of the La Junta Formation, exposed in the proximity of the Vargas Formation outcrops, have a maximum depositional age of ˜26 Ma and could have been deposited during the initial stage of subsidence that affected this region prior to the marine transgression over this area. The occurrence of both Pacific and Atlantic molluscan taxa in the La Cascada and Vargas formations suggests that a marine strait connected both oceans during the accumulation of these units. The new data on the age of the Puduhuapi, Vargas, and La Cascada formations indicate that these units may correlate with lower Miocene marine deposits in the forearc of central and southern Chile (Navidad Formation and equivalent units) and on the eastern flank of the Patagonian Andes (Río Foyel Formation and equivalent units). A late Oligocene-early Miocene age for these marine deposits is a reliable maximum age for the deformation and uplift of the North Patagonian Andes.

  18. Aarskog-scott syndrome: a review and case report.

    PubMed

    Closs, Luciane Q; Tovo, Maximiano; Dias, Caroline; Corradi, Daniele P; Vargas, Ivana A

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the treatment and 12-year follow-up of a patient 7 years old who had been diagnosed with Aarskog-Scott syndrome. The patient had a history of premature multiple tooth loss, vertical dimension loss and severe dentoalveolar discrepancy. Orthopedic and orthodontic rehabilitation treatments were performed to improve the patient's esthetic, functional and psychological condition. How to cite this article: Closs LQ, Tovo M, Dias C, Corradi DP, Vargas IA. Aarskog-Scott Syndrome: A Review and Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):209-212. PMID:25206170

  19. Aarskog-Scott Syndrome: A Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tovo, Maximiano; Dias, Caroline; Corradi, Daniele P; Vargas, Ivana A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper reports the treatment and 12-year follow-up of a patient 7 years old who had been diagnosed with Aarskog-Scott syndrome. The patient had a history of premature multiple tooth loss, vertical dimension loss and severe dentoalveolar discrepancy. Orthopedic and orthodontic rehabilitation treatments were performed to improve the patient’s esthetic, functional and psychological condition. How to cite this article: Closs LQ, Tovo M, Dias C, Corradi DP, Vargas IA. Aarskog-Scott Syndrome: A Review and Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):209-212. PMID:25206170

  20. Weak solvability via bipotential method for contact models with nonmonotone boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costea, Nicuşor; Csirik, Mihály; Varga, Csaba

    2015-10-01

    We consider a general mathematical model which describes the contact between a body and a foundation, under the small deformations hypothesis. The behavior of the material is modeled by a monotone constitutive law, while on the potential contact zone nonmonotone boundary conditions are imposed. We propose a variational formulation in terms of bipotentials, whose unknown is a pair consisting of the displacement field and the Cauchy stress field. The existence of weak solutions is proved using a recent result due to Costea and Varga (Topol Methods Nonlinear Anal 41:39-67, 2013) concerning the solvability of nonlinear hemivariational inequality systems.

  1. CURRENT PEACH PRODUCTION PRACTICES INCLUDING NEX TRAINING SYSTEMS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN U.S. PRACTICAS ACTUALES DE PRODUCCION DE DURAZNO, INCLUYENDO SISTEMAS DE FORMACION EN EL SURESTE DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current production systems used commercially in the Southeastern United States are discussed in relation to their utility for commercial producers in Mexico. Standard southeastern cultural practices are discussed in detail. Topics covered include pre-plant land preparation, fumigation, nematod...

  2. PROGRAMA PARA LA VERIFICACION DE LA TECNOLOGIA AMBIENTAL - CULTIVANDO ASOCIACIONES PARA EL INCREMENTO DE LAS SELECCIONES DE TECNOLOGIAS AMBIENTALES A LOS SECTORES PUBLICO Y PRIVADO EN LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS Y EN EL EXTERIOR (EPA/600/F-97/005A)

    EPA Science Inventory

    La meta del ETV es verificar, a travs de una
    evaluacin de informacin objectiva y de calidad, las caracteristicas del desempeo de tecnologas
    comerciales ambientales. As el ETV proporciona a
    los compradores y los licenciadores potenciales una valoracin imparcial y creble d...

  3. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Oportunidades en los colegios y universidades independientes en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los programas de oportunidad en educacion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany.

    Information on programs that address special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds who attend private colleges and universities in New York State is provided in separate English and Spanish reports. The Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) provides supportive services and financial aid. Information is provided on: eligibility for…

  4. Un Nuevo Convenio para el Aprendizaje: Una Sociedad para Mejorar los Resultados Educativos en el Estado de Nueva York (A New Compact for Learning: A Partnership To Improve Educational Results in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Elementary, Middle and Secondary Education.

    This Spanish translation of the abridged version of "A New Compact for Learning" acknowledges the current U.S. education system's inadequacy to educate U.S. citizenry and introduces New York State's New Compact for Learning, intended as a plan to reorganize New York's own system. The compact's fundamental principles are: (1) recognizing that all…

  5. PROCENTAJE DE PSILIDOS PORTADORES DE Canidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Y SU RELACION CON LA INCIDENCIA DE HLB EN CINCO HUERTAS COMERCIALES DE LIMON MEXICANO {Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle} EN EL ESTADO DE COLIMA MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) were individually analyzed by qPCR to detect Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). The psyllids were collected in Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) trees in five commercial orchards in Tecomán and Manzanillo, Colima with severe symptoms of classical mott...

  6. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  7. A preliminary combined geochemical and rock-magnetic study of tailings of non-magnetic ores from Tlalpujahua-El Oro mining districts, Michoacán and Estado de México States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J.; Hernández-Bernal, M.; Corona-Chávez, P.

    2013-05-01

    Mining activities in Mexico have been continuously developed since 1550. Since then several thousands of million tons of waste produced as a result of the mining activity have been accumulated and scattered throughout the territory. These wastes can contain minerals with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, which show a distribution and mobility in the environment according to the chemical species in which are hosted. The Tlalpujahua - El Oro mining district (TOMD) concentrates an impressive number of mines and historical tailings. Due to their in-slope hydrographic position, the mining activities increase the risk of generating anthropogenic effluent that could contribute with a certain amount of mine-water with high contents of PTEs. Although magnetic methods have been widely applied to pollution studies of regions with high anthropogenic impact, its application to tailings is scarce in spite of the several studies that document the environmental effects as a result of the mining waste. We present the results obtained by combined geochemical and rock-magnetic studies in these tailings. Similarly to the traditional EPTs vs SiO2 diagrams, EPTs vs Fe show good linear (inverse) correlation with most of these health-risk elements. Fe concentrations determined magnetically from room-temperature susceptibility measurements agrees with those obtained by traditionally geochemical methods.

  8. Opportunities at Independent Colleges and Universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program = Las Oportunidades en las Instituciones Independendientes de Nivel Universitario en el Estado de Nueva York a traves de los Programas de Oportunidades Educativas Universitarias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Higher Education Opportunity Programs.

    A guide to the opportunities at private colleges and universities in New York State through the Higher Education Opportunity Program (HEOP) is presented. The HEOP is designed to meet the special needs of students from disadvantaged backgrounds through screening, testing, counseling, tutoring, teaching, and financial assistance. Generally, students…

  9. Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, C.G.; Kwak, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

  10. Libros bilingues, traducciones desparpajadas y traducciones pobres: libros en espanol publicados en los Estados Unidos (Bilingual Books, Careless Translations, and Bad Translations: Books in Spanish Published in the United States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of providing Spanish-speaking students with high-quality reading materials in Spanish and avoiding materials that have been badly translated into Spanish. Provides an annotated list of 10 books recommended for young children and a Spanish grammar for more advanced readers. Lists 29 badly translated books. Describes a Web…

  11. Guia para estudiantes: Ayuda economica del Departamento de Educacion de los Estados Unidos, 2003-2004 (The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language publication explains what federal student financial aid is and the types of student financial aid that are available. The guide opens with an overview of federal student financial aid, and then discusses how to find out about student aid. A section of general information discusses eligibility and dependency. Types of federal…

  12. Reaching Higher. A Parent's Guide to the Washington Assessment of Learning. Revised = Para llegar mas arriba. Una guia para padres sobre la evaluacion del aprendizaje de los estudiantes del estado de Washington (Washington Assessment of Student Learning). Revisado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This guide in English and Spanish is designed to answer questions parents may have about the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), including how it will help improve their children's education, how it is scored, and how to use the information it provides. In Washington, clear educational goals for subject content, thinking skills, and…

  13. Debris-flow and flooding hazards associated with the December 1999 storm in coastal Venezuela and strategies for mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Larsen, M.C.; Eaton, L.S.; Morgan, B.A.; Blair, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy rainfall from the storm of December 14-16, 1999 triggered thousands of landslides on steep slopes of the Sierra de Avila north of Caracas, Venezuela. In addition to landslides, heavy rainfall caused flooding and massive debris flows that damaged coastal communities in the State of Vargas along the Caribbean Sea. Examination of the rainfall pattern obtained from the GOES-8 satellite showed that the pattern of damage was generally consistent with the area of heaviest rainfall. Field observations of the severely affected drainage basins and historical records indicate that previous flooding and massive debris-flow events of similar magnitude to that of December 1999 have occurred throughout this region. The volume of debris-flow deposits and the large boulders that the flows transported qualifies the 1999 event amongst the largest historical rainfall-induced debris flows documented worldwide.

  14. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611-1830.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  15. Ergonomic investigation on pedestrian crossing with traffic light signalization.

    PubMed

    Amado, Giuseppe; de Moraes, Anamaria

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the risk behavior adopted by pedestrians at crosswalks with traffic light equipment. It was observed that many pedestrians take risk to cross the Presidente Vargas Avenue. This avenue is located in downtown in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, and has a heavy vehicular traffic and intense pedestrian flow. Many pedestrians cross the four lanes of avenue dangerously disobeying the traffic light indications. To conduct this research about pedestrian's behavior at crosswalks, a model known as Communication-Human Information Processing Model - C-HIP Model was used. Investigating the stages by C-HIP model perspective, using methods and techniques for each stage, enabled to identify which factors can contribute to pedestrians to disobey traffic signs and adopt a risky behavior in pedestrian crossing. PMID:22317476

  16. Interfacial growth during closure of a cutaneous wound: stress generation and wrinkle formation.

    PubMed

    Swain, Digendranath; Gupta, Anurag

    2015-08-28

    A biomechanical growth model for the proliferation stage of cutaneous wound healing is developed emphasizing the emergence of stress and wrinkled skin during the healing process. The healing is assumed to be primarily driven by growth at the wound edge (i.e. the interface between the wound and the skin) leading to incompatible growth strains. A closed form solution of the boundary value problem is obtained using a Varga hyperelastic membrane model for both the skin and the wound. The nature of the solution is explored for various parametric values of the skin tension, healing rate, edge incompatibility, wrinkled region radius, and wound stiffness. The obtained results for the stress field, wrinkling, and rate of healing are qualitatively in good agreement with the existing experimental observations. PMID:26186165

  17. Geometric and Topological Methods for Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Alexander; Contreras, Iván.; Reyes-Lega, Andrés. F.

    2013-05-01

    Introduction; 1. A brief introduction to Dirac manifolds Henrique Bursztyn; 2. Differential geometry of holomorphic vector bundles on a curve Florent Schaffhauser; 3. Paths towards an extension of Chern-Weil calculus to a class of infinite dimensional vector bundles Sylvie Paycha; 4. Introduction to Feynman integrals Stefan Weinzierl; 5. Iterated integrals in quantum field theory Francis Brown; 6. Geometric issues in quantum field theory and string theory Luis J. Boya; 7. Geometric aspects of the standard model and the mysteries of matter Florian Scheck; 8. Absence of singular continuous spectrum for some geometric Laplacians Leonardo A. Cano García; 9. Models for formal groupoids Iván Contreras; 10. Elliptic PDEs and smoothness of weakly Einstein metrics of Hölder regularity Andrés Vargas; 11. Regularized traces and the index formula for manifolds with boundary Alexander Cardona and César Del Corral; Index.

  18. The first cataract surgeons in Latin America: 1611–1830

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Wainsztein, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    We strove to identify the earliest cataract surgeons in Latin America. Probably by 1611, the Genovese oculist Francisco Drago was couching cataracts in Mexico City. The surgeon Melchor Vásquez de Valenzuela probably performed cataract couching in Lima by 1697. Juan Peré of France demonstrated cataract couching in Veracruz and Mexico City between 1779 and 1784. Juan Ablanedo of Spain performed couching in Veracruz in 1791. Cataract extraction might have been performed in Havana and Caracas by 1793 and in Mexico by 1797. The earliest contemporaneously documented cataract extractions in Latin America were performed in Guatemala City by Narciso Esparragosa in 1797. In addition to Esparragosa, surgeons born in the New World who established the academic teaching of cataract surgery included José Miguel Muñoz in Mexico and José María Vargas in Caracas. Although cataract surgery came quite early to Latin America, its availability was initially inconsistent and limited. PMID:27143845

  19. Julio Cortázar quotes on normal and abnormal movements: magical realism or reality?

    PubMed

    Merello, Marcelo

    2006-08-01

    Together with Mario Vargas Llosa and Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Cortázar was one of the most representative authors of the Latin American magical realism genre. Within his extensive body of work, many descriptions of characters suffering physical disabilities, as well as situations suggesting such medical conditions, can be extracted. In this review, two short stories by Cortázar are presented. In the first one, the main character could easily be a man suffering from corticobasal degeneration; in the second, an old woman with symptoms suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy is clearly depicted. Despite the fact that one of the main ingredients in Cortázar's magical realism is fiction, cases described here fit real medical conditions quite well, making it hard to believe that they represent purely fantastic descriptions rather than the product of Cortázar's inquisitive observation and the description of real patients. PMID:16685680

  20. STS-79 Flight Day 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, in the first full day of joint Shuttle/Mir operations begin in with the transfer of a biotechnology investigation and logistical supplies from Atlantis to Mir. The Biotechnology System, an investigation that will study the long-term development of cartilage cells in microgravity, was transported to Mir early this morning. During his planned four-month stay on Mir, John Blaha will take weekly samples of the culture which may provide researchers with information on engineering cartilage cells for possible use in transplantation. They also took time out of their schedules to talk with Good Morning America's Elizabeth Vargas in a brief interview. Prior to beginning the day's transfer activities, all nine astronauts and cosmonauts participated in a joint planning session to outline the day's schedule.

  1. Lessons in posttraumatic stress disorder from the past: Venezuela floods and Nairobi bombing.

    PubMed

    Carlos Otero, Juan; Njenga, Frank G

    2006-01-01

    Identification and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are important following a disaster. Insights into how these aims can be achieved may be obtained from previous disasters. This article describes mental health initiatives following the 1999 flooding in Vargas State, Venezuela, and the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombing in Nairobi, Kenya. Following the Vargas State floods, a specialist mental health center devoted to the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of PTSD was established. Awareness and acceptance of the clinic was promoted by media campaigns and community-based activities. After 18 months, approximately 5000 people had been screened, of whom 62% were diagnosed with PTSD and treated. Moreover, the clinic's activities had expanded to include treatment of other medical conditions and assistance with nonmedical needs. Following the Nairobi bombing, a mass media campaign was initiated to create awareness of PTSD symptoms and help victims come to terms with their experience. This campaign was found to be well received and helpful. In addition, counselors were trained to support people living or working close to the blast. These examples show that mental health initiatives are feasible after a disaster and highlight a number of issues: (1) The intervention should be tailored to the needs of the target population; (2) Communication should be simple and appropriate; (3) Community-based activities are valuable in promoting awareness and acceptance of mental health initiatives; (4) Reducing the stigma often associated with mental health problems is important; and (5) The mass media can be helpful in promoting awareness of mental health issues following major trauma. PMID:16602817

  2. Molecular dissection of bacterial nanowires.

    PubMed

    Boesen, Thomas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of bacterial conductive structures, termed nanowires, has intrigued scientists for almost a decade. Nanowires enable bacteria to transfer electrons over micrometer distances to extracellular electron acceptors such as insoluble metal oxides or electrodes. Nanowires are pilus based and in Geobacter sulfurreducens are composed of the type IV pilin subunit PilA. Multiheme c-type cytochromes have been shown to attach to nanowire pili. Two hypotheses have been proposed for electron conduction in nanowires. The first (termed the metal-like conductivity or MLC hypothesis) claims that the pilus itself has the electron-conductive properties and the attached cytochromes mediate transfer to the final electron acceptor, whereas the second hypothesis (termed the superexchange conductivity or SEC hypothesis) suggests that electrons are "hopping" between heme groups in cytochromes closely aligned with the pilus as a scaffold. In their recent article in mBio, Vargas et al. [M. Vargas, N. S. Malvankar, P.-L. Tremblay, C. Leang, J. A. Smith, P. Patel, O. Snoeyenbos-West, K. P. Nevin, and D. R. Lovley, mBio 4(2):e00210-13, 2013] address this ambiguity through an analysis of strain Aro-5, a G. sulfurreducens PilA mutant lacking aromatic residues in the nonconserved portion of PilA. These residues were suspected of involvement in electron transport according to the MLC hypothesis. The G. sulfurreducens mutant had reduced conductive properties, lending important support to the MLC hypothesis. The data also highlight the need for further and more conclusive evidence for one or the other hypothesis. PMID:23653449

  3. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth

  4. El Derecho de su Hijo(a) a Una Educacion: Una guia para los Padres de Ninos Impedidos en el Estado de Nueva York (Your Child's Right to an Education: A Guide for Parents of Children with Handicapping Conditions in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    Intended for parents of handicapped students, the guide (available in English, Spanish, or Chinese) sets forth the New York State policies for speical education. The following topics are among those considered: eligibility for special education, program types, alternative placements (such as residential settings), referral, evaluation,

  5. Educacion Bilingue: Una Declaracion del Plan y Accion que Proponen los Regentes de la Universidad del Estado de Nueva York (Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action by the Regents of the University of the State of New York.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The primary goal of the Regents in their bilingual education program is to provide equal educational opportunity for non-English-speaking children through activities capitalizing on their proficiency in their native language and developing competency in English. Two complementary goals are inherent: (1) a vitally needed national resource, the…

  6. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  7. Proyecto Curricular Sobre la Herencia Iberoamericana. Latinos en la Formacion de los Estados Unidos de American: Ayer, Hoy y Manana. Procedimientos de la Conferencia Sequnda Conferencia Anual del Panel Consultivo Internacional en Santillana del Mar, Espana (The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project. Latinos in the Making of the United States of America: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    The Ibero-American Heritage Curriculum Project is an interdisciplinary curriculum development project designed to integrate the study of Ibero-American heritage and culture into classroom instructional programs, kindergarten through grade 12. The project was initiated by the New York State Education Department and involves the Spanish National…

  8. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  9. El Derecho de su Hijo(a) a Una Educacion: Una guia para los Padres de Ninos Impedidos en el Estado de Nueva York (Your Child's Right to an Education: A Guide for Parents of Children with Handicapping Conditions in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    Intended for parents of handicapped students, the guide (available in English, Spanish, or Chinese) sets forth the New York State policies for speical education. The following topics are among those considered: eligibility for special education, program types, alternative placements (such as residential settings), referral, evaluation,…

  10. Una Guia para Los Padres sobre La Educacion Especial: El Derecho de Su Hijo(a) a Adquirir una Educacion en el Estado de Nueva York (A Parent's Guide to Special Education: Your Child's Right to an Education in New York State).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    This guide provides information to help parents of special needs children in New York become active partners in the planning and implementation of special education programs. The first part of the guide provides in-depth information related to the special education process in New York State public schools. A historical view of children's rights to…

  11. Reading: Students' Attitudes and Interests in Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades in Official Portuguese Schools in the USA (A Leitura: Atitudes e Preferencias dos Educandos do 4th, 5th, e 6th Anos de Escolaridade nas Escolas Oficiais Portuguesas nos Estados Unidos da America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Maria da Graca Borges

    A study investigated attitudes and preferences concerning reading among fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Portuguese-language schools in the United States. Extrinsic factors influencing students (parents, teachers) were also analyzed. The research took place in 10 schools in 5 states. Data were obtained using questionnaires (students)…

  12. Educacion Bilingue: Una Declaraccion del Plan y Accion que Proponen los Regentes de la Universidad del Estado de Nueva York. Bilingual Education: A Statement of Policy and Proposed Action by the Regents of the University of the State of New York. Position Paper No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Large numbers of Puerto Rican and other non-English-speaking students live in school districts throughout New York State. To enable these students to function in an English-speaking society while retaining their own culture, a policy to promote bilingual program planning was established by the Board of Regents of New York State in 1972. In this…

  13. Informe a la Nación de mortalidad por cáncer sigue bajando

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer, de 1975 a 2009, indica que los índices generales de mortalidad por cáncer siguen bajando en los Estados Unidos en hombres y mujeres, entre todos los grupos raciales y étnicos principales y para todo

  14. Informe a la nación indica que los índices de muertes por cáncer siguen bajando

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad por todos los cánceres combinados para hombres, mujeres y niños siguieron bajando en Estados Unidos entre 2004 y 2008, según el Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer de 1975 a 2008. El índice general de diagnóstico

  15. Variations of Lod and Primary Geodynamical Parameters Throughout The Earth's History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, P.; Denis, C.

    A number of geodynamical processes depend on, or are influenced by, the Earth's ro- tation speed about its polar axis. Thus, palaeovalues of the length of day (LOD) put important constraints on such processes. In this work, we try to determine the palaeo- values of such primary geodynamical parameters as the Earth's surface flattening (f), the dynamic shape factor (J2), and the precessional constant (H) at selected epochs of the geological past, namely (1) in the early Katarchaean, shortly after the Earth had been formed (4.5 Ga ago), (2) at the transition from Archaean (Arch) to Protero- zoic (Ptz), about 2.5 Ga ago, and (3) at the transition from Ptz to the Phanerozoic (Pz), about 500 Ma ago. The determination of ancient LOD data is based on growth patterns of fossil corals and bivalves, and on coloration patterns of fossil stromato- lites and tidalites. The relative errors in LOD-values derived from those fossil clocks are about 2%. It is difficult to put any precise error bounds on the age determina- tions, but typical relative errors should as a rule be less than 10% and reach 20% only very seldomly. P. Varga, C. Denis and T. Varga [J. Geodynamics, 25 (1998), 61­84] have shown that the average despinning rate during the Ptz had been about five times smaller than during the Pz. There are no fossil clocks available for the Archaean and Katarchaean, but extrapolating our data set in a plausible way (taking into account in particular the recent work of K.A. Eriksson and E.L. Simpson [Geology, 28 (2000), 831­834], and using a characteristic tidal despinning time of 4.5×109 years), we con- clude that the original LOD was above 9 hours, and probably comprised between 13.0 and 17.5 hours. Hence, using hydrostatic equilibrium theory [C. Denis, M. Amalvict, Y. Rogister and S. Tomecka-Suchon, Geophys. J. Int., 132 (1998), 603­642] we find ´ the values reported in the Table below. Epoch Time BP LOD (hr) f J2 H Early Katarchaean 4.5 Ga 13.0­17.5 0.00665 0.00222 0.00655 Arch/Ptz border 2.5 Ga 19.0 0.00532 0.00172 0.00517 Ptz/Pz border 0.5 Ga 20.5 0.00457 0.00147 0.00445 Late Caenozoic 0.0 Ga 24.0 0.00298 0.00108 0.00327

  16. Rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrid monogeneans on gills of spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) after transfer to a sea-cage.

    PubMed

    Soler-Jiménez, Lilia C; Morales-Serna, Francisco N; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J

    2015-06-15

    Finfish mariculture is typically threatened by parasite and disease outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to identify parasite species of potential risk for this activity. Snappers are valuable food fish worldwide. In the Eastern Pacific, spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus [Steindachner, 1869]) is a firm candidate for sea-cage aquaculture. In the current study, the parasitism of caged L. guttatus by dactylogyrids was evaluated for the first time during a complete farming period. Twenty five thousand juvenile fish produced at the Research Center for Food and Development (CIAD, Mazatlan Unit) were reared in a sentinel sea-cage from February to November 2012 in Mazatlan Bay, Mexico. A fish sample (n=15) was obtained every month. Dactylogyrids from the left second gill arch were identified and quantified. A total of 18,704 dactylogyrids distributed in three species, Euryhaliotrema perezponcei García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008, E. mehen (Soler-Jiménez, García-Gasca and Fajer-Ávila, 2012), and Haliotrematoides guttati García-Vargas, Fajer-Ávila and Lamothe-Argumedo, 2008 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) was found, which were able to infect caged L. guttatus since the first month of the farming period. Prevalence of these parasite species was 100% all the time, except for initial low values for E. mehen and H. guttati. The mean intensity of infection of each dactylogyrid species varied significantly between sampling months. Euryhaliotrema perezponcei was the most abundant parasite, reaching the highest mean intensity in May, June and July (154.3, 296.9 and 176.6 parasites/host, respectively). No clear seasonality of infection was observed; however, the influence of the water temperature on the observed infection levels is discussed. There was no mortality, change on behavior or pathological signs. However, given the rapid infection and proliferation of dactylogyrids, particularly E. perezponcei on L. guttaus reared in a sentinel sea-cage, outbreak of these parasites could be expected when this fish species is cultured on a large scale. PMID:25931028

  17. Various environments of interglacials recorded by Pleistocene paleosoils in Hungary (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Kis, Éva

    2015-04-01

    Based on stable isotope analyses of worldwide reference curves from deep sea, ice core and speleothem records, it has long been apparent that duration, intensity and climatic conditions of different interglacial periods were significantly diverse. As a consequence of negligible fresh, detrital material admixture during interglacials, the soil formation intensity and maturity of various kinds of past soils have been holding vital information on the environmental conditions at the time the soils formed. This, in turn, means that several physical and chemical properties of soils allow us to reconstruct past climatic regimes. Loess-paleosol sequences in Hungary (Central Europe) provide insight into the cyclic nature of glacial-interglacial variations of the last 1 million years. The paleosoils have been recognized as the product of warmer and moister interglacials, when the (glacial) loess material was altered by chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. 12 pedogene units from MIS-19 to MIS-5 strata were analysed in the course of this study, with a special attention to MIS-11 and MIS-19 periods, because of these can be regarded as analogues of the Holocene interglacial (due to the similarities in obliquity and eccentricity). Grain size, geochemical and (clay)mineralogical studies were elaborated and were gathered from previously published papers to quantify past weathering intensity and paleoenvironmental conditions by geochemical climofunctions. The Upper and partly, the Middle Pleistocene loess deposits are intercalated by steppe, forest-steppe and brown forest soils, while the older pedogene horizons are different kinds; these are red, Mediterranean-type soils. The MIS-5 pedocomplex consist of three parts at several Hungarian sites, however the pedogene units cannot be correlated unequivocally with the three MIS-5 warmer substages, due to the scarce absolute age data. The MIS-7 and MIS-9 stages are represented by three forest steppe soils. The MIS-11 pedocomplex and MIS-17 and MIS-19 units are thick and well-developed forest soils, formed under a more humid climate compared to the younger pedogene strata. The geochemical data and climofunctions have been supported well these findings. Contrary to the global loess-paleosoil sequences, the MIS-13 and MIS-15 soils are not so dominant in the Hungarian series. Support of the Hungarian Research Fund OTKA under contract PD108708 (for G. Varga) is gratefully acknowledged. It was additionally supported (for G. Varga) by the Bolyai János Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of immunological methods in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Larrea, Carlos; Duplat, Aglae; Giampietro, Francesca; de Waard, Jacobus H; Luna, Julieta; Singh, Mahavir; Araujo, Zaida

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, better diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) has received increasing attention, especially the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, which is difficult and at present the main tool in TPE diagnostic is pleural effusion smear and culture, but unfortunately, sensitivities are low, therefore better TPE diagnostic tools are needed. The aim of this study was to find a diagnostic algorithm to assess the progress in TPE diagnostic at the Hospital Vargas de Caracas, that permits identification of the majority of patients, at a satisfactory cost-benefit ratio, evaluating the levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12p40 in pleural effusion and serum, as well as the antibody reactivity in order to compare it with microbiological tests. A total of 60 individuals with pleural effusion were studied; 20 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) formed the patient group and 40 patients with non-tuberculous pleural effusion (NTPE) formed the control group. The levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12p40 in effusion and serum and class and subclasses of IgG reactivity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens were measured by ELISA. The utility of these methods for diagnosis of TPE was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The results of the 11 immunological methods evaluated showed that the anti-PPD IgG2 method was able to reach the highest specificity of 95% (CI: 88.3-101.8), positive predictive value (PPV) = 75 (at 30% sensitivity); while that the overall sensitivity of methods was between 95% and 30%, of these, two methods reached higher sensitivities; increased levels of pleural IFN-gamma, with a sensitivity of 95% (CI: 85.5-104.5) with the highest negative predictive value (NPV) = 97, (at 82.5% specificity), followed by decreased levels of serum IL-12p40 with a sensitivity of 95% (CI: 85.5-104.5), NPV = 95.2 (at 50% specificity). In contrast, microbiological methods showed that smear had a sensitivity of only 20%, while smear plus culture had, a sensitivity of 70%. Considering that TPE represents approximately 15 percent of all the TB clinically diagnosed at the Hospital Vargas de Caracas, in those patients with preliminary microbiology negativity in the effusion, the combined analysis of pleural IFN-gamma and anti-PPD IgG2 could represent a fast and effective diagnostic algorithm for improving the diagnosis previous to obtain culture results. In this way treatment against TB could be initiated or the need to cytological and pleural biopsy could be considered. PMID:21612137

  19. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.

  20. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore » swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  1. Investigation of α-resonances in ^10Be using ^6He(,)^6He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchera, Anthony; Rogachev, G. V.; Blackmon, J. C.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Baby, L. T.; Belarge, J. A.; Johnson, E. D.; Koshchiy, E.; Lai, J.; Linhardt, L. E.; Macon, K.; Matos, M.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.

    2012-10-01

    Numerous theoretical and experimental studies have shown the importance of clustering in light nuclei [1]. The Be isotopes have been of particular interest recently due to their exotic two-core α+α+ valence neutrons configurations [2,3,4,5]. Experimentally, (,) reactions are prime tools for studying these structures. In this work, the ^6He+α excitation function in the range of 10 to 18.5 MeV was measured. The ^6He beam was produced with the RESOLUT radioactive beam facility at FSU. Measurements were performed using the active target detector ANASEN [6]. Parameters of the observed states were determined by an R-Matrix analysis. The properties of these resonances in ^10Be will be discussed.[4pt] [1] M. Freer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 2149 (2007).[0pt] [2] A. Dote, H. Horiuchi, and Y. Kanada-Enyo, Phys. Rev. C 56, 1844 (1997).[0pt] [3] N. Itagaki and S. Okabe, Phys. Rev. C 61, 044306 (2000).[0pt] [4] Y. Ogawa, K. Arai, Y. Suzuki, and K. Varga, Nucl. Phys. A 673, 122 (2000).[0pt] [5] M. Freer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 042501 (2006).[0pt] [6] M.Matos, et al., Proc. Intern. Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos XI, July 2010, Heidelberg, Germany, p.226 (2010).

  2. Analysis of the ν_2 Band of the FCO_2 Radical: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Střižík, M.; Beckers, H.; Willner, H.; Zelinger, Z.; Pracna, P.; Nevrlý, V.; Grigorová, E.

    2009-06-01

    The unique fluoroformyloxyl radical (FCO_2) is assumed to participate in atmospheric processes such as the degradation of hydrofluorocarbons that have been considered as chlorofluorocarbon substitutes. Despite this atmospheric interest, the molecular and spectroscopic properties of FCO_2 have not yet sufficiently been explored. The high resolution FT IR gas phase spectrum of the fluoroformyloxyl (FCO_2) radical was recorded in the 650 - 1500 cm^{-1} spectral range at the University of Wuppertal. Using this spectrum and the ground state parameters achieved recently we carried out the first high resolution study of the ν_2 A-type band (C-F stretching mode) centered at 970.209 cm^{-1}. The analysis was difficult because the band is congested. In addition the spin doublets are difficult to identify except for high K_a values. However, we could take advantage of the fact that only K_a=odd values are observable for symmetry reasons. The line position calculation accounts for the spin rotation doubling and for the Fermi-type resonances linking the 2^1 and 5^2 spin rotation energy levels. [1] Kolesnikova, Varga, Beckers, Simeckova, Zelinger, Nova Striteska, Kania, Willner, and Urban, J. Chem Phys 128, 224 (2008)

  3. An oxygen-deficiency modulated multiferroic: Cobalt-substituted perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, Juan Manuel

    In this work, we use density functional theory to model recently demonstrated room temperature ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in polycrystalline and single crystal Cobalt-substituted SrTiO3 thin films (SrTi0.70Co0.30O3-d), deposited at different oxygen pressures to change their oxygen vacancy concentration. The modeling indicates an origin for both magnetism and electric polarization in the interactions between oxygen vacancies and the B-site cations. The magnetization saturation increases with the oxygen deficiency as a result of valence spin states changes, which depend on whether the oxygen octahedral of the respective local B-site cations are complete or not. On the other hand, a finite electric polarization appears as a result of a non-centrosymmetric distribution of different resulting local charges and such a polarization increases when the oxygen vacancies increase. Increasing of both order parameters, magnetic and ferroelectric, are analyzed respect to all possible Co-sites and O-vacancies distributions, showing that these results suggest a class of multiferroic materials with properties controlled by their oxygen stoichiometry. Agreement and discrepancies between experiments and modeling are discussed. 1J M Florez and P Vargas thank Fondecyt 1130950 and 11130128, all authors thank the MISTI MIT-Chile, and CAR thanks the (S3TEC) and DoE under DE-SC0001299.

  4. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. It is shown that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.

  5. The Surface Science of Metal Oxides: A Step Towards More 'Realistic' Model Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, Ulrike

    1998-11-01

    Surface science has developed at a rapid pace over the past thirty years. The tools available to surface scientists, foremost the atomic probe microscopes, allow fundamental studies on the atomic level with unprecedented detail and beautiful insights. In recent years, there has been a push towards understanding more 'realistic' model systems, beyond single crystalline elemental semiconductor or metal surfaces. Our research group is predominantly interested in surface science investigations of metal oxide materials. One particularly well-studied system, the (110) surface of rutile titanium dioxide, will be discussed in this talk. Although a large body of work on the physics and chemistry of this material has been published,(V.E. Henrich and P.A. Cox, The Surface Science of Metal Oxides, Cambridge University Press 1994) very basic questions, such as: What is actually imaged with a scanning tunneling microscope? (U. Diebold, J.F. Anderson, K.-O. Ng, and D. Vanderbilt PRL 77 (7) (1996) 1322-1325) and: How do common surface preparation procedures affect surface morphology? (M. Li, W. Hebenstreit and U. Diebold Surf. Sci. Lett. 414 (1/2) (1998) L951-9) have been addressed only recently. Answering these questions allows insights into the very unusual adsorption behavior of chlorine molecules,(U. Diebold, G. Leonardelli, W. Hebenstreit, M. Schmid and P. Varga PRL 81 (2) (1998) 405-408) and the encapsulation of deposited group-VIII metals that occurs upon heating TiO2 to high temperatures in a reducing atmosphere.

  6. Towards a hyperspherical description of positronium-positronium scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Stecher, Javier; Greene, Chris H.

    2012-06-01

    The interest in the scattering properties of the positronium (Ps) has grown with the possibility of creating a Bose-Einstein condensate of matter-antimatter. Such an experimental realization would not only permit an exploration of quantum effects at macroscopic temperatures, but it would also contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the Ps2 molecule and more conventional molecules like H2. A deep understanding of positronium's collisional properties is crucial for cooling techniques and for the realization of a Bose-Einstein condensate. A hyperspherical analysis of this four-body system with two electrons and two positrons allow us not only to benchmark calculations of the Ps-Ps scattering length which have been previously studied (see e.g. Ref. [1]) but also to analyze recombination processes such as Ps+e+e^+ -> Ps+Ps or Ps^- + e^+, etc... We extend previous implementations of the correlated Gaussian hyperspherical method [2] to describe four-body systems with Coulomb interactions. The results from this hyperspherical analysis are compared with previous studies and correlated Gaussian calculations. [4pt] [1] I. A. Ivanov, J. Mitroy, and K. Varga. Phys. Rev. A 65, 022704 (2002)[0pt] [2] J. von Stecher and C.H. Greene. Phys. Rev. A 80, 22504(2009)

  7. Towards guidelines for post-disaster vulnerability reduction in informal settlements.

    PubMed

    Doberstein, Brent; Stager, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Although the development community has long recognised that securing land tenure and improving housing design can benefit significantly informal settlement residents, there is little research on these issues in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. Informal settlements often are located on land left vacant because of inherent risks, such as floodplains, and there is a long history worldwide of disasters affecting informal settlements. This research tackles the following questions: how can informal settlement vulnerabilities be reduced in a post-disaster setting?; and what are the key issues to address in post-disaster reconstruction? The main purpose of the paper is to develop a set of initial guidelines for post-disaster risk reduction in informal settlements, stressing connections to tenure and housing/community design in the reconstruction process. The paper examines disaster and reconstruction responses in two disaster-affected regions-Jimani, Dominican Republic, and Vargas State, Venezuela-where informal settlements have been hit particularly hard. PMID:23067444

  8. A new Brazilian Passiflora leafminer: Spinivalva gaucha, gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae), the first gracillariid without a sap-feeding instar

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Vargas, Hector A.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male, female, pupa, larva and egg of a new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Gracillariinae), Spinivalva gaucha Moreira and Vargas from southern Brazil are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences including members of related lineages is also provided. The immature stages are associated with Passiflora actinia, Passiflora misera and Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae), and build mines on the adaxial leaf surface. Initially the mines are serpentine in shape, but later in larval ontogeny become a blotch type. Although the larvae are hypermetamorphic as in other Gracillariidae, there is no sap-feeding instar in Spinivalva gaucha; the larva feeds on the palisade parenchyma, thus producing granular frass during all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine; prior to pupating, the larva excretes numerous bubbles that are placed in rows on the lateral margins of the cocoon external surface. This is the second genus of gracillariid moth described for the Atlantic Rain Forest, and the second gracillariid species known to be associated with Passifloraceae. PMID:23794860

  9. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore »swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  10. Geomorphic effects of large debris flows and flash floods, northern Venezuela, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, M.C.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    A rare, high-magnitude storm in northern Venezuela in December 1999 triggered debris flows and flash floods, and caused one of the worst natural disasters in the recorded history of the Americas. Some 15,000 people were killed. The debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities on alluvial fans at the mouths of a coastal mountain drainage network and destroyed property estimated at more than $2 billion. Landslides were abundant and widespread on steep slopes within areas underlain by schist and gneiss from near the coast to slightly over the crest of the mountain range. Some hillsides were entirely denuded by single or coalescing failures, which formed massive debris flows in river channels flowing out onto densely populated alluvial fans at the coast. The massive amount of sediment derived from 24 watersheds along 50 km of the coast during the storm and deposited on alluvial fans and beaches has been estimated at 15 to 20 million m3. Sediment yield for the 1999 storm from the approximately 200 km2 drainage area of watersheds upstream of the alluvial fans was as much as 100,000 m3/km2. Rapid economic development in this dynamic geomorphic environment close to the capital city of Caracas, in combination with a severe rain storm, resulted in the death of approximately 5% of the population (300,000 total prior to the storm) in the northern Venezuelan state of Vargas. ?? 2006 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  11. Socio-economic characteristics of the Cachoeira de Emas small-scale fishery in Mogi-Guaçu River, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peixer, J; Petrere Júnior, M

    2009-11-01

    Fishing in the area of Cachoeira de Emas dates from the aboriginal Painguás who inhabited its margins. The socioeconomic conditions of the fishers and fishing are described, derived from personal interviews with 33 fishers. Their mean age is 48.6 years and they have been fishing on average for 24.2 years. The monthly total raw income is US$ 575.52 and the raw income just from fishing is of US$ 239.64 per fisher. Most of them (66.6%) have only incomplete primary and junior education. The main capture species are curimba Prochilodus lineatus, piapara Leporinus obtusidens, dourado Salminus brasiliensis, mandi Pimelodus maculatus, Pimelodus heraldoi and lambari (genus Astyanax and Roeboides). Fishers capture an average of 19.9 kg of fish per day. The total average raw income just calculated from the interviews is very high when compared with other places in Brazil and in the world, and above the poverty line as defined by the Getúlio Vargas Foundation. So we may conclude there these fishers are not the poorest in society. PMID:19967175

  12. Which Single Intervention Would Do the Most to Improve the Health of Those Living on Less Than $1 Per Day?

    PubMed Central

    Yamey, Gavin

    2007-01-01

    Background to the debate: PLoS Medicine is participating in the Council of Science Editors' global theme issue on poverty and human development on October 22, 2007 (http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/globalthemeissue.cfm). Over 200 scientific and medical journals are taking part. For our theme issue, we asked a wide variety of commentators worldwide—including clinicians, medical researchers, health reporters, policy makers, health activists, and development experts—to name the single intervention that they think would improve the health of those living in poverty. We also asked four individuals living in poor, rural agricultural communities in the Santillana district, province of Huanta, Ayacucho, Peru to give us their response to the question, “What do you think would do the most to improve your health and the health of your family?” (The four community members were Severino Rojas Poma, Mercedes Vargas Soto, Julián De La Cruz Chahua, and Martín Rojas Poma). Our October 2007 Editorial discusses this debate further. PMID:17958464

  13. Thermopower Puck for Measurement of Thermodynamic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Andres; Fukuda, Ryan; Soliz, Nicholas; Ho, Pei-Chun

    2014-03-01

    A thermopower puck was created in order to measure the thermoelectric power and thermal conductance of strongly correlated electron materials from 10K to 300K. The puck consists of a 2k Ω resistivity heater and 2 thermometers. The heater is connected to the top of the sample and applies heat until thermal equilibrium is reached. This creates a temperature gradient across the sample and is read by the 2 thermometers, one reading the hotter temperature and the other reading the colder temperature. The wire that is used as the thermal anchor for the high temperature thermometer, which is electrically isolated from thermometer, is also used as one of the leads to measure the thermal voltage produced across the sample. To calibrate the measurement probe, the thermoelectric power and thermal conductance of a nickel sample, which was purchased from Quantum Design, was measured. The data obtained qualitatively agrees with the literature data provided to us by Quantum Design. For future work, we will be using the measurement probe to investigate the thermodynamic properties of intermetallic compounds. Research at CSU-Fresno is supported by NSF DMR-1104544. Felipe Vargas is also supported by Undergraduate Research Grant at CSU Fresno.

  14. The dorsal chaetotaxy of first instar Trogolaphysa jataca, with description of twelve new species of Neotropical Trogolaphysa (Hexapoda: Collembola: Paronellidae).

    PubMed

    Soto-Adames, Felipe N

    2015-01-01

    Adult members of tribe Paronellini are characterized by a substantially reduced idiochaetotaxy and as a result chaeta homology determination is often ambiguous. To evaluate previous hypotheses of chaetae homology in adult Trogolaphysa, a complete description of the dorsal chaetotaxy of first instar Trogolaphysa jataca (Wray, 1953b), supplemented with observations on first instar Trogolaphysa paracarpenteri sp. nov., is presented. It is showed that first instar Trogolaphysa carries an almost complete set of dorsal chaetae and that the reduction in adult idiochaetotaxy is secondary. In addition, the organization of primary chaetae in T. jataca points to a closer relationship with genera in subfamily Entomobryinae than to Orchesellinae. Based on chaetae correspondence between first instar and adult T. jataca it is established that the inner median chaetae on adult head corresponds to M1 instead of S1, the mesothorax p3 complex includes chaetae p1-p4, and on the fourth abdominal segment, anterior macrochaeta on column A corresponds to A3, and the secondary bothriotrix corresponds to D3p. In addition, T. relicta (Palacios-Vargas, Ojeda & Christiansen, 1985) is re-described based on a paratype, and 12 new species are described: from Mexico, T. stannardi sp. nov., T. dimorphica sp. nov., T. laterolineata sp. nov., T. marieloiseae sp. nov., T. clarencei sp. nov., T. ocellata sp. nov., T. paracarpenteri sp. nov., T. palaciosi sp. nov., T. octosetosa sp. nov., and T. trioculata sp. nov.; from Jamaica, T. balteata sp. nov.; and from Argentina, T. entreriosensis sp. nov. PMID:26624337

  15. Source identification of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and sediments from Iguaçu River Watershed, Paraná, Brazil using the CHEMSIC method (CHEMometric analysis of Selected Ion Chromatograms).

    PubMed

    Gallotta, Fabiana D C; Christensen, Jan H

    2012-04-27

    A chemometric method based on principal component analysis (PCA) of pre-processed and combined sections of selected ion chromatograms (SICs) is used to characterise the hydrocarbon profiles in soil and sediment from Araucária, Guajuvira, General Lúcio and Balsa Nova Municipalities (Iguaçu River Watershed, Paraná, Brazil) and to indicate the main sources of hydrocarbon pollution. The study includes 38 SICs of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and four of petroleum biomarkers in two separate analyses. The most contaminated samples are inside the Presidente Getúlio Vargas Refinery area. These samples represent a petrogenic pattern and different weathering degrees. Samples from outside the refinery area are either less or not contaminated, or contain mixtures of diagenetic, pyrogenic and petrogenic inputs where different proportions predominate. The locations farthest away from industrial activity (Balsa Nova) contains the lowest levels of PAC contamination. There are no evidences to conclude positive matches between the samples from outside the refinery area and the Cusiana spilled oil. PMID:22417888

  16. Is reasoning from counterfactual antecedents evidence for counterfactual reasoning?

    PubMed Central

    Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef

    2011-01-01

    In most developmental studies the only error children could make on counterfactual tasks was to answer with the current state of affairs. It was concluded that children who did not show this error are able to reason counterfactually. However, children might have avoided this error by using basic conditional reasoning (Rafetseder, Cristi-Vargas, & Perner, 2010). Basic conditional reasoning takes an antecedent, which like in counterfactual reasoning can be counter to fact, and combines it with a conditional (or set of conditionals reflecting knowledge of how the world works) to draw a likely conclusion. A critical feature of counterfactual reasoning then is that these additional assumptions be modelled after the actual events to which the counterfactual is taken to be counterfactual. In contrast in basic conditional reasoning one enriches the given antecedent with any plausible assumptions. In our tasks basic conditional reasoning leads to different answers than counterfactual reasoning. For instance, a doctor, sitting in the park with the intention to read a paper, is called to an emergency at the swimming pool. The question, “if there had been no emergency, where would the doctor be?” should counterfactually be answered “in the park”. But ignoring the doctor’s intentions and just reasoning on plausible grounds one might answer: “in the hospital”. Only by 6 years, did children give mostly correct answers. PMID:22187537

  17. Measurements of the Diameter and Velocity Distributions of Atomized Tablet-Coating Solutions for Pharmaceutical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterday, Kathryn; Aliseda, Alberto; Lasheras, Juan

    2009-11-01

    The atomization of colloidal suspensions is of particular interest to the manufacturing of tablets and pills used as drug delivery systems by the pharmaceutical industry. At various stages in the manufacturing process, the tablets are coated with a spray of droplets produced by co-axial atomizers. The mechanisms of droplet size and spray formation in these types of atomizers are dominated by Kelvin-Helmholtz and Raleigh-Taylor instabilities for both low[1] and high[2] Ohnesorge numbers. We present detailed phase Doppler measurements of the Sauter Mean Diameter of the droplets produced by co-axial spray atomizers using water-based colloidal suspensions with solid concentrations ranging from fifteen to twenty percent and acetone-based colloidal suspensions with solid concentrations ranging from five to ten percent. Our results compare favorably with predictions by Aliseda's model. This suggests that the final size distribution is mainly determined by the instabilities caused by the sudden acceleration of the liquid interface. [1]Varga, C. M., et al. (2003) J. Fluid Mech. 497:405-434 [2]Aliseda, A. et al. (2008). J. Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 34(2), 161-175.

  18. [The way we were. On the centenary of the first Spanish Congress of Paediatrics in Palma de Mallorca (1914-2014)].

    PubMed

    Ponte Hernando, F; Zafra Anta, M; Fernndez Menndez, J M; Gorrotxategi Gorrotxategi, P; Bassat, Q; Fernndez Teijeiro, J J; de Arana Amurrio, J I; Garca Nieto, V

    2014-06-01

    Between the 19th and 25th April 1914, the First Spanish Congress of Paediatrics was held in Palma de Mallorca under the slogan "Protect the Children". The specialty had broken away a few years earlier from its secular connection with Obstetrics and Gynaecology, both in its teaching aspect as well as regarding healthcare. With the newly created Chairs in Childhood Diseases, in a way this Congress meant the coming-of age and debut int society of paediatrics in our country. Prof. Martnez Vargas, a university professor in Barcelona, was the Chairman, and soul of the congress. There was a need to face a very high rate of infant mortality. The Congress responded to that social and sanitary/health demand with the participation of over three hundred pediatricians, including foreign representatives from Belgium, France, Russia and Latin America. The activities were divided into four sections: Childcare, Child Medicine, Surgery and Health, and accredited lecturers gave master classes on the most pressing issues of child pathology of the time. One hundred years on, what we are today is the fruit gathered by those who preceded us. Some were brilliant figures in paediatrics and others, the majority, anonymous paediatricians. They dedicated their lives, their science and their best smile to child care. The way we were and the way we are. With legitimate pride and satisfaction, it is an honour for the Group on the History of Paediatrics and AEP Documentation to celebrate this centennial commemoration in the framework of the Annals of Paediatrics. PMID:24767461

  19. Optical spectroscopy of atomic and molecular positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, A. P., Jr.

    2014-04-01

    Positronium (Ps) is a purely leptonic hydrogen-like atom formed from an electron and a positron. Since the interactions of electrons and positrons are thought to be almost entirely electromagnetic, precision measurements of the Ps energy levels should constitute a good test of QED theory. The ultimate precision is limited by the rapid annihilation of the various Ps states and the number of Ps atoms available. Much progress in making better Ps sources has been made since the 1950's when Ps was discovered and its principle characteristics measured in by the pioneering experiments of Martin Deutsch. The most notable milestones were the first reproducible schemes for making slow positrons and Ps in vacuum by Canter and his co-workers in the 1970's and the discovery of the enabling technology for accumulating slow positrons by Surko and co-workers in 1989. These techniques have made it possible to generate high density bursts of slow Ps atoms that has led to the production of di-positronium molecules, Ps2, and the observation of the Lyman-alpha-like transition in Ps2 at a wavelength of 251 nm predicted by Varga and co-workers. The possibilities for 1S-2S spectroscopy of triplet and singlet Ps with precisions relevant to the proton charge radius problem and efficient production of slow Rydberg Ps atoms useful for measuring Ps free fall are discussed.

  20. Using Vertical Panoramic Images to Record a Historic Cemetery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Polidori, L.; Hasegawa, J. K.; Camargo, P. O.; Hirao, H.; Moraes, M. V. A.; Rissate, E. A., Jr.; Henrique, G. R.; Abreu, P. A. G.; Berveglieri, A.; Marcato, J., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    In 1919, during colonization of the West Region of São Paulo State, Brazil, the Ogassawara family built a cemetery and a school with donations received from the newspaper Osaka Mainichi Shimbum, in Osaka, Japan. The cemetery was closed by President Getúlio Vargas in 1942, during the Second World War. The architecture of the Japanese cemetery is a unique feature in Latin America. Even considering its historical and cultural relevance, there is a lack of geometric documentation about the location and features of the tombs and other buildings within the cemetery. As an alternative to provide detailed and fast georeferenced information about the area, it is proposed to use near vertical panoramic images taken with a digital camera with fisheye lens as the primary data followed by bundle adjustment and photogrammetric restitution. The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study on the proposed technique with the assessment of the results with a strip of five panoramic images, taken over some graves in the Japanese cemetery. The results showed that a plant in a scale of 1 : 200 can be produced with photogrammetric restitution at a very low cost, when compared to topographic surveying or laser scanning. The paper will address the main advantages of this technique as well as its drawbacks, with quantitative analysis of the results achieved in this experiment.

  1. Efficient excision of phage lambda from the Escherichia coli chromosome requires the Fis protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, C A; Johnson, R C

    1991-01-01

    The Escherichia coli protein Fis has been shown to bind a single site in the recombination region of phage lambda and to stimulate excisive recombination in vitro (J. F. Thompson, L. Moitoso de Vargas, C. Koch, R. Kahmann, and A. Landy, Cell 50:901-908, 1987). We demonstrate that mutant strains deficient in fis expression show dramatically reduced rates of lambda excision in vivo. Phage yields after induction of a stable lysogen are reduced more than 200-fold in fis cells. The defect observed in phage yield is not due to inefficient phage replication or lytic growth. Direct examination of excisive recombination products reveals a severe defect in the rate of recombination in the absence of Fis. The excision defect observed in fis cells can be fully reproduced in fis+ cells by using phages that lack the Fis binding site on attR, indicating that the entire stimulatory effect of Fis on excisive recombination is due to binding at that site. Images PMID:1829453

  2. [Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].

