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Sample records for carbides

  1. Silicon carbide ceramic production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.

    1984-01-01

    A method to produce sintered silicon carbide ceramics in which powdery carbonaceous components with a dispersant are mixed with silicon carbide powder, shaped as required with or without drying, and fired in nonoxidation atmosphere is described. Carbon black is used as the carbonaceous component.

  2. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  3. Zirconium carbide recrystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Lanin, A.G.; Erin, O.N.; Sul'Yanov, S.N.; Turchin, V.N.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies the primary recrystallization process of the sintered polycrystalline zirconium carbide with a composition of ZrC /SUB 0.98/ . The properties of zirconium carbide samples deformed under compression are presented; the selected degree of deformation ensures a lower scatter of grain sizes at relative error of +/- 5% in the final deformation measurement. The established mechanisms of structural changes in zirconium carbide during plastic deformation and subsequent high temperature treatment indicate the possibility of using thermomechanical methods for the direct control of the structure of these mechanical methods for the direct control of the structure of these and obviously othe group IV and V carbides obtained by powder metallurgical methods.

  4. Improved toughness of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Impact energy absorbing layers (EALs) comprised of partially densified silicon carbide were formed in situ on fully sinterable silicon carbide substrates. After final sintering, duplex silicon carbide structures resulted which were comprised of a fully sintered, high density silicon carbide substrate or core, overlayed with an EAL of partially sintered silicon carbide integrally bonded to its core member. Thermal cycling tests proved such structures to be moderately resistant to oxidation and highly resistant to thermal shock stresses. The strength of the developed structures in some cases exceeded but essentially it remained the same as the fully sintered silicon carbide without the EAL. Ballistic impact tests indicated that substantial improvements in the toughness of sintered silicon carbide were achieved by the use of the partially densified silicon carbide EALs.

  5. Silicon carbide thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmond, John A. (Inventor); Palmour, John W. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The SiC thyristor has a substrate, an anode, a drift region, a gate, and a cathode. The substrate, the anode, the drift region, the gate, and the cathode are each preferably formed of silicon carbide. The substrate is formed of silicon carbide having one conductivity type and the anode or the cathode, depending on the embodiment, is formed adjacent the substrate and has the same conductivity type as the substrate. A drift region of silicon carbide is formed adjacent the anode or cathode and has an opposite conductivity type as the anode or cathode. A gate is formed adjacent the drift region or the cathode, also depending on the embodiment, and has an opposite conductivity type as the drift region or the cathode. An anode or cathode, again depending on the embodiment, is formed adjacent the gate or drift region and has an opposite conductivity type than the gate.

  6. Silicon carbide reinforced silicon carbide composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sai-Kwing (Inventor); Calandra, Salvatore J. (Inventor); Ohnsorg, Roger W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to a process comprising the steps of: a) providing a fiber preform comprising a non-oxide ceramic fiber with at least one coating, the coating comprising a coating element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, aluminum and titanium, and the fiber having a degradation temperature of between 1400.degree. C. and 1450.degree. C., b) impregnating the preform with a slurry comprising silicon carbide particles and between 0.1 wt % and 3 wt % added carbon c) providing a cover mix comprising: i) an alloy comprising a metallic infiltrant and the coating element, and ii) a resin, d) placing the cover mix on at least a portion of the surface of the porous silicon carbide body, e) heating the cover mix to a temperature between 1410.degree. C. and 1450.degree. C. to melt the alloy, and f) infiltrating the fiber preform with the melted alloy for a time period of between 15 minutes and 240 minutes, to produce a ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic composite.

  7. Composition Comprising Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehregany, Mehran (Inventor); Zorman, Christian A. (Inventor); Fu, Xiao-An (Inventor); Dunning, Jeremy L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of depositing a ceramic film, particularly a silicon carbide film, on a substrate is disclosed in which the residual stress, residual stress gradient, and resistivity are controlled. Also disclosed are substrates having a deposited film with these controlled properties and devices, particularly MEMS and NEMS devices, having substrates with films having these properties.

  8. Improved toughness of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Several techniques were employed to apply or otherwise form porous layers of various materials on the surface of hot-pressed silicon carbide ceramic. From mechanical properties measurements and studies, it was concluded that although porous layers could be applied to the silicon carbide ceramic, sufficient damage was done to the silicon carbide surface by the processing required so as to drastically reduce its mechanical strength. It was further concluded that there was little promise of success in forming an effective energy absorbing layer on the surface of already densified silicon carbide ceramic that would have the mechanical strength of the untreated or unsurfaced material. Using a process for the pressureless sintering of silicon carbide powders it was discovered that porous layers of silicon carbide could be formed on a dense, strong silicon carbide substrate in a single consolidation process.

  9. Carbide transformations in constructional steels

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokur, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the type of carbides formed in general purpose constructional steels or on the mechanisms of carbide transformations and the influence of carbide formation on the properties, this work presents an investigation that was made of medium-carbon chrome-nickel and chrome-manganese steels with 1, 2, and 3% Cr, 1% Ni, and 1% Mn additionally alloyed with 0.25-2% Mo or W (every 0.25%). All of the steels were hardened from temperatures providing the fullest solution of carbides in austenite and were tempered at 400-650/sup 0/C every 25-50/sup 0/C. The composition of the carbides and their type were established by chemical, x-ray diffraction, and microdiffraction methods and the mechanism of the carbide transformations was determined on the basis of the changes in distortions of the second and third order of the matrix electrical resistance, and coercive force of the steel. All of the carbideforming elements present in steel participate in saturation of the carbides, as a result of which the formation of a special carbide is eased and the degree of alloying of the matrix increases. In the carbide transformation with a certain share of carbide phase an increase or retarding of the reduction in strength with an increase in tempering temperature with constant plasticity and impact strength is possible.

  10. AES XPS study of chromium carbides and chromium iron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detroye, M.; Reniers, F.; Buess-Herman, C.; Vereecken, J.

    1999-04-01

    The nature of chromium rich carbides which precipitate at grain boundaries in steels is still not perfectly understood. We performed a multitechnique approach on model chromium carbide and chromium-iron carbide samples: Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Energy Electron Diffraction (HEED) were used to characterise the samples. Significant chemical shifts were observed for the Cr, Fe and C XPS peaks in the M 7C 3 compound (M stands for metal), indicating unambiguously that the compound formed is a mixed iron-chromium carbide.

  11. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Lindemer, T.B.

    1991-05-21

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  12. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Lindemer, Terrence B.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  13. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  14. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  15. Boron carbide-aluminum cermets

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, D.C.

    1986-09-03

    We have developed boron carbide-aluminum cermets by means of thermodynamic, kinetic, and processing studies. Our research indicates that boron carbide-aluminum cermets offer ''tailorable'' microstructures with designable properties through process control. This new class of cermets has the potential to become a very important material with wide industrial applications.

  16. Silicon carbide sewing thread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems provide lightweight thermal insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  17. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  18. Hydrogen-silicon carbide interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Misra, Ajay K.; Humphrey, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the thermochemistry and kinetics of hydrogen environmental attack of silicon carbide was conducted for temperatures in the range from 1100 C to 1400 C. Thermodynamic maps based on the parameters of pressure and oxygen/moisture content were constructed. With increasing moisture levels, four distinct regions of attack were identified. Each region is defined by the thermodynamically stable solid phases. The theoretically stable solid phases of Region 1 are silicon carbide and silicon. Experimental evidence is provided to support this thermodynamic prediction. Silicon carbide is the single stable solid phase in Region 2. Active attack of the silicon carbide in this region occurs by the formation of gases of SiO, CO, CH4, SiH4, and SiH. Analysis of the kinetics of reaction for Region 2 at 1300 C show the attack of the silicon carbide to be controlled by gas phase diffusion of H2O to the sample. Silicon carbide and silica are the stable phases common to Regions 3 and 4. These two regions are characterized by the passive oxidation of silicon carbide and formation of a protective silica layer.

  19. Hydrogen-silicon carbide interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Misra, Ajay K.; Humphrey, Donald L.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the thermochemistry and kinetics of hydrogen environmental attack of silicon carbide was conducted for temperatures in the range from 1100 C to 1400 C. Thermodynamics maps based on the parameters of pressure and oxygen/moisture content were constructed. With increasing moisture levels, four distinct regions of attack were identified. Each region is defined by the thermodynamically stable solid phases. The theoretically stable solid phases of region 1 are silicon carbide and silicon. Experimental evidence is provided to support this thermodynamic prediction. Silicone carbide is the single stable solid phase in region 2. Active attack of the silicon carbide in this region occurs by the formation of gases of SiO, CO, CH4, SiH4 and SiH. Analyses of the kinetics of reaction for region 2 at 1300 C show the attack of the silicon carbide to be controlled by gas phase diffusion of H2O to the sample. Silicon carbide and silica are the stable phases common to regions 3 and 4. These two regions are characterized by the passive oxidation of silicon carbide and formation of a protective silica layer.

  20. Adherence of sputtered titanium carbides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sputtered coatings of the refractory metal carbides are of great interest for applications where hard wear-resistant materials are desired. The usefulness of sputtered refractory carbides is often limited, in practice, by spalling or interfacial separation. In this work improvements in the adherence of refractory carbides on iron, nickel and titanium based alloys were obtained by using oxidation, reactive sputtering or sputtered interlayers to alter the coating-substrate interfacial region. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and argon ion etching were used to characterize the interfacial regions, and an attempt was made to correlate adherence as measured in wear tests with the chemical nature of the interface.

  1. Silicon Carbide Electronic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    The status of emerging silicon carbide (SiC) widebandgap semiconductor electronics technology is briefly surveyed. SiC-based electronic devices and circuits are being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which conventional semiconductors cannot function. Projected performance benefits of SiC electronics are briefly illustrated for several applications. However, most of these operational benefits of SiC have yet to be realized in actual systems, primarily owing to the fact that the growth techniques of SiC crystals are relatively immature and device fabrication technologies are not yet sufficiently developed to the degree required for widespread, reliable commercial use. Key crystal growth and device fabrication issues that limit the performance and capability of high-temperature and/or high-power SiC electronics are identified. The electrical and material quality differences between emerging SiC and mature silicon electronics technology are highlighted.

  2. Silicon Carbide Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Andrew Trunek has focused on supporting the Sic team through the growth of Sic crystals, making observations and conducting research that meets the collective needs and requirements of the team while fulfilling program commitments. Cancellation of the Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program has had a significant negative impact on resources and research goals. This report highlights advancements and achievements made with this cooperative agreement over the past year. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) continues to make advances in silicon carbide (SiC) research during the past year. Step free surfaces were used as substrates for the deposition of GaN epilayers that yielded very low dislocation densities. Defect free 3C- SiC was successfully nucleated on step free mesas and test diodes were fabricated. Web growth techniques were used to increase the usable surface area of dislocation free SiC by approximately equal to 40%. The greatest advancement has been attained on stepped surfaces of SiC. A metrology standard was developed using high temperature etching techniques titled "Nanometer Step Height Standard". This development culminated in being recognized for a 2004 R&D100 award and the process to produce the steps received a NASA Space Act award.

  3. Palladium interaction with silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, M.; Xiao, P.; Abram, T.

    2015-07-01

    In this work the palladium interaction with silicon carbide is investigated by means of complementary analytical techniques such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermoscans were carried out on pellets of palladium, α-SiC and β-SiC high purity powders in the temperature range comprised between 293 K and 1773 K, in order to study the effect of temperature on the palladium-silicon carbide reaction. Thermoscans of α-SiC pellets containing 5 at.%Pd show that during differential calorimetry scans three exothermic peaks occurred at 773 K, 1144 K and 1615 K, while thermoscans of β-SiC pellets containing 3 at.%Pd and 5 at.%Pd do not show peaks. For the pellet α-SiC-5 at.%Pd XRD spectra reveal that the first peak is associated with the formation of Pd3Si and SiO2 phases, while the second peak and the third peak are correlated with the formation of Pd2Si phase and the active oxidation of silicon carbide respectively. Thermogravimetry scans show weight gain and weight loss peaks due to the SiO2 phase formation and the active oxidation. Additionally XPS fittings reveal the development of SiCxOy phase during the first exothermic peak up to the temperature of 873 K. The experimental data reveals that alpha silicon carbide is attacked by palladium at lower temperatures than beta silicon carbide and the reaction mechanism between silicon carbide and palladium is strongly affected by silicon carbide oxidation.

  4. Porous silicon carbide (SIC) semiconductor device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide is fabricated according to techniques which result in a significant portion of nanocrystallites within the material in a sub 10 nanometer regime. There is described techniques for passivating porous silicon carbide which result in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices which exhibit brighter blue luminescence and exhibit improved qualities. Based on certain of the techniques described porous silicon carbide is used as a sacrificial layer for the patterning of silicon carbide. Porous silicon carbide is then removed from the bulk substrate by oxidation and other methods. The techniques described employ a two-step process which is used to pattern bulk silicon carbide where selected areas of the wafer are then made porous and then the porous layer is subsequently removed. The process to form porous silicon carbide exhibits dopant selectivity and a two-step etching procedure is implemented for silicon carbide multilayers.

  5. Thermal conductivity of boron carbides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbide is necessary to evaluate its potential for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. Measurements have been conducted of the thermal diffusivity of hot-pressed boron carbide BxC samples as a function of composition (x in the range from 4 to 9), temperature (300-1700 K), and temperature cycling. These data, in concert with density and specific-heat data, yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results are discussed in terms of a structural model that has been previously advanced to explain the electronic transport data. Some novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are briefly discussed.

  6. Anisotropic Tribological Properties of Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The anisotropic friction, deformation and fracture behavior of single crystal silicon carbide surfaces were investigated in two categories. The categories were called adhesive and abrasive wear processes, respectively. In the adhesive wear process, the adhesion, friction and wear of silicon carbide were markedly dependent on crystallographic orientation. The force to reestablish the shearing fracture of adhesive bond at the interface between silicon carbide and metal was the lowest in the preferred orientation of silicon carbide slip system. The fracturing of silicon carbide occurred near the adhesive bond to metal and it was due to primary cleavages of both prismatic (10(-1)0) and basal (0001) planes.

  7. Ultrasonic characterization of microwave joined silicon carbide/silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    House, M.B.; Day, P.S.

    1997-05-01

    High frequency (50--150 MHz), ultrasonic immersion testing has been used to characterize the surface and interfacial joint conditions of microwave bonded, monolithic silicon carbide (SiC) materials. The high resolution ultrasonic C-scan images point to damage accumulation after thermal cycling. Image processing was used to study the effects of the thermal cycling on waveform shape, amplitude and distribution. Such information is useful for concurrently engineering material fabrication processes and suitable nondestructive test procedures.

  8. Silicon carbide semiconductor technology for high temperature and radiation environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on silicon carbide semiconductor technology and its potential for enabling electronic devices to function in high temperature and high radiation environments are presented. Topics covered include silicon carbide; sublimation growth of 6H-SiC boules; SiC chemical vapor deposition reaction system; 6H silicon carbide p-n junction diode; silicon carbide MOSFET; and silicon carbide JFET radiation response.

  9. Diamond-silicon carbide composite

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2006-06-13

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  10. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  11. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  12. Silicon carbide fibers and articles including same

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, John E; Griffith, George W

    2015-01-27

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  13. Polytype distribution in circumstellar silicon carbide.

    SciTech Connect

    Daulton, T. L.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Lewis, R. S.; Messenger, S.; Stadermann, F. J.; Amari, S.; Materials Science Division; Naval Research Lab.; Washington Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2002-06-07

    The inferred crystallographic class of circumstellar silicon carbide based on astronomical infrared spectra is controversial. We have directly determined the polytype distribution of circumstellar SiC from transmission electron microscopy of presolar silicon carbide from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite. Only two polytypes (of a possible several hundred) were observed: cubic 3C and hexagonal 2H silicon carbide and their intergrowths. We conclude that this structural simplicity is a direct consequence of the low pressures in circumstellar outflows and the corresponding low silicon carbide condensation temperatures.

  14. Polytype distribution in circumstellar silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Daulton, T L; Bernatowicz, T J; Lewis, R S; Messenger, S; Stadermann, F J; Amari, S

    2002-06-01

    The inferred crystallographic class of circumstellar silicon carbide based on astronomical infrared spectra is controversial. We have directly determined the polytype distribution of circumstellar SiC from transmission electron microscopy of presolar silicon carbide from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite. Only two polytypes (of a possible several hundred) were observed: cubic 3C and hexagonal 2H silicon carbide and their intergrowths. We conclude that this structural simplicity is a direct consequence of the low pressures in circumstellar outflows and the corresponding low silicon carbide condensation temperatures. PMID:12052956

  15. Methods for producing silicon carbide fibers

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  16. Process for making silicon carbide reinforced silicon carbide composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sai-Kwing (Inventor); Calandra, Salavatore J. (Inventor); Ohnsorg, Roger W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A process comprising the steps of: a) providing a fiber preform comprising a non-oxide ceramic fiber with at least one coating, the coating comprising a coating element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, aluminum and titanium, and the fiber having a degradation temperature of between 1400.degree. C. and 1450.degree. C., b) impregnating the preform with a slurry comprising silicon carbide particles and between 0.1 wt % and 3 wt % added carbon c) providing a cover mix comprising: i) an alloy comprising a metallic infiltrant and the coating element, and ii) a resin, d) placing the cover mix on at least a portion of the surface of the porous silicon carbide body, e) heating the cover mix to a temperature between 1410.degree. C. and 1450.degree. C. to melt the alloy, and f) infiltrating the fiber preform with the melted alloy for a time period of between 15 minutes and 240 minutes, to produce a ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic composite.

  17. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  18. Nitride-bonded silicon carbide composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.N.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an advanced hot gas filter, using ceramic component technology, with enhanced durability to provide increased resistance to thermal fatigue and crack propagation. The material is silicon carbide fiber reinforced nitride bonded silicon carbide.

  19. Boron carbide whiskers produced by vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Boron carbide whiskers have an excellent combination of properties for use as a reinforcement material. They are produced by vaporizing boron carbide powder and condensing the vapors on a substrate. Certain catalysts promote the growth rate and size of the whiskers.

  20. Titanium carbide bipolar plate for electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    2000-07-04

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate is made from titanium carbide for use in an eletrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  1. Damage kinetics in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickup, I. M.; Barker, A. K.

    1998-07-01

    Three silicon carbides of similar density and grain size but manufactured via different routes (reaction bonded, pressureless sintered and pressure assisted densification) have been investigated. High speed photography in conjunction with Hopkinson pressure bar compression tests has revealed that not only does the manufacturing route confer a significant difference in failure kinetics but also modifies the phenomenology of failure. Plate impact experiments using lateral and longitudinal manganin stress gauges have been used to study shear strength behaviour of damaged material. Failure waves have been observed in all three materials and characteristically different damaged material shear strength relationships with pressure have been observed.

  2. Preparation of silicon carbide fibers

    DOEpatents

    Wei, G.C.

    1983-10-12

    Silicon carbide fibers suitable for use in the fabrication of dense, high-strength, high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments are fabricated by a new, simplified method wherein a mixture of short-length rayon fibers and colloidal silica is homogenized in a water slurry. Water is removed from the mixture by drying in air at 120/sup 0/C and the fibers are carbonized by (pyrolysis) heating the mixture to 800 to 1000/sup 0/C in argon. The mixture is subsequently reacted at 1550 to 1900/sup 0/C in argon to yield pure ..beta..-SiC fibers.

  3. Magnetoresistance in Boron Carbide junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Ellen; Sokolov, A.; Baruth, A.; Robertson, B. W.; Adenwalla, S.

    2007-03-01

    The properties of thin insulator layers are crucial to the performance of magnetic tunnel junctions. Commercial requirements are a device with a high tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) with low cost and high stability. At present the vast majority of barriers are made from amorphous Al2O3 and crystalline MgO. The TMR value depends not only on the spin-dependent electronic structure of the electrodes, but on the metal-insulator interface. Oxide-type barriers may suffer from local vacancies and other type of defects, resulting in oxygen diffusion, making the TMR value unstable with time. We present TMR results obtained on a non-oxide barrier, boron carbide (B10C2) for applications in magnetic tunnel junctions. This low Z inorganic material can be grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) without pinholes in the ultra thin film regime. PECVD grown boron carbide is an excellent dielectric with resistivities in the range of 10^7 ohm-cm, with a band gap that can be adjusted from 0.7 eV to 1.9 eV by altering the boron to carbon ratio and to band gap values well above 2.7 eV by adding phosphorus. This creates a unique opportunity for experimental study of a broad spectrum of phenomena, related to the dielectric properties of the barrier.

  4. An investigation on gamma attenuation behaviour of titanium diboride reinforced boron carbide-silicon carbide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyuk, Bulent; Beril Tugrul, A.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, titanium diboride (TiB2) reinforced boron carbide-silicon carbide composites were investigated against Cs-137 and Co-60 gamma radioisotope sources. The composite materials include 70% boron carbide (B4C) and 30% silicon carbide (SiC) by volume. Titanium diboride was reinforced to boron carbide-silicon carbide composites as additive 2% and 4% by volume. Average particle sizes were 3.851 µm and 170 nm for titanium diboride which were reinforced to the boron carbide silicon carbide composites. In the experiments the gamma transmission technique was used to investigate the gamma attenuation properties of the composite materials. Linear and mass attenuation coefficients of the samples were determined. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were calculated from XCOM computer code. The experimental results and theoretical results were compared and evaluated with each other. It could be said that increasing the titanium diboride ratio causes higher linear attenuation values against Cs-137 and Co-60 gamma radioisotope sources. In addition decreasing the titanium diboride particle size also increases the linear and mass attenuation properties of the titanium diboride reinforced boron carbide-silicon carbide composites.

  5. Tungsten carbide: Crystals by the ton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. N.

    1988-06-01

    A comparison is made of the conventional process of making tungsten carbide by carburizing tungsten powder and the Macro Process wherein the tungsten carbide is formed directly from the ore concentrate by an exothermic reaction of ingredients causing a simultaneous reduction and carburization. Tons of tungsten monocarbide crystals are formed in a very rapid reaction. The process is unique in that it is self regulating and produces a tungsten carbide compound with the correct stoichiometry. The high purity with respect to oxygen and nitrogen is achieved because the reactions occur beneath the molten metal. The morphology and hardness of these crystals has been studied by various investigators and reported in the listed references.

  6. LIQUID PHASE SINTERING OF METALLIC CARBIDES

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, J.; Sease, J.D.

    1964-01-21

    An improved method is given for fabricating uranium carbide composites, The method comprises forming a homogeneous mixture of powdered uranium carbide, a uranium intermetallic compound which wets and forms a eutectic with said carbide and has a non-uranium component which has a relatively high vapor pressure at a temperature in the range 1200 to 1500 deg C, and an organic binder, pressing said mixture to a composite of desired green strength, and then vacuum sintering said composite at the eutectic forming temperature for a period sufficient to remove at least a portion of the non-uranium containing component of said eutectic. (AEC)

  7. Anisotropic tribological properties of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of crystallographic orientation on the tribological properties of single-crystal silicon carbide surfaces in contact with various solids are investigated for adhesive and abrasive wear processes. In the adhesive wear process, the adhesion and wear of silicon carbide is found to be markedly dependent on crystallographic orientation. The force resisting shearing fracture of the adhesive bonds at the interface is lower in preferred crystallographic direction of slip. In the abrasive wear process, the 1 0 -1 0 direction on the basal plane of silicon carbide exhibits the lowest coefficient of friction and the greatest resistance to abrasion.

  8. Converted silicon carbide technology developments for optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duston, Christopher; Woestman, Ken; Vargas, Hugo; deBlonk, Brett

    2007-09-01

    Silicon carbide structures fabricated by converting near-net-shape graphite preforms via Chemical Vapor Conversion (CVC) phase reaction have long provided improved performance components for electronics processing. In recent years, this same technology has been applied to the fabrication of simple and lightweighted mirrors and is moving into optical bench applications. To support the expanded applications, Poco has further evaluated the material properties of SUPERSiC® silicon carbide, developed technologies to mount silicon carbide mirrors on benches of similar and dissimilar materials, and fabricated complex monolithic geometries using in situ conversion bonding of mating graphite components. Overviews of each of these areas will be presented.

  9. Manufacture of silicon carbide using solar energy

    DOEpatents

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using solar energy. The method is efficient and avoids the need for use of electrical energy to heat the reactants. Finely divided silica and carbon are admixed and placed in a solar-heated reaction chamber for a time sufficient to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  10. Improved consolidation of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, M. R.; Millard, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Alpha silicon carbide powder was consolidated by both dry and wet methods. Dry pressing in a double acting steel die yielded sintered test bars with an average flexural strength of 235.6 MPa with a critical flaw size of approximately 100 micro m. An aqueous slurry pressing technique produced sintered test bars with an average flexural strength of 440.8 MPa with a critical flaw size of approximately 25 micro m. Image analysis revealed a reduction in both pore area and pore size distribution in the slurry pressed sintered test bars. The improvements in the slurry pressed material properties are discussed in terms of reduced agglomeration and improved particle packing during consolidation.

  11. Thermal Expansion of Hafnium Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.

    1960-01-01

    Since hafnium carbide (HfC) has a melting point of 7029 deg. F, it may have many high-temperature applications. A literature search uncovered very little information about the properties of HfC, and so a program was initiated at the Lewis Research Center to determine some of the physical properties of this material. This note presents the results of the thermal expansion investigation. The thermal-expansion measurements were made with a Gaertner dilatation interferometer calibrated to an accuracy of +/- 1 deg. F. This device indicates expansion by the movement of fringes produced by the cancellation and reinforcement of fixed wave-length light rays which are reflected from the surfaces of two parallel quartz glass disks. The test specimens which separate these disks are three small cones, each approximately 0.20 in. high.

  12. Metal seated ball valves with carbide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, R.; Yung, E.

    1994-12-31

    Valvtechnologies valves utilize Alloy Carbide HVOF Sprayed RAM{reg_sign} Hardcoatings such as Chrome Carbide and Tungsten Carbide Coatings. The coatings are applied using a Proprietary Gun combusting Hydrogen and Oxygen. The powders are heated and accelerated toward the valve component forming a tenaciously bonded coating. Each coating is chosen depending upon the environment the valve will operate in. These valves have solved many Petro-Chemical service life problems. Free from the temperature limits of elastomers, the only sealing materials are metal, the carbides and grafoils (carbons). Operating temperatures to 982 C (1,800 F) are typical limits; 649 C (1,200 F) is common. Lower temperatures are also common, even in the cryogenic range. Even though the coatings have low thermal expansion rates, RAM{reg_sign} Hardcoatings can expand and contract with the base material and still maintain a seal.

  13. Silicon carbide material sintered bodies manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for producing a high density silicon carbide sintering substance which contains aluminum oxide. The sintering is done in CO gas atmosphere, which is kept at 2 to 20 atmospheric pressures.

  14. Method for preparing boron-carbide articles

    DOEpatents

    Benton, S.T.; Masters, D.R.

    1975-10-21

    The invention is directed to the preparation of boron carbide articles of various configurations. A stoichiometric mixture of particulate boron and carbon is confined in a suitable mold, heated to a temperature in the range of about 1250 to 1500$sup 0$C for effecting a solid state diffusion reaction between the boron and carbon for forming the boron carbide (B$sub 4$C), and thereafter the resulting boron-carbide particles are hot-pressed at a temperature in the range of about 1800 to 2200$sup 0$C and a pressure in the range of about 1000 to 4000 psi for densifying and sintering the boron carbide into the desired article.

  15. Ni doping of semiconducting boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Nina; Liu Jing; Adenwalla, S.; Langell, M. A.; Kizilkaya, Orhan

    2010-01-15

    The wide band gap, temperature stability, high resistivity, and robustness of semiconducting boron carbide make it an attractive material for device applications. Undoped boron carbide is p type; Ni acts as a n-type dopant. Here we present the results of controlled doping of boron carbide with Ni on thin film samples grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The change in the dopant concentration within the thin film as a function of the dopant flow rate in the precursor gas mixture was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements; with increasing dopant concentration, current-voltage (I-V) curves clearly establish the trend from p-type to n-type boron carbide.

  16. Silicon Carbide Transistor For Detecting Hydrocarbon Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Williams, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed silicon carbide variable-potential insulated-gate field-effect transistor specially designed for use in measuring concentrations of hydrocarbon gases. Devices like this prove useful numerous automotive, industrial, aeronautical, and environmental monitoring applications.

  17. Stabilization of boron carbide via silicon doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, J. E.; Bhakhri, V.; Hao, R.; Prior, T. J.; Scheler, T.; Gregoryanz, E.; Chhowalla, M.; Giulani, F.

    2015-01-01

    Boron carbide is one of the lightest and hardest ceramics, but its applications are limited by its poor stability against a partial phase separation into separate boron and carbon. Phase separation is observed under high non-hydrostatic stress (both static and dynamic), resulting in amorphization. The phase separation is thought to occur in just one of the many naturally occurring polytypes in the material, and this raises the possibility of doping the boron carbide to eliminate this polytype. In this work, we have synthesized boron carbide doped with silicon. We have conducted a series of characterizations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction) on pure and silicon-doped boron carbide following static compression to 50 GPa non-hydrostatic pressure. We find that the level of amorphization under static non-hydrostatic pressure is drastically reduced by the silicon doping.

  18. Bipolaron Hopping Conduction in Boron Carbides

    SciTech Connect

    ASELAGE, TERRENCE L.; EMIN, D.; MCCREADY, STEVEN S.

    1999-09-20

    The electrical conductivities of boron carbides, B{sub 12+x}C{sub 3{minus}x} with 0.1 < x < 1.7, between 300 and 1200K suggest the hopping of a nearly temperature-independent density of small (bi)polarons. The activation energies of the nobilities are low, {approx} 0.16 eV, and are nearly independent of the composition. At lower temperatures, conductivities have non-Arrhenius temperature dependencies and strong sensitivity to carbon concentration. Percolative aspects of low-temperature hopping are evident in this sensitivity to composition. Boron carbides' Seebeck coefficients are anomalous in that (1) they are much larger than expected from boron carbides' large carrier densities and (2) they depend only weakly on the carrier density. Carrier-induced softening of local vibrations gives contributions to the Seebeck coefficient that mirror the magnitudes and temperature dependencies found in boron carbides.

  19. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S.; Ghosh, C.; Ravindran, T.R.; Divakar, R.; Mohandas, E.

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ∼ 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction process developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.

  20. Fabrication of thorium bearing carbide fuels

    DOEpatents

    Gutierrez, R.L.; Herbst, R.J.; Johnson, K.W.R.

    Thorium-uranium carbide and thorium-plutonium carbide fuel pellets have been fabricated by the carbothermic reduction process. Temperatures of 1750/sup 0/C and 2000/sup 0/C were used during the reduction cycle. Sintering temperatures of 1800/sup 0/C and 2000/sup 0/C were used to prepare fuel pellet densities of 87% and > 94% of theoretical, respectively. The process allows the fabrication of kilogram quantities of fuel with good reproductibility of chemical and phase composition.

  1. Whatever happened to silicon carbide. [semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    The progress made in silicon carbide semiconductor devices in the 1955 to 1975 time frame is examined and reasons are given for the present lack of interest in the material. Its physical and chemical properties and methods of preparation are discussed. Fabrication techniques and the characteristics of silicon carbide devices are reviewed. It is concluded that a combination of economic factors and the lack of progress in fabrication techniques leaves no viable market for SiC devices in the near future.

  2. Combustion synthesis of novel boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harini, R. Saai; Manikandan, E.; Anthonysamy, S.; Chandramouli, V.; Eswaramoorthy, D.

    2013-02-01

    The solid-state boron carbide is one of the hardest materials known, ranking third behind diamond and cubic boron nitride. Boron carbide (BxCx) enriched in the 10B isotope is used as a control rod material in the nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption cross section and other favorable physico-chemical properties. Conventional methods of preparation of boron carbide are energy intensive processes accompanied by huge loss of boron. Attempts were made at IGCAR Kalpakkam to develop energy efficient and cost effective methods to prepare boron carbide. The products of the gel combustion and microwave synthesis experiments were characterized for phase purity by XRD. The carbide formation was ascertained using finger-print spectroscopy of FTIR. Samples of pyrolized/microwave heated powder were characterized for surface morphology using SEM. The present work shows the recent advances in understanding of structural and chemical variations in boron carbide and their influence on morphology, optical and vibrational property results discussed in details.

  3. Growth Simulation of Spheroidized Carbide in the Carbide-Dispersed Carburizing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kouji; Ikehata, Hideaki; Nakanishi, Koukichi; Nishikawa, Tomoaki

    2008-06-01

    A simulation method that combines one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion models has been proposed for predicting the behaviors of carbide particles dispersed in the carburizing layer of high-carbon chromium steels. The first simulation was set for the heating stage prior to carburizing, using a microscopic model of a spherical carbide and surrounding austenite matrix. This revealed the undissolved status of the carbide even at carburizing temperatures, which was stored as the starting condition of the second simulation. Separately, in a planar model, the macroscopic carbon diffusion during the isothermal carburizing stage was calculated, and time functions of carbon activity were evaluated at the depth of interest. The change in activities was assumed to represent the boundary conditions of the local carbide/austenite region, and thus input to the restored spherical model to do the second simulation of carburizing stage. The simulation method linking these double-scale diffusion calculations has first been implemented using the DICTRA package, and applied to the carbide in multicomponent model steels. The carbide radius as well as volume fraction were successfully predicted for all stages in the carbide-dispersed carburizing (CDC) process. However, minor corrections were necessary because of the decrease in the number density of carbide particles and the discontinuity in carbon activity caused by the use of two different models.

  4. Method of fabricating porous silicon carbide (SiC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide is fabricated according to techniques which result in a significant portion of nanocrystallites within the material in a sub 10 nanometer regime. There is described techniques for passivating porous silicon carbide which result in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices which exhibit brighter blue luminescence and exhibit improved qualities. Based on certain of the techniques described porous silicon carbide is used as a sacrificial layer for the patterning of silicon carbide. Porous silicon carbide is then removed from the bulk substrate by oxidation and other methods. The techniques described employ a two-step process which is used to pattern bulk silicon carbide where selected areas of the wafer are then made porous and then the porous layer is subsequently removed. The process to form porous silicon carbide exhibits dopant selectivity and a two-step etching procedure is implemented for silicon carbide multilayers.

  5. 64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS SHOWING CALCIUM CARBIDE IN COOLING CARS ON THE FLOOR. DECEMBER 26, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  6. Silicon Carbide Solar Cells Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.

    2001-01-01

    The semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC) has long been known for its outstanding resistance to harsh environments (e.g., thermal stability, radiation resistance, and dielectric strength). However, the ability to produce device-quality material is severely limited by the inherent crystalline defects associated with this material and their associated electronic effects. Much progress has been made recently in the understanding and control of these defects and in the improved processing of this material. Because of this work, it may be possible to produce SiC-based solar cells for environments with high temperatures, light intensities, and radiation, such as those experienced by solar probes. Electronics and sensors based on SiC can operate in hostile environments where conventional silicon-based electronics (limited to 350 C) cannot function. Development of this material will enable large performance enhancements and size reductions for a wide variety of systems--such as high-frequency devices, high-power devices, microwave switching devices, and high-temperature electronics. These applications would supply more energy-efficient public electric power distribution and electric vehicles, more powerful microwave electronics for radar and communications, and better sensors and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines. The 6H-SiC polytype is a promising wide-bandgap (Eg = 3.0 eV) semiconductor for photovoltaic applications in harsh solar environments that involve high-temperature and high-radiation conditions. The advantages of this material for this application lie in its extremely large breakdown field strength, high thermal conductivity, good electron saturation drift velocity, and stable electrical performance at temperatures as high as 600 C. This behavior makes it an attractive photovoltaic solar cell material for devices that can operate within three solar radii of the Sun.

  7. The diffusion bonding of silicon carbide and boron carbide using refractory metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-10-01

    Joining is an enabling technology for the application of structural ceramics at high temperatures. Metal foil diffusion bonding is a simple process for joining silicon carbide or boron carbide by solid-state, diffusive conversion of the metal foil into carbide and silicide compounds that produce bonding. Metal diffusion bonding trials were performed using thin foils (5 {micro}m to 100 {micro}m) of refractory metals (niobium, titanium, tungsten, and molybdenum) with plates of silicon carbide (both {alpha}-SiC and {beta}-SiC) or boron carbide that were lapped flat prior to bonding. The influence of bonding temperature, bonding pressure, and foil thickness on bond quality was determined from metallographic inspection of the bonds. The microstructure and phases in the joint region of the diffusion bonds were evaluated using SEM, microprobe, and AES analysis. The use of molybdenum foil appeared to result in the highest quality bond of the metal foils evaluated for the diffusion bonding of silicon carbide and boron carbide. Bonding pressure appeared to have little influence on bond quality. The use of a thinner metal foil improved the bond quality. The microstructure of the bond region produced with either the {alpha}-SiC and {beta}-SiC polytypes were similar.

  8. Joining of silicon carbide composites for fusion energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewinsohn, C. A.; Singh, M.; Shibayama, T.; Hinoki, T.; Ando, M.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2000-12-01

    Joining of silicon carbide based materials has been recognized as one of the enabling technologies for the successful utilization of ceramic components in fusion energy systems. Sintered silicon carbide (Hexoloy SA) and silicon carbide (Hi-Nicalon™) fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites have been joined using reaction forming/bonding based joining technologies. The room- and high-temperature mechanical properties and fractography of ceramic joints have been reported.

  9. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, George C.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  10. Anomalous electronic transport in boron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emin, D.; Samara, G. A.; Wood, C.

    The boron carbides are composed of icosahedral units, B12 and B11C1, linked together by strong intericosahedral bonds. With such distributions of icosahedral and intericosahedral compositions, boron carbides, B/sub 1-x/C/sub x/, are single phase over 0.1 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.2. The electronic transport properties of the boron carbides were examined within this single-phase region. Results are inconsistent with conventional analyses of both itinerant and hopping transport. Most striking are Seebeck coefficients which are both large and rapidly increasing functions of temperature despite thermally activated dc conductivities. These results manifest the hopping of small bipolaronic holes between carbon-containing icosahedral that are inequivalent in energy and electron-lattice coupling strength. Under hydrostatic pressures up to approx. 25 kbar, the dc conductivities increase with pressure. This anomalous behavior for hopping conduction reflects the distinctive structure and bonding of these materials.

  11. Joining of porous silicon carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Bates, Carl H.; Couhig, John T.; Pelletier, Paul J.

    1990-05-01

    A method of joining two porous bodies of silicon carbide is disclosed. It entails utilizing an aqueous slip of a similar silicon carbide as was used to form the porous bodies, including the sintering aids, and a binder to initially join the porous bodies together. Then the composite structure is subjected to cold isostatic pressing to form a joint having good handling strength. Then the composite structure is subjected to pressureless sintering to form the final strong bond. Optionally, after the sintering the structure is subjected to hot isostatic pressing to further improve the joint and densify the structure. The result is a composite structure in which the joint is almost indistinguishable from the silicon carbide pieces which it joins.

  12. Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

  13. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  14. Fabrication of thorium bearing carbide fuels

    DOEpatents

    Gutierrez, Rueben L.; Herbst, Richard J.; Johnson, Karl W. R.

    1981-01-01

    Thorium-uranium carbide and thorium-plutonium carbide fuel pellets have been fabricated by the carbothermic reduction process. Temperatures of 1750.degree. C. and 2000.degree. C. were used during the reduction cycle. Sintering temperatures of 1800.degree. C. and 2000.degree. C. were used to prepare fuel pellet densities of 87% and >94% of theoretical, respectively. The process allows the fabrication of kilogram quantities of fuel with good reproducibility of chemicals and phase composition. Methods employing liquid techniques that form carbide microspheres or alloying-techniques which form alloys of thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium suffer from limitation on the quantities processed of because of criticality concerns and lack of precise control of process conditions, respectively.

  15. Silicon carbide, an emerging high temperature semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have expressed a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high temperature operation. Applications for high temperature electronic devices include development instrumentation within engines, engine control, and condition monitoring systems, and power conditioning and control systems for space platforms and satellites. Other earth-based applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, nuclear reactor instrumentation and control, and automotive sensors. To meet the needs of these applications, the High Temperature Electronics Program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. Research is focussed on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of silicon carbide electronic devices and integrated sensors. The progress made in developing silicon carbide is presented, and the challenges that lie ahead are discussed.

  16. Silicon carbide, an emerging high temperature semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have expressed a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high temperature operation. Applications for high temperature electronic devices include development instrumentation within engines, engine control, and condition monitoring systems, and power conditioning and control systems for space platforms and satellites. Other earth-based applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, nuclear reactor instrumentation and control, and automotive sensors. To meet the needs of these applications, the High Temperature Electronics Program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. Research is focussed on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of silicon carbide electronic devices and integrated sensors. The progress made in developing silicon carbide is presented, and the challenges that lie ahead are discussed.

  17. Metallicity of boron carbides at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekura, Haruhiko; Shirai, Koun; Yanase, Akira

    2010-03-01

    Electronic structure of semiconducting boron carbide at high pressure has been theoretically investigated, because of interests in the positive pressure dependence of resistivity, in the gap closure, and in the phase transition. The most simplest form B12(CCC) is assumed. Under assumptions of hydrostatic pressure and neglecting finite-temperature effects, boron carbide is quite stable at high pressure. The crystal of boron carbide is stable at least until a pressure higher than previous experiments showed. The gap closure occurs only after p=600 GPa on the assumption of the original crystal symmetry. In the low pressure regime, the pressure dependence of the energy gap almost diminishes, which is an exceptional case for semiconductors, which could be one of reasons for the positive pressure dependence of resistivity. A monotonous increase in the apex angle of rhombohedron suggests that the covalent bond continues to increase. The C chain inserted in the main diagonal of rhombohedral structure is the chief reason of this stability.

  18. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali; Abuzriba, Mokhtar; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-01

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A & the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  19. METHOD FOR COATING GRAPHITE WITH METALLIC CARBIDES

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.A.

    1960-03-22

    A method for producing refractory coatings of metallic carbides on graphite was developed. In particular, the graphite piece to be coated is immersed in a molten solution of 4 to 5% by weight of zirconium, titanium, or niobium dissolved in tin. The solution is heated in an argon atmosphere to above 1400 deg C, whereby the refractory metal reacts with the surface of the graphite to form a layer of metalic carbide. The molten solution is cooled to 300 to 400 deg C, and the graphite piece is removed. Excess tin is wiped from the graphite, which is then heated in vacuum to above 2300 deg C. The tin vaporizes from the graphite surface, leaving the surface coated with a tenacious layer of refractory metallic carbide.

  20. Grain boundary niobium carbides in Inconel 718

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M.; Wei, R.P.

    1997-12-15

    A coordinated, multidisciplinary investigation was conducted to determine the mechanisms and rate controlling processes for environmentally assisted crack growth under sustained (static) loading in Inconel 718 at elevated temperatures. The results showed that oxygen had a significant influence on crack growth, increasing the crack growth rate, for example, by nearly four orders of magnitude at 973 K. Based on results from the companion surface chemical and metallurgical studies, it was suggested that the mechanism for crack growth enhancement by oxygen was the formation and fracture of a brittle niobium oxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-type) film on the grain boundary surfaces. The Nb came principally from the oxidation and decomposition of NbC (or Nb-rich carbides) at the grain boundaries, and crack growth was controlled by the rate of oxidation and decomposition of these carbides. Because there was extensive oxidation of the primary NbC, these carbides were implicitly considered to be the primary source of Nb. Although these carbides were large and contained substantial amounts of Nb, they were too few and spaced too far apart to be of concern (averaging one NbC for two grain boundary facets and spaced about 25 {micro}m apart). To wit, whether the freed Nb could diffuse over such a large distance and be oxidized to support the postulated mechanism for crack growth? The presence of other Nb-rich carbides elsewhere on the grain boundaries, or other sources for Nb, therefore, needs to be re-examined and is the focus of this study. In this paper, the results of a study of grain boundary niobium carbides and their distribution in Inconel 718 are reported, and are discussed in terms of their contribution to crack growth.

  1. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Hurford, A.C.

    1989-05-09

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1,600 C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase. 4 figs.

  2. Thermal conductivity behavior of boron carbides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.; Zoltan, A.; Emin, D.; Gray, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of boron carbides is necessary to evaluate its potential for high temperature thermoelectric energy conversion applications. The thermal diffusivity of hot pressed boron carbide B/sub 1-x/C/sub x/ samples as a function of composition, temperature and temperature cycling was measured. These data in concert with density and specific heat data yield the thermal conductivities of these materials. The results in terms of a structural model to explain the electrical transport data and novel mechanisms for thermal conduction are discussed.

  3. On the sintering of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gugel, E.

    1986-01-01

    This document deals with the sintering of silicon carbide using pressureless sintering. This technique makes it possible to sinter a primarily covalent material to usable densities up to over 98% thD without having to use a high amount of sinter additives as is the case with other non-oxide ceramic materials. The process takes place rapidly, and it is also possible to produce relatively thick-walled structural parts without major problems. This sheds more light on the true characteristics of silicon carbide in one structural part, since there is no second or nearly no second phase. Heat pressing has improved stability.

  4. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Cutler, Raymond A.; Virkar, Anil V.; Hurford, Andrew C.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.

  5. Vibrational studies of interstitial carbide atoms in nickel and rhenium carbonyl carbide clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Stanghellini, P.L.; Rossetti, R.; D'Alfonso, G.; Longoni, G.

