Science.gov

Sample records for carbon 11

  1. The 11 Micron Emissions of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Cheeseman, P.; Gerbault, F.

    1995-08-01

    A new classification scheme of the IRAS LRS carbon stars is presented. It comprises the separation of 718 probable carbon stars into 12 distinct self-similar spectral groupings. Continuum temperatures are assigned and range from 470 to 5000 K. Three distinct dust species are identifiable: SiC, α: C-H, and MgS. In addition to the narrow 11+ microns emission feature that is commonly attributed to SiC, a broad 11+ microns emission feature, that is correlated with the 8.5 and 7.7 microns features, is found and attributed to α:C-H. SiC and α:C-H band strengths are found to correlate with the temperature progression among the Classes. We find a spectral sequence of Classes that reflects the carbon star evolutionary sequence of spectral types, or alternatively developmental sequences of grain condensation in carbon-rich circumstellar shells. If decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing evolution, then decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing C/O resulting in increasing amounts of carbon rich dust, namely α: C-H. If decreasing the temperature corresponds to a grain condensation sequence, then heterogeneous, or induced nucleation scenarios are supported. SiC grains precede α: C-H and form the nuclei for the condensation of the latter material. At still lower temperatures, MgS appears to be quite prevalent. No 11.3 microns PAH features are identified in any of the 718 carbon stars. However, one of the coldest objects, IRAS 15048-5702, and a few others, displays an 11.9 microns emission feature characteristic of laboratory samples of coronene. That feature corresponds to the C-H out of plane deformation mode of aromatic hydrocarbon. This band indicates the presence of unsaturated, sp3, hydrocarbon bonds that may subsequently evolve into saturated bonds, sp2, if, and when, the star enters the planetary nebulae phase of stellar evolution. The effusion of hydrogen from the hydrocarbon grain results in the evolution in wavelength of this 11.9 microns emission

  2. The 11 Micron Emissions of Carbon Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Cheeseman, P.; Gerbault, F.

    1995-01-01

    A new classification scheme of the IRAS LRS carbon stars is presented. It comprises the separation of 718 probable carbon stars into 12 distinct self-similar spectral groupings. Continuum temperatures are assigned and range from 470 to 5000 K. Three distinct dust species are identifiable: SiC, alpha:C-H, and MgS. In addition to the narrow 11 + micron emission feature that is commonly attributed to SiC, a broad 11 + micron emission feature, that is correlated with the 8.5 and 7.7 micron features, is found and attributed to alpha:C-H. SiC and alpha:C-H band strengths are found to correlate with the temperature progression among the Classes. We find a spectral sequence of Classes that reflects the carbon star evolutionary sequence of spectral types, or alternatively developmental sequences of grain condensation in carbon-rich circumstellar shells. If decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing evolution, then decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing C/O resulting in increasing amounts of carbon rich dust, namely alpha:C-H. If decreasing the temperature corresponds to a grain condensation sequence, then heterogeneous, or induced nucleation scenarios are supported. SiC grains precede alpha:C-H and form the nuclei for the condensation of the latter material. At still lower temperatures, MgS appears to be quite prevalent. No 11.3 micron PAH features are identified in any of the 718 carbon stars. However, one of the coldest objects, IRAS 15048-5702, and a few others, displays an 11.9 micron emission feature characteristic of laboratory samples of coronene. That feature corresponds to the C-H out of plane deformation mode of aromatic hydrocarbon. This band indicates the presence of unsaturated, sp(sup 3), hydrocarbon bonds that may subsequently evolve into saturated bonds, sp(sup 2), if, and when, the star enters the planetary nebulae phase of stellar evolution. The effusion of hydrogen from the hydrocarbon grain results in the evolution in wavelength of this

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into...

  4. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section 78.47-11... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or any space into...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section 97.37-11... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by carbon dioxide systems, or...

  9. Carbon-11: Where Familiar Chemistry Still Holds New Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliu, Anthony L.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the properties, chemistry, generation of precursors, and use in organic synthesis of this isotope of carbon. The use of carbon-11 in research is emphasized. Pitfalls and possibilities are described. (CW)

  10. One carbon metabolism in SAR11 pelagic marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Steindler, Laura; Thrash, J Cameron; Halsey, Kimberly H; Smith, Daniel P; Carter, Amy E; Landry, Zachary C; Giovannoni, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    The SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria are the most abundant heterotrophs in the oceans and are believed to play a major role in mineralizing marine dissolved organic carbon. Their genomes are among the smallest known for free-living heterotrophic cells, raising questions about how they successfully utilize complex organic matter with a limited metabolic repertoire. Here we show that conserved genes in SAR11 subgroup Ia (Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique) genomes encode pathways for the oxidation of a variety of one-carbon compounds and methyl functional groups from methylated compounds. These pathways were predicted to produce energy by tetrahydrofolate (THF)-mediated oxidation, but not to support the net assimilation of biomass from C1 compounds. Measurements of cellular ATP content and the oxidation of (14)C-labeled compounds to (14)CO(2) indicated that methanol, formaldehyde, methylamine, and methyl groups from glycine betaine (GBT), trimethylamine (TMA), trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) were oxidized by axenic cultures of the SAR11 strain Ca. P. ubique HTCC1062. Analyses of metagenomic data showed that genes for C1 metabolism occur at a high frequency in natural SAR11 populations. In short term incubations, natural communities of Sargasso Sea microbial plankton expressed a potential for the oxidation of (14)C-labeled formate, formaldehyde, methanol and TMAO that was similar to cultured SAR11 cells and, like cultured SAR11 cells, incorporated a much larger percentage of pyruvate and glucose (27-35%) than of C1 compounds (2-6%) into biomass. Collectively, these genomic, cellular and environmental data show a surprising capacity for demethylation and C1 oxidation in SAR11 cultures and in natural microbial communities dominated by SAR11, and support the conclusion that C1 oxidation might be a significant conduit by which dissolved organic carbon is recycled to CO(2) in the upper ocean. PMID:21886845

  11. Ethanolic carbon-11 chemistry: the introduction of green radiochemistry.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J H

    2014-07-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. PMID:24631743

  12. Ethanolic Carbon-11 Chemistry: the Introduction of Green Radiochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xia; Fawaz, Maria V.; Jang, Keunsam; Scott, Peter J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of green chemistry have been applied to a radiochemistry setting. Eleven carbon-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals have been prepared using ethanol as the only organic solvent throughout the entire manufacturing process. The removal of all other organic solvents from the process simplifies production and quality control (QC) testing, moving our PET Center towards the first example of a green radiochemistry laboratory. All radiopharmaceutical doses prepared are suitable for clinical use. PMID:24631743

  13. The Rich Carbon Chemistry of SMP LMC 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, S. E.; Cami, J.

    2011-09-01

    We present an analysis of the Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the proto-planetary nebula SMP LMC 11. This spectrum displays unusually strong absorption bands from cool, carbon-rich gas, including benzene (C6H6), (poly)acetylenes (C2H2, C4H2 and C6H2), HC3N, and propyne (CH3C2H); HCN on the other hand is at best marginally present. We derive column densities and temperatures by modelling the molecular absorption. While the relative abundances of the polyacetylenes are consistent with chemical models for the outer envelopes of evolved carbon stars, those for HC3N and HCN are not. It is not clear whether the presence of benzene indicates an efficient means of formation, or instead a protective environment that inhibits photo-destruction.

  14. The 11 micron Silicon Carbide Feature in Carbon Star Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speck, A. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Skinner, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is known to form in circumstellar shells around carbon stars. SiC can come in two basic types - hexagonal alpha-SiC or cubic beta-SiC. Laboratory studies have shown that both types of SiC exhibit an emission feature in the 11-11.5 micron region, the size and shape of the feature varying with type, size and shape of the SiC grains. Such a feature can be seen in the spectra of carbon stars. Silicon carbide grains have also been found in meteorites. The aim of the current work is to identity the type(s) of SiC found in circumstellar shells and how they might relate to meteoritic SiC samples. We have used the CGS3 spectrometer at the 3.8 m UKIRT to obtain 7.5-13.5 micron spectra of 31 definite or proposed carbon stars. After flux-calibration, each spectrum was fitted using a chi(exp 2)-minimisation routine equipped with the published laboratory optical constants of six different samples of small SiC particles, together with the ability to fit the underlying continuum using a range of grain emissivity laws. It was found that the majority of observed SiC emission features could only be fitted by alpha-SiC grains. The lack of beta-SiC is surprising, as this is the form most commonly found in meteorites. Included in the sample were four sources, all of which have been proposed to be carbon stars, that appear to show the SiC feature in absorption.

  15. Synthesis of [11C]Bexarotene by Cu-Mediated [11C]Carbon Dioxide Fixation and Preliminary PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bexarotene (Targretin) is a retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist that has applications for treatment of T cell lymphoma and proposed mechanisms of action in Alzheimer’s disease that have been the subject of recent controversy. Carbon-11 labeled bexarotene ([11C-carbonyl]4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyltetralin-2-yl)ethenyl]benzoic acid) was synthesized using a Cu-mediated cross-coupling reaction employing an arylboronate precursor 1 and [11C]carbon dioxide under atmospheric pressure in 15 ± 2% uncorrected radiochemical yield (n = 3), based on [11C]CO2. Judicious choice of solvents, catalysts, and additives, as well as precursor concentration and purity of [11C]CO2, enabled the preparation of this 11C-labeled carboxylic acid. Formulated [11C]bexarotene was isolated (>37 mCi) with >99% radiochemical purity in 32 min. Preliminary positron emission tomography–magnetic resonance imaging revealed rapid brain uptake in nonhuman primate in the first 75 s following intravenous administration of the radiotracer (specific activity >0.3 Ci/μmol at time of injection), followed by slow clearance (Δ = −43%) over 60 min. Modest uptake (SUVmax = 0.8) was observed in whole brain and regions with high RXR expression. PMID:24944741

  16. Synthesis of [11C]Am80 via Novel Pd(0)-Mediated Rapid [11C]Carbonylation Using Arylboronate and [11C]Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    11C-labeled methylbenzoates [11C]4a–d were synthesized using Pd(0)-mediated rapid cross-coupling reactions employing [11C]carbon monoxide and arylboronic acid neopentyl glycol esters 3a–d under atmospheric pressure in methanol–dimethylformamide (MeOH–DMF), in radiochemical yields of 12 ± 5–26 ± 13% (decay-corrected based on [11C]O). The reaction conditions were highly favorable for the synthesis of [11C]Am80 ([11C]2) and [11C]methyl 4-((5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzoate ([11C]2-Me) using 4-(5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinan-2-yl)-N-(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)benzamide (5), both of which produced a decay-corrected radiochemical yield (RCY) of 26 ± 13%, with >99% radiochemical purity and an average specific radioactivity of 44 GBq/μmol. The yields of [11C]4a, [11C]2-Me, and [11C]2 were improved by the use of a 2-fold excess of the solvents and reagents under the same conditions to give respective yields of 66 ± 8, 65 ± 7, and 48 ± 2%. PMID:24900383

  17. Synthesis of [(11)C]Am80 via Novel Pd(0)-Mediated Rapid [(11)C]Carbonylation Using Arylboronate and [(11)C]Carbon Monoxide.

    PubMed

    Takashima-Hirano, Misato; Ishii, Hideki; Suzuki, Masaaki

    2012-10-11

    (11)C-labeled methylbenzoates [(11)C]4a-d were synthesized using Pd(0)-mediated rapid cross-coupling reactions employing [(11)C]carbon monoxide and arylboronic acid neopentyl glycol esters 3a-d under atmospheric pressure in methanol-dimethylformamide (MeOH-DMF), in radiochemical yields of 12 ± 5-26 ± 13% (decay-corrected based on [(11)C]O). The reaction conditions were highly favorable for the synthesis of [(11)C]Am80 ([(11)C]2) and [(11)C]methyl 4-((5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzoate ([(11)C]2-Me) using 4-(5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborinan-2-yl)-N-(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)benzamide (5), both of which produced a decay-corrected radiochemical yield (RCY) of 26 ± 13%, with >99% radiochemical purity and an average specific radioactivity of 44 GBq/μmol. The yields of [(11)C]4a, [(11)C]2-Me, and [(11)C]2 were improved by the use of a 2-fold excess of the solvents and reagents under the same conditions to give respective yields of 66 ± 8, 65 ± 7, and 48 ± 2%. PMID:24900383

  18. Noninvasive measurement of lung carbon-11-serotonin extraction in man

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, G.; Firnau, G.; Meyer, G.J.; Gratz, K.F. )

    1991-04-01

    The fraction of serotonin extracted on a single passage through the lungs is being used as an early indicator of lung endothelial damage but the existing techniques require multiple arterial blood samples. We have developed a noninvasive technique to measure lung serotonin uptake in man. We utilized the double indicator diffusion principle, a positron camera, {sup 11}C-serotonin as the substrate, and {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes as the vascular marker. From regions of interest around each lung, we recorded time-activity curves in 0.5-sec frames for 30 sec after a bolus injection of first the vascular marker {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes and 10 min later {sup 11}C-serotonin. A second uptake measurement was made after imipramine 25-35 mg was infused intravenously. In three normal volunteers, the single-pass uptake of {sup 11}C-serotonin was 63.9% +/- 3.6%. This decreased in all subjects to a mean of 53.6% +/- 1.4% after imipramine. The rate of lung washout of {sup 11}C was also significantly prolonged after imipramine. This noninvasive technique can be used to measure lung serotonin uptake to detect early changes in a variety of conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary endothelium.

  19. In vivo kinetics and displacement study of a carbon-11-labeled hallucinogen, N,N-[11C]dimethyltryptamine.

    PubMed

    Yanai, K; Ido, T; Ishiwata, K; Hatazawa, J; Takahashi, T; Iwata, R; Matsuzawa, T

    1986-01-01

    The endogenous hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), was labeled with carbon-11 and its regional distribution in rat brain studied. [11C]DMT showed higher accumulation in the cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, and amygdaloid nuclei. Studies of the subcellular distribution of [11C]DMT revealed the specific localization in the fractions enriched with serotonin receptors only when a very low dose was injected into rats. The proportions of the radioactivity in receptor-rich fractions were greatly enhanced by pretreatment with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline. Specific binding of [11C]DMT to serotonin receptors in dog brain was demonstrated by a positron emission tomographic study in which 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine caused approximately 20% displacement of the radioligand from the receptors. PMID:3489620

  20. Synthesis of new carbon-11 labeled naphthalene-sulfonamides for PET imaging of human CCR8.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Cooley, Benjamin; Gao, Mingzhang; Miller, Kathy D; Sledge, George W; Hutchins, Gary D; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2008-10-01

    Carbon-11 labeled naphthalene-sulfonamides, N-(4-(N-(4-[(11)C]methoxyphenyl)sulfamoyl)naphthalene-1-yl)benzamide ([(11)C]5a), N-(4-(N-(4-[(11)C]methoxyphenyl)sulfamoyl)naphthalene-1-yl)-2-methylbenzamide ([(11)C]5b), N-(4-(N-(4-[(11)C]methoxyphenyl)sulfamoyl)naphthalene-1-yl)-3-methylbenzamide ([(11)C]5c), N-[(11)C]methyl-N-methyl-4-(4-benzamidonaphthalene-1-sulfonamido)piperidine-1-carboxamide ([(11)C]9a) and N-[(11)C]methyl-N-methyl-4-(4-(2-methylbenzamido)naphthalene-1-sulfonamido)piperidine-1-carboxamide ([(11)C]9b), have been synthesized as new potential positron emission tomography (PET) agents for imaging of human CCR8. The target tracers were prepared by either O-[(11)C]methylation or N-[(11)C]methylation of their corresponding precursors using [(11)C]CH(3)OTf and isolated by either a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification procedure or a high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method in 30-50% radiochemical yields decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), 20-25 min overall synthesis time, and 74-111 GBq/micromol specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS). PMID:18455923

  1. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitive properties of nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra by direct carbonization of zeolitic imidazolate framework-11

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Fei; Li, Li; Zhang, Xiaohua Chen, Jinhua

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were prepared from ZIF-11. • The activated N-PCMPs with fused KOH (N-PCMPs-A) have high specific surface area. • N-PCMPs-A exhibits high specific capacitance. • N-PCMPs-A reveals good cycling performance even at a high current density. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped porous carbon micropolyhedra (N-PCMPs) were successfully prepared by direct carbonization of ZIF-11 polyhedra and further activated with fused KOH to obtain N-PCMPs-A. The morphology and microstructure of samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and micropore and chemisorption analyzer. Electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge method in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution on a standard three-electrode system. Results show that, compared with N-PCMPs, N-PCMPs-A has higher specific surface area (2188 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and exhibits improved electrochemical capacitive properties (307 F g{sup −1} at 1.0 A g{sup −1}). The mass specific capacitance of N-PCMPs-A is also higher than that of most MOF-derived carbons, some carbide-derived carbons and carbon aerogel-derived carbons. In addition, the capacitance of the N-PCMPs-A retains 90% after 4000 cycles even at a high current density of 10 A g{sup −1}. These imply that N-PCMPs-A is the promising materials for the construction of a high-performance supercapacitor.

  2. Carbon 11-MPTP: a potential tracer for Parkinson's disease research in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Livni, E.; Spellman, J.P.; Correia, J.A.; Alpert, N.M.; Brownell, G.L.; Strauss, H.W.; Elmaleh, D.R.

    1986-10-01

    (11C)-1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine ((11C)MPTP), a compound producing parkinson-like symptoms in several species, has been synthesized and purified in sufficient activity to obtain tomographic images in the monkey. Biodistribution data has also been obtained in rats. Carbon-11-labeled MPTP could be used as a probe to study the pharmacokinetics of the compound under various research conditions in animals. Because of its neurotoxicity, the compound is not intended for use in humans.

  3. Diffusion of 1,1-dimethylethyl-benzene (1); carbon dioxide (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) 1,1-dimethylethyl-benzene; (2) carbon dioxide

  4. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of /sup 11/C, /sup 18/F and /sup 13/N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume.

  5. Myocardial kinetics of carbon-11-epinephrine in the isolated working rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, N.T.B.; DeGrado, T.R.; Chakraborty, P.