    PubMed

    Schenone, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies). PMID:11338977

  3. Calorimetric Quantification of Cyclodextrin-Mediated Detergent Extraction for Membrane-Protein Reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Textor, Martin; Keller, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    For many in vitro studies, purified membrane proteins need to be reconstituted from detergent micelles into lipid bilayers to regain their native structures and functions. Stoichiometric complexation of detergent by cyclodextrin provides a tightly controllable strategy for detergent extraction. Here, we describe a practical approach making use of isothermal titration calorimetry to obtain a complete set of thermodynamic parameters that allows for quantitative prediction of the transition from micelles to bilayer membranes during reconstitution. These parameters include the dissociation constant of the cyclodextrin/detergent inclusion complex, the critical micellar concentration of the detergent, and the phase boundaries of the lipid/detergent phase diagram. The underlying theoretical framework involves linked equilibria among all pseudophases, as described previously (Textor, Vargas, & Keller, 2015). This chapter focuses on practical aspects of the approach and discusses caveats and calorimetry-specific details of data analysis. With the entire parameter set at hand, exploration of different reconstitution trajectories within the lipid/detergent phase diagram is possible. Together with the straightforward control over the rate of detergent extraction offered by cyclodextrin complexation, this opens the possibility of systematically tuning and optimizing the reconstitution process of membrane proteins. Provided some particular precautions are taken, the approach can be adapted to many other combinations of proteins, lipids, detergents, and cyclodextrins. PMID:26794353

  4. Germination and initial growth of Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg. (Myrtaceae), in petroleum-contaminated soil and bioremediated soil.

    PubMed

    Gogosz, A M; Bona, C; Santos, G O; Botosso, P C

    2010-11-01

    In 2000 there was an oil spill at the Getúlio Vargas Refinery (REPAR) in Paraná. Nearly five years after contamination and the use of bioremediation, a study was carried out to identify the effects of the contaminated soil and the bioremediated soil on the germination and initial growth of C. xanthocarpa. The experiment was established with soil from REPAR, with three treatment groups: contaminated soil (C), bioremediated soil (B) and uncontaminated soil (U); with five repetitions of 50 seeds each. There was no significant difference in the percentage of germination and the speed of germination index. The production of total biomass (30 - 60 days) and shoot biomass (60 days) was greater in the bioremediated soil compared to the other treatments. The averages for the root biomass were lower in the contaminated soil than in the bioremediated soil. The shoot length and the total length of the seedling in the contaminated soil and uncontaminated soil were lower than in the bioremediated soil. PMID:21180902

  5. Effects of particle optical properties on grain size measurements of aeolian dust deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Szalai, Zoltán

    2015-04-01

    Particle size data are holding crucial information on the sedimentary environment at the time the aeolian dust deposits were accumulated. Various aspects of aeolian sedimentation (wind strength, distance to source(s), possible secondary source regions and modes of sedimentation and transport) can be reconstructed from proper grain size distribution data. Laser diffraction methods provide much more accurate and reliable information on the major granulometric properties of wind-blown sediments compared to the sieve and pipette methods. The Fraunhofer and Mie scattering theories are generally used for laser diffraction grain size measurements. () The two different approaches need different 'background' information on the medium measured. During measurements following the Fraunhofer theory, the basic assumption is that parcticles are relatively large (over 25-30 µm) and opaque. The Mie theory could offer more accurate data on smaller fractions (clay and fine silt), assuming that a proper, a'priori knowledge on refraction and absorption indices exists, which is rarely the case for polymineral samples. This study is aimed at determining the effects of different optical parameters on grain size distributions (e.g. clay-content, median, mode). Multiple samples collected from Hungarian red clay and loess-paleosol records have been analysed using a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 laser diffraction particle sizer (with a Hydro LV unit). Additional grain size measurements have been made on a Fritsch Analysette 22 Microtec and a Horiba Partica La-950 v2 instrument to investigate possible effects of the used laser sources with different wavelengths. XRF and XRD measurements have also been undertaken to gain insight into the geochemical/mineralogical compositions of the samples studied. Major findings include that measurements using the Mie theory provide more accurate data on the grain size distribution of aeolian dust deposits, when we use a proper optical setting. Significant differences between the Mie and Fraunhofer approaches have been found for the finest grain size fractions, while only slight discrepancies were observed for the medium to coarse silt fractions. Since the two approaches gave similar results for the medium to coarse silt fractions that are the most abundant in loess, the use of the different approaches has no appreciable effect on the mode of the distributions. (Actually, the Fraunhofer theory can be regarded as an approximate expression of the Mie scattering theory). In conclusion, the two different applied theories and also the optical settings of Mie theory have had significant effects on the finer tail of the aeolian grain size distributions. Support of the Hungarian Research Fund OTKA under contracts PD108708 (for G. Varga) and PD108639 (for G. Újvári) are gratefully acknowledged. It was additionally supported (for G. Varga) by the Bolyai János Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

  6. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC Colombia e-mail: dalandinezt@unal.edu.co Professor Laura T Corredor Bohórquez Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: ltcorredorb@df.ufpe.br Professor Arkady Shanenko Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: arkadyshanenko@df.ufpe.br Professor Renato F Jardim Instituto de Física Universidade de S\\~ao Paulo CP 66318 S\\~ao Paulo SP Brazil e-mail: rjardim@if.usp.br Professor Francois Peeters Department Fysica Universiteit Antwerpen Groneneborgerlann 171 B-2020, Antwerpen Belgium e-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be Organizing committee ChairmanCarlos Arturo Parra Vargas Proceedings EditorJosé Albino Aguiar Program ChairJairo Roa-Rojas SecretaryAura Janeth Barón González TreasurerArmando Sarmiento Santos Speaker ChairRafael González Hernández Fernando Naranjo Mayorga David A Landínez Téllez Jesús Oswaldo Morán José Sierra Ortega

  7. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    The Chilean Physics Symposium is the main gathering of Physics in Chile, and its organization is one of the central activities of the Chilean Physical Society (Sociedad Chilena de Física, SOCHIFI). The Symposium assembles the largest number of Chilean and foreign physicists resident in the country. Recent advances in the various research areas in Physics are presented, by researchers from Universities and national research centres. At the same time this is an occasion for the participation of Physics students from both the pre- and post-graduate programs. The Symposium has gathered continuously every two years, since 1978. The organization of the XV symposium was in charge of the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, and it took place on 15-17 November 2006, at La Reina Nuclear Studies Centre, in the city of Santiago, Chile. During this symposium the relation of research in Physics with education and with the productive sector in the country was also analysed. During the Symposium, 121 abstracts were submitted, from 255 authors. All authors were invited to submit articles for publication in the Symposium Proceedings. The articles received were reviewed by the Symposium Scientific Committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focussed on the demand for a consistent piece of research, and a clear statement of results. Most of the articles received report the work of research groups where advanced students and young investigators are prominent. Thanks to their enthusiasm, 52 articles are presented in this issue. We would like to express our appreciation to their authors. Finally, my personal apology is in order regarding my delay in publishing these proceedings. A sequence of personal and professional highly demanding circumstances have been in the way. I would like to thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series for providing very fast publication of the proceedings, having published them online less than 4 weeks after my initial contact with the journal. Leopoldo Soto President, Chilean Physical Society Head of Plasma Department, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission Editors: Leopoldo Soto, José Moreno, Ricardo Ávila, Karla Cubillos Scientific Committee Physicists from various research institutions, specialty areas, and regions of the country were invited by the Board of SOCHIFI to join the Symposium Scientific Committee, which was formed by: Julio Yánez, Universidad de Antofagasta Sergio del Campo, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso Patricio Vargas, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María Rodrigo Soto, Universidad de Chile Ulrich Volkmann, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Víctor Muñoz, Universidad de Chile Rodrigo Aros, Universidad Andrés Bello Leopoldo Soto (Chairman), Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Luis Huerta, Universidad de Talca Patricio Salgado, Universidad de Concepción Luis Roa, Universidad de Concepción Asticio Vargas, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco Cristian Martínez, Centro de Estudios Científicos, Valdivia Organizing Commitee Leopoldo Soto (Chairman), Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Erik Herrera, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear José Moreno, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Andrea Rozas, Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear Rodrigo Aros, Universidad Andrés Bello Gonzalo Gutiérrez, Universidad de Chile Executive Board, Chilean Physical Society April 2006 - April 2008 Leopoldo Soto, President Joel Saavedra, Secretary Rodrigo Aros: Treasurer Rodolfo Figueroa: Director Luis Huerta: Director Conference photograph

  8. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  9. HII regions evolution: by using POPSTAR evolutionary synthesis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollá, M.; Martín-Manjón, M.; García-Vargas, M.

    2011-11-01

    We show the results from a series of papers where we present the POPSTAR evolutionary synthesis models. The ionizing Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) are those obtained by the POPSTAR code (Mollá et al. 2009, MNRAS, 398, 451) for 6 different metallicities, with a very low metallicity set, Z=0.0001, not included in previous similar works. We compute the synthetic emission line spectra of HII regions ionized by young star clusters by combining the cluster SEDs with the photoionization code CLOUDY, for 7 values of the cluster mass and ages ranging between 0.1 and 5.2 Myr (Martín-Manjón et al. 2010, MNRAS, 403, 2012). We assume that the radius of each HII region is the distance at which the ionized gas is deposited by the action of the mechanical energy of massive star winds and supernovae from the central ionizing young cluster. This allows us to eliminate the ionization parameter u as a free argument, since now its value is set from the cluster physical properties (mass, age and metallicity) and from the chemical gas properties (hydrogen density and abundances). Finally we calculate the contribution of these emission lines to the broad band colors (García-Vargas et al. 2010, in prep.). The color-color diagram are strongly affected, and consequently the interpretation of stellar properties from photometrical observations. All products are available in the VO, in the VizieR On-line Data Catalog: J/MNRAS/398/451 and in the FRACTAL web page http://www.fractal-es.com.

  10. Distinguishing Morphotypes of Foraminifera Orbulina Universa Using Shell Morphometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. J.; Thunell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several recent genetic studies have revealed that many morphologically defined planktonic foraminiferal species contain multiple distinct cryptic or pseudocryptic genetic variants. In some cases, such as with the genetic variants of Globigerinoides ruber, past taxonomic "lumping" may be easily revised within the framework of the morphospecies concept. However, some planktonic foraminiferal cryptic species are not easily differentiated from one another based on identifiable morphological differences, as is the case with Orbulina universa cryptic species (Morard et al., 2009). Based on recent findings, it is believed that several of these O. universa cryptic species differ in their habitat preferences (Darling et al., 1999,2000; de Vargas et al., 1999, 2001), and the lumping of these cryptic species could possibly account for a significant amount of the noise observed in various paleoclimate records derived from this species (Kucera and Darling, 2002). The current study uses foraminiferal morphometrics (area density, Marshall et al., 2013, thickness and weight-diameter realtionships) to identify distinct groupings of individual Orbulina universa specimens collected from sediment trap samples in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. The study reveals three distinct groups of individuals, varying in their test thicknesses and pore space distribution, which likely correspond to the previously identified cryptic species of O. universa. We find significant differences in the isotopic compositions of these groupings - suggesting that the identified morphotypes differ in their habitat preferences. These morphotypes also exhibit different relationships with the measured hydrographic parameters and their relative distribution can be linked to changes in upwelling and non-upwelling hydrographic regimes. We agree with the results of previous studies that suggest different cryptic species should not be treated as ecophenotypic variants and need to be distinguished from one another during proxy development and application.

  11. Novel variants of human SCaMC-3, an isoform of the ATP-Mg/Pi mitochondrial carrier, generated by alternative splicing from 3′-flanking transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    CaMCs (calcium-dependent mitochondrial carriers) represent a novel subfamily of metabolite carriers of mitochondria. The ATP-Mg/Pi co-transporter, functionally characterized more than 20 years ago, has been identified to be a CaMC member. There are three isoforms of the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier in mammals, SCaMC-1 (short CaMC-1), -2 and -3 (or APC-1, -3 and -2 respectively), corresponding to the genes SLC25A24, SLC25A25 and SLC25A23 respectively, as well as six N-terminal variants generated by alternative splicing for SCaMC-1 and -2 isoforms. In the present study, we describe four new variants of human SCaMC-3 generated by alternative splicing. The new mRNAs use the exon 9 3′-donor site and distinct 5′-acceptor sites from repetitive elements, in regions downstream of exon 10, the last exon in all SCaMCs. Transcripts lacking exon 10 (SCaMC-3b, -3b′, -3c and -3d) code for shortened proteins lacking the last transmembrane domain of 422, 456 and 435 amino acids, and were found in human tissues and HEK-293T cells. Mitochondrial targeting of overexpressed SCaMC-3 variants is incomplete. Surprisingly, the import impairment is overcome by removing the N-terminal extension of these proteins, suggesting that the hydrophilic N-terminal domain also participates in the mitochondrial import process, as shown for the CaMC members aralar and citrin [Roesch, Hynds, Varga, Tranebjaerg and Koehler (2004) Hum. Mol. Genet. 13, 2101–2111]. PMID:15801905

  12. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ: a potential link between chronic maternal hypoxia and impaired fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Colleen G.; Yang, Ivana V.; Browne, Vaughn A.; Vargas, Enrique; Rodriguez, Carmelo; Pedersen, Brent S.; Moore, Lorna G.; Schwartz, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to hypoxia raises the risk of pregnancy disorders characterized by maternal vascular dysfunction and diminished fetal growth. In an effort to identify novel pathways for these hypoxia-related effects, we assessed gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 43 female, high-altitude or sea-level residents in the nonpregnant state or during pregnancy (20 or 36 wk). Hypoxia-related fetal growth restriction becomes apparent between 25 and 29 wk of gestation and continues until delivery. Our sampling strategy was designed to capture changes occurring before (20 wk) and during (36 wk) the time frame of slowed fetal growth. PBMC gene expression profiles were generated using human gene expression microarrays and compared between altitudes. Biological pathways were identified using pathway analysis. Modest transcriptional differences were observed between altitudes in the nonpregnant state. Of the genes that were differentially expressed at high altitude vs. sea level during pregnancy (20 wk: 59 probes mapped to 41 genes; 36 wk: 985 probes mapped to 700 genes), several are of pathological relevance for fetal growth restriction. In particular, transcriptional changes were consistent with the negative regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) at high altitude; such effects were accompanied by reduced birth weight (P <0.05) and head circumference (P <0.01) at high altitude vs. sea level. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to hypoxia during pregnancy alters maternal gene expression patterns in general and, in particular, expression of key genes involved in metabolic homeostasis that have been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction.—Julian, C. G., Yang, I. V., Browne, V. A., Vargas, E., Rodriguez, C., Pedersen, B. S., Moore, L. G., Schwartz, D. A. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ: a potential link between chronic maternal hypoxia and impaired fetal growth. PMID:24307415

  13. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level. PMID:23885585

  14. Joint Inversion of Seismic and Gravity Data for Velocity Structure and Hypocentral Locations of the Colombian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Maceira, M.; Prieto, G. A.; Zhang, H.; Ammon, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Joint inversions of geophysical data recover models that simultaneously fit multiple types of constraints while playing upon the various sensitivities of each data type. Here, we combine body wave arrival times with surface wave dispersion measurements and gravity observations to develop a combined 3D P- and S-wave velocity model for the crust and upper mantle of Colombia. P- and S-wave arrival times were obtained for local earthquakes from instruments in the Colombian National Seismic Network. Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for using a subset of network stations and larger local earthquakes. Gravity observations were extracted from the global satellite-based model EGM2008. Preliminary results using body waves only show reduced velocities beneath the volcanic arc in the upper 25 km of the crust. Crustal velocities are also reduced from the 1D starting model beneath the Eastern Cordillera in the northern half of the country. Relocations of intermediate-depth seismicity clearly indicate a discontinuity in the slab centered 5° N latitude, where the southern portion of the slab is ~200 km trenchward of the northern portion, coincident with the termination of arc volcanism and in recent years interpreted as due to a slab tear [Vargas and Mann, 2013]. Seismicity below 100 km depth in the southern portion of the subduction zone­­­ is surrounded by a ~100-km-thick region of elevated velocities, associated with the subduction of the Nazca Plate, and embedded within a broader region of reduced velocities. The northern portion of the subduction zone at 100 km depth and below is characterized by a broad region of elevated velocities, which may be consistent with a slab of an old, thickened Caribbean Plate origin. The overlapping of the edges of the Nazca and Caribbean slabs may contribute to the seismicity of the Bucaramanga nest.

  15. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by

  16. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevencin de ms de 795 000 muertes por cncer de pulmn en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este pas hubiera cesado despus de la publicacin d

  17. Mud Nest of Hornero

    Completed mud nest. End of wet season. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding Permanent Resident. Habitat: Pasture, Second-Growth Shrub and Urban Zones. Estado de ocurrencia: Residente nidificante permanente. Hbitat: P...

  18. Estacin Astronmica Antrtica Jos L. Srsic: reporte 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Mosconi, M.; Lazarte, G.; Cavarra, M.; Daguerre, F.

    Se presenta el estado de avance de los programas de observacin en desarrollo en la estacin ``J.~L.~SERSIC'', en Base Belgrano, a los 78 grados de latitud Sur. Se comentan algunas soluciones a los problemas que impone el riguroso ambiente polar en cuanto al funcionamiento y operacin de los equipos.

  19. Algunos Resumenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    La agenda comienza con un resumen de parte dei Director General: estado de los proyectos de telescopios mas importantes, instrumentaci6n futura y otros asuntos. Luego el Director en Chile y el Jefe de TRS describen las condiciones presentes en que se encuentran los instrumentos, los problemas que han surgido y aquellos que se esperan. Luego estos puntos son disculidos por el Comite.

  20. Burrowing Owls

    Two burrowing owls perched on ground at Estancia La Graciela near the River Tebicuary, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Grassland, Pasture, Campo Grassland. Estado de ocurrencia: Re...

  1. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pueden darle a usted algunos derechos y hacer que el vendedor resuelva problemas graves que no fueron... implícitas” de acuerdo a la ley del estado pueden concederle derechos adicionales. EC29SE91.053 EC29SE91.054...

  2. Educational Discourse in Spain during the Early Franco Regime (1936-1943): Toward a Genealogy of Doctrine and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laudo, Xavier; Vilanou, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    In this article an analysis is undertaken of Spanish educational discourse during the early years of the Franco regime, from the Civil War (1936-1939) to the establishment of the "Nuevo Estado" or New State (1939-1943), employing Reinhart Koselleck's principles of conceptual history. Without totally spurning the totalitarian and fascist

  3. Estudio de Salud Agrícola

    Cancer.gov

    En 1993, científicos del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Ambientales y la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de Estados Unidos iniciaron un estudio conocido como Estudio de Salud Agrícola (AHS).

  4. Mud Nest of Hornero

    Completed mud nest. End of wet season. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding Permanent Resident. Habitat: Pasture, Second-Growth Shrub and Urban Zones. Estado de ocurrencia: Residente nidificante permanente. Hábitat: P...

  5. Building Intercultural Competence through Intercultural Competency Certification of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeiro, Maria G. Fabregas; Fabre, Ricardo Lopez; Nuno de la Parra, Jose Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The Intercultural Competency Certificate (CCI in Spanish) designed for the Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP University) is a theory based comprehensive plan to develop undergraduate students' intercultural competence. This Certificate is based in the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) developed by…

  6. Great Black-hawk Perched in Snag

    Great black-hawk perched in snag near wetland area of Estancia El Trebol, Bajo Chaco, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Humid Forest, Gallery Forest, Wetlands, and Dry Forest. Estado...

  7. Monk Parakeet Nest on Utility Pole

    Small monk parakeet nest on utility pole. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Palm Savannah, Second Growth Forests and Woodlands, Second Growth Scrub, Pasture. Estado de ocurrencia: Residente ni...

  8. Great Black-hawk in Snag

    Great black-hawk perched in snag near wetland area of Estancia El Trebol Bajo Chaco, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Humid Forest, Gallery Forest, Wetlands, and Dry Forest. Estado ...

  9. Burrowing Owls Perched on Ground Near Burrow

    Two burrowing owls perched on ground at Estancia La Graciela near the River Tebicuary, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Grassland, Pasture, Campo Grassland. Estado de ocurrencia: Re...

  10. Great Black-Hawk in Snag

    Great black-hawk in snag near wetland area of Estancia El Trebol, Bajo Chaco, Paraguay. Paraguay is home to at least 589 breeding bird species and 120 migratory bird species. Breeding Status: Breeding permanent resident. Habitat: Humid Forest, Gallery Forest, Wetlands, and Dry Forest. Estado de ocur...

  11. Supervivientes de cáncer en EE. UU. ascienden casi a 12 millones

    Cancer.gov

    El número de supervivientes de cáncer en Estados Unidos ascendió a 11,7 millones en 2007, de acuerdo a un informe publicado por los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades, CDC, y el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, NCI, el cual forma parte

  12. Los LGBT y fumar | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    En Estados Unidos, las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) tienen el doble de probabilidades de empezar a fumar que los heterosexuales. Sepa por qué los miembros de la comunidad LGBT fuman y aprenda estrategias para dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  13. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  14. The Educational Narrativity in the First Period of Oliveira Salazar's Government. Women's Voices in the National Assembly (1935-1945)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adao, Aurea; Remedios, Maria Jose

    2005-01-01

    Oliveira Salazar's accession to the government followed the military coup of 1926, which put an end to the period of democratic republican life. The Constitution approved in 1933 defined the new regime, which came to be known as "Estado Novo". Ideologically sustained by an anti-liberal concept of Catholicism, this political regime would grant…

  15. Developing Students' Autonomy and Self-Regulation through a Co-Teaching Research Methods Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabregas Janeiro, Maria G.; Gaeta González, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    The College of Human Sciences at Oklahoma State University (OSU) and Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP) decided to offer Pedagogy Doctoral students from Mexico a 3 week co-teaching research methods experience. Two professors, one from each institution (OSU and UPAEP), designed the syllabus to offer a co-teaching experience…

  16. Communicating the Past via Translation: The Manipulation of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdeon, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the connection between translation and narratives of history, with particular attention to Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" and its Spanish version, "La otra historia de los Estados Unidos". It is argued that translation interacts with history in many ways: translation is fundamental to history and, in…

  17. Educational Discourse in Spain during the Early Franco Regime (1936-1943): Toward a Genealogy of Doctrine and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laudo, Xavier; Vilanou, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    In this article an analysis is undertaken of Spanish educational discourse during the early years of the Franco regime, from the Civil War (1936-1939) to the establishment of the "Nuevo Estado" or New State (1939-1943), employing Reinhart Koselleck's principles of conceptual history. Without totally spurning the totalitarian and fascist…

  18. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…

  19. Reacciones de intercambio de carga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, L. F.

    Se discute la validez de diversas metodologías y su aplicación al estudio de procesos de intercambio de carga electrónico entre iones y blancos atómicos y moleculares. Para energías de impacto entre 0.05 y 5 eV / amu se emplea el método cuántico de la Coordenada de Reacción Común (CRC). A mayores energías, se utiliza el método semiclásico iconal con un desarrollo de la función de onda dinámica en estados moleculares adiabáticos, modificados con un factor de traslación común (FTC). Estos estados pueden obtenerse con cálculos ab initio o empleando potenciales modelo. Cuando la ionización compite con la transferencia de carga, la inclusión de pseudoestados en estos desarrollos permite calcular simultáneamente las secciones eficaces de ambos procesos. Otra técnica utilizada es el método estadístico CTMC. En el tratamiento de colisiones ión-molécula (diatómica) contrastamos la aplicabilidad de distintos métodos, desde la llamada aproximación Franck-Condon hasta un desarrollo en estados vibrónicos, pasando por la aproximación súbita vibro-rotacional, obteniéndose secciones eficaces de captura electrónica total y a estados individuales, así como secciones de excitación vibracional a estados ligados y del continuo (disociación). En todos los casos es necesario calcular superficies de energía y los correspondientes acoplamientos dinámicos entre los estados. La aplicación de estos métodos permite determinar el grado de contaminación de los haces por estados metaestables en un experimento dado, el cambio en los resultados con diferentes isótopos, la importancia de procesos de doble captura, seguida de explosión culombiana, todo ello con precisión comparable a la de medidas experimentales, para sistemas de interés en distintos tipos de plasmas.

  20. Reporting on health-related research in two prestigious Brazilian newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Ricardo Afonso; Carlini, Marcela; de Carvalho Jatobá e Sousa, Arthur; Fernandes, Paula Teixeira; Camargo, Vera Regina Toledo; Vogt, Carlos; Li, Li Min

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The dissemination of health-related news through newspapers can influence the behavior of patients and of health care providers. We conducted a study to analyze the characteristics of health-related research published by two leading Brazilian newspapers. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated health-related news published in the electronic versions of the newspapers Folha de São Paulo and O Estado de São Paulo over a period of three months (July through September, 2009). Only articles mentioning medical research were included. The articles were categorized according to topic, source, study location and the nature of the headline. We also analyzed the presence of background information on the topic, citations of medical periodicals, national contextualization and references to products or companies. RESULTS: Scientific research articles corresponded to 57% and 20% of health-related articles published by Folha de São Paulo and O Estado de São Paulo, respectively. Folha de São Paulo published significantly more articles about national studies, and most articles were written by its own staff. In contrast, most articles in O Estado de São Paulo came from news agencies. Folha de São Paulo also better contextualized its reports for Brazilian society. O Estado de São Paulo tended to cite the name of the periodical in which the study was published more frequently, but their articles lacked national contextualization. CONCLUSION: The results showed a significant difference in the way in which the studied newspapers report on health-related research. Folha de São Paulo tends to write its own articles and more frequently publishes the results of national research, whereas O Estado de São Paulo publishes articles that originate in news agencies, most of which have little national contextualization. PMID:22473408

  1. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sellés, Sergio; Fernández-Sáez, José; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Cejuela, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    El proceso de formación de futuros deportistas debe ser un trabajo estructurado y planificado para poder alcanzar el máximo nivel deportivo. Es fundamental en este periodo tener presentes los ritmos de desarrollo y maduración de los jóvenes deportistas para así adecuar las cargas de entrenamientos a sus estados evolutivos. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar y analizar la edad morfológica en nadadores y triatletas adolescentes, estableciendo diferencias entre su edad cronológica, grupos y género. A través del método antropométrico se determinó el estado de maduración biológica en un grupo de 37 deportistas jóvenes tecnificados. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de la muestra (70,8%) se encuentra en un estado avanzado de desarrollo con respecto a su edad cronológica, siendo más notorio en el caso de los nadadores este estado de madurez avanzado. Tener una edad morfológica más avanzada respecto a su edad cronológica podría favorecer a los deportistas adolescentes a la hora de conseguir mejores marcas y resultados en las competiciones y de esta manera acceder con más facilidad a los programas de tecnificación. El índice de desarrollo corporal modificado (IDCm) se presenta como un método validado, fiable y no invasivo para tener presente el grado de desarrollo y maduración en la selección de talentos deportivos y adecuar las cargas de entrenamiento al estado evolutivo de los deportistas. PMID:27019253

  2. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011) has the potential to provide valuable information about the near-surface soil moisture state for improving land surface modeling output.

  3. Maternal Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Methylation Efficiency, and Birth Outcomes in the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) Pregnancy Cohort in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Jessica E.; Bailey, Kathryn A.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Olshan, Andrew F.; Smeester, Lisa; Drobná, Zuzana; Herring, Amy H.; Stýblo, Miroslav; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) from drinking water is a global public health problem, yet much remains unknown about the extent of exposure in susceptible populations. Objectives: We aimed to establish the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) prospective pregnancy cohort in Gómez Palacio, Mexico, to better understand the effects of iAs exposure on pregnant women and their children. Methods: Two hundred pregnant women were recruited for this study. Concentrations of iAs in drinking water (DW-iAs) and maternal urinary concentrations of iAs and its monomethylated and dimethylated metabolites (MMAs and DMAs, respectively) were determined. Birth outcomes were analyzed for their relationship to DW-iAs and to the concentrations and proportions of maternal urinary arsenicals. Results: DW-iAs for the study subjects ranged from < 0.5 to 236 μg As/L. More than half of the women (53%) had DW-iAs that exceeded the World Health Organization’s recommended guideline of 10 μg As/L. DW-iAs was significantly associated with the sum of the urinary arsenicals (U-tAs). Maternal urinary concentrations of MMAs were negatively associated with newborn birth weight and gestational age. Maternal urinary concentrations of iAs were associated with lower mean gestational age and newborn length. Conclusions: Biomonitoring results demonstrate that pregnant women in Gómez Palacio are exposed to potentially harmful levels of DW-iAs. The data support a relationship between iAs metabolism in pregnant women and adverse birth outcomes. The results underscore the risks associated with iAs exposure in vulnerable populations. Citation: Laine JE, Bailey KA, Rubio-Andrade M, Olshan AF, Smeester L, Drobná Z, Herring AH, Stýblo M, García-Vargas GG, Fry RC. 2015. Maternal arsenic exposure, arsenic methylation efficiency, and birth outcomes in the Biomarkers of Exposure to ARsenic (BEAR) pregnancy cohort in Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 123:186–192; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307476 PMID:25325819

  4. Association of Arsenic and Metals with Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D among Adolescents in Torreón, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Zamoiski, Rachel D.; Guallar, Eliseo; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Resnick, Carol; Andrade, Marisela Rubio; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Weaver, Virginia M.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Limited data suggest that lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and uranium (U) may disrupt vitamin D metabolism and inhibit production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], the active vitamin D metabolite, from 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in the kidney. Objectives: We evaluated the association between blood lead (BPb) and urine arsenic (As), Cd, molybdenum (Mo), thallium (Tl), and U with markers of vitamin D metabolism [25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D]. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 512 adolescents in Torreón, a town in Mexico with a Pb smelter near residential areas. BPb was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine As, Cd, Mo, Tl, and U were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay and a radioimmunoassay, respectively. Multivariable linear models with vitamin D markers as the outcome were used to estimate associations of BPb and creatinine-corrected urine As and metal concentrations with serum vitamin D concentrations, controlling for age, sex, adiposity, smoking, socioeconomic status, and time outdoors. Results: Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with urine Mo and Tl [1.5 (95% CI: 0.4, 2.6) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.1) ng/mL higher with a doubling of exposure, respectively]. Serum 1,25(OH)2D was positively associated with urine As and U [3.4 (95% CI: 0.9, 5.9) and 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 3.7) pg/mL higher, respectively], with little change in associations after additional adjustment for serum 25(OH)D. Pb and Cd were not associated with 25(OH)D or 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Conclusions: Overall, our findings did not support a negative effect of As or metal exposures on serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations. Additional research is needed to confirm positive associations between serum 1,25(OH)2D and urine U and As concentrations and to clarify potential underlying mechanisms. Citation: Zamoiski RD, Guallar E, García-Vargas GG, Rothenberg SJ, Resnick C, Rubio Andrade M, Steuerwald AJ, Parsons PJ, Weaver VM, Navas-Acien A, Silbergeld EK. 2014. Association of arsenic and metals with concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D among adolescents in Torreón, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 122:1233–1238; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307861 PMID:25095279

  5. Autoadjusting Positive Pressure Trial in Adults with Sleep Apnea Assessed by a Simplified Diagnostic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Meza-Vargas, María Sonia; Castorena-Maldonado, Armando; Reyes-Zúñiga, Margarita; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe our clinical experience with autoadjusting positive airway pressure (APAP) trials carried out on patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: Consecutive CPAP-naïve adults underwent a non-attended home APAP trial (ResMed, Autoset, Spirit). Diagnoses of OSA were established by simplified polygraphy. Results: Data from 208 men and 71 women. The median age (interquartile range) was 51 years (41–59), with an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 13.5 (9–19), body mass index of 33 kg/m2 (29–38) and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) of 53 events/h (35–74). The APAP trial results included: hours used per night, 5.5 (4–7); 95th percentile pressure, 10.6 cm H2O (9.4–11.7); 95th percentile leak, 0.3 L/sec (0.1–0.6); residual RDI, 6.2 events/h (3.9–11.4); and percentage change in RDI, 87% (74–93). The proportion of patients with residual RDI >10 events/h was 29% (95% CI 23.6–34.3). Adherence (≥70% of nights and ≥4 h/night) was observed in 72.4% of subjects (95% CI 67–78). Patients with APAP adherence tended to require higher CPAP pressures, had higher rates of residual RDI, and had a lower percentage change in RDI than those with no adherence. As the 95th percentile CPAP pressure increased so too did residual RDI. Conclusions: The APAP trial was effective in decreasing RDI with an acceptable adherence rate; however, residual OSA was a frequent finding. Our results support that in up to one-third of patients evaluated by a simplified diagnostic approach, CPAP titration based on 95th percentile pressure may not be sufficient if residual RDI <10 events/h is considered as a therapeutic target. Citation: Torre-Bouscoulet L; Meza-Vargas MS; Castorena-Maldonado A; Reyes-Zúñiga M; Pérez-Padilla R. Autoadjusting positive pressure trial in adults with sleep apnea assessed by a simplified diagnostic approach. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(4):341–347. PMID:18763426

  6. Mock communities highlight the diversity of host-associated eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Wegener Parfrey, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Host-associated microbes are ubiquitous. Every multicellular eukaryote, and even many unicellular eukaryotes (protists), hosts a diverse community of microbes. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) tools have illuminated the vast diversity of host-associated microbes and shown that they have widespread influence on host biology, ecology and evolution (McFall-Ngai et al. ). Bacteria receive most of the attention, but protists are also important components of microbial communities associated with humans (Parfrey et al. ) and other hosts. As HTS tools are increasingly used to study eukaryotes, the presence of numerous and diverse host-associated eukaryotes is emerging as a common theme across ecosystems. Indeed, HTS studies demonstrate that host-associated lineages account for between 2 and 12% of overall eukaryotic sequences detected in soil, marine and freshwater data sets, with much higher relative abundances observed in some samples (Ramirez et al. ; Simon et al. ; de Vargas et al. ). Previous studies in soil detected large numbers of predominantly parasitic lineages such as Apicomplexa, but did not delve into their origin [e.g. (Ramirez et al. )]. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Geisen et al. () use mock communities to show that many of the eukaryotic organisms detected by environmental sequencing in soils are potentially associated with animal hosts rather than free-living. By isolating the host-associated fraction of soil microbial communities, Geisen and colleagues help explain the surprisingly high diversity of parasitic eukaryotic lineages often detected in soil/terrestrial studies using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and reinforce the ubiquity of these host-associated microbes. It is clear that we can no longer assume that organisms detected in bulk environmental sequencing are free-living, but instead need to design studies that specifically enumerate the diversity and function of host-associated eukaryotes. Doing so will allow the field to determine the role host-associated eukaryotes play in soils and other environments and to evaluate hypotheses on assembly of host-associated communities, disease ecology and more. PMID:26311623

  7. Sinuosity change of the Po River near Cremona (Northern Italy) - a result of neotectonic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Timár, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    In the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, Lombardia, Parma, Modena and Venice also can be seen (Timár et al., 2006). This area was surveyed between 1818 and 1829. In these map sheets, we can also follow the river Po from Vaccarizza to the delta. This river reach is about 350 km long. This river reach was digitized and sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). At Cremona, a significante sinuosity change were identified. The sinuosity increasing, and we have high sinuosity values. In the summarizing geological map of Italy (Compagnoni and Calluzzo, 2004), at this place, a tectonic line was identified. So probably this fault line invokes the sinuosity change on the river. The vertical movements indicated on the maps are just the opposite like they would be according to the flume experiments of Ouchi (1985). In the case of the Po River at Cremona, the decrease of the channel slope results higher sinuosity. The reason is that the rate of the slope and water discharge is higher than it is required by the self-organized meandering and the river parameters fell to the range of the unorganized meandering (cf. Timár, 2003). Another possible explanation could be that the northern tributary, the Adda River has significant sediment load that lowers the sinuosity of the trunk river at the confluence. Compagnoni, B., Galluzzo, F. (eds., 2004): Geological Map of Italy. Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente per I Servizi Tecnici - Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Rome-Florence-Genoa. Map, scale=1:1250000, especially printed for the 32nd International Geological Congress. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary Science Reviews 22: 2199-2207. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. van Balen, R. T., Kasse, C., Moor, J. (2008): Impact of groundwater flow on meandering; example from the Geul river, the Netherlands. Earth Surf. Process. and Landf. 33(13): 2010-2028.

  8. The History of Soil Mapping and Classification in Europe: The role of the European Commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Early systematic soil mapping in Europe dates back to the early times of soil science in the 19th Century and was developed at National scales mostly for taxation purposes. National soil classification systems emerged out of the various scientific communities active at that time in leading countries like Germany, Austria, France, Belgium, United Kingdom and many others. Different scientific communities were leading in the various countries, in some cases stemming from geological sciences, in others as a branch of agricultural sciences. Soil classification for the purpose of ranking soils for their capacity to be agriculturally productive emerged as the main priority, allowing in some countries for very detailed and accurate soil maps at 1:5,000 scale and larger. Detailed mapping was mainly driven by taxation purposes in the early times but evolved in several countries also as a planning and management tool for farms and local administrations. The need for pan-European soil mapping and classification efforts emerged only after World War II in the early 1950's under the auspices of FAO with the aim to compile a common European soil map as a contribution to the global soil mapping efforts of FAO at that time. These efforts evolved over the next decades, with the support of the European Commission, towards the establishment of a permanent network of National soil survey institutions (the European Soil Bureau Network). With the introduction of digital soil mapping technologies, the new European Soil Information System (EUSIS) was established, incorporating data at multiple scales for the EU member states and bordering countries. In more recent years, the formal establishment of the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC) hosted by the European Commission, together with a formal legal framework for soil mapping and soil classification provided by the INSPIRE directive and the related standardization and harmonization efforts, has led to the operational development of advanced digital soil mapping techniques supporting the contribution of Europe to a common global soil information system under the coordination of the Global Soil Partnership (GSP) of FAO. Further information: http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ References: Mark G Kibblewhite, Ladislav Miko, Luca Montanarella, Legal frameworks for soil protection: current development and technical information requirements, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 4, Issue 5, November 2012, Pages 573-577. Luca Montanarella, Ronald Vargas, Global governance of soil resources as a necessary condition for sustainable development, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 4, Issue 5, November 2012, Pages 559-564.

  9. Cardiac-specific genetic inhibition of nuclear factor-κB prevents right ventricular hypertrophy induced by monocrotaline.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wei, Chuanyu; Thomas, Candice M; Kim, Il-Kwon; Seqqat, Rachid; Kumar, Rajesh; Baker, Kenneth M; Jones, W Keith; Gupta, Sudhiranjan

    2012-04-15

    Uncontrolled pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) results in right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy (RVH), progressive RV failure, and low cardiac output leading to increased morbidity and mortality (McLaughlin VV, Archer SL, Badesch DB, Barst RJ, Farber HW, Lindner JR, Mathier MA, McGoon MD, Park MH, Rosenson RS, Rubin LJ, Tapson VF, Varga J. J Am Coll Cardiol 53: 1573-1619, 2009). Although the exact figures of its prevalence are difficult to obtain because of the diversity of identifiable causes, it is estimated that the incidence of pulmonary hypertension is seven to nine cases per million persons in the general population and is most prevalent in the age group of 20-40, occurring more commonly in women than in men (ratio: 1.7 to 1; Rubin LJ. N Engl J Med 336: 111-117, 1997). PAH is characterized by dyspnea, chest pain, and syncope. Unfortunately, there is no cure for this disease and medical regimens are limited (Simon MA. Curr Opin Crit Care 16: 237-243, 2010). PAH leads to adverse remodeling that results in RVH, progressive right heart failure, low cardiac output, and ultimately death if left untreated (Humbert M, Morrell NW, Archer SL, Stenmark KR, MacLean MR, Lang IM, Christman BW, Weir EK, Eickelberg O, Voelkel NF, Rabinovitch M. J Am Coll Cardiol 43: 13S-24S, 2004; Humbert M, Sitbon O, Simonneau G. N Engl J Med 351: 1425-1436, 2004. LaRaia AV, Waxman AB. South Med J 100: 393-399, 2007). As there are no direct tools to assess the onset and progression of PAH and RVH, the disease is often detected in later stages marked by full-blown RVH, with the outcome predominantly determined by the level of increased afterload (D'Alonzo GE, Barst RJ, Ayres SM, Bergofsky EH, Brundage BH, Detre KM, Fishman AP, Goldring RM, Groves BM, Kernis JT, et al. Ann Intern Med 115: 343-349, 1991; Sandoval J, Bauerle O, Palomar A, Gomez A, Martinez-Guerra ML, Beltran M, Guerrero ML. Validation of a prognostic equation Circulation 89: 1733-1744, 1994). Various studies have been performed to assess the genetic, biochemical, and morphological components that contribute to PAH. Despite major advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of PAH, the molecular mechanism(s) by which PAH promotes RVH and cardiac failure still remains elusive. Of all the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis, inflammation and oxidative stress remain the core of the etiology of PAH that leads to development of RVH (Dorfmüller P, Perros F, Balabanian K, Humbert M. Eur Respir J 22: 358-363, 2003). PMID:22245771

  10. Associations between Arsenic Species in Exfoliated Urothelial Cells and Prevalence of Diabetes among Residents of Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Jenna M.; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S.; Cerón, Roberto Hernández; Morales, Damián Viniegra; Terrazas, Francisco A. Baeza; Del Razo, Luz M.; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Saunders, R. Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Fry, Rebecca C.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Buse, John B.; Mendez, Michelle A.; Loomis, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Background: A growing number of studies link chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) with the risk of diabetes. Many of these studies assessed iAs exposure by measuring arsenic (As) species in urine. However, this approach has been criticized because of uncertainties associated with renal function and urine dilution in diabetic individuals. Objectives: Our goal was to examine associations between the prevalence of diabetes and concentrations of As species in exfoliated urothelial cells (EUC) as an alternative to the measures of As in urine. Methods: We measured concentrations of trivalent and pentavalent iAs methyl-As (MAs) and dimethyl-As (DMAs) species in EUC from 374 residents of Chihuahua, Mexico, who were exposed to iAs in drinking water. We used fasting plasma glucose, glucose tolerance tests, and self-reported diabetes diagnoses or medication to identify diabetic participants. Associations between As species in EUC and diabetes were estimated using logistic and linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Results: Interquartile-range increases in trivalent, but not pentavalent, As species in EUC were positively and significantly associated with diabetes, with ORs of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.07) for iAsIII, 1.63 (1.24, 2.15) for MAsIII, and 1.31 (0.96, 1.84) for DMAsIII. DMAs/MAs and DMAs/iAs ratios were negatively associated with diabetes (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.83 and OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.96, respectively). Conclusions: Our data suggest that uncertainties associated with measures of As species in urine may be avoided by using As species in EUC as markers of iAs exposure and metabolism. Our results provide additional support to previous findings suggesting that trivalent As species may be responsible for associations between diabetes and chronic iAs exposure. Citation: Currier JM, Ishida MC, González-Horta C, Sánchez-Ramírez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Gutiérrez-Torres DS, Hernández Cerón R, Viniegra Morales D, Baeza Terrazas FA, Del Razo LM, García-Vargas GG, Saunders RJ, Drobná Z, Fry RC, Matoušek T, Buse JB, Mendez MA, Loomis D, Stýblo M. 2014. Associations between arsenic species in exfoliated urothelial cells and prevalence of diabetes among residents of Chihuahua, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 122:1088–1094; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307756 PMID:25000461

  11. Seasonal and vertical changes in leaf angle distribution for selected deciduous broadleaf tree species common to Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan; Sonnentag, Oliver; Annuk, Kalju

    2014-05-01

    Leaf inclination angle distribution is a key parameter in determining the transmission and reflection of radiation by vegetation canopies. It has been previously observed that leaf inclination angle might change gradually from more vertical in the upper canopy and in high light habitats to more horizontal in the lower canopy and in low light habitats [1]. Despite its importance, relatively few measurements on actual leaf angle distributions have been reported for different tree species. Even smaller number of studies have dealt with the possible seasonal changes in leaf angle distribution [2]. In this study the variation of leaf inclination angle distributions was examined both temporally throughout the growing season and vertically at different heights of trees. We report on leaf inclination angle distributions for five deciduous broadleaf species found commonly in several parts of Europe: grey alder (Alnus incana), Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), chestnut (Castanea), Norway maple (Acer platanoides), and aspen (Populus tremula). The angles were measured using the leveled camera method [3], with the data collected at several separate heights and four times during the period of May-September 2013. The results generally indicate the greatest change in leaf inclination angles for spring, with the changes usually being the most pronounced at the top of the canopy. It should also be noted, however, that whereas the temporal variation proved to be rather consistent for different species, the vertical variation differed more between species. The leveled camera method was additionally tested in terms of sensitivity to different users. Ten people were asked to measure the leaf angles for four different species. The results indicate the method is quite robust in providing coinciding distributions irrespective of the user and level of previous experience with the method. However, certain caution must be exercised when measuring long narrow leaves. References [1] G.G. McMillen, and J.H. McClendon, "Leaf angle: an adaptive feature of sun and shade leaves," Botanical Gazette, vol. 140, pp. 437-442, 1979. [2] J. Pisek, O. Sonnentag, A.D. Richardson, and M. Mõttus, "Is the spherical leaf inclination angle distribution a valid assumption for temperate and boreal broadleaf tree species?" Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 169, pp. 186-194, 2013. [3] Y. Ryu, O. Sonnentag, T. Nilson, R. Vargas, H. Kobayashi, R. Wenk, and D. Baldocchi, "How to quantify tree leaf area index in a heterogenous savanna ecosystem: a multi-instrument and multimodel approach," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 150, pp. 63-76, 2010.

  12. Characterization of slipped sediments from a loess landslide, Kulcs, Central-Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udvardi, Beatrix; Kovács, István; Füri, Judit; Kónya, Péter; Horváth, Zsolt; Besnyi, Anikó; Földvári, Mária; Koloszár, László; Fedor, Ferenc; Horváth, Judit; Ács, Péter; Fancsik, Tamás; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    The area of the Danube High Bluffs in Central Hungary is frequently affected by recent landslide activity where landslides have largely been associated with slope deposits, including various Pleistocene sediments as well as the underlying Pannonian layers. Studies , however, have revealed that intense rainfall episodes and flooding periods trigger landslides in the area [1,2]. In this study, we report the results of a case study about the collapsed structure in the toe and at the bulge of Kulcs landslide. Beside field recordings, previous geotechnical data of Rácalmás-Kulcs area were reinterpreted. A broad range of analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of sediments on the surface and in 6 boreholes on a small area (100 m x 30 m) affected by landslide movements along riverbank. Sediments from boreholes comprise grey silty flood plain sediment, old weathered loess with loess dolls, fine grained brown paleosoils, red clay, carbonate cemented layers and sand/sandstone. Sandwich-like sediment structure and grain size distribution with high amount of clay and silt (clay, silty clay loam and silt loam texture) are present that affect the flow of underground water. Samples mainly contain quartz (17-62%), carbonates (calcite >dolomite; 0-50%), muscovite and illite (0-25 %) and subordinate amount of chlorite, montmorillonite, feldspars, kaolinite, goethite. The borehole which was drilled outside of the area, affected by the landslide, shows different sediment structure. Weathering indices and major chemical composition of most of the samples show similar values to Pleistocene-Pannonian sequences from Hungary, excluding Na2O and MnO [3]. The high CPA values (93-98 %) in the paleosoil unit reflect a highly weathered paleosoil. The low values of Na2O/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3 with respect to average Upper Continental Crust composition indicating the removal of more soluble elements. These results are helpful to reveal the cause of landslides and trace sliding planes in sediments where it is not clearly recognizable. The study highlights the importance of paleosoil layers in quaternary loess as these can act as potential sliding planes if the hydrogeological conditions are such. References: [1] Szabó, J. (2003), Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 3, 43-52. [2] Újvári et al. (2009), Geomorphology 109, 197-209. [3] Varga et al. (2011), Quaternary International 240, 71-86.

  13. Spare parts management for nuclear power generation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, Natalie Michele

    With deregulation, utilities in the power sector face a much more urgent imperative to emphasize cost efficiencies as compared to the days of regulation. One major opportunity for cost savings is through reductions in spare parts inventories. Most utilities are accustomed to carrying large volumes of expensive, relatively slow-moving parts because of a high degree of risk-averseness. This attitude towards risk is rooted in the days of regulation. Under regulation, companies recovered capital inventory costs by incorporating them into the base rate charged to their customers. In a deregulated environment, cost recovery is no longer guaranteed. Companies must therefore reexamine their risk profile and develop policies for spare parts inventory that are appropriate for a competitive business environment. This research studies the spare parts inventory management problem in the context of electric utilities, with a focus on nuclear power. It addresses three issues related to this problem: criticality, risk, and policy. With respect to criticality and risk, a methodology is presented that incorporates the use of influence diagrams and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A new method is developed for group aggregation in the AHP when Saaty and Vargas' (2007) dispersion test fails and decision makers are unwilling or unable to revise their judgments. With respect to policy, a quantitative model that ranks the importance of keeping a part in inventory and recommends a corresponding stocking policy through the use of numerical simulation is developed. This methodology and its corresponding models will enable utilities that have transitioned from a regulated to a deregulated environment become more competitive in their operations while maintaining safety and reliability standards. Furthermore, the methodology developed is general enough so that other utility plants, especially those in the nuclear sector, will be able to use this approach. In addition to regulated utilities, other industries, such as aerospace, and the military can also benefit from extensions to these models, as risk profiles and subsequent policies can be adjusted to align with the business environment in which each industry or company operates.

  14. First results of a high resolution reflection seismic survey of the Central Northern Venezuelan Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, J.; van Welden, A.; Audemard, F.; de Batist, M.; Beck, C.; Scientific Party, G.

    2008-05-01

    In September - November 2007 the first high resolution marine seismic campaign on the North-Central coast of Venezuela was carried out between Cabo Codera and Golfo Triste. The principal aim of this work was to characterize the active San Sebastian Fault (SSF) and to analyze Cenozoic sedimentation on the Venezuela shelf focusing on: i) effects of active tectonics and ii) coastal landslides/flashflood deposits related to 1999 Vargas catastrophic event or to similar phenomena. Data were acquired onboard R/V GUAIQUERI II from the Oceanographic Institute of the Oriente University. The seismic source was a "CENTIPEDE" sparker (RCGM) operated between 300 and 600 J, 1.3 kHz main frequency. We used a single-channel streamer with 10 hydrophones. In total, 49 seismic profiles were collected, with a cumulative length of 1000 km approximately. In these seismic profiles we identified and separated the deposits into three main units. Unit (U1) comprises low energy reflectors mainly dipping in southward direction (i.e. toward the coast bounded by the San Sebastian Fault). This unit also includes a number of isolated acoustic anomalies, which we tentatively interpret as coral reefs. Its top is defined as Basal Erosional Discontinuity (BED) onto which Unit 2 (U2) deposits are onlapping. U2 is acoustically well-stratified, with strong reflectors. Gradual variations in thickness and a wavy configuration allow us to interpret U2 as probably Quaternary current-related deposits. Last Unit (U3) was defined on the Venezuela shelf and corresponds to prograding sequences probably related to the terrigenous input of the Tuy River. Impact of eustatic fluctuations on these deposits are discussed. The data were also used to construct a simplified bathymetry of the studied area. The lateral transition from the western Cariaco-Tuy pull-apart basin to the (single) SSF was clearly imaged (mostly folds and gravity faults). The survey also displayed prograding sediments bodies in La Tortuga Shelf. The main SSF fault is not clearly expressed in all profiles as a clear rupture of the sea floor sediments but rather as highly deformed zones. Our data set, also evidences preliminary, due to relatively wide spacing fo the seismic grid- the interest of the studied areas for the investigation of regional natural hazards (climatic, seismo-tectonic), and of the impact of sea level changes in the southeastern Caribbean. This project was funded by FONACIT project PI-2003000090 and French-Venezuelan ECOS-Nord scientific exchange program.

  15. A new chronology for the middle to late Miocene continental record in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, M.; Langereis, C. G.; Daams, R.; van Dam, J.; van der Meulen, A. J.; Agustí, J.; Cabrera, L.

    1996-08-01

    The first detailed chronology for the middle to late Miocene continental record in Spain is presented, based on high-resolution magnetostratigraphic data of mammal-bearing sections which were studied in several basins (Calatayud-Daroca, Teruel, Vallès-Penedès, Duero and Júcar-Cabriel). Our results indicate that these sections compose an almost complete magnetostratigraphic succession from the lower Aragonian (MN4) to the middle Turolian (MN12). Seven successive Mammal Neogene (MN) zone boundaries are directly dated in these sections, which often contain faunas of two successive zones in superposition. The three oldest boundaries are dated in the Aragonian type area (Calatayud-Daroca Basin). The MN4/MN5 boundary (Vargas section) occurs in chron C5Cr(o) with a corresponding age of 17.26 ± 0.01 Ma, the MN5/MN6 boundary (Aragon section) in chron C5ACn(0.8), with an age of 13.75 ± 0.03 Ma, and the MN6/MN7-8 boundary (Aragon section) in the interval C5Ar.1n-C5Ar.3r with an age of 12.75 ± 0.25 Ma. The MN7-8/MN9 (Aragonian/Vallesian) boundary, occurring in chron C5r.1n at 11.1 Ma, and the MN9/MN10 boundary, in chron C4Ar.3r at 9.7 ± 0.1 Ma, are recorded in the Vallès-Penèdes Basin (Vallesian type area) and are supported by the results from the Duero Basin (Torremormojón section). In the Turolian type area (Teruel Basin), the MN10/MN11 (Vallesian/Turolian) boundary (La Gloria section) occurs in chron C4An(y) at 8.7 ± 0.1 Ma. Taking into account the pre-existing data from the Júcar-Cabriel Basin, the MN11/MN12 boundary (Cabriel Valley section) is recalibrated to C4n.1n, at an age of 7.5 ± 0.1 Ma.