    1987-08-26

    A vibrational spectroscopy study of the interstitial carbon atom in a series of Re and Ni carbide clusters enabled the M-C vibrational modes to be assigned and the effect of the metal atoms capping the Re/sub 6/(..mu../sub 6/-C) and Ni/sub 8/(..mu../sub 8/-C) cores to be investigated. The assignment of the M-C vibrational modes has been confirmed by /sup 13/C isotopic labeling of the interstitial carbide atom. A single force constant value accounts for the observed frequencies in the nickel carbide clusters, whether capped or uncapped, and in the uncapped rhenium carbide clusters. In contrast, the vibrational analysis for the capped rhenium clusters indicates that the force field around the carbon atom should be described by slightly different axial and equatorial force constants. A rationalization of the capping effect in terms of structural and electronic effects is proposed.

  6. Carbon-enriched calcium carbide and its potential use

    SciTech Connect

    Ivakhnyuk, G.K.; Samonin, V.V.; Fedorov, N.F.; Vladimirov, V.A.; Stepanova, L.V.; Kas'yanova, O.M.

    1987-10-10

    The authors comparatively assess the feasibility of a variety of carbonaceous materials--lean coal, specialty coke, coal coke, semicoke, and coke residue from shale production--as raw materials for the production and carburization of calcium carbide and subsequently assess the value of the calcium carbide produced as a raw material in the production of graphite. They determine that calcium carbide enriched by their process is characterized by a high carbon content having the graphite structure and that the use of carburized calcium carbide allows for a significant increase in the output of graphite during low-temperature reaction of the carbide with magnesium chloride.

  7. PWR cores with silicon carbide cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dobisesky, J. P.; Carpenter, D.; Pilat, E.; Kazimi, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of using silicon carbide rather than Zircaloy cladding, to reach higher power levels and higher discharge burnups in PWRs has been evaluated. A preliminary fuel design using fuel rods with the same dimensions as in the Westinghouse Robust Fuel Assembly but with fuel pellets having 10 vol% central void has been adopted to mitigate the higher fuel temperatures that occur due to the lower thermal conductivity of the silicon carbide and to the persistence of the open clad-pellet gap over most of the fuel life. With this modified fuel design, it is possible to achieve 18 month cycles that meet present-day operating constraints on peaking factor, boron concentration, reactivity coefficients and shutdown margin, while allowing batch average discharge burnups up to 80 MWD/kgU and peak rod burnups up to 100 MWD/kgU. Power uprates of 10% and possibly 20% also appear feasible. For non-uprated cores, the silicon carbide-clad fuel has a clear advantage that increases with increasing discharge burnup. Even for comparable discharge burnups, there is a savings in enriched uranium. Control rod configuration modifications may be required to meet the shutdown margin criterion for the 20% up-rate. Silicon carbide's ability to sustain higher burnups than Zircaloy also allows the design of a licensable two year cycle with only 96 fresh assemblies, avoiding the enriched uranium penalty incurred with use of larger batch sizes due to their excessive leakage. (authors)

  8. High Q silicon carbide microdisk resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiyuan; Lee, Jonathan Y.; Feng, Philip X.-L.; Lin, Qiang

    2014-05-05

    We demonstrate a silicon carbide (SiC) microdisk resonator with optical Q up to 5.12 × 10{sup 4}. The high optical quality, together with the diversity of whispering-gallery modes and the tunability of external coupling, renders SiC microdisk a promising platform for integrated quantum photonics applications.

  9. Direct plasmadynamic synthesis of ultradisperse silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Nikitin, D. S.; Pak, A. Ya.; Rakhmatullin, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    Ultradisperse cubic silicon carbide (β-SiC) has been obtained by direct plasmadynamic synthesis in pulsed supersonic carbon-silicon plasma jet incident on a copper obstacle in argon atmosphere. The powdered product has a high content of β-SiC in the form of single crystals with average size of about 100 nm and nearly perfect crystallographic habit.

  10. Boron Carbides As Thermo-electric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews recent theoretical and experimental research on thermoelectric materials. Recent work with narrow-band semiconductors demonstrated possibility of relatively high thermoelectric energy-conversion efficiencies in materials withstanding high temperatures needed to attain such efficiencies. Among promising semiconductors are boron-rich borides, especially boron carbides.

  11. Evidence of hydrogen embrittlement of tungsten carbide.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G C

    1978-02-01

    Tungsten carbide vessels containing materials at high temperature and high pressure are used in many laboratories. We note that any oils at medium to high temperature which can break down and liberate hydrogen cause rapid failure of the pressure vessel, whereas perfluorated kerosenes used as lubricants inside a pressure vessel give sharply increased life of the vessel. PMID:18699072

  12. Ceramic Fabric Coated With Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Smith, M.; Goldstein, H.; Zimmerman, N.

    1988-01-01

    Material used as high-temperature shell. Ceramic fabric coated with silicon carbide (SiC) serves as tough, heat-resistant covering for other refractory materials. Developed to protect reusable insulating tiles on advanced space transportation systems. New covering makes protective glaze unnecessary. Used on furnace bricks or on insulation for engines.

  13. Boron carbide nanowires: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhe

    Bulk boron carbide has been widely used in ballistic armored vest and the property characterization has been heavily focused on mechanical properties. Even though boron carbides have also been projected as a promising class of high temperature thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting, the research has been limited in this field. Since the thermal conductivity of bulk boron carbide is still relatively high, there is a great opportunity to take advantage of the nano effect to further reduce it for better thermoelectric performance. This dissertation work aims to explore whether improved thermoelectric performance can be found in boron carbide nanowires compared with their bulk counterparts. This dissertation work consists of four main parts. (1) Synthesis of boron carbide nanowires. Boron carbide nanowires were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of diborane and methane at low temperatures (with 879 °C as the lowest) in a home-built low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. The CVD-based method is energy efficient and cost effective. The as-synthesized nanowires were characterized by electron microscopy extensively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the nanowires are single crystalline with planar defects. Depending on the geometrical relationship between the preferred growth direction of the nanowire and the orientation of the defects, the as-synthesized nanowires could be further divided into two categories: transverse fault (TF) nanowires grow normal to the defect plane, while axial fault (AF) ones grow within the defect plane. (2) Understanding the growth mechanism of as-synthesized boron carbide nanowires. The growth mechanism can be generally considered as the famous vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. TF and AF nanowires were found to be guided by Ni-B catalysts of two phases. A TF nanowire is lead by a hexagonal phase catalyst, which was proved to be in a liquid state during reaction. While an AF nanowires is catalyzed by a

  14. Processing development of 4 tantalum carbide-hafnium carbide and related carbides and borides for extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballa, Osama Gaballa Bahig

    Carbides, nitrides, and borides ceramics are of interest for many applications because of their high melting temperatures and good mechanical properties. Wear-resistant coatings are among the most important applications for these materials. Materials with high wear resistance and high melting temperatures have the potential to produce coatings that resist degradation when subjected to high temperatures and high contact stresses. Among the carbides, Al4SiC4 is a low density (3.03 g/cm3), high melting temperature (>2000°C) compound, characterized by superior oxidation resistance, and high compressive strength. These desirable properties motivated this investigation to (1) obtain high-density Al4SiC4 at lower sintering temperatures by hot pressing, and (2) to enhance its mechanical properties by adding WC and TiC to the Al4SiC4. Also among the carbides, tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide have outstanding hardness; high melting points (3880°C and 3890°C respectively); good resistance to chemical attack, thermal shock, and oxidation; and excellent electronic conductivity. Tantalum hafnium carbide (Ta4HfC 5) is a 4-to-1 ratio of TaC to HfC with an extremely high melting point of 4215 K (3942°C), which is the highest melting point of all currently known compounds. Due to the properties of these carbides, they are considered candidates for extremely high-temperature applications such as rocket nozzles and scramjet components, where the operating temperatures can exceed 3000°C. Sintering bulk components comprised of these carbides is difficult, since sintering typically occurs above 50% of the melting point. Thus, Ta4 HfC5 is difficult to sinter in conventional furnaces or hot presses; furnaces designed for very high temperatures are expensive to purchase and operate. Our research attempted to sinter Ta4HfC5 in a hot press at relatively low temperature by reducing powder particle size and optimizing the powder-handling atmosphere, milling conditions, sintering

  15. Design considerations and experimental analysis for silicon carbide power rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemka, V.; Patel, R.; Chow, T. P.; Gutmann, R. J.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper we present the investigation of properties of silicon carbide power rectifiers, in particular Schottky, PiN and advanced hybrid power rectifiers such as the trench MOS barrier Schottky rectifier. Analysis of the forward, reverse and switching experimental characteristics are presented and these silicon carbide rectifiers are compared to silicon devices. Silicon carbide Schottky rectifiers are attractive for applications requiring blocking voltage in excess of 100 V as the use of Si is precluded by its large specific on-resistance. Analysis of power dissipation indicates that silicon carbide Schottky rectifiers offer significant improvement over silicon counterparts. Silicon carbide junction rectifiers, on the other hand, are superior to silicon counterparts only for blocking voltage greater than 2000 V. Performance of acceptor (boron) and donor (phosphorus) implanted experimental silicon carbide junction rectifiers are presented and compared. Some of the recent developments in silicon carbide rectifiers have been described and compared with theory and our experimental results. The well established silicon rectifiers theory are often inadequate to describe the characteristics of the experimental silicon carbide junction rectifiers and appropriate generalization of these theories are presented. Experimental trench MOS barrier Schottky rectifiers (TMBS) have demonstrated significant improvement in leakage current compared to planar Schottky devices. Performance of current state-of-the-art silicon carbide rectifiers are far from theoretical predictions. Availability of high-quality silicon carbide crystals is crucial to successful realization of these performance projections.

  16. METHOD FOR PRODUCING CEMENTED CARBIDE ARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    Onstott, E.I.; Cremer, G.D.

    1959-07-14

    A method is described for making molded materials of intricate shape where the materials consist of mixtures of one or more hard metal carbides or oxides and matrix metals or binder metals thereof. In one embodiment of the invention 90% of finely comminuted tungsten carbide powder together with finely comminuted cobalt bonding agent is incorporated at 60 deg C into a slurry with methyl alcohol containing 1.5% paraffin, 3% camphor, 3.5% naphthalene, and 1.8% toluene. The compact is formed by the steps of placing the slurry in a mold at least one surface of which is porous to the fluid organic system, compacting the slurry, removing a portion of the mold from contact with the formed object and heating the formed object to remove the remaining organic matter and to sinter the compact.

  17. Behavior of Disordered Boron Carbide under Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanchini, Giovanni; McCauley, James W.; Chhowalla, Manish

    2006-07-01

    Gibbs free-energy calculations based on density functional theory have been used to determine the possible source of failure of boron carbide just above the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL). A range of B4C polytypes is found to be stable at room pressure. The energetic barrier for shock amorphization of boron carbide is by far the lowest for the B12(CCC) polytype, requiring only 6GPa≈P(HEL) for collapse under hydrostatic conditions. The results clearly demonstrate that the collapse of the B12(CCC) phase leads to segregation of B12 and amorphous carbon in the form of 2 3 nm bands along the (113) lattice direction, in excellent agreement with recent transmission electron microscopy results.

  18. Reliable Breakdown Obtained in Silicon Carbide Rectifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1997-01-01

    The High Temperature Integrated Electronics and Sensor (HTIES) Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing silicon carbide (SiC) for use in harsh conditions where silicon, the semiconductor used in nearly all of today's electronics, cannot function. Silicon carbide's demonstrated ability to function under extreme high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions will enable significant improvements to a far-ranging variety of applications and systems. These range from improved high-voltage switching for energy savings in public electric power distribution and electric vehicles, to more powerful microwave electronics for radar and cellular communications, to sensor and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines.

  19. Ultrasonic ranking of toughness of tungsten carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation measurements to rank tungsten carbide alloys according to their fracture toughness was demonstrated. Six samples of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) were examined. These varied in cobalt content from approximately 2 to 16 weight percent. The toughness generally increased with increasing cobalt content. Toughness was first determined by the Palmqvist and short rod fracture toughness tests. Subsequently, ultrasonic attenuation measurements were correlated with both these mechanical test methods. It is shown that there is a strong increase in ultrasonic attenuation corresponding to increased toughness of the WC-Co alloys. A correlation between attenuation and toughness exists for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies. However, the best correlation for the WC-Co alloys occurs when the attenuation coefficient measured in the vicinity of 100 megahertz is compared with toughness as determined by the Palmqvist technique.

  20. Method for fabricating boron carbide articles

    DOEpatents

    Ardary, Zane L.; Reynolds, Carl D.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the fabrication of boron carbide articles having length-to-diameter or width ratios greater than 2 to 1. The process of the present invention is practiced by the steps comprising hot pressing boron carbide powder into article segments or portions in which the segments have a length-to-diameter or width ratio less than 1.5, aligning a plurality of the initially hot-pressed segments in a hot-pressing die with the end surfaces of the segments placed in intimate contact with one another, and then hot pressing the aligned segments into an article of the desired configuration. The resulting article exhibits essentially uniform density throughout the structure with the bonds between the segments being equivalent in hardness, strength, and density to the remainder of the article.

  1. The first spectroscopic observation of germanium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Jose I.

    Electronic spectroscopy was used to obtain gas phase spectrum of the germanium carbide molecule in emission from a corona excited supersonic expansion source. The (2) 3pi -- X 3pi electronic transition was observed around the 21250 cm-1 region. In this system, vibrational bands and the rotational lines of the O = 0, 1, and 2 components were obtained and analyzed. The equilibrium transition energy is found at 21120.3 cm-1 and the fundamental vibrational frequency for the lowest energy ground state O = 2 component is 795.3 cm -1. This is the first spectroscopic observation of germanium carbide. An unsuccessful attempt to obtain the first electronic emission spectrum of aluminum boride is also described.

  2. Predicted wear resistances of binary carbide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, B.M.

    1986-11-01

    A mechanistic model of the tool wear process has been presented (B. M. Kramer and P. K. Judd, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 2439 (1985)) that includes the effects of both the abrasion of the tool material by inclusions within the workpiece and the chemical dissolution of the tool material into the matrix of the workpiece. Machining tests have been run on steel with titanium carbide coated tooling and the resulting test data have been employed to produce a rough calibration of the proposed model. This model has been used to predict the wear resistances of the other group IV B carbides and of the (Ti,Hf)C system in the machining of steel.

  3. Fundamental Study of Boron Carbide Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Sudarshan; Yeoun, Dae; Janjua, Saad; Driver, Marcus; Caruso, Anthony

    2009-03-01

    Boron-rich carbides belong to a special class of solids whose main structural unit is the twelve atom icosahedra. When depositing thin films of boron carbide (nominally B4C) by RF or pulsed DC magnetron sputtering, the individual sputtered or ablated cluster size and the temperature of the substrate to which the clusters adsorb to form the film, greatly affects the bulk film physical and electronic structure. This talk will present mass spectrometry data of the target clusters as a function of RF power, DC bias and chamber pressure toward the goal of modeling and understanding how the icosahedral based boron-rich materials sputter and the resultant control over the final film properties. Argon trapped into the film during the deposition as determined by X-Ray photoemission will also be discussed.

  4. Diamond-silicon carbide composite and method

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Yusheng

    2011-06-14

    Uniformly dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites having high hardness, high fracture toughness, and high thermal stability are prepared by consolidating a powder mixture of diamond and amorphous silicon. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPam.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness.

  5. Low blow Charpy impact of silicon carbides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, H.; Chandan, H. C.; Bradt, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The room-temperature impact resistance of several commercial silicon carbides was examined using an instrumented pendulum-type machine and Charpy-type specimens. Energy balance compliance methods and fracture toughness approaches, both applicable to other ceramics, were used for analysis. The results illustrate the importance of separating the machine and the specimen energy contributions and confirm the equivalence of KIc and KId. The material's impact energy was simply the specimen's stored elastic strain energy at fracture.

  6. Producing Silicon Carbide for Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1986-01-01

    Processes proposed for production of SiC crystals for use in semiconductors operating at temperatures as high as 900 degrees C. Combination of new processes produce silicon carbide chips containing epitaxial layers. Chips of SiC first grown on porous carbon matrices, then placed in fluidized bed, where additional layer of SiC grows. Processes combined to yield complete process. Liquid crystallization process used to make SiC particles or chips for fluidized-bed process.

  7. Electron-Spin Resonance in Boron Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles; Venturini, Eugene L.; Azevedo, Larry J.; Emin, David

    1987-01-01

    Samples exhibit Curie-law behavior in temperature range of 2 to 100 K. Technical paper presents studies of electron-spin resonance of samples of hot pressed B9 C, B15 C2, B13 C2, and B4 C. Boron carbide ceramics are refractory solids with high melting temperatures, low thermal conductives, and extreme hardnesses. They show promise as semiconductors at high temperatures and have unusually large figures of merit for use in thermoelectric generators.

  8. Acoustic microscopy of silicon carbide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, P. K.; Heitman, P. W.; Yuhas, D.; Vorres, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) is able to detect such fracture-controlling flaws in dense silicon carbide materials as surface voids, whose diameter-by-depth size is a minimum of 75 by 17 microns in reaction-bonded SiC and 68 by 25 microns in alpha-SiC. Surface conditions such as pitting, which have been found to limit the discernibility of drilled holes, become important when pit and drilled hole sizes become comparable.

  9. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1985-08-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  10. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-04-15

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  11. Microwave joining of silicon carbide using several different approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Silberglitt, R. ); Black, W.M.; Sa'adaldin, H.S. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Katz, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Microwave joining of sintered silicon carbide, both to itself and reaction bonded silicon carbide, has been accomplished in a single-mode rectangular resonant cavity. Several approaches using different interlayer materials were employed to join sintered silicon carbide. Effective joining of reaction bonded silicon carbide to itself and sintered silicon carbide was accomplished without the use of any interlayer material in the single-mode resonant cavity as well as in a multi-mode oven. Specimens cut from 3/8'' diameter-rods were joined in the single-mode cavity, whereas a variety of arbitrary shapes and larger specimens (of reaction bonded silicon carbide) were joined in the multi-mode oven.

  12. Microwave joining of silicon carbide using several different approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Silberglitt, R.; Black, W.M.; Sa`adaldin, H.S.; Katz, J.D.

    1992-07-01

    Microwave joining of sintered silicon carbide, both to itself and reaction bonded silicon carbide, has been accomplished in a single-mode rectangular resonant cavity. Several approaches using different interlayer materials were employed to join sintered silicon carbide. Effective joining of reaction bonded silicon carbide to itself and sintered silicon carbide was accomplished without the use of any interlayer material in the single-mode resonant cavity as well as in a multi-mode oven. Specimens cut from 3/8`` diameter-rods were joined in the single-mode cavity, whereas a variety of arbitrary shapes and larger specimens (of reaction bonded silicon carbide) were joined in the multi-mode oven.

  13. Friction and deformation behavior of single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and deformation studies were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide in sliding contact with diamond. When the radius of curvature of the spherical diamond rider was large (0.3), deformation of silicon carbide was primarily elastic. Under these conditions the friction coefficient was low and did not show a dependence on the silicon carbide orientation. Further, there was no detectable cracking of the silicon carbide surfaces. When smaller radii of curvature of the spherical diamond riders (0.15 and 0.02 mm) or a conical diamond rider was used, plastic grooving occured and the silicon carbide exhibited anisotropic friction and deformation behavior. Under these conditions the friction coefficient depended on load. Anisotropic friction and deformation of the basal plane of silicon carbide was controlled by the slip system. 10101120and cleavage of1010.

  14. Carbide coated fibers in graphite-aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imprescia, R. J.; Levinson, L. S.; Reiswig, R. D.; Wallace, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of protective-coupling layers of refractory metal carbides on the graphite fibers prior to their incorporation into composites is presented. Such layers should be directly wettable by liquid aluminum and should act as diffusion barriers to prevent the formation of aluminum carbide. Chemical vapor deposition was used to uniformly deposit thin, smooth, continuous coats of ZrC on the carbon fibers of tows derived from both rayon and polyacrylonitrile. A wet chemical coating of the fibers, followed by high-temperature treatment, was used, and showed promise as an alternative coating method. Experiments were performed to demonstrate the ability of aluminum alloys to wet carbide surfaces. Titanium carbide, zirconium carbide and carbide-coated graphite surfaces were successfully wetted. Results indicate that initial attempts to wet surfaces of ZrC-coated carbon fibers appear successful.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Nanoceramic Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, Ipidapo; Abunaemeh, Malek; Smith, Cydale; Muntele, Claudiu; Ila, Daryush

    2009-03-01

    Generation IV nuclear reactors will use the TRISO fuels, a type of micro fuel particle. It consists of a fuel kernel coated with four layers of isotropic material. One of the materials considered for these layers is silicon carbide ceramic. This lightweight material can maintain chemical and dimensional stability in adverse environments at very high temperatures up to 3000 C, and it is chemically inert. It is widely used as a semiconductor material in electronics because of its high thermo conductivity, high electric field break down strength, and high maximum current density, which makes it more desirable than silicon. Silicon carbide has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion and has no phase transition that would discontinue its thermal expansion. At the Center for Irradiation of Materials (C.I.M.) we are developing a new fabrication process for nanopowdered silicon carbide for TRISO fuel coating purposes. We also study the mechanical properties of the material produced. Among the different test being performed are particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) an Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The mechanical properties of interest are hardness (measured by Vickers Hardness machine), toughness (measured by the Anstis equation, KIC= 1.6 x 10-2(E/H)^1/2(P/C0^3/2, where P=load, C0=crack length, E=Young's modulus and H=Vickers Hardness), tensile strength and flexural strength (measured by a three point bend test). Results will be presented during the meeting.

  16. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Danny C.; Pyzik, Aleksander J.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    1986-01-01

    Hard, tough, lightweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidation step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modulus of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi.sqroot.in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  17. Silicon carbide sintered body manufactured from silicon carbide powder containing boron, silicon and carbonaceous additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Hidehiko

    1987-01-01

    A silicon carbide powder of a 5-micron grain size is mixed with 0.15 to 0.60 wt% mixture of a boron compound, i.e., boric acid, boron carbide (B4C), silicon boride (SiB4 or SiB6), aluminum boride, etc., and an aluminum compound, i.e., aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum carbide, etc., or aluminum boride (AlB2) alone, in such a proportion that the boron/aluminum atomic ratio in the sintered body becomes 0.05 to 0.25 wt% and 0.05 to 0.40 wt%, respectively, together with a carbonaceous additive to supply enough carbon to convert oxygen accompanying raw materials and additives into carbon monoxide.

  18. Characterization of boron carbide with an electron microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteudi, G.; Ruste, J.

    1983-01-01

    Within the framework of a study of heterogeneous materials (Matteudi et al., 1971: Matteudi and Verchery, 1972) thin deposits of boron carbide were characterized. Experiments using an electronic probe microanalyzer to analyze solid boron carbide or boron carbide in the form of thick deposits are described. Quantitative results on boron and carbon are very close to those obtained when applying the Monte Carlo-type correction calculations.

  19. Micro- and nanosized boron carbide: synthesis, structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrievski, Rostislav A.

    2012-06-01

    Methods of synthesis of powder particles, fibres (wires), tubes, films, coatings and bulk materials based on micro- and nanocrystalline and amorphous boron carbide are considered. Specific features of the electronic structure, material structure and physicochemical and mechanical properties of boron carbide and boron carbide-based composites are discussed. Their existing and potential applications are highlighted. The little studied aspects of the research area in question are specified. The bibliography includes 105 references.

  20. Optical waveguide formed by cubic silicon carbide on sapphire substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Xiao; Wongchotigul, Kobchat; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    Optical confinement in beta silicon carbide (beta-SiC) thin films on sapphire substrate is demonstrated. Measurements are performed on waveguides formed by the mechanical transfer of thin beta-SiC films to sapphire. Recent results of epitaxial films of SiC on sapphire substrates attest to the technological viability of optoelectronic devices made from silicon carbide. Far-field mode patterns are shown. It is believed that this is the first step in validating a silicon carbide optoelectronic technology.

  1. 40 CFR 415.30 - Applicability; description of the calcium carbide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calcium carbide production subcategory. 415.30 Section 415.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.30 Applicability; description of the calcium... the production of calcium carbide in uncovered furnaces....

  2. Transformations of Carbides During Tempering of D3 Tool Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykiel, Tadeusz; Hryniewicz, Tadeusz

    2014-06-01

    The studies were performed on D3 tool steel hardened after austenitizing at 1050 °C during 30 min and tempering at 200-700 °C. Based on the diffraction studies performed from the extraction replicas, using electron microscopy, it was found that after 120-min tempering in the consecutive temperatures, the following types of carbides occur: Apart from higher mentioned carbides, there are also big primary carbides and fine secondary M7C3 carbides occurring, which did not dissolve during austenitizing.

  3. Tribological properties of sintered polycrystalline and single crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Srinivasan, M.

    1982-01-01

    Tribological studies and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses were conducted with sintered polycrystalline and single crystal silicon carbide surfaces in sliding contact with iron at various temperatures to 1500 C in a vacuum of 30 nPa. The results indicate that there is a significant temperature influence on both the friction properties and the surface chemistry of silicon carbide. The main contaminants on the as received sintered polycrystalline silicon carbide surfaces are adsorbed carbon, oxygen, graphite, and silicon dioxide. The surface revealed a low coefficient of friction. This is due to the presence of the graphite on the surface. At temperatures of 400 to 600 C graphite and copious amount of silicon dioxide were observed on the polycrystalline silicon carbide surface in addition to silicon carbide. At 800 C, the amount of the silicon dioxide decreased rapidly and the silicon carbide type silicon and carbon peaks were at a maximum intensity in the XPS spectra. The coefficients of friction were high in the temperature range 400 to 800 C. Small amounts of carbon and oxygen contaminants were observed on the as received single crystal silicon carbide surface below 250 C. Silicon carbide type silicon and carbon peaks were seen on the silicon carbide in addition to very small amount of graphite and silicon dioxide at temperatures of 450 to 800 C.

  4. Preparation and electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Sujuan; Shi, Binbin; Yao, Guoxing; Li, Guohua; Ma, Chunan

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite is related to the structure, crystal phase and chemical components of the nanocomposite, and is also affected by the property of electrolyte. A synergistic effect exists between tungsten carbide and titania of the composite. Highlights: {yields} Electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite with core-shell structure. {yields} Activity is related to the structure, crystal phase and chemical component of the nanocomposite. {yields} The property of electrolyte affects the electrocatalytic activity. {yields} A synergistic effect exists between tungsten carbide and titania of the composite. -- Abstract: Tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite was prepared by combining a reduced-carbonized approach with a mechanochemical approach. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope under scanning mode and X-ray energy dispersion spectrum. The results show that the crystal phases of the samples are composed of anatase, rutile, nonstoichiometry titanium oxide, monotungsten carbide, bitungsten carbide and nonstoichiometry tungsten carbide, and they can be controlled by adjusting the parameters of the reduced-carbonized approach; tungsten carbide particles decorate on the surface of titania support, the diameter of tungsten carbide particle is smaller than 20 nm and that of titania is around 100 nm; the chemical components of the samples are Ti, O, W and C. The electrocatalytic activity of the samples was measured by a cyclic voltammetry with three electrodes. The results indicate that the electrocatalytic activities of the samples are related to their crystal phases and the property of electrolyte in aqueous solution. A synergistic effect between titania and tungsten carbide is reported for the first time.

  5. Ultrafine alumina coated silicon carbide particles for alumina-silicon carbide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Warrier, K.G.K.; Hareesh, U.S.; Damodaran, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Aluminum oxide, toughened by fine and uniform dispersion of silicon carbide particles has been found to possess interesting high temperature properties of high toughness and strength. Recent reports suggest that the finer the silicon carbide size, the better would be the fracture toughness. By addition of as few as 5 vol% submicron SiC particles strengthened Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from 350 MPa to 1 GPa, with toughness as high as 4.7 Mpa m{sup {1/2}}. The mechanism of such high extent of fracture toughness has been investigated to be due to crack deflection and microcracking introduced by thermal expansion mismatch between particles and matrix grains, although the real contributions from the silicon carbide nanoparticles are still under investigation. In all these cases the primary requirement for most effective composite is the fine, uniform size of the particles and their homogeneous dispersion in the alumina matrix. Usual methods adopted for the preparation of composites such as physical mixing of alumina and silicon carbide particles often result in localized agglomerations and inhomogeneity making the composite inferior in properties.

  6. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, T. J.; Winterbottom, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Work performed to develop silicon carbide materials of high strength and to form components of complex shape and high reliability is described. A beta-SiC powder and binder system was adapted to the injection molding process and procedures and process parameters developed capable of providing a sintered silicon carbide material with improved properties. The initial effort has been to characterize the baseline precursor materials (beta silicon carbide powder and boron and carbon sintering aids), develop mixing and injection molding procedures for fabricating test bars, and characterize the properties of the sintered materials. Parallel studies of various mixing, dewaxing, and sintering procedures have been carried out in order to distinguish process routes for improving material properties. A total of 276 MOR bars of the baseline material have been molded, and 122 bars have been fully processed to a sinter density of approximately 95 percent. The material has a mean MOR room temperature strength of 43.31 ksi (299 MPa), a Weibull characteristic strength of 45.8 ksi (315 MPa), and a Weibull modulus of 8.0. Mean values of the MOR strengths at 1000, 1200, and 14000 C are 41.4, 43.2, and 47.2 ksi, respectively. Strength controlling flaws in this material were found to consist of regions of high porosity and were attributed to agglomerates originating in the initial mixing procedures. The mean stress rupture lift at 1400 C of five samples tested at 172 MPa (25 ksi) stress was 62 hours and at 207 MPa (30 ksi) stress was 14 hours. New fluid mixing techniques have been developed which significantly reduce flaw size and improve the strength of the material. Initial MOR tests indicate the strength of the fluid-mixed material exceeds the baseline property by more than 33 percent.

  7. Method for producing silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-07-23

    Silicon carbide/silicon nitride composites are prepared by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and optionally crsytalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen.

  8. Carbide factor predicts rolling-element bearing fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis was made to determine correlation between number and size of carbide particles and rolling-element fatigue. Correlation was established, and carbide factor was derived that can be used to predict fatigue life more effectively than such variables as heat treatment, chemical composition, and hardening mechanism.

  9. Surface and Bulk Carbide Transformations in High-Speed Steel.

    PubMed

    Godec, M; Večko Pirtovšek, T; Šetina Batič, B; McGuiness, P; Burja, J; Podgornik, B

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the transformation of carbides in AISI M42 high-speed steels in the temperature window used for forging. The annealing was found to result in the partial transformation of the large, metastable M2C carbides into small, more stable grains of M6C, with an associated change in the crystal orientation. In addition, MC carbides form during the transformation of M2C to M6C. From the high-speed-steel production point of view, it is beneficial to have large, metastable carbides in the cast structure, which later during annealing, before the forging, transform into a structure of polycrystalline carbides. Such carbides can be easily decomposed into several small carbides, which are then randomly distributed in the microstructure. The results also show an interesting difference in the carbide-transformation reactions on the surface versus the bulk of the alloy, which has implications for in-situ studies of bulk phenomena that are based on surface observations. PMID:26537780

  10. Surface and Bulk Carbide Transformations in High-Speed Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, M.; Večko Pirtovšek, T.; Šetina Batič, B.; McGuiness, P.; Burja, J.; Podgornik, B.

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the transformation of carbides in AISI M42 high-speed steels in the temperature window used for forging. The annealing was found to result in the partial transformation of the large, metastable M2C carbides into small, more stable grains of M6C, with an associated change in the crystal orientation. In addition, MC carbides form during the transformation of M2C to M6C. From the high-speed-steel production point of view, it is beneficial to have large, metastable carbides in the cast structure, which later during annealing, before the forging, transform into a structure of polycrystalline carbides. Such carbides can be easily decomposed into several small carbides, which are then randomly distributed in the microstructure. The results also show an interesting difference in the carbide-transformation reactions on the surface versus the bulk of the alloy, which has implications for in-situ studies of bulk phenomena that are based on surface observations.

  11. Critically coupled surface phonon-polariton excitation in silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Burton; Korobkin, Dmitriy; Fietz, Chris; Carole, Davy; Ferro, Gabriel; Shvets, Gennady

    2009-09-01

    We observe critical coupling to surface phonon-polaritons in silicon carbide by attenuated total reflection of mid-IR radiation. Reflectance measurements demonstrate critical coupling by a double scan of wavelength and incidence angle. Critical coupling occurs when prism coupling loss is equal to losses in silicon carbide and the substrate, resulting in maximal electric field enhancement. PMID:19724526

  12. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    This patent pertains to compositions consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia. Fabrication, fracture toughness, and bend strength are covered.

  13. METHOD OF COATING GRAPHITE WITH STABLE METAL CARBIDES AND NITRIDES

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.

    1959-10-27

    A method is presented for forming protective stable nitride and carbide compounds on the surface of graphite. This is accomplished by contacting the graphite surface with a fused heavy liquid metal such as bismuth or leadbismuth containing zirconium, titanium, and hafnium dissolved or finely dispersed therein to form a carbide and nitride of at least one of the dissolved metals on the graphite surface.

  14. Method of coating graphite tubes with refractory metal carbides

    DOEpatents

    Wohlberg, C.

    1973-12-11

    A method of coating graphite tubes with a refractory metal carbide is described. An alkali halide is reacted with a metallic oxide, the metallic portion being selected from the IVth or Vth group of the Periodic Table, the resulting salt reacting in turn with the carbon to give the desired refractory metal carbide coating. (Official Gazette)

  15. Method of forming impermeable carbide coats on graphite

    DOEpatents

    Wohlberg, C.

    1973-12-11

    A method of forming an impermeable refractory metal carbide coating on graphite is described in which a metal containing oxidant and a carbide former are applied to the surface of the graphite, heated to a temperature of between 1200 and 1500 deg C in an inert gas, under a vacuum and continuing to heat to about 2300 deg C. (Official Gazette)

  16. Metal-ceramics based on nanostructured boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antadze, M.; Chedia, R.; Tsagareishvili, O.; Mikeladze, A.; Gacheciladze, A.; Margiev, B.; Gabunia, D.; Tsuladze, T.; Khantadze, D.

    2012-11-01

    Boron carbide has unique physicochemical and mechanical properties such as: high modulus of elasticity, high value of a strength-to-density ratio, heightened wear-resistance in unfriendly environment, etc., however dense product of boron carbide is not widely used in the area of engineering due to low impact strength, brittleness and low thermal conductivity of this material. Recent efforts of the scientists working in this area are focused on creating the so-called hetero-modulus metal-ceramic composite materials comprised of high-modulus ceramic and a metallic phase as an elastic binder. Creation of effective boron carbide based hetero-modulus materials is possible when a) boron carbide has a high degree of dispersion; b) metallic binder has a high adhesion ability and low reactivity toward boron carbide. The technology developed for producing boron carbide based metal-ceramic materials provides pyrolysis (900-1100 °C) of the precursors comprised of amorphous boron, carbon-chain polymers and appropriate metal salts. Each particle of the obtained powder contains both - nanostructured components of boron carbide and of a binding metallic phase. The fabricated metal-ceramic product has heightened parameters of impact strength and thermal conductivity in parallel with the retained unique properties of boron carbide.

  17. Surface and Bulk Carbide Transformations in High-Speed Steel

    PubMed Central

    Godec, M.; Večko Pirtovšek, T.; Šetina Batič, B.; McGuiness, P.; Burja, J.; Podgornik, B.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the transformation of carbides in AISI M42 high-speed steels in the temperature window used for forging. The annealing was found to result in the partial transformation of the large, metastable M2C carbides into small, more stable grains of M6C, with an associated change in the crystal orientation. In addition, MC carbides form during the transformation of M2C to M6C. From the high-speed-steel production point of view, it is beneficial to have large, metastable carbides in the cast structure, which later during annealing, before the forging, transform into a structure of polycrystalline carbides. Such carbides can be easily decomposed into several small carbides, which are then randomly distributed in the microstructure. The results also show an interesting difference in the carbide-transformation reactions on the surface versus the bulk of the alloy, which has implications for in-situ studies of bulk phenomena that are based on surface observations. PMID:26537780

  18. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1995-01-17

    Compositions are disclosed consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  19. Molybdenum disilicide composites reinforced with zirconia and silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.

    1995-01-01

    Compositions consisting essentially of molybdenum disilicide, silicon carbide, and a zirconium oxide component. The silicon carbide used in the compositions is in whisker or powder form. The zirconium oxide component is pure zirconia or partially stabilized zirconia or fully stabilized zirconia.

  20. Properties of titanium carbide and vanadium carbide mixtures as first wall coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikama, T.; Sakai, Y.; Fukutomi, M.; Okada, M.

    1985-08-01

    Mixtures of titanium carbide(TiC) and vanadium carbide(VC) were deposited onto molybdenum at 870 K by a planar magnetron sputtering method. Molybdenum coated with the mixtures of (Ti 1-xV x) 0.6C 0.4(0 ≲ x $ˇ0.7) was tensile-deformed to rupture at a strain rate of 7×10 -4 s -1 at 300 K. During the deformation of the molybdenum substrate, crack formation and exfoliation of the deposited film of the mixture were monitored by acoustic emission (AE) and by optical observation. The mixtures of titanium carbide and vanadium carbide have larger fracture strengths than their parent carbides. Mixtures in the composition range, (Ti 0.6V 0.4) 0.6C 0.4-(Ti 0.5V 0.5) 0.6C 0.4 had the largest fracture strengths. The larger fracture strength of the film of the mixture decreased the resistance of the film to exfoliation. However, film in the composition ranges. (Ti 0.95V 0.05) 0.6C 0.4-(Ti 0.8V 0.2) 0.6C 0.4 and (Ti 0.4V 0.6) 0.6C 0.4-(Ti 0.3V 0.7) 0.6C 0.4 showed good resistance against exfoliation. The detection of AE from the deposits suggested that these films might have the ability to deform plastically to a small extent.

  1. Titanium carbide coatings for aerospace ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boving, Hans J.; Haenni, Werner; Hintermann, HANS-E.

    1988-01-01

    In conventional ball bearings, steel to steel contacts between the balls and the raceways are at the origin of microwelds which lead to material transfer, surface roughening, lubricant breakdown, and finally to a loss in the bearing performances. To minimize the microwelding tendencies of the contacting partners it is necessary to modify their surface materials; the solid to solid collisions themselves are difficult to avoid. The use of titanium carbide coated steel balls can bring spectacular improvements in the performances and lifetimes of both oil-grease lubricated and oil-grease free bearings in a series of severe applications.

  2. Structural and mechanical properties of thorium carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Aynyas, Mahendra; Pataiya, Jagdeesh; Arya, B. S.; Singh, A.; Sanyal, S. P.

    2015-06-24

    We have investigated the cohesive energies, equilibrium lattice constants, pressure-volume relationship, phase transition pressure and elastic constant for thorium carbide using an interionic potential theory with modified ionic charge, which includes Coulomb screening effect due to d-electrons. This compound undergoes structural phase transition from NaCl (B{sub 1}) to CsCl (B{sub 2}) structure at high pressure 40 GPa. We have also calculated bulk, Young, and shear moduli, Poisson ratio and anisotropic ratio in NaCl (B{sub 1}) structure and compared them with other experimental and theoretical results which show a good agreement.

  3. Synthesis and characterisation of chromium carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detroye, M.; Reniers, F.; Buess-Herman, C.; Vereecken, J.

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and the characterisation of various chromium carbide compounds. Thin Cr 23C 6 films were deposited by reactive sputtering while Cr 7C 3 films were formed by the carburisation of chromium films in a CH 4/H 2 atmosphere. Cr xC y powders were synthesised from various precursors (Cr, CrN, Cr 2O 3) by reaction with CH 4/H 2 at high temperature. The samples were characterised by AES, XRD and electron diffraction. The effects of the experimental parameters (gas composition, temperature, reaction time) on the purity, the phase formed and the composition of the product of reaction are examined and discussed.

  4. Synthesis of nanocrystalline tungsten carbide (WC) powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Gourav; Singh, K.; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-06-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten carbide (WC) has been obtained from bulk WO3 by in situ reduction and carbonization reactions at low temperature (˜ 600 °C) by taking Mg as reductant and acetone C3H6O as carbon source. It was aimed to elucidate carburization behavior of WO3 powder and to establish optimal conditions for the synthesis of nanocrystalline WC. The role of reaction time on the synthesis of WC has been investigated and discussed. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analyzer (DTA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA).

  5. The first spectroscopic observation of germanium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazier, Christopher R.; Ruiz, José I.

    2011-11-01

    The gas phase spectrum of the germanium carbide radical has been observed at low temperature in emission from a corona excited supersonic expansion source. Many vibrational bands involving the Ω = 0, 1, and 2 components of the (2) 3Π-X 3Π system were recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium transition energy is found at 21120.3 cm -1, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The fundamental vibrational frequency for the lowest energy ground state Ω = 2 component is 795.3 cm -1.

  6. Processing of boron carbide-aluminum composites

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, D.C. ); Pyzik, A.J.; Aksay, I.A. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Snowden, W.E. )

    1989-05-01

    The processing problems associated with boron carbide and the limitations of its mechanical properties can be significantly reduced when a metal phase (e.g., aluminum) is added. Lower densification temperatures and higher fracture toughness will result. Based on fundamental capillarity thermodynamics, reaction thermodynamics, and densification kinetics, we have established reliable criteria for fabricating B{sub 4}C-Al particulate composites. Because chemical reactions cannot be eliminated, it is necessary to process B{sub 4}C-Al by rapidly heating to near 1200{degrees} C (to ensure wetting) and subsequently heat-treating below 1200{degrees} C (for microstructural development).

  7. Structural relaxation of amorphous silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Manabu; Bae, In-Tae; Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Matsumura, Syo; Sickafus, Kurt E

    2002-07-29

    We have examined amorphous structures of silicon carbide (SiC) using both transmission electron microscopy and a molecular-dynamics approach. Radial distribution functions revealed that amorphous SiC contains not only heteronuclear (Si-C) bonds but also homonuclear (Si-Si and C-C) bonds. The ratio of heteronuclear to homonuclear bonds was found to change upon annealing, suggesting that structural relaxation of the amorphous SiC occurred. Good agreement was obtained between the simulated and experimentally measured radial distribution functions. PMID:12144449

  8. Mechanical properties of Silicon Carbide Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhateeb, Abdullah; Zhang, Daqing; McIlroy, David; Aston, David Eric

    2004-05-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires could be potentially useful for high strength materials which lead to the interest in understanding their mechanical properties. In this report we use the digital pulse force microscopy to analyze the mechanical properties of SiC nanowires .Stiffness and adhesion images of SiC nanowires on silicon grating were obtained and calibrated force-distance curves were plotted along the wire which spans on a 1.5 micron trench. Moreover, spring constant and Young's modules have been calculated from the linear part of the force-distance curves.

  9. METHOD FOR COATING GRAPHITE WITH NIOBIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Kane, J.S.; Carpenter, J.H.; Krikorian, O.H.

    1962-01-16

    A method is given for coating graphite with a hard, tenacious layer of niobium carbide up to 30 mils or more thick. The method makes use of the discovery that niobium metal, if degassed and heated rapidly below the carburization temperature in contact with graphite, spreads, wets, and penetrates the graphite without carburization. The method includes the obvious steps of physically contacting niobium powders or other physical forms of niobium with graphite, degassing the assembly below the niobium melting point, e.g., 1400 deg C, heating to about 2200 to 2400 deg C within about 15 minutes while outgassing at a high volume throughput, and thereafter carburizing the niobium. (AEC)

  10. Analysis of tungsten carbides by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kinson, K; Knott, A C; Belcher, C B

    Five sample presentation techniques were examined for the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis of tungsten carbide alloys in powder and cemented forms. Powder samples may be oxidized by air at 600 degrees before fusion (I), or preferably by lithium nitrate during fusion (II); the fusion is effected with lithium-lanthanum tetraborate followed by briquetting with graphite. Powder samples may also be blended with wax and briquetted (III). Cemented carbides are surface-prepared with silicon carbide before analysis (V). Briquettes prepared by blending carbide powder, lithium-lanthanum tetraborate and graphite (IV), give poor reproducibility, however, owing to micro-absorption effects the technique is not recommended. The determination of eight common elements in tungsten carbide is discussed and the relative standard deviations are 0.002-0.004 for major and 0.008-0.01 for minor elements. PMID:18961988

  11. Corrosion behavior of porous chromium carbide in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ziqiang; Chen, Weixing; Zheng, Wenyue; Guzonas, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of highly porous chromium carbide (Cr 3C 2) prepared by a reactive sintering process was characterized at temperatures ranging from 375 °C to 625 °C in a supercritical water environment with a pressure of 25-30 MPa. The test results show that porous chromium carbide is stable in SCW environments at temperatures under 425 °C, above which disintegration occurred. The porous carbide was also tested under hydrothermal conditions of pressures between 12 MPa and 50 MPa at constant temperatures of 400 °C and 415 °C, respectively. The pressure showed little effect on the stability of chromium carbide in the tests at those temperatures. The mechanism of disintegration of chromium carbide in SCW environments is discussed.