    1997-05-01

    The kinetics of EPI were studied in the isolated rat heart model to evaluate {sup 11}C-epinephrine (EPI) as a radiotracer for the assessment of sympathetic neuronal function in the heart. Isolated rat hearts were perfused in a working mode. Carbon-11-EPI was added to the perfusate during wash-in period of 20 min, followed by a washout period of 40 min. Radioactivity in the heart was externally monitored and time-activity curves were recorded as a function of time. Effluent samples were collected throughout each study to determine the fraction of {sup 11}C radioactivity as intact tracer. Time-activity curves of control hearts showed that {sup 11}C-EPI is taken up and retained by the myocardium. Desipramine inhibition (DMI) of uptake-1 resulted in a significant decrease in myocardial uptake and retention of {sup 11}C-EPI by 91% compared to controls. Addition of DMI to the perfusion medium during washout did not affect kinetics of {sup 11}C-EPI compared to control hearts. Reserpine pretreated rat hearts also showed significant decrease in tracer retention of 95% compared to controls. The metabolic data showed that, in control conditions, about 61% of {sup 11}C-EPI taken up by the rat heart is rapidly metabolized and released. Carbon-11-EPI traces sympathetic nerve terminals in the isolated rat heart. Uptake blockade by DMI and reserpine suggest that uptake and storage of {sup 11}C-EPI appear to be similar to that of norepinephrine. However, the prominent metabolic pathway warrants further consideration. These results suggest that {sup 11}C-EPI may be a suitable radiolabeled tracer for the evaluation of sympathetic vesicular function of the heart by PET. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Development of a series of novel carbon-11 labeled PDE10A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Vladimir; Miura, Shotaro; Takano, Akihiro; Amini, Nahid; Nakao, Ryuji; Hasui, Tomoaki; Nakashima, Kosuke; Taniguchi, Takahiko; Kimura, Haruhide; Kuroita, Takanobu; Halldin, Christer

    2015-05-15

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a member of the PDE family of enzymes that degrades cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Our aim was to label a series of structurally related PDE10A inhibitors with carbon-11 and evaluate them as potential positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for PDE10A using nonhuman primates. The series consisted of seven compounds based on the 3-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-4(1H)-one backbone. These compounds were selected from the initial larger library based on a number of parameters such as affinity, selectivity for hPDE10A in in vitro tests, lipophilicity, and on the results of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1)-LLCPK1 and the parallel artificial membrane permeability assays. Seven radioligands (KIT-1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 12) were radiolabeled with carbon-11 employing O-methylation on the hydroxyl moiety using [(11)C]methyl triflate. In vivo examination of each radioligand was performed using PET in rhesus monkeys; analysis of radiometabolites in plasma also was conducted using HPLC. All seven radioligands were labeled with high (>90%) incorporation of [(11)C]methyl triflate into their appropriate precursors and with high specific radioactivity. Carbon-11 labeled KIT-5 and KIT-6 showed high accumulation in the striatum, consistent with the known anatomical distribution of PDE10A in brain, accompanied by fast washout and high specific binding ratio. In particular [(11)C]KIT-6, named [(11)C]T-773, is a promising PET tool for further examination of PDE10A in human brain. PMID:25891816

  7. Carbon-11 radiolabeling of iron-oxide nanoparticles for dual-modality PET/MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Xu, Youwen; Kim, Sung Won; Schueller, Michael J.; Alexoff, David; Smith, S. David; Wang, Wei; Schlyer, David

    2013-07-01

    Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled SPIO NPs was demonstrated in an in vivo experiment.Dual-modality imaging, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) simultaneously, is a powerful tool to gain valuable information correlating structure with function in biomedicine. The advantage of this dual approach is that the strengths of one modality can balance the weaknesses of the other. However, success of this technique requires developing imaging probes suitable for both. Here, we report on the development of a nanoparticle labeling procedure via covalent bonding with carbon-11 PET isotope. Carbon-11 in the form of [11C]methyl iodide was used as a methylation agent to react with carboxylic acid (-COOH) and amine (-NH2) functional groups of ligands bound to the nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coating ligands present on superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were radiolabeled to achieve dual-modality PET/MR imaging capabilities. The proof-of-concept dual-modality PET/MR imaging using the radiolabeled

  8. Permeability of methane, carbon dioxide and water in PA11 and PVDF used for flexible pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, T.R.; Skar, J.I.; Hansteen, C.

    1999-11-01

    Permeability of methane, carbon dioxide and water in plasticized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and plasticized polyarnid 11 (PA11 ) has been measured for a number of temperatures and pressures in a small scale test apparatus and permeability coefficients have been calculated. The results have been used to predict if the annulus of flexible pipes will be water wet. For verification of the small scale test, a large scale test has also been carried out in a 50 mm flexible pipe. Both test methods show that the annulus of flexible pipes will be water wet when carrying gas and water. This implies that the conditions in the annulus will be corrosive when pipes are carrying gas which contains carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide. The corrosive conditions and corrosion fatigue must be taken into account when the fatigue life of flexible risers is calculated.

  9. Assessment of dopamine receptor densities in the human brain with carbon-11-labeled N-methylspiperone

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstroem, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    We describe the use of carbon-11-labeled 3-N-methylspiperone, a ligand that preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and, for the first time, in a human. The method has now been used in 58 humans for noninvasive assessment of the state of brain dopamine receptors under normal and pathological conditions.

  10. Survey of lunar carbon compounds. II - The carbon chemistry of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, P. H.; Eglinton, G.; Firth, J. N. M.; Maxwell, J. R.; Mays, B. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The methane and carbide concentrations of a number of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 samples of fines and breccias have been examined by the deuterated acid dissolution method. Location studies indicate that these carbon compounds are concentrated in the outer surfaces of the fines particles of 48-152 micron diameter; for larger particles a volume-related component may contribute. In individual samples the methane and carbide concentrations correlate with parameters indicative of lunar surface exposure. The data provide further evidence that solar wind implantation is the major source of the methane in the fines and that the carbide originates from both solar wind implantation and meteorite impacts.

  11. Effects of active chronic cocaine use on cardiac sympathetic neuronal function assessed by carbon-11-hydroxyephedrine

    SciTech Connect

    Melon, P.G.; Boyd, C.J.; McVey, S. |

    1997-03-01

    Cardiac toxicity of cocaine has been linked to its inhibitory effect on norepinephrine reuptake by sympathetic nerve terminals of the heart. Carbon-11-hydroxyephedrine is a positron-emitting tracer that has been validated as a highly specific marker for norepinephrine transporter activity of the sympathetic nerve terminals and thus makes possible in vivo assessment of the effect of cocaine on norepinephrine reuptake and storage in the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals. The aim of the study was to use the catecholamine analog {sup 11}C-hydroxyephedrine with PET to determine whether active chronic use of cocaine in women modifies the function of sympathetic nerve terminals of the heart. Six normal female volunteers and nine female active chronic cocaine users were studied. Cardiac regional {sup 11}C-hydroxyephedrine uptake and blood flow, as assessed with {sup 13}N-ammonia, were determined using semi-quantitative polar map analysis of myocardial tracer distribution. Carbon-11-hydroxyephedrine cardiac retention was quantified using dynamic data acquisition and kinetic analysis of blood and tissue activity. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Carbon-11 labeling of nonpeptide angiotensin-II antogonists: MK-996 and analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, W.B.; Burns, H.D.; Hamill, T.D.

    1994-05-01

    Our goal was to develop a tracer that can be used for imaging of angiotensin-II (ANG-II), AT{sub 1} receptors in vivo via PET. MK-996 is a potent, nonpeptide, benzamide-based, AT{sub 1} selective antagonist (IC{sub 50}=0.15 nM) in clinical trials for the treatment of hypertension. (C-11)MK-996 was prepared using (C-11)benzoyl chloride synthesized in two steps from (C-11) carbon dioxide via (C-11)benzoic acid. The labeled acid chloride was made by reacting the (C-11)benzoic acid with either phthaloyl dichloride or thionyl chloride. After HPLC purification, the (C-11)MK-996 with an average synthesis time of 38 minutes from EOB, a non-decay corrected radiochemical yield of 3%, and a specific activity of 1162 Ci/mmol at EOS. Although this route provided the radiotracer in sufficient quantities for imaging studies, the synthesis was cumbersome. Thus, a labeled tracer that could be prepared more conveniently was sought.

  13. Survey of lunar carbon compounds. I - The presence of indigenous gases and hydrolysable carbon compounds in Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. I.; Cadogan, P. H.; Eglinton, G.; Maxwell, J. R.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1971-01-01

    Indigenous gases and hydrolyzable carbon compounds in Apollo 11 and 12 samples through gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric examination, noting meteoritic impact and solar wind implantation as probable origins

  14. Reaction cross sections on carbon for neutron energies from 11. 5 to 19 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Antolkovic, B. ); Dietze, G.; Klein, H. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on neutron-induced reaction cross sections for carbon measured in the 11.5- to 19-MeV energy range. The response of an NE-213 scintillation detector is measured in steps of at least 0.5 MeV for monoenergetic neutrons, applying suitable time-of-flight techniques, and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The total cross sections of all reactions with charged particles (except carbon recoil protons) in the exit channel are determined with respect to the n-p scattering cross section. In addition, the {sup 12}C(n,n{prime}3{alpha}) reaction is investigated for neutron energies of 11.9, 12.9, 14.0, 14.8, 17.0, and 19.0 MeV using the nuclear emulsion technique. As it is kinematically complete, this measurement yields the total and partial cross sections for the various channels of the {sup 12}C(n,n{prime}3{alpha}) reaction. The experimental data show deviations of up to {plus minus}25% from those recommended in ENDF/B-V, while a recent evaluation by Axton is partially confirmed. Reasonable agreement is found with most of the recent scattering experiments; thus, this data set represents a valuable constraint for further evaluations. The analysis performed, however, has shown that additional data from some partial reaction cross sections are needed.

  15. SU-E-J-144: Low Activity Studies of Carbon 11 Activation Via GATE Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Elmekawy, A; Ewell, L; Butuceanu, C; Qu, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the behavior of a Monte Carlo simulation code with low levels of activity (∼1,000Bq). Such activity levels are expected from phantoms and patients activated via a proton therapy beam. Methods: Three different ranges for a therapeutic proton radiation beam were examined in a Monte Carlo simulation code: 13.5, 17.0 and 21.0cm. For each range, the decay of an equivalent length{sup 11}C source and additional sources of length plus or minus one cm was studied in a benchmark PET simulation for activities of 1000, 2000 and 3000Bq. The ranges were chosen to coincide with a previous activation study, and the activities were chosen to coincide with the approximate level of isotope creation expected in a phantom or patient irradiated by a therapeutic proton beam. The GATE 7.0 simulation was completed on a cluster node, running Scientific Linux Carbon 6 (Red Hat©). The resulting Monte Carlo data were investigated with the ROOT (CERN) analysis tool. The half-life of{sup 11}C was extracted via a histogram fit to the number of simulated PET events vs. time. Results: The average slope of the deviation of the extracted carbon half life from the expected/nominal value vs. activity showed a generally positive value. This was unexpected, as the deviation should, in principal, decrease with increased activity and lower statistical uncertainty. Conclusion: For activity levels on the order of 1,000Bq, the behavior of a benchmark PET test was somewhat unexpected. It is important to be aware of the limitations of low activity PET images, and low activity Monte Carlo simulations. This work was funded in part by the Philips corporation.

  16. Studies and proposed changes to the RHIC p-Carbon polarimeters for the upcoming RUN-11

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.; Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Morozov, B.; Svirida, D.; Yip, K.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-09-27

    The RHIC polarized proton complex utilizes polarimeters in each of the Blue and Yellow beams that measure the beam polarization through the p-Carbon elastic scattering process in the Coulomb Nuclear Interference kinematic region. This along with a Polarized Hydrogen Jet Target that utilizes the proton-proton elastic scattering process to first measure the analyzing power of the reaction and using the reverse process to measure the beam polarization. The latter is used to calibrate the p-Carbon polarimeters at the desired beam energy. In Run 9 RHIC ran with beams at center-of-mass energies of 200 and 500 GeV respectively. The higher beam intensities as well as the fact that the 250 GeV beam size is much smaller than that at 100 GeV resulted in significantly higher rates seen by the polarimeters and led to observed instability. In this paper, we will discuss the problems encountered and the tests that were carried out using the AGS as a proxy in an attempt to solve the problems and the path forward we took towards the upcoming polarized proton Run11.

  17. Studies of cryocooler based cryosorption pump with activated carbon panels operating at 11K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, Upendra; Gangradey, Ranjana; Udgata, Swarup; Krishnamoorthy, V.

    2012-11-01

    Cryosorption pump is the only solution for pumping helium and hydrogen in fusion reactors. It is chosen because it offers highest pumping speed as well as the only suitable pump for the harsh environments in a tokamak. Towards the development of such cryosorption pumps, the optimal choice of the right activated carbon panels is essential. In order to characterize the performance of the panels with indigenously developed activated carbon, a cryocooler based cryosorption pump with scaled down sizes of panels is experimented. The results are compared with the commercial cryopanel used in a CTI cryosorption (model: Cryotorr 7) pump. The cryopanel is mounted on the cold head of the second stage GM cryocooler which cools the cryopanel down to 11K with first stage reaching about ~50K. With no heat load, cryopump gives the ultimate vacuum of 2.1E-7 mbar. The pumping speed of different gases such as nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, helium are tested both on indigenous and commercial cryopanel. These studies serve as a bench mark towards the development of better cryopanels to be cooled by liquid helium for use with tokamak.

  18. Carbon Counter-Electrode-Based Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells with Certified Efficiency Exceeding 11.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhonglin; Pan, Zhenxiao; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Zhao, Ke; Long, Donghui; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yixin; Zhong, Xinhua; Yu, Jong-Sung; Bisquert, Juan

    2016-08-18

    The mean power conversion efficiency (PCE) of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) is mainly limited by the low photovoltage and fill factor (FF), which are derived from the high redox potential of polysulfide electrolyte and the poor catalytic activity of the counter electrode (CE), respectively. Herein, we report that this problem is overcome by adopting Ti mesh supported mesoporous carbon (MC/Ti) CE. The confined area in Ti mesh substrate not only offers robust carbon film with submillimeter thickness to ensure high catalytic capacity, but also provides an efficient three-dimension electrical tunnel with better conductivity than state-of-art Cu2S/FTO CE. More importantly, the MC/Ti CE can down shift the redox potential of polysulfide electrolyte to promote high photovoltage. In all, MC/Ti CEs boost PCE of CdSe0.65Te0.35 QDSCs to a certified record of 11.16% (Jsc = 20.68 mA/cm(2), Voc = 0.798 V, FF = 0.677), an improvement of 24% related to previous record. This work thus paves a way for further improvement of performance of QDSCs. PMID:27455143

  19. Adrenal-derived 11-Oxygenated 19-Carbon Steroids are the Dominant Androgens in Classic 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Turcu, Adina F.; Nanba, Aya T.; Chomic, Robert; Upadhyay, Sunil K.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Shields, James J.; Merke, Deborah P.; Rainey, William E.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To comprehensively characterize androgens and androgen precursors in classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) and to gain insight to the mechanisms of their formation. Design Serum samples were obtained from 38 patients (19 men) with classic 21OHD, age 3-59, and 38 sex- and age-matched controls; 3 patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency; 4 patients with adrenal insufficiency; and 16 patients (8 men) undergoing adrenal vein sampling. Paraffin-embedded normal (n=5) and 21OHD adrenal tissue (n=3) was used for immunohistochemical studies. Methods We measured 11 steroids in all sera using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Immunofluroescence localized 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) within the normal and 21OHD adrenals. Results Four 11-oxygenated 19-carbon (11oxC19) steroids were significantly higher in male and female 21OHD patients than in controls: 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione, 11-ketoandrostenedione 11β-hydroxytestosterone, and 11-ketotestosterone (3-4-fold, p< 0.0001). For 21OHD patients, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone were positively correlated in females, but inversely correlated in males. All 11oxC19 steroids were higher in adrenal vein than in inferior vena cava samples from men and women and rose with cosyntropin stimulation. Only trace amounts of 11oxC19 steroids were found in sera from patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency and adrenal insufficiency, confirming their adrenal origin. HSD3B2 and CYB5A immunoreactivities were sharply segregated in the normal adrenal glands, whereas areas of overlapping expression were identified in the 21OHD adrenals. Conclusions All four 11oxC19 steroids are elevated in both men and women with classic 21OHD. Our data suggest that 11oxC19 steroids are specific biomarkers of adrenal-derived androgen excess. PMID:26865584

  20. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine: A false transmitter agent for heart neuronal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenspire, K.C.; Haka, M.S.; Van Dort, M.E.; Jewett, D.M.; Gildersleeve, D.L.; Schwaiger, M.; Wieland, D.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is a new radiotracer developed for mapping the sympathetic nerves of the heart. Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is synthesized by direct N-methylation of metaraminol with ({sup 11}C)methyl iodide in dimethyl formamide/dimethyl sulfoxide and purified by semi-preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Total synthesis time is 45 min from end-of-bombardment. Carbon-11-meta-hydroxyephedrine is produced in 40%-50% corrected radiochemical yield with a specific activity of 900 Ci/mmol. Routine radiochemical and chemical purity are 95% and 98%, respectively. Biodistribution studies in rats show high myocardial uptake. Pretreatment with desipramine, a drug known to selectively block neuronal uptake, results in a 92% decrease in tracer accumulation in the myocardium. Metabolic studies in guinea pigs show less than 5% metabolites in heart tissue 30 min after intravenous injection suggesting that ({sup 11}C)meta-hydroxyephedrine is suitable for kinetic modeling. These preliminary results support this new tracer as a clinical agent for neuronal imaging of the heart.