  16. The digits of the wing of birds are 1, 2, and 3. A review.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Alexander O; Fallon, John F

    2005-05-15

    Fossil evidence documenting the evolutionary transition from theropod dinosaurs to birds indicates unambiguously that the digits of the wing of birds are digits 1, 2, and 3. However, some embryological evidence suggests that these digits are 2, 3, and 4. This apparent lack of correspondence has been described as the greatest challenge to the widely accepted theropod-bird link (Zhou 2004. Naturwissenschaften 91:455-471). Here we review the pertinent literature regarding the debate on the origin of birds and wing digital identity and the evidence in favor of a 1, 2, 3 identity of the wing digits. Recent molecular evidence shows that the expression of Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 in the developing wing supports the theropod-bird link. In the chicken foot and in the mouse hand and foot, digit 1 is the only digit to combine the expression of Hoxd13 with the absence of expression of Hoxd12. The same is observed in the anterior digit of the wing, suggesting it is a digit 1, as expected for a theropod. Nevertheless, Galis et al. (2005. J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) in press), argue that Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 expression patterns in mutant limbs do not allow distinguishing the most anterior digit in the bird wing from digit 2. They also argue that constraints to the evolution of limb development support the 2, 3, 4 identity of the wing digits. However, the case put forward by Galis et al. is biased and flawed with regard to interpretation of mutant limbs, developmental mechanisms, stages observed, and the description of the evolutionary variation of limb development. Importantly, Galis et al. do not present evidence from wild-type limbs that counters the conclusions of Vargas and Fallon (2005. J Exp Zool (Mol Dev Evol) 304B(1):85-89), and fail to provide molecular evidence to specifically support the hypothesis that the wing digits are 2, 3, and 4. The expression of Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 in the developing wing is consistent with the hypothesis that birds are living dinosaurs; this view can lead to a greater understanding of the actual limits to the evolutionary variation of limb development. PMID:15880771

  17. Classification of spent reactor fuel for nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew E; Turner, Phillip; Zimmerman, Colin; Goulermas, John Y

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to determine the reactor type from which spent reactor fuel has originated. This has been done using the isotopic and elemental measurements of the sample and proves to be very useful in the field of nuclear forensics. Nuclear materials contain many variables (impurities and isotopes) that are very difficult to consider individually. A method that considers all material parameters simultaneously is advantageous. Currently the field of nuclear forensics focuses on the analysis of key material properties to determine details about the materials processing history, for example, utilizing known half-lives of isotopes can determine when the material was last processed (Stanley, F. E. J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2012, 27, 1821; Varga, Z.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.; Keegan, E.; Millet, S. Anal. Chem. 2009, 81, 8327-8334). However, it has been demonstrated that multivariate statistical analysis of isotopic concentrations can complement these method and are able to make use of a greater level of information through dimensionality reduction techniques (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797; Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J.; Heller, M. A. Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics. In Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management 50th Annual Meeting, Tucson, AZ, July 2009; 12 pages; Nicolaou, G. J. Environ. Radioact. 2006, 86, 313-318; Pajo, L.; Mayer, K.; Koch, L. Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 2001, 371, 348-352). There has been some success in using such multidimensional statistical methods to determine details about the history of spent reactor fuel (Robel, M.; Kristo, M. J. J. Environ. Radioact. 2008, 99, 1789-1797). Here, we aim to expand on these findings by pursuing more robust dimensionality reduction techniques based on manifold embedding which are able to better capture the intrinsic data set information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a number of classification algorithms to reliably determine the reactor type in which a spent fuel material has been irradiated. A number of these classification techniques are novel applications in nuclear forensics and expand on the existing knowledge in this field by creating a reliable and robust classification model. The results from this analysis show that our techniques have been very successful and further ascertain the excellent potential of these techniques in the field of nuclear forensics at least with regard to spent reactor fuel. PMID:24805973

  18. Chronic Exposure to Arsenic and Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Michelle A.; González-Horta, Carmen; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Cerón, Roberto Hernández; Morales, Damián Viniegra; Terrazas, Francisco A. Baeza; Ishida, María C.; Gutiérrez-Torres, Daniela S.; Saunders, R. Jesse; Drobná, Zuzana; Fry, Rebecca C.; Buse, John B.; Loomis, Dana; García-Vargas, Gonzalo G.; Del Razo, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to arsenic (As) concentrations in drinking water > 150 μg/L has been associated with risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the effects of lower exposures. Objective This study aimed to examine whether moderate As exposure, or indicators of individual As metabolism at these levels of exposure, are associated with cardiometabolic risk. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional associations between arsenic exposure and multiple markers of cardiometabolic risk using drinking-water As measurements and urinary As species data obtained from 1,160 adults in Chihuahua, Mexico, who were recruited in 2008–2013. Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, the results of an oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure were used to characterize cardiometabolic risk. Multivariable logistic, multinomial, and linear regression were used to assess associations between cardiometabolic outcomes and water As or the sum of inorganic and methylated As species in urine. Results After multivariable adjustment, concentrations in the second quartile of water As (25.5 to < 47.9 μg/L) and concentrations of total speciated urinary As (< 55.8 μg/L) below the median were significantly associated with elevated triglycerides, high total cholesterol, and diabetes. However, moderate water and urinary As levels were also positively associated with HDL cholesterol. Associations between arsenic exposure and both dysglycemia and triglyceridemia were higher among individuals with higher proportions of dimethylarsenic in urine. Conclusions Moderate exposure to As may increase cardiometabolic risk, particularly in individuals with high proportions of urinary dimethylarsenic. In this cohort, As exposure was associated with several markers of increased cardiometabolic risk (diabetes, triglyceridemia, and cholesterolemia), but exposure was also associated with higher rather than lower HDL cholesterol. Citation Mendez MA, González-Horta C, Sánchez-Ramírez B, Ballinas-Casarrubias L, Hernández Cerón R, Viniegra Morales D, Baeza Terrazas FA, Ishida MC, Gutiérrez-Torres DS, Saunders RJ, Drobná Z, Fry RC, Buse JB, Loomis D, García-Vargas GG, Del Razo LM, Stýblo M. 2016. Chronic exposure to arsenic and markers of cardiometabolic risk: a cross-sectional study in Chihuahua, Mexico. Environ Health Perspect 124:104–111; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408742 PMID:26068977

  19. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of Adakitic magma from the Wakurayama Dacite in San-in district, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, D.; Shibata, T.; Matsumoto, I.

    2011-12-01

    The Wakuraya Dacite, San-in district, SW Japan was described as Adakite (Defant and Drummond, 1990, Nature) by Sato et al. (2011, JGS). Adakitic rocks are characterized by higher Al2O3 and Sr, and lower MgO, K2O, Y and Yb. Many Quaternary silicate volcanoes in Southwest Japan are considered to be adakitic magmas that have been generated by partial melting of the subducted Philippine Sea plate (e.g. the Daisen volcano; Morris, 1995, Geology). The Wakurayama Dacite is distributed within a 5 km radius in Shimane prefecture, Southwest Japan. The Wakurayama Dacite was erupted in the Late Miocene to Pliocene (ca. 5 Ma; Morris et al., 1990, JSAES), the activity in advance of the Daisen volcano. We present major and trace elements and isotopic compositions (Sr, Nd and Pb) to discuss the origin of the end-members that are related to magma genesis of the Wakurayama Dacite. The chemical characteristics of these rocks, which have higher Al2O3 (17.6-19.7 wt.%) and Sr (552-799 ppm), and lower MgO (0.28-2.14 wt.%), K2O (1.26-1.48 wt.%), Y (5-15 ppm) and Yb (0.4-0.7 ppm) contents, are similar to typical adakite. The isotopic compositions of the Wakurayama Dacite show similar to those of the Daisen volcano (Tamura et al., 2003, J. Petrol.). According to Defant and Drummond (1990), adakites are characterized by similar low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (usually < 0.7040) to those of MORB, but the Wakurayama Dacite and the Daisen volcano have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (ca. 0.7046 to 0.7052). Kimura et al. (2005) proposed that the origin of Daisen adakitic magmas have been primarily created by mixing between subducted oceanic crust and its associated sediments from the Philippine Sea plate. The isotopic compositions (Sr, Nd and Pb) of the Wakurayama Dacite are shown the two component-mixing curve between oceanic crust (Shikoku basin basalt; Hicky-Vargas, 1991, EPSL) and sediments (the Nankai Trough terrigenous sediments; Shimoda et al., 1998, EPSL). Above results suggest that the partial melting of subducted oceanic crust and sediments have been deeply concerned with genesis of the Wakurayama Dacite. There are several adakitic Quaternary volcanoes in Southwest Japan. The eruption of the Wakurayama Dacite was around 5 Ma, shows the oldest activity of the adakitic rocks in Cenozoic Southwest Japan arc. The volcanism of the Wakurayama Dacite may suggest that the melting of the Philippine Sea plate occur at least 5 Ma.

  20. PREFACE: 4th National Meeting in Chaos, Complex System and Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raúl Hernández Montoya, Alejandro; Hernández Lemus, Enrique; Rubén Luévano Enríquez, José; Rodríguez Achach, Manuel Enrique; Vargas Madrazo, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    The fourth edition of the National Meeting on Chaos, Complex Systems and Time Series (NMCCSTS4), or in Spanish 4a. Reunión Nacional de Caos, Sistemas Complejos y Series de Tiempo, was held from 29 November to 2 December 2011 in the University of Veracruz (Universidad Veracruzana), Campus Xalapa, at Xalapa Veracruz, México, in the beautiful House of the Lake (Casa del Lago), a late XIX century former textile factory situated in the edge of an also ancient former dam, currently a park containing three small lakes, very emblematic of Xalapa, City, the capital of the state of Veracruz, México. The previous editions of this meeting, were held in Mérida (2006), Pachuca (2008) and Puebla (2009). A clear uptrend is observed in the number of participants in this academic event from all Universities of México and abroad, going from about 15 participants in the first meeting to more than 90 in the last one. On this occasion, about 90 participants from three countries attended our event, where 29 papers (10 master lectures from top recognized national and international leaders in the fields of complexity, and 19 invited papers), one course for students and 42 posters were presented. A look at the scientific program of the NMCCSTS4, allows us to appreciate the wide range of topics and recent advances that were covered during our event; topics and recent results in the areas of biology, econophysics, sociophysics, genomics and bioinformatics, complex networks, thermodynamics, etc, were presented and discussed rigorously in a friendly, dynamical and informal atmosphere. Also, on this occasion, we celebrated Professor Miguel Angel Jiménez Montaño, for his very distinguished academic career throughout more that 50 years and as a founding member of the Faculty of Physics and AI of University of Veracruz. Prizes were awarded for the best poster presentations. The winner was Porfirio Toledo, from Faculty of Mathematics, University of Veracruz (Game theory to characterize solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton--Jacobi equation). The present volume contains a rigorous selection of the lectures presented at the NMCCSTS4. All papers were peer reviewed and we consider the high quality and the wide range of topics covered here displays the high level that the community of complexity sciences is reaching in our country. We would like to thank all of the speakers, participants and the members of the Organizing Committee, also we would like to express our gratitude to all students and support personal involved with the logistic and technical aspects of the organization of our event. This IV edition of the National Meeting on Caos, Complex System and Time Series was sponsored by the following organizations and institutions, we warmly thank all of them: Universidad Veracruzana, IF-BUAP, UAM Azcapotzalco, INMEGEN, Conacyt (155492), all them from México and the Ministero degli Affari Esteri (MAE) from Italy. A R Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz M E Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz E Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine J R Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco C E Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz Organizing Committee José Luis Carrillo Estrada Instituto de Física, Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, carrillo@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx José Rubén Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, jrle@correo.azc.uam.mx Enrique Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine, ehernandez@inmegen.gob.mx Alejandro Raúl Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz, alhernandez@uv.mx Norma Bagatella Flores University of Veracruz, nbagatella@uv.mx Adrian Arturo Huerta Hernández University of Veracruz, adhuerta@uv.mx Manuel Enrique Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz, manurodriguez@uv.mx Carlos Ernesto Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz, cavargas@uv.mx Sol Haret Baez Barrios University of Veracruz, arbaez@uv.mx Héctor Francisco Coronel Brizio University of Veracruz, hcoronel@uv.mx Sergio Adrian Lerma Hernández University of Veracruz, slerma@uv.mx Rodrígo Huerta Quintanilla CINVESTAV U. Mérida, rhuerta@mda.cinvestav.mx

  1. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sznajder, Janusz; S Lefarska-Wasilewska, Marta; Kłek, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica (ELA) es una enfermedad crónica, neurodegenerativa que genera malnutrición. El objetivo principal de este estudio es analizar el impacto de la malnutrición en el curso de la enfermedad y la sobrevida a largo plazo.Materiales y métodos: se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de 48 pacientes (22 mujeres [45.83%] y 26 hombres [54.17%], con un promedio de edad de 66,2 [43-83]) del 2008 al 2014. El análisis del estado nutricional inicial se midió utilizando el índice de  masa corporal (IMC), el estado nutricional de acuerdo al NRS 2002, la valoración global subjetiva (VGS) y la concentración sérica de albúmina. Los pacientes se dividieron en dos grupos, dependiendo del estado nutricional en el que se encontraban: bien nutridos o malnutridos. Los grupos se crearon por  separado, lo que permitió un análisis comparativo adicional de las técnicas utilizadas para la evaluación del estado nutricional.Resultados: un estado nutricional adecuado se relaciona con mayor sobreviva a largo plazo (456 vs. 679 días, NRS 312 vs. 659 vs. 835 días, IMC respectivamente: 41, 541, 631 días, resultados estadísticamente significativos para NRS e IMC). Las concentraciones de albúmina no fueron un factor pronóstico, pero se observó mayor sobrevida si las concentraciones de albúmina incrementaban durante el tratamiento nutricional.Conclusiones: el estado nutricional inicial y la respuesta positiva a la alimentación enteral están asociados a mayor sobrevida en pacientes con ELA, razón por la cual, la terapia nutricional debe de iniciarse lo antes posible. PMID:27019234

  2. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    López-López, Laura; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Díaz-Pelegrina, Ana; Merlos-Navarro, Silvia; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: las alteraciones en el estado nutricional en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) son frecuentes. La sintomatología y la funcionalidad de estos enfermos pueden estar relacionadas con la nutrición, incrementando su gravedad en los sujetos con malnutrición. Objetivos: el objetivo de esta investigación fue profundizar sobre el perfil clínico del paciente con EPOC malnutrido y relacionar el estado nutricional con la funcionalidad y con los síntomas de estos pacientes. Métodos: se desarrolló un estudio observacional en pacientes con EPOC severo. Se valoró el estado de dependencia, la calidad de vida, las comorbilidades y la ansiedad y depresión. La función respiratoria se valoró con el volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo y la escala de Borg modificada y el estado nutricional, con el Mini Nutritional Assessment. La sintomatología fue evaluada mediante el Leicester Cough Questionnaire y el London Chest Activity of Daily Living Scale. Resultados: 154 sujetos fueron incluidos en este estudio, 98 de ellos fueron varones. Un grupo de 71 sujetos mostraron malnutrición y un grupo de 83 sujetos un estado nutricional normal. La comparación entre los grupos mostró características clínicas significativamente diferen- tes (p < 0,05). El análisis mostró diferencias significativas en la disnea (p = 0,043), así como en las subescalas de funcionalidad relacionadas con sintomatología respiratoria autocuidado (p = 0,040), actividades de ocio (p = 0,019) y la puntuación total (p = 0,031), siendo peores en los sujetos malnutridos. Conclusión: los pacientes con EPOC malnutridos presentan más síntomas y peores niveles de funcionalidad que los pacientes con EPOC con estado nutricional normal. PMID:27238793

  3. Informe trata el descenso del cáncer y los tumores cerebrales

    Cancer.gov

    Los índices de mortalidad en los Estados Unidos de todos los cánceres en hombres y mujeres siguieron bajando entre 2003 y 2007, que es el período más reciente del que se disponen datos, según el último Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer. El informe encuentra también que el índice general combinado de nuevos diagnósticos de cáncer en hombres y mujeres decreció un promedio un poco menos de 1% por año en el mismo período.

  4. ?`Es necesario calcular detalladamente funciones de partición atómicas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, L. A.; Merlo, D. C.

    Basándonos en extensos y precisos cómputos de funciones de partición realizados por nosotros para distintos átomos, se muestra que en el cálculo u obtención de ciertas magnitudes (notablemente la presión electrónica, la abundancia de un elemento deducida a partir de un estado fuertemente ionizado, etc.) el error porcentual que se comete es pequeño (inferior a 1 %) si se adopta, como valor de la función de partición, el peso estadístico del término correspondiente al estado fundamental del átomo. Esta notable simplificación acelera el cálculo, por ejemplo, de un modelo de atmósfera estelar, sin disminuir la precisión de los resultados.

  5. Implementation Of A Marine Altimeter Calibration Campaign In The Area Of Ibiza Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Bravo, Rogelio Lopez; Gomez, Begona Perez; Ripoll, Josep Gili; Gomez, Ana Tapia; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Conde, Mercedes Sanz; Gracia, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Sea level monitoring geodetic improvements has been made in specific coastal Spanish sites as Ibiza harbour. At Ibiza site new measurements and levelling between the GPS reference station and a radar MIROS tide gauge, both from Puertos del Estado, has been made in the last years. The goal is to maintain and improve the quality of the observation of the sea level. The information is coming from Puertos del Estado www.puertos.es. The presentation is directed mainly to the description of the actual situation of the Ibiza site in preparation for a new altimeter calibration marine campaign of Jason-2 and Saral/AltiKa satellites to be made in September 2013. A description of the two geometric levelling campaigns made in June and September 2013 is included.

  6. Los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón siguen en descenso y contribuyen a la continua reducc

    Cancer.gov

    El Informe Anual a la Nación sobre el Estado del Cáncer (1975 a 2010), mostró un descenso más acelerado que en años anteriores de los índices de mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón. También contiene una sección especial que destaca los efectos significativos

  7. Bambuina bambui: a new genus and species of cave cricket from Brazil (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Francisco De A G; Horta, Lília S; Bolfarini, Marcio P

    2013-01-01

    Bambuina bambui, um novo gênero e espécie de grilo falangopsídeo é descrito a partir de espécimes obtidos na Gruta do Centenário, uma caverna de quartzo localizada na Serra do Inficionado, um subconjunto de montanhas pertencentes ao complexo da Serra do Caraça no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. PMID:24583818

  8. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  9. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  10. Ahorre Energía: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energía en el hogar (Spanish Brochure), Energy Savers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    La versión en castellano de la guía del Departamento de Energía de los Estados Unidos que ayuda a consumidores a ahorrar energía y dinero en el hogar y en las carreteras. The Spanish-language version of U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving energy and money at home and on the road.

  11. Neurobiología de la impulsividad y los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria*

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Cabal, Luis Felipe; Herin, David

    2009-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La impulsividad es un rasgo de personalidad multidimensional relacionado con el control del comportamiento y las emociones. Está presente de manera diversa en los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, particularmente, en la bulimia nerviosa (BN). Aunque la relación entre la impulsividad y BN ha sido objeto de numerosas investigaciones, en la actualidad se desconocen los sustratos neurobiológicos de esta relación. Objetivos Discutir críticamente la evidencia que sugiere que las alteraciones en los sistemas neuronales relacio-nados con las funciones ejecutivas, con la formación de preferencias y con la regulación de los estados emocionales sirven como base para el rasgo de personalidad impulsiva, así como su estado en subgrupos de pacientes con BN. Métodos Búsqueda selectiva de la literatura relevante. Resultados y conclusiones Esta discusión ilustra la complejidad de la relación entre la impulsividad y BN, donde la impulsividad actúa como un factor de vulnerabilidad que puede sensibilizar al sujeto con BN a estados emocionales negativos, durante los cuales modifica el impacto de estímulos internos y externos sobre el comportamiento y su regulación, favoreciendo así patrones de comportamiento maladaptativos e inflexibles. PMID:19838321

  12. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Helion

    2005-06-01

    The biennial International Conferences on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP) are widely recognized as the major venue for the dissemination of recent and significant research results in the traditional areas, as well as in new and exciting outgrowths of this interdisciplinary field. The ICPPP is concerned with the science, applications and technologies involving the optical, electron-beam or otherwise production, propagation and detection of acoustic, thermal and general diffusion-wave fields.

    In the 2004 edition the conference was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and involved 14 topics covered in the scientific programme. These are Spectroscopy, Analytical Chemistry and Photochemistry, PA and PT Imaging and Microscopy, Thermophysical Properties and Characterization of Materials, Laser Ultrasonics, Ultrafast PA and PT Phenomena, Electronic and Optical Materials, Thin Films and Devices, Non Linear Phenomena and Inverse Problem, Nanoscale Phenomena, Non Destructive Evaluation, Diffusion Waves and Applications, Industrial Applications, New Instruments and Methodology, Biological,Medical and Dental Applications, Agriculture, Food and Environmental Applications . More than 300 short abstracts contributions were received and refereed for acceptation, from 690 authors of 28 different countries.

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13ICPPP including the 207 full papers accepted after a very careful peer review process. Their contents are very deep and modern and show the peculiar interdisciplinary nature of the area. It is provided a collection of papers which includes the traditional subjects of the area as well as new developments of th the fields. The characterization of materials is occupying a great interest in the papers and many studies involving nanoscale phenomena were developed exploring the photothermal methodology. As in the previous conferences thermal wave microscopy and non-linear photothermal phenomena keep a high interest. The application of the methodology to any diffusive wave, other than the thermal one, showed significant growth. In the applications field many expressive papers are analyzing environmental, dental and medical concerns besides those involving other industrial purposes.

    The Conference received financial support from various Brazilian institutions and agencies, specially the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq and Research and Projects Financing - Brazilian innovation Agency - FINEP, and from United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - UNESCO, to whom the conference organizers are very grateful.

    We would like to thank greatly the colleagues that helped much with the refereeing tasks and for the stimulating discussions and suggestions during the conference organization and proceedings preparation. Besides we wish to thank the authors for the high quality of their contributions. In special it should be acknowledge the essential help of the people from State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro (Fluminense)- UENF, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP and National Institute for Space Research - INPE, and colleagues that chaired previous conferences. Finally, we are all grateful evious for the precious work of the conference secretary Nelia F. Leite.

    Helion Vargas Chairman of the 13th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena

  13. Assessing the accuracy of the Second Military Survey for the Doren Landslide (Vorarlberg, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámolyi, András.; Székely, Balázs; Biszak, Sándor

    2010-05-01

    Reconstruction of the early and long-term evolution of landslide areas is especially important for determining the proportion of anthropogenic influence on the evolution of the region affected by mass movements. The recent geologic and geomorphological setting of the prominent Doren landslide in Vorarlberg (Western Austria) has been studied extensively by various research groups and civil engineering companies. Civil aerial imaging of the area dates back to the 1950's. Modern monitoring techniques include aerial imaging as well as airborne and terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR) providing us with almost yearly assessment of the changing geomorphology of the area. However, initiation of the landslide occurred most probably earlier than the application of these methods, since there is evidence that the landslide was already active in the 1930's. For studying the initial phase of landslide formation one possibility is to get back on information recorded on historic photographs or historic maps. In this case study we integrated topographic information from the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire that was conducted in Vorarlberg during the years 1816-1821 (Kretschmer et al., 2004) into a comprehensive GIS. The region of interest around the Doren landslide was georeferenced using the method of Timár et al. (2006) refined by Molnár (2009) thus providing a geodetically correct positioning and the possibility of matching the topographic features from the historic map with features recognized in the LiDAR DTM. The landslide of Doren is clearly visible in the historic map. Additionally, prominent geomorphologic features such as morphological scarps, rills and gullies, mass movement lobes and the course of the Weißach rivulet can be matched. Not only the shape and character of these elements can be recognized and matched, but also the positional accuracy is adequate for geomorphological studies. Since the settlement structure is very stable in the region, and in the historical map sheets the individual buildings were also mapped, it is possible to match several buildings with their present-day counterparts. We used matched geomorphologic features and buildings for deriving RMSE values, which range around 26 m. Orientation of major scarps and conspicuous geomorphologic features derived from the historic map and on the LiDAR DTM show a good correlation which confirms the long-term existence of these elements. Evidence from field geologic measurements provide the possible link of these elements to structural geologic features. Furthermore there is strong indication for that the landslide had been in a somewhat other state in the 19th century and the scarp retreat rate could have increased in the second half of the 20th century. Kretschmer, I., Dörflinger, J., Wawrick, F. (2004): Österreichische Kartographie. Wiener Schiften zur Geographie und Kartographie - Band 15. Institut für Geographie und Regionalforschung der Universität Wien, Wien. Molnár, G. (2009): Making a georeferenced mosaic of historical map series using constrained polynomial fit. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 11, ISSN 10297006. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. ISBN 963-7374-33-7

  14. Committees and organizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-07-01

    Chairman:Jozef Spałek (Kraków) Program Committee:Stephen Blundell (Oxford), J Michael D Coey (Dublin), Dominique Givord (Grenoble), Dariusz Kaczorowski (Wrocław), Roman Micnas (Poznań), Marek Przybylski (Halle), Ludiwig Schultz (Dresden), Vladimir Sechovsky (Prague), Jozef Spałek (Kraków), Henryk Szymczak (Warszawa), Manuel Vázquez (Madrid) Publication Committee:Dariusz Kaczorowski, Robert Podsiadły, Jozef Spałek, Henryk Szymczak, Andrzej Szytuła Local committee:Maria Bałanda, Anna Majcher, Robert Podsiadły, Michał Rams, Andrzej Ślebarski, Krzysztof Tomala Editors of the Proceedings:Jozef Spałek, Krzysztof Tomala, Danuta Goc-Jagło, Robert Podsiadły, Michał Rams, Anna Majcher Plenary, semi-plenary and tutorial speakers:Ernst Bauer (Wien)Stephen Blundell (Oxford)J Michael D Coey (Dublin)Russell P Cowburn (London)Burkard Hillebrands (Kaiserslautern)Claudine Lacroix (Grenoble)Lluís Mañosa (Barcelona)María del Carmen Muñoz (Madrid)Bernard Raveau (Caen)Pedro Schlottmann (Tallahassee)Frank Steglich (Dresden)Oliver Waldmann (Freiburg) Invited speakers within symposia: R Ahuja (Uppsala)A Kirilyuk (Nijmegen) M Albrecht (Vienna)L Theil Kuhn (Roskilde) K Bärner (Göttingen)J Liu (Dresden) U Bovensiepen (Duisburg)G Lorusso (Modena) V Buchelnikov (Chelyabinsk)M M Maska (Katowice) B Chevalier (Bordeaux)Y Mukovskii (Moscow) O Chubykalo-Fesenko (Madrid)M Pannetier-Lecoeur (Saclay) A V Chumak (Kaiserslautern)G Papavassiliou (Athens) J M D Coey (Dublin)K R Pirota (Campinas) B Dabrowski (DeKalb)P Przyslupski (Warszawa) S Das (Aveiro)M Reiffers (Košice) A del Moral (Zaragoza)K Sandeman (London) V E Demidov (Muenster)D Sander (Halle) B Djafari-Rouhani (Lille)M Sawicki (Sendai/Warsaw) H A Dürr (Menlo Park)J Schaefer (Würzburg) J Fassbender (Dresden)H Schmidt (Wetzikon) J Fontcuberta (Barcelona)J Spałek (Kraków) V Garcia (Orsay)L Straka (Helsinki) J N Gonçalves (Aveiro)A Szewczyk (Warszawa) M E Gruner (Duisburg)Y Taguchi (Wako) G Gubbiotti (Perugia)A Thiaville (Orsay) S Hamann (Bochum)R Varga (Košice) U Hannemann (Dresden)P Vavassori (San Sebastian) L Havela (Prague)W Wulfhekel (Karlsruhe) O Heczko (Prague)M Yamashita (Sendai) B Hernando (Oviedo)R Zdyb (Lublin) O Isnard (Grenoble)A Zhukov (San Sebastián) Z Kąkol (Kraków)A K Zvezdin (Moscow) N-T H Kim-Ngan (Kraków) International Advisory Committee (2011): Dominique Givord, President (Grenoble)Ludwig Schultz, Former President (Dresden) Manfred Albrecht (Chemnitz)Burkard Hillebrands (Kaiserslautern) Agnés Barthélémy (Paris)Andrei Kirilyuk (Nijmegen) Roy Chantrell (York)Ron Jansen (Tsukuba) Russell Cowburn (London)Nicoleta Lupu (Iasi) Tomasz Dietl (Warszawa)Caroline A Ross (Cambridge, MA) Claudia Felser (Mainz)Stefano Sanvito (Dublin) Josef Fidler (Wien)Vladimir Sechovsky (Praha) Dino Fiorani (Roma)Roberta Sessoli (Firenze) Pietro Gambardella (Bellaterra)Jozef Spałek (Kraków) Alberto Guimarães (Rio de Janeiro)

  15. Using U-series and beryllium isotopes to reveal the occurrence and relative timing of crustal and mantle processes in the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. B.; Reubi, O.; Dungan, M. A.; Bourdon, B.; Langmuir, C. H.; Turner, S. J.; Schaefer, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Magmas erupted from subduction zone volcanoes represent the end products of multiple magmatic processes occurring in the asthenospheric mantle wedge and overlying lithosphere (i.e., fluid addition, melting, assimilation, and crystal fractionation). To resolve the contributions of diverse processes and components, and the relative timing of these events, we have determined U-series activities (U-Th-Ra-Pa) for 60 and 10Be compositions for 20 historic or very young lavas carefully chosen on the basis of major and trace element analyses of 625 samples from six volcanoes in the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile (37.6-41.1S: Nevados de Chilln, Antuco, Llaima, Lonquimay, Villarrica, and Osorno). Our dataset demonstrates that each of these volcanoes reflects a unique combination and sequence of magmatic processes that are only revealed through analysis of multiple samples spanning the extent of intra-volcano and intra-eruption chemical variation. Sigmarsson et al. (1990; 2002) identified a regional trend using U-series and Be from mostly single samples, which they interpreted to represent along-strike variations in the flux of slab-derived fluids into the wedge [from 230Th-excess plus 226Ra-deficit plus low 10Be/9Be at Chilln towards progressively higher 238U- and Ra-excesses and 10Be/9Be at Villarrica and Osorno]. These data fall within the much broader array defined by our results, but we infer the operation of assimilation (e.g., Llaima; Reubi et al., 2011) and aging of subduction zone components of variable compositions and proportions in the mantle prior to partial melting as important factors in generating the highly individualized and complex U-series systematics observed at each of these six volcanoes. All of the volcanoes exhibit evidence of assimilation, with the exception of Lonquimay which has undergone mostly closed-system fractional crystallization. At Llaima and Chilln the assimilant is crustal. At Villarica, flux-related melts that dominate in the main edifice have been mixed with magma compositions similar to those at surrounding minor eruptive centers (Hickey-Vargas et al., 2002). The latter appear to be decompression melts of enriched mantle which manifest moderate U-Th-Ra disequilibrium and substantial 231Pa-excesses, whereas melts from Villarrica have substantial U- and Ra-excesses. Magmas from Osorno reflect a greater influence of sediments originating from the incoming slab. After discounting assimilated samples, all primary melts have uniformly high Pa-excesses (1.7-2.2) coincident with large variations in 238U-230Th disequilibria. Fluid addition-aging-melting successions at Antuco and Chilln may have led to compositions near U-Th equilibrium or with Th-excesses, respectively. Primary Ra-deficits at Chilln, Lonquimay, and Osorno are under investigation and potentially reflect melting of a cumulate body. Forthcoming 10Be data for select U-series samples will enable further clarification of the regional trend. Preliminary analyses of nine Llaima samples erupted between 1850 and 2009 confirm the successful elimination of a meteoric 10Be component and produce a data array consistent with assimilation. The invocation of radioactive decay to produce U-Th equilibrium (duration of at least 380 ky) could also explain the low 10Be/9Be compositions (half-life of 10Be=1,390 ky). Our comprehensive dataset may shed new light on melting processes in subduction zone systems.

  16. Time-series studies of drainage pattern and morphological features along the Leitha river (Eastern Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámolyi, A.; Draganits, E.; Doneus, M.; Fera, M.; Griebl, M.

    2009-04-01

    Geomorphologic mapping and drainage network analysis was conducted in the Southern Vienna Basin on the Leitha and Fischa rivers. The study area belongs to an active pull-apart basin between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians that started to subside in Karpatian times (~ 17 Ma), but with still active faults, proven by fault scarps and earth quakes. The investigated rivers are important tributaries to the Danube river and run through a region that has been subject to settlement since Neoltihic times. Thus, interaction between land use, settlement pattern and river dynamics can be studied. Several datasets are integrated to perform a comprehensive overview of geomorphological, as well as river dynamic changes in the landscape. During an earlier stage of this investigation a map of paleochannel distribution including the location and shape of the paleochannels was extracted from color-infrared and RGB digital orthophotos. Based on this map the location, character and shape of palaeomeanders is studied on different georeferenced historic maps (Timár et al., 2006; Biszak et al., 2007) in order to derive a time-series study. The paleochannels extracted from the digital orthophotos show a good coincidence with the depicted rivers on the historic maps. This partly allows quite well constrained age estimates of the paleochannel sections. The investigated maps are the Walter maps, the First, Second and Third Military Survey of the Habsburg/Austro-Hungarian Empire. Mapping of the Walter maps was conducted 1754-56 (Ulbrich, 1952), the First, Second and Third Military Surveys were mapped in this area in the time-span of 1782-1785, 1819-1869, and 1872-1873, respectively (Kretschmer et al., 2004). This sequence of georeferenced historical maps allows to study only a very short time-span (1755 - 1873) compared to the geological time scale. However, the characteristics of river dynamics special for the study area can be derived and, considering certain assumptions, extrapolated to a wider time range. Within the observable time period the Leitha river preserved its meandering characteristics. Small shifts of the mean channel towards E or W can be detected. A disadvantage of the maps previous to the Third Military Survey is the lack of contour lines. On these maps, variation in terrain elevation was mapped „a la vue" and rather depicted as changes in slope of the terrain by applying hatchures showing a density increase with higher slope. This method provided a very plastic overview of changes in the terrain, but the reading of absolute or relative elevations is not possible. According to this, geomorphologic observations from these maps are constricted to the comparison of the horizontal position of elevated areas and the change of their outline. This study shows that historical maps provide an essential tool to investigate younger river dynamics and sensitively show the impact of anthropological modifications as well as active tectonics. Biszak, S., Timár, G., Molnár, G., Jankó, A. (2007): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The third military survey, Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie, 1869-1887, 1:75000. DVD-issue, Arcanum, Budapest. ISBN 978-963-73-7451-7 Kretschmer, I., Dörflinger, J., Wawrick, F. (2004): Österreichische Kartographie. Wiener Schiften zur Geographie und Kartographie - Band 15. Institut für Geographie und Regionalforschung der Universität Wien, Wien. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. ISBN 963-7374-33-7 Ulbrich K. (1952): Die Grenzkarte Ungarn-Niederösterreich von C. J. Walter (1754 - 56). Burgenländische Heimatblätter, 14, 108-121

  17. Investigation of watercourses by comparison of successive historical map surveys of Western Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    The Second (Timár et al., 2006) and Third Military Survey (Biszak et al., 2007) of the Habsburg Empire, completed in the 19th century (1806-69 and 1869-87), can be very useful in different scientific investigations because of their accuracy and data content. The mapmakers used geodetic projections and survey technologies provided high accuracy. Therefore, scientists can use these maps and the represented objects in retrospective studies. The streams were drawn with very thin lines that also ascertain the high accuracy of their location. Previous study used the Second Military Survey to examine the neotectonic evaluation of the western part of the Pannonian Basin, bordered by Pinka, Rába and Répce Rivers (Kovács, 2010). The watercourses, especially alluvial ones, react very sensitively to tectonic forcing (Schumm & Khan, 1972; Ouchi, 1985). However, the present-day course of the creeks and rivers are mostly regulated, therefore they are unsuitable for such studies. The watercourses have reconstructed from maps surveyed prior to the main water control measures. The Second Military Survey was a perfect source for such studies. The investigated streams were free meandering ones. They could flood their banks, and only natural levees were present. After georeferencing the maps of the area, the streams were digitized, and their sinuosity values were computed. Where significant sinuosity changes have been detected along the streams, it can be considered as indicators of differential uplift or subsidence of the bedrock/alluvium. The goal of this study is to decide the character of several stream sections: were they free meandering ones or not? Some of the sections are antecedent ones, especially at the Vas Mountain at the present Austrian-Hungarian border. If the shapes of the watercourses on the different surveys are almost the same, the sinuosity refers to a prior, forced state of the stream. After digitizing the watercourses on the Third Military Survey sheets, some newly regulated sections are recognized as well as forced and free meandering ones. Thus, the neotectonic evaluation of the study area can be made more accurate. References - Biszak, S., Timár, G., Molnár, G., Jankó, A. (2007): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The third military survey, Ungarn, Siebenbürgen, Kroatien-Slawonien, 1867-1887, 1:25000. Arcanum, Budapest, DVD-issue. - Kovács, G. (2010): The advantages of using the Second Military Survey maps in fluvial studies. Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica 45(1): 64-70. - Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 504-515. - Schumm, S. A., Khan, H. R. (1972): Experimental study of channel patterns. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 83: 1755-1770. - Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p.

  18. River sinuosity changes as indicators of the possible neotectonic activity - a case study on the Danube River between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit

    2010-05-01

    The meandering, pre-regulation river planforms of the Danube River, between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia) was digitized from the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (Timár et al., 2006). These maps were surveyed before or simultaneously with the river control works, so it is possible to follow the natural riverbeds, the natural changing of the meandering structure. The sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). The channel sinuosity of this river is analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of the western part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Several points of sinuosity change were identified. To prove that these are of neotectonic origin, a neotectonic map and seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed. Significant sinuosity changes (low to high or high to low), spatially correlated to linear features identified in seismic survey sections or in tectonic maps (Horváth et al., 2006), indicate their neotectonic activity (Ouchi, 1985; Timár, 2003; Zámolyi et al., 2010). Upstream of the Hungarian-Serbian border, the Duna (Danube) has anabranching planform, the Baracskai-Duna is the main anabranch. There is a fault on the neotectonic map, crossing both rivers, and cause the decreasing of the sinuosity. The vertical activity of the structural line, which is more or less parallel to the international border, is verified by the sinuosity change. The direction of the change (from high to low sinuosity values) correlates with the normal fault character, shown on the map. Another significant sinuosity change occurs downstream of the Drava River confluence. The explanation of this change can be of two kinds. First, there is a known tectonic feature along the Drava River, with dextral faulting. The sinuosity increase could indicate a small active vertical component of this structural line. However, another possible explanation is based on the significant sediment load of the tributary, that is naturally decreases the river sinuosity. Horváth, F., Bada, G., Windhoffer, G., Csontos, L., Dombrádi, E., Dövényi, P., Fodor, L., Grenerczy, Gy., Síkhegyi, F., Szafián, P., Székely, B., Timár, G., Tóth, L., Tóth, T. (2006): A Pannon-medence jelenkori geodinamikájának atlasza: Euro-konform térképsorozat és magyarázó. Magyar Geofizika 47(4), 133-137. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96, 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 22, 2199-2207. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. van Balen, R. T., Kasse, C., Moor, J. (2008): Impact of groundwater flow on meandering; example from the Geul river, the Netherlands. Earth Surf. Process. and Landf. 33(13), 2010-2028. Zámolyi, A., Székely, B., Draganits, E., Timár, G. (2010): Neotectonic control on river sinuosity at the western margin of the Little Hungarian Plain. Geomorph., in press, DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.06.028

  19. Can we follow the neotectonic activity of the Hluboká-fault by reconstructing the evolution of the Vltava river course? - Mapping of fluvial terraces around the Budejovice-basin using historic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homolova, Dana; Lomax, Johanna; Prachar, Ivan; Spacek, Petr; Zamolyi, Andras; Decker, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    The Budějovice Basin in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic) is a fault-bounded sedimentary basin with a multiple subsidence history overlying Variscan crystalline basement. Permian, Cretaceous and Miocene sediments record repeated reactivations of faults at or close to the basin margin, which may have continued into the Quaternary. The latter is indicated by geomorphological features such as linear topographic scarps, which characterize part of the faults within and at the border of the Budějovice Basin. In a current study we assess possible Quaternary displacements along the faults delimiting the basin using geomorphological data, analyses of river planform patterns and correlations of Quaternary terraces of the Vltava River, which crosses the basin and its boundary faults. The regionally most important tectonic feature - the Hluboká fault -forms the northeastern margin of the Budějovice basin. The fault crosses the course of the river Vltava, a fact that guided our research to take a more precise look at the character and distribution of fluvial sediments in this area. Our main focus is on dating of terrace bodies around the Hluboká fault. According to the scheme used in most European regions, influences by the Pleistocene glacial cycles, the Vltava river terraces were assigned by most scientists to the 4(5) main alpine glacial periods. This dating is not straightforward as terraces are not connected to moraine bodies like in the Alps. The terraces were basically correlated by their altitude above the river and by their lithology (clastic content and grain size composition), but mostly without any numerical age determination. Our studies include several field and laboratory methods, supported by computer analyses of various types of spatial data. Data sources include: (i) modern topographic maps, (ii) geological maps, (iii) georeferenced historic map sheets of the Austrian Second Military Survey (provided by the Geoinformatics Laboratory of the University J. E. Purkyně, 2005). The georeferenced map sheets of the Second Military Survey provide a very exact base map (Timár et al., 2006) for investigating the location of possible terrace bases. Since the georeferencing accuracy is < 10 m, data from these map sheets can be integrated into the geomorphologic studies providing information about the geomorphologic situation in the study area of the years 1836-1842, i.e., with less anthropogenic impact on geomorphological features than today. These data sources are combined with data from boreholes and thus help us identifying potential terrace bodies and choosing appropriate investigation sites. In the field, morphological, sedimentological and pedological methods are used to obtain relevant data about the sediment stratigraphy. Several laboratory analyses were carried out to gain information on the age of the terraces. We use OSL-dating in combination with the analysis of heavy minerals and clay minerals, as well as grain size analysis. After gathering information about the absolute ages of the terrace bodies upstream and downstream the Hluboká fault, we may be able to declare if the building of terrace staircases was influenced by tectonic activity of the fault or not. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. ISBN 963-7374-33-7

  20. Desiccation tolerance of iron bacteria biofilms on Mars regolith simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    Iron oxidizing bacteria play an important role in the geological redox cycling of iron on earth. The redox change between Fe(II) and Fe(III) can be used for biological energy production [1]. Therefore iron oxidation in the iron rich martian soils may be or may have been microbially mediated. The microbial conversion of iron is considered to be an ancient form of metabolism [2], so it might have evolved on Mars as well. However, to exist in recent martian soils, bacteria must be able to endure dry and cold conditions. Neutrophilic iron oxidizers can be found in various iron rich aquatic environments, where they lead to the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides. Some of these environments fall temporarily dry, what could have led to an adaptation to desiccation by bacteria, existing there. One strategy of iron bacteria to endure drought stress might be the formation of biofilms by excreting Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS). The deposition of iron hydroxides could enable them to endure dry conditions as well. For our experiments, neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria have been isolated from a creek in Bad Salzhausen/Hesse and temporarily drying out pools in Tierra del Fuego. Strains from aquatic environments in the national park "Unteres Odertal" and from water wells in Berlin/Brandenburg are included in the tests as well. In desiccation experiments, the capability of iron bacteria to tolerate dry conditions are investigated. The aim of our first experiment is the adaptation to dry conditions. Biofilms of 15 strains are grown on ceramic beads in liquid medium containing complexed Fe(II), established biofilms contain Fe(III) precipitates. The cultures are desiccated in a sterile airflow until the weight of the cultures remained constant. After a desiccation period of 9 h up to 7 d, the beads are transferred to fresh liquid medium. Adapted strains are used in further desiccation experiments, where biofilms are grown on two martian regolith simulants. These mineral mixtures were developed and produced by the Naturkundemuseum Berlin according to recent data of Mars research missions [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. The minerals are attached to object slides with potassium silicate and biofilms are grown on the mineral surface. The biofilms are quantified by cell counting and the structure is evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy. After desiccation in a sterile airflow, the survival of cells is determined by fluorescence staining. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Helmholtz Association through the research alliance "Planetary Evolution and Life". References [1] Weber, K. A. et al. (2006). Microorganisms pumping iron: anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4: 752-764. [2] Vargas, M. et al. (1998). Microbiological evidence for Fe(III) reduction on early Earth. Nature 395: 65-67. [3] Bibring, J.-P., Y. Langevin, et al. (2005). Mars surface diversity as revealed by the OMEGA/Mars express observations. Science 307(5715): 1576-1581. [4] Bibring, J.-P., S. W. Squyres, et al. (2006). Merging Views on Mars. Science 313(5795): 1899-1901. [5] Chevrier, V. and P. E. Mathé (2007). Mineralogy and evolution of the surface of Mars: A review. Planetary and Space Science 55(3): 289-314. [6] McCollom, T. M. and B. M. Hynek (2005). A volcanic environment for bedrock diagenesis at Meridiani Planum on Mars. Nature 438(7071): 1129-1131. [7] Poulet, F., J. P. Bibring, et al. (2005). Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian climate. Nature 438(7068): 623-627.

  1. TNFα and IL-6 Responses to Particulate Matter in Vitro: Variation According to PM Size, Season, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Soil Content

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Serrano-Lomelin, Jesús; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Vega, Elizabeth; Vázquez-López, Inés; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; López-Villegas, Maria Tania; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Perez, Irma Rosas; O’Neill, Marie S.; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observed seasonal differences in particulate matter (PM) associations with human health may be due to their composition and to toxicity-related seasonal interactions. Objectives: We assessed seasonality in PM composition and in vitro PM pro-inflammatory potential using multiple PM samples. Methods: We collected 90 weekly PM10 and PM2.5 samples during the rainy-warm and dry-cold seasons in five urban areas with different pollution sources. The elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and endotoxins identified in the samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). We tested the potential of the PM to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in cultured human monocytes (THP-1), and we modeled pro-inflammatory responses using the component scores. Results: PM composition varied by size and by season. PCA identified two main components that varied by season. Combustion-related constituents (e.g., vanadium, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene) mainly comprised component 1 (C1). Soil-related constituents (e.g., endotoxins, silicon, aluminum) mainly comprised component 2 (C2). PM from the rainy-warm season was high in C2. PM (particularly PM2.5) from the dry-cold season was rich in C1. Elevated levels of cytokine production were associated with PM10 and C2 (rainy-warm season), whereas reduced levels of cytokine production were associated with PM2.5 and C1 (dry-cold season). TNFα secretion was increased following exposure to PM with high (vs. low) C2 content, but TNFα secretion in response to PM was decreased following exposure to samples containing ≥ 0.1% of C1-related PAHs, regardless of C2 content. The results of the IL-6 assays suggested more complex interactions between PM components and particle size. Conclusions: Variations in PM soil and PAH content underlie seasonal and PM size–related patterns in TNFα secretion. These results suggest that the mixture of components in PM explains some seasonal differences in associations between health outcomes and PM in epidemiologic studies. Citation: Manzano-León N, Serrano-Lomelin J, Sánchez BN, Quintana-Belmares R, Vega E, Vázquez-López I, Rojas-Bracho L, López-Villegas MT, Vadillo-Ortega F, De Vizcaya-Ruiz A, Rosas Perez I, O’Neill MS, Osornio-Vargas AR. 2016. TNFα and IL-6 responses to particulate matter in vitro: variation according to PM size, season, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soil content. Environ Health Perspect 124:406–412; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409287 PMID:26372663

  2. IBAMar 2.0: 36 years sampling on the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, A.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Balbín, R.; Jansá, J.; Amengual, B.

    2012-04-01

    IBAMar 2.0 is a new database created from the oceanographic data obtained during the development of different oceanographic projects by the Balearic Center of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) and conducted from 1974 and ongoing in the Western Mediterranean basin (Balearic Sea and Algerian Basin). This database collects data from 27 research projects with 134 oceanographic surveys and 6463 sampling stations. IBAMar 2.0 database covers 36 year sampling and approximately 210,846 km2 in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WM). The effort applied for obtaining this data was growing from less than 100 station/year to more than 700 in the year 2009. IBAMar 2.0 database includes main hydrographic parameters such as pressure, temperature, salinity and others as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll-a and nutrients (nitrates, nitrites, phosphates and silicates). Most of the data from 1990 until now were obtained with multiparametric CTDs, although earlier data corresponding to cast sampling with Niskin bottles were incorporated too. The main goal of this database is to establish a climatology for the most significant variables to study the existence of decadal cycles or long-term trends, trying to better understand the behaviour of the hydrographic conditions of the Spanish Mediterranean coast, at both seasonal and interannual time scale and long term. From these studies is possible to provide answers on topical issues as the thermohaline anomaly of the deep waters of WM, the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen minimum, or the effects of the Climate Change on the hydrodynamics characteristics of the study area [1]. Future work includes data quality control based on standard protocols like [2] and publishing IBAMar 2.0 (including next surveys) on the website of the Mediterranean Group on Climate Change of IEO (http://www.ma.ieo.es/gcc/). There, the data could be obtained summarized as seasonal climatology. These will include horizontal sections at standard depths and some representative vertical sections. Spatial and temporal resolution as well as data quality control will be discussed. This contribution will also present some examples that may contribute to our understanding of hydrological changes and global warming in the Mediterranean Sea. [1] M. Vargas-Yáñez, J. Salat, M. L. F. de Puelles, J. L. López-Jurado, J. Pascual, T. Ramírez, D. Cortés, and I. Franco. Trends and time variability in the northern continental shelf of the western mediterranean. Journal of geophysical research, 110(C10):C10019, 2005. [2] C. Maillard, M. Fichaut, MEDAR/MEDATLAS Group, 2001. MEDAR-MEDATLAS Protocol (V3) Part I: Exchange Format and Quality Checks for Observed Profiles; Rap. Int. IFREMER, Brest. TMSI/IDM/SISMER/SIS00-084.

  3. Zwanzig model of multi-component mixtures of biaxial particles: y3 theory re-visited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, E. P.; Tumanyan, N. P.; Vlasov, A. Yu.; Masters, A. J.

    The paper considers the thermodynamic and phase ordering properties of a multi-component Zwanzig mixture of hard rectangular biaxial parallelepipeds. An equation of state (EOS) is derived based on an estimate of the number of arrangements of the particles on a three- dimensional cubic lattice. The methodology is a generalization of the Flory-DiMarzio counting scheme, but, unlike previous work, this treatment is thermodynamically consistent. The results are independent of the order in which particles are placed on the lattice. By taking the limit of zero lattice spacing, a translationally continuous variant of the model (the off-lattice variant) is obtained. The EOS is identical to that obtained previously by a wide variety of different approaches. In the off-lattice limit, it corresponds to a third-level y-expansion and, in the case of a binary mixture of square platelets, it also corresponds to the EOS obtained from fundamental measure theory. On the lattice it is identical to the EOS obtained by retaining only complete stars in the virial expansion. The off-lattice theory is used to study binary mixtures of rods (R1 - R2) and binary mixtures of platelets (P1 - P2). The particles were uniaxial, of length (thickness) L and width D. The aspect ratios Γi = Li/Di of the components were kept constant (Γ1R = 15, Γ1P = 1/15 and Γ2R = 150, Γ2P = 1/150), so the second virial coefficient of R1 was identical to P1 and similarly for R2 and P2. The volume ratio of particles 1 and 2, v1/v2, was then varied, with the constraints that viR = viP and ILM0001. Results on nematic-isotropic (N - I) phase coexistence at an infinite dilution of component 2, are qualitatively similar for rods and platelets. At small values of the ratio v1/v2, the addition of component 2 (i.e. a thin rod (e.g. a polymer) or a thin plate) results in the stabilization of the nematic phase. For larger values of v1/v2, however, this effect is reversed and the addition of component 2 destabilizes the nematic. For similar molecular volumes of the two components strong fractionation is observed: shorter rods and thicker platelets congregate in the isotropic phase. In general, the stabilization of the ordered phase and the fractionation between the phases are both weaker in the platelet mixtures. The calculated spinodal curves for isotropic-isotropic demixing are noticeably different between the R1 - R2 and the P1 - P2 systems. The platelet mixtures turn out to be stable with respect to de-mixing up to extremely high densities. The values of the consolute points for the R1 - R2 blends are remarkably similar to those obtained using the Parsons-Lee approximation for bi-disperse mixtures of freely rotating cylinders with similar aspect ratios [S. Varga. A. Galindo, G. Jackson, Mol. Phys., 101, 817 (2003)]. In a number of R1 - R2 mixtures, phase diagrams exhibiting both N - I equilibrium and I - I de-mixing were calculated. The latter is pre-empted by nematic ordering in all the cases studied. Calculations show the possible appearance of azeotropes in the N - I coexistence domain.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of OIB-like magmatism in the Western Pacific: Plume or non-plume related enriched magmatism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, O.; Taylor, R. N.; Ohara, Y.; Tani, K.; Yuasa, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages as well as geochemical data for samples recovered from bathymetric highs in the West Philippine Basin (WPB) and Daito Ridge group in the Philippine Sea. This data defines the volcanic history of OIB-like magmatism in and around the WPB and enables a tectonic reconstruction of the early history of the Philippine Sea. The prominent bathymetric features in the WPB include broad highs (plateaus) of Benham Rise and Urdaneta Plateau which lie at equal distances from the extinct spreading centre of the WPB. The northern margin of the WPB is marked by Daito Ridge group, including Oki-Daito and Daito Ridges, and Amami Plateau as well as the recently-defined Oki-Daito Rise. New drilling and dredge sampling from these bathymetric features as well as from the WPB, recovered dominantly basaltic lavas with minor but significant quantites of more differentiated volcanic rocks. Basalts with OIB-like geochemical characteristics (an overall enrichment of incompatible elements and associated radiogenic isotopes) were found from these bathymetric highs and some locations on the Daito Ridge group. In addition, basalts from the WPB are found to have variable enrichment relative to N-MORB. The age range obtained from OIB-like basalts from Urdaneta Plateau (34.6 to 38.0Ma) agrees with that reported from the Benham Rise. Meanwhile, older ages of around 40-42 Ma were obtained from basalts from the Oki-Daito Rise, north of Urdaneta Plateau. These ages overlap with those we have determined from the Minami-Daito Basin (Hickey-Vargas, 1998). This implies that Urdaneta Plateau and Oki-Daito Rise represent age-progressive record of OIB-like magmatism in the West Philippine Basin, and the source for the OIB-like magmatism existed near the spreading center of the West Philippine Basin at 34-42 Ma. Significantly, the OIB-like magmatism is not restricted to the plateaus, but is also found on the WPB floor. This might indicate that besides the continuous supply of the enriched mantle providing the magmatism that formed the plateaus, enriched asthenospheric mantle was also present as either irregularly distributed regions beneath Philippine Sea, or was dispersed and mixed with the active spreading regime. Distribution of OIB-like magmatism at c. 45 -50 Ma, which is older than those found from the plateaus in the WPB, on preexisting Daito Ridge group appears to indicate that this magmatism is not necessarily associated with spreading, but might have been caused either by upwelling of enriched mantle or regional extension which triggered decompression melting of enriched mantle. Upwelling of this enriched mantle plume head might have promoted regional extension and triggered splitting of preexisting crust of the Daito Ridge group and hence the initiation of spreading in the WPB.