  12. Electrocatalysis using transition metal carbide and oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, Yagya N.

    Carbides are one of the several families of transition metal compounds that are considered economic alternatives to catalysts based on noble metals and their compounds. Phase pure transition metal carbides of group 4-6 metals, in the first three periods, were synthesized using a common eutectic salt flux synthesis method, and their electrocatalytic activities compared under uniform electrochemical conditions. Mo2C showed highest hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities among the nine metal carbides investigated, but all other metal carbides also showed substantial activities. All the metal carbides showed remarkable enhancement in catalytic activities as supports, when compared to traditional graphitic carbon as platinum support. Mo2C, the most active transition metal carbide electrocatalyst, was prepared using four different synthesis routes, and the synthesis route dependent activities compared. Bifunctional Mo 2C that is HER as well as oxygen evolution reaction (OER) active, was achieved when the carbide was templated on a multiwalled carbon nanotube using carbothermic reduction method. Bimetallic carbides of Fe, Co, and Ni with Mo or W were prepared using a common carbothermic reduction method. Two different stoichiometries of bimetallic carbides were obtained for each system within a 60 °C temperature window. While the bimetallic carbides showed relatively lower electrocatalytic activities towards HER and ORR in comparison to Mo2C and WC, they revealed remarkably higher OER activities than IrO2 and RuO2, the state-of-the-art OER catalysts. Bimetallic oxides of Fe, Co, and Ni with Mo and W were also prepared using a hydrothermal synthesis method and they also revealed OER activities that are much higher than RuO2 and IrO2. Additionally, the OER activities were dependent on the degree and nature of hydration in the bimetallic oxide crystal lattice, with the completely hydrated, as synthesized, cobalt molybdate and nickel

  13. High temperature intermetallic binders for HVOF carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, K.G.; Gruninger, M.F.; Jarosinski, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gas turbines technology has a long history of employing the desirable high temperature physical attributes of ceramic-metallic (cermet) materials. The most commonly used coatings incorporate combinations of WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr, which have also been successfully utilized in other non-turbine coating applications. Increased turbine operating temperatures and other high temperature service conditions have made apparent the attractive notion of increasing the temperature capability and corrosion resistance of these coatings. In this study the intermetallic binder NiAl has been used to replace the cobalt and NiCr constituents of conventional WC and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} cermet powders. The composite carbide thermal spray powders were fabricated for use in the HVOF coating process. The structure of HVOF deposited NiAl-carbide coatings are compared directly to the more familiar WC-Co and Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coatings using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron imaging (BEI) and electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Hardness variations with temperature are reported and compared between the NiAl and Co/NiCr binders.

  14. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the third annual technical report for the program entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, for the period February 16, 1987 to February 15, 1988. The objective of the original program was the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. Injection molding is the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals of the revised program are to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in 4-point loading. Two tasks are discussed: Task 1 which involves materials and process improvements, and Task 2 which is a MOR bar matrix to improve strength and reliability. Many statistically designed experiments were completed under task 1 which improved the composition of the batches, the mixing of the powders, the sinter and anneal cycles. The best results were obtained by an attritor mixing process which yielded strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and an individual Weibull modulus of 16.8 for a 9-sample group. Strengths measured at 1200 and 1400 C were equal to the room temperature strength. Annealing of machined test bars significantly improved the strength. Molding yields were measured and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. The second iteration of the Task 2 matrix experiment is described.

  15. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second annual technical report entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, and includes work performed during the period February 16, 1986 to February 15, 1987. The program is conducted for NASA under contract NAS3-24384. The objective is the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. The fabrication methods used are to be adaptable for mass production of such parts on an economically sound basis. Injection molding is the forming method selected. This objective is to be accomplished in a two-phase program: (1) to achieve a 20 percent improvement in strength and a 100 percent increase in Weibull modulus of the baseline material; and (2) to produce a complex shaped part, a gas turbine rotor, for example, with the improved mechanical properties attained in the first phase. Eight tasks are included in the first phase covering the characterization of the properties of a baseline material, the improvement of those properties and the fabrication of complex shaped parts. Activities during the first contract year concentrated on two of these areas: fabrication and characterization of the baseline material (Task 1) and improvement of material and processes (Task 7). Activities during the second contract year included an MOR bar matrix study to improve mechanical properties (Task 2), materials and process improvements (Task 7), and a Ford-funded task to mold a turbocharger rotor with an improved material (Task 8).

  16. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.; Mangels, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of silicon carbide materials of high strength was initiated and components of complex shape and high reliability were formed. The approach was to adapt a beta-SiC powder and binder system to the injection molding process and to develop procedures and process parameters capable of providing a sintered silicon carbide material with improved properties. The initial effort was to characterize the baseline precursor materials, develop mixing and injection molding procedures for fabricating test bars, and characterize the properties of the sintered materials. Parallel studies of various mixing, dewaxing, and sintering procedures were performed in order to distinguish process routes for improving material properties. A total of 276 modulus-of-rupture (MOR) bars of the baseline material was molded, and 122 bars were fully processed to a sinter density of approximately 95 percent. Fluid mixing techniques were developed which significantly reduced flaw size and improved the strength of the material. Initial MOR tests indicated that strength of the fluid-mixed material exceeds the baseline property by more than 33 percent. the baseline property by more than 33 percent.

  17. Dispersion aspects of silicon carbide gelcasting

    SciTech Connect

    Bleier, A.

    1991-09-01

    The principal objective of this research was to increase the solid loading of silicon carbide (SiC) powder, in an appropriate liquid medium, to a level that is useful for gelcasting technology. A number of factors that determine the maximum concentration of silicon carbide that can be incorporated into a pourable ceramic suspension have been identified. The pH of the system is the most critical processing parameter. Its proper adjustment (pH 11 to 13) allows SiC concentrations exceeding 50%, based on volume, to be routinely achieved without the use of additional dispersing agents. The particle size of SiC was also found to affect the maximum, attainable concentration. The surface area of the powder and the presence of free carbon in the powder, though not significantly influencing the suspension properties, determine the concentration of initiator required to induce polymerization and gelation. SiC specimens have been gelcast for powders in the size range of 0.8 to 8.5 {mu}m; the powders employed contain either {approximately} 0 or 19% carbon by weight. Finally, the generation of bubbles, typically encountered by the use of ammonia to adjust pH has been circumvented by the use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

  18. Dynamic compaction of tungsten carbide powder.

    SciTech Connect

    Gluth, Jeffrey Weston; Hall, Clint Allen; Vogler, Tracy John; Grady, Dennis Edward

    2005-04-01

    The shock compaction behavior of a tungsten carbide powder was investigated using a new experimental design for gas-gun experiments. This design allows the Hugoniot properties to be measured with reasonably good accuracy despite the inherent difficulties involved with distended powders. The experiments also provide the first reshock state for the compacted powder. Experiments were conducted at impact velocities of 245, 500, and 711 m/s. A steady shock wave was observed for some of the sample thicknesses, but the remainder were attenuated due to release from the back of the impactor or the edge of the sample. The shock velocity for the powder was found to be quite low, and the propagating shock waves were seen to be very dispersive. The Hugoniot density for the 711 m/s experiment was close to ambient crystal density for tungsten carbide, indicating nearly complete compaction. When compared with quasi-static compaction results for the same material, the dynamic compaction data is seen to be significantly stiffer for the regime over which they overlap. Based on these initial results, recommendations are made for improving the experimental technique and for future work to improve our understanding of powder compaction.

  19. Ultrasmall Carbide Nanospheres - Formation and Electronic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, Petra; Monazami, Ehsan; McClimon, John

    2015-03-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are highly coveted but are subject to rapid Ostwald ripening even at moderate temperatures limiting study of their properties. Ultrasmall transition metal carbide ``nanospheres'' are synthesized by a solid-state reaction between fullerene as carbon scaffold, and a W surface. This produces nanospheres with a narrow size distribution below 2.5 nm diameter. The nanosphere shape is defined by the scaffold and densely packed arrays can be achieved. The metal-fullerene reaction is temperature driven and progresses through an intermediate semiconducting phase until the fully metallic nanospheres are created at about 350 C. The reaction sequence is observed with STM, and STS maps yield the local density of states. The reaction presumably progresses by stepwise introduction of W-atoms in the carbon scaffold. The results of high resolution STM/STS in combination with DFT calculations are used to unravel the reaction mechanism. We will discuss the transfer of this specific reaction mechanism to other transition metal carbides. The nanospheres are an excellent testbed for the physics and chemistry of highly curved surfaces.

  20. Development of silicon carbide composites for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L. )

    1993-08-01

    The use of silicon carbide composites for structural materials is of growing interest in the fusion community. However, radiation effects in these materials are virtually unexplored, and the general state of ceramic matrix composites for nonnuclear applications is still in its infancy. Research into the radiation response of the most popular silicon carbide composite, namely, the chemically vapor-deposited (CVD) SiC-carbon-Nicalon fiber system is discussed. Three areas of interest are the stability of the fiber and matrix materials, the stability of the fiber-matrix interface, and the true activation of these [open quotes]reduced activity[close quotes] materials. Two methods are presented that quantitatively measure the effect of radiation on fiber and matrix elastic modulus as well as the fiber-matrix interfacial strength. The results of these studies show that the factor limiting the radiation performance of the CVD SiC-carbon-Nicalon system is degradation of the Nicalon fiber, which leads to a weakened carbon interface. The activity of these composites is significantly higher than expected and is dominated by impurity isotopes. 52 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Silicon Carbide: The Problem with Laboratory Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, A. K.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Barlow, M. J.

    2000-03-01

    The interpretation of astronomical observations of infrared (IR) silicon carbide (SiC) features in the spectra of carbon stars have revealed discrepancies between the work of astronomers and that of meteoriticists. The silicon carbide observed around carbon stars has been attributed to one type of SiC (α) while meteoritic samples believed to have formed around such stars are of another type of SiC (β). The key to solving this problem has been to understand the sources of laboratory data used by astronomers in order to interpret the IR spectra. Through comparison of thin film IR absorption spectra and spectra taken using finely ground samples dispersed in potassium bromide (KBr) pellets we show that the previously invoked ``KBr matrix-correction'' is unnecessary for powder dispersions obtained from very fine grain sizes of SiC. Comparison of our data and previous measurements show that dust around carbon stars is β-SiC, consistent with laboratory studies of presolar grains in meteorites. The implications of these findings affect twenty years of work. The IR spectroscopic laboratory data used by astronomers to identify dust species in space must be carefully scrutinized to ensure that the KBr correction is not responsible for further misattributions of minerals in astronomical dust features.

  2. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  3. Factors affecting chromium carbide precipitate dissolution during alloy oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, R.N.; Gleeson, B.; Young, D.J.

    1998-08-01

    Ferrous alloys containing significant volume fractions of chromium carbides were formulated so as to contain an overall chromium level of 15% (by weight) but a nominal metal matrix chromium concentration of only 11%. Their oxidation at 850 C in pure oxygen led to either protective Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale formation accompanied by subsurface carbide dissolution or rapid growth of iron-rich oxide scales associated with rapid alloy surface recession, which engulfed the carbides before they could dissolve. Carbide size was important in austenitic alloys: an as-cast Fe-15Cr-0.5C alloy contained relatively coarse carbides and failed to form a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, whereas the same alloy when hot-forged to produce very fine carbides oxidized protectively. In ferritic alloys, however, even coarse carbides dissolved sufficiently rapidly to provide the chromium flux necessary to form and maintain the growth of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, a result attributed to the high diffusivity of the ferrite phase. Small additions of silicon to the as-cast Fe-15Cr-0.5C alloy rendered it ferritic and led to protective cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth. However, when the silicon-containing alloy was made austenitic (by the addition of nickel), it still formed a protective Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, showing that the principal function of silicon was in modifying the scale-alloy interface.

  4. Salt flux synthesis of single and bimetallic carbide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Brian M.; Waetzig, Gregory R.; Clouser, Dale A.; Schmuecker, Samantha M.; Harris, Daniel P.; Stacy, John M.; Duffee, Kyle D.; Wan, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Metal carbide compounds have a broad range of interesting properties and are some of the hardest and highest melting point compounds known. However, their high melting points force very high reaction temperatures and thus limit the formation of high surface area nanomaterials. To avoid the extreme synthesis temperatures commonly associated with these materials, a new salt flux technique has been employed to reduce reaction temperatures and form these materials in the nanometer regime. Additionally, the use of multiwall carbon nanotubes as a reactant further reduces the diffusion distance and provides a template for the final carbide materials. The metal carbide compounds produced through this low temperature salt flux technique maintain the nanowire morphology of the carbon nanotubes but increase in size to ∼15–20 nm diameter due to the incorporation of metal in the carbon lattice. These nano-carbides not only have nanowire like shape but also have much higher surface areas than traditionally prepared metal carbides. Finally, bimetallic carbides with composition control can be produced with this method by simply using two metal precursors in the reaction. This method provides the ability to produce nano sized metal carbide materials with size, morphology, and composition control and will allow for these compounds to be synthesized and studied in a whole new size and temperature regime.

  5. Oxidation kinetics of coated silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC)

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) was exposed for 100 hours to dry, flowing oxygen. Oxidation kinetics were determined via thermogravimetric analysis at 981{degrees}, 1204{degrees} and 1316{degrees}C (1800{degrees}, 2200{degrees} and 2400{degrees}F). The effectiveness of three external coating systems applied for oxidation protection is discussed. In all cases, weight gains were observed, and the pyrolytic carbon interface layer remained intact. A CVD SiC external coating is the most promising due to low oxidation kinetics resulting from solid silica formation. A borosilicate glass was observed on the surface of two of the materials that have boron-containing coatings.

  6. Combustion synthesis of oxide-carbide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.L.; Munir, Z.A. . Div. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    Synthesis of an oxide-carbide composite material through a self- propagating reaction process can be achieved by coupling a highly exothermic thermite reaction and a weakly exothermic carbide reaction. Two systems, one with Al and the other with Mg as the reducing agent in the presence of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and carbon, are used as the reaction models for this investigation. Based on the experimental results, the formation Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 4}C and MgO-N{sub 4}C composites is proposed to involve a two-step sequential reaction mechanism. The highly exothermic thermite reaction between the reducing agent and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurs first, and the heat generated subsequently brings about the formation of B{sub 4}C between the liberated boron and the carbon. The exothermic reaction between Al and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} is initiated at about 850{degrees}C. In the reaction between Mg and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, however, the interaction between Mg and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} depends on the surrounding inert gas pressure due to the high volatility of Mg. The interaction changes from one involving gaseous Mg and liquid B{sub 2}O{sub 3} to one involving liquid Mg and liquid B{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the pressure increases. In both systems, reactions between the metallic oxides (i.e. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or MgO) and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} compete with the thermite reaction. Although it is possible to synthesize B{sub 4}C from carbon fibers in the 6Mg+B{sub 2+}O{sub 3}+C system, the carbon fiber is only partially converted, and the carbide formed is loosely attached to the unreacted carbon core. 17 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Investigation of APS and CDS process of Al-carbide and AlSi-carbide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyuschenko, A.; Vityaz, P.; Okovity, V.; Verstak, A.; Lugscheider, E.; Remer, P.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a technological concept of the formation of a coating containing selected carbides (TiC, SiC). This type of powder was produced by the self-propagated method of synthesis. Spraying parameters of APS and CDS were determined. Microstructure and wear resistance of the obtained coatings were determined. The results obtained in this investigation were applied to a selection of optimal parameters of spraying, content of hard phase grains in accordance with its deposition rate and wear resistance.

  8. The atomic configuration of graphene/vanadium carbide interfaces in vanadium carbide-encapsulating carbon nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Gaku; Matsuura, Daisuke; Kizuka, Tokushi

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanocapsules (CNCs) encapsulating vanadium carbide (VC) nanocrystals with a NaCI structure were synthesized by a gas-evaporation method using arc-discharge heating. The CNCs were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The VC nanocrystals within the nanospaces of CNCs were truncated by low-index facets and were coated with several graphene layers, forming graphene/VC interfaces. The atomic configuration and interlayer spacings at the interfaces were found. PMID:24745251

  9. Separation of Nuclear Fuel Surrogates from Silicon Carbide Inert Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ronald Baney

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this project has been to identify a process for separating transuranic species from silicon carbide (SiC). Silicon carbide has become one of the prime candidates for the matrix in inert matrix fuels, (IMF) being designed to reduce plutonium inventories and the long half-lives actinides through transmutation since complete reaction is not practical it become necessary to separate the non-transmuted materials from the silicon carbide matrix for ultimate reprocessing. This work reports a method for that required process.l

  10. Material properties of silicon and silicon carbide foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Marc T.; Goodman, William A.

    2005-08-01

    Silicon and silicon carbide foams provide the lightweighting element for Schafer Corporation's silicon and silicon carbide lightweight mirror systems (SLMSTM and SiC-SLMSTM). SLMSTM and SiC-SLMSTM provide the enabling technology for manufacturing lightweight, athermal optical sub-assemblies and instruments. Silicon and silicon carbide foam samples were manufactured and tested under a Schafer-funded Internal Research and Development program in various configurations to obtain mechanical and thermal property data. The results of the mechanical tests that are reported in this paper include Young's modulus, compression strength, tensile strength, Poisson's ratio and vibrational damping. The results of the thermal tests include thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion.

  11. Creep behavior of uranium carbide-based alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, M. S.; Wright, T. R.; Moak, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The present work gives the results of experiments on the influence of zirconium carbide and tungsten on the creep properties of uranium carbide. The creep behavior of high-density UC samples follows the classical time-dependence pattern of (1) an instantaneous deformation, (2) a primary creep region, and (3) a period of steady-state creep. Creep rates for unalloyed UC-1.01 and UC-1.05 are several orders of magnitude greater than those measured for carbide alloys containing a Zr-C and/or W dispersoid. The difference in creep strength between alloyed and unalloyed materials varies with temperature and applied stress.

  12. Colloidal characterization of ultrafine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various powder treatment strategies on the colloid chemistry of aqueous dispersions of silicon carbide and silicon nitride are examined using a surface titration methodology. Pretreatments are used to differentiate between the true surface chemistry of the powders and artifacts resulting from exposure history. Silicon nitride powders require more extensive pretreatment to reveal consistent surface chemistry than do silicon carbide powders. As measured by titration, the degree of proton adsorption from the suspending fluid by pretreated silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can both be made similar to that of silica.

  13. Improved adhesion of sputtered refractory carbides to metal substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.; Brainard, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Sputtered coatings of the refractory metal carbides are of great interest for applications where hard wear-resistant materials are desired. The usefulness of sputtered refractory carbides is often limited in practice by spalling or interfacial separation. In this work improvements in the adherence of refractory carbides on iron, nickel and titanium base alloys were obtained by using oxidation, reactive sputtering or sputtered interlayers to alter the coating-substrate interfacial region. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and argon ion etching were used to characterize the interfacial regions, and an attempt was made to correlate adherence as measured in wear tests with the chemical nature of the interface.

  14. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Dennis E.

    2015-04-01

    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20-60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable mechanistic

  15. Processing of functionally graded tungsten carbide-cobalt-diamond composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Mohit

    Polycrystalline diamond compacts (PDCs) are widely used as drill bit cutters in rock drilling and as tool bits in machining non-ferrous materials. A typical PDC comprises a thin layer of sintered polycrystalline diamond bonded to a tungsten carbide-cobalt substrate. A well recognized failure mechanism is delamination at the interface between diamond and cemented carbide. High stresses at the diamond/carbide interface, due to thermal expansion and modulus mismatch, are the primary cause of in-service failure under impact loading conditions. This work was undertaken to develop a tungsten carbide-cobalt-diamond composite, which has a continuously graded interface between the diamond and tungsten carbide. The process developed comprised the following steps: (i) generation of a pore size gradient by electrochemical etching of cobalt from the surface of a partially sintered tungsten carbide-cobalt preform; (ii) chemical vapor infiltration of the porous preform with carbon by catalytic decomposition of a methane/hydrogen mixture, resulting in a graded carbon concentration; and (iii) consolidation of the carbon infiltrated preforms at 8GPa/1500°C to complete densification and to transform the carbon into diamond. Thus, the final product consists of a functionally graded WC-Co-diamond composite, with controlled distribution of the constituent phases. Tungsten carbide-cobalt powders with mean tungsten carbide particle size of 0.8mum(micro-grain) and 100 nm(nano-grain) were used as starting materials. Processing conditions were adjusted to obtain an optimal distribution of carbon in porous preforms. After high pressure/high temperature consolidation, both micro- and nano-composites showed a diffused interface between inner and outer regions of the fully dense materials. A micro-composite showed columnar-like tungsten carbide grains and faceted diamond grains in the outer region of the sintered material. The grain size of the diamond in this region was ˜2mum, and the

  16. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, Dennis E.

    2015-04-28

    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20–60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable

  17. Method of preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yu-Min; Wang, Jih-Wen; Liue, Chun-Ying; Yeh, Shinn-Horng

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing silicon carbide particles dispersed in an electrolytic bath for composite electroplating of metals includes the steps of washing the silicon carbide particles with an organic solvent; washing the silicon carbide particles with an inorganic acid; grinding the silicon carbide particles; and heating the silicon carbide particles in a nickel-containing solution at a boiling temperature for a predetermined period of time.

  18. Silicon carbide - Progress in crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony

    1987-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of two processes for producing large-area high-quality single crystals of SiC is described: (1) a modified Lely process for the growth of the alpha polytypes (e.g., 6H SiC) initially developed by Tairov and Tsvetkov (1978, 1981) and Ziegler et al. (1983), and (2) a process for the epitaxial growth of the beta polytype on single-crystal silicon or other substrates. Growth of large-area cubic SiC on Si is described together with growth of defect-free beta-SiC films on alpha-6H SiC crystals and TiC lattice. Semiconducting qualities of silicon carbide crystals grown by various techniques are discussed.

  19. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  20. Radiation damage of transition metal carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this grant period we have investigated electrical properties of transition metal carbides and radiation-induced defects produced by low-temperature electron irradiation in them. Special attention has been given to the composition VC[sub 0.88] in which the vacancies on the carbon sublattice of this fcc crystal order to produce a V[sub 8]C[sub 7] superlattice. The existence of this superlattice structure was found to make the crystal somewhat resistant to radiation damage at low doses and/or at ambient temperature. At larger doses significant changes in the resistivity are produced. Annealing effects were observed which we believe to be connected with the reconstitution of the superlattice structure.

  1. An overview of silicon carbide device technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Matus, Lawrence G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of silicon carbide (SiC) as a semiconductor is briefly reviewed. This material shows great promise towards providing electronic devices that can operate under the high-temperature, high-radiation, and/or high-power conditions where current semiconductor technologies fail. High quality single crystal wafers have become available, and techniques for growing high quality epilayers have been refined to the point where experimental SiC devices and circuits can be developed. The prototype diodes and transistors that have been produced to date show encouraging characteristics, but by the same token they also exhibit some device-related problems that are not unlike those faced in the early days of silicon technology development. Although these problems will not prevent the implementation of some useful circuits, the performance and operating regime of SiC electronics will be limited until these device-related issues are solved.

  2. Novel Silicon Carbide Detector for Active Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    F. H. Ruddy; J.G. Seidel; R.W. Flammang

    2007-03-01

    The need to address increasingly challenging inspection requirements (such as large volume objects, very fast inspection throughputs, potentially significant shielding, etc.) for such items as nuclear materials and explosives will require the use of active interrogation technologies. While these active technologies can successfully address these challenges by inducing unique, temporal signatures, the inspection environment will also induce overall “background signals” that can be orders of magnitude larger than the induced signatures. Detectors that can successfully operate in these types of customized, inspection environments (pulsed and continuous) and successfully extract induced signature data are clearly needed and will effectively define the limitations of any active inspection system. A novel silicon carbide detector is now being investigated to successfully address both neutron- and photon/bremsstrahlung-type inspection applications. While this paper describes this detector and highlights efforts related to neutron inspection, it will focus on its neutron and gamma-ray/photon detection performance in neutron- and bremssstrahlung-type inspection applications.

  3. Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-06-01

    As part of the efforts initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. To demonstrate this new capability, comparison measurements were completed by INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on identical samples subjected to identical irradiation conditions. Results reported in this paper indicate that the resistance measurement approach can yield similar peak irradiation temperatures if appropriate equipment is used and appropriate procedures are followed.

  4. Plastic deformation of polycrystalline zirconium carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darolia, R.; Archbold, T. F.

    1976-01-01

    The compressive yield strength of arc-melted polycrystalline zirconium carbide has been found to vary from 77 kg per sq mm at 1200 C to 19 kg per sq mm at 1800 C. Yield drops were observed with plastic strain-rates greater than 0.003/sec but not with slower strain rates. Strain-rate change experiments yielded values for the strain-rate sensitivity parameter m which range from 6.5 at 1500 C to 3.8 at 1800 C, and the product dislocation velocity stress exponent times T was found to decrease linearly with increasing temperature. The deformation rate results are consistent with the Kelly-Rowcliffe model in which the diffusion of carbon assists the motion of dislocations.

  5. Nanoporous Silicon Carbide for Nanoelectromechanical Systems Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, T.; Khan, F.; Adesida, I.; Bohn, P.; Rittenhouse, T.; Lienhard, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A major goal of this project is to produce porous silicon carbide (PSiC) via an electroless process for eventual utilization in nanoscale sensing platforms. Results in the literature have shown a variety of porous morphologies in SiC produced in anodic cells. Therefore, predictability and reproducibility of porous structures are initial concerns. This work has concentrated on producing morphologies of known porosity, with particular attention paid toward producing the extremely high surface areas required for a porous flow sensor. We have conducted a parametric study of electroless etching conditions and characteristics of the resulting physical nanostructure and also investigated the relationship between morphology and materials properties. Further, we have investigated bulk etching of SiC using both photo-electrochemical etching and inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching techniques.

  6. Amorphization of Silicon Carbide by Carbon Displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2004-05-10

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the possibility of amorphizing silicon carbide (SiC) by exclusively displacing C atoms. At a defect generation corresponding to 0.2 displacements per atom, the enthalpy surpasses the level of melt-quenched SiC, the density decreases by about 15%, and the radial distribution function shows a lack of long-range order. Prior to amorphization, the surviving defects are mainly C Frenkel pairs (67%), but Si Frenkel pairs (18%) and anti-site defects (15%) are also present. The results indicate that SiC can be amorphized by C sublattice displacements. Chemical short-range disorder, arising mainly from interstitial production, plays a significant role in the amorphization.

  7. Texaco, carbide form hydrogen plant venture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-30

    This paper reports that Texaco Inc. and Union Carbide Industrial Gases Inc. (UCIG) have formed a joint venture to develop and operate hydrogen plants. The venture, named HydroGEN Supply Co., is owned by Texaco Hydrogen Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Texaco, and UCIG Hydrogen Services Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of UCIG. Plants built by HydroGEN will combine Texaco's HyTEX technology for hydrogen production with UCIG's position in cryogenic and advanced air separation technology. Texaco the U.S. demand for hydrogen is expected to increase sharply during the next decade, while refinery hydrogen supply is expected to drop. The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require U.S. refiners to lower aromatics in gasoline, resulting in less hydrogen recovered by refiners from catalytic reforming units. Meanwhile, requirements to reduce sulfur in diesel fuel will require more hydrogen capacity.

  8. Reaction bonded silicon carbide gimbaled pointing mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, J.; Akerstrom, A.; Frey, S.; Crompton, D.; Cucchiaro, P.; Deveau, G.; Peters, M.; Mason, S.; Ullathorne, C.

    2007-09-01

    A Silicon Carbide (SiC) based wide field of view Pointing Mirror Assembly (PMA) has been developed to provide two axis line-of-sight control for a fixed, space based imaging sensor. Thermal modeling has been completed in order to project the excellent thermal stability anticipated from the SiC PMA, and closed loop servo testing of the hardware has been conducted in order to quantify the bandwidth associated with line-of-sight control. In addition to the system level testing the SiC mirror substrate itself has been tested for thermal stability. We also report on results obtained with a novel polishing technique which has been applied in order to allow optical finishing of the two-phased Reaction Bonded (RB) SiC mirror substrate without the need for Silicon or SiC claddings.

  9. Silicon carbide mirrors for high power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P. Z.

    1981-11-01

    The advent of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources and high energy lasers (HEL) in recent years has brought about the need for optical materials that can withstand the harsh operating conditions in such devices. SR mirrors must be ultra-high vacuum compatible, must withstand intense x-ray irradiation without surface damage, must maintain surface figure under thermal loading and must be capable of being polished to an extremely smooth surface finish. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide in combination with sintered substrate material meets these requirements and offers additional benefits as well. It is an extremely hard material and offers the possibility of being cleaned and recoated many times without degradation of the surface finish, thereby prolonging the lifetime of expensive optical components. It is an extremely strong material and offers the possibility of weight reduction over conventional mirror materials.

  10. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 {times} 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density ({minus}10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique ({minus}45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation ({minus}45%), and standard Vickers hardness ({minus}24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C.

  11. Asymmetric twins in rhombohedral boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Takeshi Guan, Pengfei; Madhav Reddy, K.; Hirata, Akihiko; Guo, Junjie; Chen, Mingwei

    2014-01-13

    Superhard materials consisting of light elements have recently received considerable attention because of their ultrahigh specific strength for a wide range of applications as structural and functional materials. However, the failure mechanisms of these materials subjected to high stresses and dynamic loading remain to be poorly known. We report asymmetric twins in a complex compound, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), characterized by spherical-aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The atomic structure of boron-rich icosahedra at rhombohedral vertices and cross-linked carbon-rich atomic chains can be clearly visualized, which reveals unusual asymmetric twins with detectable strains along the twin interfaces. This study offers atomic insights into the structure of twins in a complex material and has important implications in understanding the planar defect-related failure of superhard materials under high stresses and shock loading.

  12. Chemical Mechanical Polishing of Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony; Pirouz

    1999-01-01

    The High Temperature Integrated Electronics and Sensors (HTIES) team at the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as an enabling electronic technology for many aerospace applications. The Lewis team is focusing on the chemical vapor deposition of the thin, single-crystal SiC films from which devices are fabricated. These films, which are deposited (i.e., epitaxially "grown") on commercial wafers, must consist of a single crystal with very few structural defects so that the derived devices perform satisfactorily and reliably. Working in collaboration (NASA grant) with Professor Pirouz of Case Western Reserve University, we developed a chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) technique for removing the subsurface polishing damage prior to epitaxial growth of the single-crystal SiC films.

  13. Temperature-dependent reflectivity of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of a commercial silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic surface was measured at wavelengths from 2.5 to 14.5 microns and at temperatures ranging from 358 to 520 K using a NASA-developed multiwavelength pyrometer. The SiC surface reflectivity was low at the short wavelengths, decreasing to almost zero at 10 microns, then increasing rapidly to a maximum at approximately 12.5 microns, and decreasing gradually thereafter. The reflectivity maximum increased in magnitude with increasing surface temperature. The wavelength and temperature dependence can be explained in terms of the classical dispersion theory of crystals and the Lorentz electron theory. Electronic transitions between the donor state and the conduction band states were responsible for the dispersion. The concentration of the donor state in SiC was determined to be approximately 4 x 10 exp 18 and its ionization energy was determined to be approximately 71 meV.

  14. Stored energy in irradiated silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Burchell, T.D.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents a short review of the phenomenon of Wigner stored energy release from irradiated graphite and discusses it in relation to neutron irradiation of silicon carbide. A single published work in the area of stored energy release in SiC is reviewed and the results are discussed. It appears from this previous work that because the combination of the comparatively high specific heat of SiC and distribution in activation energies for recombining defects, the stored energy release of SiC should only be a problem at temperatures lower than those considered for fusion devices. The conclusion of this preliminary review is that the stored energy release in SiC will not be sufficient to cause catastrophic heating in fusion reactor components, though further study would be desirable.

  15. Method of producing silicon carbide articles

    DOEpatents

    Milewski, John V.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity.

  16. Tunable plasticity in amorphous silicon carbide films.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yusuke; Kim, Namjun; King, Sean W; Bielefeld, Jeff; Stebbins, Jonathan F; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2013-08-28

    Plasticity plays a crucial role in the mechanical behavior of engineering materials. For instance, energy dissipation during plastic deformation is vital to the sufficient fracture resistance of engineering materials. Thus, the lack of plasticity in brittle hybrid organic-inorganic glasses (hybrid glasses) often results in a low fracture resistance and has been a significant challenge for their integration and applications. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films, a class of hybrid glasses, can exhibit a plasticity that is even tunable by controlling their molecular structure and thereby leads to an increased and adjustable fracture resistance in the films. We decouple the plasticity contribution from the fracture resistance of the films by estimating the "work-of-fracture" using a mean-field approach, which provides some insight into a potential connection between the onset of plasticity in the films and the well-known rigidity percolation threshold. PMID:23876200

  17. Development of a silicon carbide sewing thread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Vasudev, Anand

    1989-01-01

    A silicon carbide (SiC) sewing thread has been designed which consists of a two-ply yarn in a 122 turns-per-meter-twist construction. Two processing aids in thread construction were evaluated. Prototype blankets were sewn using an SiC thread prepared either with polytetrafluoroethylene sizing or with an overwrap of rayon/dacron service yarn. The rayon/dacron-wrapped SiC thread was stronger, as shown by higher break-strength retention and less damage to the outer-mold-line fabric. This thread enables thermal protection system articles to be sewn or joined, or have perimeter close-out of assembled parts when using SiC fabric for high-temperature applications.

  18. Quantitative Ultrasound Characterization of Silicon Carbide Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portune, A. R.; Haber, R. A.

    2010-02-01

    Silicon carbide mirrors were characterized using several qualitative and quantitative nondestructive ultrasound techniques in order to determine the most efficient method for rapid performance evaluations. Ultrasound testing was performed in immersion using both phased array and single transducer systems in pulse-echo configuration. C-scan images of top and bottom surface reflected signal peak amplitudes were used to qualitatively locate and identify homogeneity variations within the mirror materials. Quantitative analysis of normalized amplitude histograms revealed significant differences in homogeneity estimations between phased array and single transducer test methods. Acoustic spectroscopy over the 10-33 MHz regime identified bulk microstructural differences between high and low amplitude regions in the samples. While ultrasound phased array performed well at rapidly locating surface and subsurface heterogeneities, it could not match the resolution and clarity of single transducer C-scan images or the insight of acoustic spectroscopy analyses.

  19. Conventional and Microwave Joining of Silicon Carbide Using Displacement Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsley, J.; Yiin, T.; Barmatz, M.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave heating was used to join Silicon Carbide rods using a thin TiC /Si tape interlayer . Microwaves quickly heated the rods and tape to temperatures where solid-state displacement reactions between TiC and Si occurred.

  20. Direct microwave joining of reaction bonded silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Black, W.M.; Silberglitt, R.

    1992-08-01

    A single-mode rectangular resonant cavity operating at 2.45 GHz was used to join, without any interlayer or applied pressure, specimens of reaction bonded silicon carbide. Specimens of 0.95 cm diameter and 0.5 cm height were joined at temperatures 1400-1450 C in 10 to 15 minutes. Specimens of arbitrary shapes and practical sizes were joined in a commercially available 900 watt multi-mode oven with hybrid heating. The joined specimens were sectioned and examined. The joint was not detectable even by scanning electron microscope observation. On heating silicon bleeds out of reaction bonded silicon carbide. The apparent density of the heated reaction bonded silicon carbide was 3.01 gm/cc as compared to 3.05 gm/cc for the as received material. However, the only difference in microstructure was some grain growth of the microwave heated reaction bonded silicon carbide, compared to the as received material. 10 refs.

  1. Silicon carbide materials for high duty seal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Berroth, K.E. )

    1990-12-01

    Properties, fabrication, and high-duty applications of silicon carbide grades are discussed. The two types of silicon carbide, i.e., reaction-bonded and sintered, are considered. The potential for adhesion and the lack of dry running abilities lead to a variety of microstructures. For reaction-bonded silicon carbide, the microstructure can be a tool for optimization of the tribological behavior. Besides the high corrosion resistance of the material, its thermal conductivity is excellent. Grain sizes of about 40-50 microns are used in high-duty applications. Reaction-bonded silicon carbide with residual content of carbon graphite has improved tribological/hydrodynamic characteristics and performs well in sealing hard faces.

  2. Chemical vapour deposition: Transition metal carbides go 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-11-01

    The unique properties of 2D materials, such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides, have been attracting much attention in the past decade. Now, metallically conductive and even superconducting transition metal carbides are entering the game.

  3. Crystallography and metallography of carbides in high alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hetzner, Dennis W. Van Geertruyden, William

    2008-07-15

    The carbides in high carbon, high chromium bearing steels, high chromium carburizing steels, newly developed easily carburizable low carbon, low chromium high speed steels and M62 high speed steel fabricated by powder metal processing were studied. The particular steels evaluated include 440C, BG42. M50-Nil, CHS1, CHS50, Pyrowear 675 , CSS-42L{sup TM} and M62. The morphology and structure of the carbides were evaluated by means of metallography, X-ray diffraction and electron beam backscattered diffraction. The combination of these three techniques has provided new insight into how different carbide morphologies form during processing and the carbide structures that can be expected to be present in components fabricated from these steels by various types of heat treating.

  4. Process for preparing fine grain silicon carbide powder

    DOEpatents

    Wei, G.C.

    Method of producing fine-grain silicon carbide powder comprises combining methyltrimethoxysilane with a solution of phenolic resin, acetone and water or sugar and water, gelling the resulting mixture, and then drying and heating the obtained gel.

  5. Silicon carbide for high-temperature heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penty, R. A.; Bjerklie, J. W.

    1982-02-01

    It is noted that ceramic heat exchangers are now being used industrially in low-pressure applications, such as recuperators and air preheaters, and that serious consideration is being given to using ceramic materials for high-pressure heat exchangers. The principal advantage of using ceramic heat exchangers in the candidate applications is the potential for higher temperature service or increased life over that obtainable with metallic exchangers. Silicon carbide-based materials are now in service in many areas. The use of low-pressure ceramic recuperators constructed of silicon carbide has demonstrated fuel savings exceeding 40% in high-temperature industrial furnaces. At a material temperature of 1375 C, the demonstrated lifetime of some silicon carbide tubes is 12 to 15 months. The availability of silicon carbide materials is discussed, together with properties required for designing reliable heat exchangers. Attention is also given to the usual failure mode encountered in the field.

  6. Magneto-Resistance in thin film boron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, Elena; Luo, Guangfu; Liu, J.; Mei, Wai-Ning; Pasquale, F. L.; Colon Santanta, J.; Dowben, P. A.; Zhang, Le; Kelber, J. A.

    2013-03-01

    Chromium doped semiconducting boron carbide devices were fabricated based on a carborane icosahedra (B10C2H12) precursor via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the transition metal atoms found to dope pairwise on adjacent icosahedra site locations. Models spin-polarized electronic structure calculations of the doped semiconducting boron carbides indicate that some transition metal (such as Cr) doped semiconducting boron carbides may act as excellent spin filters when used as the dielectric barrier in a magnetic tunnel junction structure. In the case of chromium doping, there may be considerable enhancements in the magneto-resistance of the heterostructure. To this end, current to voltage curves and magneto-transport measurements were performed in various semiconducting boron carbide both in and out plane. The I-V curves as a function of external magnetic field exhibit strong magnetoresistive effects which are enhanced at liquid Nitrogen temperatures. The mechanism for these effects will be discussed in the context of theoretical calculations.

  7. Tribological properties of silicon carbide in metal removal process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews material properties of adhesion, friction and wear of single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with metals and alloys involved in a metal removal process such as grinding. The tribological properties in the metal removal processes are divided into properties which remove metal by adhesion between sliding surfaces, and metal removal by silicon carbide sliding against a metal, indenting it, and plowing a series of grooves or furrows. The paper also deals with fracture and deformation characteristics of the silicon carbide surface; the adhesion, friction and metal transfer to silicon carbide is related to the relative chemical activity of the metals. Atomic size and content of alloying elements play a dominant role in controlling adhesion and friction properties of alloys. The friction and abrasive wear decrease as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases.

  8. Structure and single-phase regime of boron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emin, David

    1988-09-01

    The boron carbides are composed of twelve-atom icosahedral clusters which are linked by direct covalent bonds and through three-atom intericosahedral chains. The boron carbides are known to exist as a single phase with carbon concentrations from about 8 to about 20 at. %. This range of carbon concentrations is made possible by the substitution of boron and carbon atoms for one another within both the icosahedra and intericosahedral chains. The most widely accepted structural model for B4C (the boron carbide with nominally 20% carbon) has B11C icosahedra with C-B-C intericosahedral chains. Here, the free energy of the boron carbides is studied as a function of carbon concentration by considering the effects of replacing carbon atoms within B4C with boron atoms. It is concluded that entropic and energetic considerations both favor the replacement of carbon atoms with boron atoms within the intericosahedral chains, C-B-C-->C-B-B. Once the carbon concentration is so low that the vast majority of the chains are C-B-B chains, near B13C2, subsequent substitutions of carbon atoms with boron atoms occur within the icosahedra, B11C-->B12. Maxima of the free energy occur at the most ordered compositions: B4C,B13C2,B14C. This structural model, determined by studying the free energy, agrees with that previously suggested by analysis of electronic and thermal transport data. These considerations also provide an explanation for the wide single-phase regime found for boron carbides. The significant entropies associated with compositional disorder within the boron carbides, the high temperatures at which boron carbides are formed (>2000 K), and the relatively modest energies associated with replacing carbon atoms with boron atoms enable the material's entropy to be usually important in determining its composition. As a result, boron carbides are able to exist in a wide range of compositions.

  9. Conductivities and Seebeck coefficients of boron carbides: Softening bipolaron hopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aselage, T. L.; Emin, D.; McCready, S. S.

    2001-08-01

    The electrical conductivities and Seebeck coefficients of boron carbides B12+xC3-x with 0.06<~x<~1.7 have been measured from 8 K to as high as 1750 K. At high temperature, the temperature dependence of the conductivities is Arrhenius and the activation energy, ~0.16 eV, is independent of the carbon concentration. The preexponential factors of the conductivity exhibit a nonmonotonic dependence on x, peaking near x=1. These results are consistent with a previously proposed model based on holes forming singlet bipolarons on the boron carbide B11C icosahedra. At low temperature, the boron carbide conductivities are non-Arrhenius with a temperature dependence that is a strong function of the composition x. This strong sensitivity to composition indicates that percolation effects, arising from boron carbides having carbon atoms in inequivalent locations, influence the conductivity at low temperature. With x holes per unit cell, boron carbides have very large Seebeck coefficients that depend only weakly on x. The magnitudes and temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficients are consistent with large contributions from carrier-induced softening of local vibrations. Softening effects can be exceptionally large when singlet bipolarons are stabilized among degenerate electronic energy levels by their softening of symmetry-breaking vibrations: ``softening bipolarons.'' The boron carbide transport properties are generally consistent with those expected of softening bipolarons. Finally, two high-temperature effects are observed in the boron carbide conductivities. The conductivities of samples having high carrier densities, x~1, are suppressed above 700 K. This suppression can arise when the rapid hopping of nearby carriers disrupts the energy coincidence required for a carrier's hop. At even higher temperatures, a sharp increase in the boron carbide conductivities (σ~T4) suggests a radiation-induced excitation of mobile charge carriers.

  10. Process for preparing fine-grain metal carbide powder

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, C.R.; Jeffers, F.P.

    Fine-grain metal carbide powder suitable for use in the fabrication of heat resistant products is prepared by coating bituminous pitch on SiO/sub 2/ or Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ particles, heating the coated particles to convert the bituminous pitch to coke, and then heating the particles to a higher temperature to convert the particles to a carbide by reaction of said coke therewith.

  11. Single-Event Effects in Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan C.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ikpe, Stanley; Topper, Alyson D.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program Silicon Carbide Power Device Subtask efforts in FY15. Benefits of SiC are described and example NASA Programs and Projects desiring this technology are given. The current status of the radiation tolerance of silicon carbide power devices is given and paths forward in the effort to develop heavy-ion single-event effect hardened devices indicated.

  12. High-Q silicon carbide photonic-crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonathan Y.; Lu, Xiyuan; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate one-dimensional photonic-crystal nanobeam cavities in amorphous silicon carbide. The fundamental mode exhibits intrinsic optical quality factor as high as 7.69 × 104 with mode volume ˜ 0.60 ( λ / n ) 3 at wavelength 1.5 μm. A corresponding Purcell factor value of ˜104 is the highest reported to date in silicon carbide optical cavities. The device exhibits great potential for integrated nonlinear photonics and cavity nano-optomechanics.

  13. Tribological properties of silicon carbide in metal removal process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Material properties are considered as they relate to adhesion, friction, and wear of single crystal silicon carbide in contact with metals and alloys that are likely to be involved in a metal removal process such as grinding. Metal removal from adhesion between sliding surfaces in contact and metal removal as a result of the silicon carbide sliding against a metal, indenting into it, and plowing a series of grooves or furrows are discussed. Fracture and deformation characteristics of the silicon carbide surface are also covered. The adhesion, friction, and metal transfer to silicon carbide is related to the relative chemical activity of the metals. The more active the metal, the higher the adhesion and friction, and the greater the metal transfer to silicon carbide. Atomic size and content of alloying elements play a dominant role in controlling adhesion, friction, and abrasive wear properties of alloys. The friction and abrasive wear (metal removal) decrease linearly as the shear strength of the bulk metal increases. They decrease as the solute to solvent atomic radius ratio increases or decreases linearly from unity, and with an increase of solute content. The surface fracture of silicon carbide is due to cleavages of 0001, 10(-1)0, and/or 11(-2)0 planes.

  14. Silicon nano-carbide in strengthening and ceramic technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudneva, V. V.; Galevsky, G. V.; Kozyrev, N. A.

    2015-09-01

    Technological advantages and conditions of new quality assurance of coatings and products, provided by silicon nano-carbide, have been ascertained in the course of composite electrodeposition of coatings, structural ceramics patterning, and surface hardening of steels via electro-explosive alloying. Silicon nano-carbide has been recommended to be used as a component of wear and corrosion resistant chromium carbide electrodeposited coatings, which can be operated at high temperatures and used for strengthening tools and equipment including those with a complex microrelief of functional surfaces. Silicon nano-carbide as a component of composite “silicon carbide - boron - carbon” can be applied to produce ceramic half products via solid phase sintering in argon under pressure of 0.1 MPa and temperature 2273 K. Application of silicon nano-carbide in technology of tool steel surface hardening via electroexplosive alloying ensures obtaining of a high micro-hard, wear and heat resistant shielding layer which is about 20 μm deep.