  1. Radiosynthesis of Carbon-11 Labeled Puromycin as a Potential PET Candidate for Imaging Protein Synthesis in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Milicevic Sephton, Selena; Aigbirhio, Franklin I

    2016-06-01

    In order to address the limitations associated with the present range of PET radiotracers used for imaging protein synthesis in vivo we have synthesized a candidate PET radiotracer based on Puromycin (3, PURO), a protein synthesis inhibitor. The desmethylPURO 9 precursor for radiolabeling with carbon-11 radioisotope was synthesized in two steps employing EDC/HOBt amide coupling in overall 76% yield. Optimal conditions for radiolabeling were then established via methylation/deprotection sequence. Under these conditions as determined by NMR analysis 9 showed partial stability (ca. 80%) under acidic conditions. Limited evidence of stereochemical stability of 3 was also found. The radiolabeling of intermediate [(11)C]12 was accomplished with up to 57% conversion from [(11)C]iodomethane. An automated method was then developed for high radioactivity radiosynthesis to produce [(11)C]3 ([(11)C]PURO) in 16 ± 6% (n = 3) decay corrected radiochemical yields. PMID:27326342

  2. Preclinical evaluation of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 sulfonamide derivatives for in vivo radiolabeling of erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, few PET tracers for in vivo labeling of red blood cells (RBCs) are available. In this study, we report the radiosynthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of 11C and 18F sulfonamide derivatives targeting carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), a metallo-enzyme expressed in RBCs, as potential blood pool tracers. A proof-of-concept in vivo imaging study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility to assess cardiac function and volumes using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated positron emission tomography (PET) acquisition in comparison with cine magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) in rats and a pig model of myocardial infarction. Methods The inhibition constants (Ki) of CA II were determined in vitro for the different compounds by assaying CA-catalyzed CO2 hydration activity. Binding to human RBCs was estimated after in vitro incubation of the compounds with whole blood. Biodistribution studies were performed to evaluate tracer kinetics in NMRI mice. ECG-gated PET acquisition was performed in Wistar rats at rest and during pharmacological stress by infusing dobutamine at 10 μg/kg/min and in a pig model of myocardial infarction. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes were compared with values from cMRI. Results The Ki of the investigated compounds for human CA II was found to be in the range of 8 to 422 nM. The fraction of radioactivity associated with RBCs was found to be ≥90% at 10- and 60-min incubation of tracers with heparinized human blood at room temperature for all tracers studied. Biodistribution studies in mice indicated that 30% to 67% of the injected dose was retained in the blood pool at 60 min post injection. A rapid and sustained tracer uptake in the heart region with an average standardized uptake value of 2.5 was observed from micro-PET images. The LVEF values obtained after pharmacological stress in rats closely matched between the cMRI and micro-PET values, whereas at rest, a larger variation between LVEF values obtained by

  3. In Vivo Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Carbon-11-Labeled Clozapine in Healthy Volunteers: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, HS; Kim, E; Moon, BS; Lim, NH; Lee, BC; Kim, SE

    2015-01-01

    We investigated clozapine (CLZ) tissue pharmacokinetics in vivo by using carbon-11-labeled CLZ (11C-CLZ) and positron emission tomography (PET). Eight healthy volunteers underwent 11C-CLZ studies wherein computed tomography image acquisition was followed by PET scans (whole-body, four; brain, four). After bolus intravenous 11C-CLZ injection, PET images were acquired at various timepoints for 2–3 hours. Tissue 11C-CLZ signals were plotted over time, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. High 11C-CLZ radioactivity was detected in the liver and brain, implying CLZ hepatic metabolism and efficient blood–brain barrier penetration. The urinary and hepatobiliary tracts were involved in 11C-CLZ excretion. Moderate to high radioactivity was observed in the dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor-rich brain regions, indicating CLZ binding to multiple receptor types. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of 11C-CLZ tissue pharmacokinetics in humans. PET using radiolabeled drugs can provide valuable information that could complement plasma pharmacokinetic data. PMID:26225256

  4. 11 things a geologist thinks an engineer should know about carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    A review is given on the geological aspects of carbonate beaches that a geologist thinks may be useful for an engineer. Though, Geologists not involved in engineering problems may find it difficult to know what an engineer should understand about carbonate beaches. Nevertheless, there are at least eleven topics that are potentially very useful for engineers to keep in mind. This paper emits the discussions of certain kinds of carbonate shorelines that are beyond the scope of engineering issues, and focuses on sand-sized coastal carbonate deposits.

  5. Rotational Spectrum and Structure of the 1,1-Difluoroethylene···Carbon Dioxide Complex.

    PubMed

    Anderton, Ashley M; Peebles, Rebecca A; Peebles, Sean A

    2016-01-21

    Rotational spectra for five isotopologues of the 1:1 weak complex between 1,1-difluoroethylene (H2C═CF2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) have been measured using 480 MHz bandwidth chirped-pulse and resonant cavity Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy between 5.5 and 18.5 GHz. The observed structure of the complex is planar, with the CO2 aligned roughly parallel to the C═C bond, and experimental structural parameters derived from rotational constants are consistent with the most stable geometry predicted by basis set superposition error and zero point energy corrected ab initio geometry optimizations at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level. Comparisons with the recently characterized vinyl fluoride···carbon dioxide complex reveal slightly longer intermolecular distances in the present complex, but very similar binding energies. PMID:26745797

  6. 11 things a geologist thinks an engineer should know about carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    This is a review of the geological aspects of carbonate beaches that a geologist thinks may be useful for an engineer. Classical geologic problems of carbonate beaches, for example how ancient examples are recognized in rock sequences, are of little interest to engineers. Geologists not involved in engineering problems may find it difficult to know what an engineer should understand about carbonate beaches. Nevertheless, there are at least eleven topics that are potentially very useful for engineers to keep in mind. These eleven are chosen with as much thought going into what has been omitted as has been given to the eleven included topics. Some qualifications are in order: First, this paper does not discuss certain kinds of carbonate shorelines that are beyond the scope of engineering issues. For example, this review does not discuss very high-energy carbonate boulder beaches. These beaches are comprised of pieces of carbonate material ganging in size from ten centimeters to meters. Typically, these are high-energy storm deposits formed from pieces of either eroded carbonate rock or other large carbonate pieces such as pieces of large corals. This paper focuses on sand-sized (0.0625–2.0 mm) coastal carbonate deposits. Second, offshore beaches will not be discussed. There are many carbonate beaches that form on banks or shoals exposed at low tide, but our discussion is confined to what most people think of when they go to some tropical island and/or resort and walk out to lay on the beach. Third, this paper does not consider mixed carbonate/quartz sand beaches. While mixed beaches are common, only the end member of purely carbonate sand beaches is considered. Fourth, there will be no order of preference of the eleven topics. And lastly, these eleven topics are not consensus items. These are simply one geologist s thoughts about the aspects of carbonate beaches that would be useful for engineering colleagues to keep in mind. Where possible, general reference is

  7. Biodistribution of a positron-emitting suicide inactivator of monoamine oxidase, carbon-11 pargyline, in mice and a rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwata, K.; Ido, T.; Yanai, K.; Kawashima, K.; Miura, Y.; Monma, M.; Watanuki, S.; Takahashi, T.; Iwata, R.

    1985-06-01

    Carbon-11 (/sup 11/C) pargyline, which is a suicide inactivator of Type B monoamine oxidase (MAO), was synthesized by the reaction of N-demethylpargyline with /sup 11/CH/sub 3/l. Biodistribution was investigated in mice, and positron tomographic images of the heart and lung in a rabbit were obtained. The distribution of /sup 11/C after administration of (/sup 11/C)pargyline was measured in several organs and blood at various time intervals. After 30 min its concentrations in the organs were constant. Subcellular distribution studies in the brain, lung, liver, and kidney showed that 59-70% of the /sup 11/C became acid-insoluble and 9-33% was present in the crude mitochondrial fraction at 60 min after injection. The uptakes of the /sup 11/C in each organ except for the kidney and spleen seemed to correlate with the in vitro enzymatic activity of Type B MAO. At high loading dose a nonspecific uptake was observed.

  8. Stable isotopic compositions of elemental carbon in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Jiang, Wenjuan; Chen, Shanli; Sun, Deling; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Gang; Rui, Maoling

    2016-02-01

    Stable isotopic compositions (δ13C) of elemental carbon (EC) in PM1.1 in north suburb of Nanjing region were determined in order to quantitatively evaluate the carbon sources of atmospheric fine particles during different seasons. Besides, δ13C values from potential sources such as coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, biomass burning, and dust were synchronously measured. The results showed that the average δ13C values of EC in PM1.1 in winter and summer were - 23.89 ± 1.6‰ and - 24.76 ± 0.9‰, respectively. Comparing with δ13C values from potential sources, we concluded that the main sources of EC in PM1.1 were from the emission of coal combustion and vehicle exhaust. The higher δ13C values in winter than those in summer were chiefly attributed to the more coal consumption. Combining with the concentrations of SO42 - and K+ in PM1.1, the high δ13C values of EC on 24 December and 27 December 2013 were ascribed to extra input of corn straw burning in addition to coal combustion and vehicle exhaust.

  9. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass.more » It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.« less

  10. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.

  11. Carbon Isotope Fractionation of 11 Acetogenic Strains Grown on H2 and CO2

    PubMed Central

    Dreisbach, Lisa K.; Conrad, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria are able to grow autotrophically on hydrogen and carbon dioxide by using the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway. Acetate is the end product of this reaction. In contrast to the fermentative route of acetate production, which shows almost no fractionation of carbon isotopes, the acetyl-CoA pathway has been reported to exhibit a preference for light carbon. In Acetobacterium woodii the isotope fractionation factor (ε) for 13C and 12C has previously been reported to be ε = −58.6‰. To investigate whether such a strong fractionation is a general feature of acetogenic bacteria, we measured the stable carbon isotope fractionation factor of 10 acetogenic strains grown on H2 and CO2. The average fractionation factor was εTIC = −57.2‰ for utilization of total inorganic carbon and εacetate = −54.6‰ for the production of acetate. The strongest fractionation was found for Sporomusa sphaeroides (εTIC = −68.3‰), the lowest fractionation for Morella thermoacetica (εTIC = −38.2‰). To investigate the reproducibility of our measurements, we determined the fractionation factor of 21 biological replicates of Thermoanaerobacter kivui. In general, our study confirmed the strong fractionation of stable carbon during chemolithotrophic acetate formation in acetogenic bacteria. However, the specific characteristics of the bacterial strain, as well as the cultural conditions, may have a moderate influence on the overall fractionation. PMID:23275504

  12. Carbon isotope fractionation of 11 acetogenic strains grown on H2 and CO2.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Martin B; Dreisbach, Lisa K; Conrad, Ralf

    2013-03-01

    Acetogenic bacteria are able to grow autotrophically on hydrogen and carbon dioxide by using the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway. Acetate is the end product of this reaction. In contrast to the fermentative route of acetate production, which shows almost no fractionation of carbon isotopes, the acetyl-CoA pathway has been reported to exhibit a preference for light carbon. In Acetobacterium woodii the isotope fractionation factor (ε) for (13)C and (12)C has previously been reported to be ε = -58.6‰. To investigate whether such a strong fractionation is a general feature of acetogenic bacteria, we measured the stable carbon isotope fractionation factor of 10 acetogenic strains grown on H(2) and CO(2). The average fractionation factor was ε(TIC) = -57.2‰ for utilization of total inorganic carbon and ε(acetate) = -54.6‰ for the production of acetate. The strongest fractionation was found for Sporomusa sphaeroides (ε(TIC) = -68.3‰), the lowest fractionation for Morella thermoacetica (ε(TIC) = -38.2‰). To investigate the reproducibility of our measurements, we determined the fractionation factor of 21 biological replicates of Thermoanaerobacter kivui. In general, our study confirmed the strong fractionation of stable carbon during chemolithotrophic acetate formation in acetogenic bacteria. However, the specific characteristics of the bacterial strain, as well as the cultural conditions, may have a moderate influence on the overall fractionation. PMID:23275504

  13. D2-dopamine receptor specific brain uptake of carbon-11-labeled YM-09151-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, K.; Ishiwata, K.; Kawashima, K.; Hatazawa, J.; Itoh, M.; Ido, T. )

    1989-04-01

    The in vivo D2-receptor specific brain uptake of N-((2RS,3RS)-1-benzyl-2- methyl-3-pyrrolidinyl)-5-chloro-2-methoxy-4-({sup 11}C)methylaminobenzamide (({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2), was investigated. In rat brain the high uptake of ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2 in striatum was displaced with sulpiride, spiroperidol, and YM-09151-2. SCH-23390 and ritanserin, D1-dopamine and S2-serotonin antagonists, showed no effect on the distribution of ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2. In the striatum at 60 min, 95% of the radioactivity was detected as ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2 by high performance liquid chromatography. On the other hand, 41% of {sup 11}C in the plasma at 60 min was observed as metabolites. In vivo autoradiography showed a high uptake of ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2 in the striatum and in the nucleus accumbens of rat brain. A high uptake of radioactivity was also found in the canine basal ganglia with positron emission tomography. The uptake was reduced by pretreatment with spiroperidol. The present results demonstrate that ({sup 11}C)YM-09151-2 is a D2 receptor specific compound and is a potential in vivo tracer for measuring D2 receptors.

  14. Carbon-11 and radioiodinated derivatives of lysergic acid diethylamide: Ligands for the study of serotonin S2 receptors in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lever, J.R.; Hartig, P.R.; Wong, D.F.; Scheffel, U.; Dannals, R.F.; Wilson, A.A.; Ravert, H.T.; Hoffman, B.J.; Frost, J.J.; Burns, H.D.

    1985-05-01

    2-(/sup 125/1)-LSD binds selectively and with high affinity to serotonin S2 receptors in vitro. In the present study, the authors prepared 2-(/sup 123/1)-LSD as well as a carbon-11 labeled analog. They also characterized the in vivo binding of these tracers to receptor sites in mouse brain to assess their potential for tomographic imaging of S2 receptors in man. The temporal distribution of 2-(/sup 125/1)-LSD paralleled the density of S2 receptors. Regional selectivity was maximal after 15 minutes when tissue to cerebellum ratios were: frontal cortex (2.6), olfactory tubercles (2.4), striatum (2.3), and cortex (2.0). Preinjection of ketanserin, a potent S2 antagonist, inhibited binding. 2-(/sup 123/1)-LSD, prepared in 20% yield from LSD and electrophilic I-123, gave similar results in vivo and may be useful for SPECT studies. The authors then synthesized N1-((/sup 11/C)-Me)-2-Br-LSD (/sup 11/C-MBL) from (/sup 11/C)-methyl iodide and 2-Br-LSD for PET imaging trials. /sup 11/C-MBL was isolated by HPLC in high chemical and radiochemical purity within 30 minutes from E.O.B. The average radiochemical yield was 20% and the specific activity was determined by U.V. spectroscopy to be up to 1300Ci/mMol (E.O.S.). 11C-MBL showed greater regional selectivity in vivo in mouse brain than 2-(/sup 125/1)-LSD. After 30 minutes, peak tissue to cerebellum ratios were: frontal cortex (5.4), olfactory tubercles (4.2), striatum (3.0), and cortex (2.8). Preinjection of ketanserin markedly inhibited /sup 11/C-MBL binding. /sup 11/C-MBL is a promising candidate for PET studies of S2 receptors.

  15. Carbon-11 choline: synthesis, purification, and brain uptake inhibition by 2-dimethylaminoethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.A.; Jones, R.M.; Yano, Y.; Budinger, T.F.

    1985-12-01

    We report an improved method for the synthesis and purification of (11C)methylcholine from the precursors (11C)methyliodide and 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol). Preparation time, including purification, is 35 min postbombardment. Forty millicuries of purified injectable (11C)choline were produced with a measured specific activity of greater than 300 Ci/mmol and a radiochemical purity greater than 98%. The decay corrected radiochemical yield for the synthesis and purification was approximately 50%. Residual precursor deanol, which inhibits brain uptake of choline, is removed by a rapid preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using a reverse phase cyano column with a biologically compatible 100% water eluent. Evaporation alone did not completely remove the deanol precursor. Brain uptake of the (11C)choline product was six times greater after HPLC removal of deanol because doses of less than 1 microgram/kg significantly inhibit (14C)choline brain uptake.

  16. Noninvasive estimation of regional myocardial oxygen consumption by positron emission tomography with carbon-11 acetate in patients with myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.N.; Geltman, E.M.; Brown, M.A.; Henes, C.G.; Weinheimer, C.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R. )

    1989-11-01

    We previously demonstrated in experimental studies that myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) can be estimated noninvasively with positron emission tomography (PET) from analysis of the myocardial turnover rate constant (k) after administration of carbon-11 (11C) acetate. To determine regional k in healthy human subjects and to estimate alterations in MVO2 accompanying myocardial ischemia, we administered (11C)acetate to five healthy human volunteers and to six patients with myocardial infarction. Extraction of (11C)acetate by the myocardium was avid and clearance from the blood-pool rapid yielding myocardial images of excellent quality. Regional k was homogeneous in myocardium of healthy volunteers (coefficient variation = 11%). In patients, k in regions remote from the area of infarction was not different from values in myocardium of healthy human volunteers (0.061 +/- 0.025 compared with 0.057 +/- 0.008 min-1). In contrast, MVO2 in the center of the infarct region was only 6% of that in remote regions (p less than 0.01). In four patients studied within 48 hr of infarction and again more than seven days after the acute event, regional k and MVO2 did not change. The approach developed should facilitate evaluation of the efficacy of interventions designed to enhance recovery of jeopardized myocardium and permit estimation of regional MVO2 and metabolic reserve underlying cardiac disease of diverse etiologies.