  5. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta, Venezuela Leopoldo Soto, Chile Michael Tendler, Sweden Carlos Varandas, Portugal Henry Riascos, Colombia Ivan Vargas-Blanco, Costa Rica Local Organizing Committee Luis Bilbao (Chairman) Fernando Minotti (Vice-Chairman) Luis Bernal, UNMDP Alejandro Clausse, PLADEMA-CNEA Graciela Gnavi, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Fausto Gratton, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Diana Grondona, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Héctor Kelly, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Adriana Márquez, INFIP, CONICET-UBA María Milanese, UNCPBA César Moreno, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Sponsors Instituto de Física del Plasma (INFIP) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT) Centro Latino-Americano de Física (CLAF) Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMP) Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNICEN) Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Buenos Aires (ANCBA) Conference poster

  6. PREFACE: The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    The XI Mexican School on Particles and Fields took place on 2-13 August 2004, in the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, México. The School continued with the tradition of promoting High Energy Physics among the younger generation in Mexico. Thus, it was aimed specifically at graduate students and postdocs. The School consisted of several courses delivered by international experts on subjects of current interest to the scientific community. The length of each course was of six to eight hours, English being the language of instruction. A novelty in this edition of the School was its total duration (two weeks as opposed to one), the number of hours assigned to one subject, and the addition of some experimental courses for the students to overcome their inhibitions of a direct encounter with the equipment and its usage. There were also a few overview talks delivered by local experts on the current status of some of the research fields actively pursued in Mexico. The XI-MSPF was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society. It was generously sponsored by several institutions: Universidad de Veracruz, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV) and Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT). We are very grateful to Dr Raúl Arias Lovillo, Dr Víctor Manuel Alcaráz Romero, Dr Asdrúbal Flóres López and Mtro Walter Saiz González, head of the Academic Secretariat, Director and Subdirector of the Office of Scientific Research and Director of the Division of Exact Sciences of the University of Veracruz, respectively, for their invaluable support in all senses to our Summer School. We also appreciate the important and useful assistance provided by Dr Rubén Bernardo Morante López, Director of the Museum of Anthropology of Xalapa, and Dr Héctor Coronel Brizio of the Secretariat of Education and Culture of the state of Veracruz. We acknowledge the help of our colleagues in the Organizing Committee: Norma Bagatella Flores (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Heriberto Castilla Valdés (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Lorenzo Díz Cruz (FCFM-BUAP), Juan José Godina Nava (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Gerardo Herrera Corral (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), German Mandujano Vallejo (FFIA-U. Veracruzana), Miguel Ángel Pérez Angón (CINVESTAV-U. Zacatenco), Efraín Rojas Marcial (FFIA-U. Veracruzana) and Carlos Vargas Madrazo (FFIA-U Veracruzana). Many thanks also to our Conference Secretaries Patricia Carranza and Soledad López for the efficiency with which they carried out their job and their dedication. Special thanks go to María Guadalupe Colorado Hernández and Javier Ignacio Fragoso Tizapan, whose help in carrying out the School was essential, without their collaboration this School would not have been the same. We take this opportunity to thank most warmly all the speakers for delivering excellent lectures which made this event a success. Moreover, to our utmost delight, the students participated very enthusiastically and we hope that this school will contribute considerably towards their academic development. The future of scientific endeavour always depends upon the students. Adnan Bashir (IFM-UMSNH) Jens Erler (IF-UNAM) Rául Hernández (FFIA-UV) Myriam Mondragón (IF-UNAM) Luis Villaseñor (IFM-UMSNH)

  7. Distant electric coupling between nitrate reduction and sulphide oxidation investigated by an improved nitrate microscale biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, U.; Revsbech, N. P.; Nielsen, L. P.; Risgaard-Petersen, N.

    2012-04-01

    Bacteria are apparently able to transmit electrons to other bacteria (Summers et al. 2010) or to electrodes (Malvankar et al. 2011) by some kind of nanowires (Reguera et al. 2005, Gorbi et al. 2006). Lately it has been shown that such transfer may occur over distances of centimetres in sediments, thereby coupling sulphide oxidation in deeper layers with oxygen reduction near the surface (Nielsen 2011). The finding of these long-distance electrical connections originated from analysis of O2, H2S, and pH profiles measured with microsensors. Nitrate is thermodynamically almost as good an electron acceptor as O2, and we therefore set up an experiment to investigate whether long-distance electron transfer also happens with NO3-. Aquaria were filled with sulphidic marine sediment from Aarhus Bay that was previously used to show long-distance electron transfer to O2. The aquaria were equipped with a lid so that they could be completely filled without a gas phase. Anoxic seawater with 300 μM NO3- was supplied at a constant rate resulting in a steady state concentration in the aquatic phase of 250 μM NO3-. The reservoir with the nitrate-containing water was kept anoxic by bubbling it with a N2/CO2 mixture and was kept at an elevated temperature. The water was cooled on the way to the aquaria to keep the water in the aquaria undersaturated with gasses, so that bubble formation by denitrification in the sediment could be minimised. Profiles of NO3-, H2S, and pH were measured as a function of time (2 months) applying commercial sensors for H2S and pH and an improved microscale NO3- biosensor developed in our laboratory. The penetration of NO3- in the sediment was 4-5 mm after 2 months, whereas sulphide only could be detected below 8-9 mm depth. The electron acceptor and electron donor were thus separated by 4-5 mm, indicating long distance electron transfer. A pH maximum of about 8.6 pH units at the NO3- reduction zone similar to a pH maximum observed in the O2 reduction zone of electro-active sediments could be observed. This pH maximum was the strongest evidence for long-distance electron transfer in oxic sediments, but cannot be taken as proof in denitrifying sediments as conventional denitrification may also produce elevated pH. We are now searching for the NO3- reducing bacteria that may be active in long-distance electron transfer in our sediment. Gorby, Y. A., S. Yanina, et al. (2006). Electrically conductive bacterial nanowires produced by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 and other microorganisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103(30): 11358-11363. Malvankar, N. S., M. Vargas, et al. (2011). Tunable metallic-like conductivity in microbial nanowire networks. Nature Nanotechnology 6(9): 573-579. Nielsen, L. P., N. Risgaard-Petersen, et al. (2010). Electric currents couple spatially separated biogeochemical processes in marine sediment. Nature 463(7284): 1071-1074. Reguera, G., K. D. McCarthy, et al. (2005). Extracellular electron transfer via microbial nanowires. Nature 435(7045): 1098-1101. Summers, Z. M., H. E. Fogarty, et al. (2010). Direct Exchange of Electrons Within Aggregates of an Evolved Syntrophic Coculture of Anaerobic Bacteria. Science 330(6009): 1413-1415.

  8. Aplicación de la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) al cálculo de intensidades vibrónicas y vidas medias de niveles vibracionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Velasco Sanz, Ana

    Desde que se formuló, en 1996, la metodología Molecular de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [1], se han obtenido datos de calidad relativos a intensidades de bandas electrónicas que implican estados Rydberg para una gran variedad de sistemas moleculares [2]. Animados por los buenos resultados obtenidos, recientemente hemos abordado el estudio de transiciones vibrónicas, es decir aquellas que ocurren entre estados vibracionales que pertenecen a distintos estados Rydberg electrónicos. Como prototipo adecuado para nuestros propósitos hemos elegido la molécula de NO, importante en la química de la atmósfera, y para la cual existen en la bibliografía datos experimentales de calidad suficiente para contrastar la validez de nuestros resultados. En concreto, hemos calculado las fuerzas de oscilador y coeficientes de Einstein para transiciones electrónicas y vibrónicas de las principales bandas del NO, al igual que vidas medias radiativas de niveles vibracionales de dicha molécula. Las propiedades estudiadas son esenciales para la comprensión de los aspectos teóricos de los procesos físicos básicos relativos a la dispersión electrónica en moléculas heteronucleares con capas abiertas. Además, valores fiables de probabilidades de transición moleculares tienen importantes aplicaciones en Astrofísica, en la modelización de procesos fotodinámicos moleculares, etc., al igual que para evaluar más profundamente la validez de nuestra metodología teórica.

  9. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  10. Formación y evolución de planetas gigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Brunini, A.

    Presentamos el estado actual del trabajo que estamos realizando en el estudio de la formación de planetas gigantes. Detallamos los algoritmos numéricos necesarios para realizar este tipo de cálculo. Presentamos algunos resultados de la formación de objetos con masas de hasta una docena de veces la del planeta Júpiter, resaltando las principales caracteríticas. Finalmente detallamos los problemas que pensamos abordar en un futuro cercano en este tema de investigación.

  11. Observaciones del CH interestelar y el continuo en 3,3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.; Combi, J. A.; Pöppel, W.; Benaglia, P.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    Se informa sobre el proyecto que se lleva a cabo en el IAR con el propósito de observar las líneas hiperfinas del estado fundamental del CH y el continuo en la banda de 3,3 GHz. El nuevo receptor construído en nuestro laboratorio para tal fin se instaló sobre uno de los radiotelescopios, funcionando conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamiento actuales del IAR. Los resultados de las primeras observaciones, realizadas tanto en las líneas espectrales como en el continuo sobre fuentes conocidas, fueron satisfactorios.

  12. [A critical view about public health in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    La salud pública se encuentra en un momento crucial, el cual tenemos que aprovechar para devolver a México el liderazgo que lo distinguió a nivel regional y mundial. Para ello, quienes hemos dedicado esfuerzos profesionales al fortalecimiento de la salud pública mexicana debemos entender el estado que guardan la ciencia, las nuevas tecnologías y los nuevos desarrollos para no solamente evitar el rezago, sino situarnos en la vanguardia, como corresponde a la acreditada tradición médica de nuestro país. PMID:27160628

  13. [The framing of transgenics in São Paulo newspapers: the potential contribution of information to political participation].

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Danilo; Berbel, Danilo Brancalhão

    2010-06-01

    In 2007, Brazil's National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) conducted an online public consultation to obtain input on its Proposed Technical Regulations for assessing the safety of transgenic food products. The article describes the context and results of a research study that identified the main ways in which the newspapers Folha de S.Paulo and O Estado de S.Paulo framed and addressed topics related to the subject matter of this consultation. Our goal was to evaluate the gamut of information available that could contribute to this form of political participation. The journalistic coverage in question was generally fragmented; 70% of articles offered incomplete views on the topics in question. PMID:21461479

  14. Implementation of Barcelona, L'estartit and Ibiza Sites for Altimeter Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Bosch, E.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2012-12-01

    A marine campaign to compute the sea surface data along the Spanish Mediterranean coastline and Balearic Islands is being prepared for 2013. Jason-2 (period ~10 days) and Saral/AltiKa (period of 35 days and expected launch in 2012) altimetric data and on-board GPS data will be used. Many GPS Buoy sessions along the ship route will be performed.Sea height estimates (instantaneous and mean sea levels) will be compared. Recently some geodetic improvements has been made in specific coastal spanish sites in the NW Mediterranean Sea for monitoring sea level. The goal is to maintain and improve the quality of the observation of the sea level change in the three sites. The information is coming from Puertos del Estado www.puertos.es L'Estartit tide gauge has been co-located with geodetic techniques (GPS measurements of XU, Utilitary Network, and XdA, Levelling Network,) and it is tied to the SPGIC (Integrated Geodetic Positioning System of Catalonia) project of the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC). In the past three calibration campaigns for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 in March 1999, August 2000 and July 2002 near Cape of Begur. At Barcelona harbour there is one MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Bathymetric campaigns inside the harbour have been made. At Ibiza site new measurements and levelling between the GPS reference station and a Radar MIROS, both from Puertos del Estado, has been made recently. A calibration campaign for Jason-1 was made in June 2003 in the Ibiza area, main calibration site. The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation of the geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona, l'Estartit sites for sea level determination and complementing Ibiza site for a new altimeter calibration campaign of Jason-2 and Saral/AltiKa satellites to be made in 2013. Specifications of the new marine calibration campaign will be presented.

  15. Estudio comparativo de las moléculas isovalentes de interés atmosférico CF3Cl y CF3Br y sus correspondientes halógenos aislados Cl y Br.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los estados Rydberg moleculares han suscitado en los últimos años un creciente interés entre los espectroscopistas experimentales, motivado en parte por el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas espectroscópicas capaces de investigar estos estados altamente excitados electrónicamente. Los procesos de fotoabsorción que implican estados Rydberg en los derivados halogenados del metano son de gran importancia, debido a su abundancia en la atmósfera y a sus implicaciones medioambientales. Por ello, la obtención de datos relativos a sus fuerzas de oscilador es de gran interés. En este trabajo se aborda el estudio de dichas propiedades para las moléculas isovalentes CF3Cl y CF3Br. Ambas moléculas presentan idéntica estructura electrónica para el estado fundamental por lo que se espera que sus espectros Rydberg presenten grandes similitudes, en ausencia de perturbaciones. Por ello y dada la escasez de datos relativos a fuerzas de oscilador, hemos establecido la corrección de nuestros resultados en base a las analogías esperadas en las intensidades espectrales correspondientes a transiciones análogas. Por otro lado, Novak y col. [1] han encontrado experimentalmente un marcado carácter atómico en el espectro correspondiente a estas moléculas, siendo muy similar a los de los átomos de Cl y Br. Por ello en el presente trabajo, además de establecer la comparación entre ambas moléculas hemos buscado las similitudes con sus respectivos halógenos. Los cálculos relativos a las especies moleculares se han realizado utilizando la Metodología Molécular de Orbítales de Defecto Cuántico (MQDO) [2], mientras que para el estudio de los átomos de Cl y Br se empleó la versión relativista del método (RQDO) [3].

  16. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  17. La enumeración de la soltería femenina en los censos de población: sesgo y propuesta de corrección

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Esteve, Albert; Garcia, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo investigar el efecto que la disolución de las uniones consensuales tiene en los niveles de soltería que proporciona el Censo de Población, niveles derivados de la variable estado civil. Para ello comparamos los datos censales con los de la Encuestas de Demografía y Salud (de ahora en adelante DHS) en aquellos países y años para los que disponemos de ambas fuentes en el mismo año o años adyacentes (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia y Perú). Los resultados muestran claramente que las proporciones de nunca unidas derivadas de la variable censal ’Estado civil’ son sistemáticamente más elevadas que las estimadas a partir de las DHS. La razón de esta sobreestimación obedece al hecho de que personas que estuvieron en unión libre en el pasado se declaran solteras en el momento del Censo. La elevada proporción de mujeres solteras que tienen hijos según el Censo es una prueba de ello y a su vez una solución efectiva para corregir el sesgo. PMID:25593515

  18. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  19. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  20. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C., (translator); Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  1. Numerical Results for a Polytropic Cosmology Interpreted as a Dust Universe Producing Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Cervantes-Cota, J.; Chauvet, P.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. A nivel cosmol6gico pensamos que se ha estado prodticiendo radiaci6n gravitacional en cantidades considerables dentro de las galaxias. Si los eventos prodnctores de radiaci6n gravitatoria han venido ocurriendo desde Ia epoca de Ia formaci6n de las galaxias, cuando menos, sus efectos cosmol6gicos pueden ser tomados en cuenta con simplicidad y elegancia al representar la producci6n de radiaci6n y, por consiguiente, su interacci6n con materia ordinaria fenomenol6gicamente a trave's de una ecuaci6n de estado politr6pica, como lo hemos mostrado en otros trabajos. Presentamos en este articulo resultados nunericos de este modelo. ABSTRACT A common believe in cosmology is that gravitational radiation in considerable quantities is being produced within the galaxies. Ifgravitational radiation production has been running since the galaxy formation epoch, at least, its cosmological effects can be assesed with simplicity and elegance by representing the production of radiation and, therefore, its interaction with ordinary matter phenomenologically through a polytropic equation of state as shown already elsewhere. We present in this paper the numerical results of such a model. K words: COSMOLOGY - GRAVITATION

  2. Evolución de planetas gigantes y posibilidades de su detección directa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde la reciente detección de planetas gigantes orbitando estrellas cercanas de tipo solar por medio de efecto Doppler, uno de los principales problemas, en cuanto al estudio de los sistemas planetarios extrasolares, se refiere a la posibilidad de obtener evidencia directa de su existencia. Esto parece ser factible gracias a que en un futuro cercano entrarán en operación algunos telescopios especialmente adecuados a estos propósitos. Por tal motivo, hemos comenzado desde hace un tiempo un esfuerzo en cuanto al estudio de la evolución planetaria. A tales efectos hemos adaptado el código de evolución estelar de nuestro Observatorio al caso planetario. Las principales diferencias entre el caso estelar y el planetario se encuentran en la ecuación de estado. A tales fines hemos incluído la reciente ecuación de estado de Saumon, Chabrier y Van Horn, las opacidades radiativas de Guillot et al., procesos de quema de Deuterio, etc. También se ha considerado la posible existencia de fases de hielo y roca en el interior planetario. Por el momento hemos despreciado los efectos de la rotación planetaria. Con este código hemos computado la evolución de planetas con masas desde 10 hasta 0.3 masas de Júpiter. Utilizando nuestros resultados numéricos discutimos la detectabilidad de estos objetos en condiciones realistas.

  3. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente descubierta, que va en contra de lo esperado en otros sistemas físicos y que consiste en que los altos estados Rydberg de átomos, moléculas y sus complejos de van der Waals (o de los iones) tienen tiempos de vida de centenas de μ s. En resumen, el experimento y la espectroscopía ZEKE consiste en excitar un átomo, molécula o cluster sucesivamente a dos estados excitados selectivos de manera que el final sea un estado Rydberg. A continuación se aplica un campo eléctrico variable que lo ioniza y después de un cierto retraso se aplica un campo eléctrico de extracción, tanto para el electrón como para el ión. El espectro de los iones, es un espectro ZEKE. Hay varias alternativas para hacer este último proceso. El estudio de la espectroscopía y propiedades de iones y sus clusters requiere el conocimiento detallado de la espectroscopía de la molécula neutra, los estados Rydberg, de los confórmeros y sus complejos. Todo ello implica el haber estudiado los sistemas por LIF, REMPI y doble resonancia (hole burning IR-UV, UV-UV). Además solo es posible interpretar los resultados y obtener la información contenida en los espectros con ayuda de cálculos cuánticos ab initio. Hasta el momento hemos aplicado tanto el ZEKE como el conjunto de técnicas mencionadas anteriormente, a varias molécula de interés químico general como anilina y sus derivados, así como sus complejos con agua y amoniaco. Sin embargo, el método es muy versátil y puede aplicarse a iones de átomos, iones múltiples, moléculas sencillas y sus clusters así como a sus semi-reacciones. Como ejemplo de uno de estos espectros PFI-ZEKE se presenta aquí el caso del amonibenzonitrilo, ABN y solamente en su estado fundamental. En la conferencia se presentarán espectros ZEKE del ABN y moléculas similares en estados vibracionales intermedios (islas de estabilidad), así como la determinación de potenciales de ionización precisos, energías de enlace de compuestos del ión con varios disolventes y otras propiedades de interés, discutiendo sus resultados.

  4. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa.

    PubMed

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2008-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  5. PREFACE: 10th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER'12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovas, R. G.; Dombrádi, Zs; Kiss, G. G.; Kruppa, A. T.; Lévai, G.

    2013-04-01

    As Editors of this Proceedings volume and organizers as well as participants of the Conference, let us sum up a few facts about the Conference and let us add some subjective notes. The conference was held at Köolcsey Centre, a prestigious site of scientific and business meetings and cultural events in the city of Debrecen, Hungary, 24-28 September 2012. The city was chosen as the home of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the home institution of the organizers. The Institute was visited by some of the participants. The organizing team was complemented by some belonging to the University of Debrecen, which made it possible to hold the conference dinner in the marvellous covered 'ceremonial court' of the University. The participants were taken for an excursion and wine tasting to a wine cellar at Tokaj, centre of, historically, the most significant wine producing area in Hungary. By coincidence, the closing day coincided with the day of what is called the Researchers' Night in the European Union. That night, (or rather, that evening) every year there is a public lecture in the Institute of Nuclear Research for a general audience, mainly secondary-school pupils. The public lecture scheduled on this occasion was held by one of the participants of the conference who represented the world outside Hungary and yet was able to deliver a talk in Hungarian. He is Professor Kálmán Varga, Vanderbilt University. The title of his talk was Simulation of Nanosystems ( http://kutatokejszakaja.hu/2012/esemenynaptar/esemeny.php?id=112&menu_id=4). There were 115 registered participants, representing 22 countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, Central, South and North America. We had 44 plenary talks and 47 talks presented in parallel sessions. In the Programme list the talks are arranged following the session structure of the Conference. In this list the invited speakers are marked by asterisks. All the talks in the plenary sessions were invited talks, but we had some invited talks even in the parallel sessions. Written versions of 86 talks have been submitted. Quite a number of the speakers have modified the title of their talk in the written version. To keep the correspondence between the Programme list and the written papers, we have accordingly changed the titles in the Programme list as well. The papers are arranged according to their subjects, without regard to whether they were delivered in a plenary or in a parallel session. There was a talk classified wrongly; this is now classified correctly. In the Programme list and in the list of the papers submitted the names are those of the speakers. You can read in the Opening Address that, by ruling of the organizing institution, no members of the Debrecen Institute of Nuclear Research were selected as invited speakers and no contributions were accepted from them. We doubted the wisdom of this rigour ourselves, and I think the criticism we received for it is justifiable. The success of a conference depends primarily on the speakers. In retrospect, we can say that this conference was extremely successful, and that is owing to the great many wonderful talks delivered. This reflects very well on the present status of the field as well as on the work of the International Advisory Board, which proposed the list of excellent speakers. The Japanese dominance characteristic of all cluster conferences has only been complained about by some of the Japanese who came to Europe primarily to learn things that they could not learn at home. We would like to express our gratitude to our sponsors: the Hungarian Academy of Sciences the Paks Nuclear Power Ltd HMP Logic Ltd International Workshop for Theoretical Physics(Budapest) We were also supported indirectly by a JSPS-MTA bilateral cooperation project, which made it possible for five Japanese colleagues to participate. It just remains to be announced that the next, number 11 in this series of conferences, will be held in Naples in 2016. Zs Dombrádi G G Kiss A T Kruppa G Lévai R G Lovas Conference photograph

  6. Changes in sinuosities of the rivers at geological structural lines in the Pannonian Basin - Mosaics to the neotectonic image of the region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit

    2010-05-01

    In the central, flat area of the Pannonian Basin, there are just few topographic features for neotectonic investigations. However, a lot of meandering rivers flow here, and it is possible to reconstruct their natural, pre-regulation planforms. Using the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (mid-19th century; Timár et al., 2006), I digitized the meandering rivers on this area. Sinuosities at different sample section lengths were computed in a GIS environment, providing so-called 'sinuosity-spectra' (van Balen et al., 2008) for each point of the analyzed channels. The channel sinuosity of this river systems are analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of the Great Hungarian Plain and the other flat areas of the Pannonian Basin. Several points of sinuosity change were identified. To prove, that these are of neotectonic origin, seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed as well as the geodinamical map of the area (Horváth et al., 2006). High sinuosity variations (low to high or high to low), spatially correlated to linear features identified in seismic survey sections, indicating their neotectonic activity (after Ouchi, 1985). We can see two significante sinuosity changes on the Hron/Garam River (Slovakia), one at Tekov and the one at Kéménd. There are faults on the neotectonic map at these points, crossing the river - they are the possible causes of the increasing of the sinuosity. The vertical activity of these structural lines is verified by the sinuosity changes. At the Maros/Mureş River (Romania/Hungary), a significant sinuosity change can also be identified near to the town of Aiud, where the phenomene is just the opposite like in the Hron/Garam river. There is a fault on the neotectonic map crossing the river. Upstream of the river has higher sinuosity values, and after crossing the fault, it decresed. Here also the fault caused the sinuosity changing, so this fault is also an active one. However, there are more case studies, concerning the rivers of the Pannonian Basin, such as the Tisza River (Timár, 2003), the Körös system (Petrovszki and Timár, 2010), the creeks of the Little Hungarian Plain (Zámolyi et al., 2010) and the downstream part of the Danube (Petrovszki, 2010), providing a broader overview of the river-confirmed neotectonic activity of the region. Horváth, F., Bada, G., Windhoffer, G., Csontos, L., Dombrádi, E., Dövényi, P., Fodor, L., Grenerczy, Gy., Síkhegyi, F., Szafián, P., Székely, B., Timár, G., Tóth, L., Tóth, T. (2006): A Pannon-medence jelenkori geodinamikájának atlasza: Euro-konform térképsorozat és magyarázó. Magyar Geofizika 47(4), 133-137. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96, 504-515. Petrovszki, J. (2010): Sinuosity calculations of the Danube River between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia). Geophysical Research Abstracts. Vol. 12, EGU2010-4571 Petrovszki, J., Timár, G. (2010): Channel sinuosity of the Körös River system, Hungary/Romania, as possible indicator of the neotectonic activity. Geomorphology, in press, DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.11.009. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 22, 2199-2207. Timár, G., Molnár, G., Székely, B., Biszak, S., Varga, J., Jankó, A. (2006): Digitized maps of the Habsburg Empire - The map sheets of the second military survey and their georeferenced version. Arcanum, Budapest, 59 p. van Balen, R. T., Kasse, C., Moor, J. (2008): Impact of groundwater flow on meandering; example from the Geul river, the Netherlands. Earth Surf. Process. and Landf. 33(13), 2010-2028. Zámolyi, A., Székely, B., Draganits, E., Timár, G. (2010): Neotectonic control on river sinuosity at the western margin of the Little Hungarian Plain. Geomorph., in press, DOI: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.06.028

  7. Evolution of the late Paleozoic accretionary complex and overlying forearc-magmatic arc, south central Chile (38°-41°S): Constraints for the tectonic setting along the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Mark W.; Kato, Terence T.; Rodriguez, Carolina; Godoy, Estanislao; Duhart, Paul; McDonough, Michael; Campos, Alberto

    1999-08-01

    Stratigraphic, structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic studies of basement rocks in the Andean foothills and Coast Ranges of south central Chile (39°-41°S) suggest a protracted late Paleozoic to middle Mesozoic deformational and metamorphic history that imposes important constraints on the tectonic development of the southwestern Gondwana margin. In the study area the late Paleozoic paired metamorphic belt, coeval magmatic arc, and overlying Triassic sedimentary units preserve a record of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian subduction and arc magmatism, subsequent deep exhumation of the Western Series subduction complex, and diminished uplift and erosion of the Eastern Series arc-forearc region by the Late Triassic. Late Paleozoic structural elements and metamorphic assemblages formed during early subduction and arc magmatism, collectively referred to as Dl, are largely erased in the Western Series by the dominant D2 schistosity and lower greenschist grade metamorphism. D1 structural features, as well as original sedimentary textures, are relatively well preserved in the less penetratively deformed Eastern Series. The regional distribution of late Paleozoic arc magmatism suggests that the late Paleozoic convergent margin deviated from a N-S trend north of this area to a NW-SE trend near this latitude and faced an open marine environment to the southwest. A transition from F2 isoclinal folding to more open, larger-scale F3 folds, interpreted as change in ductility during differential uplift of the Western Series, is not apparent in the Eastern Series. Despite a lesser degree of uplift during the main exhumational D2 event, delineation of unconformities and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons and intrusions into the Eastern Series allow tighter constraints to be placed on timing of uplift and denudation of the Eastern Series than on that in the Western Series. A regional unconformity exposed in the Lake District that separates more highly deformed Eastern Series lithologies from Late Triassic shallow marine to continental deposits suggests that substantial uplift also affected the inner forearc and magmatic arc region during the D2 event. We propose that dextral-oblique convergence, initiated during the middle Permian along this segment of the Gondwana margin, resulted in the transpressional uplift and juxtaposition of high pressure/temperature (P/T) Western Series against low P/T Eastern Series lithologies and culminated with deposition of Late Triassic, continental to shallow marine, coarse clastic sedimentary rocks in fault-bounded strike-slip basins adjacent to the exhumed Western Series. Large-scale dextral transpression and northward displacement of the accretionary complex during Late Permian to Late Triassic time along the Chilean margin of Gondwana are synchronous and kinematically compatible with widespread regional transpression, extension, and silicic magmatism inboard of the southern Gondwana margin at this time. We thank C. Mpodozis, M. Gardeweg, and J. Muñoz of the Servicio de Geología y Minería de Chile (SERNAGEOMIN) for their support of this work. Fruitful discussions with N. Blanco, F. Hervé, H. Moreno, C. Mpodozis, and F. Munizaga have aided in our understanding of the geology of the region. The hard work by the staff of SERNAGEOMIN's Puerto Varas office is graciously appreciated. We thank J.D. Walker and W.R. Van Schmus at the University of Kansas for allowing MWM use of their U-Pb and mass spectrometer facilities and J. Vargas and the staff of SERNAGEOMIN's geochemistry laboratory for their assistance in this project. F. Munizaga allowed us to cite an unpublished 40Ar-39Ar date. We thank G. Ya˜nez for access to aeromagnetic data. T. Kato wishes to thank W. G. Ernst. Comments by I. Dalziel, S. Kay, and V. Ramos helped clarify ideas presented in this paper and are greatly appreciated. This work is dedicated to our friend and colleague Alberto Campos C., who died in a climbing accident on Calbuco Volcano, 1996.

  8. Maple procedures for the coupling of angular momenta. IX. Wigner D-functions and rotation matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagaran, J.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaigalas, G.

    2006-04-01

    The Wigner D-functions, Dpqj(α,β,γ), are known for their frequent use in quantum mechanics. Defined as the matrix elements of the rotation operator Rˆ(α,β,γ) in R and parametrized in terms of the three Euler angles α, β, and γ, these functions arise not only in the transformation of tensor components under the rotation of the coordinates, but also as the eigenfunctions of the spherical top. In practice, however, the use of the Wigner D-functions is not always that simple, in particular, if expressions in terms of these and other functions from the theory of angular momentum need to be simplified before some computations can be carried out in detail. To facilitate the manipulation of such Racah expressions, here we present an extension to the RACAH program [S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 103 (1997) 51] in which the properties and the algebraic rules of the Wigner D-functions and reduced rotation matrices are implemented. Care has been taken to combine the standard knowledge about the rotation matrices with the previously implemented rules for the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, Wigner n-j symbols, and the spherical harmonics. Moreover, the application of the program has been illustrated below by means of three examples. Program summaryTitle of program:RACAH Catalogue identifier:ADFv_9_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADFv_9_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADFW, ADHW, title RACAH Journal reference of previous version(s): S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 103 (1997) 51; S. Fritzsche, S. Varga, D. Geschke, B. Fricke, Comput. Phys. Comm. 111 (1998) 167; S. Fritzsche, T. Inghoff, M. Tomaselli, Comput. Phys. Comm. 153 (2003) 424. Does the new version supersede the previous one: Yes, in addition to the spherical harmonics and recoupling coefficients, the program now supports also the occurrence of the Wigner rotation matrices in the algebraic expressions to be evaluated. Licensing provisions:None Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it is operable: All computers with a license for the computer algebra package Maple [Maple is a registered trademark of Waterloo Maple Inc.] Installations:University of Kassel (Germany) Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Linux 8.2+ Program language used:MAPLE, Release 8 and 9 Memory required to execute with typical data:10-50 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:52 653 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 195 346 Distribution format:tar.gzip Nature of the physical problem: The Wigner D-functions and (reduced) rotation matrices occur very frequently in physical applications. They are known not only as the (infinite) representation of the rotation group but also to obey a number of integral and summation rules, including those for their orthogonality and completeness. Instead of the direct computation of these matrices, therefore, one first often wishes to find algebraic simplifications before the computations can be carried out in practice. Reasons for new version: The RACAH program has been found an efficient tool during recent years, in order to evaluate and simplify expressions from Racah's algebra. Apart from the Wigner n-j symbols ( j=3,6,9) and spherical harmonics, we now extended the code to allow for Wigner rotation matrices. This extension will support the study of those quantum processes especially where different axis of quantization occurs in course of the theoretical deviations. Summary of revisions: In a revised version of the RACAH program [S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 103 (1997) 51; S. Fritzsche, T. Inghoff, M. Tomaselli, Comput. Phys. Comm. 153 (2003) 424], we now also support the occurrence of the Wigner D-functions and reduced rotation matrices. By following our previous design, the (algebraic) properties of these rotation matrices as well as a number of summation and integration rules are implemented to facilitate the algebraic simplification of expressions from the theories of angular momentum and the spherical tensor operators. Restrictions onto the complexity of the problem: The definition as well as the properties of the rotation matrices, as used in our implementation, are based mainly on the book of Varshalovich et al. [D.A. Varshalovich, A.N. Moskalev, V.K. Khersonskii, Quantum Theory of Angular Momentum, World Scientific, Singapore, 1988], Chapter 4. From this monograph, most of the relations involving the Wigner D-functions and rotation matrices are taken into account although, in practice, only a rather selected set was needed to be implemented explicitly owing to the symmetries of these functions. In the integration over the rotation matrices, products of up to three Wigner D-functions or reduced matrices (with the same angular arguments) are recognized and simplified properly; for the integration over a solid angle, however, the domain of integration must be specified for the Euler angles α and γ. This restriction arose because MAPLE does not generate a constant of integration when the limits in the integral are omitted. For any integration over the angle β the range of the integration, if omitted, is always taken from 0 to π. Unusual features of the program: The RACAH program is designed for interactive use that allows a quick and algebraic evaluation of (complex) expression from Racah's algebra. It is based on a number of well-defined data structures that are now extended to incorporate the Wigner rotation matrices. For these matrices, the transformation properties, sum rules, recursion relations, as well as a variety of special function expansions have been added to the previous functionality of the RACAH program. Moreover, the knowledge about the orthogonality as well as the completeness of the Wigner D-functions is also implemented. Typical running time:All the examples presented in Section 4 take only a few seconds on a 1.5 GHz Pentium Pro computer.

  9. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for small laboratory size fusion experiments, as compared to those of the larger laboratories, to report about their latest achievements working with medium size and small scale tokamaks, stellarators, compact tori, dense plasma focus, reversed field pinches, helical devices, linear machines, and other small plasma devices. The Technical Meeting aims at stimulating new synergies which can contribute to better streamline the research outputs to the mainstream fusion research. Previous meetings in the series were held in Budapest, Hungary (1985), Nagoya, Japan (1986), Nice, France (1988), Washington DC, USA (1990), Hefei, China (1991), Wuerzburg, Germany (1992), Campinas, Brazil (1993), Madrid, Spain (1994), Ahmedabad, India (1995), Prague, Czech Republic (1996), Cairo, Egypt (1997), Tokyo, Japan (1998) in Chengdu, China (1999), São Paulo, Brazil (2002), Vienna, Austria (2003) in Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Lisbon, Portugal (2007), in Alushta, Ukraine (2008), Kurchatov, Kazakhstan (2009) and Vienna, Austria (2011). The 1st Costa Rican Summer School on Plasma Physics was held a week before the Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st IAEA TM RUSFD, and the 2nd Latin American Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) was organized in parallel with the it. The objective of the AITP Workshop is to enhance the regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held at the Crowne Plaza Corobici Hotel in San José from 27 to 31 January 2014. The LAWPP scientific programme, which was spread along the whole week, had 15 invited speakers, 126 participants from 20 countries around the world. It included 7 plenary talks, 8 invited talks and 12 oral contributed papers were chosen out of 92 submissions. 82 contributions in 25 topics were presented in poster sessions on Monday 27, Tuesday 28 and Thursday 30 January 2014. The 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held along the LAWPP 2014 from 27 to 29 January 2014 and was attended by 37 participants formally registered with the IAEA, who joined the LAWPP 2014 participants. Its separate scientific programme had two plenary talks, 12 oral presentations and 14 papers presented in poster sessions on Monday 27 and Tuesday 28 January 2014. The 2nd Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (2nd AITP) was held on 30 and 31 January 2014, had six invited speakers, which included 2 plenary talks, 4 invited talks, 11 oral presentations and 31 contributions in a single poster session on Thursday 30 January, 2014. Its proceedings have been merged with those of the joint meeting. Finally the 1st Costa Rican Summer School on Plasma Physics, held in Santa Clara, San Carlos on 20-24 January 2014, in the week previous to the meetings, had 80 participants, 40 international conferences on different plasma physics topics, and 12 professors. The topics included in the programme of the Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st IAEA TM RUSFD were: space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, nonthermal plasmas, plasma space propulsion, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation, and industrial plasma applications among others. We are very grateful to the sponsors of the meetings: the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company. We also want to thank our exhibitors and contributors: INTERCOVAMEX, Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society, and the IEEE Costa Rica Chapter. The publication of the proceedings was fully supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The support of the International Advisory and the Local Organizing Committees, is also acknowledged in a heartfelt way. Finally, the Editors of this special issue are grateful to José Asenjo for his excellent work and cooperation for the preparation of the proceedings. Iván Vargas-Blanco and J. Julio E. Herrera-Velázquez Editors of the proceedings

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Deutrich Aydos, Maria Eugenia; Alves Fernandes, Sabrina; Feijó Nunes, Flávia; Bassani, Lílian; Rigon Leonhardt, Lara; Lazzarotto Harter, Daniele; Pivato, Bianca; Miranda, Daniella; Augusto Marroni, Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la elección del método para la evaluación nutricional es fundamental para el correcto seguimiento del estado nutricional de los pacientes sometidos al trasplante de hígado.Objetivos: evaluar y comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes antes y después del trasplante de hígado por el tiempo de un año para los diferentes métodos de evaluación nutricional.Métodos: se evaluaron los pacientes que se sometieron a un trasplante de hígado en diferentes momentos: pretrasplante, 1, 3, 6 y 12 meses después del procedimiento, en la Hermandad de la Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Los métodos utilizados fueron la antropometría, la fuerza de apretón de manos por la fuerza de agarre no dominante (FAM), el espesor del músculo aductor del pulgar y el ángulo de fase (AF) por bioimpedancia eléctrica (BIA). En todas las evaluaciones se tomaron las mismas medidas.Resultados: las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en 22 pacientes. Los métodos que mostraron mayor prevalencia de pacientes desnutridos antes del trasplante fueron la FA por BIA (25%), la circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB) (21,9%) y la circunferencia del brazo (CB) (18,8%). Al comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes durante el seguimiento, hubo diferencia significativa en los métodos de evaluación de CB, espesor del pliegue cutáneo triciptal y AF por la BIA. Al final del seguimiento, los métodos de evaluación nutricional fueron nuevamente comparados y mostraron de diferencias significativas, siendo la FAM el método de mayor detección de desnutrición.Conclusiones: se sugiere que podría intensificarse el uso del método AF por la BIA en esta población, ya que los resultados están en consonancia con los encontrados en la literatura, siendo significativos, fiables y reproducibles. PMID:27019235

  11. Energy Savers: Tips for Saving Energy and Money at Home; El Ahorro de Energa: Sugerencias para ahorrar energa y dinero en el hogar

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy of the United States of America works to guarantee provisions of safe energy, reliable and economically accessible to support to one developing economy and to protect the atmosphere. These suggestions and ideas to increase the energy efficiency in their house represent simple ways in which our citizens can contribute to preserve the atmosphere at world-wide level, to reduce the level of contamination of the air and to reserve our natural resources for future generations. [Spanish] El Departamento de Energa de los Estados Unidos de America trabaja para garantizar suministros de energa seguros, confiables y econmicamente accesibles para apoyar a una economa en desarrollo y proteger el medio ambiente. Estas sugerencias e ideas para aumentar la eficiencia energetica en su casa representan maneras sencillas en que nuestros ciudadanos pueden contribuir a preservar el medio ambiente a nivel mundial, a reducir el nivel de contaminacin del aire y a reservar nuestros recursos naturales para las generaciones futuras.

  12. Application of genetics to the development of starch-fermenting yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mattoon, J.R.; Kim, K.; Laluce, C.

    1987-01-01

    Yeast strains capable of direct fermentation of manioc starch were developed by hybridizing strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hybrids were evaluated for speed of alcohol production, and yields and speed of formation of glycoamylase. Up to 6% solutions of Lintner starch could be fermented directly with about 80% conversion to alcohol. Pretreatment of crude 40% manioc starch suspensions with alpha-amylase, followed by fermentations with a starch-fermenting yeast strain, permitted accumulation of 12% ethanol within three days. Starch conversion was almost 100%. A fragment of DNA was cloned from S. diastaticus using the yeast-E. coli shuttle vector, YEp13, and was used to transform a strain of S. cerevisiae to a starch-fermenting state. Supported by National Science Foundation grant INT 7927328 and National Institutes of Health grant GM 27860. Dr. Laluce was supported by a grant from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Sao Paulo and by her university. (Refs. 5).

  13. [The coconut babaçu (Orbignya phalerata martins) as a probable risk of human infection by the agent of chromoblastomycosis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, C M; da Rocha, R M; Moreno, J S; Branco, M R; Silva, R R; Marques, S G; Costa, J M

    1995-01-01

    During a survey of 30 patients with chromoblastomycosis followed at the Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Maranhão, the authors observed in 2 (6.6%) patients with lesions on the buttock. This is an uncommon site for the initial lesions of chromoblastomycosis. There is often a history of microtraumatism during the farming job hence the more frequent development of lesions in the lower limbs. Both patients had 10 years disease, with the presence of nodules and vegetant warty lesions in coalescent plaques on the right buttock. Etiologic diagnosis made through histopatologic and culture exams, with Fonsecaea pedrosoi isolated. The epidemiological exposure of the patients, was suggested by the fact that both worked as babaçu coconut cutters a common activity in Maranhão State. The relation between this kind of professional activity and the development of infection merits for the investigation. PMID:7724868

  14. Investigación del USGS sobre el ecosistema de arrecifes de coral en el Atlántico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.

    2015-01-01

    Los arrecifes de coral son estructuras sólidas, biomineralizadas que protegen comunidades costeras actuando como barreras protectoras de peligros tales como los huracanes y los tsunamis. Estos proveen arena a las playas a través de procesos naturales de erosión, fomentan la industria del turismo, las actividades recreacionales y proveen hábitats pesqueros esenciales. La conti-nua degradación mundial de ecosistemas de arrecifes de coral está bien documentada. Existe la necesidad de enfoque y organización de la ciencia para entender los procesos complejos físicos y biológicos e interacciones que están afectando el estado de los arrecifes coralinos y su capacidad para responder a un entorno cambiante.

  15. Primera aproximación a la estructura interna de Plutón

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steren, G. A.; Carranza, G. J.; Hubbard, W. B.

    En el presente trabajo se propuso estudiar la estructura interna actual del planeta Plutón. El modelo que se planteó es del tipo de estructura no-diferenciada. Se incluyó como fuente de calor interna la radioactividad y como único mecanismo de transporte de la energía a la conducción. Se encontró que el planeta estaría compuesto por una mezcla de roca (65% en masa) y hielo de agua (35%). Este simple modelo permite inferir que una estructura más realista para Plutón debería incluir también a la convección como mecanismo de transporte. Ello además permitiría avanzar de modo más firme en el estado de diferenciación del planeta, que casi seguramente sea más complejo que el adoptado.

  16. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W., II; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  17. [The Hospital-Colónia Rovisco Pais: the last Portuguese leprosarium and the contingent universes of experience and memory].

    PubMed

    Cruz, Alice

    2009-01-01

    The Hospital-Colónia Rovisco Pais was inaugurated in Portugal in the 1940s for the treatment, study and prophylaxis of leprosy based on the compulsive internment model, whose configuration reflects the total institution concept proposed by Goffman. It concerns an important hygiene project of the Estado Novo. Its educative paradigm combined elements inspired in European social medicine and the ideology of the paternalistic Portuguese dictatorial regime. The Hospital Colony here will be thought of as a disciplinary dispositive, developing considerations regarding the confrontation between disciplinary power and experience. Memory emerges as a contingent instrument to access the practices and interstitial meanings woven into the Hospital Colony's daily life, seeking to find out about the experience of its former patients as political subjects. PMID:19856752

  18. Fotometría CCD en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, E. E.; Vázquez, R. A.; Seggewiss, W.; Ostrov, P.; Solivella, G. R.

    La región de Vela-Puppis contiene varios cúmulos cuyo estudio puede brindarnos información acerca de la cinemática y el estado evolutivo de la población estelar en las zonas externas del disco galáctico. A través de observaciones CCD en los filtros UBV en el campo del cúmulo abierto Ruprecht 58 (α2000= 8h 14m 41s, δ2000=-31o 57'), se han determinado por primera vez los parámetros fundamentales de este cúmulo tales como distancia, enrojecimiento y edad. Se analiza también la estructura de su secuencia principal y la presencia de gigantes y binarias.

  19. Preliminary Analysis of the Social and Scientific Impact of the UAEM-ININ M.Sc. and D.Sc. Graduate Programme in Medical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsoura, Eleni; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Torres-Garcia, Eugenio; Camacho-Lopez, Miguel Angel; Hardy-Perez, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1994, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) started in Mexico a teaching and training programme (Diplomado) in Radiotherapy Medical Physics. Based on this experience, the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) launched two years later, the first Graduate Programme in Science (M.Sc. and D.Sc.), specialised in Medical Physics in Mexico. A preliminary analysis of the social and scientific impact of the UAEM-ININ Programme is presented in this work based on the achievements attained, regarding the number of graduated Medical Physicists, their geographic and academic origin, their current professional activities and the number of scientific publications produced as a result of the thesis, as well as their citations.

  20. "Chiriguano" Astronomy - Venus and a Guarani New Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Gonzalo

    A Supreme Decree emitted by the government of Bolivia instituted the celebration of the June solstices in view of the fact that the indigenous people, both the Andean highlands and the Amazon and Chaco, "have commemorated this event for thousands of years" (Gobierno del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia, Decreto Supremo N° 0173, June16, 2009, La Paz). In the case of the lowlands' indigenous, particularly the Guarani people, the decree mentions the planet Venus as the argument for this celebration. In this case of study and in light of astronomical and ethnographic evidence, we analyze the relevance of this decree in the case of the Guarani people of the Bolivian Chaco region, known as "Chiriguanos".

  1. The uncertain trajectory of a pilot-wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachbin, Andre

    2015-11-01

    Yves Couder (Paris 7) and coworkers reported on walking droplets on the surface of a vibrating bath. John Bush (MIT) and coworkers also produced laboratory experiments which were compared to theoretical predictions. Both groups discussed the pilot-wave properties previously thought to be peculiar to the microscopic, quantum realm. Of particular interest is the wavelike statistics for pilot-wave dynamics in a confined domain. We present a one dimensional water wave model for a droplet bouncing in a confined domain. The mathematical model makes use of conformal mapping which allows for the presence of submerged barriers. The computational simulations produce tunneling events. Work supported by CNPq grant 454027/2008-7 and by FAPERJ Cientistas do Nosso Estado grant 102917/2011.

  2. Shortcuts in cosmological branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Elcio; Casali, Adenauer G.; Cuadros-Melgar, Bertha

    2004-02-01

    We consider a dynamical membrane world in a space-time with scalar bulk matter described by domain walls, as well as a dynamical membrane world in empty Anti de Sitter space-time. Using the solutions to Einstein equations and boundary conditions we investigate the possibility of having shortcuts for gravitons leaving the membrane and returning subsequently. In comparison with photons following a geodesic inside the brane we verify that shortcuts exist. For some Universes they are small, but sometimes are quite effective. In the case of matter branes, we argue that at times just before nucleosynthesis the effect is sufficiently large to provide corrections to the inflationary scenario, especially as concerning the horizon problem. This work has been supported by Fundca~o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Sa~o Paulo (FAPESP) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Brazil.

  3. X-ray fluorescence and imaging analyses of paintings by the Brazilian artist Oscar Pereira Da Silva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P. H. O. V.; Kajiya, E. A. M.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Neiva, A. C.; Pinto, H. P. F.; Almeida, P. A. D.

    2014-02-01

    Non-destructive analyses, such as EDXRF (Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence) spectroscopy, and imaging were used to characterize easel paintings. The analyzed objects are from the collection of the Pinacoteca do Estado de São Paulo. EDXRF results allowed us to identify the chemical elements present in the pigments, showing the use of many Fe-based pigments, modern pigments, such as cobalt blue and cadmium yellow, as well as white pigments containing lead and zinc used by the artist in different layers. Imaging analysis was useful to identify the state of conservation, the localization of old and new restorations and also to detect and unveil the underlying drawings revealing the artist's creative processes.

  4. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Pérez Fernández, Laura; Sanz Paris, Alejandro; Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Matía Martín, Pilar; García Almeida, José M; Martín Palmero, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la malnutrición es un problema de primer orden en el paciente hospitalizado que prolonga la estancia hospitalaria y la tasa de infecciones. El paciente diabético representa un porcentaje importante de la población hospitalizada. El estudio VIDA tiene como objetivo analizar el estado nutricional de pacientes ancianos con diabetes hospitalizados en España.Objetivo: describir la población del estudio VIDA, incluyendo datos del perfil bioquímico y antropométrico en el momento del ingreso.Métodos: estudio multicéntrico, transversal, observacional llevado a cabo en 1098 pacientes mayores de 65 años. Se incluyeron 35 hospitales españoles.Resultados: la edad media de los pacientes ingresados fue 78 ± 7,1 años. El motivo de ingreso más frecuente fueron las infecciones respiratorias (32,4%). El 51,2% estaban diagnosticados de diabetes desde hacía más de 10 años. Un 33,09% recibía tratamiento con insulina. Un 39,07% presentaba riesgo de malnutrición y un 21,22% estaba mal nutrido en el momento del ingreso. Se encontró mayor prevalencia de malnutrición en el grupo de mujeres (p < 0,0002)Conclusiones: el estudio VIDA es el primero que analiza el estado nutricional de una cohorte de pacientes ancianos diabéticos en España. Enlos resultados de este proyecto se concluye que un 21,2% de la muestra presenta malnutrición. Esta condición es edad y sexo dependiente, y puede empeorar la tasa de mortalidad. PMID:27019239

  5. Responses to, and the short and long-term impacts of, the 1957/1958 Capelinhos volcanic eruption and associated earthquake activity on Faial, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, Rui; Chester, David K.; Wallenstein, Nicolau; Duncan, Angus M.

    2010-10-01

    The 1957/58 Capelinhos eruption on Faial Island in the Azores is well known for being an excellent example of Surtseyan hydromagmatic volcanic activity. Less well known are the responses of the Portuguese authorities to the eruption and subsequent earthquake in May 1958, and the ways in which well-thought-out and generally effective recovery programmes were put in place. At the time Portugal was ruled by a dictatorship, the Estado Novo (New State). Only superficially similar to other fascist governments in Southern Europe, the Estado Novo collected huge amounts of data on the responses of the authorities to the disaster and their programmes of recovery, but never encouraged academic evaluation of policy, although it ensured that the scientific aspects of the eruption and earthquake were meticulously recorded and published. In this paper we remedy this situation by discussing the details of the immediate response to the emergency and the ways in which the island recovered in its aftermath. The study is based not only on archival sources and demographic and economic data, but also on detailed interviews with survivors some of whom were also decision makers. We argue that response, recovery and rehabilitation were generally highly successful and assess the lessons of the 1957/58 emergency which are relevant to future geophysical disasters in Faial and the wider Azores. Since the 1974 revolution Portugal has been a democratic state. We conclude that both the legislation and the civil defence infrastructure, necessary to achieve a similarly strong and successful response, are in place today.