  15. Friction and wear behavior of single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single crystal silicon carbide in sliding contact with titanium. Results indicate that the friction coefficient is greater in vacuum than in argon and that this is due to the greater adhesion or adhesive transfer in vacuum. Thin films of silicon carbide transferred to titanium also adhered to silicon carbide both in argon at atmospheric pressure and in high vacuum. Cohesive bonds fractured on both the silicon carbide and titanium surfaces. The wear debris of silicon carbide created by fracture plowed the silicon carbide surface in a plastic manner. The friction characteristics of titanium in contact with silicon carbide were sensitive to the surface roughness of silicon carbide, and the friction coefficients were higher for a rough surface of silicon carbide than for a smooth one. The difference in friction results was due to plastic deformation (plowing of titanium).

  16. Study on Carbide in Forged and Annealed H13 Hot Work Die Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Li, Jing; Wang, Liangliang; Li, Longfei

    2015-10-01

    The present work studied the carbides in forged and annealed H13 hot work die steel. The carbides were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and analyzed with quantitative chemical analysis method. The carbide types, qualities and compositions in dependence on temperatures were thermodynamically calculated by Thermo-Calc software and compared with the experimental results. In the final, methods for carbide improvement were discussed. The results are as follows. The primary carbides and the carbide segregation are improved after the hot-forging operation. The carbides in the hot-forged and annealed H13 steel are M7C3, M6(C, N) and M(C, N) which is accordance with the calculated results. Trace Mg added to the H13 steel leads to an increase of primary carbide nucleation and a decrease of primary carbide size.

  17. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2013-10-11

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC-based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation

  18. Interface reactions between silicon carbide and interlayers in silicon carbide copper metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köck, T.; Brendel, A.; Bolt, H.

    2007-05-01

    Novel copper matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide fibres are considered as a new generation of heat sink materials for the divertor of future fusion reactors. The divertor is exposed to intense particle bombardment and heat loads of up to 15 MW m-2. This component consists of the plasma-facing material which is bonded to the actively cooled heat sink. Due to its high thermal conductivity of about 400 W m-1 K-1 copper is a promising material for the heat sink. To increase the mechanical properties of copper at working temperature (823 K), silicon carbide fibres with a diameter of 140 μm are used to reinforce the interface area between the plasma-facing material and the heat sink. Push-out tests show that the adhesion between SiC fibre and Cu matrix without any interlayer is very low. To increase the fibre-matrix bonding the fibres are coated with Cr and W with a thickness of 300-400 nm before Cu deposition by magnetron sputtering. Push-out tests on these modified fibres show a significant increase in adhesion compared to the fibres without interlayer. XRD investigations after a heat treatment at 923 K show a chromium carbide (Cr23C6, Cr3C2) formation and the absence of chromium silicides. In the case of a W interlayer a W2C formation is detected and also no tungsten silicides. Single-fibre tensile tests were performed to investigate the influence of the reaction zone on the ultimate tensile strength of the fibres. The ultimate tensile strength for fibres without interlayer remains constant at about 2200 MPa after annealing at 923 K. The fibres with chromium and tungsten interlayers, respectively, show a decrease of about 30% of the ultimate tensile strength after the heat treatment at 923 K.

  19. Production and characterization of nanostructured silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallis, Kendra Lee

    Nanostructured materials continue to attract attention because of their new and interesting properties, which are very different from their macrostructured equivalents. Since the size of grain and surface differs, a better understanding of the microstructure, the mechanism of formation, and methods of controlling surface properties is necessary. In this study, nanostructured silicon carbide has been produced from the solid-solid reaction of a mixture of silicon nanopowder and carbon multiwalled nanotubes (MWNT) sintered by induction. A study of the reaction rate at different temperatures has yielded a value for the activation energy of 254 +/- 36 kJ/mol, and has led to the conclusion that the reaction is diffusion-controlled. A second method produced pure silicon carbide nanowires using a procedure which kept the solid reactants, silicon powder and MWNT, separated while sintering at a constant temperature of 1200°C. Silicon in the vapor-phase reacted at the surface of the MWNTs followed by diffusion of both precursors through the product phase boundary. The reaction time was varied, and a morphological study has been done describing changes in shape and size as a function of time. The initial reaction produced a layer of SiC providing the outer shell of coaxial structures with carbon nanotubes inside. As Si and C diffused through the product phase to react at the interface, the tube became filled with SiC to form solid SiC nanowires, and the outer diameter of the nanowires grew continuously as reaction time increased. After long sintering times, growth continued in two dimensions, fusing nanowires together into planar structures. In addition, the precursor form of carbon was varied, and nanowires produced by two different types of nanotubes have been studied. The produced SiC nanowires show cubic crystal structure. After a few hours of sintering, stacking faults began to occur inside the wires, and the frequency of occurrence of the stacking faults increased as

  20. Nanostructured carbide catalysts for the hydrogen economy

    SciTech Connect

    Ram Seshadri, Susannah Scott, Juergen Eckert

    2008-07-21

    The above quote, taken from the executive summary of the Report from the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences Workshop held August 6–8, 2007,[1] places in context the research carried out at the University of California, Santa Barbara, which is reported in this document. The enormous impact of heterogeneous catalysis is exemplified by the Haber process for the synthesis of ammonia, which consumes a few % of the world’s energy supply and natural gas, and feeds as many as a third of the world’s population. While there have been numerous advances in understanding the process,[2] culminating in the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Gerhard Ertl in 2007, it is interesting to note that the catalysts themselves have changed very little since they were discovered heuristically in the the early part of the 20th century. The thesis of this report is that modern materials chemistry, with all the empirical knowledge of solid state chemistry, combined with cutting edge structural tools, can help develop and better heterogeneous catalysis. The first part of this report describes research in the area of early transition metal carbides (notably of Mo and W), potentially useful catalysts for water gas shift (WGS) and related reactions of use to the hydrogen economy. Although these carbides have been known to be catalytically useful since the 1970s,[3] further use of these relatively inexpensive materials have been plagued by issues of low surface areas and ill-defined, and often unreactive surfaces, in conjunction with deactivation. We have employed for the first time, a combination of constant-wavelength and time-of-flight neutron scattering, including a total scattering analysis of the latter data, to better understand what happens in these materials, in a manner that for the first time, reveals surface graphitic carbon in these materials in a quantitative manner. Problems of preparation, surface stability, and irreversible reactivity have become manifest in this class of materials

  1. The growth of cubic silicon carbide on a compliant substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Sharanda; Soward, Ida

    1995-01-01

    Research has shown that silicon carbide grown on silicon and 6H silicon carbide has problems associated with these substrates. This is because silicon and silicon carbide has a 20% lattice mismatch and cubic silicon carbide has not been successfully achieved on 6H silicon carbide. We are investigating the growth of silicon carbide on a compliant substrate in order to grow defect free silicon carbide. This compliant substrate consists of silicon/silicon dioxide with 1200 A of single crystal silicon on the top layer. We are using this compliant substrate because there is a possibility that the silicon dioxide layer and the carbonized layer will allow the silicon lattice to shrink or expand to match the lattice of the silicon carbide. This would improve the electrical properties of the film for the use of device fabrication. When trying to grow silicon carbide, we observed amorphous film. To investigate, we examined the process step by step using RHEED. RHEED data showed that each step was amorphous. We found that just by heating the substrate in the presence of hydrogen it changed the crystal structure. When heated to 1000 C for 2 minutes, RHEED showed that there was an amorphous layer on the surface. We also heated the substrate to 900 C for 2 minutes and RHEED data showed that there was a deterioration of the single crystalline structure. We assumed that the presence of oxygen was coming from the sides of the silicon dioxide layer. Therefore, we evaporated 2500 A of silicon to all four edges of the wafer to try to enclose the oxygen. When heating the evaporated wafer to 900 C the RHEED data showed single crystalline structure however at 1000 C the RHEED data showed deterioration of the single crystalline structure. We conclude that the substrate itself is temperature dependent and that the oxygen was coming from the sides of the silicon dioxide layer. We propose to evaporate more silicon on the edges of the wafer to eliminate the escape of oxygen. this will allow

  2. Thermal properties of wood-derived silicon carbide and copper-silicon carbide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappecena, Kristen E.

    Wood-derived ceramics and composites have been of interest in recent years due to their unique microstructures, which lead to tailorable properties. The porosity and pore size distribution of each wood type is different, which yields variations in properties in the resultant materials. The thermal properties of silicon carbide ceramics and copper-silicon carbide composites derived from wood were studied as a function of their pore structures. Wood was pyrolyzed at temperatures ranging from 300-2400°C to yield porous carbon. The progression toward long-range order was studied as a function of pyrolyzation temperature. Biomorphic silicon carbide (bioSiC) is a porous ceramic material resulting from silicon melt infiltration of these porous carbon materials. BioSiC has potential applicability in many high temperature environments, particularly those in which rapid temperature changes occur. To understand the behavior of bioSiC at elevated temperatures, the thermal and thermo-mechanical properties were studied. The thermal conductivity of bioSiC from five precursors was determined using flash diffusivity at temperatures up to 1100°C. Thermal conductivity results varied with porosity, temperature and orientation, and decreased from 42-13 W/mK for porosities of 43-69%, respectively, at room temperature. The results were compared with to object-oriented finite-element analysis (OOF). OOF was also used to model and understand the heat-flow paths through the complex bioSiC microstructures. The thermal shock resistance of bioSiC was also studied, and no bioSiC sample was found to fail catastrophically after up to five thermal shock cycles from 1400°C to room temperature oil. Copper-silicon carbide composites have potential uses in thermal management applications due to the high thermal conductivity of each phase. Cu-bioSiC composites were created by electrodeposition of copper into bioSiC pores. The detrimental Cu-SiC reaction was avoided by using this room temperature

  3. Automated laser fabrication of cemented carbide components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, C. P.; Khajepour, A.

    2008-07-01

    Automated Laser Fabrication (ALFa) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid-manufacturing technologies. It is similar to laser cladding at process level with different end applications. In general, laser cladding technique is used to deposit materials on the substrate either to improve the surface properties or to refurbish the worn-out parts, while ALFa is capable of near net shaping the components by layer-by-layer deposition of the material directly from CAD model. This manufacturing method is very attractive for low volume manufacturing of hard materials, as near net shaping minimizes machining of hard material and subsequently brings significant savings in time and costly material. To date, many researchers have used this technology to fabricate components using various alloy steels, nickel-based alloys and cobalt-based alloys. In the present study, the work is extended to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) composites. A set of comprehensive experiments was carried out to study the effect of processing parameters during multi-layer fabrication. The process parameters were optimized for the component-level fabrication. Fabricated components were subjected to dye-penetrant testing, three-point flexural testing, hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The test results revealed that the laser-fabricated material was defect free and more ductile in nature. Thus, ALFa technology, not only produced the quality components, but also minimized machining of hard material and brought significant saving of time and costly WC-Co material.

  4. Analysis of boron carbides' electronic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Iris A.; Beckel, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    The electronic properties of boron-rich icosahedral clusters were studied as a means of understanding the electronic structure of the icosahedral borides such as boron carbide. A lower bound was estimated on bipolaron formation energies in B12 and B11C icosahedra, and the associated distortions. While the magnitude of the distortion associated with bipolaron formation is similar in both cases, the calculated formation energies differ greatly, formation being much more favorable on B11C icosahedra. The stable positions of a divalent atom relative to an icosahedral borane was also investigated, with the result that a stable energy minimum was found when the atom is at the center of the borane, internal to the B12 cage. If incorporation of dopant atoms into B12 cages in icosahedral boride solids is feasible, novel materials might result. In addition, the normal modes of a B12H12 cluster, of the C2B10 cage in para-carborane, and of a B12 icosahedron of reduced (D sub 3d) symmetry, such as is found in the icosahedral borides, were calculated. The nature of these vibrational modes will be important in determining, for instance, the character of the electron-lattice coupling in the borides, and in analyzing the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity.

  5. Palladium Implanted Silicon Carbide for Hydrogen Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntele, C. I.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Muntele, L.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.; Larkin, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon carbide is intended for use in fabrication of high-temperature, efficient hydrogen sensors. Traditionally, when a palladium coating is applied on the exposed surface of SiC, the chemical reaction between palladium and hydrogen produces a detectable change in the surface chemical potential. We have produced both a palladium coated SiC as well as a palladium, ion implanted SiC sensor. The palladium implantation was done at 500 C into the Si face of 6H, N-type SiC at various energies, and at various fluences. Then, we measured the hydrogen sensitivity response of each fabricated sensor by exposing them to hydrogen while monitoring the current flow across the p-n junction(s), with respect to time. The sensitivity of each sensor was measured at temperatures between 27 and 300 C. The response of the SiC sensors produced by Pd implantation has revealed a completely different behaviour than the SiC sensors produced by Pd deposition. In the Pd-deposited SiC sensors as well as in the ones reported in the literature, the current rises in the presence of hydrogen at room temperature as well as at elevated temperatures. In the case of Pd-implanted SiC sensors, the current decreases in the presence of hydrogen whenever the temperature is raised above 100 C. We will present the details and conclusions from the results obtained during this meeting.

  6. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines is studied. Injection molding was the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals were to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in four-point loading. Statistically designed experiments were performed throughout the program and a fluid mixing process employing an attritor mixer was developed. Compositional improvements in the amounts and sources of boron and carbon used and a pressureless sintering cycle were developed which provided samples of about 99 percent of theoretical density. Strengths were found to improve significantly by annealing in air. Strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) with Weibull modulus of about 9 were obtained. Further improvements in Weibull modulus to about 16 were realized by proof testing. This is an increase of 86 percent in strength and 100 percent in Weibull modulus over the baseline data generated at the beginning of the program. Molding yields were improved and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were found to be useful in characterizing the SiC powder and the sintered samples. Turbocharger rotors were molded and examined as an indication of the moldability of the mixes which were developed in this program.

  7. Material testing of silicon carbide mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Palusinski, Iwona A.

    2009-08-01

    The Aerospace Corporation is developing a space qualification method for silicon carbide optical systems that covers material verification through system development. One of the initial efforts has been to establish testing protocols for material properties. Three different tests have been performed to determine mechanical properties of SiC: modulus of rupture, equibiaxial flexural strength and fracture toughness. Testing materials and methods have been in accordance with the respective ASTM standards. Material from four vendors has been tested to date, as part of the MISSE flight program and other programs. Data analysis has focused on the types of issues that are important when building actual components- statistical modeling of test results, understanding batch-to-batch or other source material variations, and relating mechanical properties to microstructures. Mechanical properties are needed as inputs to design trade studies and development and analysis of proof tests, and to confirm or understand the results of non-destructive evaluations of the source materials. Measuring these properties using standardized tests on a statistically valid number of samples is intended to increase confidence for purchasers of SiC spacecraft components that materials and structures will perform as intended at the highest level of reliability.

  8. Casimir forces from conductive silicon carbide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, M.; Svetovoy, V. B.; Broer, W. H.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-05-01

    Samples of conductive silicon carbide (SiC), which is a promising material due to its excellent properties for devices operating in severe environments, were characterized with the atomic force microscope for roughness, and the optical properties were measured with ellipsometry in a wide range of frequencies. The samples show significant far-infrared absorption due to concentration of charge carriers and a sharp surface phonon-polariton peak. The Casimir interaction of SiC with different materials is calculated and discussed. As a result of the infrared structure and beyond to low frequencies, the Casimir force for SiC-SiC and SiC-Au approaches very slowly the limit of ideal metals, while it saturates significantly below this limit if interaction with insulators takes place (SiC-SiO2). At short separations (<10 nm) analysis of the van der Waals force yielded Hamaker constants for SiC-SiC interactions lower but comparable to those of metals, which is of significance to adhesion and surface assembly processes. Finally, bifurcation analysis of microelectromechanical system actuation indicated that SiC can enhance the regime of stable equilibria against stiction.

  9. Thermal equation of state of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuejian; Liu, Zhi T. Y.; Khare, Sanjay V.; Collins, Sean Andrew; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2016-02-01

    A large volume press coupled with in-situ energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray was used to probe the change of silicon carbide (SiC) under high pressure and temperature (P-T) up to 8.1 GPa and 1100 K. The obtained pressure-volume-temperature data were fitted to a modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, yielding values of a series of thermo-elastic parameters, such as the ambient bulk modulus KTo = 237(2) GPa, temperature derivative of the bulk modulus at a constant pressure (∂K/∂T)P = -0.037(4) GPa K-1, volumetric thermal expansivity α(0, T) = a + bT with a = 5.77(1) × 10-6 K-1 and b = 1.36(2) × 10-8 K-2, and pressure derivative of the thermal expansion at a constant temperature (∂α/∂P)T = 6.53 ± 0.64 × 10-7 K-1 GPa-1. Furthermore, we found the temperature derivative of the bulk modulus at a constant volume, (∂KT/∂T)V, equal to -0.028(4) GPa K-1 by using a thermal pressure approach. In addition, the elastic properties of SiC were determined by density functional theory through the calculation of Helmholtz free energy. The computed results generally agree well with the experimentally determined values.

  10. Methods for producing silicon carbide architectural preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A. (Inventor); Yun, Hee (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing architectural preforms and high-temperature composite structures containing high-strength ceramic fibers with reduced preforming stresses within each fiber, with an in-situ grown coating on each fiber surface, with reduced boron within the bulk of each fiber, and with improved tensile creep and rupture resistance properties for each fiber. The methods include the steps of preparing an original sample of a preform formed from a pre-selected high-strength silicon carbide ceramic fiber type, placing the original sample in a processing furnace under a pre-selected preforming stress state and thermally treating the sample in the processing furnace at a pre-selected processing temperature and hold time in a processing gas having a pre-selected composition, pressure, and flow rate. For the high-temperature composite structures, the method includes additional steps of depositing a thin interphase coating on the surface of each fiber and forming a ceramic or carbon-based matrix within the sample.

  11. Irradiation creep of advanced silicon carbide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.; Youngblood, G. E.

    2000-12-01

    The bend stress relaxation (BSR) method was applied to study irradiation enhanced creep (IEC) of small diameter silicon carbide (SiC) fibers after 10 MeV proton irradiation. A first series of tests was conducted on Sylramic™ fibers irradiated at 600°C with average bending stresses of 400 and 667 MPa and for irradiation doses smaller than 0.04 dpa. The BSR results are compared to previously obtained torsional creep test results for the Textron SCS-6™ type SiC fibers by calculating the tensile equivalents for both testing methods. For the Sylramic fibers, the creep constant κ=4.7×10-6 Mpa-1 dpa-1, was a factor of 6 smaller than the κ-value determined for SCS-6 fibers at 600°C. In contrast, for T<900°C the κ-value determined by R.J. Price [Nucl. Technol. 35 (1977) 320] for high purity monolithic β-Si after 7.7 dpa neutron irradiation was only 0.4×10-6 MPa-1 dpa-1.

  12. Low temperature properties of boron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rooy, J. C. J. M.; Reefman, D.; van der Putten, D.; Brom, H. B.; Aselage, T.; Emin, D.

    1991-07-01

    We have investigated boron carbides, B1-xCx with x=0.1, 0.13, and 0.2, especially below 1 K. The samples were characterized by ESR. The integrated intensities are roughly sample independent and correspond to about 1020 spins per gram. The temperature (T) dependences are Curie like. The line shapes were lorentzian and for x=0.1 and 0.13 are strongly temperature dependent, which is suggestive for a coupling of linewidths and charge carriers. The room temperature linewidths are 0.38 mT, 32.6 mT, and 23.5 mT for resp. x=0.2, 0.13 and 0.1. Also the AC susceptibility (χ) measured down to 100 mK points to a similar small number spins. There is no sign of a Pauli susceptibility within experimental error. No phase transition (e.g., to a superconducting state) is observed. For x=0.13 and 0.1 a very small specific heat, C is seen. The T dependence of C can be described by a Tα plus a small cubic term, α about 0.26. The relation between C and χ can be explained with a random exchange model. The C-value for x=0.2 is below the limit of our experimental accuracy.

  13. Casimir force measurements from silicon carbide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, M.; Svetovoy, V. B.; Palasantzas, G.

    2016-02-01

    Using an atomic force microscope we performed measurements of the Casimir force between a gold- coated (Au) microsphere and doped silicon carbide (SiC) samples. The last of these is a promising material for devices operating under severe environments. The roughness of the interacting surfaces was measured to obtain information for the minimum separation distance upon contact. Ellipsometry data for both systems were used to extract optical properties needed for the calculation of the Casimir force via the Lifshitz theory and for comparison to the experiment. Special attention is devoted to the separation of the electrostatic contribution to the measured total force. Our measurements demonstrate large contact potential V0(≈0.67 V ) , and a relatively small density of charges trapped in SiC. Knowledge of both Casimir and electrostatic forces between interacting materials is not only important from the fundamental point of view, but also for device applications involving actuating components at separations of less than 200 nm where surface forces play dominant role.

  14. Silicon Carbide Technologies for Lightweighted Aerospace Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, L.; Chen, M.; Deblonk, B.; Palusinski, I.

    The use of monolithic glass and beryllium to produce lightweighted aerospace mirror systems has reached its limits due to the long lead times, high processing costs, environmental effects and launch load/weight requirements. New material solutions and manufacturing processes are required to meet DoD's directed energy weapons, reconnaissance/surveillance, and secured communications needs. Over the past several years the Air Force, MDA, and NASA has focused their efforts on the fabrication, lightweighting, and scale-up of numerous silicon carbide (SiC) based materials. It is anticipated that SiC can be utilized for most applications from cryogenic to high temperatures. This talk will focus on describing the SOA for these (near term) SiC technology solutions for making mirror structural substrates, figuring and finishing technologies being investigated to reduce cost time and cost, and non-destructive evaluation methods being investigated to help eliminate risk. Mirror structural substrates made out of advanced engineered materials (far term solutions) such as composites, foams, and microsphere arrays for ultra lightweighting will also be briefly discussed.

  15. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:26394207

  16. Bright Single Photon Emitter in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienhard, Benjamin; Schroeder, Tim; Mouradian, Sara; Dolde, Florian; Trong Tran, Toan; Aharonovich, Igor; Englund, Dirk

    Efficient, on-demand, and robust single photon emitters are of central importance to many areas of quantum information processing. Over the past 10 years, color centers in solids have emerged as excellent single photon emitters. Color centers in diamond are among the most intensively studied single photon emitters, but recently silicon carbide (SiC) has also been demonstrated to be an excellent host material. In contrast to diamond, SiC is a technologically important material that is widely used in optoelectronics, high power electronics, and microelectromechanical systems. It is commercially available in sizes up to 6 inches and processes for device engineering are well developed. We report on a visible-spectrum single photon emitter in 4H-SiC. The emitter is photostable at both room and low temperatures, and it enables 2 million photons/second from unpatterned bulk SiC. We observe two classes of orthogonally polarized emitters, each of which has parallel absorption and emission dipole orientations. Low temperature measurements reveal a narrow zero phonon line with linewidth < 0.1 nm that accounts for more than 30% of the total photoluminescence spectrum. To our knowledge, this SiC color emitter is the brightest stable room-temperature single photon emitter ever observed.

  17. Polymeric synthesis of silicon carbide with microwaves.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Juan; Urueta, Luis; Valdez, Zarel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is conducting polymeric synthesis with microwaves for producing beta-SiC. A polymeric precursor was prepared by means of hydrolysis and condensation reactions from pheniltrimethoxysilane, water, methanol, ammonium hydroxide and chloride acid. The precursor was placed into a quartz tube in vacuum; pyrolysis was carried out conventionally in a tube furnace, and by microwaves at 2.45 GHz in a multimode cavity. Conventional tests took place in a scheme where temperature was up to 1500 degrees C for 120 minutes. Microwave heating rate was not controlled and tests lasted 60 and 90 minutes, temperature was around 900 degrees C. Products of the pyrolysis were analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction; in the microwave case the diffraction patterns showed a strong background of either very fine particles or amorphous material, then infrared spectroscopy was also employed for confirming carbon bonds. In both processes beta-SiC was found as the only produced carbide. PMID:17645205

  18. In situ ion irradiation of zirconium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Christopher J.; Motta, Arthur T.; Kirk, Mark A.

    2015-11-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a candidate material for use in one of the layers of TRISO coated fuel particles to be used in the Generation IV high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor, and thus it is necessary to study the effects of radiation damage on its structure. The microstructural evolution of ZrCx under irradiation was studied in situ using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. Samples of nominal stoichiometries ZrC0.8 and ZrC0.9 were irradiated in situ using 1 MeV Kr2+ ions at various irradiation temperatures (T = 20 K-1073 K). In situ experiments made it possible to continuously follow the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation using diffraction contrast imaging. Images and diffraction patterns were systematically recorded at selected dose points. After a threshold dose during irradiations conducted at room temperature and below, black-dot defects were observed which accumulated until saturation. Once created, the defect clusters did not move or get destroyed during irradiation so that at the final dose the low temperature microstructure consisted only of a saturation density of small defect clusters. No long-range migration of the visible defects or dynamic defect creation and elimination were observed during irradiation, but some coarsening of the microstructure with the formation of dislocation loops was observed at higher temperatures. The irradiated microstructure was found to be only weakly dependent on the stoichiometry.

  19. Occurrence of airborne silicon carbide fibers during industrial production of silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Bye, E; Eduard, W; Gjønnes, J; Sørbrøden, E

    1985-04-01

    Airborne dust from the production of silicon carbide has been analyzed for particle morphology and composition. Fibers of alpha silicon carbide were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction techniques (SAED). Micrographs taken at high magnification revealed several stacking periods along the fiber axis, and one or more of the polytypes 2H, 4H, or 6H could be distinguished. Preliminary investigations applying SEM showed that 80% of the fibers had diameters of less than 0.5 micron and a length greater than 5 micron. Fiber concentrations were examined by the counting of stationary and personal samples in an optical phase contrast microscope. The fiber levels in the three plants investigated were low and less than 1 fiber/cc of air (10(6) fibers/m3). Dust samples from the handling of raw material, including recycled material, contained up to 5 fibers/cc (5 X 10(6) fibers/m3). PMID:4001899

  20. Converting a carbon preform object to a silicon carbide object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process for converting in depth a carbon or graphite preform object to a silicon carbide object, silicon carbide/silicon object, silicon carbide/carbon-core object, or a silicon carbide/silicon/carbon-core object, by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time in a reaction chamber. In the process, a stream comprised of a silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a coreactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into the reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. Thus, the precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. Any stream of decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from the reaction chamber is removed. A carbon or graphite preform object placed in the reaction chamber is contacted with the silicon. The carbon or graphite preform object is recovered from the reactor chamber after it has been converted to a desired silicon carbide, silicon and carbon composition.

  1. Microwave versus conventional sintering of silicon carbide tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.D.; Caughman, J.B.O.; Forrester, S.C.; Akerman, A.

    1997-05-07

    Silicon carbide is being evaluated as an armor material because of its lightweight, high-hardness, and excellent armor efficiency. However, one of the problems associated with silicon carbide is the high cost associated with achieving fully dense tiles. Full density requires either hot pressing and sintering or reaction bonding. Past efforts have shown that hot pressed tiles have a higher armor efficiency than those produced by reaction bonded sintering. An earlier stuy showed that the acoustic properties of fully-dense silicon carbide tiles were enhanced through the use of post-sintered microwave heat treatments. One of the least expensive forming techniques is to isostatically press-and-sinter. In this study, the authors have used microwave energy to densify silicon carbide green bodies. Microwave sintering has been demonstrated to be a very quick way to sinter ceramics such as alumina to exceptionally high densities. Previous work has shown that microwave post treatment of fully-dense reaction bonded silicon carbide tiles significantly improves the acoustic properties of the tiles. These properties include Poisson`s ratio, Young`s modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus.

  2. Supported molybdenum carbide catalysts: Structure-function relationships for hydrodenitrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Dolce, G.M.; Thompson, L.T.

    1997-12-31

    There continues to be a need for new catalysts that can efficiently upgrade petroleum crudes. Heavy oils and coal-derived liquids contain higher levels of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen than conventional light crudes, and therefore require more rigorous refining. Currently available commercial catalysts are not as active and efficient at hydrotreating these heavy oils compared to light crudes. Early transition metal carbides and nitrides have been shown to be active for the hydrotreatment of model compounds and petroleum crudes. In this paper the authors describe their investigations of the structural and compositional properties of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported molybdenum carbides and efforts to correlate these properties with their pyridine and quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) activities. The HDN activities of the materials scaled linearly with the loading and oxygen chemisorptive uptake. Oxygen chemisorption results also suggested that the molybdenum carbide particles were highly dispersed and perhaps raft-like. Using temperature programmed desorption and infrared spectroscopy of carbon monoxide, they were able to identify two types of sites on the carbides; sites on top of the particle and sites at the perimeter. They have tentatively concluded that the most active sites for HDN were on top of the supported carbide particles.

  3. Phase Behavior of Pseudobinary Precious Metal-Carbide Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gregoire, John M.; Tague, Michele E.; Smith, Eva H.; Dale, Darren; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Abruña, Héctor D.; Hennig, Richard G.; van Dover, R. Bruce

    2010-11-15

    Transition metal carbides exhibit a variety of interesting material properties, including electrochemical stability. When combined with precious metals, Ta and W carbides have shown promise as fuel cell electrode materials; yet, the phase behavior of these precious metal-carbide systems is largely unexplored. We investigated P-M-C phase behavior with P = Pt, Pd, and Ru and M = Ta and W using composition spread thin films. We attained limited control of the deposited carbide phase through variation of the sputter atmosphere and demonstrated decreased corrosion of W-C materials with increasing C content. A high-throughput X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence experiment was employed for thin film characterization, which revealed solubility of Pt, Pd, and Ru in cubic WC. Density functional calculations of the lattice parameter dependence on carbon concentration enabled the determination of carbon concentration from the X-ray data as a function of transition metal stoichiometry. Our measurement of variations in the C stoichiometry and evolution of thin film texture with transition metal composition yielded surprising results. We detail how the combination of the composition spread technique, the high-throughput thin film characterization, and the density functional modeling of ternary carbide alloys provided a deep understanding of the chemical systems.

  4. Synthesis of high purity carbide powders. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis and preparation of high purity carbide powders. Articles discuss techniques of powder manufacture such as chemical vapor deposition, plasma arc reactions, sintering, hot pressing, combustion synthesis, precipitation, chemical reaction, self-propagating high temperature synthesis, shock or explosive compaction, and aerosol formation. Citations concern silicon carbides, titanium carbides, and other carbide materials and composites. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented compact tungsten carbides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, K.; Staňková, A.; Häkkänen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Otruba, V.; Kanický, V.

    2007-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the direct analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented tungsten carbides. The aim of this work was to examine the possibility of quantitative determination of the niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt. The investigated samples were in the form of pellets, pressed with and without binder (powdered silver) and in the form of cemented tungsten carbides. The pellets were prepared by pressing the powdered material in a hydraulic press. Cemented tungsten carbides were embedded in resin for easier manipulation. Several lasers and detection systems were utilized. The Nd:YAG laser working at a basic wavelength of 1064 nm and fourth-harmonic frequency of 266 nm with a gated photomultiplier or ICCD detector HORIBA JY was used for the determination of niobium which was chosen as a model element. Different types of surrounding gases (air, He, Ar) were investigated for analysis. The ICCD detector DICAM PRO with Mechelle 7500 spectrometer with ArF laser (193 nm) and KrF laser (248 nm) were employed for the determination of niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt in samples under air atmosphere. Good calibration curves were obtained for Nb, Ti, and Ta (coefficients of determination r2 > 0.96). Acceptable calibration curves were acquired for the determination of cobalt (coefficient of determination r2 = 0.7994) but only for the cemented samples. In the case of powdered carbide precursors, the calibration for cobalt was found to be problematic.

  6. Structure-Property Relationship in Metal Carbides and Bimetallic Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jingguan

    2014-03-04

    The primary objective of our DOE/BES sponsored research is to use carbide and bimetallic catalysts as model systems to demonstrate the feasibility of tuning the catalytic activity, selectivity and stability. Our efforts involve three parallel approaches, with the aim at studying single crystal model surfaces and bridging the “materials gap” and “pressure gap” between fundamental surface science studies and real world catalysis. The utilization of the three parallel approaches has led to the discovery of many intriguing catalytic properties of carbide and bimetallic surfaces and catalysts. During the past funding period we have utilized these combined research approaches to explore the possibility of predicting and verifying bimetallic and carbide combinations with enhanced catalytic activity, selectivity and stability.

  7. Processing, texture and mechanical properties of sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landfermann, H.; Hausner, H.

    1988-01-01

    With regard to its favorable properties, in particular those shown at high temperatures, silicon carbide is of great interest for applications related to the construction of engines and turbines. Thus, silicon carbide could replace heat-resisting alloys with the objective to achieve a further increase in operational temperature. The present investigation is concerned with approaches which can provide silicon carbide material with suitable properties for the intended applications, taking into account the relations between characteristics of the raw material, material composition, sinter conditions, and results of the sintering process. The effects of density and texture formation on the mechanical properties are studied. It is found that a dense material with a fine-grained microstructure provides optimal mechanical properties, while any deviation from this ideal condition can lead to a considerable deterioration with respect to the material properties.

  8. Field testing of pressureless sintered silicon carbide for choke trim

    SciTech Connect

    Regitz, A.; Keene, K.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, tungsten carbide has been the most erosion resistant material in use for choke stem tips and seats. An increase in the number of wells that produce sand has led to a need for an improved material that will maintain its integrity significantly longer, when exposed to high velocity sand. During the last two years, FMC Wellhead Equipment Division's R and D Engineering Department has been conducting field tests of pressureless sintered silicon carbide (herein called SiC) used as trim for chokes. The test results have been very encouraging. SiC appears to have wear resistance two to three times better than tungsten carbide. The main problems encountered have been the brittleness of the material and the difficulty in attaching a SiC tip to the steel choke stem.

  9. Surface Figure Measurement of Silicon Carbide Mirrors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The surface figure of a developmental silicon carbide mirror, cooled to 87 K and then 20 K within a cryostat, was measured with unusually high precision at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The concave spherical mirror, with a radius of 600 mm and a clear aperture of 150 mm, was fabricated of sintered silicon carbide. The mirror was mounted to an interface plate representative of an optical bench, made of the material Cesic@, a composite of silicon, carbon, and silicon carbide. The change in optical surface figure as the mirror and interface plate cooled from room temperature to 20 K was 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  10. Some observations on uranium carbide alloy/tungsten compatibility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    Results of chemical compatibility tests between both pure tungsten and thoriated tungsten run at 1800 C for up to 3300 hours with uranium carbide alloys. Alloying with zirconium carbide appeared to widen the homogeneity range of uranium carbide, making additional carbon available for reaction with the tungsten. Reaction layers were formed both by vapor phase reaction and by physical contact, producing either or both UWC2 and W2C, depending upon the phases present in the starting fuel alloy. Formation of UWC2 results in slow growth of the reaction layer with time, while W2C reaction layers grow rapidly, allowing equilibrium to be reached in less than 2500 hours at 1800 C. Neither the presence of a thermal gradient nor the presence of thoria in the tungsten clad affect the reactions observed.

  11. Pulsed energy synthesis and doping of silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Thompson, J.B.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1995-06-20

    A method for producing beta silicon carbide thin films by co-depositing thin films of amorphous silicon and carbon onto a substrate is disclosed, whereafter the films are irradiated by exposure to a pulsed energy source (e.g. excimer laser) to cause formation of the beta-SiC compound. Doped beta-SiC may be produced by introducing dopant gases during irradiation. Single layers up to a thickness of 0.5-1 micron have been produced, with thicker layers being produced by multiple processing steps. Since the electron transport properties of beta silicon carbide over a wide temperature range of 27--730 C is better than these properties of alpha silicon carbide, they have wide application, such as in high temperature semiconductors, including HETEROJUNCTION-junction bipolar transistors and power devices, as well as in high bandgap solar arrays, ultra-hard coatings, light emitting diodes, sensors, etc.

  12. Pulsed energy synthesis and doping of silicon carbide

    DOEpatents

    Truher, Joel B.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing beta silicon carbide thin films by co-depositing thin films of amorphous silicon and carbon onto a substrate, whereafter the films are irradiated by exposure to a pulsed energy source (e.g. excimer laser) to cause formation of the beta-SiC compound. Doped beta-SiC may be produced by introducing dopant gases during irradiation. Single layers up to a thickness of 0.5-1 micron have been produced, with thicker layers being produced by multiple processing steps. Since the electron transport properties of beta silicon carbide over a wide temperature range of 27.degree.-730.degree. C. is better than these properties of alpha silicon carbide, they have wide application, such as in high temperature semiconductors, including hetero-junction bipolar transistors and power devices, as well as in high bandgap solar arrays, ultra-hard coatings, light emitting diodes, sensors, etc.

  13. Boron Carbide Deposition on Urania and Urania-Gadolinia Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Disbudak, H.; Uslu, I.; Bilgesu, A.Y.; Guenduez, G.

    2001-09-15

    Pure uranium dioxide and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide (5 and 10%) fuels used in this study were prepared by the solution-gelation (sol-gel) technique. The fuels were then coated with boron carbide by chemical vapor deposition. Boron carbide was produced from the reaction of carbon tetrachloride and boron trichloride with excess hydrogen, in a tube furnace at 1000, 1100, and 1175 deg. C. The Fourier transform infrared data of boron carbide deposited on a silica glass were in agreement with the ones in the literature. The experiments showed that the composition of the coating changed with deposition temperature. There was boron-rich coating at low-temperature deposition, and carbon-rich coating at high-temperature deposition. The morphology and the thickness of the coating have been investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy.

  14. Thermal shock and erosion resistant tantalum carbide ceramic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, L., III; Manning, C. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic tantalum carbide artifacts with high thermal shock and mechanical erosion resistance are provided by incorporating tungsten-rhenium and carbon particles in a tantalum carbide matrix. The mix is sintered by hot pressing to form the ceramic article which has a high fracture strength relative to its elastic modulus and thus has an improved thermal shock and mechanical erosion resistance. The tantalum carbide is preferable less than minus 100 mesh, the carbon particles are preferable less than minus 100 mesh, and the tungsten-rhenium particles are preferable elongate, having a length to thickness ratio of at least 2/1. Tungsten-rhenium wire pieces are suitable as well as graphite particles.

  15. Some observations on uranium carbide alloy/tungsten compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between both pure and thoriated tungsten and uranium carbide alloys was studied at 1800 C for up to 3300 hours. Alloying with zirconium carbide appeared to widen the homogeneity range of uranium carbide, making additional carbon available for reaction with the tungsten. Reaction layers were formed both by vapor phase reaction and by physical contact, producing either or both UWC2 and W2C, dependent upon the phases present in the starting fuel alloy. Formation of UWC2 results in slow growth of the reaction layer with time, while W2C reaction layers grow rapidly, allowing equilibrium to be reached in less than 2500 hours at 1800 C. The presence of a thermal gradient had no effect on the reactions observed nor did the presence of thoria in the tungsten clad.

  16. A study of silicon carbide synthesis from waste serpentine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T W; Hsu, C W

    2006-06-01

    There are 60000 tons of serpentine wastes produced in year 2004 in Taiwan. This is due to the well-developed joints in the serpentine ore body as well as the stringent requirements of the particle size and chemical composition of serpentine by iron making company. The waste also creates considerable environmental problems. The purpose of this study is reutilization of waste serpentine to produce a high value silica powder after acid leaching. These siliceous microstructure products obtained from serpentine would be responsible for high reactivity and characteristic molecular sieving effect. In this study, the amorphous silica powder was then synthesized to silicon carbide with the C/SiO(2) molar ratio of 3. The experiment results show that silicon carbide can be synthesized in 1550 degrees C. The formed silicon carbide was whisker beta type SiC which can be used as raw materials for industry. PMID:16405956

  17. Characterization of carbides composite surface layers produced by PTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, M.; Tajouri, A.

    2015-03-01

    Composite surface layer of nickel base with titanium carbide in powder form was deposited on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard by using plasma transferred arc technique. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hardfacin process was successfully conducted by using PMNICr50P alloy plus titanium carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 754 HV and minimum dilution of 4.6 % were achieved by using an arc current of 80 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A& the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base with titanium carbide feature uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with irregular grain shape and relatively small particles size, and regular boundary line between the substrate and over layer with presence of black area along the boundary line. A few micro - porosities are located in the matrix.

  18. Evolution of carbides in cold-work tool steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hoyoung; Kang, Jun-Yun; Son, Dongmin; Lee, Tae-Ho; Cho, Kyung-Mox

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to present the complete history of carbide evolution in a cold-work tool steel along its full processing route for fabrication and application. A sequence of processes from cast to final hardening heat treatment was conducted on an 8% Cr-steel to reproduce a typical commercial processing route in a small scale. The carbides found at each process step were then identified by electron diffraction with energy dispersive spectroscopy in a scanning or transmission electron microscope. After solidification, MC, M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 2}C carbides were identified and the last one dissolved during hot compression at 1180 °C. In a subsequent annealing at 870 °C followed by slow cooling, M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were added, while they were dissolved in the following austenitization at 1030 °C. After the final tempering at 520 °C, fine M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitated again, thus the final microstructure was the tempered martensite with MC, M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide. The transient M{sub 2}C and M{sub 6}C originated from the segregation of Mo and finally disappeared due to attenuated segregation and the consequent thermodynamic instability. - Highlights: • The full processing route of a cold-work tool steel was simulated in a small scale. • The carbides in the tool steel were identified by chemical–crystallographic analyses. • MC, M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 2}C, M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides were found during the processing of the steel. • M{sub 2}C and M{sub 6}C finally disappeared due to thermodynamic instability.

  19. Structure and bonding in amorphous iron carbide thin films.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Andrej; Jansson, Ulf; Lu, Jun; Hultman, Lars; Magnuson, Martin

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the amorphous structure, chemical bonding, and electrical properties of magnetron sputtered Fe(1-xCx) (0.21 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.72) thin films. X-ray, electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that the Fe(1-xCx) films are amorphous nanocomposites, consisting of a two-phase domain structure with Fe-rich carbidic FeC(y), and a carbon-rich matrix. Pair distribution function analysis indicates a close-range order similar to those of crystalline Fe(3)C carbides in all films with additional graphene-like structures at high carbon content (71.8 at% C). From x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we find that the amorphous carbidic phase has a composition of 15-25 at% carbon that slightly increases with total carbon content. X-ray absorption spectra exhibit an increasing number of unoccupied 3d states and a decreasing number of C 2p states as a function of carbon content. These changes signify a systematic redistribution in orbital occupation due to charge-transfer effects at the domain-size-dependent carbide/matrix interfaces. The four-point probe resistivity of the Fe(1-xCx) films increases exponentially with carbon content from ∼200 μΩ cm (x = 0.21) to ∼1200 μΩ cm (x = 0.72), and is found to depend on the total carbon content rather than the composition of the carbide. Our findings open new possibilities for modifying the resistivity of amorphous thin film coatings based on transition metal carbides through the control of amorphous domain structures. PMID:25567721

  20. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424.50 Section 424.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  1. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424.50 Section 424.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  2. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424.50 Section 424.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  3. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424.50 Section 424.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  4. 40 CFR 424.50 - Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. 424.50 Section 424.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.50 Applicability; description of the other calcium carbide furnaces subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  5. Method for making hot-pressed fiber-reinforced carbide-graphite composite

    DOEpatents

    Riley, Robert E.; Wallace Sr., Terry C.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the chemical vapor deposition of a uniform coating of tantalum metal on fibers of a woven graphite cloth is described. Several layers of the coated cloth are hot pressed to produce a tantalum carbide-graphite composite having a uniformly dispersed, fine grained tantalum carbide in graphite with compositions in the range of 15 to 40 volume percent tantalum carbide.

  6. High-Q silicon carbide photonic-crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jonathan Y.; Lu, Xiyuan; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate one-dimensional photonic-crystal nanobeam cavities in amorphous silicon carbide. The fundamental mode exhibits intrinsic optical quality factor as high as 7.69 × 10{sup 4} with mode volume ∼0.60(λ/n){sup 3} at wavelength 1.5 μm. A corresponding Purcell factor value of ∼10{sup 4} is the highest reported to date in silicon carbide optical cavities. The device exhibits great potential for integrated nonlinear photonics and cavity nano-optomechanics.

  7. Comparative sinterability of combustion synthesized and commercial titanium carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, B.W.

    1984-11-01

    The influence of various parameters on the sinterability of combustion synthesized titanium carbide was investigaged. Titanium carbide powders, prepared by the combustion synthesis process, were sintered in the temperature range 1150 to 1600/sup 0/C. Incomplete combustion and high oxygen contents were found to be the cause of reduced shrinkage during sintering of the combustion syntheized powders when compared to the shrinkage of commercial TiC. Free carbon was shown to inhibit shrinkage. The activation energy for sintering was found to depend on stoichiometry (C/Ti). With decreasing C/Ti, the rate of sintering increased. 29 references, 16 figures, 13 tables.

  8. Electronic states in epitaxial graphene fabricated on silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, S. Yu.

    2011-08-15

    An analytical expression for the density of states of a graphene monolayer interacting with a silicon carbide surface (epitaxial graphene) is derived. The density of states of silicon carbide is described within the Haldane-Anderson model. It is shown that the graphene-substrate interaction results in a narrow gap of {approx}0.01-0.06 eV in the density of states of graphene. The graphene atom charge is estimated; it is shown that the charge transfer from the substrate is {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -2}e per graphene atom.