  17. Carbon-11-cocaine binding compared at subpharmacological and pharmacological doses: A PET study

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J. |

    1995-07-01

    The authors have characterized cocaine binding in the brain to a high-affinity site on the dopamine transporter using PET and tracer doses of [{sup 11}C]cocaine in the baboon in vivo. The binding pattern, however, of cocaine at tracer (subpharmacological) doses may differ from that observed when the drug is taken in behaviorally active doses, particularly since in vitro studies have shown that cocaine also binds to low affinity binding sites. PET was used to compare and characterize [{sup 11}C]cocaine binding in the baboon brain at low subpharmacological (18 {mu}g average dose) and at pharmacological (8000 {mu}g) doses. Serial studies on the same day in the same baboon were used to assess the reproducibility of repeated measures and to assess the effects of drugs which inhibit the dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. Time-activity curves from brain and the arterial plasma input function were used to calculate the steady-state distribution volume (DV). At subpharmacological doses, [{sup 11}C]cocaine had a more homogeneous distribution. Bmax/Kd for sub-pharmacological [{sup 11}C]cocaine corresponded to 0.5-0.6 and for pharmacological [{sup 11}C]cocaine it corresponded to 0.1-0.2. Two-point Scatchard analysis gave Bmax = 2300 pmole/g and Kd = 3600 nM. Bmax/Kd for sub-pharmacological doses of [{sup 11}C]cocaine was decreased by cocaine and drugs that inhibit the dopamine transporter, to 0.1-0.2, but not by drugs that inhibit the serotonin or the norepinephrine transporter. None of these drugs changed Bmax/Kd for a pharmacological dose of [{sup 11}C]cocaine. At subpharmacological doses, [{sup 11}C]cocaine binds predominantly to a high-affinity site on the dopamine transporter. 36 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Carbon-11 epidepride: a suitable radioligand for PET investigation of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Langer, O; Halldin, C; Dollé, F; Swahn, C G; Olsson, H; Karlsson, P; Hall, H; Sandell, J; Lundkvist, C; Vaufrey, F; Loc'h, C; Crouzel, C; Mazière, B; Farde, L

    1999-07-01

    Epidepride [(S)-(-)-N-([1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl)-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenza mide] binds with a picomolar affinity (Ki = 24 pM) to the dopamine D2 receptor. Iodine-123-labeled epidepride has been used previously to study striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Our aim was to label epidepride with carbon-11 for comparative quantitative studies between positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT. Epidepride was synthesized from its bromo-analogue FLB 457 via the corresponding trimethyl-tin derivative. In an alternative synthetic pathway, the corresponding substituted benzoic acid was reacted with the optically pure aminomethylpyrrolidine-derivative. Demethylation of epidepride gave the desmethyl-derivative, which was reacted with [11C]methyl triflate. Total radiochemical yield was 40-50% within a total synthesis time of 30 min. The specific radioactivity at the end of synthesis was 37-111 GBq/micromol (1,000-3,000 Ci/mmol). Human postmortem whole-hemisphere autoradiography demonstrated dense binding in the caudate putamen, and also in extrastriatal areas such as the thalamus and the neocortex. The binding was inhibited by unlabeled raclopride. PET studies in a cynomolgus monkey demonstrated high uptake in the striatum and in several extrastriatal regions. At 90 min after injection, uptake in the striatum, thalamus and neocortex was about 11, 4, and 2 times higher than in the cerebellum, respectively. Pretreatment experiment with unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg) inhibited 50-70% of [11C]epidepride binding. The fraction of unchanged [11C]epidepride in monkey plasma determined by a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was about 30% of the total radioactivity at 30 min after injection of [11C]epidepride. The availability of [11C]epidepride allows the PET-verification of the data obtained from quantitation studies with SPECT. PMID:10473189

  19. Carbon-11-methionine and PET in evaluation of treatment response of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Huovinen, R.; Leskinen-Kallio, S.; Någren, K.; Lehikoinen, P.; Ruotsalainen, U.; Teräs, M.

    1993-01-01

    Uptake of L-methyl-11C-methionine (11C-methionine) in breast cancer metastases was studied with positron emission tomography (PET). Eight patients with soft tissue metastases were studied twice: before the onset of chemotherapy (4), hormonal therapy (3) or radiotherapy (1) and 3-14 weeks later. The radioactivity concentration of the low molecular weight fraction of venous plasma samples separated by fast gel filtration was used as input function. The input corrected uptake rate of 11C-methionine (Ki) in breast cancer metastases before the treatment ranged between 0.035 and 0.186 1 min-1 and the standardised uptake value (SUV) between 2.0 and 11.4. The uptake of 11C-methionine into the metastases decreased when clinical objective stability or regression of the metastases was later obtained and increased in cases where progressive disease was seen during treatment. We conclude that metabolic changes in the amino acid metabolism detected by PET precede the clinical response, and may be of clinical value in predicting the treatment response. Images Figure 1 PMID:8471437

  20. Carbon-11 labeling of CP-126,998*: A radiotracer for in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Musachio, J.L.; Flesher, J.E.; Scheffel, U.

    1996-05-01

    The study of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) via PET is of interest as reduced activity of this enzyme has been observed in Alzheimer`s disease. Our efforts to develop a radiotracer for mapping of AChE have focused on the N-benzylpiperidine benzisoxazole, CP-126,998, a highly potent (IC{sub 50}=0.48 nm) and selective inhibitor of AChE. High specific activity [C-11] CP-126,998 was synthesized (14 - 24% radiochemical yield, non-decay corrected) by treatment of the desmethyl precursor, CP-118,954, with [C-11] methyl iodide and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in DMF. In vivo studies with [C-11] CP-126,998 in mice show that this radiotracer displays highest uptake in striatum (6.2 %ID/g), a brain region known to be rich in AChE. The (striatum-cerebellum)/cerebellar radioactivity ratio reached a maximum of 4.3 at 30 min postinjection, and this ratio decreased to 2.4 at 120 min. .Radiotracer binding was saturable in vivo by pretreatment with CP-118,954. Pretreatment of mice with diisopropylfluorophosphate (4 mg/kg i.p.), a known AChE inhibitor, significantly inhibited binding in striatum in a dose-dependent manner. Initial results suggest that [C-11] CP-126,998 may prove useful as a marker for the study of AChE in humans via PET.

  1. Carbon-11 and fluorine-18 chemistry devoted to molecular probes for imaging the brain with positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Dollé, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of the living human brain in real-time and in a noninvasive way was for centuries only a dream, made, however, possible today with the remarkable development during the four last decades of powerful molecular imaging techniques, and especially positron emission tomography (PET). Molecular PET imaging relies, from a chemical point of view, on the use and preparation of a positron-emitting radiolabelled probe or radiotracer, notably compounds incorporating one of two short-lived radionuclides fluorine-18 (T1/2 : 109.8 min) and carbon-11 (T1/2 : 20.38 min). The growing availability and interest for the radiohalogen fluorine-18 in radiopharmaceutical chemistry undoubtedly results from its convenient half-life and the successful use in clinical oncology of 2-[(18) F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18) F]FDG). The special interest of carbon-11 is not only that carbon is present in virtually all biomolecules and drugs allowing therefore for isotopic labelling of their chemical structures but also that a given molecule could be radiolabelled at different functions or sites, permitting to explore (or to take advantage of) in vivo metabolic pathways. PET chemistry includes production of these short-lived radioactive isotopes via nuclear transmutation reactions using a cyclotron, and is directed towards the development of rapid synthetic methods, at the trace level, for the introduction of these nuclides into a molecule, as well as the use of fast purification, analysis and formulation techniques. PET chemistry is the driving force in molecular PET imaging, and this special issue of the Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, which is strongly chemistry and radiochemistry-oriented, aims at illustrating, be it in part only, the state-of-the-art arsenal of reactions currently available and its potential for the research and development of specific molecular probes labelled with the positron emitters carbon-11 and fluorine-18, with optimal imaging

  2. Accelerating the developing of carbon sequestration technologies. Electricity technology roadmap: limiting challenge No. 11. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    S. Dalton

    2003-12-15

    The report describes the R & D work needed to develop integrated carbon capture, transport, and storage technologies essential to reducing emissions associated with fossil fuel power generation. It incorporates extensive input from: representatives of the electric power industry, oil and gas companies, international research institutions, national laboratories, government agencies, environmental nonprofit organisations and academia. EPRI staff then worked intensively to interpret the inputs from this broad spectrum of contributors, and expand them into a systematic set of needs and recommendations. The document supports the 2003 Electricity Technology Roadmap. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Bijaya; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    We study the 11Li and 22C nuclei at leading order (LO) in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT). Using the value of the 22C rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrain the values of the two-neutron (2n) separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of the 20C-neutron system (hereafter denoted 21C). The 1-σ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gives an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2n separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2n halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the 11Li data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtain the low-energy spectrum of B(E1) of this transition at several different values of the 2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of 21C. Our predictions can be compared to the outcome of an ongoing experiment on the Coulomb dissociation of 22C to obtain tighter constraints on the two- and three-body energies in the 22C system.

  4. Virtual coupling potential for elastic scattering of 10,11Be on proton and carbon targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapoux, V.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Casandjian, J.-M.; Chartier, M.; Cortina-Gil, M. D.; Fékou-Youmbi, V.; Gillibert, A.; Cormick, M. Mac; Maréchal, F.; Marie, F.; Mittig, W.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Orr, N. A.; Ostrowski, A. N.; Ottini-Hustache, S.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Scarpaci, J.-A.; Sida, J.-L.; Suomijärvi, T.; Winfield, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The 10,11Be(p, p) and (12C, 12C) reactions were analyzed to determine the influence of the weak binding energies of exotic nuclei on their interaction potential. The elastic cross sections were measured at GANIL in inverse kinematics using radioactive 10,11Be beams produced at energies of 39.1A and 38.4 A MeV. The elastic proton scattering data were analyzed within the framework of the microscopic Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux (JLM) nucleon-nucleus potential. The angular distributions are found to be best reproduced by reducing the real part of the microscopic optical potential, as a consequence of the coupling to the continuum. These effects modify deeply the elastic potential. Including the Virtual Coupling Potential (VCP), we show the ability of the general optical potentials to reproduce the data for scattering of unstable nuclei, using realistic densities. Finally, the concepts needed to develop a more general and microscopic approach of the VCP are discussed.

  5. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  6. Conformational features of poly(1,1-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate) and poly(vinyl acetate) diblock oligomers in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baysal, Canan; Erman, Burak; Chu, Benjamin

    2001-03-01

    We report detailed molecular dynamics calculations of single chain diblocks of poly(1,1- dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate) (PFOA) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) in supercritical carbon dioxide, SCCO2. At the critical micelle concentration, this system exhibits self-assembly into micellar structures due to the solvent specific selectivity of the blocks. Although the intermolecular factors determining micelle formation are well studied for this system, the intramolecular single chain conformational features of the molecules have not yet been investigated in the literature. The specific aim of the present work is to study the conformational properties of the single diblock chains in supercritical carbon dioxide at 65 °C, and at four different pressures by molecular dynamics simulations. Fluctuations in the shapes of the PVAc and PFOA blocks are observed to be strongly dependent on pressure. The rate of approach of an initially rodlike chain to its equilibrium conformational space is likewise found to depend strongly on pressure. Calculations of the radial distribution function for the solvent molecules around the chain show that a solvation shell is formed around the polymer. Important correlations between the results of single chain calculations and micelle behavior are observed and discussed.

  7. No-carrier-added carbon-11-labeled sn-1,2- and sn-1,3-diacylglycerols by (11C)propyl ketene method

    SciTech Connect

    Imahori, Y.; Fujii, R.; Ueda, S.; Ido, T.; Nishino, H.; Moriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Nakahashi, H. )

    1991-08-01

    This article describes the preparation of sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerols and sn-1,3-(11C)diacylglycerols by a no-carrier-added reaction based on a labeling method using (1-11C)propyl ketene, which is one of the most potent acylating agents. (1-11C)Propyl ketene was produced by pyrolytic decomposition of (1-11C)butyric acid and was trapped in pyridine containing L-alpha-palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine, producing L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-(1-11C)butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. The authors adopted an enzymatic reaction to remove the phosphorylcholine, in which L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-(1-11C)butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine was incubated with phospholipase C, hydrolyzing to produce 1-palmitoyl-sn-2-(1-11C)butyrylglycerol. Total synthesis time was about 50 minutes and the specific activity was estimated at 93 GBq/mumol (2.5 Ci/mumol) at end of synthesis. Radiochemical yield was 3.8% based on the trapped 11CO2. sn-1,3-(11C)Diacylglycerol was also synthesized by (1-11C)propyl ketene reaction with 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol in a single procedure. The regional brain tissue radioactivities obtained in sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerol were higher than those of sn-1,3-(11C)diacylglycerol, and the regional values varied widely. In autoradiography of brain slices from conscious rats, sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerol incorporation sites were discretely localized, especially in the amygdala, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus, suggesting that intensive neuronal processing occurred in these areas on the basis of phosphatidylinositol turnover.

  8. Synthesis of carbon-11-labeled imidazopyridine- and purine-thioacetamide derivatives as new potential PET tracers for imaging of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1).

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2016-03-01

    The target tracer carbon-11-labeled imidazopyridine- and purine-thioacetamide derivatives, N-(3-[(11)C]methoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-((5-methoxy-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)thio)acetamide (3-[(11)C]4a) and N-(4-[(11)C]methoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-((5-methoxy-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-yl)thio)acetamide (4-[(11)C]4a); 2-((6-amino-9H-purin-8-yl)thio)-N-(3-[(11)C]methoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)acetamide (3-[(11)C]8a) and 2-((6-amino-9H-purin-8-yl)thio)-N-(4-[(11)C]methoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acetamide (4-[(11)C]8a), were prepared by O-[(11)C]methylation of their corresponding precursors with [(11)C]CH3OTf under basic condition (2N NaOH) and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) method in 50-60% radiochemical yields based on [(11)C]CO2 and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB). The overall synthesis time from EOB was 23min, the radiochemical purity was >99%, and the specific activity at end of synthesis (EOS) was 185-555GBq/μmol. PMID:26856922

  9. Monochromator operation in the carbon window region at the reflectometry beamline BL-11D of the Photon Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Tadashi; Aihara, Shogaku

    2013-03-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray beamline BL-11D of the Photon Factory has been recently equipped with a reflectometer to be dedicated to reflectometry for optical elements. The monochromator is of a varied deviation angle type. Focus conditions had been achieved using photoelectron spectroscopy data in the separated regions of 60-200 eV and 300-700 eV with respective gratings. Relying on the monochromator parameters, we programmed a monochromator operation optimized to 250-300 eV region for characterization of carbon window multilayers. Spectral reflectance of a Cr/C multilayer was measured at various angles of incidence, and the peak energy changed, showing that the monochromator has a good spectral accuracy as well as a high resolving power. We also programmed a monochromator operation above 700 eV, and the operable energy range has been extended to 200-1000 eV with one grating. The spectral transmittance and reflectances of Co/C multilayers were measured, and the spectral impurities were discussed.

  10. Synthesis of a sugar-organometallic compound 1,1‧-difurfurylferrocene and its microwave preparation of carbon/iron oxide nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shanyu; Cooper, Daniel C.; Xu, Haixun; Zhu, Pinghua; Suggs, J. William

    2013-01-01

    In order to synthesize a carbon-metal or metal oxide combination sphere, carbonaceous resource furfural 1 was introduced, which was nucleophilic treated with 1,1‧-dilithioferrocene 2 to form a sugar-organometallic compound: ferrocenyl monosaccharide derivative 1,1‧-difurfurylferrocene 3. 1,1‧-Difurfurylferrocene 3 can be hydrothermally treated in a microwave reactor to give 300-500 nm microspheres with the α-Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 nanocrystals formed on the surface, which may be favorable for new magnetic materials preparation or instead of iron with other metal ions, versatile carbon/metal composites will be possibly synthesized for catalysis, drug delivery and magnetic uses.

  11. Effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang-liang; Meng, Hui-min; Liang, Li-kang; Li, Sen; Shi, Jin-hui

    2015-10-01

    LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were applied to carbon steels with a NiCoCrAlY bond coat by plasma spraying. The effects of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs were investigated in 3.5wt% NaCl solution using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that a large number of cracks are found in the LaMgAl11O19 TBCs after the samples are heat-treated, including some through-thickness cracks. The corrosion forms of the as-sprayed and heat-treated TBCs are uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion, respectively. The as-sprayed TBCs exhibit three EIS time constants after being immersed for less than 7 d, and then a new time constant appears because of steel substrate corrosion. When the immersion time is increased to 56 d, a Warburg impedance ( W) component appears in the EIS data. The EIS data for the heat-treated TBCs exhibit only two time constants after the samples are immersed for less than 14 d, and a new time constant appears when the immersion time is increased further. The heat treatment reduces the corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated with LaMgAl11O19 TBCs. The corrosion products are primarily γ-FeOOH and Fe3O4.

  12. Air-tolerant Fabrication and Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of n-Type Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Encapsulating 1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene.

    PubMed

    Nonoguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iihara, Yu; Ohashi, Kenji; Murayama, Tomoko; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    The thermally-triggered n-type doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated using 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, a novel n-type dopant. Through a simple thermal vacuum process, the phosphine compounds are moderately encapsulated inside single-walled carbon nanotubes. The encapsulation into SWNTs is carefully characterized using Raman/X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This easy-to-handle doping with air-stable precursors for n-type SWNTs enables the large-scale fabrication of thermoelectric materials showing an excellent power factor exceeding approximately 240 μW mK(-2) . PMID:27439731

  13. USGS Arctic Ocean carbon cruise 2011: field activity H-01-11-AR to collect carbon data in the Arctic Ocean, August - September 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Knorr, Paul O.; Wynn, Jonathan; Lisle, John; Buczkowski, Brian J.; Moore, Barbara; Mayer, Larry; Armstrong, Andrew; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed at the surface of the ocean by reacting with seawater to form a weak, naturally occurring acid called carbonic acid. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, the concentration of carbonic acid in seawater also increases, causing a decrease in ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states, a process known as ocean acidification. The oceans have absorbed approximately 525 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or about one-quarter to one-third of the anthropogenic carbon emissions released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (Sabine and others, 2004). Global surveys of ocean chemistry have revealed that seawater pH has decreased by about 0.1 units (from a pH of 8.2 to 8.1) since the 1700s due to absorption of carbon dioxide (Caldeira and Wickett, 2003; Orr and others, 2005; Raven and others, 2005). Modeling studies, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CO2 emission scenarios, predict that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could reach more than 500 parts per million (ppm) by the middle of this century and 800 ppm by the year 2100, causing an additional decrease in surface water pH of 0.3 pH units. Ocean acidification is a global threat and is already having profound and deleterious effects on the geology, biology, chemistry, and socioeconomic resources of coastal and marine habitats (Raven and others, 2005; Ruttiman, 2006). The polar and sub-polar seas have been identified as the bellwethers for global ocean acidification.