  6. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos quatro anos, nos quais, aparecem timidamente alguns conteúdos de Astronomia. Para o Ensino Médio, as propostas curriculares do Paraná e de Santa Catarina parecem que se repetem, apresentando apenas o conteúdo Gravitação Universal, na primeira série do Ensino Médio, já a proposta curricular do Rio Grande do Sul, traz uma sequência que é proposta nos PCN (Brasil, 1998; 1999; 2002), na qual aparece o tema em questão, porém, em todos os anos, em todas as propostas, não há um detalhamento do que, de como trabalhar os conteúdos. O detalhamento facilita a prática pedagógica, pois, conteúdos simples como as Estações do Ano, Fases da Lua, sequer são citados nas propostas curriculares pesquisadas. Outro aspecto observado é que os conteúdos de um modo geral não trazem uma sequência e não primam por partir do entorno do aluno, daquilo que ele conhece para estruturar novos conceitos. Tais aspectos dificultam o fazer pedagógico, pois, por ser uma região com características culturais semelhantes, era esperado que as propostas fossem mais próximas, o! que facilitaria em muito, por exemplo, transferências dentro de um mesmo estado ou interestaduais. Pautando-se no que foi observado, na falta de especificidade dos conteúdos, clareza, sequência dos conteúdos e propostas de trabalho é proposto uma sequência de conteúdos de Astronomia, com materiais e recursos, pois, como apontado por Langhi e Nardi (2009), é necessário fornecer além da informação, do conteúdo, o como fazer. Tal proposta não visa estabelecer-se como regra, mas como suporte ao professor para facilitar sua prática pedagógica e tornar o trabalho com Astronomia presente nas escolas brasileiras. Bardin, L. Análise de conteúdo. Tradução Luís Antero Reto, Augusto Pinheiro. São Paulo: Edições 70, 2011. 279 p. Langhi, R; Nardi, R. Ensino da astronomia no Brasil: educação formal, informal, não-formal e divulgação científica. Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física, v. 31, n. 4, p. 4402-1 a 4402-11, 2009.

  7. Monitoring Sea Level by Tide Gauges and GPS at Barcelona and Estartit Harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Bosch, E.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level is an environmental variable which is widely recognised as being important in many scientific disciplines as a control parameter for coastal dynamical processes or climate processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean systems, as well as engineering applications. A major source of sea-level data are the national networks of coastal tide gauges, in Spain belonging to different institutions as the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), Puertos del Estado (PE), Instituto Hidrográfico de la Marina (IHM), etc. The tide gauge of l'Estartit is a traditional floating gauge placed 21 years ago and has an accuracy of ± 2 mm. Since 1996, l'Estartit tide gauge has been co-located with geodetic techniques (GPS measurements of XU, Utilitary Network, and XdA, Levelling Network,) and it is tied to the SPGIC (Integrated Geodetic Positioning System of Catalonia) project of the Cartographic Institute of Catalunya (ICC). In 2006, due to the work for the expansion of the harbour, the tide gauge had to be moved. Before the work started, appropiate GPS measurements were carried out in order to ensure the connection of the tide gauge data. During October 2006 and May 2008, the tide gauge was inactive and it has been moved on to a new location inside the harbour. In June 2008, new GPS and levelling measures have been done in order to tie the new location into SPGIC project and to co-locate old data respect the new one. Although l'Estartit does not have a GPS permanent station, it is possible to build a virtual one from the service "CATNET web" of the ICC. "CATNET web" is a data distribution system of a virtual GPS permanent station via web. From the coordinates where you want to place the virtual station, the time interval and the measurement rate, the system generates a RINEX file under the requested conditions. At Barcelona harbour there is one MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours). It is placed at the dock 140 of the ENAGAS Building.The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. A provisional tide gauge bench mark has been defined while the levelling has being done. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Bathymetric campaigns inside the harbour have been made. The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation of the geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona and l'Estartit sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise.

  8. Are Japanese groups more competitive than Japanese individuals? A cross-cultural validation of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Kosuke; Yuki, Masaki

    2007-02-01

    The interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect is the tendency for relationships between groups to be more competitive than the relationships between individuals. It has been observed robustly in studies conducted in the United States, which is a society characterized as "individualistic." In this study, it was explored whether the effect was replicable in a "collectivistic" society such as Japan. From the traditional view in cross-cultural psychology, which emphasizes the collectivistic nature of East Asian peoples, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be greater in Japan than in the United States. On the other hand, based on recent empirical findings suggesting that North Americans are no less group-oriented than East Asians, it was expected that the discontinuity effect would be no greater in Japan than in the United States. One hundred and sixty Japanese university students played a 10-trial repeated prisoner's dilemma game: 26 sessions of interindividual and 18 sessions of intergroup. Following exactly the procedure of prior experiments in the US, individuals and groups were allowed face-to-face communication with their opponents before making their decisions, and participants in the intergroup condition were further allowed to converse freely with their in-group members. Results replicated previous findings in the United States; groups made more competitive choices than did individuals. In addition, neither the magnitude of the discontinuity effect, nor the frequency of competitive choices made by the groups, were larger in Japan than they were in the majority of prior studies conducted in the United States. These findings suggest cross-cultural robustness of the interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect. Also, interestingly, they contradict the simple distinction between individualism and collectivism. Implications for studies of culture and group processes are discussed. This research was supported by grants from the Center for the Study of Cultural and Ecological Foundations of the Mind, a 21(st) Century Center of Excellence Program at Hokkaido University. The authors would like to thank Dr. Laura Hernández-Guzmán, three anonymous reviewers, and Robin Cooper, Mark H. B. Radford, and Paul A. Wehr for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this article. They would also like to thank Dr. Chester A. Insko for his kind and valuable advice during the planning of this experiment as well as the interpretation of its results, Kaori Akaishi for her help with data collection, and, finally, colleagues at Hokkaido University who helped to recruit potential participants from their classes. L'effet de discontinuité entre les individus et entre les groupes est la tendance des relations entre les groupes à être plus compétitives que les relations entre les individus. Cet effet fut fermement démontré dans des études menées aux États-Unis, une société caractérisée d' «individualiste». Dans la présente étude, nous avons exploré dans quelle mesure l'effet était applicable à une société «collectiviste» comme le Japon. À partir du point de vue traditionnel de la psychologie interculturelle, laquelle met l'emphase sur la nature collectiviste des peuples de l'Asie de l'Est, il était attendu que l'effet de discontinuité allait être plus grand au Japon qu'aux États-Unis. D'un autre côté, se basant sur les données empiriques récentes qui suggèrent que les Nord-américains ne sont pas moins orientés vers le groupe que les Asiatiques de l'Est, il était attendu que l'effet de discontinuité ne serait pas plus important au Japon qu'aux États-Unis. Cent soixante étudiants universitaires japonais ont pris part à un jeu de dilemme de prisonnier de 10 essais répétés: 26 sessions entre individus et 18 sessions entre groupes. Suivant exactement la procédure des expériences menées précédemment aux États-Unis, les individus et les groupes avaient la permission de communiquer face-à-face avec leur opposant avant de prendre leur décision. De plus, les participants de la condition entre groupes avaient également la possibilité de converser librement avec les membres de leur propre groupe. Les résultats se sont révélés semblables à ceux des études antérieures réalisées aux États-Unis; les groupes ont fait des choix plus compétitifs que les individus. En outre, ni la magnitude de l'effet de discontinuité, ni la fréquence des choix compétitifs faits par les groupes n'étaient plus grands chez les Japonais comparativement à la majorité des études antérieures menées aux États-Unis. Ces résultats soutiennent la robustesse interculturelle de l'effet de discontinuité entre les individus et entre les groupes. Aussi, fait intéressant, ils contredisent la simple distinction entre l'individualisme et le collectivisme. Les implications pour des études sur les cultures et les processus de groupe sont discutées. El efecto de discontinuidad entre individuos y entre grupos es la tendencia a que las relaciones entre grupos sean más competitivas que las relaciones entre individuos. Se ha observado con insistencia en estudios conducidos en Estados Unidos, una sociedad caracterizada como "individualista". En el presente estudio, se exploró si el efecto se repetía en una sociedad "colectivista" como la japonesa. Desde la perspectiva tradicional de la psicología trans cultural, que subraya la naturaleza colectivista de los pueblos asiáticos, se esperaba que el efecto de discontinuidad fuese mayor en Japón que en Estados Unidos. Por otra parte, con base en los hallazgos empíricos recientes que sugieren que los estadounidenses no están menos orientados al grupo que los de este asiático, se esperaba que el efecto de discontinuidad no fuera mayor en Japón que en los Estados Unidos. Ciento sesenta estudiantes universitarios japoneses participaron en un juego del dilema de un prisionero de diez ensayos repetidos: veintiséis sesiones entre individuos y diez y ocho entre grupos. Siguiendo exactamente el procedimiento de los experimentos previos en los Estados Unidos, se permitió tanto a los individuos como a los grupos una comunicación cara a cara con sus oponentes antes de tomar sus decisiones, y se permitió a los participantes en la condición entre grupos que conversaran libremente con los miembros de su propio grupo. Los resultados repitieron los hallazgos previos en los Estados Unidos; los grupos hicieron elecciones más competitivas que los individuos. Además, ni la magnitud del efecto de discontinuidad ni la frecuencia de las elecciones competitivas de los grupos, fueron mayores en Japón que en la mayoría de los estudios previos en Estados Unidos. Estos hallazgos sugieren la robustez trans cultural del efecto de discontinuidad entre individuos y entre grupos. También, de manera interesante, contradicen la simple distinción entre individualismo y colectivismo. Se discutieron las implicaciones para los estudios sobre cultura y procesos grupales. PMID:24274777

  9. A description of the tides in the Eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul, Enrique Alvarez; Gómez, Begoña Pérez; Sánchez-Arévalo, Ignacio Rodríguez

    A description of the Eastern North Atlantic tidal dynamics (in a region spanning from 20°N to 48°N in latitude and from 34°W to 0° in longitude) is obtained by means of new in situ measurements and numerical modelling based on TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived data sets. The main source of measurements is the tide gauge network REDMAR (RED de MAReógrafos de Puertos del Estado), operative since July 1992 and managed by Clima Marítimo (Puertos del Estado). Results derived from the harmonic analysis of the first years of measurements are presented and compared with model results. In order to obtain a global picture of the tides in the region, a large compilation of harmonic constants obtained from other institutes is included. The availability of new TOPEX/POSEIDON-derived harmonic constants data sets provides a chance to include the benefits derived from satellite altimetry in high resolution regional applications of numerical models. Richard Ray's tidal model (Ray et al., 1994), based on a response type tidal analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON data, was employed within a model of the studied area. The numerical model employed is HAMSOM, a 3-D finite difference code developed both by the Institut für Meereskunde (Hamburg University) and Clima Marítimo. Results from simulations of seven major harmonics are presented, providing a comprehensive view of tidal dynamics, including current information. The results of tidal simulations show good agreement between semidiurnal harmonic components and the values measured by both coastal and pelagic tidal gauges and by current meters. The modelled diurnal constituents show larger relative differences with measurements than semidiurnal harmonics, especially concerning the phase lags. The non-linear transfer of energy from semidiurnal to higher order harmonics, such as M 4 and M 6, was mapped. Those transfers were found to be important only in two areas: the French continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay and the widest part of the African shelf, south of Cabo Bojador.

  10. An Operational Coastal Forecasting System in Galicia (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balseiro, C. F.; Carracedo, P.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, V.; Taboada, J.; Venacio, A.; Vilasa, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula coast) and mainly the Rias Baixas (southern Galician rias) are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, supporting a very active fishing and aquiculture industry. This high productivity lives together with a high human pressure and an intense maritime traffic, which means an important environmental risk. Besides that, Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are common in this area, producing important economical losses in aquiculture. In this context, the development of an Operational Hydrodynamic Ocean Forecast System is the first step to the development of a more sophisticated Ocean Integrated Decision Support Tool. A regional oceanographic forecasting system in the Galician Coast has been developed by MeteoGalicia (the Galician regional meteorological agency) inside ESEOO project to provide forecasts on currents, sea level, water temperature and salinity. This system is based on hydrodynamic model MOHID, forced with the operational meteorological model WRF, supported daily at MeteoGalicia . Two grid meshes are running nested at different scales, one of ~2km at the shelf scale and the other one with a resolution of 500 m at the rias scale. ESEOAT (Puertos del Estado) model provide salinity and temperature fields which are relaxed at all depth along the open boundary of the regional model (~6km). Temperature and salinity initial fields are also obtained from this application. Freshwater input from main rivers are included as forcing in MOHID model. Monthly mean discharge data from gauge station have been provided by Aguas de Galicia. Nowadays a coupling between an hydrological model (SWAT) and the hydrodynamic one are in development with the aim to verify the impact of the rivers discharges. The system runs operationally daily, providing two days of forecast. First model verifications had been performed against Puertos del Estado buoys and Xunta de Galicia buoys network along the Galician coast. High resolution model results were validated against a CTDs profiles campaign carried out during an oil spill exercise in the Ria de Vigo in April 2007. During EROCIPS INTERREG IIIB and EASY INTERREG IVB projects, a Galician oceanographic observation network were built. Three stations located inside the Rias Baixas allow to collect meteorological and oceanographic data at different depths to calibrate and validate the modelization of the rias. To complete this network and to create a common data platform a new project emerged (RAIA INTERREG IVA). It will provide MeteoGalicia more scientific data to improve the study of the rias. Furthermore, MeteoGalicia is also involved in DRIFTER AMPERA project which allows to improve the capability of modelling and monitoring the trajectory of hazardous substances and inerts.

  11. Morphological variation, advertisement call, and tadpoles of Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann, 1973), and taxonomic status of B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi, 2004) (Anura, Hylidae, Cophomantini).

    PubMed

    Walker, Marina; Lourenço, Ana Carolina Calijorne; Pimenta, Bruno V S; Nascimento, Luciana Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973) e B. feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) pertencem ao grupo de espécies de B. circumdata. A localidade-tipo da primeira espécie é a Serra do Cipó, Serra do Espinhaço, e a da segunda é o Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Serra da Mantiqueira, ambas no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O padrão de desenhos dorsais, morfologia oral dos girinos e propriedades temporais dos cantos são indicadas como forma de distinguir essas espécies. Porém, diversos espécimes coletados entre as duas localidades-tipo permanecem sem identificação porque apresentam sobreposição nos caracteres e estados propostos para diagnosticar as duas espécies. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variação desses caracteres, foram realizadas análises de morfologia e morfometria de adultos, vocalizações e morfologia de girinos. Espécimes foram divididos em três unidades taxonômicas operacionais: B. nanuzae (Serra do Cipó e localidades ao norte, Serra do Espinhaço), B. cf. nanuzae (Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Serra do Espinhaço ao sul da Serra do Cipó), e B. feioi (Serra do Ibitipoca, Serra da Mantiqueira). Os padrões de desenhos do dorso e membros apresentam variação clinal e as três unidades são muito similares morfometricamente. As propriedades temporais e espectrais do canto apresentam sobreposição entre essas três unidades. Diferenças diagnósticas originalmente propostas para os girinos são variações intrapopulacionais e ocorrem em espécimes de todas as localidades analisadas. Assim, concluímos que essas três unidades são morfologicamente indistinguíveis. Portanto, Bokermannohyla feioi (Napoli & Caramaschi 2004) é designado como um sinônimo júnior de Bokermannohyla nanuzae (Bokermann & Sazima 1973), o que estende a distribuição geográfica desta para a Serra da Mantiqueira. PMID:25947466

  12. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish National Project CGL2009-13435/CLI.

  13. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  14. Implementation of CGPS at Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona harbours for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Perez, B.; Bosch, E.; Termens, A.; Martinez de Oses, X.

    2009-12-01

    The determination of global and regional mean sea level variations with accura-cies better than 1 mm/yr is a critical problem, the resolution of which is central to the current debate on climate change and its impact on the environment. Highly accurate time series from both satellite altimetry and tide gauges are needed. Measuring the sea surface height with in-situ tide gauges and GPS receivers pro-vides an efficient way to control the long term stability of the radar altimeters and other applications as the vertical land motion and studies of sea level change. L’Estartit tide gauge is a classical floating tide gauge set up in l’Estartit harbour (NE Spain) in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from which each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support and delivered to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea level (PSMSL). Periodic surveying campaigns along the year are carried out for monitoring possible vertical movement of the geodetic benchmark adjacent to the tide gauge. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza har-bour in January 2003 and a near GPS reference station. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands (http://www.puertos.es). The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza, Barcelona and l’Estartit har-bours is presented.The main objective is the implementation of these harbours as a precise geodetic areas for sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration. Actually is a CGPS with a radar tide gauge from Puertos del Estado and a GPS belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. A precise levelling has been made by the Cartographic Insti-tute of Catalonia, ICC. The instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 3000C device and a Thales Navigation Internet-Enabled GPS Continuous Geodetic Ref-erence Station (iCGRS) with a choke ring antenna, located at the EPSEB of the Technical University of Catalonia, UPC. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS and TIGA networks.

  15. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and a little far away from the geographic location of the pulse and acustic radar location on the Europa bridge. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. An intercomparison of the results of the three different tide gauges is presented and discussed. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish National Project CGL2009-13435/CLI.

  16. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather than the official, emission inventories are used, ozone and NO concentrations predicted by the California Institute of Technology (CIT) airshed model more closely match observed values.

  17. Predicting the ocurrence probability of freak waves baed on buoy data and non-stationary extreme value models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomas, A.; Menendez, M.; Mendez, F. J.; Coco, G.; Losada, I. J.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decades, freak or rogue waves have become an important topic in engineering and science. Forecasting the occurrence probability of freak waves is a challenge for oceanographers, engineers, physicists and statisticians. There are several mechanisms responsible for the formation of freak waves, and different theoretical formulations (primarily based on numerical models with simplifying assumption) have been proposed to predict the occurrence probability of freak wave in a sea state as a function of N (number of individual waves) and kurtosis (k). On the other hand, different attempts to parameterize k as a function of spectral parameters such as the Benjamin-Feir Index (BFI) and the directional spreading (Mori et al., 2011) have been proposed. The objective of this work is twofold: (1) develop a statistical model to describe the uncertainty of maxima individual wave height, Hmax, considering N and k as covariates; (2) obtain a predictive formulation to estimate k as a function of aggregated sea state spectral parameters. For both purposes, we use free surface measurements (more than 300,000 20-minutes sea states) from the Spanish deep water buoy network (Puertos del Estado, Spanish Ministry of Public Works). Non-stationary extreme value models are nowadays widely used to analyze the time-dependent or directional-dependent behavior of extreme values of geophysical variables such as significant wave height (Izaguirre et al., 2010). In this work, a Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) statistical model for the dimensionless maximum wave height (x=Hmax/Hs) in every sea state is used to assess the probability of freak waves. We allow the location, scale and shape parameters of the GEV distribution to vary as a function of k and N. The kurtosis-dependency is parameterized using third-order polynomials and the model is fitted using standard log-likelihood theory, obtaining a very good behavior to predict the occurrence probability of freak waves (x>2). Regarding the second objective of this work, we apply different algorithms using three spectral parameters (wave steepness, directional dispersion, frequential dispersion) as predictors, to estimate the probability density function of the kurtosis for a given sea state. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Ministry of Public Works) for providing the free surface measurement database.

  18. Tectonic and Diapiric Forcing of Western Puerto Rico Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Macinnes, S.; Hibbert, A.

    2008-12-01

    Puerto Rico's divide bifurcates in the west into a southern higher-elevation divide and a lower-elevation northern divide. The southern divide trends along exposures of weak, low density serpentinized ocean basement of the Monte de Estado Range forming the highest elevations in western Puerto Rico. Evidence of long-term active uplift along the serpentinite-cored divide is abundant. Streams draining Monte de Estado (MdE) radiate outward from an ellipse centered on the serpentinite exposure. The Rio Anasco draining the north flank of MdE is highly asymmetric, displaying a large scale tilt to the north while the Rio Guanajibo draining its south flank is highly asymmetric with tilt to the south. Subbasins of these rivers are asymmetric, tilted away from the core of the serpentinite exposures. Hypsometric integrals of the Anasco and Guanajibo basins are higher than basins of central and eastern Puerto Rico indicating an inequilibrium condition. The concurrence of morphologic indicators of active uplift (stream patterns and basin asymmetry and hypsometry) with the distribution of topographically elevated low-density serpentinite exposures indicates that MdE is experiencing active diapiric uplift. Northwestern Puerto Rico differs morphologically from the rest of the island. Underlain by island arc crust with exposed igneous and sedimentary strata similar to that of the eastern two-thirds of the island, the Atlantic shore has sea cliffs at the base of a coastal plateau west of the Rio Manati. Rivers draining western Puerto Rico have strikingly lower ratio to valley floor widths to valley height than the rivers to the east indicating incision in response to uplift is greater to the west. Western-most rivers have closer outlet spacing, lower distances from outlets to divide and their watershed have higher hypsometric intergrals all indicating that northwest Puerto Rico is actively uplifting at a rate greater than the eastern two-thirds of the island. North and south flowing tributaries to the Rio Culibrinas display drainage asymmetry reflecting an eastward tilt to northwestern Puerto Rico. This tilt and the uplift of northwest Puerto Rico is consistent with its position on the east flank of the Mona Rift footwall uplift.

  19. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  20. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen A; Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; M Vásquez Garibay, Edgar; Rodríguez-Anguiano, Ana K; Cámara-López, María E

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la ingestión de cáusticos (IC) en niños y adolescentes puede ocasionar esofagitis erosiva, estenosis esofágica y disfagia, entidades que pueden alterar el proceso de alimentación y originar desnutrición y retraso en el crecimiento.Objetivos: evaluar el estado nutricio de niños con IC y su asociación con disfagia y estenosis esofágica.Métodos: estudio transversal analítico en el que se incluyó a 62 niños atendidos en un hospital pediátrico de referencia que sufrieron IC. Lasvariables independientes fueron la presencia/ausencia de disfagia y/o estenosis esofágica; las dependientes fueron el crecimiento y el estado nutricio evaluados mediante antropometría. Análisis estadístico: c2, OR, IC 95%, kappa y t de Student.Resultados: la edad promedio fue 39,7 meses, el 39,7% eran niñas. Cuarenta y dos (77,8%) presentaron esofagitis erosiva (II-b, III-a, and III-b) en la endoscopia. En 24 (38,7%) ocurrió disfagia y en 40 (64,5%) estenosis esofágica. El puntaje z de la talla para la edad fue <-2 DE en cinco niños (8,1%) y el puntaje z del IMC < -2 DE en tres (4,8%). En 24.2% la z-IMC fue > +1 DE. El puntaje z de los indicadores del brazo relacionados a reservas grasa y masa muscular tanto en el grupo de estenosis como de disfagia se localizó en el lado negativo de la curva y ambos fueron significativamente menores a los del grupo sin disfagia o estenosis.Conclusiones: la proporción de esofagitis erosiva, estenosis o disfagia fue elevada. En los niños con disfagia o estenosis esofágica se identificaron reservas de grasa y masa muscular menores a las de los niños sin estas complicaciones. PMID:27019238

  1. PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  2. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  3. Genetic variation in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Beatriz; Favela, Susana; Ponce, Gustavo; Foroughbakhch, Rahim; Flores, Adriana E

    2013-04-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) is a significant pest of several solanacious crops in Mexico and the United States since 1970. In 2001 significant outbreaks of outstanding importance were observed for the first time in areas where infestations of this insect were historically rare. Molecular studies revealed that this was because of the development of a new biotype of B. cockerelli that had become adapted to south-western United States, further demonstrating that this genetic differentiation was reflected in the survival, development cycle, fertility, and growth rate of both the native biotype as well as the one recently reported. To determine genetic variation in populations of B. cockerelli from Mexico, inter simple sequence repeat were used. Results showed that populations of B. cockerelli from central and northeastern Mexico (Guanajuato, Morelos, Estado de Mexico, and Nuevo Leon states) are genetically similar, meanwhile B. cockerelli from northwest, southwest, and southeast of the country (Sinaloa, Michoacan, and Oaxaca states) are genetically distinct from each other and from the rest of the populations included in the study. PMID:23786093

  4. Clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic profile of dermatophytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; da Cruz, Natasha Ferreira Santos; Lobato, Amanda Monteiro; de Sousa, Priscila Oliveira; Carneiro, Francisca Regina Oliveira; Mendes, Alena Margareth Darwich

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cutaneous mycoses, mainly caused by dermatophyte fungi, are among the most common fungal infections worldwide. It is estimated that 10% to 15% of the population will be infected by a dermatophyte at some point in their lives, thus making this a group of diseases with great public health importance. OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic profile of dermatophytosis in patients enrolled at the Dermatology service of Universidade do Estado do Pará, Brazil, from July 2010 to September 2012. METHOD A total of 145 medical records of patients diagnosed with dermatophytosis were surveyed. Data were collected and subsequently recorded according to a protocol developed by the researchers. This protocol consisted of information regarding epidemiological and clinical aspects of the disease and the therapy employed. RESULTS The main clinical form of dermatophyte infection was onychomycosis, followed by tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea capitis. Furthermore, the female population and the age group of 51 to 60 years were the most affected. Regarding therapy, there was a preference for treatments that combine topical and systemic drugs, and the most widely used drugs were fluconazole (systemic) and ciclopirox olamine (topical). CONCLUSION This study showed the importance of recurrent analysis of the epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis to enable correct therapeutic and preventive management of these conditions, which have significant clinical consequences, with chronic, difficult-totreat lesions that can decrease patient quality of life and cause disfigurement. PMID:24770502

  5. Chemical defense in the red seaweed Plocamium brasiliense: spatial variability and differential action on herbivores.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R C; Vasconcelos, M A

    2014-08-01

    Species of Plocamium are known as prolific sources of halogenated secondary metabolites exhibiting few explored ecological roles. In this study the crude extracts from specimens of P. brasiliense collected in two distinct places, Enseada do Forno and Praia Rasa, Búzios, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, were evaluated as defense against the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus and the crab Acanthonyx scutiformis. These specimens produce a similar amount of crude extract and also halogenated monoterpene compound-types, but individuals of P. brasiliense from Praia Rasa exhibit a major compound representing about 59% of the total chemicals. Natural concentrations of the crude extracts obtained from both specimens of P. brasiliense significantly inhibited the herbivory by the sea urchin L. variegatus, but had no significant effect on the feeding by A. scutiformis, a crab commonly associated to chemically defended host. Crude extract from P. brasiliense collected at Praia Rasa was more efficient as defense against L. variegatus than that crude extract from populations of this alga from Enseada do Forno, probably due to presence of a major secondary metabolite. These two studied population live under different environmental conditions, but they are only about 30 Km apart. However, it is impossible to affirm that environmental characteristics (abiotic or biotic) would be responsible for the difference of defensive potential found in the two populations of P. brasiliense studied here. Further genetic studies will be necessary to clarify this question and to explain why populations of a single species living in different but close locations can exhibit distinct chemicals. PMID:25296201

  6. Fontes binárias supermoles de raios X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, A. M.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Estuda-se as características físicas das fontes supermoles (de raios X (SSS), utilizando dados ópticos e em altas energias, no âmbito de um trabalho de IC. Trata-se de binárias que apresentam espectro X muito mole, baixas temperaturas e altas luminosidades bolométricas. Esse sistemas são compostos por uma anã branca realizando fusão em sua superfície, a partir de matéria perdida pela estrela companheira. Os resíduos de fusão se acumulam na superfície da anã branca, e essa pode ultrapassar o limite de Chadrasekhar, produzir um colapso gravitacional, sendo esse um dos cenários propostos para as explosões de SN Ia. Apresentamos nesta comunicação o estado da arte das características físicas das fontes SSS, situando-as no âmbito das VCs. Procuramos também situar esses objetos em relação às variáveis galácticas V Sge, na medida em que os dois grupos apresentam certas caracerísticas bastante semelhantes.A metodologia adotada é aquela pedagógico-cognitiva clássica de um trabalho de IC na área de ciências exatas.

  7. Incentivos para atraer y retener personal de salud de zonas rurales del Perú: un estudio cualitativo

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J. Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G.

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar incentivos de atracción y retención en zonas rurales y distantes de Ayacucho, Perú. Fueron realizadas entrevistas en profundidad con 80 médicos, enfermeras, obstetras y técnicos (20 por grupo) de las zonas más pobres y con 11 funcionarios. No existen políticas sistemáticas de atracción y retención de personal de salud en Ayacucho. Los principales incentivos, en orden de importancia, fueron mejoras salariales, oportunidades de formación y capacitación, estabilidad laboral y nombramiento, mejoras en infraestructura y equipos, e incremento del personal. Se mencionaron también mejoras en la vivienda y alimentación, mayor cercanía con la familia y reconocimiento por el sistema de salud. Existen coincidencias y singularidades entre los distintos grupos sobre los incentivos clave para estimular el trabajo rural, que deben considerarse al diseñar políticas públicas. Las iniciativas del Estado deben comprender procesos rigurosos de monitoreo y evaluación, para asegurar que las mismas tengan el impacto deseado. PMID:22488318

  8. [Complaint analysis derived from surgical practice].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germn; Rodrguez-Surez, Francisco Javier; Campos-Castolo, Esther Mahuina; Carrillo-Jaimes, Arturo; Zavala-Surez, Etelvina; Aguirre-Gas, Hctor Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the analysis of medical complaints presented to the National Commission on Medical Arbitration (Comisin Nacional de Arbitraje Mdico, CONAMED) between June 1996 and December 2007 to determine its magnitude and to identify the causes of safety problems in medical care. Out of 182,407 complaints presented to CONAMED, 87% were resolved by the Office of Orientation and Management. The remaining 18,443 complaints were presented to the Council Directorate. Of those cases, 48% were resolved by an agreement between the complainants and the physicians, 31% were not resolved by this method, and 3% were irresolute complaints. The highest frequency of complaints was registered in the Federal District (Distrito Federal) and the State of Mxico (Estado de Mxico), mainly corresponding to social security institutions and private hospitals. Among the nine most frequently involved specialties, six were surgical specialties. Malpractice was identified in 25% of all cases. The principal demands of those making complaints were the refunding of expenses in patient medical care (51%) and indemnification (40%) and, in those, the average amount of payments was 4.6 times greater. Due to the incidence of medical complaints, it was reasonable to investigate the causes and to take preventive and corrective actions required for its decrease. It was proposed to the Mexican Academy of Surgery that this organization should use their educational leadership and assume the vanguard in the dissemination and promotion of the WHO plan "Safe Surgery Saves Lives" and the implementation in Mexico of the "Surgical Safety Checklist." PMID:19671273

  9. Tão perto de casa, tão longe de nós: etnografia das novas margens no centro da urbe

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Por Luís

    2011-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois é, desde 2007, “Richard Perry University professor” no Departamento de Antropologia e de Medicina Familiar e de Práticas Comunitárias na Universidade da Pensilvânia. Esteve durante largos anos ligado ao Departamento de Antropologia, História e Medicina Social da Universidade da Califórnia, São Francisco. A publicação, em 1995, de In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio1 projectaria o seu nome muito para além dos Estados Unidos: uma etnografia no coração porto-riquenho do Harlem, em torno dos actores e dos ambientes da venda de crack. Seguir-se-ia um longo trabalho de terreno em acampamentos de dependentes de heroína em São Francisco, orientando o seu trabalho para as formas mais radicais da pobreza e da marginalidade nos EUA. É deste trabalho de terreno que sai o seu último livro, Righteous Dopefiend2. Em Junho de 2007 esteve em Lisboa para participar na 3.a edição do “Ethnografeast”. Foi então que aproveitámos a oportunidade para ouvir um percurso invulgar contado pelo próprio: uma longa conversa no Hotel Zurique, cujo nome só vem ao caso por evocar o país onde passou uma parte da infância. PMID:22013286

  10. Estudio ab initio del mecanismo de la reacción HSO + O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebot Gil, I.

    La reacción entre el radical HSO y el ozono ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista experimental debido a la importancia que tiene el radical HSO en la oxidación de los compuestos de azufre reductores y a que puede contribuir a la producción de H2SO4 [1-4]. Se realizaron diversos estudios teóricos sobre la cinética de la reacción entre el radical HSO y el ozono. La reacción del HSO con el ozono presenta tres canales diferentes : HSO + O3 &rightarrow &HSO2 + O2 &rightarrow &HS + 2 O2 &rightarrow &SO + OH + O2 La controversia existente entre los grupos experimentales sobre cuál de las tres vías es la predominante, se ha resuelto mediante un estudio teórico de todas ellas utilizando métodos ab initio. La estructura de todos los reactivos, productos, intermedios y estados de transición ha sido optimizada a nivel ab initio utilizando los métodos UMP2 /6-31G** y QCISD/6-31G**.

  11. Current status and future trends of medical physics in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin Nieto, J.

    2015-01-01

    Medical Physics is an area that applies the principles of physics to medicine, particularly in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases using ionizing and nonionizing radiation. The main attractive of medical physics is that it has a direct impact on the quality and safety of medical care in humans; this social component with direct implications for the population is of high value for Mexico. This paper describes the concepts of medical physics, trends and the current status of this discipline as a profession, which is directly related to the efforts of clinical research. It is also described what is, in my opinion, the future of medical physics in Mexico, emphasizing the fact that this field requires a substantial boost from universities and hospitals to recruit highly qualified young medical physicists and the support from government agencies such as Secretaria de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social and Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado through clinical research projects that allow the necessary evolution of medical physics into the hospital setting.

  12. [Influence of work status of mothers on the weight of full-term newborns].

    PubMed

    Güemez-Sandoval, J C; Bermúdez-Meléndez, I; Camacho-Lozano, T; Coronel-Rodríguez, L A; Echeverría-Silva, M G; García-Navarrete, M E; Moysen-Márquez, F A; Nieto-Tapia, A; Peñafiel-Grijalva, A; Pineda-Molina, J L

    1990-10-01

    Birth weight is considered as the most important indicator of growth and intrauterine development as well as the nutritional status of the newborn. Several reports have demonstrated the influence of both biological and social variables on low birth weight, among which being discussed is the influence of the mothers work activities. Two hundred and thirty-two newborns were studied at the Regional Hospital "20 de Noviembre" of the Institute de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE) and selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria which homogenized the sample and allowed to associate the work status of the mother with the low birth weight of the child. The somatometric data of the newborns was obtained from official registrars from the Perinatology Ward and directly from the mothers who were interviewed. The results did not significant statistical differences in the weight of the newborns of those mothers who do work than in those who don't. It was concluded that for this sample, the favorable socioeconomic fund established by a double family income apparently compensates any disadvantages which the work activity could have on the newborns' weight. PMID:2278643

  13. [Yesterdays and happenings at hospitals of Tehuacán, Puebla, México].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    The history of the hospital of Tehuacán, the second city importance in Puebla State, began in 1744, when the Hospital de San Juan de Dios (Hospital of St. John) was founded; in 1820, it was converted into the Municipal of Civil Hospital. The medical establishement continues to provide services to the poor to this day annual also covers health public workers of services for the municipality. The Hospital de la Cruz Roja Mexicana (The Mexican Red Cross Hospital) was created in 1934 provide medical services for accident victims: The hospital services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) began in 1953; an earthquake destroyed the building in 1973, and a new hospital was inaugurated in 1979; at present, it readers services to 98,000 persons. The Sanatorio del Sagrado Corazón (Sacred Heart Sanatorium) is a private religious institution founded at the beginning of the second half the 20th century. In 1996, the Hospital General (General Hospital) began to provide services, takes care of the poor of the geographical region, and is financed with federal funds. The Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para Trabajadores del Estado (Institute of Securtiy and Social Services for the Workers of the State, ISSSTE) has a small hospital with 10 beds, it was founded in 1995. PMID:15087055

  14. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins. (author) [Spanish] La colonia actualmente usada para controlar la mosca mexicana de la fruta, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), en Mexico tiene mas de 10 anos en cria masiva. Los insectos esteriles son liberados en una gran variedad de condiciones ambientales como parte de un control integrado para suprimir diversas poblaciones de esta plaga dentro de la Republica Mexicana. El objetivo de este documento esta dirigido a revisar el desempeno de las moscas esteriles frente a poblaciones silvestres procedentes de diferentes ambientes y para esto se realizaron comparaciones de compatibilidad y competitividad sexual de las moscas esteriles contra poblaciones silvestres de seis estados representativos de la Republica Mexicana: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan y Chiapas. Los resultados obtenidos manifiestan diferencias en el horario de inicio de llamado y mayor actividad sexual del macho entre las moscas provenientes de cada estado. Sin embargo el indice de aislamiento (ISI) reflejo compatibilidad sexual entre la cepa de laboratorio y todas las poblaciones analizadas, indicando que los individuos esteriles pueden aparearse satisfactoriamente con las poblaciones silvestres de los seis estados. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento del macho (MRPI) reflejo de manera global que los machos esteriles son tan efectivos para copular como los silvestres. El indice de efectividad de apareamiento de la hembra (FRPI) reflejo que en la mayoria de los estados las hembras silvestres copularon en mayor proporcion que las hembras esteriles, excepto para las poblaciones de Tamaulipas y Chiapas. En general, la baja participacion de las hembras esteriles en el campo permitio al macho esteril ampliar su probabilidad de apareamiento con las hembras silvestres. En cuanto al indice de esterilidad relativa (RSI), observamos que la aceptacion de las hembras silvestres al macho esteril (25-55%) fue similar a la de los machos silvestres. Las hembras de la poblacion de Chiapas registro la menor aceptacion. Finalmente, los resultados obtenidos en la prueba de Fried, la cual determina la esterilidad inducida presentaron un coeficiente de competitividad entre 0.2 y 0.5. Esto sugiere que los machos esteriles compliten exitosamente y son compatibles con moscas de diferentes origenes geograficos. (author)

  15. [The FENF/UERJ nursing graduate in the working world].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Souza, Norma Valéria Dantas; Correia, Luiza Mara; dos Santos Cunha, Luana; Eccard, Juliana; Patrício, Roberta Alves; Antunes, Tatyane Costa Simões

    2011-03-01

    This is a qualitative study on the satisfaction of nursing graduates from Rio de Janeiro State University (Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro) entering the working world. This study identifies and analyzes the graduates' perception of their practice and experience in the working world. The study is part of the institutional evaluative process subsequent to the curricular reform and implementation of the political-pedagogical project, based on the Critical Theory of Education. The twelve subjects graduated between the years 2000 and 2005. Interviews were applied, and using thematic content analysis two empirical categories emerged: the pleasure from work and the suffering from work. It is concluded that the new curriculum has produced the expected outcomes. The graduates have been performing practices specific to nurses and have proven to be critical and reflexive in their self-evaluations. There is a need for continuing evaluations that would permit to identify the advancement demands of the working market and the associated readjustments in the curricular proposals. PMID:21445516

  16. Religiosidade, juventude e sexualidade: entre a autonomia e a rigidez1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves da; Santos, Alessandro Oliveira; Licciardi, Daniele Carli; Paiva, Vera; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Esse artigo descreve como jovens religiosos e autoridades religiosas de sua comunidade compreendem a sexualidade, considerando suas experiências pessoais e como membros de comunidades religiosas. A análise pretende contribuir para que políticas públicas dedicadas à promoção da saúde sexual da juventude considerem a religiosidade, no contexto de um estado laico e da promoção do direito à prevenção. Foram realizadas 26 entrevistas abertas e semidirigidas em diferentes comunidades da região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo (comunidades católicas, da umbanda, do candomblé e de diferentes denominações evangélicas) sobre iniciação sexual, casamento, gravidez, contracepção e prevenção das DST/Aids, homossexualidade, aborto e direitos humanos. Observou-se como jovens e autoridades religiosas convivem com a tensão entre tradição e modernidade e os distintos discursos sobre a sexualidade. Como sujeitos religiosos (do discurso religioso) e sujeitos sexuais (de discursos sobre sexualidade), devem ser incorporados pelos programas como sujeitos de direito nos termos de sua religiosidade. PMID:21886456

  17. Funciones de partición atómicas: Fuentes confiables de datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D. C.; Milone, L. A.

    Se llevó a cabo una revisión minuciosa del cálculo de funciones de partición atómicas de átomos livianos, en estados neutro y una vez ionizados, partiendo del Hidrógeno y llegando al Sodio, incluyendo también al K I y el Ca II. Al respecto, se realizó una investigación exhaustiva de referencias bibliográficas existentes hasta el presente, las cuales fueron cotejadas con cálculos propios llevados a cabo mediante el procedimiento de depresión del contínuo (0.001 a 0.5 eV). Nuestros resultados muestran un muy buen acuerdo con las expresiones interpolatorias de Traving et al (1966), al presente, la referencia más completa en cuanto a especies atómicas consideradas. Puntualizamos, además, ciertas deficiencias de estas relaciones de ajuste para decrementos del potencial de ionización altos (Δ χ >= 0.5) eV).

  18. CHOQUES AGREGADOS E INVERSIÓN EN CAPITAL HUMANO: EL LOGRO EDUCATIVO SUPERIOR DURANTE LA DÉCADA PERDIDA EN MÉXICO

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Pablo A.

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo documenta una respuesta agregada negativa del logro educativo superior (más de 12 años de escolaridad) en México a la recesión de 1982–83 y el estancamiento que le siguió. La respuesta no fue homogénea entre géneros, regiones y entornos familiares. Los hombres experimentaron una caída en el logro mientras que las mujeres experimentaron un crecimiento más lento. En promedio, los estados con un mayor logro antes del choque experimentaron mayores caídas. La respuesta entre distintos entornos familiares no presenta un patrón claro. Sin embargo, el efecto negativo en el logro se observa incluso entre hermanos. La evidencia sugiere una historia por el lado de la demanda: la caída en el ingreso de los hogares parece ser el determinante de la caída/desaceleración del logro educativo superior. La conclusión es que la recesión y la falta de crecimiento que le siguió tuvieron un efecto negativo importante y duradero en la formación de capacidades en México. PMID:25328251

  19. The Use of Polliniferous Resources by Melipona capixaba, an Endangered Stingless Bee Species

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Bruna Danielle Vieira; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Pollen types present in samples from corbiculae of Melipona capixaba (Moure and Camargo) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina) worker bees were analyzed, as well as pollen samples from food pots inside the hives in three sites located at the bees’ original habitat. The aim was to find out the sources used as a trophic resource by this species. The dominant pollen grains in the spectrum of the samples belonged to the families Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae. Eucalyptus was the most frequent pollen type in the corbiculae in Conceição do Castelo municipality; Eucalyptus, Myrcia, and Melastomatacea/Combretaceae in the Fazenda do Estado district; and Eucalyptus and Myrcia in the São Paulo de Aracê district, both in the Domingos Martins municipality. Eucalyptus and Melastomataceae/Combretaceae were the predominant pollen types in the food pots. Eucalyptus was the most prevalent type all year round or most of the year. The most common pollen types in the months that Eucalyptus was not present or dominant in the samples were of remaining native forest species, “ruderal” (field) plants, fruit-bearing plants, and introduced ornamental plants. PMID:23464528

  20. Contribuições para o projeto da câmara infravermelha Spartan do telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, R.; Jablonski, F.; Loh, E.

    2003-08-01

    Como parte de uma colaboração entre a Divisão de Astrofísica do INPE, IAG-USP, Instituto do Milênio MEGALIT e a Michigan State University, trabalhamos durante um ano junto ao grupo do Dr. Edwin Loh (MSU) no projeto e detalhamento de diversos subsistemas para a câmara infravermelho Spartan do telescópio SOAR. Trata-se de um imageador para as bandas J, H e K que explora todo o potencial, em termos de qualidade de imagem e campo de visada, fornecido pelo sistema de óptica adaptativa de primeira ordem do telescópio SOAR. Projetamos soluções detalhadas para os subsistemas de rodas de filtros/grismas/máscaras de Lyot; subsistema de compactação do mosaico de detectores em duas versões distintas; subsistema de alimentação de Nitrogênio líquido. Mantivemos sempre uma supervisão geral sobre todas as partes restantes e os respectivos envelopes volumétricos produzindo soluções para a integração de todos os componentes. Neste trabalho, ilustramos as principais contribuições e fornecemos um resumo do estado atual do instrumento.

  1. Estudio multiespectral del remanente de supernova W 28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Velázquez, P.; Castelletti, G.

    Se presentan observaciones en continuo de radio con muy alta resolución angular y sensibilidad del remanente de supernova (RSN) W28. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el interferómetro Very Large Array (Estados Unidos), en las configuraciones C y D, en 1415 y 324 MHz. Por la gran extensión de este remanente (diámetro ~ 1o), las observaciones en 1415 MHz se realizaron en modo mosaico, combinando 48 apuntamientos diferentes en una única imagen. En ambas frecuencias los datos se procesaron con el agregado de observaciones de menor resolución angular, a fin de recuperar información en todas las frecuencias espaciales y obtener estimaciones precisas de densidad de flujo. Las imágenes resultantes muestran por primera vez la presencia de extensiones con forma de arco, cuya naturaleza se investiga. Las observaciones en radio se comparan con una imagen óptica de W28, y con la emisión en rayos X, observada con el satélite ROSAT. Este remanente muestra una clara morfología híbrida, tipo cáscara en frecuencias de radio y de centro lleno en las bandas óptica y de rayos X blandos.

  2. Description of the final instar of Trichomalopsis peregrina (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae), with data and comments on the preimaginal stages

    SciTech Connect

    Tormos, J. . E-mail: tormos@usal.es; Asis, J.D.; Frago, E.; Selfa, J.; Pujade-Villar, J.; Guara, M.

    2007-03-15

    The preimaginal stages of T. peregrina are described. The egg displays a sculptured chorion, which is found only on those deposited externally. The immature larvae are characterized by their peculiarities in (a) a setose ring on the thoracic and abdominal segments, (b) an anal notch and (c) size and the sensory structures of the head capsule. The final instar is described and illustrated. Morphological structures of diagnostic value are discussed. The most salient character shown by the mature larva of this species lies in the epistoma, which is complete. (author) [Spanish] Se describen las fases de huevo y larva de T. peregrina. El huevo, como es caracteristico en los que se depositan externamente, presenta un corion ornamentado. Las larvas inmaduras exhiben peculiaridades en (a) el anillo setoso de los segmentos toracicos y abdominales, (b) la escotadura anal y (c) el tamano, y estructuras sensoriales, de la capsula cefalica. El estado de caracter mas sobresaliente presentado por la larva madura de esta especie radica en la presencia de un epistoma totalmente diferenciado. (author)

  3. Theoretical Emission-Line Profiles of Active Galactic Nuclei and the Unified Model. I. The Face-on Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintilio, R.; Viegas, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Theoretical emission-line profiles are obtained for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taking into account the presence of an obscuring torus around the central energy source. For the sake of simplicity, the torus is represented by a cylindrical shell characterized by the inner and outer radius and the opening angle. In this paper we discuss the results with angle of sight equal to 0, i.e., for a face-on torus. Different line profiles are obtained following the torus parameters. The line profiles may show more than one peak and bumps, depending on the torus dimensions. The main parameter determining the number of peaks or bumps is the opening angle. Thus, the observed line shape may be a good indicator of the torus characteristics. As an example, the fit to the observed [O III] λ5007 emission line of NGC 4151 is presented. The model reproduces the FWHM and the asymmetrical bumps observed. Partially supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) under Grant 92/4335-9.

  4. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  5. Brazilian city planners, American city planning? New perspectives on urban planning in Rio de Janeiro, 1930-1945.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Vera F

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the connections between the ideas and principles of American city planning from 1920 with those articulated by Brazilian city planners in the 1930s and implemented by the administration of the City of Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil, notably during the period of the Estado Novo [The New State] from 1937 to 1945. In a period characterized by the centralization of political power and the concentration of decision-making in the hands of the president and the state, the City of Rio de Janeiro undertook a series of restructuring projects which utilized new forms of administration and organization. This article explores the links between urban planning in Brazil and the USA that were a notable feature of these projects. It examines particular requirements set down in city plans, city planning commissions and funding for urban activities, such as 'excess condemnation', by focusing upon articles and books written by four Brazilian engineers and proposals put forward by the American City Planning Institute, detailed in the proceedings of the National Conference on City Planning, in the periodical, City Planning and works by affiliated authors. PMID:20857605

  6. Atmospheric forcing and Sea Surface Temperature response in the Gulf of Cadiz-Alboran Sea system in a 20 years simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutov, D.; Peliz, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the frame of MedEX ("Inter-basin exchange in the changing Mediterranean Sea") Project a 20 years (1989-2008) simulation at 2km resolution covering Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea, forced by 9 km winds (WRF downscaling of ERA-Interim reanalysis), is analyzed and compared with observations. Statistical methods, EOF techniques and two harmonic (including annual and semi-annual frequencies) data fit were performed for the analysis. Modeled SST fields are also compared with long-term (1996-2008) in-situ buoy observations provided by Puertos del Estado (Spain) and satellite derived Pathfinder SST database. Model SSTs generally follow observations data at annual and inter-annual scales with a global error not exceeding 0.17°C (model warmer than SST). No significant warming tendency was observed in both basins during the 20 years and the Interanual variability dominates, with the series showing a cooling period from 1991 to 1993 followed by a warming period started from 1994. In particular we show that SST cooling observed in the early 1990's in the Gulf of Cadiz - Alboran system is associated with the 1991 catastrophic eruption of Pinatubo volcano (Philippines).

  7. Inhibition of viscous fluid fingering: A variational scheme for optimal flow rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Jose; Dias, Eduardo; Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Carvalho, Marcio

    2012-11-01

    Conventional viscous fingering flow in radial Hele-Shaw cells employs a constant injection rate, resulting in the emergence of branched interfacial shapes. The search for mechanisms to prevent the development of these bifurcated morphologies is relevant to a number of areas in science and technology. A challenging problem is how best to choose the pumping rate in order to restrain growth of interfacial amplitudes. We use an analytical variational scheme to look for the precise functional form of such an optimal flow rate. We find it increases linearly with time in a specific manner so that interface disturbances are minimized. Experiments and nonlinear numerical simulations support the effectiveness of this particularly simple, but not at all obvious, pattern controlling process. J.A.M., E.O.D. and M.S.C. thank CNPq/Brazil for financial support. E.A.L. acknowledges support from Secretaria de Estado de IDI Spain under project FIS2011-28820-C02-01.

  8. Corneal astigmatism measuring module for slit lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, L.; Riul, C.; Sousa, S. J. F.; DeGroote, J. G. S.; Rosa Filho, A. B.; Oliveira, G. C. D.

    2006-06-01

    We have developed an automatic keratometer module for slit lamps that provides automatic measurements of the radii of the corneal curvature. The system projects 72 light spots displayed in a precise circle at the examined cornea. The displacement and deformation of the reflected image of these light spots are analysed providing the keratometry. Measurements in the range of 26.8-75 D can be obtained and a self-calibration system has been specially designed in order to keep the system calibrated. Infrared LEDs indicate automatically which eye is being examined. Volunteer patients (492) have been submitted to the system and the results show that our system has a high correlation factor with the commercially available manual keratometers and the keratometry measurements from a topographer. Our developed system is 95% in agreement with the corneal topographer (Humphrey—Atlas 995 CZM) and the manual keratometer (Topcon OM-4). The system's nominal precision is 0.05 mm for the radii of curvature and 1° for the associated axis. This research has been supported by Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).

  9. PREFACE: Third Congress on Materials Science and Engineering (CNCIM-Mexico 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss, Romeo; Murrieta-Hernández, Gabriel; Aguayo-González, Aarón; Rubio-Rosas, Efraín; Chigo-Anota, Ernesto; Vigueras-Santiago, Enrique

    2013-06-01

    The Third Congress on Material Science and Engineering (CNCIM-México 2012), which took place in Mérida, México, from 27 February to 2 March 2012 was organized by three research groups (cuerpos académicos) from the Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán: Ingeniería Física (UADY-CA-27), Modelado y Simulación Computacional de Sistemas Físicos (UADY-CA-101) and Química Fundamental y Aplicada (UADY-CA-32), in collaboration with the Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav-Mérida). The First Congress in Material Science and Engineering (CNCIM-2010), was organized in Puebla, México in February 2010. This was followed by CNCIM-2011 held in Toluca, México in February 2011. The CNCIM-México 2012 Conference consisted of plenary talks (8), invited talks (10), oral contributions (54) and poster presentations (70). The topics of the Conference were: Synthesis and Preparation of Materials: Organic and Inorganic Characterization of Materials: Novel Methods and Techniques Applications of Materials: Environment, Medicine, Pharmacy, Technology, Food and Renewable Energy New Materials: Composites, Nanostructures, and from Natural Sources Theory: New Methods and Computer Simulations We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the Institutions and Sponsors supporting the Conference, and everyone who contributed to the organization of this meeting, for their invaluable efforts in order to guarantee the complete success of this conference. Editors Romeo de Coss Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. (Cinvestav-Mérida) A.P. 73 Cordemex 97310, Mérida, Yucatán, México decoss@mda.cinvestav.mx Gabriel Murrieta-Hernández Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán Calle 60 No. 491-A, Centro Histórico, C.P. 97000, Mérida, Yucatán, México murrieta@uady.mx Aarón Aguayo-González Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán Calle 60 No. 491-A, Centro Histórico, C.P. 97000, Mérida, Yucatán, México aguayo@uady.mx Efraín Rubio-Rosas Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla Ciudad Universitaria, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Puebla, México efrain.rubio@cuv.buap.mx Ernesto Chigo-Anota Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla Ciudad Universitaria, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Puebla, México ernesto.chigo@correo.buap.mx Enrique Vigueras-Santiago Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México Instituto Literario No. 100, Col. Centro 50000, Toluca, Edo. de México, México vigueras@uaemex.mx Session Chairs Gabriel Canto Santana, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche. Enrique Vigueras Santiago, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. César Cab, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Alejandro ávila Ortega, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Jesús Barrón Zambrano, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Maritza de Coss, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Jorge A. Tapia González, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. David Muñoz Rodríguez, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Mario Pérez Cortes, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Jesús García Serrano, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Rubén Arturo Medina Esquivel, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. César R. Acosta, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Organizing Committee Aarón Aguayo González, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Gabriel Murrieta Hernández, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Alejandro Tapia González, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Cristian Carrera Figueiras, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Heriberto Hernández Cocoletzi, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Ernesto Chigo Anota, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Efraín Rubio Rosas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla. Enrique Vigueras Santiago, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México. Romeo de Coss, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav-Mérida). Organizers: Organizers Sponsors: Sponsors

  10. Effects of correlated hybridization in the single-impurity Anderson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Líbero, Valter; Veiga, Rodrigo

    2013-03-01

    The development of new materials often dependents on the theoretical foundations which study the microscopic matter, i.e., the way atoms interact and create distinct configurations. Among the interesting materials, those with partially filled d or f orbitals immersed in nonmagnetic metals have been described by the Anderson model, which takes into account Coulomb correlation (U) when a local level (energy Ed) is doubled occupied, and an electronic hybridization between local levels and conduction band states. In addition, here we include a correlated hybridization term, which depends on the local-level occupation number involved. This term breaks particle-hole symmetry (even when U + 2Ed = 0), enhances charge fluctuations on local levels and as a consequence strongly modifies the crossover between the Hamiltonian fixed-points, even suppressing one or other. We exemplify these behaviors showing data obtained from the Numerical Renormalization Group (NRG) computation for the impurity temperature-dependent specific heat, entropy and magnetic susceptibility. The interleaving procedure is used to recover the continuum spectrum after the NRG-logarithmic discretization of the conduction band. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP.