  9. Flaw imaging and ultrasonic techniques for characterizing sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

    1987-01-01

    The capabilities were investigated of projection microfocus x-radiography, ultrasonic velocity and attenuation, and reflection scanning acoustic microscopy for characterizing silicon carbide specimens. Silicon carbide batches covered a range of densities and different microstructural characteristics. Room temperature, four point flexural strength tests were conducted. Fractography was used to identify types, sizes, and locations of fracture origins. Fracture toughness values were calculated from fracture strength and flaw characterization data. Detection capabilities of radiography and acoustic microscopy for fracture-causing flaws were evaluated. Applicability of ultrasonics for verifying material strength and toughness was examined.

  10. Radiographic and ultrasonic characterization of sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, G. Y.; Abel, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities were investigated of projection microfocus X-radiography, ultrasonic velocity and attenuation, and reflection scanning acoustic microscopy for characterizing silicon carbide specimens. Silicon carbide batches covered a range of densities and different microstructural characteristics. Room temperature, four point flexural strength tests were conducted. Fractography was used to identify types, sizes, and locations of fracture origins. Fracture toughness values were calculated from fracture strength and flaw characterization data. Detection capabilities of radiography and acoustic microscopy for fracture-causing flaws were evaluated. Applicability of ultrasonics for verifying material strength and toughness was examined.

  11. Shock-Induced Localized Amorphization in Boron Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingwei; McCauley, James W.; Hemker, Kevin J.

    2003-03-01

    High-resolution electron microscope observations of shock-loaded boron carbide have revealed the formation of nanoscale intragranular amorphous bands that occur parallel to specific crystallographic planes and contiguously with apparent cleaved fracture surfaces. This damage mechanism explains the measured, but not previously understood, decrease in the ballistic performance of boron carbide at high impact rates and pressures. The formation of these amorphous bands is also an example of how shock loading can result in the synthesis of novel structures and materials with substantially altered properties.

  12. Catalytic carbide formation at aluminium-carbon interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyama, B.; Rabenberg, L.; Ohuchi, F. S.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the reaction of several monolayer-thick films of aluminum with glassy carbon substrates are presented. The influence of molecular oxygen and water vapor on the rate of reaction is examined. It is concluded that water vapor catalyzed the formation of aluminum carbide from aluminum and carbon by forming active sites which weakened carbon-carbon bonds at the glassy carbon surface, thus assisting their cleavage. The rate of carbide formation for undosed and molecular oxygen-dosed examples was less as neither metallic aluminum nor oxygen-formed alumina could bond to the carbon atom with sufficient strength to dissociate it quickly.

  13. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Wei, George C.

    1984-01-01

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  14. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Wei, G.C.

    1983-10-12

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  15. Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, A.V.; Balooch, M.; Moalem, M.

    1999-01-19

    Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C{sub 60} precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C{sub 60} with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C{sub 60} on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K. 5 figs.

  16. Process for forming silicon carbide films and microcomponents

    DOEpatents

    Hamza, Alex V.; Balooch, Mehdi; Moalem, Mehran

    1999-01-01

    Silicon carbide films and microcomponents are grown on silicon substrates at surface temperatures between 900 K and 1700 K via C.sub.60 precursors in a hydrogen-free environment. Selective crystalline silicon carbide growth can be achieved on patterned silicon-silicon oxide samples. Patterned SiC films are produced by making use of the high reaction probability of C.sub.60 with silicon at surface temperatures greater than 900 K and the negligible reaction probability for C.sub.60 on silicon dioxide at surface temperatures less than 1250 K.

  17. Process for preparing fine grain titanium carbide powder

    DOEpatents

    Janey, Mark A.

    1986-01-01

    A method for preparing finely divided titanium carbide powder in which an organotitanate is reacted with a carbon precursor polymer to provide an admixture of the titanium and the polymer at a molecular-level due to a crosslinking reaction between the organotitanate and the polymer. The resulting gel is dried, pyrolyzed to drive off volatile components and provide carbon. The resulting solids are then heated at an elevated temperature to convert the titanium and carbon to high-purity titanium carbide powder in a submicron size range.

  18. Process for preparing fine grain titanium carbide powder

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.

    1985-03-12

    A method for preparing finely divided titanium carbide powder in which an organotitanate is reacted with a carbon precursor polymer to provide an admixture of the titanium and the polymer at a molecular level due to a crosslinking reaction between the organotitanate and the polymer. The resulting gel is dried, pyrolyzed to drive off volatile components and provide carbon. The resulting solids are then heated at an elevated temperature to convert the titanium and carbon to high-purity titanium carbide powder in a submicron size range.

  19. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, R.; Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1995-05-23

    A process is disclosed for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  20. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, Rasit; Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  1. Electrochemical reaction mechanisms for hydrogen at highly disperse tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Boikova, G.V.; Zhutaeva, G.V.; Tarasevich, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen ionization and evolution of tungsten carbide were compared and these reactions were described in terms of a unified reaction scheme. Two types of electrodes were used, a rotating disk electrode with a thin catalyst layer of disperse tungsten carbide and the second model was a floating gas-diffusion electrode. Fluoropolymer lacquer was used as the binder. The kinetic parameters were determined by measuring steady-state polarization curves and potentiodynamic curves. A hypothesis for a hydrogen ionization reaction scheme was developed which may serve in future investigations and the authors suggest prior deprotonation of the hydrogen molecules.

  2. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets. [B/sub 4/C-Al

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, D.C.; Pyzik, A.J.; Aksay, I.A.

    1985-05-06

    Hard, tough, lighweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidated step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modules of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi..sqrt..in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  3. Method for homogenizing alloys susceptible to the formation of carbide stringers and alloys prepared thereby

    DOEpatents

    Braski, David N.; Leitnaker, James M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel fabrication procedure prevents or eliminates the reprecipitation of segregated metal carbides such as stringers in Ti-modified Hastelloy N and stainless steels to provide a novel alloy having carbides uniformly dispersed throughout the matrix. The fabrication procedure is applicable to other alloys prone to the formation of carbide stringers. The process comprises first annealing the alloy at a temperature above the single phase temperature for sufficient time to completely dissolve carbides and then annealing the single phase alloy for an additional time to prevent the formation of carbide stringers upon subsequent aging or thermomechanical treatment.

  4. Process for preparing metal-carbide-containing microspheres from metal-loaded resin beads

    DOEpatents

    Beatty, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An improved method for treating metal-loaded resin microspheres is described which comprises heating a metal-loaded resin charge in an inert atmosphere at a pre-carbide-forming temperature under such conditions as to produce a microsphere composition having sufficient carbon as to create a substantially continuous carbon matrix and a metal-carbide or an oxide-carbide mixture as a dispersed phase(s) during carbide-forming conditions, and then heating the thus treated charge to a carbide-forming temperature.

  5. The development of silicon carbide-based power electronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Richard H.; Perkins, John F.

    1995-01-01

    In 1989 Westinghouse created an internally funded initiative to develop silicon carbide materials and device technology for a variety of potential commercial and military applications. Westinghouse saw silicon carbide as having the potential for dual use. For space applications, size and weight reductions could be achieved, together with increased reliability. Terrestrially, uses in harsh-temperature environments would be enabled. Theoretically, the physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide were highly promising for high-power, high-temperature, radiation-hardened electronics. However, bulk material with the requisite electronic qualities was not available, and the methods needed to produce a silicon carbide wafer—to fabricate high-quality devices—and to transition these technologies into a commercial product were considered to be a high-risk investment. It was recognized that through a collaborative effort, the CCDS could provide scientific expertise in several areas, thus reducing this risk. These included modeling of structures, electrical contacts, dielectrics, and epitaxial growth. This collaboration has been very successful, with developed technologies being transferred to Westinghouse.

  6. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  7. Surface Coating of Tungsten Carbide by Electric Exploding of Contact

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryev, Evgeny G.

    2011-01-17

    Electric exploding of a tungsten carbide--cobalt material near-by high-speed steel surface forms on it a hardening coating. The essential structure properties of the formed coatings are determined by parameters of contact exploding electrode at the pulse current amplitude from above 106 A/cm2 and duration less than 10-4 s. The metallographic investigations of coating structures were done by microscope 'Neophot-24'. They have shown that the contact electric exploding caused the transfer of tungsten carbide and cobalt on the surface of high-speed steel. The breakdown of tungsten carbide--cobalt material took place during electrical exploding. The hardening layers of tungsten carbide and pure nanocrystalline tungsten have been formed upon the surface of high-speed steel as a result of electric exploding. Crystalline grains of tungsten have an almost spherical form and their characteristic size less than 400 nanometers. Micro hardness of the coating layers and high-speed steel structures was measured.

  8. Carbon, carbides, and methane in an apollo 12 sample.

    PubMed

    Chang, S; Kvenvolden, K; Lawless, J; Ponnamperuma, C; Kaplan, I R

    1971-02-01

    Total carbon in the Apollo 12 sample 12023 fines was 110 micrograms per gram of sample with a carbon isotopic abundance delta(13)C (relative to the Pee Dee belemnite standard) of +12 per mil. Hydrolysis of the fines with deuterium chloride yielded undeuterated methane along with deuterated hydrocarbons, thus confirming the presence of 7 to 21 micrograms of carbon per gram of sample as carbide and about 2 micrograms of carbon per gram of sample as indigenous methane. After vacuum pyrolysis of the fines to 1100 degrees C the following gases were detected in the relative abundance: carbon monoxide carbon dioxide methane. Variations of the delta(13)C value with the pyrolysis temperature indicated the presence of carbon with more than one range of isotopic values. The observed delta(13)C value of +14 per mil for lunar carbide is much higher than that of carbide in meteorites. These results suggest that lunar carbide is either indigenous to the moon or a meteoritic contribution that has been highly fractionated isotopically. PMID:17834553

  9. Tough silicon nitride matrix composites using Textron silicon carbide monofilaments

    SciTech Connect

    Foulds, W.; Lecostaouec, J.F.; Landry, C.; Dipietro, S.; Vasilos, T.

    1989-10-01

    The use of Textron SCS silicon carbide monofilament fibers as a reinforcement for silicon nitride is described. Samples were processed by both chemical vapor infiltration and hot pressing. Mechanical tests were performed in flexure, tension, and in shear. A ballistic test demonstrated high velocity impact toughness. 5 refs.

  10. Ordering in non-stoichiometric carbides of niobium and tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Markhasev, B.I.; Pilipovskii, Yu. L.; Shamatov, Yu. M.; Svintsova, S.E.

    1986-03-01

    Ordering processes were studied in the nonstoichiometric carbides of Nb and Ta. A mechanism of slip transition was proposed for the ordering of NbC/sub 2/, accompanied by precipitation of niobium metal. A diagram of the restructuring of the fcc lattice of NbC to the bcc lattice of Nb is presented.

  11. Interaction of tungsten with tungsten carbide in a copper melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodrova, L. E.; Goida, E. Yu.; Pastukhov, E. A.; Marshuk, L. A.; Popova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    The chemical interaction between tungsten and tungsten carbide in a copper melt with the formation of W2C at 1300°C is studied. It is shown that the mechanical activation of a composition consisting of copper melt + W and WC powders by low-temperature vibrations initiates not only the chemical interaction of its solid components but also their refinement.

  12. Protective infrared antireflection coating based on sputtered germanium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Des; Waddell, Ewan; Placido, Frank

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes optical, durablility and environmental performance of a germanium carbide based durable antireflection coating. The coating has been demonstrated on germanium and zinc selenide infra-red material however is applicable to other materials such as zinc sulphide. The material is deposited using a novel reactive closed field magnetron sputtering technique, offering significant advantages over conventional evaporation processes for germanium carbide such as plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The sputtering process is "cold", making it suitable for use on a wide range of substrates. Moreover, the drum format provide more efficient loading for high throughput production. The use of the closed field and unbalanced magnetrons creates a magnetic confinement that extends the electron mean free path leading to high ion current densities. The combination of high current densities with ion energies in the range ~30eV creates optimum thin film growth conditions. As a result the films are dense, spectrally stable, supersmooth and low stress. Films incorporate low hydrogen content resulting in minimal C-H absorption bands within critical infra-red passbands such as 3 to 5um and 8 to 12um. Tuning of germanium carbide (Ge(1-x)Cx) film refractive index from pure germanium (refractive index 4) to pure germanium carbide (refractive index 1.8) will be demonstrated. Use of film grading to achieve single and dual band anti-reflection performance will be shown. Environmental and durability levels are shown to be suitable for use in harsh external environments.

  13. Tungsten-yttria carbide coating for conveying copper

    DOEpatents

    Rothman, Albert J.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for providing a carbided-tungsten-yttria coating on the interior surface of a copper vapor laser. The surface serves as a wick for the condensation of liquid copper to return the condensate to the interior of the laser for revolatilization.

  14. The synthesis of titanium carbide-reinforced carbon nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Pinwen; Hong, Youliang; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Guangtian

    2009-06-01

    Tailoring hard materials into nanoscale building blocks can greatly extend the applications of hard materials and, at the same time, also represents a significant challenge in the field of nanoscale science. This work reports a novel process for the preparation of carbon-based one-dimensional hard nanomaterials. The titanium carbide-carbon composite nanofibers with an average diameter of 90 nm are prepared by an electrospinning technique and a high temperature pyrolysis process. A composite solution containing polyacrylonitrile and titanium sources is first electrospun into the composite nanofibers, which are subsequently pyrolyzed to produce the desired products. The x-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscopy results show that the main phase of the as-synthesized nanofibers is titanium carbide. The Raman analyses show that the composite nanofibers have low graphite clusters in comparison with the pure carbon nanofibers originating from the electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers. The mechanical property tests demonstrate that the titanium carbide-carbon nanofiber membranes have four times higher tensile strength than the carbon nanofiber membranes, and the Young's modulus of the titanium carbide-carbon nanofiber membranes increases in direct proportion to the titanium quantity.

  15. Silicon carbide and other films and method of deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehregany, Mehran (Inventor); Zorman, Christian A. (Inventor); Fu, Xiao-An (Inventor); Dunning, Jeremy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of depositing a ceramic film, particularly a silicon carbide film, on a substrate is disclosed in which the residual stress, residual stress gradient, and resistivity are controlled. Also disclosed are substrates having a deposited film with these controlled properties and devices, particularly MEMS and NEMS devices, having substrates with films having these properties.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBIDE LIME TO IDENTIFY SULFITE OXIDATION INHIBITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of carbide lime--a by-product of acetylene manufacture, primarily calcium hydroxide--used in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system at Louisville Gas and Electric (LGE). The study was undertaken to: identify sulfite ion oxidation inhibitors in...

  17. Mechanical properties of some silicon carbide reinforced aluminum composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tsangarakis, N.; Andrews, B.O.; Cavallaro, C.

    1987-05-01

    The mechanical properties of several particulate and continuous fiber silicon carbide-reinforced aluminum composites were examined. The tensile strength of a 47 percent silicon carbide fiber unidirectionally-reinforced aluminum composite was 1273 and 76 MPa parallel and normal to the fiber direction, respectively. The tensile strength of (0 deg/90 deg) 4s and (0/sub 2/90/0)s composites were 629 and 864 MPa, respectively. The tensile properties of a 30 percent silicon carbide particulate reinforced aluminum were found to depend on the chemistry of the metal matrix. The endurance limits of the fiber and the particulate reinforced aluminum were at the most 55 percent and 33 percent of the respective tensile strengths. The fracture toughness of the fiber reinforced composite varied with specimen width, while that of the particulate reinforced composite was 21-29 MPa sq rt m. The fatigue crack growth rate in the latter composite decreased with material thickness. There were indications that the fatigue crack growth rate in the silicon carbide particulate reinforced aluminum may be independent of variations in the chemistry of the metal matrix. 6 references.

  18. Nuclear breeder reactor fuel element with silicon carbide getter

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    An improved cesium getter 28 is provided in a breeder reactor fuel element or pin in the form of an extended surface area, low density element formed in one embodiment as a helically wound foil 30 located with silicon carbide, and located at the upper end of the fertile material upper blanket 20.

  19. Silicon carbide and other films and method of deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehregany, Mehran (Inventor); Zorman, Christian A. (Inventor); Fu, Xiao-An (Inventor); Dunning, Jeremy L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of depositing a ceramic film, particularly a silicon carbide film, on a substrate is disclosed in which the residual stress, residual stress gradient, and resistivity are controlled. Also disclosed are substrates having a deposited film with these controlled properties and devices, particularly MEMS and NEMS devices, having substrates with films having these properties.

  20. Carbide-fluoride-silver self-lubricating composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material is described for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900 C in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  1. Carbide/fluoride/silver self-lubricating composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900.degree. C. in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  2. Sintered silicon carbide molded body and method for its production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omori, M.; Sendai, M.; Ohira, K.

    1984-01-01

    Sintered silicon carbide shapes are described. They are produced by using a composition containing an oxide of at least one element chosen from the group: Li, Be, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Nb, Mo, Ba, Tc, Ta, W and Th as a supplement to known sintering aids.

  3. Hafnium carbide formation in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenbücher, C.; Hildebrandt, E.; Szot, K.; Sharath, S. U.; Kurian, J.; Komissinskiy, P.; Breuer, U.; Waser, R.; Alff, L.

    2016-06-01

    On highly oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide (hafnia, HfO2-x) contaminated with adsorbates of carbon oxides, the formation of hafnium carbide (HfCx) at the surface during vacuum annealing at temperatures as low as 600 °C is reported. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy the evolution of the HfCx surface layer related to a transformation from insulating into metallic state is monitored in situ. In contrast, for fully stoichiometric HfO2 thin films prepared and measured under identical conditions, the formation of HfCx was not detectable suggesting that the enhanced adsorption of carbon oxides on oxygen deficient films provides a carbon source for the carbide formation. This shows that a high concentration of oxygen vacancies in carbon contaminated hafnia lowers considerably the formation energy of hafnium carbide. Thus, the presence of a sufficient amount of residual carbon in resistive random access memory devices might lead to a similar carbide formation within the conducting filaments due to Joule heating.

  4. Improved epitaxial process for fabricating silicon carbide semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H. A.; Powell, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Process of growing expitaxial silicon carbide (SiC) layers on SiC substrates so that epitaxial growth is perpendicular to c-axis by chemical vapor deposition process at temperatures of 1590 to 1660 K minimizes variations in stacking sequence and problems associated with high temperatures.

  5. Growth characteristics of primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sha; Zhou, Yefei; Xing, Xiaolei; Wang, Jibo; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is observed by optical microscopy (OM). The initial growth morphology, the crystallographic structure, the semi-molten morphology and the stacking faults of the primary M7C3 carbide are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-suit growth process of the primary M7C3 carbide was observed by confocal laser microscope (CLM). It is found that the primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is irregular polygonal shape with several hollows in the center and gaps on the edge. Some primary M7C3 carbides are formed by layers of shell or/and consist of multiple parts. In the initial growth period, the primary M7C3 carbide forms protrusion parallel to {} crystal planes. The extending and revolving protrusion forms the carbide shell. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show that the primary M7C3 carbide consists of multiple parts. The semi-molten M7C3 carbide contains unmelted shell and several small-scale carbides inside, which further proves that the primary M7C3 carbide is not an overall block. It is believed that the coalescence of the primary M7C3 carbides is ascribed to the growing condition of the protrusion and the gap filling process. PMID:27596718

  6. Growth characteristics of primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Zhou, Yefei; Xing, Xiaolei; Wang, Jibo; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is observed by optical microscopy (OM). The initial growth morphology, the crystallographic structure, the semi-molten morphology and the stacking faults of the primary M7C3 carbide are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-suit growth process of the primary M7C3 carbide was observed by confocal laser microscope (CLM). It is found that the primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is irregular polygonal shape with several hollows in the center and gaps on the edge. Some primary M7C3 carbides are formed by layers of shell or/and consist of multiple parts. In the initial growth period, the primary M7C3 carbide forms protrusion parallel to {} crystal planes. The extending and revolving protrusion forms the carbide shell. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show that the primary M7C3 carbide consists of multiple parts. The semi-molten M7C3 carbide contains unmelted shell and several small-scale carbides inside, which further proves that the primary M7C3 carbide is not an overall block. It is believed that the coalescence of the primary M7C3 carbides is ascribed to the growing condition of the protrusion and the gap filling process. PMID:27596718

  7. Study of Metallic Carbide (MC) in a Ni-Co-Cr-Based Powder Metallurgy Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wen-Bin; Liu, Guo-Quan; Hu, Ben-Fu; Hu, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Yi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of carbides in a Ni-Cr-Co-based powder metallurgy (PM) superalloy in the as-atomized, as-atomized + annealed, hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) and HIPed + annealed conditions were systematically analyzed to understand the formation of blocky metallic carbide (MC) along the previous particle boundary (PPB). The results show that the carbides both on the powder surfaces and in the bulk of the powder particles are mainly fan-shaped MC whose decomposition temperatures are in the range of 1473 K to 1493 K (1200 °C to 1220 °C). PPB carbides in the HIPed alloy are mainly block-shaped MC, and the fan-shaped MC densely distributed in the area that have not been consumed by the recrystallized grains. The formation mechanism of PPB carbides can be described as follows: When the powders are HIPed at 1453 K (1180 °C), the fan-shaped carbides are decomposed at the migrating boundaries of recrystallized grains, and the preferential precipitation of block-shaped MC at PPB is promoted by the carbide-forming elements released by the fan-shaped carbides. When the HIPed alloy is annealed at 1453 K (1180 °C), the area fraction of PPB carbides increases with an increase in annealing time but that of the fan-shaped carbides exhibits opposite behavior. This proves the above formation mechanism of PPB carbides.

  8. Raman spectroscopic characterization of the core-rim structure in reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotti, Phillip; Subhash, Ghatu; Zheng, James Q.; Halls, Virginia; Karandikar, Prashant G.; Salamone, S.; Aghajanian, Michael K.

    2015-01-26

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics. Compositional and structural gradation in the silicon-doped boron carbide phase (rim), which develops around the parent boron carbide region (core) due to the reaction between silicon and boron carbide, was evaluated using changes in Raman peak position and intensity. Peak shifting and intensity variation from the core to the rim region was attributed to changes in the boron carbide crystal structure based on experimental Raman observations and ab initio calculations reported in literature. The results were consistent with compositional analysis determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The Raman analysis revealed the substitution of silicon atoms first into the linear 3-atom chain, and then into icosahedral units of the boron carbide structure. Thus, micro-Raman spectroscopy provided a non-destructive means of identifying the preferential positions of Si atoms in the boron carbide lattice.

  9. Raman spectroscopic characterization of the core-rim structure in reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannotti, Phillip; Subhash, Ghatu; Zheng, James Q.; Halls, Virginia; Karandikar, Prashant G.; Salamone, S.; Aghajanian, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of reaction bonded boron carbide ceramics. Compositional and structural gradation in the silicon-doped boron carbide phase (rim), which develops around the parent boron carbide region (core) due to the reaction between silicon and boron carbide, was evaluated using changes in Raman peak position and intensity. Peak shifting and intensity variation from the core to the rim region was attributed to changes in the boron carbide crystal structure based on experimental Raman observations and ab initio calculations reported in literature. The results were consistent with compositional analysis determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The Raman analysis revealed the substitution of silicon atoms first into the linear 3-atom chain, and then into icosahedral units of the boron carbide structure. Thus, micro-Raman spectroscopy provided a non-destructive means of identifying the preferential positions of Si atoms in the boron carbide lattice.

  10. An Exploration of Neutron Detection in Semiconducting Boron Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Nina

    The 3He supply problem in the U.S. has necessitated the search for alternatives for neutron detection. The neutron detection efficiency is a function of density, atomic composition, neutron absorption cross section, and thickness of the neutron capture material. The isotope 10B is one of only a handful of isotopes with a high neutron absorption cross section---3840 barns for thermal neutrons. So a boron carbide semiconductor represents a viable alternative to 3He. This dissertation provides an evaluation of the performance of semiconducting boron carbide neutron detectors grown by plasma enhance chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in order to determine the advantages and drawbacks of these devices for neutron detection. Improved handling of the PECVD system has resulted in an extremely stable plasma, enabling deposition of thick films of semiconducting boron carbide. A variety of material and semiconducting characterization tools have been used to investigate the structure and electronic properties of boron carbide thin films, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, infrared/Raman spectroscopy, current-voltage measurements and capacitance-voltage measurements. Elemental concentrations in the boron carbide films have been obtained from Rutherford backscattering and elastic recoil detection analysis. Solid state neutron detection devices have been fabricated in the form of heterostructured p-n diodes, p-type boron carbide/n-type Si. Operating conditions, including applied bias voltage, and time constants, have been optimized for maximum detection efficiency and correlated to the semiconducting properties investigated in separate electronic measurements. Accurate measurements of the neutron detection efficiency and the response of the detector to a wide range of neutron wavelengths have been performed at a well calibrated, tightly collimated, "white" cold neutron beam source using time-of-flight neutron detection technique

  11. Carbides in a High-Chromium Ferritic/Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yin Zhong; Ji, Bo; Zhou, Xiao Ling; Zhu, Jun

    2014-06-01

    The precipitate phases in an 11 pct Cr ferritic/martensitic steel normalized at 1323 K (1050 °C) for 0.5 hour and tempered at 1053 K (780 °C) for 1.5 hours have been investigated. Except for dominant phases, Cr-rich M23C6 carbide and Nb-rich, Ta-Nb-rich, and V-rich MC carbides, needle-like precipitates with a typical size of 70 to 310 and 10 to 30 nm for the length of the long and short axis of the needles, respectively, were also observed on the extraction carbon replica of the steel. The typical metallic element composition of the needle-like precipitates is about 53-82Fe, 14-26Cr, 0.5-18Ta, 1-6W, and 2-5Co in atomic pct. Through energy dispersive X-ray analysis and electron diffraction along with calculations regarding lattice parameter and interplanar spacing, the needle-like precipitates were identified as a Fe-rich M5C2 carbide, which is not known to have been reported previously in high-chromium steels. The M5C2 carbide has a base-centered monoclinic crystal structure with the approximate lattice parameters a/ b/ c = 1.142/0.5186/0.5383 nm and β = 104.68 deg. The formation of the Fe-rich M5C2 carbides in the steel has been discussed. The effect of chromium content in matrix and boron addition on the precipitate phases in ferritic/martensitic steels has also been discussed.

  12. Fabrication and properties of silicon carbide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyun Woo

    2008-12-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC), with excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties, is a promising material candidate for future devices such as high-temperature electronics and super-strong lightweight structures. Combined with superior intrinsic properties, the nanomaterials of SiC show further advantages thanks to nanoscale effects. This thesis reports the growth mechanism, the self-integration, and the friction of SiC nanowires. The study involves nanowires fabrication using thermal evaporation, structure characterization using electron microscopy, friction measurement, and theoretical modeling. The study on nanowire growth mechanism requires understanding of the surfaces and interfaces of nanowire crystal. The catalyzed growth of SiC nanowires involves interfaces between source vapor, catalytic liquid, and nanowire solid. Our experimental observation includes the periodical twinning in a faceted SiC nanowire and three stage structure transitions during the growth. The proposed theoretical model shows that such phenomenon is the result of surface energy minimization process during the catalytic growth. Surface interactions also exist between nanowires, leading to their self-integration. Our parametric growth study reveals novel self-integration of SiC-SiO 2 core-shell nanowires as a result of SiO2 joining. Attraction between nanowires through van der Waals force and enhanced SiO2 diffusion at high temperature transform individual nanowires to the integrated nanojunctions, nanocables, and finally nanowebs. We also show that such joining process becomes effective either during growth or by annealing. The solid friction is a result of the interaction between two solid surfaces, and it depends on the adhesion and the deformation of two contacting solids among other factors. Having strong adhesion as shown from gecko foot-hairs, nanostructured materials should also have strong friction; this study is the first to investigate friction of nanostructures under

  13. Silicon carbide high temperature thermoelectric flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Man I.

    Current high temperature flow measurement devices are bulky, expensive and have slow response time. Therefore, there has been increasing demand for developing a flow sensor that has high temperature capability yet is small in size, fast in response time, and low in cost through mass fabrication. In this thesis, a high temperature flow sensor utilizing micromachining and microfabrication technology has been designed, simulated, fabricated, packaged and tested. This micro flow sensor is developed based on heavily-nitrogen-doped polycrystalline silicon carbide (n-SiC) thin film, a high temperature semiconductor well known for its mechanical robustness and chemical inertness in high temperatures and harsh environments. The small thermal mass and wide operating temperature range provide an excellent platform for a flow sensor operating with the thermal sensing principle. The n-SiC thermoelectric flow sensor prototype developed here is based on the calorimetric sensing mechanism. The sensor has a n-SiC heater for thermal marker creation, an upstream and a downstream n-SiC/p-Si thermopile for flow sensing, and a n-SiC thermistor for ambient temperature monitoring. This device is packaged in a stainless steel enclosure with a bypass channel. The tested flow range is between 0 to 20,000 sccm. The flow sensor has demonstrated high temperature capability and mechanical robustness up to 450 °C on a hotplate at zero flow condition, and up to 300 °C in a heated flow stream. The device has a response time of 8 ms. Maximum power consumption is 96 mW when operated at 8 mA (12 V) and 45 mW when operated at 5 mA (9V), with a sensor warm-up time less than 1 minute. In addition, the thermoelectric properties of n-SiC have been thoroughly studied through the characterization of the electrical resistivity, the Seebeck coefficient and the thermal conductivity of n-SiC thin film. The 0.93 microm-thick, n-SiC thin film utilized in the thermoelectric flow sensor has an electrical

  14. The Active Oxidation of Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2009-01-01

    The high temperature oxidation of silicon carbide occurs in two very different modes. Passive oxidation forms a protective oxide film which limits further attack of the SiC: SiC(s) + 3/2 O2(g) = SiO2(s) + CO(g) Active oxidation forms a volatile oxide and may lead to extensive attack of the SiC: SiC(s) + O2(g) = SiO(g) + CO(g) Generally passive oxidation occurs at higher oxidant pressures and active oxidation occurs at lower oxidant pressures and elevated temperatures. Active oxidation is a concern for reentry, where the flight trajectory involves the latter conditions. Thus the transition points and rates of active oxidation are a major concern. Passive/active transitions have been studied by a number of investigators. An examination of the literature indicates many questions remain regarding the effect of impurity, the hysteresis of the transition (i.e. the difference between active-to-passive and passive-toactive), and the effect of total pressure. In this study we systematically investigate each of these effects. Experiments were done in both an alumina furnace tube and a quartz furnace tube. It is known that alumina tubes release impurities such as sodium and increase the kinetics in the passive region [1]. We have observed that the active-to-passive transition occurs at a lower oxygen pressure when the experiment is conducted in alumina tubes and the resultant passive silica scale contains sodium. Thus the tests in this study are conducted in quartz tubes. The hysteresis of the transition has been discussed in the detail in the original theoretical treatise of this problem for pure silicon by Wagner [2], yet there is little mention of it in subsequent literature. Essentially Wagner points out that the active-to-passive transition is governed by the criterion for a stable Si/SiO2 equilibria and the passive-to-active transition is governed by the decomposition of the SiO2 film. A series of experiments were conducted for active-to-passive and passive

  15. Spark plasma sintering of tantalum carbide and graphene reinforced tantalum carbide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalluri, Ajith Kumar

    Tantalum carbide (TaC), an ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC), is well known for its exceptional properties such as high hardness (15-19 GPa), melting point (3950 °C), elastic modulus (537 GPa), chemical resistance, and thermal shock resistance. To make TaC to be the future material for hypersonic vehicles, it is required to improve its thermal conductivity, strength, and fracture toughness. Researchers have previously reinforced TaC ceramic with carbides of silicon and boron as well as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), however, these reinforcements either undergo chemical changes or induce defects in the matrix during processing. In addition, these reinforcements exhibit a very minimal improvement in the properties. In the present work, we attempted to improve TaC fracture toughness by reinforcing with graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) and processing through spark plasma sintering at high temperature of 2000 °C, pressure of 70 MPa, and soaking time of 10 min. In addition, we investigated the active densification mechanism during SPS of TaC powder and the effect of ball milling time on mechanical properties of sintered TaC. A relative density of >96% was achieved using SPS of monolithic TaC (<3 μm). Ball milling improved the sintering kinetics and improved the mechanical properties (microhardness, bi-axial flexural strength, and indentation fracture toughness). Activation energy (100 kJ/mol) and stress exponent (1.2) were obtained using the analytical model developed for power-law creep. Grain boundary sliding is proposed as active densification mechanism based on these calculations. Reinforcing GNPs (2-6 vol.% ) in the TaC matrix improved relative density (99.8% for TaC-6 vol.% GNP). Also ˜150% and ˜180% increase in flexural strength and fracture toughness, respectively, was observed for TaC-6 vol.% GNP composite. The significant improvement in these properties is attributed to improved densification and toughening mechanisms such as sheet pull-out and crack

  16. Selective-area laser deposition (SALD) Joining of silicon carbide with silicon carbide filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Shay Llewellyn

    Selective Area Laser Deposition (SALD) is a gas-phase, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process that utilizes a laser-driven, pyrolytic gas reaction to form a desired solid product. This solid product only forms in the heated zone of the laser beam and thus can be selectively deposited by control of the laser position. SALD Joining employs the SALD method to accomplish 'welding' of ceramic structures together. The solid reaction product serves as a filler material to bond the two parts. The challenges involved with ceramic joining center around the lack of a liquid phase, little plastic deformation and diffusivity and poor surface wetting for many ceramic materials. Due to these properties, traditional metal welding procedures cannot be applied to ceramics. Most alternative ceramic welding techniques use some form of a metal addition to overcome these material limitations. However, the metal possesses a lower ultimate use temperature than the ceramic substrate and therefore it decreases the temperature range over which the joined part can be safely used. SALD Joining enjoys several advantages over these ceramic welding procedures. The solid filler material chemistry can be tailored to match the type of ceramic substrate and therefore fabricate monolithic joints. The SALD filler material bonds directly to the substrate and the joined structure is made in a one step process, without any post-processing. The research documented in this dissertation focused on SALD Joining of silicon carbide structures with silicon carbide filler material. A historical progression of gas-phase SFF research and a literature review of the most prominent ceramic joining techniques are provided. A variety of SiC substrates were examined, as were various conditions of gas precursor pressures and mixtures, laser beam scan speed and joint configuration. The SALD material was characterized for composition and structure by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic

  17. STATUS OF HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR IRRADIATION OF SILICON CARBIDE/SILICON CARBIDE JOINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Kiggans, Jim; Cetiner, Nesrin; McDuffee, Joel

    2014-09-01

    Development of silicon carbide (SiC) joints that retain adequate structural and functional properties in the anticipated service conditions is a critical milestone toward establishment of advanced SiC composite technology for the accident-tolerant light water reactor (LWR) fuels and core structures. Neutron irradiation is among the most critical factors that define the harsh service condition of LWR fuel during the normal operation. The overarching goal of the present joining and irradiation studies is to establish technologies for joining SiC-based materials for use as the LWR fuel cladding. The purpose of this work is to fabricate SiC joint specimens, characterize those joints in an unirradiated condition, and prepare rabbit capsules for neutron irradiation study on the fabricated specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Torsional shear test specimens of chemically vapor-deposited SiC were prepared by seven different joining methods either at Oak Ridge National Laboratory or by industrial partners. The joint test specimens were characterized for shear strength and microstructures in an unirradiated condition. Rabbit irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated for neutron irradiation of these joint specimens at an LWR-relevant temperature. These rabbit capsules, already started irradiation in HFIR, are scheduled to complete irradiation to an LWR-relevant dose level in early 2015.

  18. Development and Processing of Nickel Aluminide-Carbide Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newport, Timothy Scott

    1996-01-01

    With the upper temperature limit of the Ni-based superalloys attained, a new class of materials is required. Intermetallics appear as likely candidates because of their attractive physical properties. With a relatively low density, high thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance, high melting point, and simple crystal structure, nickel aluminide (NiAl) appears to be a potential candidate. However, NiAl is limited in structural applications due to its low room temperature fracture toughness and poor elevated temperature strength. One approach to improving these properties has been through the application of eutectic composites. Researchers have shown that containerless directional solidification of NiAl-based eutectic alloys can provide improvement in both the creep strength and fracture toughness. Although these systems have shown improvements in the mechanical properties, the presence of refractory metals increases the density significantly in some alloys. Lower density systems, such as the carbides, nitrides, and borides, may provide NiAl-based eutectic structure. With little or no information available on these systems, experimental investigation is required. The objective of this research was to locate and develop NiAl-carbide eutectic alloys. Exploratory arc-melts were performed in NiAl-refractory metal-C systems. Refractory metal systems investigated included Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr. Systems containing carbides with excellent stability (i.e.,HfC, NbC, TaC, TiC, and ZrC) produced large blocky cubic carbides in an NiAl matrix. The carbides appeared to have formed in the liquid state and were randomly distributed throughout the polycrystalline NiAl. The Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and W systems contained NiAl dendrites with a two-phase interdendritic microconstituent present. Of these systems, the NiAl-Mo-C system had the most promising microstructure for in-situ composites. Three processing techniques were used to evaluate the NiAl-Mo-C system

  19. Novel fabrication of silicon carbide based ceramics for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar

    Advances in nuclear reactor technology and the use of gas-cooled fast reactors require the development of new materials that can operate at the higher temperatures expected in these systems. These materials include refractory alloys based on Nb, Zr, Ta, Mo, W, and Re; ceramics and composites such as SiC--SiCf; carbon--carbon composites; and advanced coatings. Besides the ability to handle higher expected temperatures, effective heat transfer between reactor components is necessary for improved efficiency. Improving thermal conductivity of the fuel can lower the center-line temperature and, thereby, enhance power production capabilities and reduce the risk of premature fuel pellet failure. Crystalline silicon carbide has superior characteristics as a structural material from the viewpoint of its thermal and mechanical properties, thermal shock resistance, chemical stability, and low radioactivation. Therefore, there have been many efforts to develop SiC based composites in various forms for use in advanced energy systems. In recent years, with the development of high yield preceramic precursors, the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) method has aroused interest for the fabrication of ceramic based materials, for various applications ranging from disc brakes to nuclear reactor fuels. The pyrolysis of preceramic polymers allow new types of ceramic materials to be processed at relatively low temperatures. The raw materials are element-organic polymers whose composition and architecture can be tailored and varied. The primary focus of this study is to use a pyrolysis based process to fabricate a host of novel silicon carbide-metal carbide or oxide composites, and to synthesize new materials based on mixed-metal silicocarbides that cannot be processed using conventional techniques. Allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS), which is an organometal polymer, was used as the precursor for silicon carbide. Inert gas pyrolysis of AHPCS produces near-stoichiometric amorphous

  20. SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS FOR COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

    SciTech Connect

    DR. DENNIS NAGLE; DR. DAJIE ZHANG

    2009-03-26

    Silicon carbide (SiC) materials are prime candidates for high temperature heat exchangers for next generation nuclear reactors due to their refractory nature and high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. This research has focused on demonstrating the potential of liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) for making SiC to achieve this goal. The major advantage of this method over other ceramic processing techniques is the enhanced capability of making high dense, high purity SiC materials in complex net shapes. For successful formation of net shape SiC using LSI techniques, the carbon preform reactivity and pore structure must be controlled to allow the complete infiltration of the porous carbon structure which allows complete conversion of the carbon to SiC. We have established a procedure for achieving desirable carbon properties by using carbon precursors consisting of two readily available high purity organic materials, crystalline cellulose and phenolic resin. Phenolic resin yields a glassy carbon with low chemical reactivity and porosity while the cellulose carbon is highly reactive and porous. By adjusting the ratio of these two materials in the precursor mixtures, the properties of the carbons produced can be controlled. We have identified the most favorable carbon precursor composition to be a cellulose resin mass ratio of 6:4 for LSI formation of SiC. The optimum reaction conditions are a temperature of 1800 C, a pressure of 0.5 Torr of argon, and a time of 120 minutes. The fully dense net shape SiC material produced has a density of 2.96 g cm{sup -3} (about 92% of pure SiC) and a SiC volume fraction of over 0.82. Kinetics of the LSI SiC formation process was studied by optical microscopy and quantitative digital image analysis. This study identified six reaction stages and provided important understanding of the process. Although the thermal conductivity of pure SiC at elevated temperatures is very high, thermal conductivities of most commercial Si

  1. Protective coating for alumina-silicon carbide whisker composites

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.

    1989-01-01

    Ceramic composites formed of an alumina matrix reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers homogenously dispersed therein are provided with a protective coating for preventing fracture strength degradation of the composite by oxidation during exposure to high temperatures in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coating prevents oxidation of the silicon carbide whiskers within the matrix by sealing off the exterior of the matrix so as to prevent oxygen transport into the interior of the matrix. The coating is formed of mullite or mullite plus silicon oxide and alumina and is formed in place by heating the composite in air to a temperature greater than 1200.degree. C. This coating is less than about 100 microns thick and adequately protects the underlying composite from fracture strength degradation due to oxidation.

  2. Boron carbide coatings prepared by cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, Othon R.; Klepper, Christopher C.; Schneider, Jochen M.; Niemel, John; Brown, Ian G.

    2000-10-20

    Boron carbide films are attractive materials for use as protective coatings for radio-frequency antennas used in controlled fusion research. In the work described here we have demonstrated the feasibility of depositing boron carbide films with B:C ratio from 0.3 to 3.3 from cathodic arc plasma sources with B4C cathodes. Two different repetitively-pulsed plasma sources were used, and the deposition was carried out in the temperature range from 25 C to 600 C. The best films were obtained with longer plasma pulse duration, which resulted in less contamination. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and by Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy. The microstructure of the films was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and the mechanical properties determined by indentation. The phase composition of the deposited films was strongly dependent on B:C ratio.

  3. Amorphous silicon carbide coatings for extreme ultraviolet optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kortright, J. B.; Windt, David L.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon carbide films formed by sputtering techniques are shown to have high reflectance in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region. X-ray scattering verifies that the atomic arrangements in these films are amorphous, while Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy show that the films have composition close to stoichiometric SiC, although slightly C-rich, with low impurity levels. Reflectance vs incidence angle measurements from 24 to 1216 A were used to derive optical constants of this material, which are presented here. Additionally, the measured extreme ultraviolet efficiency of a diffraction grating overcoated with sputtered amorphous silicon carbide is presented, demonstrating the feasibility of using these films as coatings for EUV optics.

  4. Diamond-Silicon Carbide Composite And Method For Preparation Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

    2005-09-06

    Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5-8 GPa, T=1400K-2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.multidot.m.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

  5. Pairwise cobalt doping of boron carbides with cobaltocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatov, A. Yu.; Losovyj, Ya. B.; Carlson, L.; LaGraffe, D.; Brand, J. I.; Dowben, P. A.

    2007-10-01

    We have performed Co K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements of Co-doped plasma enhanced chemical vapor phase deposition (PECVD) grown "C2B10Hx" semiconducting boron carbides, using cobaltocene. Cobalt does not dope PECVD grown boron carbides as a random fragment of the cobaltocene source gas. The Co atoms are fivefold boron coordinated (R=2.10±0.02Å) and are chemically bonded to the icosahedral cages of B10CHx or B9C2Hy. Pairwise Co doping occurs, with the cobalt atoms favoring sites some 5.28±0.02Å apart.

  6. Atomic-Level Understanding of "Asymmetric Twins" in Boron Carbide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kelvin Y; An, Qi; Toksoy, M Fatih; McCauley, James W; Haber, Richard A; Goddard, William A; Hemker, Kevin J

    2015-10-23

    Recent observations of planar defects in boron carbide have been shown to deviate from perfect mirror symmetry and are referred to as "asymmetric twins." Here, we demonstrate that these asymmetric twins are really phase boundaries that form in stoichiometric B(4)C (i.e., B(12)C(3)) but not in B(13)C(2). TEM observations and ab initio simulations have been coupled to show that these planar defects result from an interplay of stoichiometry, atomic positioning, icosahedral twinning, and structural hierarchy. The composition of icosahedra in B(4)C is B(11)C and translation of the carbon atom from a polar to equatorial site leads to a shift in bonding and a slight distortion of the lattice. No such distortion is observed in boron-rich B(13)C(2) because the icosahedra do not contain carbon. Implications for tailoring boron carbide with stoichiometry and extrapolations to other hierarchical crystalline materials are discussed. PMID:26551123

  7. Infrared absorption spectra of metal carbides, nitrides and sulfides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammori, O.; Sato, K.; Kurosawa, F.

    1981-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of 12 kinds of metal carbides, 11 kinds of nitrides, and 7 kinds of sulfides, a total of 30 materials, were measured and the application of the infrared spectra of these materials to analytical chemistry was discussed. The measurements were done in the frequency (wave length) range of (1400 to 400/cm (7 to 25 mu). The carbides Al4C3, B4C, the nitrides AlN, BN, Si3N4, WB, and the sulfides Al2S3, FeS2, MnS, NiS and PbS were noted to have specific absorptions in the measured region. The sensitivity of Boron nitride was especially good and could be detected at 2 to 3 micrograms in 300 mg of potassium bromide.

  8. Friction, deformation and fracture of single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Friction experiments were conducted with hemispherical and conical diamond riders sliding on the basal plane of silicon carbide. The results indicate that, when deformation is primarily elastic, the friction does not depend on crystallographic orientation and there is no detectable fracture or cracking. When, however, plastic deformation occurs, silicon carbide exhibits anisotropic friction and deformation behavior. Surface fracture crack patterns surrounding wear tracks are observed to be of three types. The crack-geometries of two types are generally independent of orientation, the third crack, however, depends on the orientation. All surface cracks extend into subsurface. Anisotropic friction, deformation and fracture on the basal plane are primarily controlled by the slip system and cleavage.