  14. Determination of δ11B by HR-ICP-MS from mass limited samples: Application to natural carbonates and water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sambuddha; Owen, Robert; Kerr, Joanna; Greaves, Mervyn; Elderfield, Henry

    2014-09-01

    We present an improved method for accurate and precise determination of the boron isotopic composition (11B/10B) of carbonate and water samples using a mineral acid matrix and HR-ICP-MS. Our method for δ11B determination utilizes a micro-distillation based boron purification technique for both carbonate and seawater matrices. The micro-distillation method is characterized by low blank (⩽0.01 ng-B) and 99.8 ± 5.7% boron recovery. We also report a new ICP-MS method, performed in a hydrofluoric acid matrix, using a jet interface fitted Thermo® Element XR that consumes <3.0 ng-B per quintuplicate analyses (±0.5‰, 2σ, n = 5). A comparatively high matrix tolerance limit of ⩽50 ppb Na/K/Mg/Ca characterizes our ICP-MS method. With an extremely low procedural blank (⩽0.05 ± 0.01 ng-B) the present isotope method is optimized for rapid (∼25 samples per session) analysis of small masses of carbonates (foraminifera, corals) with low boron abundance and small volume water samples (seawater, porewater, river water). Our δ11B estimates of seawater (39.8 ± 0.5‰, 2σ, n = 30); SRM AE-120 (-20.2 ± 0.5‰, 2s, n = 33); SRM AE-121 (19.8 ± 0.4‰, 2s, n = 16); SRM AE-122 (39.6 ± 0.5‰, 2s, n = 16) are within analytical uncertainty of published values. We apply this new method to assess the impacts of laboratory handling induced sample contamination and seawater physio-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, and salinity) on marine carbonate bound δ11B by analyzing core-top planktonic foraminifera samples.

  15. Further evaluation of the carbon11-labelled D2/3 agonist PET radiotracer PHNO: reproducibility in tracer characteristics and characterization of extrastriatal binding

    PubMed Central

    Egerton, Alice; Hirani, Ella; Ahmad, Rabia; Turton, David R; Brickute, Diana; Rosso, Lula; Howes, Oliver D; Luthra, Sajinder K; Grasby, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    [11C]-(+)-PHNO is a new dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist radiotracer which has been successfully used to measure D2/3 receptor availability in experimental animals and man. Here we report in vivo evaluation in the rat of the biodistribution, metabolism, specificity, selectivity and dopamine sensitivity of carbon-11 labeled PHNO ([11C]-3-PHNO) produced by an alternative radiochemical synthesis method. [11C]-3-PHNO showed rapid metabolism and clearance from most peripheral organs and tissues. [11C]-3-PHNO, but not its polar metabolite, readily crossed the blood-brain barrier and showed high levels of uptake in the D2/3 -rich striatum. Pre-treatment with unlabelled PHNO and the D2/3 receptor antagonist raclopride indicated that binding in the striatum was specific and selective to D2/3 receptors. PET studies in anaesthetized rats revealed significant reductions in [11C]-3-PHNO binding in the striatum following amphetamine administration, indicating sensitivity to increases in endogenous dopamine concentrations. D2/3 antagonist pre-treatment additionally indicated moderate levels of [11C]-3-PHNO specific binding in several extrastriatal brain areas – most notably the olfactory bulbs and tubercles, thalamus and hypothalamus. Of particular interest, approximately 30% of [11C]-3-PHNO signal in the cerebellum – a region often used as a ‘low-binding’ reference region for PET quantification - was attributable to specific signal. These data demonstrate that [11C]-3-PHNO shows similar tracer characteristics to [11C]-(+)-PHNO, but additionally indicate that radiolabeled PHNO may be used to estimate D2/3 receptor availability in select extrastriatal brain regions with PET. PMID:19957364

  16. Geochemical Characterization of Bitumen Carbonate from Grosmont Formation, Alberta: Well 10-12-93-24W4 and 11-33-94-22W4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, J.; Kil, Y. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate bitumen, one of the unconventional oils, has been attracting attention as an energy resource, which can substitute petroleum resources. Various researchers have been investigating carbonate rocks to exploit bitumen reservoirs. Grosmont Formation, located in northern Alberta, is one of the largest carbonate reservoirs in the world. We conducted inorganic geochemical analysis about two-carbonate rock cores of Grosmont Formation (well 10-12-93-24W4, 11-33-94-22W4), obtained from Core Research Center (CRC) in Canada to investigate the characteristics and origin of dolomite in the Grosmont Formation. Grosmont Formation consists of four carbonate units, UG3, UG2, UG1 and LG, with three shale beds, SB3, SB2 and SB1. Major and trace elements, and isotope compositions of dolomites from UG and LG units indicate that UG dolomites were formed within a near surface environment under evaporitic condition, whereas LG dolomites were formed in a diagenetic environment. UG and LG dolomites might be formed at temperature ranging from 43.9 °C to 56.7 °C with Devonian seawater.

  17. Syntheses and Radiosyntheses of Two Carbon-11 Labeled Potent and Selective Radioligands for Imaging Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Padakanti, Prashanth K.; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Junfeng; Parsons, Stanley M.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Tu, Zhude

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is a specific biomarker for imaging presynaptic cholinergic neurons. The syntheses and C-11 labeling of two potent enantiopure VAChT inhibitors are reported here. Procedures Two VAChT inhibitors, (±)-2 and (±)-6, were successfully synthesized. A chiral HPLC column was used to resolve the enantiomers from each corresponding racemic mixture for in vitro characterization. The radiosyntheses of (−)-[11C]2 and (−)-[11C]6 from the corresponding desmethyl phenol precursor was accomplished using [11C]methyl iodide or [11C]methyl triflate, respectively. Results The synthesis of (−)-[11C]2 was accomplished with 40–50 % radiochemical yield (decay-corrected), SA>480 GBq/μmol (EOB), and radiochemical purity >99 %. Synthesis of (−)-[11C]6 was accomplished with 5–10 % yield, SA>140 GBq/μmol (EOB), and radiochemical purity >97 %. The radiosynthesis and dose formulation of each tracer was completed in 55–60 min. Conclusions Two potent enantiopure VAChT ligands were synthesized and 11C-labeled with good radiochemical yield and specific activity. PMID:24875230

  18. Greater Monoamine Oxidase A Binding in Perimenopausal Age as Measured With Carbon 11–Labeled Harmine Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rekkas, Paraskevi Vivien; Wilson, Alan A.; Lee, Vivian Wai Han; Yogalingam, Priyanga; Sacher, Julia; Rusjan, Pablo; Houle, Sylvain; Stewart, Donna E.; Kolla, Nathan J.; Kish, Stephen; Chiuccariello, Lina; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Perimenopause is a period of high risk for mood disorders, and it has been proposed that perimenopause is also a window of risk for processes linked to later dementia. However, in human perimenopause, the neurobiological changes implicated in the genesis of mood disorders or dementia have not been identified. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an important brain enzyme that creates oxidative stress, influences apoptosis, and metabolizes monoamines. After declines in estrogen level, MAO-A density may be elevated for a month or longer, and repeated declines in estrogen level occur with greater magnitude during perimenopause. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether MAO-A total distribution volume (VT), an index of MAO-A density, is elevated in women of perimenopausal age (41–51 years). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a cross-sectional study at a tertiary care psychiatric hospital, 58 women underwent carbon 11–labeled harmine positron emission tomography. These included 19 young women of reproductive age (mean [SD], 28.26 [5.05] years), 27 women of perimenopausal age (mean [SD] age, 45.21 [3.41] years; including 14 women with change in menstrual cycle length with a mean [SD] age of 45.50 [4.00] years and 13 women with no change in menstrual cycle length with a mean [SD] age of 44.92 [2.81] years), and 12 women in menopause (mean [SD] age, 56.25 [3.19] years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Values of MAO-A VT in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal striatum, ventral striatum, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain. RESULTS On average, MAO-A VT in perimenopausal age was elevated by 34% compared with reproductive age and by 16% compared with menopause (multivariate analysis of variance, group effect, F16,94 = 3.03; P < .001). Within the perimenopausal age group, meeting Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria for perimenopause, which is mainly based on menstrual cycle length, was not associated with MAO-A VT (F8,18 = 0.548; P = .81) but

  19. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled iodinated cocaine derivatives and their distribution in baboon brain measured using positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Yu, D W; Gatley, S J; Wolf, A P; MacGregor, R R; Dewey, S L; Fowler, J S; Schlyer, D J

    1992-06-12

    Three iodine-substituted derivatives of cocaine, methyl esters of 3-[(2'-, 3'-, and 4'-iodobenzoyl)oxy]-8-methyl-[1R-(exo,exo)]-8- azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2 carboxylic acid (2a-c), were synthesized and subjected to N-demethylation to give the corresponding noriodococaines 3-[(2'-,3'-, and 4'-iodobenzoyl)oxy]-[1R-(exo,exo)]-8- azabicyclo[3.2.1]-octane-2-carboxylic acid (3a-c). These were remethylated with [11C]CH3I to give the [N-11C-methyl]iodococaines 4a-c which were examined in baboon brain in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET). Compared to [N-11C]cocaine itself the regional distributions were changed from a highly specific localization in the corpus striatum to more diffuse patterns which included the cerebellum and cortex. Peak brain uptakes and clearance kinetics were also changed. [N-11C]-o-Iodococaine (4a) had a peak uptake in the striatum at 4-5 min after injection of only 17% that of cocaine in the same animal. The peak uptake of [N-11C]-p-iodococaine (4c) was 60% of that of [N-11C]cocaine and a clearance half-time of approximately 55 min, twice that of [N-11C]cocaine. [N-11C]-m-Iodococaine (4b) displayed half the uptake of [N-11C]cocaine, buts its clearance was similar to that of the parent molecule. The fractions of unmetabolized tracer in blood plasma at 1-30 min were higher for 4a-c than for [N-11C]cocaine. Plasma protein binding experiments showed 10%, 0.3%, 1.6%, and 6% as the free fraction for cocaine and o-, m-, and p-iodococaines respectively, consistent with the low brain uptake observed for the ortho isomer, and implicated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein as responsible for the low free fraction of o-iodococaine. The potencies of 2a-c to displace tritiated cocaine from striatal membranes were p-iodo approximately cocaine greater than m-iodo approximately o-iodo. PMID:1613745

  20. Assessment of the effects of dobutamine on myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism in normal human subjects using nitrogen-13 ammonia and carbon-11 acetate.

    PubMed

    Krivokapich, J; Huang, S C; Schelbert, H R

    1993-06-01

    The dual purposes of this study with positron emission tomography were to measure the effects of dobutamine on myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism, and to compare carbon-11 (C-11) acetate versus nitrogen-13 (N-13) ammonia in quantitating flow in normal subjects. Flow was quantitated with N-13 ammonia at rest and at peak dobutamine infusion (40 micrograms/kg/min) in 21 subjects. In 11 subjects, oxidative metabolism was also estimated at rest and peak dobutamine infusion using the clearance rate of C-11 acetate, k mono (min-1). A 2-compartment kinetic model was applied to the early phase of the C-11 acetate data to estimate flow. The rest and peak dobutamine rate-pressure products were 7,318 +/- 1,102 and 19,937 +/- 3,964 beats/min/mm Hg, respectively, and correlated well (r = 0.77) with rest and peak dobutamine flows of 0.77 +/- 0.14 and 2.25 ml/min/g determined using N-13 ammonia as a flow tracer. Rest and dobutamine flows estimated with C-11 acetate were highly correlated with those determined with N-13 ammonia (r = 0.92). k mono increased from 0.05 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.02 min-1, and correlated highly with the increase in flows (r = 0.91) and rate-pressure products (r = 0.94). Thus, the increase in cardiac demand associated with dobutamine is highly correlated with an increase in supply and oxidative metabolism. C-11 acetate is a unique tracer that can be used to image both flow and metabolism simultaneously. PMID:8498380

  1. Understanding Climate Policy Data Needs. NASA Carbon Monitoring System Briefing: Characterizing Flux Uncertainty, Washington D.C., 11 January 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Macauley, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Climate policy in the United States is currently guided by public-private partnerships and actions at the local and state levels. This mitigation strategy is made up of programs that focus on energy efficiency, renewable energy, agricultural practices and implementation of technologies to reduce greenhouse gases. How will policy makers know if these strategies are working, particularly at the scales at which they are being implemented? The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) will provide information on carbon dioxide fluxes derived from observations of earth's land, ocean and atmosphere used in state of the art models describing their interactions. This new modeling system could be used to assess the impact of specific policy interventions on CO2 reductions, enabling an iterative, results-oriented policy process. In January of 2012, the CMS team held a meeting with carbon policy and decision makers in Washington DC to describe the developing modeling system to policy makers. The NASA CMS will develop pilot studies to provide information across a range of spatial scales, consider carbon storage in biomass, and improve measures of the atmospheric distribution of carbon dioxide. The pilot involves multiple institutions (four NASA centers as well as several universities) and over 20 scientists in its work. This pilot study will generate CO2 flux maps for two years using observational constraints in NASA's state-of -the-art models. Bottom-up surface flux estimates will be computed using data-constrained land and ocean models; comparison of the different techniques will provide some knowledge of uncertainty in these estimates. Ensembles of atmospheric carbon distributions will be computed using an atmospheric general circulation model (GEOS-5), with perturbations to the surface fluxes and to transport. Top-down flux estimates will be computed from observed atmospheric CO2 distributions (ACOS/GOSAT retrievals) alongside the forward-model fields, in conjunction with an

  2. PET study of carbon-11-PK 11195 binding to peripheral type benzodiazepine sites in glioblastoma: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Pappata, S.; Cornu, P.; Samson, Y.; Prenant, C.; Benavides, J.; Scatton, B.; Crouzel, C.; Hauw, J.J.; Syrota, A. )

    1991-08-01

    The utility of the peripheral type benzodiazepine site ligand 11C-PK 11195, for imaging human glioma in conjunction with Positron Emission Tomography, relies on a high specific binding of the tracer to tumoral peripheral type benzodiazepines sites. In a patient with glioblastoma, the authors found that 11C-PK 11195 binding was two-fold higher in the tumor than in normal gray matter and that 30% of tumoral binding could be displaced by a large excess of unlabeled drug. These findings suggest that tumoral retention of the ligand is due, in part, to specific binding.

  3. Effects of carbon and hafnium concentrations in wrought powder-metallurgy superalloys based on NASA 2B-11 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A candidate alloy for advanced-temperature turbine engine disks, and four modifications of that alloy with various C and Hf concentrations were produced as cross-rolled disks from prealloyed powder that was hot isostatically compacted. The mechanical properties, microstructures, and phase relations of the alloys are discussed in terms of their C and Hf concentrations. A low-C and high-Hf modification of IIB-11 had the best balance of mechanical properties for service below about 750 C. Because of their finer grain sizes, none of the powder-metallurgy alloys produced had the high-temperature rupture strength of conventionally cast and wrought IIB-11.

  4. The Bermuda Rise Record of MIS 11-12: Inferences from Organic Carbon Fluxes, Organic Matter Isotopic Composition and Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, M.; Meyers, P. A.; Thunell, R. C.; Capodivacca, M.

    2005-12-01

    We examined organic carbon content, organic matter carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition and benthic foraminiferal assemblages in sediments deposited between 500-390 ka on the northeastern flank of the Bermuda Rise (ODP Site 1063, 4584m water depth). This time interval includes Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11, ca 423 to 362 ka), a particularly warm and long interglacial characterized by a configuration of the Earth's orbit similar to today, and MIS 12, one of the most severe glacials of the last 600 ky. Sedimentation rates at Site 1063 are high due to advection of clay and silt into the region by deep recirculating gyres. In the study interval, we reconstructed values ranging between 7 cm/ky during MIS 11 and up to 50 cm/ky during MIS 10 and 12. Our organic carbon data show higher percentages and accumulation rates during MIS 10 and 12, in correspondence with the highest sedimentation rates (30-50 cm/ky). This pattern suggests a combination of enhanced organic matter production and preservation at these times. Del 13C and 15N values are lower during the MIS 10 and 12 than during MIS 11; a similar pattern is recorded at ODP Site 1058 (Blake Ridge) and may be the result of glacial-interglacial changes in the organic matter recycling in the western North Atlantic, possibly linked to sea level changes and consequent shifts in the area where nutrient recycling occurs. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by N. umbonifer during MIS 11, a species adapted to oligotrophic environments, and by O. umbonatus during glacial intervals, a taxon that is more common below zones of seasonally high surface production in water deeper than 2km, and probably prefers low but sustained flux of highly degraded organic material. The beginnings of the MIS 10 and MIS 12 glaciations are characterized by large, rapid increases in the abundance of E. exigua, a species that inhabits seasonally deposited aggregates of phytodetritus produced during spring plankton blooms, thus

  5. General last-step labeling of biomolecule-based substrates by [12C], [13C], and [11C] carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Cornilleau, Thomas; Audrain, Hélène; Guillemet, Aude; Hermange, Philippe; Fouquet, Eric

    2015-01-16

    Alkaloid-, steroid-, biotin-, carbohydrate-, nucleoside-, and peptide-based bioconjugates are easily labeled with CO by a last-step palladium-catalyzed carbonylation. The choice of the [(12)C], [(13)C], or [(11)C] isotope opens the way to a new class of potential tracers or ligands easily available for various applications. PMID:25562588

  6. Measurement of D2 dopamine receptor-specific carbon-11-YM-09151-2 binding in the canine brain by PET: Importance of partial volume correction

    SciTech Connect

    Hatazawa, J.; Hatano, K.; Ishiwata, K.; Itoh, M.; Ido, T.; Kawashima, K.; Meguro, K.; Watanuki, S.; Seo, S. )

    1991-04-01

    Carbon-11-YM-09151-2 binds highly selectively to D2 dopamine receptors in the brain. Using this ligand, D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd) in canine striatum were measured. After administering various doses of the ligand in nine experiments, regional uptake was followed by repeated PET scanning for up to 80 min. D2 dopamine receptor specific binding at equilibrium was defined as striatal minus occipital activity after partial volume correction. Bmax and Kd were estimated by Scatchard analysis to be 40.3 pmole/ml of tissue and 22.9 nM, respectively. When a low mass dose of the ligand was administered, the bound-to-free ligand ratio in the striatum at equilibrium was consistent with the Bmax/Kd value obtained from the Scatchard analysis. The present study demonstrates the importance of partial volume correction and the Bmax/Kd measurement in a single PET study with carbon-11-YM-09151-2.