  11. Science and technology disclosure in the state of Queretaro: Science and Technology for Children program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Flores, Rubén; Villeda Muñoz, Gabriel

    2007-03-01

    Science and technology disclosure is an integral part of our scientific work as researches; it is an induction process for children, young people and teachers of primary and secondary schools in the state of Queretaro. Education must be offered in a clear and objective way, it allows to the students apply the acquired knowledge to understand the world and improve his quality of life. Nowadays, the Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional Unidad Queretaro (CICATA-IPN Queretaro) together with the Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnologia del Estado de Queretaro (CONCYTEQ) have implemented the "Science and Technology for Children" program (Ciencia y Tecnologia para Ninos - CTN), it allows to the educative sector obtain information through the CONCYTEQ web page. The fist stage of the program was the development of two subjects: the brochure titled "Petroleum, Nonrenewable Natural Resource that Moves the World" and the manual "Experiments of Physics". At the moment we are working with the second stage of the program, it is about the energy generation using renewable sources such as: geothermal, aeolian, solar and biomass. The CTN program allows to students and teachers to create conscience about the importance of the development of the science of technology in our country.

  12. Planview Geometry and morphological characteristics of pocket beaches on the Catalan coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D.; Guillén, J.; López, L.; Pellegrino, V.

    2009-07-01

    Coastal planform studies are a relevant initial stage before launching detailed dynamic field experiments. The aim of this study is to define the planform characteristics of 72 Catalan pocket beaches, natural and man-made, and to determine their sheltering effect, embaymentization and their status of equilibrium. Planform measurements were performed on SIGPAC, 1:5000 orthophoto sets and wave climate was provided by Puertos del Estado (Wana model). Planform parameters were applied and coastal planview indexes were determined. The study shows that the Catalan pocket beaches display a wide range of indentation, suggesting that no single structural, tectonic or morphological control dominates their planform. The man-made pocket beaches typically display indentations which are smaller than those shown by natural pocket beaches. Headland spacing and beach area are positively correlated. The more indented bays are, the shorter their beaches become. Low-indented pocket beaches are the widest and the longest ones. Deep indentation contributes towards beach protection and energy dissipation which counteracts rip efficiency and inhibits the formation of mega-rips. Pocket beaches often show gradual and moderate alongshore changes in texture and beach morphology. One third of the Catalan pocket beaches are "sediment starved", i.e., 60% and more of their embayed shorelines are deprived of beach sediments. Examination of the status of equilibrium demonstrates that most of the Catalan pocket beaches are in an unstable mode, with indentation ratios that are unrelated to the wave obliquity.

  13. "The Earth Under my Shoes", a Poster Where Research and Outreach Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Artola, O. A.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment is a cooperative research project that will help a lot of people to know about the behavior of the subduction of Cocos plate beneath North America, especially in rural communities where its 100 seismic stations are located. MASE is not only focused in its research results, it is also concerned about outreach to the community. To achieve this, MASE conducts an information program on the experiment and seismology, especially targetted to children, to educate them about seismic prevention. MASE field operations in Guerrero, Morelos, Distrito Federal, Estado de México, Hidalgo and Veracruz are ending this year, and our last outreach activity is providing MASE host sites with a poster informing about the experiment and its results. This poster will include pictures about the instruments, a collection of key seismograms, figures of the final seismic model obtained by the MASE research group, showing our enhanced knowledge of the interior of the Earth under each particular site, and a reminder that Mexico is a seismic country and they should be always prepared.

  14. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  15. A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Ricardo

    Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau de l'État s'est appliqué à développer une stratégie sur deux plans. Tout d'abord, des études hydrogéologiques de base et des modèles mathématiques d'écoulement et de transport de nappe ont été réalisés à partir d'un suivi d'ensemble des puits existants et d'une révision générale du contexte géologique de l'État. Ensuite, on a soutenu une structure de participation des usagers de l'eau aux actions de gestion de l'eau, à partir de la dissémination de l'information pour la mise en place de projets pilotes efficaces d'utilisation de l'eau, avec des aides financières, techniques et politiques de l'État. Simultanément, un effort coordonné en vue de l'achèvement de l'enregistrement des usagers de l'eau a été fait avec l'autorité fédérale, en même temps que d'autres mesures de soutien, telles que des programmes de formation et des campagnes de surveillance. Cet article présente une vue d'ensemble des réalisations de projets et des défis. Resumen El Estado de Guanajuato, situado en el centro de México, ocupa menos del 2% de la superficie del país. Tiene casi 17.000 pozos profundos, de los cuales se extrae cerca de 4.000 hm3/a, lo que supone un exceso de 1.000 hm3/a respecto a la recarga anual. Puesto que el agua es administrada a nivel federal en México, el gobierno del Estado afronta el reto de asegurar el desarrollo de la población sin disponer de medios formales de intervención. Dadas las limitaciones para aplicar políticas y medidas reguladoras, el programa del agua en el Estado tiene como objetivo principal la implantación de una doble estrategia. Por un lado, desarrollar estudios hidrogeológicos básicos y modelos matemáticos de flujo y transporte de los acuíferos, basándose en una campaña exhaustiva de pozos existentes y en una revisión del marco geológico del Estado. Por otro lado, promover-con soporte financiero, técnico y político-una estructura de participación de los usuarios en las acciones de gestión, incluyendo desde la difusión de la información hasta la implantación de proyectos piloto para un uso eficiente del agua. Simultáneamente, se ha llevado a cabo un esfuerzo coordinado con la autoridad federal para completar el registro de usuarios del agua, además de promover otras medidas de ayuda, como programas de capacitación y campañas de muestreo. En este artículo, se ofrece una visión general de los logros y retos del proyecto.

  16. Dirac Fermions without bulk backscattering in rhombohedral topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera Acosta, Carlos; Lima, Matheus; Seixas, Leandro; da Silva, Antônio; Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    The realization of a spintronic device using topological insulators is not trivial, because there are inherent difficulties in achieving the surface transport regime. The majority of 3D topological insulators materials (3DTI) despite of support helical metallic surface states on an insulating bulk, forming topological Dirac fermions protected by the time-reversal symmetry, exhibit electronic scattering channels due to the presence of residual continuous bulk states near the Dirac-point. From ab initio calculations, we studied the microscopic origin of the continuous bulk states in rhombohedral topological insulators materials with the space group D3d 5 (R 3 m) , showing that it is possible to understand the emergence of residual continuous bulk states near the Dirac-point into a six bands effective model, where the breaking of the R3 symmetry beyond the Γ point has an important role in the hybridization of the px, py and pz atomic orbitals. Within these model, the mechanisms known to eliminate the bulk scattering, for instance: the stacking faults (SF), electric field and alloy, generated the similar effect in the effective states of the 3DTI. Finally, we show how the surface electronic transport is modified by perturbations of bulk with SF. We would like to thank the financial support by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).

  17. Kinematic analysis of serpentinite structures and the manifestation of transpression in southwestern Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.; Anderson, Thomas H.

    2009-12-01

    Faults and shear zones recorded in the Monte del Estado and Río Guanajibo serpentinite masses in southwestern Puerto Rico show previously unrecognized southwestward tectonic transport. The orientations of planar and linear structures and the sense of slip along faults and shear zones determined by offset rock layers, drag folds in foliations, and steps in slickensided surfaces and/or S-C fabrics from 1846 shear planes studied at more than 300 stations reveal two predominant groups of faults: 1) northwesterly-striking thrust faults and easterly-striking left-lateral faults and, 2) northwesterly-striking right-lateral faults and easterly-striking thrust faults. Shortening and extension (P and T) axes calculated for geographic domains within the serpentinite reveal early north-trending shortening followed by southwestward-directed movement during which older structures were re-activated. The SW-directed shortening is attributed to transpression that accompanied Late Eocene left-lateral shearing of the serpentinite. A third, younger, group comprising fewer faults consists of northwesterly-striking left-lateral faults and north-directed thrusts that also may be related to the latest transpressional deformation within Puerto Rico. Deformational events in Puerto Rico correlate to tectonic events along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary.

  18. La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

  19. Screening for marijuana and cocaine abuse by immunoanalysis and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jimenez, Sara; Heredia-Lezama, Karina; Bilbao-Marcos, Fernando; Fuentes-Lara, Griselda; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio; Deciga-Campos, Myrna

    2008-10-01

    Drug abuse among college students is characterized by lower academic performance and long-term negative consequences. Screening to detect students at high risk of consuming drugs is of primary importance to insure early identification and appropriate levels of care. As a result, this study aimed to determine the current or past use of drug abuse through a questionnaire applied to a student population at the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos. The results were confirmed by immunoanalysis and gas chromatography of urine. We interviewed 181 students aged 15 to 21 (gender was not considered in this study), and urine samples were collected for analytical analysis. For detection of metabolites Delta9-THCA-A and benzoylecgonine from marijuana and cocaine, respectively, a homogenous enzymatic inmmunoanalysis was used; subsequent samples were analyzed by a mass spectrometer with quadrupole detector. Seven samples of the total (181) did not completely fit the inclusion criteria and were eliminated. The results showed 0.50% and 1.16% positive samples for benzoylecgonine and Delta9-THCA-A, respectively. These results are not different from those of the National Questionnaire on Addiction. We can establish a program for detecting drug consumption in our students. This kind of study is important in order to implement programs that can help us to decrease the abuse of drugs in our college population. PMID:18991889

  20. Análisis fotométrico-espectroscópico de un par de binarias en NGC 3532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L.; González, J. F.

    Presentamos el informe de avance de un proyecto que apunta a la determinación de masas y radios de precisión en estrellas tempranas de cúmulos abiertos mediante el análisis fotométrico-espectroscópico de sistemas binarios detached con baja rotación. Con ello se pretende determinar el estado evolutivo de estas estrellas y confrontar su estructura con modelos estelares teóricos con distinto grado de ``overshooting". Los primeros objetos seleccionados son dos sistemas binarios de espectros dobles (BDA27 y BDA363) detectados en el cúmulo NGC 3532. Presentamos la órbita espectroscópica obtenida para la binaria eclipsante BDA27, para la cual obtuvimos un período de 4.29 días y una razón de masas q=0.62. Derivamos sus parámetros absolutos preliminares usando nuestra curva de velocidad y datos fotométricos existentes en la literatura, y presentamos estimas del alcance de nuestros resultados una vez que hayamos completado nuestras observaciones con nuevas curvas de luz.

  1. Violencia de Pareja en Mujeres Hispanas: Implicaciones para la Investigación y la Práctica

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Becerra, Maria Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Las investigaciones sobre la violencia entre parejas sugieren que las mujeres hispanas están siendo afectadas desproporcionadamente por la ocurrencia y consecuencias de este problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en relación a la epidemiologia, consecuencias y factores de riesgo para VP entre mujeres Hispanas, discutiendo las implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica. Investigaciones han demostrado una fuerte asociación del status socioeconómico, abuso de droga y el alcohol, la salud mental, aculturación, inmigración, comportamientos sexuales riesgosos e historia de abuso con la violencia entre parejas. Sin embargo, más estudios se deben llevar a cabo para identificar otros factores de riesgos y de protección a poblaciones hispanas no clínicas. Mientras que el conocimiento sobre la etiología de la VP entre mujeres Hispanas se expanda, enfermeras y otros profesionales de la salud deben desarrollar, implementar y evaluar estrategias culturalmente adecuadas para la prevención primaria y secundaria de la violencia entre pareja. PMID:26166938

  2. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  3. Acidic gases and nitrate and sulfate particles in the atmosphere in the city of Guadalajara, México.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan; Murillo-Tovar, Mario; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; de la Garza-Rodríguez, Iliana; Colunga-Urbina, Edith; Cuevas-Ordaz, Rosalva

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of nitrous acid, nitric acid, nitrate and sulfate particles were obtained in this study from April to June 2008 in the center of the city of Guadalajara, while concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity), were acquired by the Secretaría del Medio Ambiente para el Desarrollo Sustentable del Estado de Jalisco (SEMADES). The results showed that nitric acid (2.7 μg m(-3)) was 2.7 times higher than nitrous acid (1.0 μg m(-3)). The sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration indicated an opposite trend to sulfate (SO(4) (2-)), with the average concentration of SO(2) (6.9 μg m(-3)) higher in almost the entire period of study. The sulfur conversion ratio (Fs, 24.9%) and nitrogen conversion ratio (Fn, 6.2%), were revealed to be similar to that reported in other urban areas during warm seasons. It is also noted that ozone is not the main oxidizer of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. This determination was made by taking into account the slightly positively correlation determined for Fn (r(2) = 0.084) and Fs (r(2) = 0.092) with ozone that perhaps suggests there are other oxidizing species such as the radical OH, which are playing an important role in the processes of atmospheric oxidation in this area. PMID:22358115

  4. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János

    2010-05-01

    The Neogene Pannonian basin is underlain by a large orogenic collage which is built up by several tectonostratigraphic terrains. The basement of the Pannonian Basin became imbricate nappes during the Cretaceous Alpine collision. Nappes of Late Cretaceous in age have been proven below the Great Hungarian Plain (Grow et al 1994). The boundary of the two main terrains, the northwestern ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the southeastern TISZA, is the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. It is the most significant neotectonic zone of the Pannonian Basin. The structural analysis of the middle section of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt was carried out on a 120km x 50km area, between the Danube and the Tisza river, on the basis of interpretation of seismic data. The structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments was supported by sequence stratigraphic interpretation of seismic, well log and core-sample data. Regional seismic profiles were both oriented in the dip direction, which highlights sediment supply routes into the basin, and strike-oriented. The studied segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt consists of several long (some ten kilometres long) strike slip fault zones. The offset lengths of the individual strike slipe faults varies between a few and a dozens of kilometres. Activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt can be characterised by four periods, the size and shape of facies zones of each development period were controlled by tectonics: 1. During the early Miocene, the ALPACA moved eastward, bounded by sinistral strike-slipe system along its northern side and dextral strike-slipe fault system along its contact with the Southern Alps and the TISZA terrain. The largest movement took part during the Ottnangian-Karpatian (19-16.5 Ma). The TISZA unit moved northeastward over the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin (Nemcok et al 2006). These terrains movements resulted in right lateral, convergent wide wrench along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. The ALPACA terrain, lying originally between the Central Alpine and Southern Alpine units, reached its recent position by some hundred kilometers strike slip movement, resulting in shifting of depocenters from the SW toward NE. The TISZA unit was characterised by clockwise motion, while counterclockwise rotation of the ALPACA is inferred in Late Oligocene-Miocene. Lower Miocene layers were deposited in depocenters whose subsidence was initiated by escape tectonics, NE-ward displacement of the ALCAPA terrane, and uplifting of the NW-SE oriented Neo-Vardar zone. The Neo-Vardar zone was represented by wide area of continental and alluvial depositional systems. 2. During the middle-late Badenian (15.5-13.6Ma), the ALCAPA collided with the European platform, and the eastward movement of the Tisza-Dacia became pronounced. Because of that the former right lateral motion along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt ceased and a long period of left lateral strike slipe began. Earlier development of pull-apart basins, related to the extensive strike-slip faulting inside the ALCAPA, changed to the graben opening driven by the westward subduction and the eastward motion of the Tisza-Dacia. The middle-late Badenian period was characterised by sediments deposited in listric fault bounded half grabens, in crestal collapse grabens related to (flat-ramp) listric faults, in wide and/or narrow rift systems. Migration of volcanic activity and facies belts took place during relatively short period of times. Large displacements along listric faults have resulted in tilting of originally horizontal strata, and the formation of a regional unconformity between the middle Miocene and the upper Miocene sediments. Wrench fault related pull apart basins were filled by terrestrial to marine sediments. 3. During the Sarmatian-Pannonian (13.6-6.2 Ma), while the eastward motion of the ALPACA was strictly restricted, the Tisza-Dacia unit was able still to move eastward until the last parts of the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin were overridden by the Carpathian orogen. An estimation of 8-10 km magnitude of Late Miocene strike slip was based on detailed seismic study on the Kiskőrös segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt, while Detzky Lőrincz (1997) estimated 5-10 km strike slip for the Szolnok segment of the same Mobile Belt. The Tisza-Dacia unit collided with the European platform during the Pannonian (11.5-6.2 Ma), and the intra-Carpathian stress field changed to the present stress field. During the Pannonian sediments were transported from NW into the studied part of the Pannonian Basin. The main route of sediment supply was perpendicular to the strike of the Mid Hungarian Mobile Belt. The delta system could keep up with the (Pannonian) lake level rise so aggradation occured. Then the structural style chanced and at SB Pa-4 (appr. 6.8 Ma) a strong base level drop occured driven by the onset of inversion in the coeval marginal areas of the basin. Sedimentation continued at a lower base level from that time. Coincidence of base level drop, rejuvenation of tectonic activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt and presence of delta/shore facies zones being paralell with the Mobile Belt resulted giant incised canyon system in the Alpár area. The canyon system incised several hundred meters in the preexisting aggrading substrat, loosing topographic expression headwards and downdip (Juhász et al 2007). The individual valleys range from 5 to 10 km, with smaller tributaries. The valley depth is greatest 600-700 m)around their confluence. The canyons are filled with clay marls, and are overlain by fluvial sediments, suggesting a significant transgression in between. The canyon system is related to a large releasing bend and/or extensional duplex of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. 4. During the Pliocene-Quaternary, the postrift fill of the Pannonian Basin system, related to the regional thermal subsidence, started to undergo an inversion. Convergence vector again became parallel to the Africa-Europe convergence vector. Pliocene-Quaternary was characterised by 1-5 km left lateral wrenching along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. Based on high resolution seismic measurements on the Danube river Toth (2003) supposed an even more recent activity along the Paks-Szolnok wrench fault zone. The supposed late Quaternary activity of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt is supported by recent hydrogeologic investigations. According to Mádl-Szőnyi et al (2005) and Simon et al (in press) from the Pre-Neogene basement originates an ascending overpressured highly saline water flow regime. Deep ascending water rises near to the surface, intercepting the aquifer and aquitard layers along conductive strike slipe faults of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt and mixing with shallower groundwater. Acknowledgements The research work was supported by the Hungarian National Research Fund (OTKA 035168, T 047159). References Detzky Lőrinc K. (1997) Detailed tectonic study of the Western edge of the Szolnok flysch zone using seismic and well data. Thesis Candidate of Science. Hungarian Academy of Science. p. 121. Grow J. A., R. E. Mattick, A. Bérczi-Makk, Cs. Péró, D. Hajdú, Gy. Pogácsás, P. Várnai, E. Varga, (1994) Structure of the Békés basin inferred from seismic reflection, well and gravity data. in Teleki P., J. Kókai, R.E. Mattick eds. Basin analysis in petroleum exploration, a case study from the Békés basin, Hungary. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, Netherlands, p. 1-38. Juhász, Gy., Pogácsás Gy., Magyar I. (2007) A giant canyon system incised into the Late-Neogene (pannonian s.l.) sediments? (in Hungarian Óriáskanyon-rendszer szeli át a pannóniai üledékeket? Földtani Közlöny (Bulletin of the Geological Society of Hungary)137/3. 307-326. Mádlné Szőnyi J. Simon Sz. Tóth J. Pogácsás Gy. (2005) Interrelationship between surface and subsurface waters at the Kelemen-szék and Kolon lakes, Duna-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary (in Hungarian Felszíni és felszín alatti vizek kapcsolata a Duna-Tisza közi Kelemen-szék és Kolon-tó esetében). Általános Földtani Szemle 30. 93-110. Nemcok, M., G. Pogacsas, and L. Pospisil, (2006) Activity timing of the main tectonic systems in the Carpathian-Pannonian region in relation to the rollback destruction of the lithosphere, in J. Golonka and F. Picha, eds., The Carpathians and their foreland:Geology and hydrocarbon resources: AAPG Memoir 84. p. 743-766. Simon Sz., Mádl-Szőnyi J., Müller I., Pogácsás Gy. (in press) Basement source of surface salinization, Lake Kelemenszék area, Duna-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary (submitted to the Hydrology Journal) Toth T. (2003) Seismic survey on rivers (Folyóvizi szeizmikus mérések) PhD Thesis, Eötvös Lorand University, Geophysical Department, Budapest. p. 136.

  5. Habitus furibundo en el gueto estadounidense1

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Hart, Laurie; Karandinos, George

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Durante cinco años, un torbellino cotidiano de tiroteos, apuñalamientos y asaltos afectó a la venta de drogas al aire libre en el vecindario puertorriqueño de Filadelfia, donde residíamos y conducíamos nuestro trabajo de campo. La industria de los narcóticos ha venido a llenar el vacío que dejó la desindustrialización, convirtiendo al antiguo distrito fabril de la ciudad en un mercado de narcóticos a cielo abierto que emplea en sus niveles más bajos a jóvenes puertorriqueños y cuyos clientes son principalmente heroinómanos blancos de bajos recursos. La capacidad para movilizar la furia asegura el éxito en la economía de las drogas, garantiza protección en las cárceles y le provee un ingreso mínimo a una población de bajos recursos estigmatizada cuyos miembros frecuentemente reciben diagnósticos médicos de discapacidad cognitiva. Muchos residentes buscan alianzas en redes sociales que los comprometen a participar en intercambios solidarios de violencia auxiliar. Una dinámica de acumulación primitiva corporizada mata, hiere, discapacita o encarcela a la mayoría de estos empleados de bajo nivel y a sus clientes. Los inflados márgenes de ganancia alrededor de esta dinámica dependen de la violencia y la coerción. Un habitus furibundo impulsa a los vendedores callejeros a defender violentamente el micro monopolio de poder de sus jefes en la economía subterránea como si fuese un asunto de diversión. Estos miembros de los niveles más bajos de la industria del narcotráfico se apresuran a fraguar transacciones comerciales en ausencia de un marco legal en un ambiente de escasez que sin embargo se ve inundado por enormes flujos de dinero, drogas adictivas y armas automáticas. Tras las drásticas reformas a los programas de seguridad social, la mano izquierda del Estado, en la forma de los servicios sociales, intenta prolongar los subsidios para individuos vulnerables diagnosticándolos como discapacitados cognitivos permanentes necesitados de fuerte medicación farmacéutica. La mejor manera de asegurar la continuidad de este frágil subsidio resulta ser los estallidos periódicos de violencia autoinfligida. Simultáneamente, con la anuencia de la mano derecha del Estado, en las cárceles violentas y hacinadas marcadas por formas hostiles de supervisión, la furia se convierte en una valiosa estrategia de protección física para los internos. En resumen, la violencia expresiva se convierte en una base práctica para el sostenimiento económico y para forjar el sentido de dignidad entre hombres y mujeres. PMID:24532976

  6. Nesting biology, morphological remarks, and description of the mature larva of Mellinus arvensis obscurus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Boesi, R.; Polidori, C.; Andrietti, F.; Gayubo, S.F.; Tormos, J.; Asis, J.D.

    2007-03-15

    Recently re-named as a sub-species of Mellinus arvensis, Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888 was investigated ecologically and morphologically in Nepal, in order to underline the most important differences with the well known M. arvensis arvensis. Mellinus arvensis obscurus females nested in clumped aggregations on inclined plains at high altitudes, both on sunny bare soil and on a shaded grassy one. Beginning of monsoon season probably interfered with wasp activity, and females performed few provisioning flights during the day. Prey consisted of a broad range of Diptera, except for one case of a spider. Many females were observed not provisioning a nest but floating on the nesting site, and many intraspecific interactions suggested a high degree of usurpation attempts. At least one species of flies and two of ants probably acted as natural enemies of the wasp. Morphological observations on females showed that the Nepal population shares more similarities (shape of tergite I, body punctation) with the European populations than with the closer Japanese population; melanization is strong, according to west-east and altitudinal cline. The mature larva of M. arvensis obscurus Handlirsch is described, illustrated, and compared with the other mature larva of the genus. The differences between both larvae mainly lie in the presence/absence, and number or differentiation of integumental structures. We conclude that morphological traits are more important than ecological and behavioral ones in distinguishing M. arvensis obscurus from M. arvensis arvensis. (author) [Spanish] En el presente articulo se aportan los resultados y conclusiones de un estudio, llevado a cabo en Nepal, en el que se abordaron aspectos ecologicos, comportamentales y morfologicos (tanto del ultimo estado de la fase larvaria como del adulto) de Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888. El principal objetivo del estudio radicaba en mostrar las principales diferencias que separan a esta subespecie de la bien estudiada subespecie nominal. Mellinus arvensis obscurus nidifica a gran altitud, en terreno inclinado, con y sin vegetacion, expuesto en mayor o menor medida al sol y en agregaciones muy compactas. Durante la estacion lluviosa la hembras llevan a cabo pocos vuelos de aprovisonamiento. Las presas pertenecen al orden de los dipteros, aunque, en una ocasion se observo el aporte de una arana. Gran numero de las interacciones intraespecificas observadas sugieren un alto grado de intentos de usurpacion de nidos. Los enemigos naturales mas sobresalientes pertenecen al orden de los dipteros y a la familia de los formicidos. Del estudio morfologico del adulto, mencionaremos que la foma del terguito 1 y la escultura del cuerpo, en las hembras de las poblaciones del Nepal, son mas semejantes a los de las hembras de las poblaciones europeas que no a los de las japonesas. De la fase larvaria se describe el ultimo estado larvario, a la vez que se compara con la otra larva madura ya descrita del genero. Las diferencias entre ambas larvas maduras radican en la presencia/ausencia, numero o diferenciacion de las estructuras tegumentarias. El estudio finaliza concluyendo que los rasgos morfologicos son mas importantes, que los aspectos ecologicos y comportamentales, a la hora de establecer una separacion entre las dos subespecies (author)

  7. Top-Down Versus Bottom-Up Estimative of CO2 and CO Vehicular Emission Contribution from the Megacity of SãO Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Nogueira, T.; Martínez, P. J.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R. M.; Ynoue, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is composed by 39 municipalities with a population of 20 million inhabitants in an area of 8,511 km2. The main source of pollutants to the air is the vehicular emission: exhaust and evaporative fuel. The climate is influenced by the sea breeze from the Southeast direction - MASP is approximately 40 km far from the sea; and by the valley- mountain circulation, due to the presence of the Serra do Mar Mountains in the Northwest part of the city. This wind circulation suffers the influence of the heat island due to the high degree of urbanization. The MASP fleet is composed by approximately 7 million passenger cars and freight vehicles, with 85% light duty vehicles (LDVs), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDVs, diesel + 5% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 2% use diesel (CETESB, 2013a). The use of gasohol or hydrous ethanol by the flex-fuel is determined by the price of the fuel. Vehicle traffic is the main source of regulated pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons (HC), and contributes to the formation of inhalable particulate matter emissions (PM10) as well as being the principal source of carbon dioxide (CO2). 97% of all CO emissions, 85% of HC, 82% of NOx, 36% of sulfur dioxide (SO2), and 36% of all PM10 emissions come from mobile sources (CETESB, 2013b). The official inventory is calculated with the botton-up methodology: calculation of the emission factors in dynamometer, estimation of the average distance each kind of vehicles drives per day and the total number of vehicles in circulation. The values considered a deterioration factor due to the vehicle aging. The top-down methodology was performed from measurements performed in experiments in traffic roads and tunnels. The data presented here compared tunnel measurements performed in 2004 and 2011. The official data estimate an emission of 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles) and 128 million tons per year of CO. The top-down estimative based on tunnel measurements resulted in values approximately 5 times higher, being the difference more attributable to the estimative of the diesel emission factor. The uncertainties are related to the deterioration of the emission factor with time and the driving pattern. The diurnal variation of CO2 atmospheric concentration is characterized by the mobile source emission pattern. CETESB. Relatório Anual de Qualidade do Ar no Estado de São Paulo 2012. Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, São Paulo, Brazil, 2013a. CETESB. Plano de Controle de Poluição Veicular do Estado de São Paulo 2011 /2013. Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, São Paulo, Brazil, 2013b.

  8. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Santos, E; Rodríguez, A; Prieto de Frías, C; Gil, M J; Fruhbeck, G; Quiroga, J; Herrero, J I; Salvador, J

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN            Fundamento. Las alteraciones del estado nutricional son frecuentes en la cirrosis hepática. El presente estudio se ha llevado a cabo para establecer las relaciones existentes entre la función hepática, los niveles de IGF I/IGFBP-3, el estado nutricional y las concentraciones de leptina, ghrelina y glucagón en 21 pacientes en lista de espera de trasplante hepático (TH).            Material y métodos. Se han estudiado 21 varones de 56+2,1 años de edad en lista de TH clasificados por estadio Child-Pugh (CP)  de menor a mayor disfunción hepática en CPA (n=4), CPB (n=11) y CPC (n=6). Se determinó  el índice de masa corporal (IMC),  porcentaje de grasa corporal (%) mediante pletismografía de desplazamiento de aire, gasto energético mediante calorimetría indirecta, calculando su desviación respecto al valor calculado por Harris-Benedict (GER%), y determinaciones analíticas en ayunas de albúmina, glucosa, insulina, HbA1c, leptina, ghrelina total, glucagón, IGF-I e IGFBP3.            Resultados. No hubo diferencias significativas entre % grasa corporal y leptinemia en los tres grupos clasificados por CP. El grupo CPC mostró valores de ghrelina superiores a los CPA y CPB (p<0,05). Los tres grupos mostraron un valor de GER% superior al 100%  e hiperglucagonemia, sin mostrar diferencias entre ellos. La concentración  de glucagón se correlacionó positivamente con el valor de GER%  (r=0,56; p<0,01), y con la concentración de ghrelina (r=0,66; p<0,01). El valor de albúmina se correlacionó positivamente con IGF-I (r=0,52; p<0,05) e IGFBP3 (r=0,45;  p<0,05), encontrándose ambos disminuidos por igual en los tres grupos.            Conclusiones. Estos resultados muestran un aumento de ghrelina en pacientes con mayor afectación funcional hepática, así como un patrón hipermetabólico asociado a hiperglucagonemia, lo que sugiere a este factor como desequilibrador del balance energético y potencial diana terapéutica. El sistema IGF-1/IGFBP3 constituye un marcador de función hepática en la cirrosis.            Palabras clave. Cirrosis hepática. Leptina. Ghrelina. Glucagón. IGF-I. PMID:27125612

  9. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed fifty years of scientific activities at the University of Sao Paulo (USP). He dedicated most of his life to the development of experimental nuclear physics in the country. We had a special session where his life and achievements were remembered. The organization of the XXXVII RTFNB 2014 was one more step in a big effort to build in our part of the world a community of physicists engaged in the difficult problems of fundamental and applied nuclear physics. The international contacts bring new knowledge, provide reference framework and stimulate collaborations that are essential for a true participation in the scientific frontier. The Editors, the Organizing Committee and the whole Brazilian community of nuclear physicists were pleased and very grateful to the visitors that were together with us during the five days in Maresias. The Editors

  10. A Utilização da Astronomia como Tema Interdisciplinar e Aplicações de Objetos de Aprendizagem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Este trabalho visa analisar a possibilidade de relacionar conteúdos aplicados no ensino fundamental e médio de forma interdisciplinar por intermédio da astronomia, com a intervenção de objetos de aprendizagem que possam integrar as disciplinas e a utilização de recursos tecnológicos. Em uma pesquisa prévia com 20 professores de uma escola estadual situada na cidade de Guarulhos foi observado que apenas 25% dos professores utilizam algum recurso tecnológico para o desenvolvimento de conteúdos pertinentes à sua disciplina, tais como sites e softwares educativos, sendo que a maioria absoluta continua ensinando apenas com livros didáticos. A maior parte dos professores apresenta dificuldades em trabalhar sua disciplina de forma interdisciplinar, ou seja, 75% dos professores preferem aplicar os conteúdos seguindo uma hierarquia linear de tópicos, evitando a discussão de temas que de alguma forma estão relacionados. A astronomia pode vir à fascinar o ser humano e despertar sua curiosidade promovendo um maior interesse no aprendizado, podendo favorecer análises interdisciplinares de forma lógica e objetiva, desta forma colocar a astronomia como tema motivador interdisciplinar, pode ser relevante no que se refere ao distanciamento da fragmentação dos conteúdos. No Estado de São Paulo, a implantação da proposta curricular no ensino fundamental e médio mostra claramente a inserção da astronomia na maior parte das séries, principalmente na 6ª série em que todo o bimestre se fala de astronomia.

  11. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Miqueleiz Autor, E; Lostao, L; Reques, L; Giráldez-García, C; Regidor, E

    2016-01-01

    RESUMENFundamento. Mostrar las desigualdades en mortalidad prematura según indicadores de bienestar material en Navarra.Método. Todos los ciudadanos menores de 75 años residentes en Navarra en 2001 fueron seguidos durante 7 años para conocer su estado vital. El indicador de posición socioeconómica usado ha sido la superficie de la casa y el número de vehículos del hogar. Se han estimado las tasas de mortalidad general y por causa de muerte ajustadas por edad según estos indicadores.Resultados. La razón de tasas por todas las causas de muerte en las categorías inferiores es según la superficie de la vivienda de 1,14 (IC 95%: 1,05-1,24) y 1,25 (IC 95%: 1,18-1,32) en mujeres y hombres respectivamente y de 1,46 (IC 95%: 1,36-1,57) y 1,97 (IC 95%: 1,89-2,05) según el número de vehículos. El sida es la causa de muerte que presenta una mayor diferencia en las tasas de mortalidad entre las personas con menor y mayor bienestar material. Otras causas de muerte con elevada diferencia en las tasas de mortalidad son las enfermedades digestivas y la diabetes mellitus en mujeres y las enfermedades del aparato digestivo y respiratorio en hombres.Conclusiones. La tasa de mortalidad en la población navarra muestra un gradiente inverso con el bienestar material, a excepción de algunas localizaciones de cáncer. Este gradiente es mayor entre los hombres que entre las mujeres.Palabras clave. Mortalidad prematura. Bienestar material. PMID:27125605

  12. Construction of a manual of work processes and techniques from Centro de Dispensação de Medicamentos de Alto Custo (CEDMAC), Hospital de Clínicas, Unicamp.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Manoel Barros; Ferreira, Bruno Silva de Araújo; Marchiore, Adriana G Mucke; Carvalho, Glaucia Pereira do Amaral; de Souza, Débora Pessoa; Psaltikidis, Eliane Molina

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for High Cost Medication (Centros de Medicação de Alto Custo, CEDMAC), Health Department, São Paulo were instituted by project in partnership with the Clinical Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine, USP, sponsored by the Foundation for Research Support of the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, FAPESP) aimed at the formation of a statewide network for comprehensive care of patients referred for use of immunobiological agents in rheumatological diseases. The CEDMAC of Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (HC-Unicamp), implemented by the Division of Rheumatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, identified the need for standardization of the multidisciplinary team conducts, in face of the specificity of care conducts, verifying the importance of describing, in manual format, their operational and technical processes. The aim of this study is to present the methodology applied to the elaboration of the CEDMAC/HC-Unicamp Manual as an institutional tool, with the aim of offering the best assistance and administrative quality. In the methodology for preparing the manuals at HC-Unicamp since 2008, the premise was to obtain a document that is participatory, multidisciplinary, focused on work processes integrated with institutional rules, with objective and didactic descriptions, in a standardized format and with electronic dissemination. The CEDMAC/HC-Unicamp Manual was elaborated in 10 months, with involvement of the entire multidisciplinary team, with 19 chapters on work processes and techniques, in addition to those concerning the organizational structure and its annexes. Published in the electronic portal of HC Manuals in July 2012 as an e-Book (ISBN 978-85-63274-17-5), the manual has been a valuable instrument in guiding professionals in healthcare, teaching and research activities. PMID:25054595

  13. Prediction of health risk due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in urban air in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rainho, C R; Velho, A M A; Corrêa, S M; Mazzei, J L; Aiub, C A F; Felzenszwalb, I

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessment can provide a comprehensive estimate of potential effects of contaminants under specific, well-defined, and well-described circumstances, providing quantitative relationships between exposure and effects to identify and to define areas of concern. We investigated the mutagenic activity of particulate matter in air samples collected from three sites in Rio de Janeiro city. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at Avenida Brasil, at Campus of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, and at Rebouças Tunnel. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains TA98/1.8-DNP(6), YG1021, and YG1024, commonly used in mutagenicity assays, were treated (10-50 µg/plate), with and without exogenous metabolization. The highest values for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected at Rebouças Tunnel. For chrysene, as an example, the concentration was nearly 200 times higher than that established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Frequent traffic jams can place bus drivers who go through the Rebouças Tunnel at risk of exposure to up to 0.69 ng/m(3) benzo(a) pyrene. Independent of exogenous metabolization, mutagenicity was detected in strains YG1021 and YG1024 at all the sites, suggesting nitro and amino derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Rebouças Tunnel air samples gave the highest values for rev/µg and rev/m(3). This could be due to the fact that the long, enclosed passageway through a mountain restricts ventilation. The cancer risk estimate in this study was 10(-3) for the benzo(a)pyrene, at the two sites, indicating a high risk. PMID:23479151

  14. Strange Stars, Neutron Stars and Pulsar Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Horvath, J. E.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha conjeturado que una partlecula de dieciocho quarks, sin Carga, sin espi'n y sin colar (quark-alfa) podri'a ser estable a ba5as tern peraturas y presiones aiTh COfl respecto a materia extrafla. Presentamos en este trabajo la estmctura de estrellas extraflas incluyendo los efectos y apariencia de parti'culas uark-alfa en las capas exteriores. La estruc tura interna ya no es hoinogenea del centro a la superficie, sino que muestra un centro de materia extrafla, capas s6lidas y una costra delgada de materia normal en la superficie. La superficie de materia nonnal permite la fornaci6n de una magnetosfera, la que se piensa sea el sitlo en donde ocurre la emisi6n del pulsar. La superficie de superflui'do ayuda a explicar el fen6rneno de `glitch', el cual ba sido observado en muchos pulsares. Se discute la ecuaci6n de estado para rnateria quark-alfa relevante en este regimen. ABSTIZACT:It has been conjectured that an quark, uncharged, spinless and colorless particle Cquark-alpha) could be stable at low pressures and temperatures even with respect to strange matter. We present in work tlie structure of stars including the effects of the appearance of quark-alpi' particles ii their outer layers. The internal structure is no longer from tlie center to the surface, but show a strange matter core, a solid and superfluid layers and a thin crust of normal matter at the surface. The normal matter surface allows tlie fon tion of a magnetosphere, whicl is to be tl place where pulsar emission occurs. A superfluid layer helps to explain tlie glitch , wlflch has been observed in . equation of state for quark-alpha matter relevant in regime is also discussed. Keq LA)OtL : ARY S - OF STATF - ?.ACT

  15. Barreras y Facilitadores en el Reclutamiento y la Retención de Parejas Heterosexuales en Intervenciones Preventivas en VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Hernández, Alberto L.; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2012-01-01

    Compendio El Reclutamiento y la Retención (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el éxito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los índices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informatión, Motivatión y Conductas-Español (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indicó que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelación del estado serlógico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinación adecuada y el seguimiento telefónico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantación de programas de prevención el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptación de aspectos logísticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes. PMID:23264700

  16. [Barriers and Facilitators in the Recruitment and Retention of Heterosexual Couples for Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Alberto L; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2010-01-01

    El Reclutamiento y la Retención (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el éxito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los índices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informatión, Motivatión y Conductas-Español (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indicó que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelación del estado serlógico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinación adecuada y el seguimiento telefónico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantación de programas de prevención el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptación de aspectos logísticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes. PMID:23264700

  17. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  18. [Historical exploration of Acapulco hospitals, Guerrero, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Salcedo-Alvarez, Rey Arturo

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to recount the history of the main hospitals of the port of Acapulco from colonial times until the end of the 20th century. The Augustine friars began hospital care at the end of the first part of the 16th century. Later, Bernardino Alvarez (1514?-1584), with the support of the Spanish crown, founded the first formal hospital in Acapulco called Hospital de Nuestra Señora de la Consolación (Our Lady of Consolation Hospital). During the 16th and 17th centuries, the sick were attended by friars, and by the end of the 19th century there were physicians and surgeons. From the end of the Independence War until the end of the 19th century, the port did not have any true hospital. The first degreed physicians and surgeons arrived and resided in Acapulco in 1920. In 1938, the Hospital Civil Morelos (Morelos Civil Hospital) began providing services. It was replaced by the Hospital General de Acapulco (General Hospital of Acapulco). At the fourth decade of the past century the Cruz Roja (Red Cross) was created. In 1957 the hospital services of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, Mexican Institute of Social Security), which was founded in 1963, was inaugurated with the Unidad Medico/Social (Medical and Social Unit) of the IMSS in Acapulco. This began the journey of modernity in Acapulco. In 1992, Hospital Regional Vicente Guerrero (Regional Hospital Vicente Guerrero) of the IMSS, initiated its services. In 1960, medical services for civil workers and their families were housed in the Hospital Civil Morelos (Morelos Civil Hospital). Shortly afterwards, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE, Security and Social Services Institute for State Employees) had their own hospital. During the 20th century, Acapulco has added other hospital services to care for members of the navy and armed forces, as well as for those persons with financial resources for private care. PMID:17244509

  19. Time-to-treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Flávia Dias; Levy, Debora; Pereira, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for nearly 50% of the cases in the Hematology Department of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo and Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo. The treatment outcome is influenced by age, abnormal lactate dehydrogenase levels, extranodal infiltration, the disease stage and the patient's performance status. In this study, we sought to report the time-to-treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in São Paulo's public health system network and its impact on patient outcomes. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of 42 consecutive patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma between 2008 and 2012. RESULTS: Our patients had more advanced disease than that reported in the literature (61.9% vs. 46%). In São Paulo's public health system network, it took an average of 7.4 months for a diagnosis to be made and an additional 1.4 months to obtain an appointment with a specialist. Once at our Hematology Department, it took less than 20 days for staging, confirmation of the diagnosis and treatment initiation. An interval from signs or symptoms to treatment of more than 6 months was associated with inferior progression-free survival in 3 years (p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: A delay in the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a public health problem and may be associated with worse progression-free survival. PMID:24838904

  20. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-03-15

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [Spanish] El rango de hospederos de Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) en America del Norte esta reportado aqui por la primera vez. Se presentan datos descriptivos como el numero de ataques por hospederos, el tamano de los tallos en el punto de ataque y la altura por encima del nivel de tierra de los ataques. Los hospederos observados en el estado de Mississippi fueron Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux y Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua tuvo ataques significativamente mas exitosos, una probabilidad significativamente mas alta de ataques y un numero significativamente mayor de adultos de escarabajos por arbol hospedero que Carya spp., A. rubrum y L. tulipifera. Esta informacion es pertinente en determinar el impacto que pueda tener este escarabajo exotico en invernaderos, areas urbanas y otros sistemas forestales donde el escarabajo se establece. (author)

  1. Agregación de para-H2 en chorros supersónicos: del dímero al sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, José

    En este trabajo se mostrarán los estudios de expansiones supersónicas de para-H2 desde toberas criogénicas, realizados en el laboratorio de Fluidodinámica Molecular del IEM. Hemos registrado los espectros Raman de dichas expansiones en el intervalo de frecuencias de 4145 a 4162 cm-1, próximo a la línea Q(0) del monómero no rotante H2, a 4161.18 cm-1. En el espectro Raman, además de la línea Q(0) del monómero, se observan unos picos débiles, que, por su comportamiento con la temperatura de la tobera y la distancia a la misma, asignamos a la transición homóloga en agregados de p-H2. Dependiendo de las condiciones, se observan agregados pequeños (de 2 a 13 moléculas de p-H2), agregados medios y masivos, y se llega incluso al líquido y al sólido. Las asignaciones se apoyan en un modelo sencillo, basado en la perturbación, debida al potencial intermolecular, de los estados vibracionales v=0 y v=1 en los agregados de p-H2. Se mostrarán detalles de la instalación experimental, ejemplos de los espectros obtenidos en diversas condiciones, y detalles de la interpretación cuantitativa.

  2. Environmental restoration and waste management: An introduction. Student edition; Restauracion ambiental y administracion de residuos nucleares: Introduccion; Edicion estudiantil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    For more than 40 years, the United States has produced nuclear weapons. These production activities generated both radioactive and hazardous waste and often contaminated the environment. For many years, the public was unaware of the problem and unable to do anything about it. All of this has changed. In response to recent public outcry, the former Secretary of Energy, Retired Admiral James D. Watkins, established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The creation of EM was the first step toward correcting contamination problems from the past 40 years In this booklet, we at DOE, through the efforts of the students at Oak Hills High School of Cincinnati, Ohio, will introduce you to EM and encourage your involvement in this major program within the Department of Energy. [Espanol] Durante mas de 40 anos, los Estados Unidos fabricaron armamentos nucleares. Esta produccion genero residuos radiactivos y peligrosos y, en muchos casos, contaminaron el medio ambiente. Durante mucho tiempo, el publico norteamericano no tenia conocimiento de este problema y no pudo hacer nada para solucionarlo. Todo esto ha cambiado. Respondiendo a crecientes protestas publicas, el ex Secretario de Energia Almirante James D. Watkins, establecio en noviembre de 1989 la Subsecretaria de Administracion Ambiental. La creacion de esta Subsecretaria fue el primer paso que dio el Departamento de Energia para corregir los problemas de contaminacion ambiental de los ultimos 40 anos. En esta publicacion, los que trabajamos en el Departamento de Energia con la ayuda de los estudiantes de la Escuela Secundaria de Oak Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, te introduciermos a la administracion ambiental y alentamos tu participacion en este programa de fundamental importancia en el Departamento de Energia.

  3. ADIPOQUINAS EN EL NIÑO SANO Y AFECTO DE OBESIDAD

    PubMed Central

    Martos-Moreno, G.A.; Kopchick, J.J.; Argente, y J.

    2015-01-01

    El incremento universal de la prevalencia de obesidad en niños y adolescentes durante las últimas décadas, junto con la evidencia creciente de que el establecimiento de obesidad en etapas precoces de la vida está asociado con un incremento de la prevalencia de comorbilidades y del riesgo de muerte prematura, con gran repercusión económica en los sistemas sanitarios de los países occidentales, ha impulsado la investigación en este área. Estos estudios han remarcado la importante actividad endocrina del tejido adiposo, ejercida por medio de la síntesis y secreción de un gran número de péptidos y citoquinas, denominados adipoquinas. En esta revisión se resume el estado actual de los conocimientos, así como los estudios más relevantes, en relación con la dinámica de secreción de las principales adipoquinas en niños, centrándose en el control de la homeostasis energética, regulación metabólica (fundamentalmente, metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono) e inflamación. Asímismo, se analizan las particularidades de la síntesis, secreción y acciones de las adipoquinas desde el nacimiento hasta la adolescencia, reseñando el efecto que, sobre ellas, ejerce la instauración de la obesidad. PMID:23228441

  4. Ethical proceedings against dentists in Espírito Santo for infringements to the code of dental ethics.

    PubMed

    Santos Pacheco, Karina Tonini dos; Silva Junior, Manoelito Ferreira; Meireles, Naiara Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Just like any other profession, dentistry requires ethical and moral responsibilities that must be fulfilled, and the duty of every professional is to meet his obligations under the law. In light of the Código de Ética Odontológica (CEO-Code of Dental Ethics), this research aims to expound on the ethical violations committed by dentists in their practice, according to the ethical review process proposed by the Conselho Regional de Odontologia do Estado do Espírito Santo (CRO/ES-Regional Council of Dentistry of the State of Espírito Santo). The study is both retrospective and descriptive, using a quantitative approach. Data collection comprised all the ethical proceedings filed at the CRO/ES, between the years 2000 and 2011. Considering the 529 cases examined, the most frequent reason for infringement was illicit advertising (39.7%), followed by technical error (18.7%), irregular registration (16.8%), patient/professional relationship (11.3%) tax lien foreclosure (6.6%), professional/professional relationship (4.0%), irregular/illegal cover up practice (0.9%), consumer relations (0.8%), failure to provide care (0.6%), false certification (0.4%), and disrespect for authority and colleagues (0.2%). Most (59.2%) of the dental surgeons (DSs) involved were male, 35.5% were between 31 and 40 years of age, 85.8% had graduated over five (5) years prior, and 73.2% were general practitioners. Only 22 (4.2%) cases went to trial, resulting in 8 (36.4%) acquittals and 14 (63.6%) convictions. The most commonly applied penalties were private warning+pecuniary penalty (8 or 57.1%). It was concluded that the CEO must be followed with more discipline, and that professionals should seek information about their duties and obligations under the law, on behalf of patient welfare. PMID:24820427

  5. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  6. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brower, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hacket, B.; Verlaan, M.; Alvarez Fanjul, E.

    2011-04-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of existing storm surge or circulation models today operational in Europe, as well as near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: - providing an easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool - generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average Technique (BMA) The system was developed and implemented within ECOOP (C.No. 036355) European Project for the NOOS and the IBIROOS regions, based on MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Both systems are today operational at Deltares and Puertos del Estado respectively. The Bayesian Modelling Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the probability that a model will give the correct forecast PDF and are determined and updated operationally based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours will be presented for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions, where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The work has proved to be useful to detect problems in some of the circulation models not previously well calibrated with sea level data, to identify the differences on baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level applications and to confirm the general improvement of the BMA forecasts.

  7. Motivational Didactics Activities for Education of Astronomy in Basic Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, J.

    2010-03-01

    The present research was carried through with 234 pupils of the State school of Basic Education Mayor Rinaldo Poli located in the city of Guarulhos. In this project it was aspired to use topics of Astronomy with the following objectives: to motivate the pupils in the lessons of Sciences; to search ways so that the learning process would become more significant and also to help to spread out Astronomy in the level of basic education. Although being recommended in the "Parametros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN)", in the "Orientacoes Complementares aos Parametros (PCN+)" and more recently in the "Proposta Curricular do Estado de Sao Paulo", Astronomy is little imparted in the Basic Education. Initially a questionnaire was applied with the intention to verify the previous knowledge of the pupils, which evidenced that, among other things, 18.5% of the pupils of 5th grades knew what Astronomy investigates, whereas only 3.8% of the pupils of 6th grades knew what a planet is, and still 25.5% of the pupils of 8th grades knew how to define the Moon. The intervention work was conducted in the following form: first some Astronomy-related subjects were chosen which the pupils researched and afterwards presented in groups; then they built mockups, using Conceptual Maps to explain this subject and making a work with scales of the stars. After the intervention work the same questionnaire was applied and the index of rightness reached, respectively, the percentages of 63.0%, 39.2% and 68.1%, showing that the learning became significant. It is supposed that Astronomy is important in the process of Education Learning for being the oldest of the sciences, for having a character to multidiscipline, allowing the quarrel of fascinating and interesting subjects as, for example, the space origin of the universe, trips, the existence or non-existence of life in other planets, beyond current subjects as the new technologies.

  8. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brouwer, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hackett, B.; Verlaan, M.; Fanjul, E. A.

    2012-03-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of several storm surge or circulation models and near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: 1. providing easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool; 2. generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average technique (BMA). The Bayesian Model Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the Bayesian likelihood that a model will give the correct forecast and are continuously updated based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. The system was implemented for the European Atlantic facade (IBIROOS region) and Western Mediterranean coast based on the MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours are presented for these regions where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The system is currently operational at Puertos del Estado and has proved to be useful in the detection of calibration problems in some of the circulation models, in the identification of the systematic differences between baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level forecasts and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an overall probabilistic forecast, based on the BMA method.

  9. Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Landscape Development of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Salas, M.; Colon, A.