  9. Carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, G.A.; Schildbach, M.A.

    1996-12-03

    A carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals is provided, in steps including, heating a part formed of boron, chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, or alloys thereof, in an evacuated chamber and then introducing reaction gases including nitrogen and hydrogen, either in elemental or water vapor form, which react with a source of elemental carbon to form carbon-containing gaseous reactants which then react with the metal part to form the desired surface layer. Apparatus for practicing the method is also provided, in the form of a carbide and carbonitride surface treatment system including a reaction chamber, a source of elemental carbon, a heating subassembly and a source of reaction gases. Alternative methods of providing the elemental carbon and the reaction gases are provided, as well as methods of supporting the metal part, evacuating the chamber with a vacuum subassembly and heating all of the components to the desired temperature. 5 figs.

  10. Carbide coated fibers in graphite-aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imprescia, R. J.; Levinson, L. S.; Reiswig, R. D.; Wallace, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Thin, uniform coats of titanium carbide, deposited on graphite fibers by chemical vapor deposition with thicknesses up to approximately 0.1 microns were shown to improve fiber strength significantly. For greater thicknesses, strength was degraded. The coats promote wetting of the fibers and infiltration of the fiber yarns with aluminum alloys, and act as protective barriers to inhibit reaction between the fibers and the alloys. Chemical vapor deposition was used to produce silicon carbide coats on graphite fibers. In general, the coats were nonuniform and were characterized by numerous surface irregularities. Despite these irregularities, infiltration of these fibers with aluminum alloys was good. Small graphite-aluminum composite samples were produced by vacuum hot-pressing of aluminum-infiltrated graphite yarn at temperatures above the metal liquidus.

  11. Process for coating an object with silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for coating a carbon or graphite object with silicon carbide by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time. In the process, a stream of silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a co-reactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into a reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. The precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. A stream of any decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from said reaction chamber is removed. The object within the reaction chamber is then contacted with silicon, and recovered after it has been coated with silicon carbide.

  12. Pairwise cobalt doping of boron carbides with cobaltocene

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatov, A. Yu.; Losovyj, Ya. B.; Carlson, L.; LaGraffe, D.; Brand, J. I.; Dowben, P. A.

    2007-10-15

    We have performed Co K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements of Co-doped plasma enhanced chemical vapor phase deposition (PECVD) grown 'C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub x}' semiconducting boron carbides, using cobaltocene. Cobalt does not dope PECVD grown boron carbides as a random fragment of the cobaltocene source gas. The Co atoms are fivefold boron coordinated (R=2.10{+-}0.02 A) and are chemically bonded to the icosahedral cages of B{sub 10}CH{sub x} or B{sub 9}C{sub 2}H{sub y}. Pairwise Co doping occurs, with the cobalt atoms favoring sites some 5.28{+-}0.02 A apart.

  13. Diffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide for MEMS-LDI Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Kiser, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    A robust joining approach is critically needed for a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems-Lean Direct Injector (MEMS-LDI) application which requires leak free joints with high temperature mechanical capability. Diffusion bonding is well suited for the MEMS-LDI application. Diffusion bonds were fabricated using titanium interlayers between silicon carbide substrates during hot pressing. The interlayers consisted of either alloyed titanium foil or physically vapor deposited (PVD) titanium coatings. Microscopy shows that well adhered, crack free diffusion bonds are formed under optimal conditions. Under less than optimal conditions, microcracks are present in the bond layer due to the formation of intermetallic phases. Electron microprobe analysis was used to identify the reaction formed phases in the diffusion bond. Various compatibility issues among the phases in the interlayer and substrate are discussed. Also, the effects of temperature, pressure, time, silicon carbide substrate type, and type of titanium interlayer and thickness on the microstructure and composition of joints are discussed.

  14. Colloidal characterization of silicon nitride and silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The colloidal behavior of aqueous ceramic slips strongly affects the forming and sintering behavior and the ultimate mechanical strength of the final ceramic product. The colloidal behavior of these materials, which is dominated by electrical interactions between the particles, is complex due to the strong interaction of the solids with the processing fluids. A surface titration methodology, modified to account for this interaction, was developed and used to provide fundamental insights into the interfacial chemistry of these systems. Various powder pretreatment strategies were explored to differentiate between true surface chemistry and artifacts due to exposure history. The colloidal behavior of both silicon nitride and carbide is dominated by silanol groups on the powder surfaces. However, the colloid chemistry of silicon nitride is apparently influenced by an additional amine group. With the proper powder treatments, silicon nitride and carbide powder can be made to appear colloidally equivalent. The impact of these results on processing control will be discussed.

  15. Electronic structure calculations of hexaborides and boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Ripplinger, H.; Schwarz, K.; Blaha, P.

    1997-10-01

    The electronic structures of several CaB{sub 6}-type hexaborides and boron carbide, B{sub 4}C, are studied by the full potential linearized-augmented plane-wave (LAPW) method within density functional theory. The hexaborides contain inter- and intra-octahedral boron-boron bonds, which under pressure decrease approximately linearly; however, the former shrinks more than the latter, consistent with Raman spectra and a simple spring constant model. The boron-boron dumbbell is stronger than the intraoctahedral bonds. For boron carbide several substitutions of the three-atom chain are simulated (BBC, BCB, CBC, CCB, and CCC). Trends in the charge distribution are analyzed and electric field gradient calculations compared to nuclear quadrupole coupling constant measurements show that B must be in the center position.

  16. Carbon-rich icosahedral boron carbide designed from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Jay, Antoine; Vast, Nathalie; Sjakste, Jelena; Duparc, Olivier Hardouin

    2014-07-21

    The carbon-rich boron-carbide (B{sub 11}C)C-C has been designed from first principles within the density functional theory. With respect to the most common boron carbide at 20% carbon concentration B{sub 4}C, the structural modification consists in removing boron atoms from the chains linking (B{sub 11}C) icosahedra. With C-C instead of C-B-C chains, the formation of vacancies is shown to be hindered, leading to enhanced mechanical strength with respect to B{sub 4}C. The phonon frequencies and elastic constants turn out to prove the stability of the carbon-rich phase, and important fingerprints for its characterization have been identified.

  17. Diffusion Bonding of Silicon Carbide Ceramics using Titanium Interlayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Kiser, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Robust joining approaches for silicon carbide ceramics are critically needed to fabricate leak free joints with high temperature mechanical capability. In this study, titanium foils and physical vapor deposited (PVD) titanium coatings were used to form diffusion bonds between SiC ceramics using hot pressing. Silicon carbide substrate materials used for bonding include sintered SiC and two types of CVD SiC. Microscopy results show the formation of well adhered diffusion bonds. The bond strengths as determined from pull tests are on the order of several ksi, which is much higher than required for a proposed application. Microprobe results show the distribution of silicon, carbon, titanium, and other minor elements across the diffusion bond. Compositions of several phases formed in the joint region were identified. Potential issues of material compatibility and optimal bond formation will also be discussed.

  18. Optical nonlinearities in high-confinement silicon carbide waveguides.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Jaime; Yu, Mengjie; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Poitras, Carl B; Lau, Ryan K W; Dutt, Avik; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate strong nonlinearities of n2=8.6±1.1×10(-15)  cm2 W(-1) in single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC) at a wavelength of 2360 nm. We use a high-confinement SiC waveguide fabricated based on a high-temperature smart-cut process. PMID:26368731

  19. A model of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Kee, R.J. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents a model describing the interacting gas phase and surface chemistry present during the steady-state chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon carbide (SiC). In this work, the authors treat the case of steady-state deposition of SiC from silane (SiH{sub 4}) and propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) mixtures in hydrogen carrier gas at one atmosphere pressure. Epitaxial deposition is assumed to occur on a pre-existing epitaxial silicon carbide crystal. Pyrolysis of SiH{sub 4} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} is modeled by 83 elementary gas-phase reactions. A set of 36 reactions of gas- phase species with the surface is used to simulate the deposition process. Rates for the gas/surface reactions were obtained from experimental measurements of sticking coefficients in the literature and theoretical estimates. The authors' results represent the first simulation of a silicon carbide deposition process that includes detailed description of both the gas phase and surface reactions. The chemical reaction mechanism is also combined with a model of a rotating disk reactor (RDR), which is a convenient way to study the interaction of chemical reactions with fluid mechanics. Transport of species from the gas to the surface is accounted for using multicomponent transport properties. Predictions of deposition rates as a function of susceptor temperature, disk rotation rate, and reactant partial pressure are presented. In addition, velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles normal to the heated disk for 41 gas-phase species are determined using reactor conditions typical of epitaxial silicon carbide deposition on silicon substrates.

  20. Anodic etching of p-type cubic silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, G. L.; Fekade, K.; Wongchotigul, K.

    1992-01-01

    p-Type cubic silicon carbide was anodically etched using an electrolyte of HF:HCl:H2O. The etching depth was determined versus time with a fixed current density of 96.4 mA/sq cm. It was found that the etching was very smooth and very uniform. An etch rate of 22.7 nm/s was obtained in a 1:1:50 HF:HCl:H2O electrolyte.

  1. Electron spin decoherence in silicon carbide nuclear spin bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping

    In this paper, we study the electron spin decoherence of single defects in silicon carbide (SiC) nuclear spin bath. We find that, although the natural abundance of 29Si (4.7 counter-intuitive result, is the suppression of heteronuclear-spin flip-flop process in finite magnetic field. Our results show that electron spin of defect centers in SiC are excellent candidates for solid state spin qubit in quantum information processing.

  2. Making a Silicon-Nitride/Silicon-Carbide Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.

    1987-01-01

    Hot pressing and nitriding produce strong fiber/matrix material. Fabrication method developed for processing strong and tough silicon-based ceramic composite material, SiC/RBSN, which consists of reaction-bonded Si3N4 (RBSN) reinforced by continuous-length, high-modulus, high strength silicon carbide (SiC) fibers prepared by chemical-vapor deposition method. Increased toughness and ultimate strength of SiC/RBSN composite makes it potential structural material for advanced heat engines.

  3. Method of making carbide/fluoride/silver composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor); Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A composition containing 30 to 70 percent chromium carbide, 5 to 20 percent soft noble metal, 5 to 20 percent metal fluorides, and 20 to 60 percent metal binder is used in a powdered metallurgy process for the production of self-lubricating components, such as bearings. The use of the material allows the self-lubricating bearing to maintain its low friction properties over an extended range of operating temperatures.

  4. Final design review of boron carbide safety rod

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, R.N.

    1991-09-24

    The object of this paper discusses the design review of the boron carbide safety rod for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This paper reviewed information presented by personnel of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Equipment Engineering Section, SRL Materials Technology Section and Reactor Materials Engineering and Technology. From this report, views, opinions and recommendations were made on the safety rod from materials testing to production.

  5. Microstructure and properties of IN SITU toughened silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Zhang, Xiao Feng

    2003-05-01

    A silicon carbide with a fracture toughness as high as 9.1 MPa.m1/2 has been developed by hot pressing b-SiC powder with aluminum, boron, and carbon additions (ABC-SiC). Central in this material development has been systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and mechanical characterizations. In particular, atomic-resolution electron microscopy and nanoprobe composition quantification were combined in analyzing grain boundary structure and nanoscale structural features.

  6. Phonon spectrum, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Jaroszewicz, S.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we study, by means of density functional perturbation theory and the pseudopotential method, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide. These properties are derived from the lattice dynamics in the quasi-harmonic approximation. The phonon spectrum of ThC presented in this article, to the best authors' knowledge, have not been studied, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. We compare mechanical properties, volume thermal expansion and molar specific capacities with previous results and find a very good agreement.

  7. Synthesis of multifilament silicon carbide fibers by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revankar, Vithal; Hlavacek, Vladimir

    1991-01-01

    A process for development of clean silicon carbide fiber with a small diameter and high reliability is presented. An experimental evaluation of operating conditions for SiC fibers of good mechanical properties and devising an efficient technique which will prevent welding together of individual filaments are discussed. The thermodynamic analysis of a different precursor system was analyzed vigorously. Thermodynamically optimum conditions for stoichiometric SiC deposit were obtained.

  8. Assessment of exposure to quartz, cristobalite and silicon carbide fibres (whiskers) in a silicon carbide plant.

    PubMed

    Dion, Chantal; Dufresne, André; Jacob, Marcel; Perrault, Guy

    2005-06-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to report on the concentration of silicon carbide (SiC) fibres, crystalline silica and respirable dust in a Canadian SiC production plant and to compare the results with earlier investigations. The second objective is to tentatively explain the differences in concentration of the fibrogenic substances between different countries. The assessment of SiC fibres, dusts, respirable quartz and cristobalite was performed according to standard procedures. The highest 8 h time-weighted average concentrations of fibres were found among the crusher and backhoe attendants and the carboselectors with an arithmetic mean of 0.63 fibres ml(-1) for the former group and 0.51 fibres ml(-1) for the latter group. The results of respirable SiC fibres in the Canadian plant were lower than in the Norwegian and Italian industries. Most of the 8 h time-weighted average concentrations for quartz were less than or around the limit of detection of 0.01 mg m(-3). The maximum 8 h time-weighted average concentration for quartz was found among the carboselectors (0.157 mg m(-3)), followed by the labourers (0.032 mg m(-3)). Similarly, most of the 8 h time-weighted average cristobalite measurements were less than the limit of detection of 0.01 mg m(-3) except for the carboselectors where it was found to be 0.044 mg m(-3). The assessment of the Italian occupational settings exposure demonstrated elevated quartz concentrations, while cristobalite was absent. The authors have concluded that the investigations that were performed in the last two decades in this field by researchers from different countries seem to support that SiC fibres (whiskers) constitute a major airborne health hazard. PMID:15650014

  9. Carbide coated fibers in graphite-aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imprescia, R. J.; Levinson, L. S.; Reiswig, R. D.; Wallace, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The NASA-supported program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) to develop carbon fiber-aluminum matrix composites is described. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to uniformly deposit thin, smooth, continuous coats of TiC on the fibers of graphite tows. Wet chemical coating of fibers, followed by high-temperature treatment, was also used, but showed little promise as an alternative coating method. Strength measurements on CVD coated fiber tows showed that thin carbide coats can add to fiber strength. The ability of aluminum alloys to wet TiC was successfully demonstrated using TiC-coated graphite surfaces. Pressure-infiltration of TiC- and ZrC-coated fiber tows with aluminum alloys was only partially successful. Experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of carbide coats on carbon as barriers to prevent reaction between alluminum alloys and carbon. Initial results indicate that composites of aluminum and carbide-coated graphite are stable for long periods of time at temperatures near the alloy solidus.

  10. Ceramic composites reinforced with modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Lindemer, Terrence B.

    1990-01-01

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  11. Barrier properties of nano silicon carbide designed chitosan nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Gopal C; Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K

    2015-12-10

    Nano silicon carbide (SiC) designed chitosan nanocomposites were prepared by solution technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used for studying structural interaction of nano silicon carbide (SiC) with chitosan. The morphology of chitosan/SiC nanocomposites was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The thermal stability of chitosan was substantially increased due to incorporation of stable silicon carbide nanopowder. The oxygen permeability of chitosan/SiC nanocomposites was reduced by three folds as compared to the virgin chitosan. The chemical resistance properties of chitosan were enhanced due to the incorporation of nano SiC. The biodegradability was investigated using sludge water. The tensile strength of chitosan/SiC nanocomposites was increased with increasing percentage of SiC. The substantial reduction in oxygen barrier properties in combination with increased thermal stability, tensile strength and chemical resistance properties; the synthesized nanocomposite may be suitable for packaging applications. PMID:26428100

  12. CVD silicon carbide characterization. Final report, August 1992-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, G.A.; Iden, D.

    1994-08-01

    Chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide is a candidate material for high quality ground and space-based mirror substrates and high quality reflective optics. Statistically valid material property data has not been available, however, to make durability and lifetime predictions for such optics. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the Weibull and slow crack growth parameters for CVD silicon carbide. Specimens were cut from various locations in a 25 mm thick, 50 cm diameter piece of SiC to analyze bulk material property homogeneity. Flexural strength was measured using a four-point bend technique. In addition to mechanical testing for strength, hardness, and fracture toughness, the material crystallography and microstructure were studied. Thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, optical absorption, and infrared reflectivity measurements were also conducted. Raman spectroscopy was used to check for any residual stress. Test results show this CVD silicon carbide is a high-purity, homogeneous, fine-grained substrate material with very good mechanical, optical, and thermal properties.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of cubic silicon carbide. Patent Application

    SciTech Connect

    Addamiano, A.

    1985-07-02

    This invention relates to the growth of cubic silicon carbide crystals. More specifically, this invention relates to the growth of cubic silicon carbide by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). One object of the present invention is to provide a novel method for the production of cubic SiC for high temperature electronic devices. Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel method for the production of highly pure, single crystal cubic SiC that is duplicable. Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel method for the production of large-area single-crystal wafers of cubic SiC. These and other objects of the present invention can be achieved by a method for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of cubic Silicon Carbide (SiC) comprising the steps of etching silicon substrated having one mechanically polished face; depositing a thin buffer layer of cubic SiC formed by reaction between a heated Si substrate and a H2-C3H8 gas mixuture; and depositing SiC on the buffer layer at high temperature using H2+C3HY+SiH4 mixture.

  14. Palladium-defect complexes in diamond and silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiona, A. A.; Kemp, W.; Timmers, H.; Bharuth-Ram, K.

    2015-04-01

    Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) studies, supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling, have shown that palladium atoms in silicon and germanium pair with vacancies. Building on these results, here we present DFT predictions and some tentative TDPAC results on palladium-defect complexes and site locations of palladium impurities in diamond and silicon carbide. For both diamond and silicon carbide, the DFT calculations predict that a split-vacancy V-PdBI-V complex is favoured, with the palladium atom on a bond-centred interstitial site having a nearest-neighbour semi-vacancy on either side. Consistent with experimental results, this configuration is also assigned to palladium complexes in silicon and germanium. For silicon carbide, the DFT modelling predicts furthermore that a palladium atom in replacing a carbon atom moves to a bond-centred interstitial site and pairs with a silicon vacancy to form a complex that is more stable than that of a palladium atom which replaces a silicon atom and then moves to a bond-centred interstitial site pairings with a carbon vacancy. These two competing alternatives differ by 8.94 eV. The favourable pairing with a silicon vacancy is also supported independently by TRIM Monte Carlo calculations, which predict that more silicon vacancies than carbon vacancies are created during heavy ion. implantation.

  15. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Swastik; Bykova, Elena; Dey, Somnath; Ali, Sk Imran; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; van Smaalen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichiometric boron-carbide B13C2 by high-pressure-high-temperature techniques. Our experimental electron-density study using high-resolution single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data conclusively demonstrates that disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide, contrary to what was hitherto supposed. A detailed analysis of the electron density distribution reveals charge transfer between structural units in B13C2 and a new type of electron-deficient bond with formally unpaired electrons on the C-B-C group in B13C2. Unprecedented bonding features contribute to the fundamental chemistry and materials science of boron compounds that is of great interest for understanding structure-property relationships and development of novel functional materials. PMID:26777140

  16. Characterization of a boron carbide-based polymer neutron sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chuting; James, Robinson; Dong, Bin; Driver, M. Sky; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Downing, Greg; Cao, Lei R.

    2015-12-01

    Boron is used widely in thin-film solid-state devices for neutron detection. The film thickness and boron concentration are important parameters that relate to a device's detection efficiency and capacitance. Neutron depth profiling was used to determine the film thicknesses and boron-concentration profiles of boron carbide-based polymers grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of ortho-carborane (1,2-B10C2H12), resulting in a pure boron carbide film, or of meta-carborane (1,7-B10C2H12) and pyridine (C5H5N), resulting in a pyridine composite film, or of pyrimidine (C4H4N2) resulting in a pure pyrimidine film. The pure boron carbide film had a uniform surface appearance and a constant thickness of 250 nm, whereas the thickness of the composite film was 250-350 nm, measured at three different locations. In the meta-carborane and pyridine composite film the boron concentration was found to increase with depth, which correlated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)-derived atomic ratios. A proton peak from 14N (n,p)14C reaction was observed in the pure pyrimidine film, indicating an additional neutron sensitivity to nonthermal neutrons from the N atoms in the pyrimidine.

  17. Silicon Carbide Mounts for Fabry-Perot Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindemann, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Etalon mounts for tunable Fabry- Perot interferometers can now be fabricated from reaction-bonded silicon carbide structural components. These mounts are rigid, lightweight, and thermally stable. The fabrication of these mounts involves the exploitation of post-casting capabilities that (1) enable creation of monolithic structures having reduced (in comparison with prior such structures) degrees of material inhomogeneity and (2) reduce the need for fastening hardware and accommodations. Such silicon carbide mounts could be used to make lightweight Fabry-Perot interferometers or could be modified for use as general lightweight optical mounts. Heretofore, tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer structures, including mounting hardware, have been made from the low-thermal-expansion material Invar (a nickel/iron alloy) in order to obtain the thermal stability required for spectroscopic applications for which such interferometers are typically designed. However, the high mass density of Invar structures is disadvantageous in applications in which there are requirements to minimize mass. Silicon carbide etalon mounts have been incorporated into a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer of a prior design that originally called for Invar structural components. The strength, thermal stability, and survivability of the interferometer as thus modified are similar to those of the interferometer as originally designed, but the mass of the modified interferometer is significantly less than the mass of the original version.

  18. Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  19. Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube - Chromium Carbide Composite Through Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Gao, Yibo; Liang, Fei; Wu, Benxin; Gou, Jihua; Detrois, Martin; Tin, Sammy; Yin, Ming; Nash, Philip; Tang, Xiaoduan; Wang, Xinwei

    2016-03-01

    Ceramics often have high hardness and strength, and good wear and corrosion resistance, and hence have many important applications, which, however, are often limited by their poor fracture toughness. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may enhance ceramic fracture toughness, but hot pressing (which is one typical approach of fabricating CNT-ceramic composites) is difficult to apply for applications that require localized heat input, such as fabricating composites as surface coatings. Laser beam may realize localized material sintering with little thermal effect on the surrounding regions. However, for the typical ceramics for hard coating applications (as listed in Ref.[1]), previous work on laser sintering of CNT-ceramic composites with mechanical property characterizations has been very limited. In this paper, research work has been reported on the fabrication and characterization of CNT-ceramic composites through laser sintering of mixtures of CNTs and chromium carbide powders. Under the studied conditions, it has been found that laser-sintered composites have a much higher hardness than that for plasma-sprayed composites reported in the literature. It has also been found that the composites obtained by laser sintering of CNTs and chromium carbide powder mixtures have a fracture toughness that is ~23 % higher than the material obtained by laser sintering of chromium carbide powders without CNTs.

  20. Fatigue of alumina-based ceramics and chrome carbide composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireitseu, Maksim V.; Yerakhavets, Liudmila; Nemerenco, Ion; Basenuk, Vladimir L.

    2003-10-01

    The paper was revealed a fatigue in the alumina-chrome carbide composite. The trapped crack front resembles a collinear array of microcracks interspersed by grains rich in transformable precipitates. This micromechanical model provides a reasonable explanation for the observed fatigue crack growth. A numerical procedure similar to the one used in the analysis of the array of collinear cracks, based on complex potentials and dislocation formalism is also used to simulate fatigue of composite coatings based on oxide ceramics and chrome carbide. Assuming power-law crack growth, it is found that the crack growth rate decreases with the applied stress intensity factor in the initial stage of fatigue crack growth. Depending on the applied load and the amount of transformation, the growth rate either goes through a minimum before increasing to the normal crack regime, or the rate continues to decrease until the crack is arrested. A detailed parametric study of the phenomenon of fatigue crack arrest in composite coatings based on oxide ceramics and chrome carbide reveals that the combination of transformation strength parameter and applied load determines whether or not crack arrest will occur, irrespective of the initial crack length. Based on the parametric study a simple linear relationship between the applied load and the minimum transformation strength parameter necessary to cause crack arrest has been developed. it will be found useful in the design against fatigue by predicting the maximum toad at which crack arrest can be expected.

  1. Novel silicon carbide/polypyrrole composites; preparation and physicochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Omastova, Maria . E-mail: upolmaom@savba.sk; Boukerma, Kada; Chehimi, Mohamed M.; Trchova, Miroslava

    2005-05-18

    Novel silicon carbide/polypyrrole (SiC/PPy) conducting composites were prepared using silicon carbide as inorganic substrate. The surface modification of SiC was performed in aqueous solution by oxidative polymerization of pyrrole using ferric chloride as oxidant. Elemental analysis was used to determine the mass loading of polypyrrole in the SiC/PPy composites. Scanning electron microscopy showed the surface modification of SiC by PPy. PPy in composites was confirmed by the presence of PPy bands in the infrared spectra of SiC/PPy containing various amounts of conducting polymer. The conductivity of SiC/PPy composites depends on PPy content on the surface. The composite containing 35 wt.% PPy showed conductivity about 2 S cm{sup -1}, which is in the same range as the conductivity of pure polypyrrole powder prepared under the same conditions using the same oxidant. PPy in the composites was clearly detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements by its N1s and Cl2p peaks. High resolution scans of the C1s regions distinguished between silicon carbide and polypyrrole carbons. The fraction of polypyrrole at the composite surface was estimated from the silicon and nitrogen levels. The combination of XPS and conductivity measurements suggests that the surface of the SiC/PPy composites is polypyrrole-rich for a conducting polymer mass loading of at least 12.6 wt.%.

  2. Application of germanium carbide in durable multilayer IR coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Chris J.; Orr, James S.; Gordon, H.; Traub, Leonard T.; Lettington, Alan H.

    1990-08-01

    Infrared transparent amorphous hydrogenated alloys of germanium and carbon (germanium carbide) have been deposited by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (PACVD) using germane (GeH4 ) and butane (C 4Hid as the feedstocks and by reactive sputtering of germanium with a CH1g-Ar plasma. The effects of varying various deposition conditions have been assessed on a number of coating properties . Germanium Carbide has good environmental durability and can be deposited in thick layers. Using PACVD it can be deposited with any refractive index in the range 2 to 4 while the sputtering process is limited to indices in the range 3 to 4 . One advantage of the sputtering process is the high deposition rates achievable which can be up to '-lOum/h compared with lum/h for the PACVD process. When used in conjunction with "diamond-like" carbon (a-'C:H) , germanium carbide offers the prospect of rnultilayer antireflection coatings for 8 to 12 urn optics with durabilities which hitherto have been impossible to achieve. Antireflection coatings for zinc sulphide windows which are subject to hostile environmental conditions have been investigated and the performance of the coatings is presented. The factors affecting the practical realisation of these coatings on a production scale are discussed.

  3. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Swastik; Bykova, Elena; Dey, Somnath; Ali, Sk Imran; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; van Smaalen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichiometric boron-carbide B13C2 by high-pressure-high-temperature techniques. Our experimental electron-density study using high-resolution single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data conclusively demonstrates that disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide, contrary to what was hitherto supposed. A detailed analysis of the electron density distribution reveals charge transfer between structural units in B13C2 and a new type of electron-deficient bond with formally unpaired electrons on the C-B-C group in B13C2. Unprecedented bonding features contribute to the fundamental chemistry and materials science of boron compounds that is of great interest for understanding structure-property relationships and development of novel functional materials.

  4. The Development of Silicon Carbide Based Hydrogen and Hydrocarbon Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun

    1994-01-01

    Silicon carbide is a high temperature electronic material. Its potential for development of chemical sensors in a high temperature environment has not been explored. The objective of this study is to use silicon carbide as the substrate material for the construction of chemical sensors for high temperature applications. Sensors for the detection of hydrogen and hydrocarbon are developed in this program under the auspices of Lewis Research Center, NASA. Metal-semiconductor or metal-insulator-semiconductor structures are used in this development. Specifically, using palladium-silicon carbide Schottky diodes as gas sensors in the temperature range of 100 to 400 C are designed, fabricated and assessed. The effect of heat treatment on the Pd-SiC Schottky diode is examined. Operation of the sensors at 400 C demonstrate sensitivity of the sensor to hydrogen and hydrocarbons. Substantial progress has been made in this study and we believe that the Pd-SiC Schottky diode has potential as a hydrogen and hydrocarbon sensor over a wide range of temperatures. However, the long term stability and operational life of the sensor need to be assessed. This aspect is an important part of our future continuing investigation.

  5. Calcium Carbide: A Unique Reagent for Organic Synthesis and Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rodygin, Konstantin S; Werner, Georg; Kucherov, Fedor A; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2016-04-01

    Acetylene, HC≡CH, is one of the primary building blocks in synthetic organic and industrial chemistry. Several highly valuable processes have been developed based on this simplest alkyne and the development of acetylene chemistry has had a paramount impact on chemical science over the last few decades. However, in spite of numerous useful possible reactions, the application of gaseous acetylene in everyday research practice is rather limited. Moreover, the practical implementation of high-pressure acetylene chemistry can be very challenging, owing to the risk of explosion and the requirement for complex equipment; special safety precautions need to be taken to store and handle acetylene under high pressure, which limit its routine use in a standard laboratory setup. Amazingly, recent studies have revealed that calcium carbide, CaC2 , can be used as an easy-to-handle and efficient source of acetylene for in situ chemical transformations. Thus, calcium carbide is a stable and inexpensive acetylene precursor that is available on the ton scale and it can be handled with standard laboratory equipment. The application of calcium carbide in organic synthesis will bring a new dimension to the powerful acetylene chemistry. PMID:26898248

  6. Predicted boron-carbide compounds: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Wang, De Yu; Yan, Qian; Wang, Bing; Wang, Yuan Xu; Yang, Jueming; Yang, Gui

    2014-06-14

    By using developed particle swarm optimization algorithm on crystal structural prediction, we have explored the possible crystal structures of B-C system. Their structures, stability, elastic properties, electronic structure, and chemical bonding have been investigated by first-principles calculations with density functional theory. The results show that all the predicted structures are mechanically and dynamically stable. An analysis of calculated enthalpy with pressure indicates that increasing of boron content will increase the stability of boron carbides under low pressure. Moreover, the boron carbides with rich carbon content become more stable under high pressure. The negative formation energy of predicted B5C indicates its high stability. The density of states of B5C show that it is p-type semiconducting. The calculated theoretical Vickers hardnesses of B-C exceed 40 GPa except B4C, BC, and BC4, indicating they are potential superhard materials. An analysis of Debye temperature and electronic localization function provides further understanding chemical and physical properties of boron carbide. PMID:24929411

  7. Predicted boron-carbide compounds: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, De Yu; Yan, Qian; Wang, Bing; Wang, Yuan Xu; Yang, Jueming; Yang, Gui

    2014-06-01

    By using developed particle swarm optimization algorithm on crystal structural prediction, we have explored the possible crystal structures of B-C system. Their structures, stability, elastic properties, electronic structure, and chemical bonding have been investigated by first-principles calculations with density functional theory. The results show that all the predicted structures are mechanically and dynamically stable. An analysis of calculated enthalpy with pressure indicates that increasing of boron content will increase the stability of boron carbides under low pressure. Moreover, the boron carbides with rich carbon content become more stable under high pressure. The negative formation energy of predicted B5C indicates its high stability. The density of states of B5C show that it is p-type semiconducting. The calculated theoretical Vickers hardnesses of B-C exceed 40 GPa except B4C, BC, and BC4, indicating they are potential superhard materials. An analysis of Debye temperature and electronic localization function provides further understanding chemical and physical properties of boron carbide.

  8. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Swastik; Bykova, Elena; Dey, Somnath; Ali, Sk Imran; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; van Smaalen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichiometric boron-carbide B13C2 by high-pressure–high-temperature techniques. Our experimental electron-density study using high-resolution single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data conclusively demonstrates that disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide, contrary to what was hitherto supposed. A detailed analysis of the electron density distribution reveals charge transfer between structural units in B13C2 and a new type of electron-deficient bond with formally unpaired electrons on the C–B–C group in B13C2. Unprecedented bonding features contribute to the fundamental chemistry and materials science of boron compounds that is of great interest for understanding structure-property relationships and development of novel functional materials. PMID:26777140

  9. Predicted boron-carbide compounds: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, De Yu; Yan, Qian; Wang, Bing; Wang, Yuan Xu Yang, Jueming; Yang, Gui

    2014-06-14

    By using developed particle swarm optimization algorithm on crystal structural prediction, we have explored the possible crystal structures of B-C system. Their structures, stability, elastic properties, electronic structure, and chemical bonding have been investigated by first-principles calculations with density functional theory. The results show that all the predicted structures are mechanically and dynamically stable. An analysis of calculated enthalpy with pressure indicates that increasing of boron content will increase the stability of boron carbides under low pressure. Moreover, the boron carbides with rich carbon content become more stable under high pressure. The negative formation energy of predicted B{sub 5}C indicates its high stability. The density of states of B{sub 5}C show that it is p-type semiconducting. The calculated theoretical Vickers hardnesses of B-C exceed 40 GPa except B{sub 4}C, BC, and BC{sub 4}, indicating they are potential superhard materials. An analysis of Debye temperature and electronic localization function provides further understanding chemical and physical properties of boron carbide.

  10. Visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors on porous silicon carbide substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Naderi, N.; Hashim, M.R.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: • Highly reliable UV detectors are fabricated on porous silicon carbide substrates. • The optical properties of samples are enhanced by increasing the current density. • The optimized sample exhibits enhanced sensitivity to the incident UV radiation. - Abstract: Highly reliable visible-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors were successfully fabricated on porous silicon carbide (PSC) substrates. High responsivity and high photoconductive gain were observed in a metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetector that was fabricated on an optimized PSC substrate. The PSC samples were prepared via the UV-assisted photo-electrochemical etching of an n-type hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) substrate using different etching current densities. The optical results showed that the current density is an outstanding etching parameter that controls the porosity and uniformity of PSC substrates. A highly porous substrate was synthesized using a suitable etching current density to enhance its light absorption, thereby improving the sensitivity of UV detector with this substrate. The electrical characteristics of fabricated devices on optimized PSC substrates exhibited enhanced sensitivity and responsivity to the incident radiation.

  11. Method for removing oxide contamination from silicon carbide powders

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    The described invention is directed to a method for removing oxide contamination in the form of oxygen-containing compounds such as SiO/sub 2/ and B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ from a charge of finely divided silicon carbide. The silicon carbide charge is contacted with a stream of hydrogen fluoride mixed with an inert gas carrier such as argon at a temperature in the range of about 200/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The oxides in the charge react with the heated hydrogen fluoride to form volatile gaseous fluorides such as SiF/sub 4/ and BF/sub 3/ which pass through the charge along with unreacted hydrogen fluoride and the carrier gas. Any residual gaseous reaction products and hydrogen fluoride remaining in the charge are removed by contacting the charge with the stream of inert gas which also cools the powder to room temperature. The removal of the oxygen contamination by practicing the present method provides silicon carbide powders with desirable pressing and sintering characteristics. 1 tab.

  12. Steam Reforming on Transition-metal Carbides from Density-functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2012-05-11

    A screening study of the steam reforming reaction on clean and oxygen covered early transition-metal carbides surfaces is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. Several molybdenum-based systems are identified as possible steam reforming catalysts. The findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

  13. Effect of carbide distribution on rolling-element fatigue life of AMS 5749

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1983-01-01

    Endurance tests with ball bearings made of corrosion resistant bearing steel which resulted in fatigue lives much lower than were predicted are discussed. Metallurgical analysis revealed an undesirable carbide distribution in the races. It was shown in accelerated fatigue tests in the RC rig that large, banded carbides can reduce rolling element fatigue life by a factor of approximately four. The early spalling failures on the bearing raceways are attributed to the large carbide size and banded distribution.

  14. Extreme-Environment Silicon-Carbide (SiC) Wireless Sensor Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Phase II objectives: Develop an integrated silicon-carbide wireless sensor suite capable of in situ measurements of critical characteristics of NTP engine; Compose silicon-carbide wireless sensor suite of: Extreme-environment sensors center, Dedicated high-temperature (450 deg C) silicon-carbide electronics that provide power and signal conditioning capabilities as well as radio frequency modulation and wireless data transmission capabilities center, An onboard energy harvesting system as a power source.

  15. Silicon carbide-silicon composite having improved oxidation resistance and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthra, Krishan Lal (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A Silicon carbide-silicon matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is provided. A method is given for sealing matrix cracks in situ in melt infiltrated silicon carbide-silicon matrix composites. The composite cracks are sealed by the addition of various additives, such as boron compounds, into the melt infiltrated silicon carbide-silicon matrix.

  16. Method of making silicon carbide-silicon composite having improved oxidation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthra, Krishan Lal (Inventor); Wang, Hongyu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A Silicon carbide-silicon matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is provided. A method is given for sealing matrix cracks in situ in melt infiltrated silicon carbide-silicon matrix composites. The composite cracks are sealed by the addition of various additives, such as boron compounds, into the melt infiltrated silicon carbide-silicon matrix.

  17. Refining the pathway of carbide insertion into the nitrogenase M-cluster

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Jared A.; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2015-01-01

    Carbide insertion plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of M-cluster, the cofactor of nitrogenase. Previously, we proposed a carbide insertion pathway involving methyltransfer from SAM to a FeS precursor and hydrogen abstraction from this methyl group that initiates the radical-based precursor maturation. Here we demonstrate that the methyl group is transferred to a precursor-associated sulfur before hydrogen abstraction, thereby refining the initial steps of the carbide insertion pathway. PMID:26259825

  18. Nanosized Borides and Carbides for Electroplating. Metal-Matrix Coatings: Specifications, Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galevskiy, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevskiy, S. G.; Il’yashchenko, D. P.; Kartsev, D. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper summarizes experience of application of nano-sized carbides and borides of titanium and chromium, silicon carbide as components of electro-depositable coating compositions based on nickel, zinc, and chromium. Basic physical and mechanical properties of the coatings are determined. Technological and economic evaluation is completed; practicability of high-cost nano-diamonds substitution for nano-sized borides and carbides is justified.

  19. Effect of carbide size, area, density on rolling-element fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    A carbide parameter that can be used to predict rolling element fatigue life was developed.The parameter is based on a statistical life analysis and incorporates the total number of particles per unit area, particle size, and percent carbide area. These were determined from quantimet image analyzing computer examinations of random samples selected from eight lots of material previously tested in rolling fatigue. The carbide parameter is independent of chemical composition, heat treatment, and hardening mechanism of the materials investigated.

  20. Formation Energies and Electronic Properties of Vanadium Carbides Found in High Strength Steel Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limmer, Krista; Medvedeva, Julia

    2013-03-01

    Carbide formation and stabilization in steels is of great interest owing to its effect on the microstructure and properties of the Fe-based alloys. The appearance of carbides with different metal/C ratios strongly depends on the carbon concentration, alloy composition as well as the heat treatment. Strong carbide-forming elements such as Ti, V, and Nb have been used in microalloyed steels; with VC showing an increased solubility in the iron matrix as compared with TiC and NbC. This allows for dissolution of the VC into the steel during heating and fine precipitation during cooling. In addition to VC, the primary vanadium carbide with cubic structure, a wide range of non-stoichiometric compositions VCy with y varying from 0.72 to 0.88, has been observed. This range includes two ordered compounds, V8C7 and V6C5. In this study, first-principles density functional theory (DFT) is employed to examine the stability of the binary carbides by calculating their formation energies. We compare the local structures (atomic coordination, bond distances and angles) and the density of states in optimized geometries of the carbides. Further, the effect of alloying additions, such as niobium and titanium, on the carbide stabilization is investigated. We determine the energetically preferable substitutional atom location in each carbide and study the impurity distribution as well as its role in the carbide formation energy and electronic structure.

  1. Influence of the matrix structure and properties on the crack resistance of sintered carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, N.V.; Devin, L.N.; Mitlikin, M.D.; Ul'yanenko, A.P.

    1985-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an automatic analysis of the structure of tungsten-cobalt sintered carbides with 6-25% weight of the binder phase and shows the possibility of their practical use for improvement of the mechanical properties of the materials. The authors conclude that accurate determination of the structural parameters of sintered carbides has made it possible to establish the yield strengths of the matrix material of different types of tungsten-cobalt sintered carbides and to determine those for which an increase in crack resistance is possible. The effect of the increase in fracture toughness of sintered carbides with an increase in loading rate is also explained.

  2. Review of nuclear thermal propulsion carbide reactor fuel corrosion and exhibit

    SciTech Connect

    Pellacio, D.; El-Genk, M.S.; Butt, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    Uranium carbide forms complete, nearly ideal solid solutions with the refractory compounds ZrC, NbC, HfC, and TaC. These compounds have very high melting points. By incorporating uranium carbide into a solid solution, a very high melting point nuclear fuel is attained. In the present study, the thermodynamics of refractory carbide fuels as it relates to vaporization or corrosion behavior is experimentally examined. The vaporization behavior of refractory carbide fuels is modeled, based on the equilibrium partial pressures of important vapor species.

  3. Tunable carbon nanotube-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures by vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Min; Guo, Hongyan; Ge, Changchun; Yan, Qingzhi Lang, Shaoting

    2014-05-14

    A simple, versatile route for the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures was set up via vapor deposition process. For the first time, amorphous CNTs (α-CNTs) were used to immobilized tungsten carbide nanoparticles. By adjusting the synthesis and annealing temperature, α-CNTs/amorphous tungsten carbide, α-CNTs/W{sub 2}C, and CNTs/W{sub 2}C/WC heterostructures were prepared. This approach provides an efficient method to attach other metal carbides and other nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes with tunable properties.

  4. Characterization of the carbides and the martensite phase in powder-metallurgy high-speed steel

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, Matjaz; Batic, Barbara Setina; Mandrino, Djordje; Nagode, Ales; Leskovsek, Vojteh; Skapin, Sreco D.; Jenko, Monika

    2010-04-15

    A microstructural characterization of the powder-metallurgy high-speed-steel S390 Microclean was performed based on an elemental distribution of the carbide phase as well as crystallographic analyses. The results showed that there were two types of carbides present: vanadium-rich carbides, which were not chemically homogeneous and exhibited a tungsten-enriched or tungsten-depleted central area; and chemically homogeneous tungsten-rich M{sub 6}C-type carbides. Despite the possibility of chemical inhomogenities, the crystallographic orientation of each of the carbides was shown to be uniform. Using electron backscatter diffraction the vanadium-rich carbides were determined to be either cubic VC or hexagonal V{sub 6}C{sub 5}, while the tungsten-rich carbides were M{sub 6}C. The electron backscatter diffraction results were also verified using X-ray diffraction. Several electron backscatter diffraction pattern maps were acquired in order to define the fraction of each carbide phase as well as the amount of martensite phase. The fraction of martensite was estimated using band-contrast images, while the fraction of carbides was calculated using the crystallographic data.

  5. A study of the effect of grain size on the ballistic performance of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The depth of penetration method was used to ballistically evaluate the performance of silicon carbide as a function of grain size. The hot-pressed silicon carbide was backed by 4340 steel Rc = 35 and impacted by tungsten heavy metal projectiles of L/D = 4 at velocities of 1.6 and 1/75 km/s. The hot-pressed silicon carbide was also compared with reaction-sintered silicon carbide of identical thickness in the current study. Results are compared with data previously reported by others.

  6. Exposure to Fibres, Crystalline Silica, Silicon Carbide and Sulphur Dioxide in the Norwegian Silicon Carbide Industry

    PubMed Central

    Føreland, S.; Bye, E.; Bakke, B.; Eduard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess personal exposure to fibres, crystalline silica, silicon carbide (SiC) and sulphur dioxide in the Norwegian SiC industry. Methods: Approximately 720 fibre samples, 720 respirable dust samples and 1400 total dust samples were collected from randomly chosen workers from the furnace, processing and maintenance departments in all three Norwegian SiC plants. The respirable dust samples were analysed for quartz, cristobalite and non-fibrous SiC content. Approximately 240 sulphur dioxide samples were collected from workers in the furnace department. Results: The sorting operators from all plants, control room and cleaning operators in Plant A and charger, charger/mix and payloader operators in Plant C had a geometric mean (GM) of fibre exposure above the Norwegian occupational exposure limit (OEL) (0.1 fibre cm−3). The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable quartz (20 μg m−3). The charger/mix operators in Plant C had the highest GM exposure to respirable cristobalite (38 μg m−3) and the refinery crusher operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to non-fibrous SiC (0.65 mg m−3). Exposure to the crystalline silica and non-fibrous SiC was generally low and between 0.4 and 2.1% of the measurements exceeded the OELs. The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable dust (1.3 mg m−3) and total dust (21 mg m−3). GM exposures for respirable dust above the Norwegian SiC industry-specific OEL of 0.5 mg m−3 were also found for refinery crusher operators in all plants and mix, charger, charger/mix and sorting operators in Plant C. Only 4% of the total dust measurements exceeded the OEL for nuisance dust of (10 mg m−3). Exposure to sulphur dioxide was generally low. However, peaks in the range of 10–100 p.p.m. were observed for control room and crane operators in Plants A and B and for charger and charger/mix operators in Plant C. Conclusion: Workers in

  7. Analytical electron microscopy study of the high temperature carbide formed in a V-5 Ti-C alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Fluhr, C.P.; Beggs, D.V.; Wert, C.A.; Fraser, H.L.

    1980-05-01

    A finely dispersed high temperature carbide that precipitates at 1000/sup 0/C in a V-5 pct Ti-C alloy has been studied using analytical electron microscopy. The crystal structure has been determined using electron diffraction as B1 (NaCl-type) with a lattice parameter of 4.29A. The carbide develops a habit plane parallel to (001) of the matrix. The orientation relationship between the carbide and the matrix is (010) carbide parallel to (010) matrix, (001) carbide parallel to (101) matrix. The elemental concentrations of the metal constituents of the carbide have been deduced using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, through examination of core electron excitations. The composition of the carbide is found to be V/sub 11/Ti/sub 39/C/sub 50/, assuming a stoichiometric carbide.