  7. The irradiation of 1:1 mixture of ammonia:carbon dioxide ice at 30 K using 1 kev electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jheeta, S.; Ptasinska, S.; Sivaraman, B.; Mason, N. J.

    2012-08-01

    In this Letter the results of an experimental investigation of 1 keV electron irradiation of a 1:1 ice mixture of NH3:CO2 at 30 K was made under ultrahigh vacuum (10-9 mbar) conditions. Molecular products formed within the ice were detected and monitored using FTIR spectroscopy. The formation of ammonium ions (NH4+), cyanate ions (OCN-), CO was observed leading to the synthesis of ammonium carbamate (NH4NH2CO2). The consequences of these results for prebiotic chemistry in the interstellar medium and star forming regions are discussed.

  8. Anthropogenic carbon estimates in the North Atlantic in CMIP5 GCMs using reconstructed transient tracers (CFC-11, CFC-12, SF6).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudino, Tobia; Messias, Marie-Jose; Schuster, Ute; Watson, Andrew J.

    2015-04-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has raised from 280 ppm to nearly 400 ppm. The Global Ocean has limited the consequent greenhouse effect on the climate system by taking up around 26% (2.3 ± 0.7 PgC/yr) of the carbon produced by human activities (anthropogenic carbon, Cant), mostly in key areas, such as the North Atlantic. Estimating anthropogenic carbon in the ocean is challenging because Cant cannot be measured directly, it is difficult to separate from the biggest unknown natural fraction (DIC), it is influenced by the biogeochemical cycles and the circulation in the ocean. Therefore, Cant is estimated with different methods (ΔC*, φCTO, TTD) based on carbon parameters (DIC, alkalinity, silicate, phosphate) or transient tracers observations. Here, we used CFC-11, CFC-12 and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) measured along the subtropical North Atlantic (26° N) in 2010 as proxies for the Cantestimates. However, these transient tracer observations are sparse and few GCMs (e.g.: OCMIP project) have reported them in the outputs. Therefore, oxygen and potential temperature observations registered on 1992, 1998, 2004 and 2010 along the 26° N transect have been used, with a combined CFC-12/SF6 water masses ages trend and the CMIP5 GCM (MPI-ESM, IPSL-CM5) outputs to reconstruct transient tracers concentrations using regression models. Overall, the 2010 residual analyses confirm the validity of the statistical approach and derived values show a consistency with the tracer observations (averaged R2 > 0.9). These regression models have been used to derive Cant from 1992 to 2014, in CMIP5 GCMs (MPI-ESM, IPSL-CM5), using the reconstructed transient tracers fields with the transit-time distribution (TTD) method. Results are, finally, compared to the Cant distributions and budgets calculated, in the same area, with other methods (ΔC*, φCTO) and the Cant directly estimated from the GCMs as the difference between the

  9. L-[METHYL-{sup 11}C] Methionine Positron Emission Tomography for Target Delineation in Malignant Gliomas: Impact on Results of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mahasittiwat, Pawinee; Mizoe, Jun-etsu Hasegawa, Azusa; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Kyosan; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Yanagi, Takeshi; Takagi, Ryou D.D.S.; Pattaranutaporn, Pittayapoom; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the importance of {sup 11}C-methionine (MET)-positron emission tomography (PET) for clinical target volume (CTV) delineation. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed 16 patients with malignant glioma (4 patients, anaplastic astrocytoma; 12 patients, glioblastoma multiforme) treated with surgery and carbon ion radiotherapy from April 2002 to Nov 2005. The MET-PET target volume was compared with gross tumor volume and CTV, defined by using computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Correlations with treatment results were evaluated between positive and negative extended volumes (EVs) of the MET-PET target for CTV. Results: Mean volumes of the MET-PET targets, CTV1 (defined by means of high-intensity volume on T2-weighted MRI), and CTV2 (defined by means of contrast-enhancement volume on T1-weighted MRI) were 6.35, 264.7, and 117.7 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean EVs of MET-PET targets for CTV1 and CTV2 were 0.6 and 2.2 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The MET-PET target volumes were included in CTV1 and CTV2 in 13 (81.3%) and 11 patients (68.8%), respectively. Patients with a negative EV for CTV1 had significantly greater survival rate (p = 0.0069), regional control (p = 0.0047), and distant control time (p = 0.0267) than those with a positive EV. Distant control time also was better in patients with a negative EV for CTV2 than those with a positive EV (p = 0.0401). Conclusions: For patients with malignant gliomas, MET-PET has a possibility to be a predictor of outcome in carbon ion radiotherapy. Direct use of MET-PET fused to planning computed tomography will be useful and yield favorable results for the therapy.

  10. Accumulated Expression Level of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase 1 Gene (OsGS1;1 or OsGS1;2) Alter Plant Development and the Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Aili; Zhao, Zhuqing; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen; Cai, Hongmei

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining an appropriate balance of carbon to nitrogen metabolism is essential for rice growth and yield. Glutamine synthetase is a key enzyme for ammonium assimilation. In this study, we systematically analyzed the growth phenotype, carbon-nitrogen metabolic status and gene expression profiles in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing rice and wildtype plants. Our results revealed that the GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and yield and decreased carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stem caused by the accumulation of nitrogen in the stem. In addition, the leaf SPAD value and photosynthetic parameters, soluble proteins and carbohydrates varied greatly in the GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants. Furthermore, metabolite profile and gene expression analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids, and gene expression patterns in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants, which also indicated the distinct roles that these two GS1 genes played in rice nitrogen metabolism, particularly when sufficient nitrogen was applied in the environment. Thus, the unbalanced carbon-nitrogen metabolic status and poor ability of nitrogen transportation from stem to leaf in GS1;1-, GS1;2-overexpressing plants may explain the poor growth and yield. PMID:24743556

  11. Absolute quantitation of iodine-123 epidepride kinetics using single-photon emission tomography: comparison with carbon-11 epidepride and positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Almeida, P; Ribeiro, M J; Bottlaender, M; Loc'h, C; Langer, O; Strul, D; Hugonnard, P; Grangeat, P; Mazière, B; Bendriem, B

    1999-12-01

    Epidepride labelled with iodine-123 is a suitable probe for the in vivo imaging of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Recently, this molecule has also been labelled with carbon-11. The goal of this work was to develop a method allowing the in vivo quantification of radioactivity uptake in baboon brain using SPET and to validate it using positron emission tomography (PET). SPET studies were performed in Papio anubis baboons using 123I-epidepride. Emission and transmission measurements were acquired on a dual-headed system with variable head angulation and low-energy ultra-high resolution (LEUHR) collimation. The imaging protocol consisted of one transmission measurement (24 min, heads at 90 degrees), obtained with two sliding line sources of gadolinium-153 prior to injection of 0.21-0.46 GBq of 123I-epidepride, and 12 emission measurements starting 5 min post injection. For scatter correction (SC) we used a dual-window method adapted to 123I. Collimator blurring correction (CBC) was done by deconvolution in Fourier space and attenuation correction (AT) was applied on a preliminary (CBC) filtered back-projection reconstruction using 12 iterations of a preconditioned, regularized minimal residual algorithm. For each reconstruction, a calibration factor was derived from a uniform cylinder filled with a 123I solution of a known radioactivity concentration. Calibration and baboon images were systematically built with the same reconstruction parameters. Uncorrected (UNC) and (AT), (SC + AT) and (SC + CBC + AT) corrected images were compared. PET acquisitions using 0.11-0.44 GBq of 11C-epidepride were performed on the same baboons and used as a reference. The radioactive concentrations expressed in percent of the injected dose per 100 ml (% ID/100 ml) obtained after (SC + CBC + AT) in SPET are in good agreement with those obtained with PET and 11C-epidepride. A method for the in vivo absolute quantitation of 123

  12. The role of positron emission tomography using carbon-11 and fluorine-18 choline in tumors other than prostate cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Treglia, Giorgio; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Di Franco, Davide; Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Rufini, Vittoria; Picchio, Maria; Giordano, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    To systematically review published data on the role of positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) using either Carbon-11 ((11)C) or Fluorine-18 ((18)F) choline tracer in tumors other than prostatic cancer. A comprehensive literature search of studies published in PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase databases through January 2012 and regarding (11)C-choline or (18)F-choline PET or PET/CT in patients with tumors other than prostatic cancer was carried out. Fifty-two studies comprising 1800 patients were included and discussed. Brain tumors were evaluated in 15 articles, head and neck tumors in 6, thoracic tumors (including lung and mediastinal neoplasms) in 14, liver tumors (including hepatocellular carcinoma) in 5, gynecologic malignancies (including breast tumors) in 5, bladder and upper urinary tract tumors in 5, and musculoskeletal tumors in 7. Radiolabeled choline PET or PET/CT is useful to differentiate high-grade from low-grade gliomas and malignant from benign brain lesions, to early detect brain tumor recurrences and to guide the stereotactic biopsy sampling. The diagnostic accuracy of radiolabeled choline PET is superior compared to Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET in this setting. Radiolabeled choline PET or PET/CT seems to be accurate in differential diagnosis between malignant and benign thoracic lesions and in staging lung tumors; nevertheless, a superiority of radiolabeled choline compared to (18)F-FDG has not been demonstrated in this setting, except for the detection of brain metastases. Few but significant studies on radiolabeled choline PET and PET/CT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and musculoskeletal tumors are reported in the literature. The combination of radiolabeled choline and (18)F-FDG PET increases the detection rate of HCC. The diagnostic accuracy of radiolabeled choline PET or PET/CT seems to be superior compared to (18)F-FDG PET or PET/CT and conventional imaging methods in patients with

  13. Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies.

    PubMed

    Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E; De Kauwe, Martin G; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Hickler, Thomas; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; El-Masri, Bassil; Thornton, Peter; Jain, Atul; Wang, Shusen; Warlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William; Iversen, Colleen M; Gallet-Budynek, Anne; McCarthy, Heather; Finzi, Adrien; Hanson, Paul J; Prentice, I Colin; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    We analysed the responses of 11 ecosystem models to elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] (eCO2 ) at two temperate forest ecosystems (Duke and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments) to test alternative representations of carbon (C)-nitrogen (N) cycle processes. We decomposed the model responses into component processes affecting the response to eCO2 and confronted these with observations from the FACE experiments. Most of the models reproduced the observed initial enhancement of net primary production (NPP) at both sites, but none was able to simulate both the sustained 10-yr enhancement at Duke and the declining response at ORNL: models generally showed signs of progressive N limitation as a result of lower than observed plant N uptake. Nonetheless, many models showed qualitative agreement with observed component processes. The results suggest that improved representation of above-ground-below-ground interactions and better constraints on plant stoichiometry are important for a predictive understanding of eCO2 effects. Improved accuracy of soil organic matter inventories is pivotal to reduce uncertainty in the observed C-N budgets. The two FACE experiments are insufficient to fully constrain terrestrial responses to eCO2 , given the complexity of factors leading to the observed diverging trends, and the consequential inability of the models to explain these trends. Nevertheless, the ecosystem models were able to capture important features of the experiments, lending some support to their projections. PMID:24467623

  14. Combined δ11B, δ13C, and δ18O analyses of coccolithophore calcite constrains the response of coccolith vesicle carbonate chemistry to CO2-induced ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi-Wei; Tripati, Robert; Aciego, Sarah; Gilmore, Rosaleen; Ries, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Coccolithophorid algae play a central role in the biological carbon pump, oceanic carbon sequestration, and in marine food webs. It is therefore important to understand the potential impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification on these organisms. Differences in the regulation of carbonate chemistry, pH, and carbon sources of the intracellular compartments where coccolith formation occurs may underlie the diverse calcification and growth responses to acidified seawater observed in prior experiments. Here we measured stable isotopes of boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) within coccolith calcite, and δ13C of algal tissue to constrain carbonate system parameters in two strains of Pleurochrysis carterae (P. carterae). The two strains were cultured under variable pCO2, with water temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and alkalinity monitored. Notably, PIC, POC, and PIC/POC ratio did not vary across treatments, indicating that P. carterae is able to calcify and photosynthesize at relatively constant rates irrespective of pCO2 treatment. The δ11B data indicate that mean pH at the site of coccolith formation did not vary significantly in response to elevated CO2. These results suggest that P. carterae regulates calcifying vesicle pH, even amidst changes in external seawater pH. Furthermore, δ13C and δ18O data suggest that P. carterae may utilize carbon from a single internal DIC pool for both calcification and photosynthesis, and that a greater proportion of dissolved CO2 relative to HCO3‑ enters the internal DIC pool under acidified conditions. These results suggest that P. carterae is able to calcifyand photosynthesize at relatively constant rates across pCO2 treatments by maintaining pH homeostasis at their site of calcification and utilizing a greater proportion of aqueous CO2.

  15. Non-invasive estimation of myocardial efficiency using positron emission tomography and carbon-11 acetate--comparison between the normal and failing human heart.

    PubMed

    Bengel, F M; Permanetter, B; Ungerer, M; Nekolla, S; Schwaiger, M

    2000-03-01

    The clearance kinetics of carbon-11 acetate, assessed by positron emission tomography (PET), can be combined with measurements of ventricular function for non-invasive estimation of myocardial oxygen consumption and efficiency. In the present study, this approach was applied to gain further insights into alterations in the failing heart by comparison with results obtained in normals. We studied ten patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 11 healthy normals by dynamic PET with 11C-acetate and either tomographic radionuclide ventriculography or cine magnetic resonance imaging. A "stroke work index" (SWI) was calculated by: SWI = systolic blood pressure x stroke volume/body surface area. To estimate myocardial efficiency, a "work-metabolic index" (WMI) was then obtained as follows: WMI = SWI x heart rate/k(mono), where k(mono) is the washout constant for 11C-acetate derived from monoexponential fitting. In DCM patients, left ventricular ejection fraction was 19%+/-10% and end-diastolic volume was 92+/-28 ml/m2 (vs 64%+/-7% and 55+/-8 ml/m2 in normals, P<0.001). Myocardial oxidative metabolism, reflected by k(mono), was significantly lower compared with that in normals (0.040+/-0.011/min vs 0.060+/-0.015/min; P<0.003). The SWI (1674+/-761 vs 4736+/-895 mmHg x ml/m2; P<0.001) and the WMI as an estimate of efficiency (2.98+/-1.30 vs 6.20+/-2.25 x 10(6) mmHg x ml/m2; P<0.001) were lower in DCM patients, too. Overall, the WMI correlated positively with ejection parameters (r=0.73, P<0.001 for ejection fraction; r=0.93, P<0.001 for stroke volume), and inversely with systemic vascular resistance (r=-0.77; P<0.001). There was a weak positive correlation between WMI and end-diastolic volume in normals (r=0.45; P=0.17), while in DCM patients, a non-significant negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.21; P=0.57) was obtained. In conclusion non-invasive estimates of oxygen consumption and efficiency in the failing heart were reduced compared with those in normals

  16. Evidence for human thromboxane receptor heterogeneity using a novel series of 9,11-cyclic carbonate derivatives of prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, A. H.; Woodward, D. F.; Gibson, L. L.; Protzman, C. E.; Williams, L. S.; Burk, R. M.; Gac, T. S.; Roof, M. B.; Abbas, F.; Marshall, K.; Senior, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The pharmacological activity of a novel series of 9,11-cyclic carbonate derivatives of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) was investigated in various isolated smooth muscle preparations possessing different prostanoid receptor subtypes as well as in human platelets. Since subdivision of thromboxane (TP-) receptors into vascular/smooth muscle and platelet subtypes is a controversial subject, our studies included a human smooth muscle preparation (myometrium) in addition to the widely used rat aorta and human platelets as TP-receptor preparations. 2. Two members of that series, AGN191976 and AGN192093 were found to be highly potent and selective thromboxane-mimetics. AGN191976 and AGN192093 contracted isolated tissues of the rat thoracic aorta with EC50 values of 0.32 +/- 0.08 and 1.30 +/- 0.53 nM, respectively. Both agonists were at least 10 times more potent than the benchmark TP-agonist, U-46619, in this preparation, whilst being at least 500 times less potent at other prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP3, FP, IP) in vitro. 3. In human myometrial strips from pregnant and non-pregnant donors, both AGN191976 and AGN192093 were potent contractile agonists. The rank order of potency in myometrium of AGN191976 > AGN192093 > U-46619 correlated well with that in the rat aorta. In human platelet-rich plasma (PRP), however, AGN191976 had potent proaggregatory activity (EC50 = 16.3 +/- 1.4 nM), which is a TP-receptor-mediated event, whereas AGN192093 was a much weaker agonist (EC50 = 37.9 +/- 2.0 microM). AGN192093 did not behave as an antagonist in the platelets, since it did not antagonize platelet aggregation induced by ADP, arachidonic acid, U-46619 or AGN191976. In human washed platelets, the activity profile of AGN191976 (EC50 = 4.15 +/- 0.52 nM) and AGN192093 (no aggregation up to 10 microM) was similar to that obtained in PRP. 4. The involvement of TP-receptors was verified with the potent TP-antagonist, SQ29548. SQ29548 (0.1 microM in myometrium; 1 microM in

  17. Soil carbon and nitrogen cycling and storage throughout the soil profile in a sweetgum plantation after 11 years of CO2-enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Colleen M; Keller, Dr. Jason K.; Garten Jr, Charles T; Norby, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Increased partitioning of carbon (C) to fine roots under elevated [CO2], especially deep in the soil profile, could alter soil C and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests. After more than 11 years of free-Air CO2 enrichment in a Liquidambar styraciflua L. (sweetgum) plantation in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, greater inputs of fine roots resulted in the incorporation of new C (i.e., C with a depleted 13C) into root-derived particulate organic matter (POM) pools to 90-cm depth. Even though production in the sweetgum stand was limited by soil N availability, soil C and N content increased over time, and were greater throughout the soil profile under elevated [CO2] at the conclusion of the experiment. However, greater C inputs under elevated [CO2] did not result in increased net N immobilization or C mineralization rates in long-term laboratory incubations, and did not appear to prime the decomposition of older SOM. The 13CO2 of the C mineralized from the incubated soil closely tracked the 13C of the labile POM pool in the elevated [CO2] treatment, especially in shallower soil, and did not indicate the decomposition of older (i.e., pre-experiment) SOM. While potential C mineralization rates were positively and linearly related to total soil organic matter (SOM) C content in the top 30 cm of soil, this relationship did not hold in deeper soil. Taken together with an increased mean residence time of C in deeper soil pools, these findings indicate that C inputs from relatively deep roots under elevated [CO2] may have increased potential for long-term storage. Expanded representation of biogeochemical cycling throughout the soil profile may improve model projections of future forest responses to rising atmospheric [CO2].