    2007-12-01

    The northeastern Caribbean island of Puerto Rico is an exhumed Cenozoic island arc situated between the inactive Muertos trench to the south and the highly oblique Puerto Rican Trench to the north that forms the left- lateral strike-slip plate margin with North America. The rectangular island's long axis of 175 km parallels the east trending strike of the trenches with a near constant width of between 50 and 60 km. Puerto Rico receives the NE trade winds and has a tropical monsoonal climate. Puerto Rico has a distinct midline asymmetry with north draining watershed about twice the length and five times as large as south draining watershed. This midline asymmetry is more pronounced along the islands eastern third than the central or western thirds. River outlet spacing, mountain front sinuosity, and comparative hypsometry display similar east to west variability consistent with greater denudation in the eastern parts of the island. The southwestern fifth of the island is underlain by serpentinized ocean crust that forms the large diapiric Monte del Estado uplift. Active diapirism is indicated by highly asymmetric watersheds of the surrounding rivers and tributaries. Stream length gradient index calculated from 1:20,000 scale map data and compared to fault locations show little correlation suggesting that active faults does not significantly control Puerto Rico's landscape. Quantified morphologic data from the eastern two-thirds of Puerto Rico are consistent with a landscape developed in response to the precipitation derived from NE trade winds while serpentinite diapirism dominates the western third of the island. Individual active faults of Puerto Rico do not control the landscape development.

  10. Surface circulation in the Strait of Gibraltar: a comparison study between HF radar and high resolution model data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Navarro, Javier; Lorente, Pablo; Álvarez-Fanjul, Enrique; Ruiz-Gil de la Serna, M. Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Surface currents from the HF radar system deployed by Puertos del Estado (PdE) at the Strait of Gibraltar and an operational high resolution configuration of the MIT global circulation model, implemented in the strait area in the frame of the SAMPA project, have been analyzed and compared in the period February 2013 - September 2014. The comparison have been carried out in the time and frequency domains, by statistical a geophysical (tide ellipses, wind forcing, EOF) methods. Results show good agreement between both current fields in the strait axis, with correlation around 0.6 (reaching 0.9 in the low frequency band). Higher discrepancies are found in the boundaries of the domain, due to the differences in the meridional components, likely related to the sparser and less accurate radar measurements in these areas. Rotary spectral analysis show a very good agreement between both systems, which is reflected in a very similar and realistic representation of the main tide constituents (M2, S2 and K1). The wind forced circulation pattern, of special interest in the mouth of the Bay of Algeciras, is also precisely represented by radar and model. Finally, the spatial patterns of the first four EOF modes of both fields are rather close, reinforcing the previous results. As conclusion, the analysis points out the proper representation of the surface circulation of the area performed by the PdE HF radar system and the SAMPA model. However, weak and strong points are found in both, stressing the importance of having two complementary tools in the area.

  11. A Cratera de Colônia (São Paulo - SP) Aspectos Gerais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varella, Paulo Gomes; Atulim, Regina Auxiliadora

    2006-06-01

    Despite the studies carried out during the last five decades, Colônia crater, situated at the south of São Paulo (SP), is not much known to the Brazilian scientific community (including astronomers) let alone to the population at large. For this paper, we have selected the main characteristics of that crater, such as size, age, geographic location, geological features of the area, and items in favor of its description as an impact crater, since, up to our days, many researchers have been still uncertain as to its origin. We have also established, a comparison between Colônia crater and other similar Brazilian craters, in order to single it out as a very important site for astronomical, paleoclimatic, geological, and geophysical research. It has also been our aim to provide some subsidy to science teachers who wish to approach this subject in the classroom, and stress (emphasize) the importance of this crater as a Brazilian patrimony, considering that this topic, save for a few distinguished exceptions, is not regularly taught at school. Lastly, (finally) we describe, briefly, the current condition of the crater, pointing out the protection initiatives taken by CONDEPHAAT (Conselho de Defesa do Patrimônio Histórico, Artístico, Arqueológico e Turístico do Estado de São Paulo) and the creation of APA (Área de Proteção Ambiental) Capivari-Monos to refrain the disastrous occupation while propitiating a preservative action to protect the important fountainhead area of São Paulo as well as the crater itself.

  12. Statistical Downscaling in Multi-dimensional Wave Climate Forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camus, P.; Méndez, F. J.; Medina, R.; Losada, I. J.; Cofiño, A. S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Wave climate at a particular site is defined by the statistical distribution of sea state parameters, such as significant wave height, mean wave period, mean wave direction, wind velocity, wind direction and storm surge. Nowadays, long-term time series of these parameters are available from reanalysis databases obtained by numerical models. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) technique is applied to characterize multi-dimensional wave climate, obtaining the relevant "wave types" spanning the historical variability. This technique summarizes multi-dimension of wave climate in terms of a set of clusters projected in low-dimensional lattice with a spatial organization, providing Probability Density Functions (PDFs) on the lattice. On the other hand, wind and storm surge depend on instantaneous local large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) fields while waves depend on the recent history of these fields (say, 1 to 5 days). Thus, these variables are associated with large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. In this work, a nearest-neighbors analog method is used to predict monthly multi-dimensional wave climate. This method establishes relationships between the large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns from numerical models (SLP fields as predictors) with local wave databases of observations (monthly wave climate SOM PDFs as predictand) to set up statistical models. A wave reanalysis database, developed by Puertos del Estado (Ministerio de Fomento), is considered as historical time series of local variables. The simultaneous SLP fields calculated by NCEP atmospheric reanalysis are used as predictors. Several applications with different size of sea level pressure grid and with different temporal domain resolution are compared to obtain the optimal statistical model that better represents the monthly wave climate at a particular site. In this work we examine the potential skill of this downscaling approach considering perfect-model conditions, but we will also analyze the suitability of this methodology to be used for seasonal forecast and for long-term climate change scenario projection of wave climate.

  13. On Ensino de Astronomia: Desafios para Implantação

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    Em 2002 o ensino de Astronomia foi proposto como um dos temas estruturadores pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e sugerido como facilitador para que o aluno compreendesse a Física como construção humana e parte do seu mundo vivencial, mas raramente seus conceitos foram ensinados. A presente pesquisa discute dois aspectos relacionados à abordagem de Astronomia. O primeiro aspecto é se ela está sendo abordada pelos professores do Ensino Médio e o segundo, aborda a maneira como ela está sendo ensinada. Optou-se pela aplicação de um questionário a partir do 2° semestre de 2006 e durante o ano de 2007 com professores que ministram a disciplina de Física, os quais trabalham em escolas estaduais em Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá no estado São Paulo. Dos 66,2% dos professores que responderam ao questionário nos municípios de Rio Grande da Serra, Ribeirão Pires e Mauá, 57,4% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 70,2% não utilizaram laboratório, 89,4% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 83,0% nunca fizeram visitas com alunos a museus e planetários e 38,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de livro ou revista referente à astronomia aos seus alunos. Mesmo considerando a Astronomia um conteúdo potencialmente significativo, esta não fez parte dos planejamentos escolares. Portanto são necessárias propostas que visem estratégias para a educação continuada dos professores como, por exemplo, cursos específicos sobre o ensino em Astronomia.

  14. PHENIX Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Ma, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-12-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China, (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Republic of Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  15. Double-difference Relocation of the Aftershocks of the Tecomán, Colima, Mexico Earthquake of 22 January 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Vanessa; Stock, Joann; Ramírez Vázquez, Carlos Ariel; Reyes-Dávila, Gabriel

    2011-08-01

    On 22 January 2003, the M w = 7.6 Tecomán earthquake struck offshore of the state of Colima, Mexico, near the diffuse triple junction between the Cocos, Rivera, and North American plates. Three-hundred and fifty aftershocks of the Tecomán earthquake with magnitudes between 2.6 and 5.8, each recorded by at least 7 stations, are relocated using the double difference method. Initial locations are determined using P and S readings from the Red Sismológica Telemétrica del Estado de Colima (RESCO) and a 1-D velocity model. Because only eight RESCO stations were operating immediately following the Tecomán earthquake, uncertainties in the initial locations and depths are fairly large, with average uncertainties of 8.0 km in depth and 1.4 km in the north-south and east-west directions. Events occurring between 24 January and 31 January were located using not only RESCO phase readings but also additional P and S readings from 11 temporary stations. Average uncertainties decrease to 0.8 km in depth, 0.3 km in the east-west direction, and 0.7 km in the north-south direction for events occurring while the temporary stations were deployed. While some preliminary studies of the early aftershocks suggested that they were dominated by shallow events above the plate interface, our results place the majority of aftershocks along the plate interface, for a slab dipping between approximately 20° and 30°. This is consistent with the slab positions inferred from geodetic studies. We do see some upper plate aftershocks that may correspond to forearc fault zones, and faults inland in the upper plate, particularly among events occurring more than 3 months after the mainshock.

  16. PHENIX Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bhom, J. H.; Bickley, A. A.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Boissevain, J. G.; Bok, J.; Bok, J. S.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Caringi, A.; Castera, P.; Chang, B. S.; Chang, W. C.; Charvet, J.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Chernichenko, S.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiba, J.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cleven, C. R.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deaton, M. B.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; D'Orazio, L.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grim, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Hadj Henni, A.; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harada, H.; Harper, C.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kanou, H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, A.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klatsky, J.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Kofarago, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Layton, D.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lichtenwalner, P.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Maai, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Mašek, L.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, A. J.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nam, S.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Norman, B. E.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Omiwade, O. O.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakashita, K.; Sakata, H.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenov, V.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Skutnik, S.; Slunečka, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Tabaru, T.; Takagi, S.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, T. L.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tojo, J.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Tomita, Y.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tram, V.-N.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wagner, M.; Walker, D.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Yasin, Z.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zaudtke, O.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zimányi, J.; Zolin, L.

    2014-11-01

    We thank the staff of the Collider-Accelerator and Physics Departments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the staff of the other PHENIX participating institutions for their vital contributions. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the Office of Science of the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, a sponsored research grant from Renaissance Technologies LLC, Abilene Christian University Research Council, Research Foundation of SUNY, and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, Vanderbilt University (USA), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and Fundaç ao de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Brazil), Natural Science Foundation of China (People's Republic of China), Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports (Croatia), Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, and Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (France), Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst, and Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Germany), OTKA NK 101 428 grant and the Ch. Simonyi Fund (Hungary), Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology (India), Israel Science Foundation (Israel), National Research Foundation and WCU program of the Ministry Education Science and Technology (Korea), Physics Department, Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), Ministry of Education and Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Federal Agency of Atomic Energy (Russia), VR and Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), the US Civilian Research and Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union, and the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation.

  17. Esquizofrenia y trastorno en el consumo de sustancias: prevalencia y characterísticas sociodemográficas en la población Latina

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Castro, Lorena; Raventós-Vorst, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-01-01

    El interés por comprender la co-morbilidad de la esquizofrenia y el trastorno en el uso de sustancias, ha aumentado debido al incremento de este diagnóstico, a los efectos negativos observados en el sujeto y a los costos en los servicios de salud. Este trastorno dual puede tener efectos dramáticos en el curso clínico del trastorno psicótico tales como: mayores recaídas, re-hospitalizaciones, síntomas más severos, no adherencia al tratamiento antipsicótico, cambios marcados del humor, aumento en el grado de hostilidad e ideación suicida, así como alteraciones en otras áreas del funcionamiento incluyendo violencia, victimización, indigencia y problemas legales. La literatura proveniente en particular de Estados Unidos y Europa sugiere que el rango de prevalencia para este diagnóstico puede oscilar entre el 10% hasta el 70%. En este estudio, revisamos la prevalencia del diagnóstico dual de esquizofrenia y trastorno en el uso sustancias, así como sus características sociodemográficas, con base en la literatura disponible alrededor del mundo dando énfasis en la poblacion latina. A pesar de que este diagnóstico es ampliamente aceptado, se conoce poco sobre su prevalencia en la población latina, sobre los factores ambientales, demográficos, clínicos y otras características de estos individuos. Un mejor conocimiento sobre este diagnóstico permitiría mejorar los métodos para la detección y adecuada valoración del trastorno en el uso de sustancias en personas con trastornos metales severos como la esquizofrenia. PMID:21404151

  18. [Reproductive phenology of three vegetation types from a coastal plain of Paraguana Penninsula, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Lemus-Jiménez, Luis José; Ramírez, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive phenology of 51 plant species was evaluated according to life form and vegetation types in a coastal plain of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. Plant species distribution according to three vegetation types (herbaceous littoral, herbaceous psamophil, and mangrove area) was determined. Life form frequency was different according to vegetation type. Herbaceous littoral and herbaceous psamophil vegetation were dominated by herbaceous species; woody species were mostly frequent in the mangrove vegetation. Phenological data revealed that 14 (27.5%) plant species flower and fruit year-round; 23 (45.1%) plant species flower and fruit at the beginning of the wet season; seven (13.7%) plant species flower at the end of wet season, and seven (13.7%) more flower at the beginning of the dry season. Flowsring and fruiting phenology showed similar frequency distribution during the year; reproductive phenology was independent of life forms. Flowering and fruiting peaks occurred during the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season for trees and perennial herbs, and from one to three months later for shrubs and annual herbs. The lowest proportion of flowering and fruiting occurred before rain increase for all life forms. Flowering and fruiting phenologies were similar for the three vegetation types evaluated: flowering peak occurred during the lowest value of precipitation, three to four months after precipitation peak, and fruiting peak occurred four months later from the precipitation peak. These results suggest that flowering and fruiting phenology were not affected by life form and vegetation types. The peaks of flowering and fruiting during the lowest values of precipitation may be considered as a slow and late response to the precipitation maximum, and to the proximity between maximum and minimum of precipitation. PMID:12945492

  19. Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchán Bonete, M.

    Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el campo, y se reflejan en libros publicados recientemente. En la conferencia se analizarán ciertos pormenores de las investigaciones realizadas. El tipo de aplicaciones llevadas a cabo hasta la fecha se ilustrará mediante el estudio teórico del espectro electrónico de ciclooctatetraeno. Dando un paso más en la evolución de nuestra investigación, pretendemos en la actualidad describir, desde un formalismo teórico y al mismo nivel de exigencia, los mecanismos subyacentes que tienen lugar en las reacciones biológicas fototoinducidas, es decir, reacciones que se inician mediante la absorción de luz[3]. Como muestra de la caracterización de los procesos fotofísicos y fotoquímicos en fotobiología teórica, hemos elegido la descripción de la conversión interna ultrarrápida que tiene lugar en los cromóforos del ADN. Los estados excitados de las moléculas de los ácidos nucleicos presentan tiempos de vida media que se encuentran en el rango de sub-picosegundos, sugiriendo la presencia de un canal ultrarrápido de conversión interna, lo que normalmente se asocia en la fotoquímica contemporánea a una intersección cónica entre el estado excitado y el fundamental[4]. De esta forma nuestro ADN previene de forma eficaz posibles reacciones en el estado excitado y se revela como un excelente protector solar.

  20. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse empêcher le portage pharyngé devrait être déterminé. Pour résoudre ce problème, le consortium MenAfriCar (Consortium Africain du Portage Méningococcique) a été établi en 2009 pour étudier le mode de portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite avant et après l’ introduction de PsA-TT. Cet article décrit comment le consortium a été établi, ses objectifs et les méthodes de laboratoire et de terrain standardisées qui ont été utilisées pour atteindre ces objectifs. L’ expérience du consortium MenAfriCar aidera à planifier les futures études sur l’ épidémiologie du portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite et d’ ailleurs. Se está utilizando una vacuna meningocócica conjugada (MenAfriVac™) de polisacárido del serogrupo A / tétano toxoide (PsA-TT) en países del cinturón Africano de meningitis. Las experiencias obtenidas con otras vacunas conjugadas polisacárido/proteína han demostrado que una parte importante de su éxito se debe a su habilidad para prevenir la colonización faríngea de los portadores, acabando por lo tanto con la transmisión, y a la de inducir la protección de rebaño. Si PsA-TT ha de cumplir el objetivo de prevenir epidemias, debe ser capaz de prevenir el estado de portador faríngeo, al igual que la enfermedad invasiva por meningococo, y para ello es necesario determinar si la PsA-TT puede prevenir la colonización faríngea. Con el fin de abordar esta cuestión se estableció un consorcio africano en el 2009 - el MenAfriCar (African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium) – para investigar los patrones del estado de portador de meningococo en países del cinturón Africano de la meningitis, antes y después de la introducción de PsA-TT. Este artículo describe como se estableció el consorcio, sus objetivos y los métodos estandarizados de campo y de laboratorio que se utilizaron para alcanzarlos. La experiencia del consorcio MenAfriCar ayudará en la planificación de estudios futuros sobre la epidemiología del estado de portador de meningococo, tanto en países del cinturón Africano de la meningitis como en otros lugares del mundo. PMID:23682910

  1. Depth Seismic-Migration Modeling Offshore `Tierra Del Fuego', Argentina (54° 25' S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comínguez, A. H.; Flores, J.; Tassone, A.

    2007-05-01

    Within the framework of the TESAC Project (Tectonic Evolution of the South America-Scotia plate boundary during the Cenozoic), about 900 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles were acquired off the Atlantic coast of the Tierra del Fuego Island. The profiles cut across the South America-Scotia plate boundary, a transform margin which traverses in an E-W direction the Island. Data processing and interpretation of a seismic reflection profile is presented in this contribution. A robust post-stack technique involved depth-migration of the seismic section, using an interval-velocity model of the upper Crust adjusted by iterative processing. An interpreted seismic- velocity section (which trends roughly NW-SE), shows a complex superposition of different tectonic structures, with presence of extensional, compressional and transtensional features in the area located to the north of Isla de los Estados. The profile, which crosses the offshore part of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt, images the deep structural framework of part of this tectonic province. The identification of acoustic fabrics and seismic discontinuities allowed us to recognize four main units. Overlaying the acoustic basement (Seismic unit 1), there is another unit (Seismic unit 2) which exhibits some reflector packages of high amplitude; this unit must be related to the volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences of Tobífera/Lemaire Fms. The Seismic Unit 3 displays internal reflector configurations of moderate amplitude and continuity and low-to-moderate frequency; the Yaghán/Beauvoir Fms must be the onshore equivalent of this unit. An uppermost seismic layer (Unit 4) may be correlated with the Tertiary sediments of the Magallanes foreland basin which were involved in the fold and thrust belt. A major structure identified in the studied seismic profile is a SE structural high (which involves the units 1, 2 and 3) and a NW down-faulted area. The latter display folds of kilometric size (3-4 km). Steeply dipping (mainly to the south) reverse faults cut through the folds. Some of these faults represent old extensional faults of the Middle- Mesozoic Rocas Verdes marginal basin rifting, which have been subsequently inverted by compressional stress fields. In addition, a noticeable flower fault system is recognized in the seismic profile, which involves both the sedimentary cover and the acoustic basement. This fault is interpreted as the result of shear stresses produced along the transcurrent South America-Scotia plate boundary.

  2. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [Spanish] Este estudio documenta diferencias en el comportamiento de cortejo de cepas silvestres de Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) provenientes de Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (Estados Unidos de Norte America), Costa Rica y Patagonia (Argentina). Algunas caracteristicas mostraron grandes variaciones y traslape substancial. Los angulos a los cuales los machos miraron hacia las hembras cambiaron muy poco en el momento de la transicion de la vibracion continua al zumbido intermitente durante el curso del cortejo en todo las cepas, pero los machos de Madeira tendieron a enfrentar mas directamente a la hembra que otros machos. Los angulos de las hembras disminuyeron claramente durante el cortejo en todas las cepas. La distancia entre el macho y la hembra tendio a disminuir conforme el cortejo continuaba en todas las cepas, pero las distancias a las cuales los machos iniciaron la vibracion continua, el zumbido intermitente, y el salto sobre la hembra eran relativamente menos variables entre cepas excepto la cepa de Costa Rica. Moscas de Madeira cortejaron mas tiempo y el macho moviosu cabeza y zumbaba sus alas mas prolongadamente que las otras cepas. (author)

  3. Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students

    PubMed Central

    Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups. Los propósitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y prácticas de jóvenes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales están incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y varían considerablemente entre grupos étnicos. Un diseño transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificación Cultural, y un cuestionario demográfico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente más alto que los no Latinos en ambas medidas de perspectivas espirituales. Medidas de comportamiento auto-reportadas, como la frecuencia de oración, también estuvieron más altas en el grupo Latino. La identificación con la cultura Latina fue el único vaticinador de las calificaciones de la EPEL. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la espiritualidad entre Latinos tiene significados específicos al contexto del grupo cultural. Estas conclusiones tienen implicaciones para las investigaciones de enfermería que involucran la conceptualización y medida de la espiritualidad entre grupos multiétnicos. PMID:20165566

  4. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  5. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  6. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  7. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Delgado Floody, Pedro; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Osorio Poblete, Aldo; Jerez Mayorga, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la obesidad mórbida disminuye considerablemente la esperanza y la calidad de vida.Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los efectos del ejercicio físico con apoyo multidisciplinar sobre el estado nutricional, la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria y la presión arterial de obesos mórbidos candidatos a cirugía a bariátrica.Material y métodos: doce mujeres y un hombre entre 18 y 60 años candidatos a cirugía bariátrica, 10 con obesidad mórbida y 3 con obesidad y comorbilidades, fueron sometidos a un programa de ejercicio físico con educación nutricional y apoyo psicológico durante 5 meses. Peso corporal, índice de masa corporal (IMC), contorno de cintura (CC), capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica fueron evaluados antes y posterior a la intervención.Resultados: el promedio de edad de los participantes de la investigación fue de 49,92 años, el de altura fue 1,62 m. Todas las variables de estudio mejoraron significativamente (p < 0,05): peso (p = 0,000), IMC (p = 0,000), CC (p = 0,005), capacidad cardiorrespiratoria (p = 0,009), presión sistólica (p = 0,006) y presión arterial diastólica (p = 0,010). La capacidad cardiorrespiratoria aumentó un 9,17%, la presión arterial diastólica y sistólica disminuyeron 5,16% y 7,68% respectivamente. El IMC disminuyó un 8,39% y el CC un 6,63%. Conclusiones: el programa mejoró los niveles de presión arterial sistólica y diastólica y la capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, esto se vio complementado por la pérdida de peso significativa en los participantes de esta investigación. El ejercicio físico con apoyo multidisciplinar demuestra beneficios para el tratamiento preoperatorio produciendo adaptaciones favorables en los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. PMID:27019243

  8. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron inspeccionadas dos veces a la semana y el numero de adultos, larvas, y posturas fueron registrados. Resultados indicaron un casi completo rechazo de la berenjena por G. boliviana. Ningun dano visible de defoliacion en la berenjena fue detectado. Las pruebas concluyeron cuando las plantas de berenjena alcazaron su madurez o fueron severamente danadas por mosca blanca y acaros. Resultados corroboran previas pruebas de especificidad en laboratorio/cuarentena que indican que la berenjena no es un hospedero de G. boliviana y que la posibilidad de llegar a ser una plaga de este cultivo es muy remota. Gratiana boliviana fue aprobado para ser liberado en el campo en mayo del 2003. Ningun dano ha sido observado hasta la fecha a plantas no blanco. (author)

  9. Assessment of nutritional status in the healthcare setting in Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos del Portillo, Rocío; Palma MiIla, Samara; García Váquez, Natalia; Plaza López, Bricia; Bermejo López, Laura; Riobó Serván, Pilar; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo; Gómez-Candela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of undernourished patients in the healthcare setting, and their nutritional treatment, are essential if the harmful effects of poor nourishment are to be avoided and care costs kept down. The aim of assessing nutritional status is to determine the general health of a patient from a nutritional viewpoint. All hospitalised patients should undergo nutritional screening within 24-48 h of admission, as should any patient who shows signs of being malnourished when visiting any healthcare centre. The infrastructure and resources available, the possibilities of automisation, and the healthcare setting in which such assessment must be performed, etc., determine which method can be used. The European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) recommends the use of the Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) method for hospitalised patients, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) in the community healthcare setting, and the first part of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for elderly patients. In centres where screening can be computerised, the CONUT® or INFORNUT® methods can be used. A nutritional diagnosis is arrived at using the patient's medical history, a physical examination (including anthropometric assessment), biochemical analysis, and functional tests. No single variable allows a diagnosis to be made. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) and MNA tests are useful in nutritional assessment, but they are not universally regarded as the gold standard. At our hospital, and at many other centres in the Spanish health system, the Nutritional Status Assessment (NSA) method (in Spanish Valoración del Estado Nutricional) is used, which involves the SGA method, the taking of anthropometric measurements, and biochemical analysis. After making a nutritional diagnosis, which should be included in the patient's medical history adhering to International Classification of Diseases code 9 (ICD- 9), and prescribing a nutritional treatment, the patient should be followed up. No single marker can be used to monitor progress; interpretations will once again require examination of the patient's medical history, the taking of anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests. Depending on whether a patient is ambulatory or hospitalised, the follow-up assessment times and variables measured will differ. PMID:25719787

  10. Simulação de ejeções de massa coronal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M. A.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    Ejeções de massa coronal (EMC) são bolhas gigantes de gás permeadas por campos magnéticos que são ejetadas do Sol durante um período de várias horas. Caso estas ejeções atinjam a Terra, geralmente, causam uma série de distúrbios às comunicações de longa distância e navegação, além de danos a satélites e transformadores. Portanto, é desejável que sejamos capazes de prever quando estas ejeções atingirão a Terra. Para tanto, é necessário um bom entendimento dos mecanismos causadores das ejeções e, principalmente, de como se dá a propagação das EMC e sua interação com o vento solar que permeia o meio interplanetário. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvido um programa computacional para resolver as equações MHD (Magneto-Hidro-Dinâmica) que regem a evolução das EMC. Primeiramente foram estabelecidas as condições necessárias para descrever o vento solar, no estado estacionário, que permeia todo o meio interplanetário. Num primeiro momento, resolveu-se o sistema de equações para o caso do vento isotérmico, conhecida como a solução de Parker, a fim de testarmos o modelo. Então, foi considerado o caso do vento solar com temperatura variável no meio interplanetário. Este resultado foi utilizado como a base de nosso sistema em seu instante inicial. Posteriormente foram feitas as considerações necessárias para descrever a propagação da Ejeção de Massa Coronal. As EMC foram simuladas como um aumento de densidade e temperatura local na coroa solar. A órbita e a posição da Terra foram incluídas no sistema. Os dados gerados possibilitaram uma análise da evolução da EMC pelo meio interplanetário até encontrar-se com a Terra. Os perfis de densidade e temperatura a 1 Unidade Astronômica são comparados com os dados de satélites reportados na literatura.

  11. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e é tal situação que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  12. Coffee Beverage Quality Assessment Based on ETA/CPTEC-HadCM3 Model (A1B-IPCC/SRES Scenario), Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarolla, A.; Resende, N.; Chou, S. C.; Tavares, P. S.; Rodrigues, D. C.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors influence the coffee beverage quality and air temperature has a significant importance in this process. The grain maturation occurs very quickly in regions that present high temperatures and sometimes there is not enough time to complete all this phase adequately. In the other hand, with mild temperatures, the grain maturation occurs more slowly and it promotes a better quality beverage. The aim of this study was to assess the coffee beverage quality in the southeastern Brazil, based on climate projections using the Eta-CPTEC regional model driven by four members of an ensemble of the Met Office Hadley Centre Global Coupled climate model (HadCM3). The global model ensemble was run over the 21st century according to IPCC SRES, A1B emissions scenario. Each ensemble member presented different climate sensitivity in the analysis. The Eta-CPTEC-HadCM3 model was configured with a 40-km grid size and was run over the period of 1961-90 to represent a baseline climate, and over the period of 2011-2100 to simulate possible future changes and the effects on the coffee beverage quality. A coffee beverage quality classification, which depends on the annual air temperature proposed by Bressani (2007) and also, a quality coffee beverage sensory classification, based on Camargo and Cortez (1998) were considered in this study. An evaluation of the systematic errors (BIAS) for each member for the period from 1961 to 1990 was made. The results presented by Eta/CPTEC-HadCM3 model indicated that in the case of an occurrence of A1B emission scenario, the coffee beverage quality could be affected in this region due to the fact that the flavor may become stronger and unpleasant caused by rising air temperatures. The BIAS evaluation and subsequent errors removal demonstrated improvement in the scenarios simulations. A short review concerning agronomic techniques to mitigate extreme meteorological events or global warming on coffee crop based on Camargo (2010) also is presented in this study as complementary information. Bressani, E. Guia do Barista. Da origem do café ao espresso perfeito. Café Editora, 2007. 210 p. Camargo, M. B. P. The impact of climatic variability and climate change on arabic coffee crop in Brazil. Bragantia, Campinas, v.69, no.1, 2010. Camargo, a. P; Cortez, J. G. Efeito do clima na qualidade de bebida do café nas condições de São Paulo e áreas próximas de outros estados. In 24 Congresso Brasileiro de Pesquisas Cafeeiras. Poços de Caldas, Anais... Poços de Caldas, Embrapa Café, 1998. p. 42-44.

  13. PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2010-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade - soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  14. [Financing of the scientific publication and protection of the scientific knowledge].

    PubMed

    Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Hochman, Bernardo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of a study is its publication on a scientific journal. Research financing agencies are important institutions so that studies can be developed and published. The most important research financing agencies that are discussed in this article are: "Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior" (CAPES), "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico" (CNPq) and "Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo" (FAPESP). CAPES' activities can be grouped in four different strategy lines: a) it evaluates the stricto sensu, at the post-graduation level; b) it provides access and development of scientific research; c) it provides investment on the development of high qualified human resources in Brazil and abroad, and d) it promotes international scientific cooperation. Although CAPES does not support directly scientific publications, almost all actions of this agency contribute to the development of scientific research and publication. CNPq has two main purposes: financing researches and development of human resources. It provides the researchers with financial aid to scientific publication. The grants for editing were specifically created for supporting the national scientific and technical publications edited by Brazilians institutions or societies. CNPq can also support Congresses, Symposiums and similar short-term courses. The Plataforma Lattes is also a branch of CNPq on which the Curriculum Lattes is available. This site has the curriculum vitae of the scientific community and is of great value for researchers. FAPESP also finances journal publications, articles and books that bring up original results of studies made by researchers from the state of São Paulo. It finances, partially, the travel expenses of innovative papers authors in meetings within the country or abroad. Brazilian authors are increasing the number of international publications. Universities, research institutes, financing agencies and private companies are more and more concerned with knowledge property. Researchers must understand the need of knowledge property and the financing agencies have to consider the patents achieved as a criteria of evaluation of scientific production. PMID:16283026

  15. Spirituality and Cultural Identification Among Latino and Non-Latino College Students.

    PubMed

    Campesino, Maureen; Belyea, Michael; Schwartz, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine (a) differences in spiritual perspectives and practices of Latino and non-Latino young adults and (b) the cultural relevance of the Latino Spiritual Perspective Scale (LSPS). Studies indicate that spiritual perspectives are embedded within cultural group norms and vary significantly across ethnic groups. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 223 Latino and non-Latino university students in the Southwestern United States. The Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), the LSPS, the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were used. Latinos scored significantly higher than non-Latinos in both measures of spiritual perspectives. Self-reported behavioral measures, such as frequency of personal prayer, were also higher among the Latino group. Latino cultural identification was the only significant predictor of LSPS scores. Findings from this study indicate that spirituality among Latinos has meanings specific to the cultural group context. These findings have implications for nursing research involving the conceptualization and measurement of spirituality among multiethnic groups.Los propósitos de este estudio eran examinar: (a) diferencias en perspectivas espirituales y prácticas de jóvenes Latinos y no Latinos; y (b) la relevancia cultural de la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina. Estudios indican que perspectivas espirituales están incrustadas entre normas culturales del grupo y varían considerablemente entre grupos étnicos. Un diseño transversal y de encuesta fue utilizado con una muestra de conveniencia de 233 estudiantes universitarios Latinos y no Latinos en el Suroeste de los Estados Unidos. La Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual (EPE), la Escala de la Perspectiva Espiritual Latina (EPEL), la Escala Ortogonal de Identificación Cultural, y un cuestionario demográfico fueron utilizados. Los Latinos calificaron considerablemente más alto que los no Latinos en ambas medidas de perspectivas espirituales. Medidas de comportamiento auto-reportadas, como la frecuencia de oración, también estuvieron más altas en el grupo Latino. La identificación con la cultura Latina fue el único vaticinador de las calificaciones de la EPEL. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la espiritualidad entre Latinos tiene significados específicos al contexto del grupo cultural. Estas conclusiones tienen implicaciones para las investigaciones de enfermería que involucran la conceptualización y medida de la espiritualidad entre grupos multiétnicos. PMID:20165566

  16. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

    PubMed

    Allende, Ana; McEvoy, James L; Luo, Yaguang; Artes, Francisco; Wang, Chien Y

    2006-05-01

    The use of UV-C radiation treatments to inhibit the microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce was investigated. Initially, UV-C resistance of 20 bacterial strains from different genera often associated with fresh produce (Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Leuconostoc, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnela, Salmonella, Serratia and Yersinia) were tested in vitro. Most of the bacterial strains were inhibited with the minimum dose (30 J m(-2)). Erwinia carotovora, Leuconostoc carnosum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia aldovae were the most resistant strains requiring a UV-C dose of 85 J m(-2) to completely inhibit growth. An in vivo study consisted of treating minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with UV-C at three radiation doses (1.18, 2.37 and 7.11 kJ m(-2)) on each side of the leaves and storing the product under passive MAP conditions at 5 degrees C for up to 10 days. The gas composition inside packages varied significantly among the treatments, with CO2 concentrations positively and O2 concentrations negatively correlating with the radiation dose. All the radiation doses were effective in reducing the natural microflora of the product, although the highest doses showed the greatest microbial inhibitions. Taking into account the microbial limit set by Spanish legislation [Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 2001. Normas de higiene para la elaboración, distribución y comercio de comidas preparadas, Madrid, Spain, Real Decreto 3484/2000, pp. 1435-1441], all UV-C treatments extended the shelf-life of the product. However, the 7.11 kJ m(-2) dose induced tissue softening and browning after 7 days of storage at 5 degrees C. Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce. PMID:16943010

  17. Estimating Population Cause-Specific Mortality Fractions from in-Hospital Mortality: Validation of a New Method

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Christopher J. L; Lopez, Alan D; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Lozano, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Background Cause-of-death data for many developing countries are not available. Information on deaths in hospital by cause is available in many low- and middle-income countries but is not a representative sample of deaths in the population. We propose a method to estimate population cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) using data already collected in many middle-income and some low-income developing nations, yet rarely used: in-hospital death records. Methods and Findings For a given cause of death, a community's hospital deaths are equal to total community deaths multiplied by the proportion of deaths occurring in hospital. If we can estimate the proportion dying in hospital, we can estimate the proportion dying in the population using deaths in hospital. We propose to estimate the proportion of deaths for an age, sex, and cause group that die in hospital from the subset of the population where vital registration systems function or from another population. We evaluated our method using nearly complete vital registration (VR) data from Mexico 1998–2005, which records whether a death occurred in a hospital. In this validation test, we used 45 disease categories. We validated our method in two ways: nationally and between communities. First, we investigated how the method's accuracy changes as we decrease the amount of Mexican VR used to estimate the proportion of each age, sex, and cause group dying in hospital. Decreasing VR data used for this first step from 100% to 9% produces only a 12% maximum relative error between estimated and true CSMFs. Even if Mexico collected full VR information only in its capital city with 9% of its population, our estimation method would produce an average relative error in CSMFs across the 45 causes of just over 10%. Second, we used VR data for the capital zone (Distrito Federal and Estado de Mexico) and estimated CSMFs for the three lowest-development states. Our estimation method gave an average relative error of 20%, 23%, and 31% for Guerrero, Chiapas, and Oaxaca, respectively. Conclusions Where accurate International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-coded cause-of-death data are available for deaths in hospital and for VR covering a subset of the population, we demonstrated that population CSMFs can be estimated with low average error. In addition, we showed in the case of Mexico that this method can substantially reduce error from biased hospital data, even when applied to areas with widely different levels of development. For countries with ICD-coded deaths in hospital, this method potentially allows the use of existing data to inform health policy. PMID:18031195

  18. PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics is a forum where researchers and students from Latin America as well as leading scientists from other parts of the world get together to exchange information, strengthen collaborations and identify new challenges in Solid State Physics. This successful series of meetings has been organised in eight different countries, the last three held in Mérida, Venezuela (2002), La Habana, Cuba (2004) and Puebla, México (2006). Following the trends of previous events, SLAFES XIX included seven plenary talks, eighteen invited talks and contributions, and 28 oral and 255 poster presentations, covering mostly the latest experimental and theoretical advances in Nanophysics, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Spintronics, Magnetism, New Materials, Superconductivity, Surfaces and Interfaces, Low-Dimensional Systems, Materials Preparation and Characterization, Theory and Computing Simulations of Materials among other topics. The group of scientists participating had come from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, Switzerland and the USA We are indebted to all participants for their enthusiasm and contributions and to the members of the International Advisory Commitees. We also wish to thank to the rest of the Organizing Committee: Gustavo Lozano, Ana María Llois, Laura Steren and Edith Goldberg and very specially to Javier Schmidt, Gustavo Ruano, Marcelo Romero, Lucila Cristina and Juan Carlos Moreno for their invaluable assistance during the event. Finally we gratefully aknowledge the financial support the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina, Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT), Argentina, Secretaría de Estado de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF), Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina, Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing, The European Physical Journal (EPJ), EDP Science, Societa Italiana di Fisica and Springer. Adriana Serquis, Carlos Balseiro and Pablo Bolcatto

  19. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de los modelos no son afectados al incluir la nueva teoría de convección.

  20. About mechanisms of tetonic activity of the satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2003-04-01

    ABOUT MECHANISMS OF TECTONIC ACTIVITY OF THE SATELLITES Yu.V. Barkin Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia, barkin@sai.msu.ru Due to attraction of the central planet and others external bodies satellite is subjected by tidal and non-tidal deformations. Elastic energy is changed in dependence from mutual position and motion of celestial bodies and as result the tensional state of satellite and its tectonic (endogenous) activity also is changed. Satellites of the planets have the definite shell’s structure and due to own rotation these shells are characterized by different oblatenesses. Gravitational interaction of the satellite and its mother planet generates big additional mechanical forces (and moments) between the neighboring non-spherical shells of the satellite (mantle, core and crust). These forces and moments are cyclic functions of time, which are changed in the different time-scales. They generate corresponding cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative transnational displacements and slow rotation of the shells and others. In geological period of time it leads to a fundamental tectonic reconstruction of the body. Definite contribution to discussed phenomena are caused by classical tidal mechanism. of planet-satellite interaction. But in this report we discuss in first the new mechanisms of endogenous activity of celestial bodies. They are connected with differential gravitational attraction of non-spherical satellite shells by the external celestial bodies which leads: 1) to small relative rotation (nutations) of the shells; 2) to small relative translational motions of the shells (displacements of their center of mass); 3) to relative displacements and rotations of the shells due to eccentricity of their center of mass positions; 4) to viscous elastic deformations of the shells and oth. (Barkin, 2001). For higher evaluations of the power of satellite endogenous activities were obtained analytical formulae. Obtained theoretical evaluations of the force and power characteristics are in good agreement with observational date and in particular they explain some from the well known problems of planetology. The following phenomena obtain an explanation: 1. Higher endogenous activity of Io; 2. Europe crack systems; 3. high endogenous activity of Ganimede, Titan, Miranda, Enceladus, Ariel. Well known relations of tectonic activity between satellites: Ariel and Umbriel, Reiha and Diona, Titania and Oberon have been explained in terms of numerical values of force and energy characteristics. Conclusion about high endogenous activity of Titan also presents important interest. The work was accepted and financed by RFBR grant N 02-05-64176 and by grant SAB2000-0235 of Ministry of Education of Spain (Secretaria de Estado de Educacion y Universidades).

  1. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  2. Estudio teórico de la distribución catiónica en la capa octaédrica de silicatos laminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Laguna, A.

    Los silicatos laminares son unos minerales de gran extensión en la corteza de nuestro y otros planetas, y se ha detectado su presencia en masas de partículas de polvo interplanatario. Están formados por láminas estructuradas en una capa tetraedros de sílice y una de octaédros de oxihidroxido de aluminio. Según el número de capas y la disposición aparecen distintos minerales. Además, también pueden aparecer distintos minerales como consecuencia de la substitución isomórfica de cationes en la capas, en particular, Al(III) por Si en la capa tetraédrica y Fe(III) y/o Mg(II) por Al(III) en la octaédrica. Cuando el catión substituyente presenta un estado de oxidación más bajo que al que substituye genera carga negativa que tiene que neutralizarse con cationes que se disponen en el espacio interlaminar. En este trabajo vamos a estudiar, mediante distintos métodos computacionales, las distribuciones de dichos cationes de substitución en la capa octaédrica de silicatos laminares 2:1 (dos capas tetraédricas y en medio una octaédrica), en particular, en los minerales esmectitas e ilitas. En primer lugar, estudiaremos la distribución de dichos cationes en la capa octaédrica en un modelo de gas reticular por el método de Monte Carlo, minimizando el número de pares de cationes Al, Fe y Mg de nuestro modelo con respecto a los procedentes de resultados espectroscópicos de muestras de minerales. Posteriormente, y mediante un modelo de potenciales empíricos, estudiamos la energética de las distribuciones binarias en dichos minerales, generando unos potenciales de interacción intercambio a dos y tres cationes (extrapolables a cualquier filosilicato) que son la base para una investigación Monte Carlo-"simulated-annealing" en la que se encuentran las transiciones de fase y las estructuras ordenadas, dependiendo dichas estructuras y la temperatura de cambio de fase de la de la naturaleza y concentración de los cationes de substitución. También se han investigado dichas distribuciones mediante métodos mecano-cuánticos DFT.

  3. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  4. [The academization of primary care].

    PubMed

    Aragón-Robles, Javier; Vidal-Licona, Patricia; Mendoza-Salas, Karem

    2016-01-01

    Sr. Editor: Después de leer con interés el artículo editorial denominado "La academización del primer nivel de atención", escrito por la Dra. Liz Hamui Sutton y el Dr. José Halabe Cherem, queremos comentarle la experiencia que tenemos al respecto en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). La Secretaría de Enseñanza Clínica e Internado Médico, en el año 1997, introdujo siete unidades del primer nivel de atención para que los educandos pudieran tener la oportunidad de desarrollar sus competencias profesionales en ambientes cuidados, controlados y, además, acordes al perfil de egreso como médicos generales. Paulatinamente se han ido incorporando más, y en la actualidad se cuenta con 31 sedes pertenecientes al Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) y al Instituto de Seguridad Social y Servicios de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE). Estos campos clínicos permiten la adquisición y desarrollo de habilidades propias de la propedéutica médica, pues de manera natural se dan las interrelaciones entre estudiantes, profesores y pacientes, adquiriendo aprendizajes significativos, en la teoría y en la práctica clínica. En el año 2015 se supervisaron 15 de estas sedes. En estas visitas se aplicó una encuesta de opinión a los estudiantes y se entrevistó a los alumnos y profesores. En general, los educandos señalaron que se sienten satisfechos con su aprendizaje, que es prácticamente personalizado y de buen nivel académico. También los docentes y las autoridades señalaron sentirse contentos por contar con alumnos que, en su mayoría, eran responsables y comprometidos. PMID:27160629

  5. Mechanisms of Earth activity forsed by external celestial bodies:energy budjet and nature of cyclicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    In given report we discuss tidal and non-tidal mechanisms of forced tectonic (endogenous) activity of the Earth caused by gravitational attraction of the Moon, Sun and the planets. On the base of the classical solution of the problem of elasticity for model of the Earth with concentric mass distribution the evaluations of the tidal energy and power of Earth lunar-solar deformations, including their joint effect, were obtained. Important role of the joint energetic effect of rotational deformation of the Earth with lunar and solar tides was illustrated. Gravitational interaction of the Moon and Sun with non-spherical, non-homogeneous shells of the Earth generates big additional mechanical forces and moments of the interaction of the neighboring shells (rigid core, liquid core, mantle, lithosphere and separate plates). Acting of these forces and moments in the different time scales on the corresponding sells generates cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative translational displacements and small relative rotational oscillations of the shells. In geological period of time it leads to a fundamental tectonic reconstruction of the Earth. These additional forces and moments of the cyclic celestial-mechanical nature produce cyclic deformations of the all layers of the body and organize and control practically all natural processes. The additional force between mantle and core is cyclic and characterized by the wide basis of frequencies typical for orbital motions (of the Sun, Moon and planets), for rotational motion of the Earth, Moon and Sun and for many from observed natural processes. The problem about small relative translatory-rotary motion of the two shells separated by the thin viscous-elastic layer is studied. The differential equations of motion were obtained and have been studied in particular cases (plane motion of system; case of two axisymmetrical interacting shells and oth.) by approximate methods of small parameter and methods of averaging. Some regimes of the relative translatory-rotary motions of the shells were described in analytical form. Wide set observed geodynamical and geophysical phenomena can be illustrated as results or as reflections of the small and slow relative displacements of the shells in corresponding time-scales. Barkin's work was accepted and financed by RFBR grant 02-05-64176 and by grant SAB2000-0235 of Ministry of Education of Spain (Secretaria de Estado de Educacion y Universidades).

  6. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  7. Precessão do jato de 3C120: simulações hidrodinâmicas 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Raga, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    Observações com técnicas de interferometria com longa linha de base têm mostrado a existência de um jato relativístico com componentes superluminais na região central de 3C 120. Estas componentes são ejetadas em distintas direções no plano do céu e com diferentes velocidades aparentes. Estas características foram interpretadas em trabalhos anteriores como efeitos da precessão do jato relativístico. Neste trabalho, realizamos simulações tri-dimensionais do jato de 3C 120 utilizando os parâmetros de precessão determinados em trabalhos anteriores e variando as características iniciais do jato e meio ambiente, tais como densidade numérica e temperatura. Todas as simulações foram feitas com o código hidrodinâmico YGUAZÚ-A, assumindo-se um jato adiabático descrito por uma equação de estado relativística. Pelo fato de estarmos utilizando um código hidrodinâmico, nós assumimos que a intensidade do campo magnético e a distribuição de partículas, necessários para se calcular a emissão sincrotron, são proporcionais à pressão hidrodinâmica. Comparação entre dois cenários distintos, nos quais o material do jato é ejetado com velocidade constante (jato contínuo) e com velocidade modulada por um padrão sinusoidal no tempo (jato intermitente), é apresentada e discutida. Para jatos que apresentam fenômenos de precessão e intermitência, com amplitude de variação na velocidade de injeção maior que dez por cento da velocidade média de injeção, a hipótese balística, controlada pela intermitencia, é mais provável. Por outro lado, para jatos com precessão mas sem intermitência (ou com amplitude de variabilidade em velocidade mais baixa que no caso anterior), o efeito da precessão na morfologia do jato não é desprezível. Portanto, de um modo geral, ambos efeitos (precessão e movimentos balísticos) devem estar concorrendo para afetar a morfologia dos jatos superluminais.

  8. La salud en personas con discapacidad intelectual en España: estudio europeo POMONA-II

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Leal, Rafael; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencía Ruiz; Nadal, Margarida; Novell-Alsina, Ramón; Martorell, Almudena; González-Gordón, Rodrigo G.; Mérida-Gutiérrez, M. Reyes; Ángel, Silvia; Milagrosa-Tejonero, Luisa; Rodríguez, Alicia; García-Gutiérrez, Juan C.; Pérez-Vicente, Amado; García-Ibáñez, José; Aguilera-Inés, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Introducción Estudios internacionales demuestran que existe un patrón diferenciado de salud y una disparidad en la atención sanitaria entre personas con discapacidad intelectual (DI) y población general. Objetivo Obtener datos sobre el estado de salud de las personas con DI y compararlos con datos de población general. Pacientes y métodos Se utilizó el conjunto de indicadores de salud P15 en una muestra de 111 sujetos con DI. Los datos de salud encontrados se compararon según el tipo de residencia de los sujetos y se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2006 para comparar estos datos con los de la población general. Resultados La muestra con DI presentó 25 veces más casos de epilepsia y el doble de obesidad. Un 20% presentó dolor bucal, y existió una alta presencia de problemas sensoriales, de movilidad y psicosis. Sin embargo, encontramos una baja presencia de patologías como la diabetes, la hipertensión, la osteoartritis y la osteoporosis. También presentaron una menor participación en programas de prevención y promoción de la salud, un mayor número de ingresos hospitalarios y un uso menor de los servicios de urgencia. Conclusiones El patrón de salud de las personas con DI difiere del de la población general, y éstas realizan un uso distinto de los servicios sanitarios. Es importante el desarrollo de programas de promoción de salud y de formación profesional específicamente diseñados para la atención de personas con DI, así como la implementación de encuestas de salud que incluyan datos sobre esta población. PMID:21948011

  9. Monitoring drought occurrences using MODIS evapotranspiration data: Direct impacts on agricultural productivity in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhoff, Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major regional droughts (2005, 2010 and 2012) occurred in Southern Brazil, with similar wetting and drying patterns based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and strong correlation with agricultural productivity. Overall, the MODIS remotely sensed drought indices reveal the efficacy and effectiveness for near-real time monitor land surface drought events. Furthermore, understanding and predicting the consequences of drought events on agricultural productivity is emerging as one of the greatest challenges currently due to the increasing global demand for food. Acknowledgements: This work was made possible through the support of the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS).

  10. On Ensino de Astronomia nas Cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, R. Z.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Apesar da astronomia ser um dos temas indicados pelos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais, observa-se que poucas mudanças ocorreram desde a implementação do mesmo em sala de aula. A presente pesquisa diz respeito sobre como os tópicos de astronomia estão sendo abordados pelos professores no ensino médio. Optou-se por aplicar um questionário com os professores que ministram a disciplina de física. Os mesmos trabalham em escolas estaduais situadas nas cidades de Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra, ambas subordinadas a Diretoria de Ensino de Mauá, no Estado de São Paulo. O questionário foi aplicado durante o 2° semestre de 2006. Até o momento os resultados são preliminares. Dos 82,0% dos professores que responderam ao questionário no município de Rio Grande da Serra, 66,7% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 77,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 66,7% não utilizaram laboratório, que 77,8% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetários e que 66,7% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia aos seus alunos. No município de Ribeirão Pires, 53,3% dos professores responderam ao questionário, destes 75,0% não aplicaram nenhum tópico de astronomia, 93,8% não utilizaram qualquer tipo de programa computacional, 75,0% não utilizaram laboratório, 81,3% nunca levaram os alunos a museus e ou planetário e 56,3% não indicaram qualquer tipo de revista ou livro sobre astronomia ao seus alunos. Apesar da maioria dos professores reconhecerem que o conteúdo de astronomia influi na formação do jovem, os mesmos não incluem o tema em seus planejamentos escolares.

  11. Storminess at the Gulf of Biscay: classification and long term trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla, D.; Garcia Codron, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    Widespread geomorphological evidences along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, such as beach retreat or falling cliffs, show the remarkable activity of the Atlantic storm during the last decades. In the present communication we analyze some characteristics of those events and their temporal evolution over the area. Oceanographic information (significant wave height, wave direction and period) was retrieved from observed (buoys network from Puertos del Estado -PdE-) and hindcast (KNMI/ERA 40) databases. To explore the atmospheric mechanisms responsible, we combined local reports from coastal observatories, a regional Eulerian approach (a synoptic typing) and a larger-scale Lagrangian method, based on the analysis of storm-tracks. Surface meteorological variables (sea level pressure and wind speed and direction) were extracted from ISWHO (Integrated Surface Hourly Observations) CD Rom collection. Sea level pressure, surface 10m U and V wind components gridded data were obtained from ECMWF ERA40 Reanalysis. Storm tracks and cyclone statistics were obtained from the CDC Map Room Climate Products Storm Track Data (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/clim/st_data.html). In other to accomplish the objectives of this contribution, first we validated the hindcast data with actual observations from buoys. Secondly, we identified the storm episodes, considering them as a period longer than 12 hours in which the wave height was higher than 6 m, and separated by at least 48. Long winds fetch and locally strong westerly and northwesterly winds expose the northern coast of Iberia to episodes of intense storminess, mainly during the winter months. Extratropical disturbances tracking between the 50-60°N parallel are the main driving force behind those episodes, many of them as a result of a cyclogenesis processes along the eastern coast of North America. In some cases, the deep cyclonic storms are product of a secondary cyclogenesis, crossing the area southward of the 50°N parallel; significant wave heights can be as high as the northernmost cyclones, but the wave period is slightly lower. Only in the western sector (Galicia and Asturias) storms following a SW-NE path induced episodes of high waves.

  12. The Morelia-Acambay Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez Bucio, M.; Soria-Caballero, D.; Garduño-Monroy, V.; Mennella, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the most actives and representative zones of Mexico geologically speaking. Research carried out in this area gives stratigraphic, seismologic and historical evidence of its recent activity during the quaternary (Martinez and Nieto, 1990). Specifically the Morelia-Acambay faults system (MAFS) consist in a series of normal faults of dominant direction E - W, ENE - WSW y NE - SW which is cut in center west of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fault system appeared during the early Miocene although the north-south oriented structures are older and have been related to the activity of the tectonism inherited from the "Basin and Range" system, but that were reactivated by the east- west faults. It is believed that the activity of these faults has contributed to the creation and evolution of the longed lacustrine depressions such as: Chapala, Zacapu, Cuitzeo, Maravatio y Acambay also the location of monogenetic volcanoes that conformed the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF) and tend to align in the direction of the SFMA dominant effort. In a historical time different segments of the MAFS have been the epicenter of earthquakes from moderated to strong magnitude like the events of 1858 in Patzcuaro, Acambay in 1912, 1979 in Maravatio and 2007 in Morelia, among others. Several detailed analysis and semi-detailed analysis through a GIS platform based in the vectorial archives and thematic charts 1:50 000 scaled from the data base of the INEGI which has allowed to remark the influence of the MAFS segments about the morphology of the landscape and the identification of other structures related to the movement of the existent faults like fractures, alignments, collapses and others from the zone comprehended by the northwest of Morelia in Michoacán to the East of Acambay, Estado de México. Such analysis suggests that the fault segments possess a normal displacement plus a left component. In addition it can be associated to an alignment or different structures oblique directed to the principal fault trace which sometimes shows inverted moves suggest that the MAFS is a system with ''en echelon'' geometry which respond to transtensive tectonic activity. Recent research based in cinematic indicators from some of the most important faults of the MAFS concludes with evidence of the existence of a transtensive deformation in the center section of the TMVB, which can be explained through the oblique convergence model of plates Northamerica, Rivera and Cocos added to the division of the subduction angle at the North of the Mesoamerican trench.