  8. Irradiation and annealing of p-type silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Alexander A.; Bogdanova, Elena V.; Grigor'eva, Maria V.; Lebedev, Sergey P.; Kozlovski, Vitaly V.

    2014-02-21

    The development of the technology of semiconductor devices based on silicon carbide and the beginning of their industrial manufacture have made increasingly topical studies of the radiation hardness of this material on the one hand and of the proton irradiation to form high-receptivity regions on the other hand. This paper reports on a study of the carrier removal rate (V{sub d}) in p-6H-SiC under irradiation with 8 MeV protons and of the conductivity restoration in radiation- compensated epitaxial layers of various p-type silicon carbide polytypes. V{sub d} was determined by analysis of capacitance-voltage characteristics and from results of Hall effect measurements. It was found that the complete compensation of samples with the initial value of Na - Nd ≈ 1.5 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} occurs at an irradiation dose of ∼1.1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. It is shown that specific features of the sublimation layer SiC (compared to CVD layers) are clearly manifested upon the gamma and electron irradiation and are hardly noticeable under the proton and neutron irradiation. It was also found that the radiation-induced compensation of SiC is retained after its annealing at ≤1000°C. The conductivity is almost completely restored at T ≥ 1200°C. This character of annealing of the radiation compensation is independent of a silicon carbide polytype and the starting doping level of the epitaxial layer. The complete annealing temperatures considerably exceed the working temperatures of SiC-based devices. It is shown that the radiation compensation is a promising method in the technology of high-temperature devices based on SiC.

  9. GEN IV: Carbide Fuel Elaboration for the 'Futurix Concepts' experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Vaudez, Stephane; Riglet-Martial, Chantal; Paret, Laurent; Abonneau, Eric

    2007-07-01

    In order to collect information on the behaviour of the future GFR (Gas Fast Reactor) fuel under fast neutron irradiation, an experimental irradiation program, called 'Futurix-concepts' has been launched at the CEA. The considered concept is a composite material made of a fissile fuel embedded in an inert matrix. Fissile fuel pellets are made of UPuN or UPuC while matrices are SiC for the carbide fuel and TiN for the nitride fuel. This paper focuses on the description of the carbide composite fabrication. The UPuC pellets are manufactured using a metallurgical powder process. Fabrication and handling of the fuels are carried out in gloveboxes under a nitrogen atmosphere. Carbide fuel is synthesized by carbothermic reduction under vacuum of a mixture of actinide oxide and graphite carbon up to 1550 deg. C. After ball milling, the powder is pressed to create hexagonal or spherical compacts. They are then sintered up to 1750 deg. C in order to obtain a density of 85 % of the theoretical one. The sintered pellets are inserted into an inert and tight capsule of SiC. In order to control the gap between the fuel and the matrix precisely, the pellets are abraded. The inert matrix is then filled with the pellets and the whole system is sealed by a BRASiC{sup R} process at high temperature under a helium atmosphere. Fabrication of the sample to be irradiated was done in 2006 and the irradiation began in May 2007 in the PHENIX reactor. This presentation will detail and discuss the results obtained during this fabrication phase. (authors)

  10. Evolution of defects in silicon carbide implanted with helium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chonghong; Song, Yin; Yang, Yitao; Zhou, Chunlan; Wei, Long; Ma, Hongji

    2014-05-01

    Effects of accumulation of radiation damage in silicon carbide are important concerns for the use of silicon carbide in advanced nuclear energy systems. In the present work lattice damage in silicon carbide crystal (4H type) implanted with 100 keV 4He+ ions was investigated with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling geometry (RBS/c) and positron beam Doppler broadening spectrometry (PBDB). Helium implantation was performed at the specimen temperature of 510 K to avoid amorphization of the SiC crystal. Fluences of helium ions were selected to be in the range from 1 × 1016 to 3 × 1016 ions cm-2, around the dose threshold for the formation of observable helium bubbles under transmission electron microscopes (TEM). The RBS/c measurements show distinctly different annealing behavior of displaced Si atoms at doses below or above the threshold for helium bubble formation. The RBS/c yield in the peak damage region of the specimen implanted to 3 × 1016 He-ions cm-2 shows an increase on the subsequently thermal annealing above 873 K, which is readily ascribed to the extra displacement of Si atoms due to helium bubble growth. The RBS/c yield in the specimen implanted to a lower ion fluence of 1.5 × 1016 He-ions cm-2 decreases monotonously on annealing from ambient temperatures up to 1273 K. The PBDB measurements supply evidence of clustering of vacancies at temperatures from 510 to 1173 K, and dissociation of vacancy clusters above 1273 K. The similarity of annealing behavior in PBDB profiles for helium implantation to 1 × 1016 and 3 × 1016 ions cm-2 is ascribed to the saturation of trapping of positrons in vacancy type defects in the damaged layers in the specimens helium-implanted to the two dose levels.

  11. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite densified materials prepared using composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, S.D.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Eisman, G.A.; Cochran, G.A.; Susnitzky, D.W.; Beaman, D.R.; Nilsen, K.J.

    1997-07-01

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  12. Molecular dynamics investigation of the interaction of dislocations with carbides in BCC Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granberg, F.; Terentyev, D.; Nordlund, K.

    2015-06-01

    Different types of carbides are present in many steels used as structural materials. To safely use steel in demanding environments, like nuclear power plants, it is important to know how defects will affect the mechanical properties of the material. In this study, the effect of carbide precipitates on the edge dislocation movement is investigated. Three different types of carbides were investigated by means of molecular dynamics, with a Tersoff-like bond order interatomic potential by Henriksson et al. The obstacles were 4 nm in diameter and were of Fe3C- (cementite-), Fe23C6- and Cr23C6-type. The critical unpinning stress was calculated for each type at different temperatures, to get the temperature-dependent obstacle strength. The results showed a decreasing critical stress with increasing temperature, consistent with previous studies. The critical unpinning stress was seen to be dependent on the type of carbide, but the differences were small. A difference was also observed between the obstacles with the same structure, but with different composition. This study shows the relation between the existing Cr23C6 carbide and the experimentally non-existing Fe23C6 carbide, which needs to be used as a model system for investigations with interatomic potentials not able to describe the interaction of Cr in the Fe-C-system. We found the difference to be a between 7% and 10% higher critical unpinning stress for the chromium carbide, than for the iron carbide of the same type.

  13. Preparation of molybdenum carbides with multiple morphologies using surfactants as carbon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongfen; Wang, Zhiqi; Chen, Shougang

    2012-10-15

    Molybdenum carbides with surfactants as carbon sources were prepared using the carbothermal reduction of the appropriate precursors (molybdenum oxides deposited on surfactant micelles) at 1023 K under hydrogen gas. The carburized products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and BET surface area measurements. From the SEM images, hollow microspherical and rod-like molybdenum carbides were observed. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the annealing time of carburization had a large effect on the conversion of molybdenum oxides to molybdenum carbides. And BET surface area measurements indicated that the difference of carbon sources brought a big difference in specific surface areas of molybdenum carbides. - Graphical abstract: Molybdenum carbides having hollow microspherical and hollow rod-like morphologies that are different from the conventional monodipersed platelet-like morphologies. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molybdenum carbides were prepared using surfactants as carbon sources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinds of surfactants affected the morphologies of molybdenum carbides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The time of heat preservation at 1023 K affected the carburization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molybdenum carbides with hollow structures had larger specific surface areas.

  14. Zirconium carbide as an electrocatalyst for the chromous-chromic redox couple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Reid, M. A.; Yang, C. Y. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Zirconium carbide is used as a catalyst in a REDOX cell for the oxidation of chromous ions to chromic ions and for the reduction of chromic ions to chromous ions. The zirconium carbide is coated on an inert electronically conductive electrode which is present in the anode fluid of the cell.

  15. Aluminum-silicon eutectic alloy improves electrical and mechanical contact to silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shier, J. S.

    1970-01-01

    Alloy contact layer is made at relatively low temperature and has good wetting characteristics. Contacts adhere well to silicon carbide surface, penetrating about 300 to 500 angstroms into it. Contacts are ohmic on p-type silicon carbide and blocking on n-type.

  16. Chromium Carbide Thin Films Synthesized by Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Terajima, Ryou; Emura, Masanari

    1999-06-01

    Chromium carbide thin films are synthesized on Si(100)substrates by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition method at differentsubstrate temperatures. Glancing-angle X-ray diffraction shows that acrystalline chromium carbide film can be prepared at the substratetemperature of 700°C. Grain size of the films, examined witha field-emission secondary electron microscope, increases withincreasing substrate temperature.

  17. Carbide phases in a multicomponent superalloy Ni-Co-W-Cr-Ta-Re

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigrova, G. D.; Rybnikov, A. I.

    2013-07-01

    Physicochemical phase analysis is used to investigate carbide phases in a high-temperature nickelbased alloy ZhS32 after the alloy has been subjected to various heat treatments and aging regimes within a temperature range of 850-1250°C. The MC, M23C6, and M6C carbide phases have been identified.

  18. Development of a Robust Tri-Carbide Fueled Reactor for Multimegawatt Space Power and Propulsion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Samim Anghaie; Travis W. Knight; Johann Plancher; Reza Gouw

    2004-08-11

    An innovative reactor core design based on advanced, mixed carbide fuels was analyzed for nuclear space power applications. Solid solution, mixed carbide fuels such as (U,Zr,Nb)c and (U,Zr, Ta)C offer great promise as an advanced high temperature fuel for space power reactors.

  19. Method of enhanced lithiation of doped silicon carbide via high temperature annealing in an inert atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Hersam, Mark C.; Lipson, Albert L.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Karmel, Hunter J; Bedzyk, Michael J

    2014-05-27

    A method for enhancing the lithium-ion capacity of a doped silicon carbide is disclosed. The method utilizes heat treating the silicon carbide in an inert atmosphere. Also disclosed are anodes for lithium-ion batteries prepared by the method.

  20. Arc Synthesis of Fullerenes from the Carbide of Waste Cloths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Koichiro; Mieno, Tetsu

    2000-09-01

    A great many scraps of cotton cloth are disposed of as industrial waste through making clothes. The purpose of this study is to transform the waste into very valuable carbon compounds, that is, fullerenes. The scraps were piled and carbonized in air at 1050°C. By carbonization, the weight of the scraps decreased to 16-18%. Carbide from the scraps was used as the raw material for synthesizing fullerenes with the \\mbi{J}×\\mbi{B} arc discharge method. The soot that was deposited on the inside of the vacuum chamber contained C60 (>0.05 wt%), C70 and higher fullerenes.

  1. Net shape fabrication of Alpha Silicon Carbide turbine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Development of Alpha Silicon Carbide components by net shape fabrication techniques has continued in conjunction with several turbine engine programs. Progress in injection molding of simple parts has been extended to much larger components. Turbine rotors fabricated by a one piece molding have been successfully spin tested above design speeds. Static components weighing up to 4.5 kg and 33 cc in diameter have also been produced using this technique. Use of sintering fixtures significantly improves dimensional control. A new Si-SiC composite material has also been developed with average strengths up to 1000 MPa (150 ksi) at 1200 C.

  2. Deuteron irradiation creep of chemically vapor deposited silicon carbide fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation creep tests were conducted on Textron SCS-6 silicon carbide (SiC) fibers during irradiation with 14 MeV deuterons at 450 and 600°C. The fibers are produced by a CVD procedure; their microstructure may therefore be representative for the matrix of a SiC composite. There is a significant radiation induced increase in creep deformation. Both quantities, irradiation creep strain and creep rate, are higher at 450°C than at 600°C for doses <0.07 dpa.

  3. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2012-01-01

    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  4. Infrared Kerr measurements on ferromagnetic silicon and silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jungryeol; Mukherjee, Alok; Arik, Mumtaz Murat; Cerne, John; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Shengqiang; Böttger, Roman; Song, Bo; Wang, Gang

    We measure the infrared (100-1000 meV) Kerr angle in ferromagnetic silicon and silicon carbide. The samples were either neutron irradiated or aluminum doped to induce ferromagnetic behavior. The samples are studied in the 10-300K temperature range at magnetic fields up to 7T. We also explore the dependence of the magneto-optical signal on samples with different irradiation exposure levels. This study provides new information on the optical, magnetic, and electronic properties of these materials. Work supported by NSF-DMR1410599 and the Helmholtz Postdoctoral Program PD-146.

  5. Silicon carbide alloys: Research reports in materials science

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The book draws from work done on other silicon materials, silicon nitrides and sialons, to emphasize the importance of the SiC system. A comprehensive treatment of non-oxide silicon ceramics, this work is of special interest to researchers involved in ceramics, materials science, and high-temperature technology. This book covers the alloys of silicon carbide with aluminum nitride. Crystallography and experimental methods including sample preparation, furnace methods, X-ray and electron diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and chemical analysis are covered.

  6. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J.; Herman, Herbert; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1994-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1600.degree.C. which transforms the coating to silicon carbide.

  7. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

    1994-07-26

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

  8. APT analysis of WC-Co based cemented carbides.

    PubMed

    Weidow, Jonathan; Andrén, Hans-Olof

    2011-05-01

    A method for quickly producing sharp and site-specific atom probe specimens from WC-Co based cemented carbides was developed using a combination of electropolishing, controlled back-polishing and FIB milling. Also, a method for measuring the amount of segregated atoms to an interface between two phases with a big difference in field needed for field evaporation was developed. Using atom probe tomography, the interface chemistry of WC/WC grain boundaries, WC/(M,W)C phase boundaries and WC/binder phase boundaries was analysed. In addition, the transition metal solubility in WC was determined. PMID:21664543

  9. Scanning acoustic microscopy of SCS-6 silicon carbide fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Sathish, S.; Cantrell, J.H.; Yost, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    Scanning acoustic microscopy of SCS-6 silicon carbide fiber reveals large radial variations in acoustic reflectivity associated with the chemical composition and microstructure of a given fiber region. Rayleigh wave fringe patterns observed in each of five subregions are used to calculate the average Young modulus of that subregion. The Young modulus is found to increase monotonically from 40 GPa in the carbon core to a value of 413 GPa in the stoichiometric SiC region. The effective Young modulus of the fiber as a whole is estimated from the moduli of the individual regions and it is compared with mechanical measurements reported in the literature.

  10. Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensor Technology for Geothermal Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pisano, Albert P.

    2013-04-26

    This project utilizes Silicon Carbide (SiC) materials platform to fabricate advanced sensors to be used as high-temperature downhole instrumentation for the DOE’s Geothermal Technologies Program on Enhanced Geothermal Systems. The scope of the proposed research is to 1) develop a SiC pressure sensor that can operate in harsh supercritical conditions, 2) develop a SiC temperature sensor that can operate in harsh supercritical conditions, 3) develop a bonding process for adhering SiC sensor die to well casing couplers, and 4) perform experimental exposure testing of sensor materials and the sensor devices.

  11. The Oxidation of CVD Silicon Carbide in Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Nguyen, QuynchGiao N.

    1997-01-01

    Chemically-vapor-deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) was oxidized in carbon dioxide (CO2) at temperatures of 1200-1400 C for times between 100 and 500 hours at several gas flow rates. Oxidation weight gains were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and were found to be very small and independent of temperature. Possible rate limiting kinetic laws are discussed. Oxidation of SiC by CO2 is negligible compared to the rates measured for other oxidants typically found in combustion environments: oxygen and water vapor.

  12. Improved Silicon Carbide Crystals Grown From Atomically Flat Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is demonstrating that atomically flat (i.e., step-free) silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces are ideal for realizing greatly improved wide bandgap semiconductor films with lower crystal defect densities. Further development of these improved films could eventually enable harsh-environment electronics beneficial to jet engine and other aerospace and automotive applications, as well as much more efficient and compact power distribution and control. The technique demonstrated could also improve blue-light lasers and light-emitting-diode displays.

  13. Dynamic consolidation of aluminum-silicon carbide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.H.; Korth, G.E.; Williamson, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic consolidation was investigated as a potential method for producing P/M metal matrix composites. In this study, 2124 aluminum powders were mixed with silicon carbide particulate and consolidated using explosives. Numerical simulations were performed to provide insight into the consolidation process and to aid in the selection of experimental conditions. The microstructure of the as-consolidated product was dependent upon processing variables. Careful control of the shock parameters allowed full density, crack free composites to be achieved in cylindrical geometries. Although full density was obtained, low fracture strengths suggested a lack of interparticle bonding, probably resulting from the limited ability to redistribute surface oxides during consolidation. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from calcium carbide.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhewang; Yu, Dingyi; Sum, Yin Ngai; Zhang, Yugen

    2012-04-01

    AHA Erlebnis: CaC(2), used to produce acetylene until several decades ago, is re-emerging as a cheap, sustainable resource synthesized from coal and lignocellulosic biomass. We report efficient catalytic protocols for the synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from CaC(2) through aldehyde, alkyne, and amine (AAA) as well as alkyne, haloalkane, and amine (AHA) couplings, and in addition demonstrate its use in click and Sonogashira chemistry, showing that calcium carbide is a sustainable and cost-efficient carbon source. PMID:22378645

  15. Process for preparing fine grain silicon carbide powder

    DOEpatents

    Wei, G.C.

    Finely divided silicon carbide powder is obtained by mixing colloidal silica and unreacted phenolic resin in either acetone or methanol, evaporating solvent from the obtained solution to form a gel, drying and calcining the gel to polymerize the phenolic resin therein, pyrolyzing the dried and calcined gel at a temperature in the range of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C, and reacting silicon and carbon in the pyrolyzed gel at a temperature in the range of 1550 to 1700/sup 0/C to form the powder.

  16. Annealing effects on the optical properties of semiconducting boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Billa, R. B.; Robertson, B. W.; Hofmann, T.; Schubert, M.

    2009-08-01

    Infrared vibrations of as-deposited and annealed semiconducting boron carbide thin films were investigated by midinfrared spectroscopic ellipsometry. The strong boron-hydrogen resonance at approx2560 cm{sup -1} in as-deposited films reveals considerable hydrogen incorporation during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Extended annealing at 600 deg. C caused significant reduction in film thickness, substantial reduction of boron-hydrogen bond resonance absorption, and development of distinct blue-shifted boron-carbon and icosahedral vibration mode resonances. Our findings suggest that annealing results in substantial loss of hydrogen and in development of icosahedral structure, accompanied by strain relaxation and densification.

  17. NDT characterization of boron carbide for ballistic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liaptsis, D.; Cooper, I.; Ludford, N.; Gunner, A.; Williams, Mike; Willis, David

    2011-06-23

    Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) is widely used to provide ballistic protection in challenging service environments. This work was carried out to develop non-destructive testing (NDT) for B{sub 4}C characterization. Deliberate flaws were introduced within the B{sub 4}C tiles during manufacturing. An experimental program was undertaken to determine the best method to detect defects in ceramic tiles and material characterization. Ultrasonic characterization of the material was found to be able to detect both density variation and defects within the material.

  18. PROCESS OF COATING GRAPHITE WITH NIOBIUM-TITANIUM CARBIDE

    DOEpatents

    Halden, F.A.; Smiley, W.D.; Hruz, F.M.

    1961-07-01

    A process of coating graphite with niobium - titanium carbide is described. It is found that the addition of more than ten percent by weight of titanium to niobium results in much greater wetting of the graphite by the niobium and a much more adherent coating. The preferred embodiment comprises contacting the graphite with a powdered alloy or mixture, degassing simultaneously the powder and the graphite, and then heating them to a high temperature to cause melting, wetting, spreading, and carburization of the niobium-titanium powder.

  19. Simple processing method for high-strength silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Janet B.; Dutta, Sunil

    1987-01-01

    Silicon carbide test bars were made by a simple wet-processing technique. The pressure casting method used the same equipment as conventional dry-pressing, but with a modified die. This casting technique was employed in order to produce test bars with improved strength and smaller fracture flaws than produced by dry-pressing. This was accomplished by eliminating pore clusters which were present in dry-pressed specimens and identified as a common source of failure in SiC MOR test bars.

  20. PROPERTIES OF DEFECTS AND IMPLANTS IN Mg+ IMPLANTED SILICON CARBIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Zhu, Zihua; Varga, Tamas; Bowden, Mark E.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2013-09-25

    As a candidate material for fusion reactor designs, silicon carbide (SiC) under high-energy neutron irradiation undergoes atomic displacement damage and transmutation reactions that create magnesium as one of the major metallic products. The presence of Mg and lattice disorder in SiC is expected to affect structural stability and degrade thermo-mechanical properties that could limit SiC lifetime for service. We have initiated a combined experimental and computational study that uses Mg+ ion implantation and multiscale modeling to investigate the structural and chemical effects in Mg implanted SiC and explore possible property degradation mechanisms.

  1. Heat transfer to a silicon carbide/water nanofluid.

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W.; France , D. M.; Smith, D. S.; Singh, D.; Timofeeva, E. V.; Routbort, J. L.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2009-07-01

    Heat transfer experiments were performed with a water-based nanofluid containing 170-nm silicon carbide particles at a 3.7% volume concentration and having potential commercial viability. Heat transfer coefficients for the nanofluid are presented for Reynolds numbers ranging from 3300 to 13,000 and are compared to the base fluid water on the bases of constant Reynolds number, constant velocity, and constant pumping power. Results were also compared to predictions from standard liquid correlations and a recently altered nanofluid correlation. The slip mechanisms of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis postulated in the altered correlation were investigated in a series of heating and cooling experiments.

  2. Dissociation of Cr-rich M 23C 6 carbide in Alloy 617 by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Tae Sun; Lim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Young Do

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the dissociation of Cr-rich M 23C 6 carbides in Alloy 617 was investigated using 50% cold rolling. The major carbides in Alloy 617 consisted primarily of M 23C 6 carbide and a small amount of M 6C carbide. The lattice parameters of the carbides were determined as 1.070 nm (M 23C 6) and 1.121 nm (M 6C). The area fraction of the total carbides in Alloy 617 decreased from 3.50% to 1.66% after 50% cold rolling. The M 23C 6 carbide was dissociated by the carbon traps in dislocations generated during the severe plastic deformation. Alternatively, the area fraction of M 6C carbide increased from 0.06% to 0.37% during the dissociation of M 23C 6 carbide. The area fraction of M 6C carbide increased due to the formation of M 6C carbide as a result of the relative changes in chemical composition, such as Cr and Mo, during the dissociation of M 23C 6 carbide.

  3. ε-Iron carbide as a low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Sun, Bo; Lin, Jun; Wen, Wen; Pei, Yan; Yan, Shirun; Qiao, Minghua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zong, Baoning

    2014-01-01

    ε-Iron carbide has been predicted to be promising for low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (LTFTS) targeting liquid fuel production. However, directional carbidation of metallic iron to ε-iron carbide is challenging due to kinetic hindrance. Here we show how rapidly quenched skeletal iron featuring nanocrystalline dimensions, low coordination number and an expanded lattice may solve this problem. We find that the carbidation of rapidly quenched skeletal iron occurs readily in situ during LTFTS at 423-473 K, giving an ε-iron carbide-dominant catalyst that exhibits superior activity to literature iron and cobalt catalysts, and comparable to more expensive noble ruthenium catalyst, coupled with high selectivity to liquid fuels and robustness without the aid of electronic or structural promoters. This finding may permit the development of an advanced energy-efficient and clean fuel-oriented FTS process on the basis of a cost-effective iron catalyst. PMID:25503569

  4. Accelerated carbide spheroidisation of 1.2343 tool steel by induction heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlouhý, J.; Kövér, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tool steels undergo spheroidisation or soft annealing to enhance machinability and cold formability. Conventional soft annealing takes several hours. The final microstructure is composed of globular carbides in a ferritic matrix. We present an alternative process of carbide spheroidisation and steel softening. Accelerated carbide spheroidisation and refinement (ASR) was achieved by induction heating at temperatures close to the A1 temperature. The spheroidised structure was obtained in less than 5 minutes. The carbide particles that formed during the ASR were significantly finer than for the conventional soft annealing. The hardness after ASR was higher than the hardness after soft annealing because of the dispersion strengthening by finer and more densely distributed carbide particles. On the other hand, the fine structure is favourable for hardening. It enables smaller austenite grains and martensite laths to be obtained.

  5. Synthesis and Photoluminescence Property of Silicon Carbide Nanowires Via Carbothermic Reduction of Silica

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires have been synthesized at 1400 °C by carbothermic reduction of silica with bamboo carbon under normal atmosphere pressure without metallic catalyst. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the silicon carbide nanowires. The results show that the silicon carbide nanowires have a core–shell structure and grow along <111> direction. The diameter of silicon carbide nanowires is about 50–200 nm and the length from tens to hundreds of micrometers. The vapor–solid mechanism is proposed to elucidate the growth process. The photoluminescence of the synthesized silicon carbide nanowires shows significant blueshifts, which is resulted from the existence of oxygen defects in amorphous layer and the special rough core–shell interface. PMID:20651911

  6. ɛ-Iron carbide as a low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ke; Sun, Bo; Lin, Jun; Wen, Wen; Pei, Yan; Yan, Shirun; Qiao, Minghua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zong, Baoning

    2014-12-01

    ɛ-Iron carbide has been predicted to be promising for low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (LTFTS) targeting liquid fuel production. However, directional carbidation of metallic iron to ɛ-iron carbide is challenging due to kinetic hindrance. Here we show how rapidly quenched skeletal iron featuring nanocrystalline dimensions, low coordination number and an expanded lattice may solve this problem. We find that the carbidation of rapidly quenched skeletal iron occurs readily in situ during LTFTS at 423-473 K, giving an ɛ-iron carbide-dominant catalyst that exhibits superior activity to literature iron and cobalt catalysts, and comparable to more expensive noble ruthenium catalyst, coupled with high selectivity to liquid fuels and robustness without the aid of electronic or structural promoters. This finding may permit the development of an advanced energy-efficient and clean fuel-oriented FTS process on the basis of a cost-effective iron catalyst.

  7. Epsilon carbide - A low-temperature component of interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Buseck, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope study of a chondritic interplanetary dust particle has revealed the presence of epsilon iron-nickel carbide, a low-temperature carbide previously encountered only in metallurgical studies. In these studies epsilon-carbide was synthesized by carburization of iron or nickel grains in a stream of carbon monoxide or carbon monoxide plus hydrogen. Similar carburization of an iron-nickel metal in situ may have produced epsilon-carbide during particle heating on atmospheric entry or in solar orbit. Alternatively, the epsilon-carbide may be a by-product of Fischer-Tropsch reactions in the solar nebula. Such reactions have been proposed as the mechanism of hydrocarbon formation in the early solar system.

  8. Synthesis and Photoluminescence Property of Silicon Carbide Nanowires Via Carbothermic Reduction of Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaogang; Ma, Wenhui; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Dachun; Yang, Bin; Dai, Yongnian

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires have been synthesized at 1400 °C by carbothermic reduction of silica with bamboo carbon under normal atmosphere pressure without metallic catalyst. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the silicon carbide nanowires. The results show that the silicon carbide nanowires have a core-shell structure and grow along <111> direction. The diameter of silicon carbide nanowires is about 50-200 nm and the length from tens to hundreds of micrometers. The vapor-solid mechanism is proposed to elucidate the growth process. The photoluminescence of the synthesized silicon carbide nanowires shows significant blueshifts, which is resulted from the existence of oxygen defects in amorphous layer and the special rough core-shell interface.

  9. Method of testing carbide inserts for premature fracture by face milling of cylindrical workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, R.; Akasawa, T.; Okusa, K.

    1984-12-01

    Methods are proposed for face milling solid cylindrical workpieces or half-cut and hollow cylindrical workpieces prepared from rectangular blocks by continuously changing both or either of the angles of engagement and disengagement. Carbide inserts are tested for premature fracture before the onset of steady wear using these face-milling methods. The premature fracture indicates the insufficient toughness of carbides to perform a given machining job. As carbides of higher wear resistance have lower shock resistance in general, they must be tested for premature fracture due to the lack of toughness to select suitable carbides for specific cutting applications. The test results obtained under the present study show that the premature fracture of carbides, whose toughness was classified by static toughness tests, can be evaluated dynamically and easily by the proposed face-milling methods.

  10. Synthesis and Photoluminescence Property of Silicon Carbide Nanowires Via Carbothermic Reduction of Silica.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaogang; Ma, Wenhui; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Dachun; Yang, Bin; Dai, Yongnian

    2009-01-01

    Silicon carbide nanowires have been synthesized at 1400 degrees C by carbothermic reduction of silica with bamboo carbon under normal atmosphere pressure without metallic catalyst. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the silicon carbide nanowires. The results show that the silicon carbide nanowires have a core-shell structure and grow along <111> direction. The diameter of silicon carbide nanowires is about 50-200 nm and the length from tens to hundreds of micrometers. The vapor-solid mechanism is proposed to elucidate the growth process. The photoluminescence of the synthesized silicon carbide nanowires shows significant blueshifts, which is resulted from the existence of oxygen defects in amorphous layer and the special rough core-shell interface. PMID:20651911

  11. IR active phonon spectra of B-C-Al compounds with boron carbide structure

    SciTech Connect

    Schmechel, R.; Werheit, H.; Robberding, K.; Lundstroem, T.; Bolmgren, H.

    1997-10-01

    The IR spectra of boron carbide containing up to about 1.5 at.% aluminum atoms are determined between 80 and 5000 cm{sup -1} for temperatures between 70 and 450 K. While the essential features of the boron carbide phonon spectrum remain largely unchanged, there are several new low energy absorption bands at about 190 and 290 cm{sup -1} obviously induced by the aluminum atoms. The band at 190 cm{sup -1} is attributed to the bending mode of Al{sub 2} chains, which are assumed to be formed in otherwise chain-free unit cells of boron-rich boron carbide. The dynamical conductivity of aluminum-doped boron carbide. The dynamical conductivity of aluminum content, while the Seebeck coefficient showing p-type behavior for all compounds increases. This make evident that doping with aluminum atoms changes the electronic properties of boron carbide.

  12. Development of refractory armored silicon carbide by infrared transient liquid phase processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.; Blue, Craig A.

    2005-12-01

    Tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) were coated on silicon carbide (SiC) for use as a refractory armor using a high power plasma arc lamp at powers up to 23.5 MW/m 2 in an argon flow environment. Both tungsten powder and molybdenum powder melted and formed coating layers on silicon carbide within a few seconds. The effect of substrate pre-treatment (vapor deposition of titanium (Ti) and tungsten, and annealing) and sample heating conditions on microstructure of the coating and coating/substrate interface were investigated. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The mechanical properties of the coated materials were evaluated by four-point flexural tests. A strong tungsten coating was successfully applied to the silicon carbide substrate. Tungsten vapor deposition and pre-heating at 5.2 MW/m 2 made for a refractory layer containing no cracks propagating into the silicon carbide substrate. The tungsten coating was formed without the thick reaction layer. For this study, small tungsten carbide grains were observed adjacent to the interface in all conditions. In addition, relatively large, widely scattered tungsten carbide grains and a eutectic structure of tungsten and silicon were observed through the thickness in the coatings formed at lower powers and longer heating times. The strength of the silicon carbide substrate was somewhat decreased as a result of the processing. Vapor deposition of tungsten prior to powder coating helped prevent this degradation. In contrast, molybdenum coating was more challenging than tungsten coating due to the larger coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch as compared to tungsten and silicon carbide. From this work it is concluded that refractory armoring of silicon carbide by Infrared Transient Liquid Phase Processing is possible. The tungsten armored silicon carbide samples proved uniform, strong, and capable of withstanding thermal fatigue testing.

  13. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  14. Iron aluminide-titanium carbide composites: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Schneibel, J.H.; Alexander, K.B.

    1996-09-01

    Composites of intermetallics and carbides (with binder contents less that 50 vol.%) are considered as potential candidates for applications requiring high wear resistance in corrosive environments. Intermetallics, especially aluminides, provide the corrosion resistance, and the high hardness of the carbide phase contributes to increased wear resistance of the composites. In this study, cost effective and simple processing techniques to obtain FeAl-TiC composites, over a wide range of binder volume fractions, are demonstrated. Binder volume fractions range from 0.15 to 0.7 (18 to 75 wt. % binder). Two techniques - liquid phase sintering of mixed powders and pressureless melt infiltration of TiC preforms was found to be very successful for obtaining fully dense composites with binder volume fractions from 0.15 to 0.3 (18 to 34 wt. %), whereas for higher binder contents liquid phase sintering of mixed powders was the best approach. Mechanical properties of these composites including the 3-point bend strength, fracture toughness and hardness are presented.

  15. Genesis Silicon Carbide Concentrator Target 60003 Preliminary Ellipsometry Mapping Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis concentrator was custom designed to focus solar wind ions primarily for terrestrial isotopic analysis of O-17/O-16 and O-18/O-16 to +/-1%, N-15/N-14 to +/-1%, and secondarily to conduct elemental and isotopic analysis of Li, Be, and B. The circular 6.2 cm diameter concentrator target holder was comprised of four quadrants of highly pure semiconductor materials that included one amorphous diamond-like carbon, one C-13 diamond, and two silicon carbide (SiC). The amorphous diamond-like carbon quadrant was fractured upon impact at Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR), but the remaining three quadrants survived fully intact and all four quadrants hold an important collection of solar wind. The quadrants were removed from the target holder at NASA Johnso n Space Center Genesis Curation Laboratory in April 2005, and have been housed in stainless steel containers under continual nitrogen purge since time of disintegration. In preparation for allocation of a silicon carbide target for oxygen isotope analyses at UCLA, the two SiC targets were photographed for preliminary inspection of macro particle contamination from the hard non-nominal landing as well as characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry to evaluate thin film contamination. This report is focused on Genesis SiC target sample number 60003.

  16. Photonic Crystal Cavities in Cubic (3C) Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulaski, Marina; Babinec, Thomas; Buckley, Sonia; Rundquist, Armand; Provine, J.; Alassaad, Kassem; Ferro, Gabriel; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2014-03-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) combines many of the outstanding material properties of other well-known optical and quantum optical materials, including strong optical nonlinearity, high Young's modulus, and a host of optically-active crystalline defects, in a single CMOS-compatible platform. For many applications in classical and quantum information processing, the material properties of the cubic silicon carbide polytype (3C-SiC) in particular are advantageous. We therefore present the design, fabrication, and characterization of high quality factor and small mode volume planar photonic crystal cavities in cubic 3C-SiC thin films (200 nm). We demonstrate cavity resonances across the infrared telecommunications band, with wavelengths from 1.25 - 1.6 μm. Finally, we highlight our progress developing higher Q/V nanobeam cavities, as well as extending this optical cavity platform towards integration with SiC color centers. PECASE Grant ECCS-10 25811, NSF Grant ECS-9731293, Stanford Graduate Fellowship, National Science Graduate Fellowship.

  17. Optical constants of silicon carbide deposited with emerging PVD techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Gianni; Suman, M.; Pelizzo, M. G.; Nicolosi, P.

    2009-05-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an attractive material for EUV and soft X-ray optics. CVD-deposited silicon carbide (deposited at 1400° C on Si substrate) is the best reflective material in the whole EUV interval (with about the 48% of reflectance at 121.6 nm). Despite of this, SiC thin films deposited with PVD techniques, such as magnetron sputtering, on silicon substrate, do not have the same performances and they undergo to a degradation with time, probably because of some stoichiometry reason (carbon rich). Depositing stable SiC with PVD techniques is crucial in building ML's, like Si/SiC and SiC/Mg for soft X-ray applications (such space telescope and photolithography). We deposited some preliminary samples using the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and the Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) techniques achieving a good reflectance in the whole EUV range (27% at near normal incidence at 121.6 nn) on a silicon substrate. The higher energy involved in these deposition processes could lead to a film with a stoichiometry much closer to the target one. The reflectivity of the deposited films has been measured at the BEAR beamline of the ELETTRA synchrotron in Trieste (Italy; the optical constants retrieved at six wavelength from 121.6 nm down to 5 nm.

  18. Ion beam figuring of CVD silicon carbide mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailly, P.; Collette, J.-P.; Frenette, K. Fleury; Jamar, C.

    2004-06-01

    Optical and structural elements made of silicon carbide are increasingly found in space instruments. Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD-SiC) is used as a reflective coating on SiC optics in reason of its good behavior under polishing. The advantage of applying ion beam figuring (IBF) to CVD-SiC over other surface figure-improving techniques is discussed herein. The results of an IBF sequence performed at the Centre Spatial de Liège on a 100 mm CVD-SiC mirror are reported. The process allowed to reduce the mirror surface errors from 243 nm to 13 nm rms. Beside the surface figure, roughness is another critical feature to consider in order to preserve the optical quality of CVD-SiC. Thus, experiments focusing on the evolution of roughness were performed in various ion beam etching conditions. The roughness of samples etched at different depths down to 3 μm was determined with an optical profilometer. These measurements emphasize the importance of selecting the right combination of gas and beam energy to keep roughness at a low level. Kaufman-type ion sources are generally used to perform IBF but the performance of an end-Hall ion source in figuring CVD-SiC mirrors was also evaluated in this study. In order to do so, ion beam etching profiles obtained with the end-Hall source on CVD-SiC were measured and used as a basis for IBF simulations.

  19. Cavity-Enhanced Measurements of Defect Spins in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calusine, Greg; Politi, Alberto; Awschalom, David D.

    2016-07-01

    The identification of new solid-state defect-qubit candidates in widely used semiconductors has the potential to enable the use of nanofabricated devices for enhanced qubit measurement and control operations. In particular, the recent discovery of optically active spin states in silicon carbide thin films offers a scalable route for incorporating defect qubits into on-chip photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate the use of 3C silicon carbide photonic crystal cavities for enhanced excitation of color-center defect spin ensembles in order to increase measured photoluminescence signal count rates, optically detected magnetic-resonance signal intensities, and optical spin initialization rates. We observe an up to a factor of 30 increase in the photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic-resonance signals from Ky5 color centers excited by cavity-resonant excitation and increase the rate of ground-state spin initialization by approximately a factor of 2. Furthermore, we show that the 705-fold reduction in excitation mode volume and enhanced excitation and collection efficiencies provided by the structures can be used to overcome inhomogenous broadening in order to facilitate the study of defect-qubit subensemble properties. These results highlight some of the benefits that nanofabricated devices offer for engineering the local photonic environment of color-center defect qubits to enable applications in quantum information and sensing.

  20. High-strength silicon carbides by hot isostatic pressing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil

    1988-01-01

    Silicon carbide has strong potential for heat engine hardware and other high-temperature applications because of its low density, good strength, high oxidation resistance, and good high-temperature creep resistance. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was used for producing alpha and beta silicon carbide (SiC) bodies with near-theoretical density, ultrafine grain size, and high strength at processing temperatures of 1900 to 2000 C. The HIPed materials exhibited ultrafine grain size. Furthermore, no phase transformation from beta to alpha was observed in HIPed beta-SiC. Both materials exhibited very high average flexural strength. It was also shown that alpha-SiC bodies without any sintering aids, when HIPed to high final density, can exhibit very high strength. Fracture toughness K (sub C) values were determined to be 3.6 to 4.0 MPa m (sup 1/2) for HIPed alpha-SiC and 3.7 to 4.1 MPa m (sup 1/2) for HIPed beta-SiC. In the HIPed specimens strength-controlling flaws were typically surface related. In spite of improvements in material properties such as strength and fracture toughness by elimination of the larger strength-limiting flaws and by grain size refinement, HIPing has no effect on the Weibull modulus.

  1. High-strength silicon carbides by hot isostatic pressing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Sunil

    1989-01-01

    Silicon carbide has strong potential for heat engine hardware and other high-temperature applications because of its low density, good strength, high oxidation resistance, and good high-temperature creep resistance. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was used for producing alpha and beta silicon carbide (SiC) bodies with near-theoretical density, ultrafine grain size, and high strength at processing temperatures of 1900 to 2000 C. The HIPed materials exhibited ultrafine grain size. Furthermore, no phase transformation from beta to alpha was observed in HIPed beta-SiC. Both materials exhibited very high average flexural strength. It was also shown that alpha-SiC bodies without any sintering aids, when HIPed to high final density, can exhibit very high strength. Fracture toughness K (sub C) values were determined to be 3.6 to 4.0 MPa m (sup 1/2) for HIPed alpha-SiC and 3.7 to 4.1 MPa m (sup 1/2) for HIPed beta-SiC. In the HIPed specimens strength-controlling flaws were typically surface related. In spite of improvements in material properties such as strength and fracture toughness by elimination of the larger strength-limiting flaws and by grain size refinement, HIPing has no effect on the Weibull modulus.

  2. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  3. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources - a nominal 300-Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28-Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power supplies that provide power to the thruster auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300-Volts to 500-Volts to the thruster discharge supply. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall Effect Thruster. The performance of unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate the exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97. With a space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power device, this design could evolve into a flight design for future missions that require high power electric propulsion systems.

  4. Carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Glenn A.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    1996-01-01

    A carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals is provided, in steps including, heating a part formed of boron, chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, or alloys thereof, in an evacuated chamber and then introducing reaction gases including nitrogen and hydrogen, either in elemental or water vapor form, which react with a source of elemental carbon to form carbon-containing gaseous reactants which then react with the metal part to form the desired surface layer. Apparatus for practicing the method is also provided, in the form of a carbide and carbonitride surface treatment system (10) including a reaction chamber (14), a source of elemental carbon (17), a heating subassembly (20) and a source of reaction gases (23). Alternative methods of providing the elemental carbon (17) and the reaction gases (23) are provided, as well as methods of supporting the metal part (12), evacuating the chamber (14) with a vacuum subassembly (18) and heating all of the components to the desired temperature.

  5. Development of the SOFIA silicon carbide secondary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruit, Michel; Antoine, Pascal; Varin, Jean-Luc; Bittner, Hermann; Erdmann, Matthias

    2003-02-01

    The SOFIA telescope is ajoint NASA-DLR project for a 2.5 m airborne Stratospheric Observatory for IR Astronomy to be flown in a specially adapted Boeing 747 SP plane, Kayser-Threde being resopinsible for the development of the Telescope Optics. The φ 352 mm Secondary Mirror is mounted ona chopping mechanism to allow avoidance of background noise during IR observations. Stiffness associated to lightness is a major demand for such a mirror to achieve high frequency chopping. This leads to select SIlicon Carbide for the mirror blank. Its development has been run by the ASTRIUM/BOOSTEC joint venture SiCSPACE, taking full benefit of the instrinsic properties of the BOOSTEC SiC-100 sintered material, associated to qualified processes specifically developed for space borne mirrors by ASTRIUM. Achieved performances include a low mass of 1.97 kg, a very high stiffness with a first resonant frequency of 1865 Hz and a measured optical surface accuracy of 39 nm rms, using Ion Beam Figuring. It is proposed here to present the major design features of the SOFIA Secondary Mirror, highlighting the main advantages of using Silicon Carbide, the main steps of its development and the achieved optomechanical performances of the developed mirror.

  6. Fatigue behavior of continuous fiber silicon-carbide-aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.; Wallis, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Four lay-ups of continuous fiber silicon carbide (SCS2) fiber/aluminum matrix composites were tested to assess fatigue mechanisms including stiffness loss when cycled below their respective fatigue limits. The lay-ups were 0 (sub 8), 0(sub 2)/ + or - 45 (sub 2s), 0/90 (sub 2s),and 0/ + or 45/90 (subs). The data were compared with predictions from the author's previously published shakedown model which predicts fatigue-induced stiffness loss in metal matrix composites. A fifth lay-up, + or - 45 (sub 2s), was tested to compare shakedown and fatigue limits. The particular batch of silicon-carbide fibers tested in this program had a somewhat lower modulus (340 GPa) than expected and displayed poor bonding to the aluminum matrix. Good agreement was obtained between the stiffness loss model and the test data. The fatigue damage below the fatigue limit was primarily in the form of matrix cracking. The fatigue limit corresponded to the laminate shakedown for the + or - 45 (sub 2s) laminate.

  7. High capacitance of coarse-grained carbide derived carbon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Oleksiy; Malinovskiy, Bohdan; Zozulya, Yuliya; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-02-01

    We report exceptional electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrodes composed of large, granular carbide-derived carbon (CDC) particles. Using a titanium carbide (TiC) precursor, we synthesized 70-250 μm sized particles with high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution. Electrochemical cycling of these coarse-grained powders defied conventional wisdom that a small particle size is strictly required for supercapacitor electrodes and allowed high charge storage densities, rapid transport, and good rate handling ability. The material showcased capacitance above 100 F g-1 at sweep rates as high as 250 mV s-1 in organic electrolyte. 250-1000 micron thick dense CDC films with up to 80 mg cm-2 loading showed superior areal capacitances. The material significantly outperformed its activated carbon counterpart in organic electrolytes and ionic liquids. Furthermore, large internal/external surface ratio of coarse-grained carbons allowed the resulting electrodes to maintain high electrochemical stability up to 3.1 V in ionic liquid electrolyte. In addition to presenting novel insights into the electrosorption process, these coarse-grained carbons offer a pathway to low-cost, high-performance implementation of supercapacitors in automotive and grid-storage applications.

  8. Displacement damage in silicon carbide irradiated in fission reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinisch, H. L.; Greenwood, L. R.; Weber, W. J.; Williford, R. E.

    2004-05-01

    Calculations are performed for displacement damage in SiC due to irradiation in the neutron environments of various types of nuclear reactors using the best available models and nuclear data. The displacement damage calculations use recently developed damage functions for SiC that are based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations of displacement events. Displacements per atom (DPA) cross sections for SiC have been calculated as a function of neutron energy, and they are presented here in tabular form to facilitate their use as the standard measure of displacement damage for irradiated SiC. DPA cross sections averaged over the neutron energy spectrum are calculated for neutron spectra in the cores of typical commercial reactors and in the test sample irradiation regions of several materials test reactors used in both past and present irradiation testing. Particular attention is focused on a next-generation high-temperature gas-cooled pebble bed reactor, for which the high-temperature properties of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites are well suited. Calculated transmutations and activation levels in a pebble bed reactor are compared to those in other reactors.