  18. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2006-08-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  19. The effect of interstitial carbon on the mechanical properties and dislocation substructure evolution in Fe40.4Ni11.3Mn34.8Al7.5Cr6 high entropy alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Zhangwei; Baker, Ian; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Si; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A systematic study of the effects of up to 1.1 at. % carbon on the mechanical properties and evolution of the dislocation substructure in a series of a high entropy alloys (HEA) based on Fe40.4Ni11.3Mn34.8Al7.5Cr6 is presented. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT) were used to show that all the alloys are single-phase f.c.c. random solid solutions. The lattice constant, determined from synchrotron XRD measurements, increases linearly with increasing carbon concentration, which leads to a linear relationship between the yield strength and the carbon concentration. The dislocation substructures, as determined by a TEM,more » show a transition from wavy slip to planar slip and, at higher strains, and from cell-forming structure (dislocations cells, cell blocks and dense dislocation walls) to non-cell forming structure (Taylor lattice, microbands and domain boundaries) with the addition of carbon, features related to the increase in lattice friction stress. The stacking fault energy (measured via weak-beam imaging of the separation of dislocation partials) decreases with increasing carbon content, which also contributes to the transition from wavy slip to planar slip. The formation of non-cell forming structure induced by carbon leads to a high degree of strain hardening and a substantial increase in the ultimate tensile strength. In conclusion, the consequent postponement of necking due to the high strain hardening, along with the plasticity accommodation arising from the formation of microbands and domain boundaries, result in an increase of ductility due to the carbon addition.« less

  20. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1211, LB4862_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1211, LB4862_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1112, LB4865_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Dimethyl carbonate C3H6O3 + C10H22O5 2,5,8,11,14-Pentaoxapentadecane (VMSD1112, LB4865_V)' providing data by calculation of mass density in the single-phase region(s) from low-pressure dilatometric measurements of the molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  2. Cross sections for neutron-producing reactions induced by 14. 1 MeV neutrons incident on /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, /sup 10/B, /sup 11/B, and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Drosg, M.; Lisowski, P.W.; Drake, D.M.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Muellner, M.

    1988-10-01

    Using the time-of-flight technique, we have measured neutron emission spectra for /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, /sup 10/B, /sup 11/B and carbon at an incident neutron energy of 14.1 MeV and at 10 angles between 30/degree/ and 143/degree/. Double differential cross sections and their integrated values have been extracted and are presented in tables and graphs. The nonelastic portion of the neutron emission spectra is noticeably higher than expected which may be due to uncertainties in the input library (ENDF/B-IV) used in the Monte Carlo correction for multiple scattering. In particular, the library for /sup 11/B appears to be very unrealistic with an integrated elastic cross section which should be higher by 50%. 20 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  3. Effect of an 11. 5-hr/day exposure schedule on the distribution and toxicity of inhaled carbon tetrachloride in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Christian, J.E.; Carlson, G.P.; Born, G.S.

    1986-04-01

    This study evaluated the differences in toxicity and tissue distribution for 16 groups of male rats repeatedly exposed to 100 ppm of /sup 14/CCl/sub 4/ vapors for 8 or 11.5 hr/day for periods of 1 to 10 days. Serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) was also evaluated for its sensitivity at detecting CCl/sub 4/-induced hepatotoxicity. Following 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11, and 14 days, one group of rats from each exposure schedule was sacrificed and /sup 14/C activity in seven tissues and serum SDH levels were measured. To compare the effects of CCl/sub 4/ on the liver and kidney following repeated exposure to the two schedules, one group of rats was exposed for 8 hr/day for 10 of 12 consecutive days and another for 11.5 hr/day for 7 of 12 consecutive days so that each group received essentially the same dose (8000 ppm-hr) of CCl/sub 4/. The 11.5-hr/day exposure schedule, compared to rats exposed 8-hr/day, produced minor changes in the distribution and concentration of /sup 14/C (CCl/sub 4/ equivalents) in various tissues. Following 1 and 2 weeks of exposure to either schedule, the fat, liver, lungs, and adrenals had the highest concentration of CCl/sub 4/ equivalents. There were no significant differences in CCl/sub 4/-induced hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity between rats exposed to the two schedules following either 1 or 2 weeks of exposure as measured by histopathology. In contrast, rats exposed 11.5 hr/day had significantly higher SDH levels than those exposed to the 8-hr/day schedule; thus suggesting that the 11.5-hr schedule did produce a measurably greater degree of hepatotoxicity, although it was too subtle to detect pathologically. Rats exposed for a fourth and fifth day during the second week of the 11.5-hr schedule had a significantly greater concentration of /sup 14/C activity in the fat than rats exposed to the 8-hr/day schedule.

  4. Fabrication of very-low-density, high-stiffness carbon fiber/aluminum hybridized composite with ultra-low density and high stiffness (M-11)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Tomoo

    1993-01-01

    Fabrication of a composite material with ultra-low density and high stiffness in microgravity is the objective of the investigation. The composite structure to be obtained is a random three-dimensional array of high modulus, short carbon fibers bonded at contact points by an aluminum alloy coated on the fibers. The material is highly porous and thus has a very low density. The motivation toward the investigation, simulation experiments, choice of the component materials, and on-flight experiment during ballistic trajectory of a NASDA rocket, are described.

  5. Laboratory measurement of the 2-centimeter, 2/11/-2/12/ transition of normal formaldehyde and its carbon-13 and oxygen-18 species.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, K. D.; Tomasevich, G. R.; Thaddeus, P.

    1972-01-01

    Beam-maser spectrometric measurements to an accuracy of about 100 Hz have been conducted of the 2(11)-2(12) transition for the isotopic species of greatest astronomical interest - i.e., H2CO, H2(13)CO, and H2C(18)O. The samples used were not isotopically enriched, monomeric formaldehyde vapors. For these species, all the coupling constants required to calculate the hyperfine structure of any rotational transition have been determined.

  6. Potential use of carbon-11 labeled alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) as an in vivo tracer of amino acid uptake in differing metabolic states

    SciTech Connect

    Conti, P.S.; Starnes, H.F.; Brennan, M.F.

    1986-05-01

    AIB has been used as a model amino acid for the evaluation of alanine-preferring amino acid transport. Hormonal factors and starvation alter the tissue distribution of amino acids, particularly in liver and muscle. With positron emission tomography and labeling of biochemical tracers with C-11, (t1/2=20.4 min), it is now possible to study amino acid kinetics in vivo using external imaging. In order to investigate the utility of C-11 AIB as an in vivo tracer of altered tissue metabolism, C-14 AIB was studied in groups of rats with either streptozotocin-induced diabetes, insulin-induced hypoglycemia or starvation. The data suggest an increased amino acid uptake in liver in starvation, an increased uptake in muscle in response to insulin and associated hypoglycemia and decreased transport in muscle in starvation, as seen by other investigators. These results suggest that C-11 AIB may be useful as an in vivo monitor of metabolic changes in body tissues.

  7. Inorganic and Organic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (4 June-11 August, 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2005-08-30

    This report presents methods and analytical and quality control procedures for nutrient, oxygen, and inorganic carbon system parameters performed during the A16N_2003a cruise, which took place from June 4 to August 11, 2003 aboard NOAA Ship R/V Ronald H. Brown under auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The first hydrographic leg (June 19–July 10) was from Reykjavik, Iceland, to Funchal, Madeira, Portugal along the 20°W meridian, and the second leg (July 15–August 11) continued operations from Funchal, Portugal to Natal, Brazil, on a track southward and ending at 6°S, 25°W. The research was the first in a decadal series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from up to 34 depths at 150 stations. The data presented in this report includes the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), phosphate (PO4), silicate (SiO4), and dissolved oxygen (O2). The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16N_2003a data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  8. Spectroelectrochemical Study of Carbon Monoxide and Ethanol Oxidation on Pt/C, PtSn(3:1)/C and PtSn(1:1)/C Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Rizo, Rubén; Lázaro, María Jesús; Pastor, Elena; García, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    PtSn-based catalysts are one of the most active materials toward that contribute ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). In order to gain a better understanding of the Sn influence on the carbon monoxide (principal catalyst poison) and ethanol oxidation reactions in acidic media, a systematic spectroelectrochemical study was carried out. With this end, carbon-supported PtSnx (x = 0, 1/3 and 1) materials were synthesized and employed as anodic catalysts for both reactions. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) indicate that Sn diminishes the amount of bridge bonded CO (COB) and greatly improves the CO tolerance of Pt-based catalysts. Regarding the effect of Sn loading on the EOR, it enhances the catalytic activity and decreases the onset potential. FTIRS and DEMS analysis indicate that the C-C bond scission occurs at low overpotentials and at the same potential values regardless of the Sn loading, although the amount of C-C bond breaking decreases with the rise of Sn in the catalytic material. Therefore, the elevated catalytic activity toward the EOR at PtSn-based electrodes is mainly associated with the improved CO tolerance and the incomplete oxidation of ethanol to form acetic acid and acetaldehyde species, causing the formation of a higher amount of both C2 products with the rise of Sn loading. PMID:27626404

  9. A refined method for quantification of myocardial oxygen consumption rate using mean transit time with carbon-11-acetate and dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y; Huang, S C; Hawkins, R A; Hoh, C K; Krivokapich, J; Buxton, D B; Armbrecht, J J; Sun, K T; Phelps, M E; Schelbert, H R

    1993-11-01

    The utility of the mean transit time equation was investigated for estimation of the myocardial clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate, which is proportional to myocardial oxygen consumption rates. The mean transit time approach was also employed to generate parametric images of the clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate with dynamic PET imaging in 20 normal human studies. Input function delays and cutoff errors due to the truncation of the myocardial tissue time-activity curve at a finite time were corrected. The clearance rate constants estimated by mean transit time correlated well with the estimates by conventional monoexponential fitting (15 min (truncation time): Y = 0.01 + 0.94X, correlated coefficient (r) = 0.99; 16 min: Y = 0.03 + 0.94X, r = 0.98; 20 min: Y = 0.03 + 0.84X, r = 0.99). The clearance rate constants estimated by the mean transit time approach also correlated well (r = 0.94) with the measured rate-pressure products. The quality and noise level of parametric images of the clearance rate constants generated by mean transit time are improved over those generated by monoexponential fitting. Additional advantages of the mean transit time approach compared to the standard monoexponential fitting method for estimating myocardial clearance rate constant of 11C-acetate include ease of input function delay correction, less sensitivity to the shape of the input function and elimination of subjective data selection of the linear portion of the clearance data on a semilog plot. Thus, this approach is expected to facilitate objective quantitative analysis of indices of myocardial oxygen consumption. PMID:8229256

  10. Evaluation of surface energy and carbon fluxes within a large wind farm during the CWEX-10/11 Crop Wind-energy EXperiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Horst, T. W.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Crop Wind-energy EXperiment conducted in summer 2010 (very moist conditions) and summer 2011 (abnormally dry) included measurements of wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, turbulence kinetic energy, H2O, and CO2 at stations north and south of a line of turbines at the southwest edge of a large-scale 200-turbine wind farm (prevailing wind from the south). In contrast to previous studies that have reported turbine influences on surface wind speed and temperature, this report focuses on scalar fluxes of heat, H2O, and CO2. From previous measurements in agricultural fields we recognize the importance of non-turbine factors in analysis of the flux differences: variability of soil characteristics, moisture content, crop cultivar, management practices, planting dates, etc., which can create differences in what looks like a uniform field of maize (corn). We conceptualize the influences of turbines at canopy height at a given location in the field to arise from (1) wakes of reduced wind speed and turbulence conditions different from ambient that intersect the surface, (2) wakes that are passing overhead and interrupt the ambient turbulence that scales with height, or (3) changes in static pressure upwind and downwind of lines of turbines that create small-scale pressure gradients, localized flows, and changes to the vertical exchange of scalar variables. The turbine SCADA wind speed and wind direction provided by the wind farm operator facilitated our comparison of surface fluxes upwind and downwind as wakes moved laterally throughout the day and night. We report multiple levels of evidence that wind turbines increase vertical exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor over the canopy. Latent heat and carbon fluxes are responsive to slight changes in the turbine wake position, and the flux differences are maximized when the periphery of the wake edge is above the station. The flux stations north of the turbine line report a larger net ecosystem exchange

  11. Properties of carbon-based structures synthesized in nuclear reactions induced by bremsstrahlung γ quanta with threshold energy of 10 MeV at helium pressure of 1.1 kbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.

    2016-07-01

    Helium gas with an initial pressure of about 1.1 kbar inside a high-pressure chamber (HeHPC) has been irradiated by bremsstrahlung γ quanta with a threshold energy of 10 MeV for 1.0 × 105 s produced by an electron-beam current of 22-24 μA. After opening the HeHPC, the residual pressure of helium is equal to 430 bar. Synthesized black foils with a variety of other objects are found inside the HeHPC. They are located on the inner surfaces of the reaction chamber made of high-purity copper (99.99%), the entrance the window of γ quanta made of beryllium bronze and a copper container of nuclear and chemical reaction products. Elemental analysis with the use of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe analysis has revealed that the foils contain predominantly carbon and small quantities of other elements from carbon to iron. The results are in good agreement with the cycle of investigations of the authors devoted to the γ-quanta irradiation of dense hydrogen and helium gases in the presence (absence) of metals in a reaction chamber.

  12. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 11/5 in the South Atlantic and Northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE sections A-12 and A-21)

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, T.; Breger, D.; Sutherland, S.C.; Kozyr, A. |; Gaslightwala, A.F. |

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and chemical data during R/V Meteor Expedition 11/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean, including the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; and the Eastern South Atlantic Ocean. This cruise was conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The cruise started from Ushuaia, Argentina, on January 23, 1990, and ended at Capetown, South Africa on March 8, 1990. Samples were collected at 78 stations that covered the Drake Passage; the Northern Weddell Sea; a section along the 58 W parallel; and two segmented S-N sections between the Northern Weddell Sea and Capetown, South Africa. Measurements taken at WOCE sections A-12 and A-21 included pressure, temperature, salinity measured by the Conductivity, Temperature and Depth sensor (CTD); bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrate; silicate; total carbon concentration (TCO{sub 2}); and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) measured at 20 C. In addition, potential density at 0 decibar (dbar) and potential temperature were calculated from the measured variables. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometer with an estimated precision of approximately {+-} {mu}mol/kg.

  13. GF11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beetem, J.; Denneau, M.; Weingarten, D.

    1986-06-01

    GF11 is a parallel processor currently under construction at the IBM Yorktown Research Center. The machine incorporates 576 floating-point boards. Each board has space for 2 × 106 bytes of memory and is capable of 2 × 107 floating point operations per second, given the total machine a peak of 1.15 × 109 bytes of memory and 1.15× 1010 floating point operations per second. The floating-point processors are interconnected by a dynamically reconfigurable switching network. At each machine cycle any of 1024 preselected permutations of data can be realized among the processors. The main intended application of GF11 is a class of calculations arising from quantum chormodynamics.

  14. Carbon cycle: Hoard of fjord carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Fjords account for less than 0.1% of the surface of Earth's oceans. A global assessment finds that organic carbon is buried in fjords five times faster than other marine systems, accounting for 11% of global marine organic carbon burial.

  15. Ice core measurements of 14CH4 show no evidence of methane release from methane hydrates or old permafrost carbon during a large warming event 11,600 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, Vasilii; Severinghaus, Jeffrey; Smith, Andrew; Riedel, Katja; Brook, Edward; Schaefer, Hinrich; Baggenstos, Daniel; Harth, Christina; Hua, Quan; Buizert, Christo; Schilt, Adrian; Fain, Xavier; Mitchell, Logan; Bauska, Thomas; Orsi, Anais

    2015-04-01

    Thawing permafrost and marine methane hydrate destabilization in the Arctic and elsewhere have been proposed as large sources of methane to the atmosphere in the future warming world. To evaluate this hypothesis it is useful to ask whether such methane releases happened during past warming events. The two major abrupt warming events of the last deglaciation, Oldest Dryas - Bølling (OD-B, ≈ 14,500 years ago) and Younger Dryas - Preboreal (YD-PB; ≈11,600 years ago), were associated with large (up to 50%) increases in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations. The sources of these large warming-driven CH4 increases remain incompletely understood, with possible contributions from tropical and boreal wetlands, thawing permafrost as well as marine CH4 hydrates. We present new measurements of 14C of paleoatmospheric CH4 over the YD-PB transition from ancient ice outcropping at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. 14C can unambiguously identify CH4 emissions from "old carbon" sources, such as permafrost and CH4 hydrates. The only prior study of paleoatmospheric 14CH4 (from Greenland ice) suggested that wetlands were the main driver of the YD-PB CH4 increase, but the results were weakened by an unexpected and poorly understood 14CH4 component from in situ cosmogenic production directly in near-surface ice. In this new study, we have been able to accurately characterize and correct for the cosmogenic 14CH4 component. All samples from before, during and after the abrupt warming and associated CH4 increase yielded 14CH4 values that are consistent with 14C of atmospheric CO2 at that time, indicating a purely contemporaneous methane source. These new measurements rule out the possibility of large CH4 releases to the atmosphere from methane hydrates or old permafrost carbon in response to the large and rapid YD-PB warming. To the extent that the characteristics of the YD-PB warming are comparable to those of the current anthropogenic warming, our measurements suggest that large future

  16. Amplification of anti-diastereoselectivity via Curtin-Hammett effects in ruthenium-catalyzed hydrohydroxyalkylation of 1,1-disubstituted allenes: diastereoselective formation of all-carbon quaternary centers.