  13. Onshore and offshore wind resource evaluation in the northeastern area of the Iberian Peninsula: quality assurance of the surface wind observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, A.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Jiménez, P. A.; Navarro, J.; García-Bustamante, E.; Lucio-Eceiza, E. E.; Montávez, J. P.; García, A. Y.; Prieto, L.

    2012-04-01

    Offshore wind energy is becoming increasingly important as a reliable source of electricity generation. The areas located in the vicinity of the Cantabrian and Mediterranean coasts are areas of interest in this regard. This study targets an assessment of the wind resource focused on the two coastal regions and the strip of land between them, thereby including most of the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and containing the Ebro basin. The analysis of the wind resource in inland areas is crucial as the wind channeling through the existing mountains has a direct impact on the sea circulations near the coast. The thermal circulations generated by the topography near the coast also influence the offshore wind resource. This work summarizes the results of the first steps of a Quality Assurance (QA) procedure applied to the surface wind database available over the area of interest. The dataset consists of 752 stations compiled from different sources: 14 buoys distributed over the IP coast provided by Puertos del Estado (1990-2010); and 738 land sites over the area of interest provided by 8 different Spanish institutions (1933-2010) and the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR; 1978-2010). It is worth noting that the variety of institutional observational protocols lead to different temporal resolutions and peculiarities that somewhat complicate the QA. The QA applied to the dataset is structured in three steps that involve the detection and suppression of: 1) manipulation errors (i.e. repetitions); 2) unrealistic values and ranges in wind module and direction; 3) abnormally low (e.g. long constant periods) and high variations (e.g. extreme values and inhomogeneities) to ensure the temporal consistency of the time series. A quality controlled observational network of wind variables with such spatial density and temporal length is not frequent and specifically for the IP is not documented in the literature. The final observed dataset will allow for a comprehensive understanding of the wind field climatology and variability and its association with the large scale atmospheric circulation as well as their dependence on local/regional features like topography, land-sea contrast, etc. In future steps, a high spatial resolution simulation will be accomplished with the WRF mesoescale model in order to improve the knowledge of the wind field in the area of interest. Such simulation will be validated by comparison with the observational dataset. In addition, studies to analyze the sensitivity of the model to different factors such as the parameterizations of the most significant physical processes that the model does not solve explicitly, the boundary conditions that feed the model, etc. will be carried out.

  14. PREFACE: X Workshop of the Gravitation and Mathematical Physics Division, Mexican Physical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The collection of papers in this volume was presented during the X Workshop of the Gravitation and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society (DGFM-SMF), which was held in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, December 2-6, 2013. The Workshop is a bi-annual series of conferences sponsored by the DGFM-SMF that started in 1993 with the purposes of discussing and exchanging the research and experience of the gravitational and mathematical physics communities in Mexico. Each Mexican Workshop has been devoted to subjects of broad interest, so that students, in particular, can have access to specialized courses and talks that allow them to raise up their qualifications as professional researchers. Recurrent topics in the Mexican Workshop are supergravity, branes, black holes, the early Universe, observational cosmology, quantum gravity and cosmology and numerical relativity. Following our previous Workshops, distinguished researchers in the field, working in Mexico, were invited to give courses, whereas young researchers were invited for plenary lectures. More specialized talks were also presented in parallel sessions, with ample participation of researchers, and graduate and undergraduate students; most of the presentations have been included in these proceedings. The contributions in this volume have been peer-reviewed, and they represent most of the courses, plenary talks and contributed talks presented during our Workshop. We are indebted to the contributors of these proceedings, as well as to the other participants and organizers, all for making the event a complete success. We acknowledge the professionalism of our reviewers, who helped us to keep high quality standards in all manuscripts. Acknowledgments The organizing committee would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Mexican National Science and Technology Council (CONACyT), the Mexican Physical Society (SMF), as well as several Institutions including: Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa (UAM-I), Universidad de Guanajuato (UG), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). We especially acknowledge the support and the kind hospitality of our host, the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Ricardo Becerril Bárcenas, Héctor H. Hernández Hernández, Miguel Sabido, Carlos A. Soto, Luis Alberto López, Omar Pedraza, Victoria E. Cerón. Editors

  15. CGPS Implementation and Lidar/Laser Altimeter Experiences at l'Estartit, Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J.; Schutz, B.; Urban, T.; Ortiz Castellon, M.; Martinez-Garcia, M.; Ruiz, A.; Perez, B.; Rodriguez-Velasco, G.

    2008-12-01

    In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge and with a continuous GPS station nearby. The radar tide gauge is a Datamar 3000C device and a Thales Navigation Internet-Enabled GPS Continuous Geodetic Reference Station (iCGRS) with a choke ring antenna. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours) installed the tide gauge station at Ibiza harbour in January 2003. The station belongs to the REDMAR network, composed at this moment by 21 stations distributed along the whole Spanish waters, including also the Canary islands. The tide gauge also belongs to the ESEAS (European Sea Level) network. At the Barcelona harbour they have installed a radar tide gauge near a GPS station belonging to Puerto de Barcelona. L'Estartit floating tide gauge was set up in 1990. Data are taken in graphics registers from each two hours the mean value is recorded in an electronic support. L'Estartit tide gauge series provides good quality information about the changes in the sea heights at centimeter level, that is the magnitude of the common tides in the Mediterranean. Two airborne calibration campaigns carrying an Optech Lidar ALTM-3025 (ICC) were made on June 16, 2007 with a Partenavia P-68 and October 12, 2007, with a Cessna Caravan 208B flying along two ICESat target tracks including crossover near l'Estartit. The validation of this new technology LIDAR may be useful to fill coastal areas where satellite radar altimeters are not measuring due to the large footprint and the resulting gaps of about 15-30 km within the coastline. Measurements with a GPS Buoy at l'Estartit harbour were made during the June experience and a GPS reference station was installed in Aiguablava. On October 12, 2007, another LIDAR campaign was made at night at the same time of the ICESat overflying. A description of the actual geodetic CGPS infrastructures at Ibiza, l'Estartit and Barcelona is presented as their applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration.

  16. A protocol for storage and long-distance shipment of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs. 1. Effect of temperature, embryo age , and storage time on survival and quality

    SciTech Connect

    Caceres, C.; Wornoayporn, V.; Islam, S.M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-03-15

    The operational use of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), genetic sexing strains in Sterile Insect Technique applications can be maximized by developing methods for effective shipment of eggs. This would enable a central production facility to maintain the relevant mother stocks and large colonies to supply eggs to satellite centers that would mass produce only males for irradiation and release. In order to achieve this, the survival of medfly embryos of different ages was assessed after storage at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 deg. C in water for different periods of time. Survival was affected by all 3 variables, i.e., embryo age, water temperature, and length of storage. Storage of embryos at any temperature for 120 h resulted in almost no survival. Controlling the age of the embryo at the time of the temperature treatment is crucial for the success of this procedure. Embryos collected between 0 to 12 h after oviposition and pre-incubated at 25 deg. C for 12 h provide a suitable 72 h window for shipment when maintained between 10 to 15 deg. C. Under these conditions, no significant reductions in survival during all the developmental stages were observed. (author) [Spanish] El uso operacional de cepas de la mosca del mediterraneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) en las cuales es posible separar los sexos a traves de mecanismos geneticos para su utilizacion en la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), puede ser maximizado con el desarrollo de metodos efectivos para el envio y transporte de huevos. Esto permite que un laboratorio de produccion centralizada mantenga las respectivas colonias responsables por la produccion de huevos para este abastecer laboratorios satelites responsables por la produccion masiva de solamente machos para subsiguiente irradiacion y liberacion. Para ser posible esta alternativa fue evaluada la supervivencia de embriones de diferentes edades despues de su almacenamiento en agua a 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 deg. C por diferentes periodos de tiempo. La supervivencia fue afectada por las 3 variables evaluadas, la edad del embrion, la temperatura del agua y el periodo de almacenamiento. El almacenamiento de los embriones a cualquier temperatura por 120 horas dio como resultado la casi no supervivencia. Una edad controlada de los embriones a tratar es crucial para el exito de este protocolo. Embriones colectados entre 0 a 12 horas despues de la oviposicion y su previa incubacion a 25 deg. C por 12 horas brinda un margen de hasta de 72 horas de duracion del almacenamiento y transporte, siempre y cuando estos se mantengan en una temperatura de entre 10 a 15{sup o}C. En estas condiciones, fue registrada una reduccion no significante de la supervivencia de los diferentes estados de desarrollo. (author)

  17. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  18. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    This paper is a reflection about the use of History of Science in the curriculum of formal education, through the discussion concerning cultural elements of several ethnic groups in Brazil, in actions related to astronomy education. The work was developed in the framework of an extension course and the analysis undertaken here refers to a meeting that discussed didactic sequences relating to that theme, based on the Brazilian law 11.645/2008, which states the obligation to present the subject "African-brazilian and indigenous History and Culture" in the official curriculum. The extension action was developed with teachers who teach Natural Sciences, in São Paulo state, discussing issues related to the use of History of Science and the relationship with cosmogonies from Iorubá and Tupi peoples, highlighting how they can enhance the work with Astronomy(ies) in the classroom. It was observed that the participants had not yet presented these themes in their classes and also did not participate in training courses that discussed these subjects. Este artículo presenta una reflexión sobre el uso de la historia de la ciencia en el currículo de la educación formal, a través de la discusión sobre el uso de los elementos culturales de los grupos étnicos en Brasil, en acciones relacionadas con la educación en astronomía. El trabajo se desarrolló en el marco de un curso de extensión y el análisis realizado aquí se refiere a un encuentro en el cual se abordaron secuencias didácticas relacionadas con ese tema, sobre la base de la ley brasilera 11.645/2008 que dispone la obligatoriedad del tema "Historia y Cultura africana e indígena en el Brasil" en el currículo oficial. La acción de extensión se desarrolló con los profesores de ciencias naturales en el interior del estado de São Paulo, discutiendo temas relacionados con el uso de la historia de la ciencia y la relación con las cosmogonías de los pueblos Iorubá y Tupi, que muestra cómo se puede mejorar el trabajo con Astronomía(s) en la clase. Se observó que los participantes todavía no habían presentado estos temas en sus clases y tampoco habían participado en cursos de formación que abordaran estos temas. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão acerca da utilização da História da Ciência no currículo da educação formal, por meio da discussão relativa ao emprego de elementos culturais de grupos étnicos em ações voltadas à educação em Astronomia. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no âmbito de um curso de extensão e a análise aqui empreendida refere-se a um encontro que abordou sequências didáticas relativas àquele tema, com fundamento na lei 11.645/2008 e a obrigatoriedade de abordagem da temática "História e Cultura Afro-Brasileira e Indígena" no currículo oficial. A ação de extensão ocorreu junto a professores que ensinam Ciências da Natureza, no interior do estado de São Paulo, discutindo-se temas relativos ao uso de História da Ciência e o relacionamento com cosmogonias oriundas dos povos Iorubá e Tupi, evidenciando como podem enriquecer o trabalho com a(s) Astronomia(s) em sala de aula. Observou-se que os participantes ainda não haviam apresentado estes temas em suas aulas e, igualmente, não participaram de cursos de formação que contemplassem a referida temática.

  19. Physical activity and overweight among adolescents on the Texas-Mexico border

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Adriana; Reininger, Belinda M.; Flores, Maria Isabel Aguirre; Sanderson, Maureen; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences in associations between physical activity and overweight for students in two adjacent areas on the border between Mexico and the United States of America: students in the city of Matamoros, Mexico, and Mexican-American students in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) area of southern Texas. Since the extremely high prevalence of overweight among Mexican-American adolescents is well-recognized, we wanted to determine whether overweight has become a problem among Mexican adolescents. Methods Students from 6 schools (n = 669), representing 12% of the ninth-grade students in Matamoros during 2002-2003, and students from 13 high schools (n = 4 736), representing 22% of the ninth-grade students in the LRGV during 2000-2001, completed questionnaires. Polytomous logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk of being at risk of overweight (≥85th percentile to <95th percentile of body mass index (BMI) for age and sex) and the risk of being overweight (≥95th percentile of BMI-for-age and sex) versus normal weight associated with measures of physical activity. For simplicity normal weight includes underweight. Results A higher percentage of adolescents in the LRGV were at risk of overweight (17.2%) in comparison with adolescents from Matamoros (14.8%). The percentages of LRGV and Matamoros adolescents who were overweight were identical (16.9%). LRGV adolescent boys (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98) who participated in team sports were less likely to be at or above the 85th percentile of BMI-for-age and sex. Although of borderline significance, Matamoros and LRGV adolescent boys who participated in physical education classes were less likely to be at risk of overweight. Neither in Matamoros nor LRGV students were any of the various physical activity categories or levels associated with being at risk of overweight or being overweight. Conclusions Nearly one-third of the students in both Matamoros and the LRGV are at risk of overweight and are overweight. Implementation of interventions on healthful dietary choices and participation in physical education classes and sports teams are essential for reducing the extremely high prevalence of overweight among students on both sides of the Texas/Mexico border. ABSTRACT. Spanish. Objetivo: Investigar si hay diferencias en las asociaciones entre la actividad física y el sobrepeso observadas en estudiantes de dos zonas colindantes en la frontera mexicanoestadounidense: estudiantes de la ciudad de Matamoros, México, y estudiantes mexicanoestadounidenses del valle a lo largo de la desembocadura del Río Bravo (VRB) en la parte sur del estado de Texas. Dada la consabida prevalencia extremadamente alta de sobrepeso en adolescentes mexicanoestadounidenses, los autores queríamos determinar si el sobrepeso también se ha convertido en un problema entre adolescentes mexicanos. Métodos: Estudiantes de 6 escuelas (n = 653), que comprenden 11% de los estudiantes de noveno grado en Matamoros durante 2002–2003, y estudiantes de 13 bachilleratos (n = 4 736), que comprenden 22% de los estudiantes de noveno grado del VRB durante 2000–2001, contestaron cuestionarios. Se llevó a cabo una regresión logística politómica a fin de calcular el riesgo de estar en riesgo de tener sobrepeso (≥85.° percentil a <95.° percentil de índice de masa corporal (IMC) para la edad y el sexo) y el riesgo de tener sobrepeso (≥95.° percentil de índice de masa corporal (IMC) para la edad y el sexo), frente a un peso normal, que se asociaban con distintos grados de actividad física. En aras de la sencillez, en la clasificación del peso normal también se abarcó la insuficiencia de peso. Resultados: Un mayor porcentaje de adolescentes estaban en riesgo de sufrir sobrepeso en el VRB (17%) que en Matamoros (15%). Los porcentajes de adolescentes de VRB y de Matamoros que tenían sobrepeso fueron idénticos (17%). Los varones adolescentes en el VRB (razón de posibilidades [RP] = 0,87; IC95% = 0,77 a 0,98) que participaron en deportes en equipo tuvieron una menor probabilidad de estar en riesgo de tener sobrepeso. No se encontraron asociaciones entre ningunas de las demás categorías de actividad física por un lado, y estar en riesgo de sufrir sobrepeso o tener sobrepeso por el otro, ni en estudiantes de Matamoros ni en los del VRB. Conclusiones: Casi una tercera parte de los estudiantes tanto en Matamoros como en el VRB está en riesgo de tener sobrepeso o tiene sobrepeso. La puesta en práctica de intervenciones para fomentar hábitos alimentarios sanos y la participación en clases de educación física y en deportes en equipo es una medida esencial para reducir la prevalencia extremadamente alta de sobrepeso observada en estudiantes a ambos lados de la frontera entre México y Estados Unidos. PMID:16723065

  20. Groundwater capture processes under a seasonal variation in natural recharge and discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddock, Thomas, III.; Vionnet, Leticia Beatriz

    "Capture" is the increase in recharge and the decrease in discharge that occurs when pumping is imposed on an aquifer system that was in a previous state of approximate dynamic equilibrium. Regional groundwater models are usually used to calculate capture in a two-step procedure. A steady-state solution provides an initial-head configuration, a set of flows through the boundaries for the modeled region, and the initial basis for the capture calculation. The transient solutions provide the total change in flows through the boundaries. A difference between the transient and steady-state solutions renders the capture calculation. When seasonality is a modeling issue, the use of a single initial hydraulic head and a single set of boundary flows leads to miscalculations of capture. Instead, an initial condition for each season should be used. This approach may be accomplished by determining steady oscillatory solutions, which vary through the seasons but repeat from year to year. A regional groundwater model previously developed for a portion of the San Pedro River basin, Arizona, USA, is modified to illustrate the effect that different initial conditions have on transient solutions and on capture calculations. Résumé Les "prélèvements" sont constitués par l'augmentation de la recharge et par la diminution de l'écoulement qui se produit lorsqu'un pompage est imposéà un système aquifère qui était auparavant dans un état proche de l'équilibre dynamique. Les modèles régionaux de nappe sont en général utilisés pour calculer les prélèvements dans une procédure à deux étapes. Une solution en régime permanent donne la configuration piézométrique initiale, un jeu de conditions aux limites pour la région modélisée et les données de base pour le calcul des prélèvements. Les solutions transitoires donnent les modifications globales des conditions aux limites. Lorsque des variations saisonnières sont produites en sortie du modèle, le recours à une piézométrie initiale unique et à un seul jeu de données de conditions aux limites conduit à un mauvais calcul des prélèvements. Il faut alors utiliser une condition de recharge initiale pour chaque saison. Cette approche peut être réalisée en déterminant des solutions permanentes périodiques, variantes au cours des saisons, mais se répétant d'année en année. Un modèle de nappe régional, précédemment mis au point pour une partie du bassin de la rivière San Pedro (Arizona, États-Unis), a été modifié pour illustrer l'effet de conditions initiales différentes sur des solutions transitoires et sur le calcul des prélèvements. Resumen Se define como "captura" al aumento de recarga y descenso de descarga que tiene lugar cuando se impone un bombeo en un acuífero en estado de equilibrio dinámico. Se suelen utilizar modelos regionales de agua subterránea para calcular la captura en un procedimiento que consta de dos etapas. Una solución en régimen estacionario proporciona la distribución inicial de niveles piezométricos, los flujos a través de los contornos de la región modelada y el punto de partida para el cálculo de la captura. Las soluciones transitorias proporcionan los cambios en los flujos a través de los contornos. La diferencia entre las soluciones estacionaria y transitoria da el valor de la captura. Cuando los cambios estacionales son importantes, la utilización de un único estado inicial de niveles y de flujos en los contornos da lugar a errores en el cálculo de la captura. En este caso debe usarse una condición inicial para cada una de las estaciones. Esto se puede conseguir obteniendo soluciones periódicas estacionarias, que varíen a lo largo de las estaciones, pero que se repitan año a año. Un modelo regional desarrollado previamente para el estudio de una parte de la cuenca del Río San Pedro, en Arizona (EE.UU.) se modificó para ilustrar el efecto que las distintas condiciones iniciales tienen en el cálculo de la captura.

  1. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l'hydrogéologie est à la transition entre la volonté de découvrir de nouvelles ressources et l' exploitation la plus bénéfique au possible, et un management judicieux des ressources finies, interconnectées, qui sont vitales pour l' approvisionnement des hommes et autres formes de vie. Le futur de l' hydrogéologie sera dicté par la balance subtile dans laquelle intervient les cycles de l'hydrologie, de l'érosion, de la nutrition, et la décision d'une société technologique qui s'adapterait aux contraintes de la balance, ou qui continuerait d'exploiter les systèmes hydrologiques pour un bénéfice maximum. Par ailleurs il y a une nette tendance à inclure les aspects écologiques, les aspects environnementaux, et les changements humains qui pourraient être influencés par les modifications hydrogéologiques observées depuis une dizaine d'années. Este articulo es una retrospectiva sobre la evolución de la hidrogeología en Norte América en los pasados dos siglos, y una breve especulación de su futuro. La historia de la hidrogeología está marcada por desarrollos en muchos campos diferentes tal como hidrología de aguas subterráneas, mecánica de suelos, ciencia del suelo, geología económica, ingeniería del petróleo, geología estructural, geoquímica, geofísica, geología marina, y más recientemente, ecología. El campo se ha enriquecido por las contribuciones de investigadores distinguidos en todos esos campos. Actualmente, la hidrogeología se encuentra en transición de un estado de descubrir nuevos recursos y explotarlos eficientemente para un beneficio máximo, a un estado de gestión juiciosa de recursos finitos, interconectados, que son vitales para el sustento de humanos y otras cosas vivientes. El futuro de la hidrogeología posiblemente esté determinado por el balance sutil con el cual funcionan los ciclos nutricionales, erosionales e hidrológicos, y la decisión de una sociedad tecnológica para ya sea adaptarse a las restricciones impuestas por el balance o para continuar con la explotación de los sistemas hidrogeológicos para un beneficio máximo. Aunque existe actualmente una tendencia hacia la conciencia ambiental y ecológica, las actitudes humanas podrían cambiar en caso de que grandes partes del mundo poblado estén sujetas a las presiones de sequías que duran por muchas décadas.

  2. Composition of the humin fraction of Terra Preta de Índios soils by NMR and multivariate curve resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, E. H.; Hayes, M. H. B.; Song, G.; Deazevedo, E. R.; Bonagamba, T. J.

    2009-04-01

    Most of the soils in the Amazon Region are acid, with low cation-exchange capacity (CEC) values, low fertility, and low production potential. There exists a class soils in this environment that have an archeo-anthropedogenic horizon of pre-Columbian origin, called "Terra Preta de Índios" (TPI), also known as Amazonian Dark Earths. These soils are characterized by higher fertility and more stable organic matter (OM) than the surrounding soils. The high fertility of TPI, and especially their sustainability, is attributed to the high levels of OM and to their physical-chemical properties. Up to 35-45% of the organic C in TPI is in the form of pyrogenic carbon (black carbon), compared to 14% in surrounding soils lacking an archeo-anthropedogenic horizon. Pyrogenic carbon derived from the partial carbonization of ligno-cellulosic materials, is composed of hydrogen-deficient condensed aromatic structures and, as the result of chemical and biochemical transformations, has a high charge density from carboxylic groups linked mainly to the aromatic core. Humin is the most recalcitrant and least understood fraction of soil OM. By definition, humin is the fraction that is not soluble in traditional aqueous alkaline soil extractants. It represents more than 50% of the soil organic carbon (OC) in mineral soils and more than 70% of the OC of lithified sediments, and is therefore the most important pool of the soil OM. However, for a study of humin by NMR it is necessary to isolate it and to achieve a degree of fractionation/purification. In this regard, an appropriate procedure1 has been applied to two soil samples from TPI and the material obtained was studied by solid state 13C NMR. The data analyses were carried out by Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR). Results and Discussion MCR resolved the spectral matrix into three components, and these can be attributed to wood, humin, and oxidised charcoal materials The spectrum for the wood component agrees very well with that of eucalyptus wood. On the other hand, the humin spectrum shows an intense signal in the alkyl region (0-40 ppm) with a prominent signal for crystalline polymethylene at 33 ppm. These signals, in association with the carboxyl signal (173 ppm), indicate fatty acid origins for these components. Additionally, some altered aromatic structures (a broad and featureless signal centred at 130 ppm) and cellulosic material (110 and 70 ppm) were also evident. The broad signal at 54 ppm was probably from N-alkyl compounds from proteinaceous material since the corresponding O-aryl signal from the alternative methoxyl contribution was lacking. Finally, the oxidised char component was characterised by the broad and featureless signal at 128 ppm and the carboxyl at 172 ppm. The shoulder at 167 ppm gave evidence for carboxyl directly attached to the aromatic backbone. This char component also had minor contributions from aliphatic compounds, such as alkyl, N-alkyl, methoxyl, and carbohydrates. With regard to the estimated concentrations of each of these components, the coarse char samples and the residual humin (before and after DMSO/H2SO4 extraction) presented a higher content of unaltered wood (cellulose and lignin) material. The humin extracted by DMSO/H2SO4 was very rich in long chain aliphatic compounds (alkyl groups: 0-40 ppm). This lipidic fraction was also extracted by the alkali urea treatment and by soil dispersion using ultrasounic vibration. Greater amounts of oxidised char were also isolated following the ultrasonic treatment. This component remained in the residual humin, and it was also abundant in the coarse char fraction, indicating that the solvent systems adopted were unable to solubilise these materials. The extractable humin probably corresponds to fatty acids associated with the clay fraction and the un-extractable fraction was probably composed of particulate char (partially, and oxidised) and vegetable tissues. In conclusion, the extractable humin in these soils is mainly composed of hydrophobic compounds strongly associated with the mineral fraction. The DMSO/H2SO4 solvent is very efficient for solubilising these lipidic compounds. On the other hand, the disruption of the clay aggregates, by ultrasonication, allows additional oxidised char to be released and solubilised by the DMSO/acid and by the alkaline urea systems. Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful for support from Science Foundation Ireland, from Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, and from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - Brazil.

  3. PREFACE: International Conference on Control and Synchronization of Dynamical Systems (CSDS-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, Alexander N.

    2005-01-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected articles by the participants at the International Conference on Control and Synchronization of Dynamical Systems (CSDS-2005) organized by Centro de Investigaciones en Optica (CIO) in cooperation with the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), which was held in Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico on 4-7 October 2005. CSDS-2005 featured the latest research in nonlinear dynamics concentrating on the theory of control and synchronization of complex systems and its applications in different areas of science and engineering, including optics, electronics, mechanics, chemistry, medicine, economy, communication, etc. The conference brought together leading researchers, both theoreticians and experimentalists, from different fields of science and provided an excellent opportunity for sharing ideas and problems among specialists in controlling dynamical systems and synchronization. The meeting served a dual purpose: to expose the scientific community to the cutting edge of forefront research done by leaders in this area from as many as 25 countries and to attract the attention of Mexican researchers to this field of science. These proceedings are intended to be a record of this conference and to serve as a reference for future research which the conference hopes to have initiated. After the pioneering work on controlling chaos of E Ott, C Grebogi and J Yorke appeared in Physical Review Letters in 1990, the number of works on this topic grew tremendously. Our extensive bibliographic search among 110 peer reviewed journals yielded more than 1500 papers on controlling chaos and more than 2500 on synchronization of chaotic systems published during the last decade. The numbers of publications are still at their peaks that began to saturate, in 1998 and 2003, respectively. It is my pleasure to acknowledge the contribution of the program and organizing committees, the funding agencies and cooperating organizations, and the staff of CIO in organizing CSDS-2005. I am very grateful to all plenary and invited speakers for their acceptance of our invitation. Their contributions enhanced significantly the prestige of our conference. I would like to express my special thanks to Prof. Jürgen Kurths for his agreement to give a tutorial course on synchronization after the meeting. My sincere thanks are also due to Dr Fernando Mendoza-Santoyo, the General Director of CIO, and to Dr Ramón Rodriguez-Vera, the Research Director, for facilitating the use of institutional infrastructure, as well as for their interest and help in organization of the conference. I record my special thanks to Annette Torres for her invaluable secretarial work, to Bernardo Ruiz-Olvera for his help in visa processing, and to Carolina Arriola for designing the conference website and printed materials. I would also like to thank all my students for their assistance in holding the meeting. In the publication of the conference proceedings, I am grateful to our referees (V Aboites, V Afraimovich, F T Arecchi, A D'Anjou, C Grebogi, V Erofeyev, Hongjie Yu, L Kalyakin, A Karami, S K Dana, A K Das, J Kurths, A Loskutov, G Luna, R Meucci, C R Mirasso, C L Pando, P Parmananda, Qinhua Hu, R Rechtman, P K Roy, R Roy, N Rulkov, E A Sataev, A Shil'nikov, S Sinha, V M Somsikov, N N Verichev, U E Vincent, A Volkovskii, J Zebrowski) for their knowledgeable and careful comments, and to Dr Rider Jaimes-Reátegui and Dr Hugo Garcia-Lopez for helping me with the editorial process. Finally, I thank the Institute of Physics Editorial team for publishing these proceedings very rapidly and efficiently. International Program Committee V Afraimovich (Universidad de San Luis Potosi, Mexico) T F Arecchi (University of Firenze, Italy) C Grebogi (Universidad de Sao Paulo, Brazil) J Haus (University of Dayton, USA) (OSA representative) J Kurths (University of Potsdam, Germany) F Mendoza-Santoyo (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) (General Director) A N Pisarchik (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) (Chair) R Roy (University of Maryland, USA) (SIAM representative) S Sinha (Institute of Mathematical Sciences, India) Local Organizing Committee V Aboites (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) R Espinosa-Luna (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) J H García-López (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico) R Jaimes-Reátegui (Universidad de Guadalajara, Mexico) A V Kir'yanov (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) E Kourmychev (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) V J Pinto-Robledo (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) R Rodriguez-Vera (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) (Research Director) G V Vazquéz-García (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico) Funding Agencies Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnología de Estado Guanajuato, Mexico Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy International Mathematical Union, USA Centro Latinoamericano de Física, Brazil Academia Mexicana de Ciencias, Mexico Fundación México—Estados Unidos para la Ciencia, Mexico Cooperating Organizations International Society for Optical Engineering American Physical Society Optical Society of America Institute of Physics

  4. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo se plantea el correspondiente modelo de gran senal aplicado a un nuevo prototipo experimental, de mayor tension de entrada y mayores corrientes de salida. El final del Capitulo contrasta los resultados experimentales con los teoricos confirmando la utilidad del modelo de gran senal como una herramienta basica de diseno. Finalmente, en el Capitulo 5, se presentan las conclusiones y la valoracion de los diferentes estudios plateados a lo largo de la Tesis Doctoral.

  5. Scheme for development of monitoring networks for springs in Bavaria, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Steffen; Einsiedl, Florian; Wohnlich, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    The present groundwater monitoring network in Bavaria consists mostly of wells and only a small number of natural groundwater springs, all of which are analyzed for mainly the common physical and chemical constituents in groundwater. In order to develop a long-term groundwater management plan for all the groundwater resources of Bavaria, the Bavarian State Office for Water Management intends to establish a separate spring-monitoring network throughout the 11 groundwater provinces of the state. As a first step, significant physicochemical parameters that show considerable annual fluctuation (after monitoring 1-3 years) were determined at 21 springs or spring systems to create a basic data set to guide future monitoring. A selection procedure was developed around four parameters: (1) geological units, which includes the principal aquifers; (2) rate of spring discharge; (3) land utilization within a catchment; and (4) approximate size of the subterranean catchment. However, in the initial phase of the study, only the first three parameters were investigated. These parameters established a matrix for evaluating each groundwater region of Bavaria to aid in the selection of additional springs for the proposed monitoring network. Résumé. Le réseau actuel de surveillance des eaux souterraines en Bavière consiste surtout en des puits avec seulement un petit nombre de sources, tous analysés pour l'essentiel pour les composants courants physiques et chimiques des eaux souterraines. Afin de développer un plan de gestion à long terme des eaux souterraines de la Bavière, l'Office bavarois pour la gestion de l'eau cherche à mettre en place un réseau séparé de surveillance des sources dans les onze provinces hydrogéologiques du lander. Dans un premier temps, les paramètres physico-chimiques significatifs qui présentent des variations annuelles considérables, après 1 à 3 ans de surveillance, ont été déterminés à 21 sources ou groupes de sources pour constituer un jeu de données de base pour guider la future surveillance. Une procédure de sélection a été développée autour de quatre paramètres: (1) les unités géologiques, comprenant les principaux aquifères, (2) le débit des sources, (3) l'occupation du sol dans le bassin, et (4) la dimension approximative du bassin d'alimentation souterrain. Toutefois, dans la phase initiale de l'étude, seuls les trois premiers paramètres ont été étudiés. Ces paramètres constituent une matrice d'évaluation de chaque région hydrogéologique de Bavière pour aider à la sélection de sources supplémentaires destinées au réseau de surveillance proposé. Resumen. La red de muestreo actual de aguas subterráneas en Bavaria (Alemania) está formada sobre todo por pozos, mientras que apenas hay unos pocos manantiales naturales. Los análisis incluyen, principalmente, los parámetros físico-químicos habituales. Con el objeto de desarrollar un plan de gestión de las aguas subterráneas en Bavaria a largo plazo, el Consejo del Estado para la Gestión del Agua pretende establecer una red de muestreo de manantiales diferenciada en las once regiones en que se divide el estado desde el punto de vista de las aguas subterráneas. Como primer paso, se determinaron los parámetros físico-químicos significativos que mostraban una fluctuación anual considerable (tras un muestreo de 1 a 3 años), con la finalidad de crear una base de datos elemental que canalizara los muestreos futuros. Se desarrolló un procedimiento de selección con base en cuatro parámetros: (1) unidades geológicas y acuíferos principales; (2) caudal del manantial; (3) uso del suelo dentro de la cuenca; y (4) tamaño aproximado de la zona de captación subterránea. Sin embargo, sólo se investigaron los tres primeros parámetros durante la fase inicial del estudio. Con ellos, se estableció una matriz para evaluar cada zona acuífera dentro de Bavaria y ayudar en la inclusión de otros manantiales en la red de muestro propuesta.

  6. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le cas dans d'autres cas de figure. Par ailleurs, il peut être vu comme une des étapes dans le processus de détermination du comportement de l'aquifère. Il est montré que les méthodes d'évaluation des paramètres actuels ne diffèrent pas si ce n'est dans les détails des calculs informatiques. Il est montré qu'il existe une large panoplie de techniques d'inversion : codes de calcul utilisables par tout-un-chacun, accommodation de la variabilité via la géostatistique, incorporation d'informations géologiques et de différents types de données (température, occurrence, concentration en isotopes, âge, etc.), détermination de l'incertitude. Vu ces développements, la calibration automatique facilite énormément la modélisation. Par ailleurs, il est souhaitable que son utilisation devienne une pratique standardisée. Se sintetiza el estado del problema inverso en aguas subterráneas. El énfasis se ubica en la caracterización de acuíferos, donde los modeladores tienen que enfrentar la incertidumbre del modelo conceptual (principalmente variabilidad temporal y espacial), dependencia de escala, muchos tipos de parámetros desconocidos (transmisividad, recarga, condiciones limitantes, etc), no linealidad, y frecuentemente baja sensibilidad de variables de estado (típicamente presiones y concentraciones) a las propiedades del acuífero. Debido a estas dificultades, no puede separarse la calibración de los procesos de modelado, como frecuentemente se hace en otros campos. En su lugar, debe de visualizarse como un paso en el proceso de enten dimiento del comportamiento del acuífero. En realidad, se muestra que los métodos reales de estimación de parámetros no difieren uno del otro en lo esencial, aunque sí pueden diferir en los detalles computacionales. Se discute que existe amplio espacio para la mejora del problema inverso en aguas subterráneas: desarrollo de códigos amigables alusuario, acomodamiento de variabilidad a través de geoestadística, incorporación de información geológica y diferentes tipos de datos (temperatura, presencia y concentración de isótopos, edad, etc), explicación apropiada de incertidumbre, etc. A pesar de esto, aún con los códigos existentes, la calibración automática facilita enormemente la tarea de modelado. Por lo tanto, se sostiene que su uso debería de convertirse en práctica standard.

  7. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las biopsias fijadas en alcohol fueron inadecuadas para demostrar H. pylori e interpretar los cambios de displasia. Conclusión El número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados, el método de fijación y la región del estómago donde se obtienen las biopsias son factores muy importantes para lograr una correcta clasificación de la gastritis crónica atrófica multifocal. PMID:25267864

  8. Linking storm surge activity and circulation variability along the Spanish coast through a synoptic pattern classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo; Garcia Codrón, Juan Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The potentially negative consequences resulting from the estimations of global sea level rising along the current century are a matter of serious concern in many coastal areas worldwide. Most of the negative consequences of the sea level variability, such as flooding or erosion, are linked to episodic events of strong atmospheric forcing represented by deep atmospheric disturbances, especially if they combine with extreme astronomical high tides. Moreover, the interaction between the prevailing flows during such events and the actual orientation of the coast line might accelerate or mitigate such impacts. This contribution analyses sea surge variations measured at five tide-gauge stations located around the Iberian Peninsula and their relationships with regional scale circulation patterns with local-scale winds. Its aim is to improve the knowledge of surge related-coastal-risks by analysing the relationship between surges and their atmospheric forcing factors at different spatial scales. The oceanographic data set consists of hourly data from 5 tide gauge stations (Santander, Vigo, Bonanza, Málaga, Valencia and Barcelona) disseminated along the Spanish coastline, provided by Puertos del Estado. To explore the atmospheric mechanisms responsible for the sign and magnitude of sea surges, a regional Eulerian approach (a synoptic typing) were combined with a larger-scale Lagrangian method, based on the analysis of storm-tracks over the Atlantic and local information (synop reports) obtained from the closest meteorological stations to the tide gauges. The synoptic catalogue was obtained following a procedure that combines Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for reduction purposes and clustering (Ward plus K-means) to define the circulation types. Sea level pressure, surface 10m U and V wind components gridded data were obtained from NCEP Reanalysis, while storm tracks and cyclone statistics were extracted from the CDC Map Room Climate Products Storm Track Data (http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/clim/st_data.html). The second task was to evaluate the performance of each circulation type on the spatial patterns of a daily fire danger risk index (Canadian Fire Weather Index, FWI). Finally, anomaly maps of several surface and low level climate variables, corresponding to the dates of ignition of the very large forest fires within each synoptic pattern, were calculated to provide insight of the specific conditions associated to those extreme events. A principal component analysis upon 6 hourly residuals highlighted the homogeneous behaviour of the tide gauges and provided a regional quantitative index to identify the largest storm surges. The leading PCA displayed a homogeneous spatial pattern, describing the low frequency variability along the entire coast, in spite of different orientations of the coast, accounting for more than 80% of the total variability. The second PCA displayed opposite phases between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Furthermore, the results suggest that surges are a regional rather than local phenomenon, probably related to the same single physical forcing. The comparison between extreme surge events and circulation patterns highlighted that single physical mechanism is represented by extratropical cyclonic disturbances located at the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, responsible for an environment characterized by low pressure readings and westerly-southwesterly winds. That wind pattern acquires an onshore component in the Atlantic coast, but becomes offshore in the Mediterranean. So, the main mechanism responsible for those storm surges is the inverse barometer effect, being the wind dragging secondary. The main physical forcing of the storm surges, the extratropical cyclones, have experience a reduction of this frequency and a marked reduction in their strength since 1950, replaced by stable circulations. Both conditions suggest a long term reduction of the frequency and the magnitude of storm surges.

  9. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor compreensão sobre as concepções alternativas, presentes no ensino de Astronomia.

  10. A combined QC methodology in Ebro Delta HF radar system: real time web monitoring of diagnostic parameters and offline validation of current data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, Pablo; Piedracoba, Silvia; Soto-Navarro, Javier; Ruiz, Maria Isabel; Alvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    Over recent years, special attention has been focused on the development of protocols for near real-time quality control (QC) of HF radar derived current measurements. However, no agreement has been worldwide achieved to date to establish a standardized QC methodology, although a number of valuable international initiatives have been launched. In this context, Puertos del Estado (PdE) aims to implement a fully operational HF radar network with four different Codar SeaSonde HF radar systems by means of: - The development of a best-practices robust protocol for data processing and QC procedures to routinely monitor sites performance under a wide variety of ocean conditions. - The execution of validation works with in-situ observations to assess the accuracy of HF radar-derived current measurements. The main goal of the present work is to show this combined methodology for the specific case of Ebro HF radar (although easily expandable to the rest of PdE radar systems), deployed to manage Ebro River deltaic area and promote the conservation of an important aquatic ecosystem exposed to a severe erosion and reshape. To this aim, a web interface has been developed to efficiently monitor in real time the evolution of several diagnostic parameters provided by the manufacturer (CODAR) and used as indicators of HF radar system health. This web, updated automatically every hour, examines sites performance on different time basis in terms of: - Hardware parameters: power and temperature. - Radial parameters, among others: Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), number of radial vectors provided by time step, maximum radial range and bearing. - Total uncertainty metrics provided by CODAR: zonal and meridional standard deviations and covariance between both components. - Additionally, a widget embedded in the web interface executes queries against PdE database, providing the chance to compare current time series observed by Tarragona buoy (located within Ebro HF radar spatial domain) and those measured by the closest radar grid point. A thorough analysis of the temporal evolution of the aforementioned parameters allows to define the standard thresholds for each site within which they are considered to be running optimally. In contrast, a site performance could be categorized as sub-optimal if an erratic and/or anomalous behavior is persistently detected in radial parameters values, related to a significant discrepancy from the mean and clearly outside the limits defined by the associated standard deviations. Consequently, a three colored-based alert system is activated according to each site's current status: green (OK), yellow (acceptable, but issue detected) and red (KO). Since this approach is constrained by the fact that it can not state the intrinsic quality of surface current data, a complementary validation analysis is required: HF radar-derived radial and total vectors are compared with observations from a current meter installed in Tarragona buoy. This validation, conducted for the entire 2014, aims to complete the proposed methodology through the exploration of the existence of bearing errors and the evaluation of intrinsic uncertainties related to HF radar technology by means of objective quality indicators.

  11. Effects of Wind Energy Development on Nesting Ecology of Greater Prairie-Chickens in Fragmented Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla M; Gregory, Andrew J; Wisely, Samantha M; Sandercock, Brett K

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is targeted to meet 20% of U.S. energy needs by 2030, but new sites for development of renewable energy may overlap with important habitats of declining populations of grassland birds. Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) are an obligate grassland bird species predicted to respond negatively to energy development. We used a modified before–after control–impact design to test for impacts of a wind energy development on the reproductive ecology of prairie-chickens in a 5-year study. We located 59 and 185 nests before and after development, respectively, of a 201 MW wind energy facility in Greater Prairie-Chicken nesting habitat and assessed nest site selection and nest survival relative to proximity to wind energy infrastructure and habitat conditions. Proximity to turbines did not negatively affect nest site selection (β = 0.03, 95% CI = −1.2–1.3) or nest survival (β = −0.3, 95% CI = −0.6–0.1). Instead, nest site selection and survival were strongly related to vegetative cover and other local conditions determined by management for cattle production. Integration of our project results with previous reports of behavioral avoidance of oil and gas facilities by other species of prairie grouse suggests new avenues for research to mitigate impacts of energy development. Efectos del Desarrollo de la Energía Eólica sobre la Ecología de Anidación de Gallinas de la Gran Pradera en Pastizales Fragmentados Resumen Se calcula que la energía eólica aportará el 20% de las necesidades energéticas de los Estados Unidos para el 2030, pero nuevos sitios para el desarrollo de energía renovable pueden traslaparse con hábitats importantes de poblaciones declinantes de aves de pastizal. La gallina de la Gran Pradera (Tympanuchus cupido) es una especie de ave obligada de pastizal que se pronostica responderá negativamente al desarrollo energético. Usamos un diseño ADCI modificado para probar los impactos del desarrollo de la energía eólica sobre la ecología reproductiva de las gallinas en un estudio de 5 años. Ubicamos 59 y 185 nidos antes y después del desarrollo, respectivamente, de una instalación de energía eólica de 201 MW en el hábitat de anidación de las gallinas y estudiamos la selección de sitio de anidación y la supervivencia de nidos en relación con la proximidad a la infraestructura y las condiciones de hábitat. La proximidad con las turbinas no afectó negativamente a la selección de sitios de anidación (β = -0.3, 95% CI = -0.6–0.1). En su lugar, la selección de sitios de anidación y la supervivencia estuvieron fuertemente relacionadas con la cobertura vegetal y otras condiciones locales determinadas por el manejo de la producción de ganado. La integración de los resultados de nuestro proyecto con reportes previos de la evitación conductual de instalaciones de petróleo y gas por otras especies de pastizales sugiere nuevas vías para que la investigación mitigue los impactos del desarrollo energético. PMID:24628394

  12. Birds and people in semiarid northeastern Brazil: symbolic and medicinal relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background At least 511 species of birds occur in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil and many of them interact with human populations in a number of different ways, including their use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs. Objective The present work examined these types of birds/human interactions (use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs) in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte State in northeastern Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through semi-structured interviews with 120 local residents. Results A total of 16 wild bird species distributed among 11 families were found to interact directly with humans, with Columbidae being the best represented family. Seven species were identified in the medicinal category, five were related to symbolic aspects, while four species were identified as being related to both categories (medicinal and symbolic). Conclusion The accumulated folk knowledge, beliefs, and practices involving the avifauna in the semiarid region of Brazil, whether symbolic or medicinal, demonstrated the cultural importance of this vertebrate group to local human populations and revealed a belief system intrinsically related to cynegetic practices in the region. Portuguese abstract Introdução No semiárido do Brasil ocorrem 511 espécies de aves, algumas das quais interagem frequentemente com as populações humanas locais de diferentes formas, incluindo o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças. Objetivo Esta pesquisa registrou as aves diretamente associadas a essas formas de interação (o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças) na região semiárida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 120 moradores locais. Resultados Foram registradas 16 espécies de aves silvestres distribuídas em 11 famílias, sendo Columbidae a que apresentou o maior número de representantes. Sete espécies foram indicadas apenas na categoria medicinal, cinco espécies apenas relacionadas a aspectos simbólicos e quatro foram indicadas como relacionadas a ambas as categorias (medicinal e simbólica). Conclusão Os conhecimentos, crenças e práticas relacionadas à avifauna no semiárido brasileiro, seja no aspecto simbólico ou medicinal, demonstra a importância cultural que esse grupo de vertebrados representa para as populações locais, revelando um sistema de crenças que está intrinsicamente relacionado às práticas cinegéticas na região. PMID:23295130

  13. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

  14. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface, suggérant ainsi que la description par le modèle des relations rivière-nappe est correcte. Resumen Se ha utilizado el modelo MODFLOW, del Servicio Geológico de los Estados Unidos, para simular el flujo de agua subterránea en la cuenca del arroyo del Azul, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, con el objeto de evaluar el modelo hidrogeológico conceptual. Los niveles hidráulicos simulados ajustan satisfactoriamente con los niveles observados. Los resultados de la simulación indican que: (1) la recarga no es uniforme, sino que puede caracterizarse con tres zonas en las que sus valores decrecen en la medida en que decrece la pendiente, que guarda similitud con la distribución de suelos y características geomorfológicas y (2) la evapotranspiración sería mayor que la estimada en estudios previos, en los que se utilizó el método de Thornthwaite-Mather. La evapotranspiración estimada mediante la presente simulación concuerda con resultados de varios estudios independientes en la región. Respecto de la relación acuífero-río, existe un muy buen ajuste entre los aportes del acuífero al río simulados y los valores históricos de caudal base.

  15. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um objeto peculiar que difere em vários aspectos o comportamento esperado de novas-anãs.

  16. Geochemical and technological characterization of clays of Corumbataí Formation, Paraná Basin, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil for the application in the ceramic industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofoletti, Sergio Ricardo; Torres Moreno, Maria Margarita; Batezelli, Alessandro; Zanardo, Antenor

    2014-05-01

    The Corumbataí Formation is a geological unit of the Paraná Basin comprises a range of predominantly argillaceous facies. These clays are important from an economic point of view, because they represent important mineral deposits suppliers of raw materials for the ceramic industry in the production of ceramic tiles.The study presents preliminary results of a research that aims to study the clays municipalities Tambaú, Ferreira and Santa Rosa of Viterbo in the State of São Paulo for their application and diversification of ceramic products. The methodology used was based on a detailed description of facies using the methodology in principles of analysis of Basin Miall (1984), followed by mineralogical identification by X-ray Diffraction, chemical analysis of major elements by X-ray Fluorescence and technological tests ceramic. According to the geological surveys of mines studied through columnar sections were identified the following lithofacies from base to top: Massive, Laminated, Intercalated and Altered. The mineralogy present on these lithofacies is composed by minerals: quartz, microclineo, albite, calcite, dolomite and hematite and by clay minerals illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The quartz represents the mineral more present in diffraction and occurs with d001 of 3.33Å in all lithofacies studied. The illite clay mineral represents the most frequent in studied samples presenting d 001 10Å in three conditions (natural, heated and treated with ethylene glycol) in which the blade was subjected to the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the presence of kaolinite or montmorillonite occurs or not in samples. It was observed a increased frequency of some minerals in the lithofacies studied, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), hematite and feldspar occurring in the intermediate portions of the profile with a predominance in lithofacies Intercalated. The illita clay mineral occurs throughout the profile, but with greater frequency in the lithofacies Massive and Laminated. The clay minerals kaolinite and montmorillonite occur in portions intermediate and top of the profiles studied in the intercalated and altered lithofacies. The chemical results of major elements by X-ray fluorescence confirmed the mineralogical results, with average values of 63.74 % of SiO2, 12.50 of Al2O3, 4.35% of of K2O, 0.45% of Na2O, 2,72% of CaO and 1,87 of MgO. The results chemical and mineralogical subsidized testing and ceramic formulations due to be executed later so defining the main applications of these clays in the production of ceramic products. The authors acknowledge the finantial support of Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo-FAPESP, (Process, number 2012/24219-9).

  17. Como Lo Hago Yo: Mielomeningocele En Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos F.; Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Villavicencio, Ramiro; Quevedo, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Las malformaciones del tubo neural (MTN) representan la segunda causa más frecuente de anomalías congénitas, luego de las cardiopatías. En este grupo se destaca el mielomeningocele (MMC) por su mayor incidencia, y por ser la más incapacitante y la más compleja entre todas las demás malformaciones del sistema nervioso c`entral (SNC). En Bolivia, como en muchos países de Sudamérica, los bajos niveles socio-culturales y la debilidad en el sistema sanitario, hacen que su incidencia y su morbilidad, sean mayores que en las naciones más desarrolladas. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 70 casos de MMC, atendidos por un equipo multidisciplinario en el Hospital Universitario Japonés (HUJ) de Santa Cruz de la Sierra, entre 2008-2011. De ellos, 60 fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Resultados: Se realizaron controles prenatales sólo en 27 mujeres (38.6%), diagnosticándose una disrafia espinal en apenas dos casos (7.4%). La edad de ingreso del MMC en su mayoría fue después de las 24 horas (65.6%), predominando su localización en la región lumbosacra (64.3%). De ellos, 67.2% eran abiertos, presentando un 32.9% un daño neurológico motor parcial mientras que 47.1% tenían paraplejia por debajo de la lesión. De los 70 casos, tres (4.3%) no fueron intervenidos, por presentar defectos congénitos severos o estado general grave. Las principales complicaciones posoperatorias inmediatas fueron: dehiscencia de sutura y/o infección de la herida (16.6%), fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) (10%) e infección del SNC (11.7%). La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue de 7.1% y 3.3%, respectivamente. Al mes de vida presentaban hidrocefalia un 80% de los pacientes operados, colocándose una derivación ventriculoperitoneal (DVP) de presión media. De 9 pacientes que tuvieron un acompanamiento de dos o más años, seis presentaron una médula anclada, que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente. Conclusión: En esta serie, el diagnóstico prenatal del MMC fue ocasional y la derivación al HUJ de los recién nacidos con esta malformación fue generalmente tardía. No hubo predominio de género y la mayoría de los casos presentaron sus lesiones en la región lumbar y lumbosacra. La mortalidad general y postoperatoria fue similar a la reportada en la literatura. Pocos enfermos realizaron controles posteriores al alta hospitalaria. Igual que otros países de Sudamérica, las falencias en el sistema público de salud y el nivel sociocultural, son factores determinantes para un mal pronóstico en estos niños. Por sus múltiples complicaciones, el MMC requiere de una especial atención gubernamental, sobre todo de carácter preventivo mediante el uso de ácido fólico en mujeres fértiles, como también de un equipo profesional multidisciplinario, a fin de realizar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno. Al mismo tiempo, trabajos multicéntricos en hospitales de América Latina, ayudarán al mejor manejo de estos pacientes. PMID:24791220

  18. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam a astronomia, como por exemplo a propagação do som no vácuo observado na maioria dos filmes de f icção científica ou da existência das estações do ano em função da distância da Terra ao Sol, em conformidade com o questionário aplicado.

  19. Issues and Opportunities in Exotic Hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Briceño, R.; D. Cohen, T.; Coito, S.; J. Dudek, J.; Eichten, E.; S. Fischer, C.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Jackura, A.; Kornicer, M.; Krein, G.; F. Lebed, R.; A. Machado, F.; E. Mitchell, R.; J. Morningstar, C.; Peardon, M.; R. Pennington, M.; Peters, K.; M. Richard, J.; P. Shen, C.; R. Shepherd, M.; Skwarnicki, T.; S. Swanson, E.; P. Szczepaniak, A.; Z. Yuan, C.

    2016-04-01

    The last few years have been witness to a proliferation of new results concerning heavy exotic hadrons. Experimentally, many new signals have been discovered that could be pointing towards the existence of tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and other exotic configurations of quarks and gluons. Theoretically, advances in lattice field theory techniques place us at the cusp of understanding complex coupled-channel phenomena, modelling grows more sophisticated, and effective field theories are being applied to an ever greater range of situations. It is thus an opportune time to evaluate the status of the field. In the following, a series of high priority experimental and theoretical issues concerning heavy exotic hadrons is presented. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy (Cohen); the Institute of Modern Physics and Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract Y104160YQ0 and agreeme