  9. Growth of chromium carbide in a hot wall DLICVD reactor.

    PubMed

    Boisselier, G; Maury, F; Schuster, F

    2011-09-01

    Chromium carbide coatings were grown at 748 K in a hot wall CVD reactor fed by sublimation of bis(benzene)chromium, BBC (MOCVD) and by direct liquid injection using a BBC/toluene solution (DLICVD). The two types of coatings exhibit an amorphous structure and the same C content (22 at.%). DLICVD permits delivering higher mass flow rate of precursors and consequently the growth rate is 3 times higher and the thickness uniformity is better than using MOCVD. Chromium metal deposition has also been investigated by DLICVD in this hot wall reactor using BBC/toluene/additive as precursor. The purpose of the additive is to block carbide formation. Two additives have been studied: (i) hexachlorobenzene (C6Cl6) and (ii) thiophenol (C6H5SH). The ratio additive/BBC required for Cr metal deposition is a few percent. In this process, C6Cl6 is not decomposed and only traces of Cl (0.4 at.%) are found in the coatings. For a ratio C6Cl6/BBC > 27% the growth of any coating is blocked. The gas phase containing C6H5SH is more reactive since the onset of deposition occurs approximately 50 K before the temperature of the chlorinated compound. Furthermore, a sulfur contamination of 3 at.% has been analyzed in the coatings revealing a partial decomposition of the additive. The results are detailed and discussed in relation with previous works. PMID:22097571

  10. Critical Analysis of Wear Mechanisms in Cemented Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, Saurabh; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath

    2015-07-01

    Wear phenomena of cemented carbide (94 wt.% WC, 6 wt.% Co) tip of conical picks have been observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The conical pick is one type of the cutters which are used to excavate soft structure like coal. It has a cone-shaped abrasive part made of cemented carbide (CC). The picks, under study, have been used for coal mining in an underground mine through a continuous miner machine. During the critical analysis of four picks, wear mechanisms are categorized into four parts, such as, cracks, cavity formation in WC grains, grinding effect, and roughness of WC surface. Through a careful examination, the cracking mechanism has been further divided into three parts. They are cracks with overlapping surfaces, crack on a large surface of CC, and cracks in WC grains. In addition, the severe crushing and tearing of WC grains have also been clearly examined. The possible causes of each wear phenomenon have been explained comprehensively. Crushing and corrosion are the two wearing processes which have severely deteriorated the condition of the CC. Corrosion has been easily identified by observing a number of pores and triangular notches in the WC surface. The oxidation of WC grains due to corrosion has been established by EDS and XRD.

  11. Energy loss mechanics in the erosion of cemented tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Freinkel, D.M. ); Luyckx, S.B. )

    1989-05-01

    The erosion of tungsten carbide has been studied by several researchers under various conditions: the cobalt content of the cemented carbide has been varied from 4.5 to 11.3 wt % Co, the size of the WC grains varied from 0.9 to 5.1 {mu}m, the size of the erodant particles varied from 30 to 630 {mu}m, the velocity of the particles varied from 30 to 507 m/s, and particle incidence angle varied from 15{degrees} to 90{degrees}. While it is generally agreed that with increasing cobalt content and increasing particle velocity the erosion rate of WC-Co increases, there is disagreement on the effect of grain size and angle of incidence. More work was clearly required to explain this disagreement, thus the present investigation was undertaken. The present work differs from previous experimental work in that the erodant particles are 4 mm average diameter and that the present investigation does not neglect the role of plastic deformation in the erosion process and the energy lost in damage to the erodant particles. These two additional energy loss mechanisms have been found to contribute significantly to the interpretation of the present results and of the results previously reported in the literature.

  12. Evolutionary algorithm based structure search for hard ruthenium carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harikrishnan, G.; Ajith, K. M.; Chandra, Sharat; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    An exhaustive structure search employing evolutionary algorithm and density functional theory has been carried out for ruthenium carbides, for the three stoichiometries Ru1C1, Ru2C1 and Ru3C1, yielding five lowest energy structures. These include the structures from the two reported syntheses of ruthenium carbides. Their emergence in the present structure search in stoichiometries, unlike the previously reported ones, is plausible in the light of the high temperature required for their synthesis. The mechanical stability and ductile character of all these systems are established by their elastic constants, and the dynamical stability of three of them by the phonon data. Rhombohedral structure ≤ft(R\\bar{3}m\\right) is found to be energetically the most stable one in Ru1C1 stoichiometry and hexagonal structure ≤ft( P\\bar{6}m2\\right) , the most stable in Ru3C1 stoichiometry. RuC-Zinc blende system is a semiconductor with a band gap of 0.618 eV while the other two stable systems are metallic. Employing a semi-empirical model based on the bond strength, the hardness of RuC-Zinc blende is found to be a significantly large value of ~37 GPa while a fairly large value of ~21GPa is obtained for the RuC-Rhombohedral system. The positive formation energies of these systems show that high temperature and possibly high pressure are necessary for their synthesis.

  13. Usability of calcium carbide gas pressure method in hydrological sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsoy, S.; Ozgur, M.; Keskin, E.; Yilmaz, C.

    2013-10-01

    Soil moisture is a key engineering variable with major influence on ecological and hydrological processes as well as in climate, weather, agricultural, civil and geotechnical applications. Methods for quantification of the soil moisture are classified into three main groups: (i) measurement with remote sensing, (ii) estimation via (soil water balance) simulation models, and (iii) measurement in the field (ground based). Remote sensing and simulation modeling require rapid ground truthing with one of the ground based methods. Calcium carbide gas pressure (CCGP) method is a rapid measurement procedure for obtaining soil moisture and relies on the chemical reaction of the calcium carbide reagent with the water in soil pores. However, the method is overlooked in hydrological science applications. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the usability of the CCGP method in comparison with standard oven-drying and dielectric methods in terms of accuracy, time efficiency, operational ease, cost effectiveness and safety for quantification of the soil moisture over a wide range of soil types. The research involved over 250 tests that were carried out on 15 different soil types. It was found that the accuracy of the method is mostly within ±1% of soil moisture deviation range in comparison to oven-drying, and that CCGP method has significant advantages over dielectric methods in terms of accuracy, cost, operational ease and time efficiency for the purpose of ground truthing.

  14. High capacitance of coarse-grained carbide derived carbon electrodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Oleksiy; Malinovskiy, Bohdan; Zozulya, Yuliya; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report exceptional electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrodes composed of large, granular carbide-derived carbon (CDC) particles. We synthesized 70–250 μm sized particles with high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution, using a titanium carbide (TiC) precursor. Electrochemical cycling of these coarse-grained powders defied conventional wisdom that a small particle size is strictly required for supercapacitor electrodes and allowed high charge storage densities, rapid transport, and good rate handling ability. Moreover, the material showcased capacitance above 100 F g-1 at sweep rates as high as 250 mV s-1 in organic electrolyte. 250–1000 micron thick dense CDC films withmore » up to 80 mg cm-2 loading showed superior areal capacitances. The material significantly outperformed its activated carbon counterpart in organic electrolytes and ionic liquids. Furthermore, large internal/external surface ratio of coarse-grained carbons allowed the resulting electrodes to maintain high electrochemical stability up to 3.1 V in ionic liquid electrolyte. In addition to presenting novel insights into the electrosorption process, these coarse-grained carbons offer a pathway to low-cost, high-performance implementation of supercapacitors in automotive and grid-storage applications.« less

  15. High capacitance of coarse-grained carbide derived carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Oleksiy; Malinovskiy, Bohdan; Zozulya, Yuliya; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report exceptional electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrodes composed of large, granular carbide-derived carbon (CDC) particles. We synthesized 70–250 μm sized particles with high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution, using a titanium carbide (TiC) precursor. Electrochemical cycling of these coarse-grained powders defied conventional wisdom that a small particle size is strictly required for supercapacitor electrodes and allowed high charge storage densities, rapid transport, and good rate handling ability. Moreover, the material showcased capacitance above 100 F g-1 at sweep rates as high as 250 mV s-1 in organic electrolyte. 250–1000 micron thick dense CDC films with up to 80 mg cm-2 loading showed superior areal capacitances. The material significantly outperformed its activated carbon counterpart in organic electrolytes and ionic liquids. Furthermore, large internal/external surface ratio of coarse-grained carbons allowed the resulting electrodes to maintain high electrochemical stability up to 3.1 V in ionic liquid electrolyte. In addition to presenting novel insights into the electrosorption process, these coarse-grained carbons offer a pathway to low-cost, high-performance implementation of supercapacitors in automotive and grid-storage applications.

  16. Boron carbide as a target for the SPES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradetti, S.; Carturan, S.; Biasetto, L.; Andrighetto, A.; Colombo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the research on targets for the SPES project (Selective Production of Exotic Species), porous boron carbide (B4C) based materials were produced from the carbothermal reduction of boric acid and two different carbon sources, i.e. citric acid and phenolic resin. Samples composition and microstructural morphology were studied by means of X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The amount of total porosity was obtained from the comparison between the theoretical density and the measured bulk density. To better characterize the material microstructure, nitrogen physisorption measurements were performed in order to obtain data about the type of generated porosity and the specific surface area of the samples. Analysis performed on the samples show that after the final thermal treatment they are composed of boron carbide and residual free carbon, whose quantity is related to the processes involved in the two synthesis. Remarkable differences in the overall weight loss have been noticed for the two different reactions, resulting in different densities and pore size distributions, but in both cases similar values of specific surface area (SSA) were obtained.

  17. Thermal conductivity and emissivity measurements of uranium carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Zanonato, P.; Tusseau-Nenez, S.

    2015-10-01

    Thermal conductivity and emissivity measurements on different types of uranium carbide are presented, in the context of the ActiLab Work Package in ENSAR, a project within the 7th Framework Program of the European Commission. Two specific techniques were used to carry out the measurements, both taking place in a laboratory dedicated to the research and development of materials for the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) target. In the case of thermal conductivity, estimation of the dependence of this property on temperature was obtained using the inverse parameter estimation method, taking as a reference temperature and emissivity measurements. Emissivity at different temperatures was obtained for several types of uranium carbide using a dual frequency infrared pyrometer. Differences between the analyzed materials are discussed according to their compositional and microstructural properties. The obtainment of this type of information can help to carefully design materials to be capable of working under extreme conditions in next-generation ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) facilities for the generation of radioactive ion beams.

  18. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-03-03

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO₂ for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO₂, Mo₂C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo₂C could be completely regenerated by H₂ treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo₂C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Nimore » modified Mo₂C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo₂C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO₂. Compared to Pd/SiO₂, both Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.« less

  19. Oxidation Behavior of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, Victor M.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced Silicon Carbide (C-SiC) composites offer high strength at high temperatures and good oxidation resistance. However, these composites present some matrix microcracks which allow the path of oxygen to the fiber. The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of a new Silicon Carbide (SiC) coating developed by DUPONT-LANXIDE to enhance the oxidation resistance of C-SiC composites. A thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the oxidation rate of the samples at different temperatures and pressures. The Dupont coat proved to be a good protection for the SiC matrix at temperatures lower than 1240 C at low and high pressures. On the other hand, at temperatures above 1340 C the Dupont coat did not seem to give good protection to the composite fiber and matrix. Even though some results of the tests have been discussed, because of time restraints, only a small portion of the desired tests could be completed. Therefore, no major conclusions or results about the effectiveness of the coat are available at this time.

  20. Influence of radiation damage on krypton diffusion in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, E.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Mabena, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    Diffusion of krypton in poly and single crystalline silicon carbide is investigated and compared with the previously obtained results for xenon, which pointed to a different diffusion mechanism than observed for chemically active elements. For this purpose 360 keV krypton ions were implanted in commercial 6H-SiC and CVD-SiC wafers at room temperature, 350 °C and 600 °C. Width broadening of the implantation profiles and krypton retention during isochronal and isothermal annealing up to temperatures of 1400 °C was determined by RBS-analysis, whilst in the case of 6H-SiC damage profiles were simultaneously obtained by α-particle channeling. Little diffusion and no krypton loss was detected in the initially amorphized and eventually recrystallized surface layer of cold implanted 6H-SiC during annealing up to 1200 °C. Above that temperature thermal etching of the implanted surface became increasingly important. No diffusion or krypton loss is detected in the hot implanted 6H-SiC samples during annealing up to 1400 °C. Radiation damage dependent grain boundary diffusion is observed at 1300 °C in CVD-SiC. The results seem to indicate, that the chemically inert noble gas atoms do not form defect-impurity complexes, which strongly influence the diffusion behavior of other diffusors in silicon carbide.

  1. Electronic Structure Studies of Amorphous Hydrogenated Boron Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sky Driver, M.; Sandstrom, Joseph; Boyko, Teak; Moewes, Alexander; Caruso, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Boron carbide is a technologically relevant material with importance in voltaic transduction. However, the local physical, chemical and electronic structure of low temperature deposited thin films of amorphous boron carbide is far from understood, hindering its progress in application. X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies (XAS/XES) were applied to thin films of B4C and B5C:Hx to study the near Fermi edge structure; the films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and were thermally treated after deposition from 400 to 800 C. XES spectra indicate a physical structure transition from amorphous to nanocrystalline at 700 C, a much lower temperature than expected from traditional physical vapor deposition or flash annealing temperatures reported. These structural differences are of significant interest to transport measurements and will be discussed as a correlation. Further, x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission were also collected as a compliment to XES/XAS and will be discussed in the context of understanding the local intra vs. intermolecular electronic structure of these boron-rich molecular based solids.

  2. The Local Physical Structure of Amorphous Boron Carbide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquette, M. M.; Li, Wenjing; Driver, M. S.; Oyler, N. A.; Caruso, A. N.

    2011-03-01

    Thin-film amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide (a-B5 C:Hx) and technical boron carbide (B4 C:Cy) are important materials in next-generation solid-state neutron detectors and refractory electronics. Optimizing the electrical carrier transport and electronic structure of these films for the stated applications has been severely hindered by: (1) their lack of long-range periodicity; (2) the ability of boron-rich solids to form complex polyhedra; and, (3) the possibility that carbon atoms incorporate into the polyhedral structures in an intraicosahedral fashion or that they bridge polyhedral structures in an intericosahedral fashion. The use of traditional spectroscopies that are sensitive to local coordination environment have been inadequate in the determination of the local physical structure because of either poor resolution or very low interaction cross sections. However, magic spinning angle (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR), does have the signal-to-noise and rigor to extract the local physical coordination structure of these materials, despite the challenges associated with deltahedra-based structures. This poster will describe the progress and challenges in structure determination through a comparison of unknown samples to known calibration standards using MAS techniques, in the context of furthering the general understanding of the electronic structure of a-B5 C:Hx and B4 C:Cy thin films.

  3. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-03-03

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO₂ for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO₂, Mo₂C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo₂C could be completely regenerated by H₂ treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo₂C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Ni modified Mo₂C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo₂C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO₂. Compared to Pd/SiO₂, both Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.

  4. Demonstration of Minimally Machined Honeycomb Silicon Carbide Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, William

    2012-01-01

    Honeycomb silicon carbide composite mirrors are made from a carbon fiber preform that is molded into a honeycomb shape using a rigid mold. The carbon fiber honeycomb is densified by using polymer infiltration pyrolysis, or through a reaction with liquid silicon. A chemical vapor deposit, or chemical vapor composite (CVC), process is used to deposit a polishable silicon or silicon carbide cladding on the honeycomb structure. Alternatively, the cladding may be replaced by a freestanding, replicated CVC SiC facesheet that is bonded to the honeycomb. The resulting carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide honeycomb structure is a ceramic matrix composite material with high stiffness and mechanical strength, high thermal conductivity, and low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). This innovation enables rapid, inexpensive manufacturing. The web thickness of the new material is less than 1 millimeter, and core geometries tailored. These parameters are based on precursor carbon-carbon honeycomb material made and patented by Ultracor. It is estimated at the time of this reporting that the HoneySiC(Trademark) will have a net production cost on the order of $38,000 per square meter. This includes an Ultracor raw material cost of about $97,000 per square meter, and a Trex silicon carbide deposition cost of $27,000 per square meter. Even at double this price, HoneySiC would beat NASA's goal of $100,000 per square meter. Cost savings are estimated to be 40 to 100 times that of current mirror technologies. The organic, rich prepreg material has a density of 56 kilograms per cubic meter. A charred carbon-carbon panel (volatile organics burnt off) has a density of 270 kilograms per cubic meter. Therefore, it is estimated that a HoneySiC panel would have a density of no more than 900 kilograms per cubic meter, which is about half that of beryllium and about onethird the density of bulk silicon carbide. It is also estimated that larger mirrors could be produced in a matter of weeks

  5. Effect of electroslag remelting on carbides in 8Cr13MoV martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qin-tian; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao

    2015-11-01

    The effect of electroslag remelting (ESR) on carbides in 8Cr13MoV martensitic stainless steel was experimentally studied. Phases precipitated from liquid steel during solidification were calculated using the Thermo-Calc software. The carbon segregation was analyzed by original position analysis (OPA), and the carbides were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that more uniform carbon distribution and less segregation were obtained in the case of samples subjected to the ESR process. After ESR, the amount of netty carbides decreased significantly, and the chromium and vanadium contents in the grain-boundary carbides was reduced. The total area and average size of carbides were obviously smaller after the ESR process. In the sample subjected to ESR, the morphology of carbides changed from lamellar and angular to globular or lump, whereas the types of carbides did not change; both M23C6 and M7C3 were present before and after the ESR process.

  6. Semiconducting boron carbides with better charge extraction through the addition of pyridine moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, Elena; Dong, Bin; Peterson, George; Silva, Joseph P.; Wilson, Ethiyal R.; Sky Driver, M.; Jun, Young-Si; Stucky, Galen D.; Knight, Sean; Hofmann, Tino; Han, Zhong-Kang; Shao, Nan; Gao, Yi; Mei, Wai-Ning; Nastasi, Michael; Dowben, Peter A.; Kelber, Jeffry A.

    2016-09-01

    The plasma-enhanced chemical vapor (PECVD) co-deposition of pyridine and 1,2 dicarbadodecaborane, 1,2-B10C2H12 (orthocarborane) results in semiconducting boron carbide composite films with a significantly better charge extraction than plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited semiconducting boron carbide synthesized from orthocarborane alone. The PECVD pyridine/orthocarborane based semiconducting boron carbide composites, with pyridine/orthocarborane ratios ~3:1 or 9:1 exhibit indirect band gaps of 1.8 eV or 1.6 eV, respectively. These energies are less than the corresponding exciton energies of 2.0 eV–2.1 eV. The capacitance/voltage and current/voltage measurements indicate the hole carrier lifetimes for PECVD pyridine/orthocarborane based semiconducting boron carbide composites (3:1) films of ~350 µs compared to values of  ⩽35 µs for the PECVD semiconducting boron carbide films fabricated without pyridine. The hole carrier lifetime values are significantly longer than the initial exciton decay times in the region of ~0.05 ns and 0.27 ns for PECVD semiconducting boron carbide films with and without pyridine, respectively, as suggested by the time-resolved photoluminescence. These data indicate enhanced electron–hole separation and charge carrier lifetimes in PECVD pyridine/orthocarborane based semiconducting boron carbide and are consistent with the results of zero bias neutron voltaic measurements indicating significantly enhanced charge collection efficiency.

  7. SOLID SOLUTION CARBIDES ARE THE KEY FUELS FOR FUTURE NUCLEAR THERMAL PROPULSION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Binayak; Hickman, Robert R.; Shah, Sandeep

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion uses nuclear energy to directly heat a propellant (such as liquid hydrogen) to generate thrust for space transportation. In the 1960 s, the early Rover/Nuclear Engine for Rocket Propulsion Application (NERVA) program showed very encouraging test results for space nuclear propulsion but, in recent years, fuel research has been dismal. With NASA s renewed interest in long-term space exploration, fuel researchers are now revisiting the RoverMERVA findings, which indicated several problems with such fuels (such as erosion, chemical reaction of the fuel with propellant, fuel cracking, and cladding issues) that must be addressed. It is also well known that the higher the temperature reached by a propellant, the larger the thrust generated from the same weight of propellant. Better use of fuel and propellant requires development of fuels capable of reaching very high temperatures. Carbides have the highest melting points of any known material. Efforts are underway to develop carbide mixtures and solid solutions that contain uranium carbide, in order to achieve very high fuel temperatures. Binary solid solution carbides (U, Zr)C have proven to be very effective in this regard. Ternary carbides such as (U, Zr, X) carbides (where X represents Nb, Ta, W, and Hf) also hold great promise as fuel material, since the carbide mixtures in solid solution generate a very hard and tough compact material. This paper highlights past experience with early fuel materials and bi-carbides, technical problems associated with consolidation of the ingredients, and current techniques being developed to consolidate ternary carbides as fuel materials.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of carbon and boron carbide nanostructured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Sara

    Carbon is present in nature in a variety of allotropes and chemical compounds. Due to reduced dimensionality, nanostructured carbon materials, i.e. single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties. There is a potential for SWNTs use as biological probes and assists for tunable tissue growth in biomedical applications. However, the presumed cytotoxicity of SWNTs requires investigation of the risks of their incorporation into living systems. Boron is not found in nature in elementary form. Boron based materials are chemically complex and exist in various polymorphic forms, i.e. boron carbide (BC). Because BC is a lightweight material with exceptional mechanical and elastic properties, it is the ideal candidate for armor and ballistic applications. However, practical use of BC as armor material is limited because of its anomalous glass-like behaviour at high velocity impacts, which has been linked to stress-induced structural instability in one of BC polymorphs, B12(CCC). Theoretical calculations suggest that formation of B12(CCC) in BC could be suppressed by silicon doping. In the first part of this thesis, biocompatibility of SWNTs is investigated. It is shown that under normal cell implantation conditions, the electrical conductivity of the SWNTs decreases due to an increase in structural disorder. This research suggests that SWNTs can be functionalized by protein and biological cells reducing the risk of cytotoxicity. In the second part of this thesis, boron carbide nanostructured materials are synthesized and investigated. Radio frequency sputtering deposition technique is employed for fabrication of BC (Si free) and BC:Si thin films. Variation of plasma conditions and temperature are found to affect chemical composition, adhesion to the substrate and morphology of the films. It is shown that BC films are predominantly amorphous and a small addition of Si largely improves their mechanical properties. In addition

  9. Rapid Fabrication of Carbide Matrix/Carbon Fiber Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Bernander, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Composites of zirconium carbide matrix material reinforced with carbon fibers can be fabricated relatively rapidly in a process that includes a melt infiltration step. Heretofore, these and other ceramic matrix composites have been made in a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process that takes months. The finished products of the CVI process are highly porous and cannot withstand temperatures above 3,000 F (approx.1,600 C). In contrast, the melt-infiltration-based process takes only a few days, and the composite products are more nearly fully dense and have withstood temperatures as high as 4,350 F (approx.2,400 C) in a highly oxidizing thrust chamber environment. Moreover, because the melt- infiltration-based process takes much less time, the finished products are expected to cost much less. Fabrication begins with the preparation of a carbon fiber preform that, typically, is of the size and shape of a part to be fabricated. By use of low-temperature ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, the carbon fibers in the preform are coated with one or more interfacial material(s), which could include oxides. The interfacial material helps to protect the fibers against chemical attack during the remainder of the fabrication process and against oxidation during subsequent use; it also enables slippage between the fibers and the matrix material, thereby helping to deflect cracks and distribute loads. Once the fibers have been coated with the interfacial material, the fiber preform is further infiltrated with a controlled amount of additional carbon, which serves as a reactant for the formation of the carbide matrix material. The next step is melt infiltration. The preform is exposed to molten zirconium, which wicks into the preform, drawn by capillary action. The molten metal fills most of the interstices of the preform and reacts with the added carbon to form the zirconium carbide matrix material. The zirconium does not react with the underlying fibers because they

  10. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of armor grade silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portune, Andrew Richard

    Ceramic materials have traditionally been chosen for armor applications for their superior mechanical properties and low densities. At high strain rates seen during ballistic events, the behavior of these materials relies upon the total volumetric flaw concentration more so than any single anomalous flaw. In this context flaws can be defined as any microstructural feature which detriments the performance of the material, potentially including secondary phases, pores, or unreacted sintering additives. Predicting the performance of armor grade ceramic materials depends on knowledge of the absolute and relative concentration and size distribution of bulk heterogeneities. Ultrasound was chosen as a nondestructive technique for characterizing the microstructure of dense silicon carbide ceramics. Acoustic waves interact elastically with grains and inclusions in large sample volumes, and were well suited to determine concentration and size distribution variations for solid inclusions. Methodology was developed for rapid acquisition and analysis of attenuation coefficient spectra. Measurements were conducted at individual points and over large sample areas using a novel technique entitled scanning acoustic spectroscopy. Loss spectra were split into absorption and scattering dominant frequency regimes to simplify analysis. The primary absorption mechanism in polycrystalline silicon carbide was identified as thermoelastic in nature. Correlations between microstructural conditions and parameters within the absorption equation were established through study of commercial and custom engineered SiC materials. Nonlinear least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the size distributions of boron carbide and carbon inclusions within commercial SiC materials. This technique was shown to additionally be capable of approximating grain size distributions in engineered SiC materials which did not contain solid inclusions. Comparisons to results from electron microscopy

  11. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOEpatents

    Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1994-06-28

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400 C to 1000 C where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100 C to 1600 C to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process. 5 figures.

  12. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOEpatents

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  13. Role of silicon dangling bonds in the electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Ridene, Mohamed; Kha, Calvin S; Flipse, Cees F J

    2016-03-29

    In this paper, we study the electronic properties of epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide by means of ab initio calculations based on the local spin density approximation + U method taking into account the Coulomb interaction between Si localized electrons. We show that this interaction is not completely suppressed but is screened by carbon layers grown on-top of silicon carbide. This finding leads to a good qualitative understanding of the experimental results reported on EG on silicon carbide. Our results highlight the presence of the Si localized states and might explain the anomalous Hanle curve and the high values of spin relaxation time in EG. PMID:26891244

  14. Role of silicon dangling bonds in the electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridene, Mohamed; Kha, Calvin S.; Flipse, Cees F. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we study the electronic properties of epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide by means of ab initio calculations based on the local spin density approximation + U method taking into account the Coulomb interaction between Si localized electrons. We show that this interaction is not completely suppressed but is screened by carbon layers grown on-top of silicon carbide. This finding leads to a good qualitative understanding of the experimental results reported on EG on silicon carbide. Our results highlight the presence of the Si localized states and might explain the anomalous Hanle curve and the high values of spin relaxation time in EG.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of thermal transport across grain boundaries in silicon carbide nanorod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chengbin; Ma, Jiawen; Huai, Ping

    2016-03-01

    The thermal transport behaviors of < 011> Σ3, Σ9 and Σ11 grain boundaries (GBs) in silicon carbide nanorod are investigated by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulation. Temperature changes suddenly at the boundaries if a constant heat flux is assumed. The thermal conductance of these GBs is found several times larger than that of interfaces of other materials previously reported. Furthermore the interfacial thermal resistance increases with elevated temperature above 500 K. Our results give theoretical guidance to understand the underlying thermal transport mechanism in silicon carbide, and may be helpful to design silicon carbide materials for high temperature applications.

  16. Priority compositions of boron carbide crystals obtained by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, V. I.; Konovalikhin, S. V.; Kovalev, I. D.; Vershinnikov, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Splitting of reflections from boron carbide has been found for the first time by an X-ray diffraction study of polycrystalline mixture of boron carbide В15- х С х , (1.5 ≤ x ≤ 3) and its magnesium derivative C4B25Mg1.42. An analysis of reflection profiles shows that this splitting is due to the presence of boron carbide phases of different compositions in the sample, which are formed during crystal growth. The composition changes from В12.9С2.1 to В12.4С2.6.

  17. Vibrational frequencies associated with the carbide ligand in iron butterfly clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Stanghellini, P.L.; Sailor, M.J.; Kuznesof, P.; Whitmire, K.H.; Hriljac, J.A.; Kolis, J.W.; Zheng, Y.; Shriver, D.F.

    1987-09-09

    The vibrational frequencies associated with the exposed carbon atom in several tetranuclear iron carbide clusters with a butterfly arrangement of atoms were investigated by infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Vibrational assignments were confirmed in most cases by /sup 13/C labeling of the carbide carbon atom. The characteristic feature of the iron butterfly carbides is a readily observed band in the infrared spectrum around 900 cm/sup -1/. An approximate normal-coordinate analysis on these molecules yields values of the metal-carbon force constant of about 250 N m/sup -1/. 29 references, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  18. SANS and TEM studies of carbide precipitation and creep damage in type 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Ogle, J.C.; Schneibel, J.H.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed to characterize the carbide (M/sub 23/C/sub 6/) precipitation and creep damage induced in type 304 stainless steel in the primary creep stage. The size distribution of matrix carbides evaluated from SANS analyses was consistent with TEM data, and the expected accelerated kinetics of precipitation under applied stress was confirmed. Additional SANS measurements after the postcreep solution annealing were made in order to differentiate cavities from the carbides. Potential advantages and difficulties associated with characterization of creep-induced cavitation by the SANS techniques are discussed.

  19. A New Approach to Joining of Silicon Carbide-Based Materials for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic joining is recognized as one of the enabling technologies for the application of silicon carbide-based materials in a number of high temperature applications. An affordable, robust technique for the joining of silicon carbide-based ceramics has been developed. This technique is capable of producing joints with tailorable thickness and composition. Microstructure and mechanical properties of reaction formed joints in a reaction bonded silicon carbide have been reported. These joints maintain their mechanical strengths at high temperatures (up to 1350 C) in air. This technique is capable of joining large and complex shaped ceramic components.

  20. Affordable Fabrication and Properties of Silicon Carbide-Based Interpenetrating Phase Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    1998-01-01

    An affordable processing technique for the fabrication of silicon carbide-based interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs) is presented. This process consists of the production of microporous carbon preforms and subsequent infiltration with liquid silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. The microporous preforms are made by the pyrolysis of a polymerized resin mixture for which methods to control pore volume and pore size have been established. The process gives good control of microstructure and morphology of silicon carbide-based composite materials. Room and high temperature mechanical properties (flexural strength, compressive strength, and flexural creep) of low and high silicon-silicon carbide composites will be discussed.

  1. Structural and phase changes in carbides of the high-speed steel upon heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaus, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of austenitizing temperature on structural and phase changes in carbides of the tungsten-molybdenum high-speed steel has been studied. The results of metallographic analysis and energy dispersive microanalysis have been discussed. It has been shown that an increase in austenitizing temperature from 1180 to 1260°C causes structural transformations in carbide particles of eutectic origin crushed upon hot plastic deformation, which are related to their dissolution and coalescence, and changes in the phase composition of the carbides themselves.

  2. The possibility of boron carbide coating formation by using a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, A.; Rachmatullin, I.; Makarova, A.

    2014-10-01

    A coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator can generate a dense and high velocity plasma jet by applying a pulsed high-current arc-discharge. The results of the experiment investigations of plasmodynamic synthesis in the B-C system have been shown while hyper speed jet boron carbide electric-discharged plasma steams onto copper substrate. The boron carbide coatings were formed on the copper substrate without a binder material. The formation of the crystalline boron carbide coating on the copper substrate was analyzed through X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Experience with silicon-carbide tiles in mass-fired refuse boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Strach, L. ); Wasyluk, D.T. )

    1993-12-01

    The conventional material used to protect furnace water walls in mass-burn refuse boilers has been silicon-carbide refractory lining and an associated anchoring mechanism. Without this kind of protection, water walls quickly deteriorate due to the corrosive products of combustion. Although this lining is successful in protecting the water walls, it is not without operational and maintenance problems. There is a range of silicon-carbide products and materials available to help minimize these problems. One approach that is gaining commercial acceptance is the use of preformed silicon-carbide tiles. This article presents design considerations for selecting the proper tile based on the authors' operational experiences.

  4. Synthesis of zirconium carbide nanosized powders by pursed wire discharge in oleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugashima, Kenta; Suzuki, Kazuma; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Nakayama, Tadachika; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Niihara, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose novel PWD methods in inert gas mixed organic vapor and organic liquid which work as harmless carbon sources. Metal zirconium wire evaporation by PWD in organic vapor or liquid media was investigated. It was confirmed that in the PWD process using oleic acid liquid, single phase zirconium carbide nanopowders were synthesized by a reaction between Zr vapor and oleic acid. A new method for synthesis of carbide nanopowders was developed using the PWD in organic liquid. Therefore, the present result suggested that PWD method in oleic acid liquids is effective for the synthesis of carbide nanopowders.

  5. Optical limiting effects in nanostructured silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Borshch, A A; Starkov, V N; Volkov, V I; Rudenko, V I; Boyarchuk, A Yu; Semenov, A V

    2013-12-31

    We present the results of experiments on the interaction of nanosecond laser radiation at 532 and 1064 nm with nanostructured silicon carbide thin films of different polytypes. We have found the effect of optical intensity limiting at both wavelengths. The intensity of optical limiting at λ = 532 nm (I{sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2}) is shown to be an order of magnitude less than that at λ = 1064 nm (I{sub cl} ∼ 10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}). We discuss the nature of the nonlinearity, leading to the optical limiting effect. We have proposed a method for determining the amount of linear and two-photon absorption in material media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  6. The magnetic and hyperfine properties of iron in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzain, M.; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Rawas, A.; Yousif, A.; Widatallah, H.; Al-Barwani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The magnetic and hyperfine properties of iron impurities in 3C- and 6H- silicon-carbide are calculated using the abinitio method of full-potential linear-augmented-plane-waves. The iron atoms are introduced at substitutional carbon, Fe C , and silicon, Fe Si , sites as well as at the tetrahedral interstitial sites with four nearest neighbours carbon atoms, Fe I (C), and four nearest neighbours silicon atoms, Fe I (Si). The effect of introducing vacancies at the neighbours of these sites is also studied. Fe atoms with complete neighbors substituted at Si or C sites are found to be nonmagnetic, while Fe atoms at interstitial sites are magnetic. Introduction of a vacancy at a neighboring site reverse the picture.

  7. Rolling contact fatigue characteristics of thermal sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Nieminen, R.; Vuoristo, P.; Niemi, K.; Maentylae, T.

    1995-12-31

    The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior of tungsten carbide (WC) based cermet coatings (WC-12% Co) deposited by plasma and HVOF spraying was studied. The RCF testing was carried out with a two-roll configuration testing machine under unlubricated rolling conditions without sliding. Loads applied in the tests resulted to Hertzian contact pressures of 420--600 MPa. The influence of spraying method on the RCF behavior of the coatings was studied as a function of Hertzian contact stress. Plasma sprayed coating showed severe surface roughening and subsurface cracking of the coating under all studied load levels. HVOF sprayed coating behavior was clearly different from the plasma coating with smaller structural changes. HVOF coating retained its original surface roughness but vertical cracks penetrating the coating appeared in this coating.

  8. Surface wave accelerator based on silicon carbide: theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, S.; Korobkin, D.; Neuner, B.; Shvets, G.

    2009-01-22

    Compact near-field solid-state accelerating structure powered by a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) laser is considered. The accelerating luminous transverse magnetic mode is excited in a few-micron wide evacuated planar channel between two silicon carbide (SiC) films grown on silicon (Si) wafers. Laser coupling to this mode is accomplished through the properly designed Si gratings. Operating wavelength is dictated by the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity of SiC and the channel width. The geometric loss factor {kappa} of the accelerating mode is computed. It is found that the unwanted excitation of the guided modes in Si wafers reduces the laser coupling efficiency and increases the fields inside the Si wafer.

  9. Size-scaling of tensile failure stress in boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Kirkland, Timothy Philip; Strong, Kevin T; Jadaan, Osama M.; Thompson, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Weibull strength-size-scaling in a rotary-ground, hot-pressed boron carbide is described when strength test coupons sampled effective areas from the very small (~ 0.001 square millimeters) to the very large (~ 40,000 square millimeters). Equibiaxial flexure and Hertzian testing were used for the strength testing. Characteristic strengths for several different specimen geometries are analyzed as a function of effective area. Characteristic strength was found to substantially increase with decreased effective area, and exhibited a bilinear relationship. Machining damage limited strength as measured with equibiaxial flexure testing for effective areas greater than ~ 1 mm2 and microstructural-scale flaws limited strength for effective areas less than 0.1 mm2 for the Hertzian testing. The selections of a ceramic strength to account for ballistically-induced tile deflection and to account for expanding cavity modeling are considered in context with the measured strength-size-scaling.

  10. A review of oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    There is growing interest in using ceramics for structural applications, many of which require the fabrication of components with complicated shapes. Normal ceramic processing methods restrict the shapes into which these materials can be produced, but ceramic joining technology can be used to overcome many of these limitations, and also offers the possibility for improving the reliability of ceramic components. One method of joining ceramics is by brazing. The metallic alloys used for bonding must wet and adhere to the ceramic surfaces without excessive reaction. Alumina, partially stabilized zirconia, and silicon nitride have high ionic character to their chemical bonds and are difficult to wet. Alloys for brazing these materials must be formulated to overcome this problem. Silicon carbide, which has some metallic characteristics, reacts excessively with many alloys, and forms joints of low mechanical strength. The brazing characteristics of these three types of ceramics, and residual stresses in ceramic-to-metal joints are briefly discussed.

  11. Catalytic synthesis of silicon carbide preceramic polymers: Polycarbosilanes

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.H.

    1992-10-01

    Polycarbosilanes are the most successful and widely studied class of polymer precursors for silicon carbide, but traditional methods for their synthesis are inefficient and nonselective. This project is focused on developing transition metal catalysts for the synthesis of polycarbosilanes and other preceramic polymers. In recent work we have developed the first homogeneous transition metal catalysts for the dehydrogenative coupling of simple alkyl silanes to oligomeric and polymeric carbosilanes, H-(SiR[sub 2]CR[prime][sub 2])n-SiR[sub 3]. The coupling of alkylgermanes, however, yields the corresponding oligomeric poly(germanes) (Ge-Ge). Future work will help elucidate the mechanisms of these catalytic process, explore the use of hydrogen acceptors as reaction accelerators, and develop new and more active catalysts.

  12. Cryogenic Performance of a Lightweight Silicon Carbide Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Ron; Carpenter, James; Haight, Harlan; Hogue, William; Kegley, Jeff; Stahl, H. Philip; Wright, Ernie; Kane, Dave; Hadaway, James

    2005-01-01

    Low cost, high performance lightweight Silicon Carbide (SiC) mirrors provide an alternative to Beryllium mirrors. A Trex Enterprises 0.25m diameter lightweight SiC mirror using its patented Chemical Vapor Composites (CVC) technology was evaluated for its optical performance. CVC SiC is chemically pure, thermally stable, and mechanically stiff. CVC technology yields higher growth rate than that of CVD SiC. NASA has funded lightweight optical materials technology development efforts involving SiC mirrors for future space based telescope programs. As part of these efforts, a Trex SiC was measured interferometrically from room temperature to 30 degrees Kelvin. This paper will discuss the test goals, the test instrumentation, test results, and lessons learned.

  13. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition in Nanoconfined Silicon Carbide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weikang; Zhang, Leining; Liu, Sida; Ren, Hongru; Zhou, Xuyan; Li, Hui

    2016-03-01

    We report theoretical evidence of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in liquid silicon carbide under nanoslit confinement. The LLPT is characterized by layering transitions induced by confinement and pressure, accompanying the rapid change in density. During the layering transition, the proportional distribution of tetracoordinated and pentacoordinated structures exhibits remarkable change. The tricoordinated structures lead to the microphase separation between silicon (with the dominant tricoordinated, tetracoordinated, and pentacoordinated structures) and carbon (with the dominant tricoordinated structures) in the layer close to the walls. A strong layer separation between silicon atoms and carbon atoms is induced by strong wall-liquid forces. Importantly, the pressure confinement phase diagram with negative slopes for LLPT lines indicates that, under high pressure, the LLPT is mainly confinement-induced, but under low pressure, it becomes dominantly pressure-induced. PMID:26859609

  14. Epitaxial Growth and Characterization of Silicon Carbide Films

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanaraj,G.; Dudley, M.; Chen, Y.; Ragothamachar, B.; Wu, B.; Zhang, H.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) epitaxial layers have been grown in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Silicon tetrachloride-propane as well as silane-propane were used as precursor gases. The hot zone was designed based on simulation by using numerical modeling. Growth rates up to 200 {mu}m could be achieved. A new growth-assisted hydrogen etching was developed to show the distribution of the micropipes present in the substrate. Higher growth rate was observed on off-axis (0 0 0 1) 4 H SiC compared to the on-axis (0 0 0 1) wafer and growth mechanism was explained.

  15. Cryogenic performance of a lightweight silicon carbide mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, Ron; Carpenter, James R.; Foss, Colby A., Jr.; Hadaway, James B.; Haight, Harlan J.; Hogue, William D.; Kane, David; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Stahl, H. Philip; Wright, Ernest R.

    2005-08-01

    Low cost, high performance lightweight Silicon Carbide (SiC) mirrors provide an alternative to Beryllium mirrors. A Trex Enterprises 0.25m diameter low areal density SiC mirror using its patented Chemical Vapor Composites (CVC) technology was evaluated for its optical performance at cryogenic temperature. CVC SiC is chemically pure, thermally stable, and mechanically stiff. CVC technology yields higher growth rate than that of CVD SiC. NASA has funded lightweight optical materials technology development efforts for future space based telescope programs. As part of these efforts, a Trex SiC mirror was measured interferometrically from room temperature to 30 degrees Kelvin. This paper will discuss the test goals, the cryogenic optical testing infrastructure and instrumentation at MSFC, test results, and lessons learned.

  16. Electromechanical computing at 500 degrees C with silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Te-Hao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mehregany, Mehran

    2010-09-10

    Logic circuits capable of operating at high temperatures can alleviate expensive heat-sinking and thermal-management requirements of modern electronics and are enabling for advanced propulsion systems. Replacing existing complementary metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with silicon carbide (SiC) nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) switches is a promising approach for low-power, high-performance logic operation at temperatures higher than 300 degrees C, beyond the capability of conventional silicon technology. These switches are capable of achieving virtually zero off-state current, microwave operating frequencies, radiation hardness, and nanoscale dimensions. Here, we report a microfabricated electromechanical inverter with SiC complementary NEMS switches capable of operating at 500 degrees C with ultralow leakage current. PMID:20829479

  17. Porous silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A semiconductor device employs at least one layer of semiconducting porous silicon carbide (SiC). The porous SiC layer has a monocrystalline structure wherein the pore sizes, shapes, and spacing are determined by the processing conditions. In one embodiment, the semiconductor device is a p-n junction diode in which a layer of n-type SiC is positioned on a p-type layer of SiC, with the p-type layer positioned on a layer of silicon dioxide. Because of the UV luminescent properties of the semiconducting porous SiC layer, it may also be utilized for other devices such as LEDs and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Silicon carbide tritium permeation barrier for steel structural components.

    SciTech Connect

    Causey, Rion A.; Garde, Joseph Maurico; Buchenauer, Dean A.; Calderoni, Pattrick; Holschuh, Thomas, Jr.; Youchison, Dennis Lee; Wright, Matt; Kolasinski, Robert D.

    2010-09-01

    Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) has superior resistance to tritium permeation even after irradiation. Prior work has shown Ultrametfoam to be forgiving when bonded to substrates with large CTE differences. The technical objectives are: (1) Evaluate foams of vanadium, niobium and molybdenum metals and SiC for CTE mitigation between a dense SiC barrier and steel structure; (2) Thermostructural modeling of SiC TPB/Ultramet foam/ferritic steel architecture; (3) Evaluate deuterium permeation of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC; (4) D testing involved construction of a new higher temperature (> 1000 C) permeation testing system and development of improved sealing techniques; (5) Fabricate prototype tube similar to that shown with dimensions of 7cm {theta} and 35cm long; and (6) Tritium and hermeticity testing of prototype tube.

  19. Band Anticrossing in Dilute Germanium Carbides Using Hybrid Density Functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Chad A.; O'brien, William A.; Qi, Meng; Penninger, Michael; Schneider, William F.; Wistey, Mark A.

    2016-04-01

    Dilute germanium carbides (Ge1- x C x ) offer a direct bandgap for compact silicon photonics, but widely varying properties have been reported. This work reports improved band structure calculations for Ge1- x C x using ab initio simulations that employ the HSE06 exchange-correlation density functional. Contrary to Vegard's law, the conduction band minimum at Γ is consistently found to decrease with increasing C content, while L and X valleys change much more slowly. The calculated Ge bandgap is within 11% of experimental values. A decrease in energy at the Γ conduction band valley of (170 meV ± 50)/%C is predicted, leading to a direct bandgap for x > 0.008. These results indicate a promising material for Group IV lasers.

  20. Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.R

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen and hydrocarbon detection in aeronautical applications is important for reasons of safety and emissions control. The use of silicon carbide as a semiconductor in a metal-semiconductor or metal-insulator-semiconductor structure opens opportunities to measure hydrogen and hydrocarbons in high temperature environments beyond the capabilities of silicon-based devices. The purpose of this paper is to explore the response and stability of Pd-SiC Schottky diodes as gas sensors in the temperature range from 100 to 400 C. The effect of heat treating on the diode properties as measured at 100 C is explored. Subsequent operation at 400 C demonstrates the diodes' sensitivity to hydrogen and hydrocarbons. It is concluded that the Pd-SiC Schottky diode has potential as a hydrogen and hydrocarbon sensor over a wide range of temperatures but further studies are necessary to determine the diodes' long term stability.