    PubMed

    Zbieg, Jason R; McInturff, Emma L; Leung, Joyce C; Krische, Michael J

    2011-02-01

    Under the conditions of ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation, 1,1-disubstituted allenes 1a-c and alcohols 2a-g engage in redox-triggered generation of allylruthenium-aldehyde pairs to form products of hydrohydroxyalkylation 3a-g, 4a-g, and 5a-g with complete branched regioselectivity. By exploiting Curtin-Hammett effects, good to excellent levels of anti-diastereoselectivity (4:1 to >20:1) are obtained. Thus, all carbon quaternary centers are formed in a diastereoselective fashion upon carbonyl addition from the alcohol oxidation level in the absence of premetalated nucleophiles or stoichiometric byproducts. Exposure of allene 1b to equimolar quantities of alcohol 2a and aldehyde 6b under standard reaction conditions delivers adducts 4a and 4b in a 1:1 ratio. Similarly, exposure of allene 1b to equimolar quantities of aldehyde 6a and alcohol 2b provides adducts 4a and 4b in an identical equimolar ratio. Exposure of allene 1b to d(2)-p-nitrobenzyl alcohol, deuterio-2a, under standard reaction conditions delivers the product of hydrohydroxyalkylation, deuterio-4a, which incorporates deuterium at the carbinol position (>95% (2)H) and the interior vinylic position (34% (2)H). Competition experiments involving exposure of allene 1b to equimolar quantities of benzylic alcohols 2a and deuterio-2a reveal no significant kinetic effect. The collective data corroborate rapid, reversible alcohol dehydrogenation, allene hydrometalation, and (E)-, (Z)-isomerization of the transient allylruthenium in advance of turnover-limiting carbonyl addition. Notably, analogous allene-aldehyde reductive C-C couplings employing 2-propanol as the terminal reductant display poor levels of anti-diastereoselectivity, suggesting that carbonyl addition is not turnover-limiting in reactions conducted from the aldehyde oxidation level. PMID:21175178

  17. E11 in 11D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanov, Alexander G.; West, Peter

    2016-07-01

    We construct the non-linear realisation of the semi-direct product of E11 and its vector representation in eleven dimensions and find the dynamical equations it predicts at low levels. These equations are completely determined by the non-linear realisation and when restricted to contain only the usual fields of supergravity and the usual spacetime we find precisely the equations of motion of eleven dimensional supergravity. This paper extends the results announced in arxiv:hep-th/1512.01644 and in particular it contains the contributions to the equations of motion that involve derivatives with respect to the level one generalised coordinates.

  18. 10 CFR 11.11 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General requirements. 11.11 Section 11.11 Energy NUCLEAR... non-power reactor facilities and storage of fuel incident thereto and facilities and plants in which... SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Requirements for Special Nuclear Material Access Authorization § 11.11...

  19. Thorium and uranium M-shell x-ray production cross sections by 4.5-11.3 MeV carbon ion and 4.5-13.5 MeV oxygen ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinney, L. C.; Lapicki, G.; Weathers, D. L.; Naab, F. U.; Duggan, J. L.; McDaniel, F. D.

    2012-02-01

    The M-shell x-ray production cross sections for thorium and uranium have been measured for carbon ions with energies from 4.5 to 11.3 MeV with the charge state q increasing from 2 to 4, and oxygen ions with energies from 4.5 to 13.5 MeV with the charge state q increasing from 2 to 5. These cross sections are compared to the predictions of the first Born (PWBA+OBKN) and ECUSAR ionization theories, which were evaluated in a novel manner for the C+q and O+q energies and charge states of the data and converted to x-ray production cross sections with atomic parameters for a singly ionized M-shell and multiple ionization in the outer shells. Individual groups of M-shell transitions are also compared to the two ionization theories. The ECUSAR theory is shown to describe the measurements better than the first Born approximation. It is found to be in generally good agreement for all the total M-shell x-ray production and M-shell lines except for the Mγ cross sections. Reasons for the overestimation of the Mγ data are discussed.

  20. Radiochemical investigations of (99m)Tc-N(3)S-X-BBN[7-14]NH(2): an in vitro/in vivo structure-activity relationship study where X = 0-, 3-, 5-, 8-, and 11-carbon tethering moieties.

    PubMed

    Smith, C Jeffrey; Gali, Hariprasad; Sieckman, Gary L; Higginbotham, Chris; Volkert, Wynn A; Hoffman, Timothy J

    2003-01-01

    Bombesin (BBN), a 14 amino acid peptide, is an analogue of human gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) that binds to GRP receptors (GRPr) with high affinity and specificity. The GRPr is overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells, including prostate, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. The specific aim of this study was to develop (99m)Tc-radiolabeled BBN analogues that maintain high specificity for the GRPr in vivo. A preselected synthetic sequence via solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) was designed to produce N(3)S-BBN (N(3)S = dimethylglycyl-l-seryl-l-cysteinylglycinamide) conjugates with the following general structure: DMG-S-C-G-X-Q-W-A-V-G-H-L-M-(NH(2)), where the spacer group, X = 0 (no spacer), omega-NH(2)(CH(2))(2)COOH, omega-NH(2)(CH(2))(4)COOH, omega-NH(2)(CH(2))(7)COOH, or omega-NH(2)-(CH(2))(10)COOH. The new BBN constructs were purified by reversed phase-HPLC (RP-HPLC). Electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) was used to characterize the nonmetalated BBN conjugates. Re(V)-BBN conjugates were prepared by the reaction of Re(V)gluconate with N(3)S-X-BBN[7-14]NH(2) (X = 0 carbons, beta-Ala (beta-alanine), 5-Ava (5-aminovaleric acid), 8-Aoc (8-aminooctanoic acid), and 11-Aun (11-aminoundecanoic acid)) with gentle heating. Re-N(3)S-5-Ava-BBN[7-14]NH(2) was also prepared by the reaction of [Re(V)dimethylglycyl-l-seryl-l-cysteinylglycinamide] with 5-Ava-BBN[7-14]NH(2). ES-MS was used to determine the molecular constitution of the new Re(V) conjugates. The (99m)Tc conjugates were prepared at the tracer level by each the prelabeling, post-conjugation and pre-conjugation, postlabeling approaches from the reaction of Na[(99m)TcO(4)] with excess SnCl(2), sodium gluconate, and corresponding ligand. The (99m)Tc and Re(V) conjugates behaved similarly under identical RP-HPLC conditions. In vitro and in vivo models demonstrated biological integrity of the new conjugates. PMID:12526698

  1. 11 CFR 1.11 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fees. 1.11 Section 1.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.11 Fees. (a) The Commission shall not charge an individual for... ($.10) per page....

  2. 11 CFR 1.11 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees. 1.11 Section 1.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.11 Fees. (a) The Commission shall not charge an individual for... ($.10) per page....

  3. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 2: January through March 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 2 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of the four carbons that have been added to the negative active material of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries for the purposes of this study. The four carbons selected for this study were a graphitic carbon, a carbon black, an activated carbon, and acetylene black. The morphology, crystallinity, and impurity contents of each of the four carbons were analyzed; results were consistent with previous data. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown.

  4. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program (FY11 Quarter 1: October through December 2010).

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, R.; Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails conducting a thorough literature review to establish the current level of understanding of the mechanisms through which carbon additions to the negative active material improve valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. Most studies have entailed phenomenological research observing that the carbon additions prevent/reduce sulfation of the negative electrode; however, no understanding is available to provide insight into why certain carbons are successful while others are not. Impurities were implicated in one recent review of the electrochemical behavior of carbon additions. Four carbon samples have been received from East Penn Manufacturing and impurity contents have been analyzed. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO{sub 2}) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the

  5. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE energy storage systems program (FY11 Quarter 3: April through June 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 3 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails an ex situ analysis of a control as well as three carbon-containing negative plates in the raw, as cast form as well as after formation. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within each plate was evaluated. In addition, baseline electrochemical measurements were performed on each battery to establish their initial performance. These measurements included capacity, internal resistance, and float current. The results obtained for the electrochemical testing were in agreement with previous evaluations performed at East Penn manufacturing. Cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) has been initiated.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, and explosive decomposition of 1,2:5,6: 11,12:15,16-tetrabenzo-3,7,9,13,17,19-hexadehydro[20] annulene: formation of onion- and tube-like closed-shell carbon particles

    SciTech Connect

    Boese, R.; Matzger, A.J.; Vollhardt, K.P.C. |

    1997-02-26

    We have reported that tribenzotetradehydro[14]annulene 1 undergoes topochemical polymerization that results in a novel polyannulenoenyne. In this connection, the `expanded` title compound 2a suggested itself as a promising candidate on route to unprecedented annulene-crosslinked polyenynes. We report the very different physical and chemical behavior of 2a, most importantly its explosive transformation to methane, hydrogen, and extensively ordered pure carbon. Present results give a clear validation of the notion that dehydroannulenes might be potential precursors to carbon allotropes. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Understanding the function and performance of carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries : milestone report for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (FY11 Quarter 4: July through September 2011).

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Shane, Rodney; Enos, David George

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the status of research being performed under CRADA No. SC10/01771.00 (Lead/Carbon Functionality in VRLA Batteries) between Sandia National Laboratories and East Penn Manufacturing, conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 4 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails the initiation of high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling of the carbon enhanced batteries. The morphology, porosity, and porosity distribution within the plates after 1k and 10k cycles were documented, illustrating the changes which take place in the early life of the carbon containing batteries, and as the battery approaches failure due to hard sulfation for the control battery. Longer term cycling on a subset of the received East Penn cells containing different carbons (and a control) continues, and will progress into FY12. Carbon has been explored as an addition to lead-acid battery electrodes in a number of ways. Perhaps the most notable to date has been the hybrid 'Ultrabattery' developed by CSIRO where an asymmetric carbon-based electrochemical capacitor is combined with a lead-acid battery into a single cell, dramatically improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. As illustrated below, the 'Ultrabattery' is a hybrid device constructed using a traditional lead-acid battery positive plate (i.e., PbO2) and a negative electrode consisting of a carbon electrode in parallel with a lead-acid negative plate. This device exhibits a dramatically improved cycle life over traditional VRLA batteries, as well as increased charge power and charge acceptance. The 'Ultrabattery' has been produced successfully by both The Furukawa Battery Co. and East Penn Manufacturing. An example illustrating the dramatic improvement in cycle life of the Ultrabattery over a conventional VRLA battery is shown in a graph. In addition to the aforementioned hybrid device, carbon has also been added directly to

  8. The series of carbon-chain complexes {Ru(dppe)Cp*}₂{μ-(C≡C)x} (x = 4–8, 11): Synthesis, structures, properties and some reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Michael I.; Cole, Marcus L.; Ellis, Benjamin G.; Gaudio, Maryka; Nicholson, Brian K.; Parker, Christian R.; Skelton, Brian W.; White, Allan H.

    2015-01-28

    The construction of a series of compounds {Ru(dppe)Cp*}2(μ-C2x) (Ru*-C2x-Ru*, x = 4–8, 11)) is described. A direct reaction between RuCl(dppe)Cp* and Me3Si(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)4SiMe3 afforded Ru*-C8-Ru* in 89% yield. The Pd(0)/Cu(I)-catalysed coupling of Ru{Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCAu(PPh3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C4-Au (2 equiv.) with diiodoethyne gave Ru*-C10-Ru* (64%), or of 1 equiv. with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)3I gave Ru*-C14-Ru* (36%); similarly, Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)4Au(PPh3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C8-Au and I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)3I gave Ru*-C22-Ru* (12%). Desilylation (TBAF) of Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)xSiMe3}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C2x-Si (x = 3, 4) followed by oxidative coupling [Cu(OAc)2/py] gave Ru*-C12-Ru* (82%) and Ru*-C16-Ru* (58%), respectively. Similar oxidative coupling of Ru(Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCH)(dppe)Cp* was a second route to Ru*-C8-Ru* (82%). Appropriate precursors are already known, or obtained by coupling of Ru*-C2x-Si (x = 2, 4) with AuCl(PPh3)/NaOMe [Ru*-C4-Au, 95%; Ru*-C8-Au, 74%] or from Pd(0)/Cu(I) catalysed coupling of Ru*-C2x-Au (x = 2, 3) with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)2SiMe3 (Ru*-C8-Si, 64%; Ru*-C10-Si, 2%). Reactions between Ru*-C2x-Ru* (x = 3, 4) and Fe2(CO)9 gave {Fe3(CO)9}{μ3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]}2Fe(C3-Ru*)2 and {Fe3(CO)9}{μ3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]}{μ3-C(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)2[Ru(dppe)Cp*]} Fe(C3-Ru*)(C5-Ru*), respectively. The redox properties of the series of complexes with 2x = 2–16 were measured and showed a diminution of the

  9. Carbon isotope techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, D.C. ); Fry, B. )

    1991-01-01

    This book is a hands-on introduction to using carbon isotope tracers in experimental biology and ecology. It is a bench-top reference with protocols for the study of plants, animals, and soils. The {sup 11}C, {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, and {sup 14}C carbon isotopes are considered and standard techniques are described by established authors. The compilation includes the following features: specific, well-established, user-oriented techniques; carbon cycles in plants, animals, soils, air, and water; isotopes in ecological research; examples and sample calculations.

  10. Evaluation of carbon-11-labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-[4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl]nortropane as a potential radioligand for imaging the serotonin transporter by PET.

    PubMed

    Plisson, Christophe; Jarkas, Nachwa; McConathy, Jon; Voll, Ronald J; Votaw, John; Williams, Larry; Howell, Leonard L; Kilts, Clinton D; Goodman, Mark M

    2006-02-01

    The nortropane cocaine analogue, 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-[4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl]nortropane (ZIENT), is a high affinity, selective serotonin transporter (SERT) ligand that has shown promise as a SERT imaging agent for single photon computed tomography (SPECT) when labeled with I-123. Synthesis of the labeling precursor, radiosynthesis of [(11)C]ZIENT, and in vivo evaluation in anesthetized and awake monkeys have been performed to determine the suitability of [(11)C]ZIENT as a PET agent for SERT imaging. PMID:16451060

  11. Supplies tight for CFC-11 and -12

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.; Kirschner, E.

    1992-09-30

    With US 1992 production of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11 and -12 cut back to less than 50% of 1986 levels, supplies are tight and prices are rising. While CFC customers can find the product, the first half of the year was particularly bumpy, marked by shortages of key feedstock carbon tetrachloride. US carbon tet production dropped from 400 million lbs in 1991 to 250 million lbs because of a series of plant closings in 1991. The lack of carbon tet, says a spokesman for one CFC producer, was [open quotes]a real disruption.[close quotes] And, says Jerry Dziedzic, general manager, fluorochemicals at Elf Atochem (Philadelphia), in a such a tight market [open quotes]even a little hiccup can throw the system out of whack.[close quotes] Dow senior project manager Jeff Sullivan says CFC producers were expecting a drop in 1992 sales when the company's Sarnia, ON carbon tet plant closing was announced. By the time CFC producers recognized that demand would remain at 1991 levels, the shutdown was under way. [open quotes]We were caught short because they were caught short.[close quotes] While the carbon tet shortage has lessened recently, supplies of CFC-11 and 12 are expected to remain tight through the rest of the year. But that could ease toward year-end as hydrofluorocarbon-141b increasingly replaces CFC-11.

  12. Nucleophilic activation of carbon monoxide. 4. Dihydrogen reduction of the methoxycarbonyl adduct Ru/sub 3/ (CO)/sub 11/(CO/sub 2/CH/sub 3/)/sup -/

    SciTech Connect

    Taube, D.J.; Rokicki, A.; Anstock, M.; Ford, P.C.

    1987-02-25

    The anionic triruthenium cluster Ru/sub 3/(CO)/sub 11/(CO/sub 2/CH/sub 3/)/sup -/ reacts with dihydrogen in dry THF to give methyl formate plus the hydride cluster HRu/sub 3/(CO)/sub 11//sup -/. Use of D/sub 2/ instead leads to the formation of DCO/sub 2/CH/sub 3/ plus DRu/sub 3/(CO)/sub 11//sup -/ as shown by /sup 2/H NMR. The rate of the hydrogenation is demonstrated to be first order in (H/sub 2/) but inhibited by CO. These observations are interpreted in terms of a mechanism by which the principal pathway for reduction of the cluster involves the reversible dissociation of coordinated CO followed by rate-limiting H/sub 2/ addition to the unsaturated intermediate. Details of the synthesis and spectroscopic properties of the Ru/sub 3/(CO)/sub 11/(CO/sub 2/CH/sub 3/)/sup -/ anion are also described. 24 references, 3 figures.

  13. High-resolution oscillator strength measurements for the A(v') - X(0) bands of carbon monoxide with 11 less than or equal to v' less than or equal to 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Stark, G.; Yoshino, K.; Ito, K.

    1994-01-01

    Band oscillator strengths (f-values) for four bands of the Fourth Positive system (A (1)Pi - Chi(sup 1) Sigma(+)) of CO have been determined from high-resolution (lambda/Delta lambda approximately equal to 150,000) absorption spectra. The bands, (14, 0) through (11, 0), are at wavelengths between 121 and 127 nm. Our f-values for the (11, 0) and (12, 0) bands support those of Chan, Cooper, & Brion (1993), which have been shown to be consistent with observations of CO in the clouds in the line of sight to zeta Oph. Our f-values for the (13, 0) and (14, 0) bands are the first directly measured values for these bands.

  14. Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of the nu4 (sigma u) fundamental and associated nu11(pi u) hot band of C7 - Evidence for alternating rigidity in linear carbon clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, J. R.; Saykally, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The first characterization of the bending potential of the C7 cluster is reported via the observation of the v = 1(1) and v = 2 deg levels of the nu11 (pi u) bend as hot bands associated with the nu4 (sigma u) antisymmetric stretch fundamental. The lower state hot band rotational constants are measured to be 1004.4(1.3) and 1123.6(9.0) MHz, constituting a 9.3 and 22 percent increase over the ground state rotational constant, 918.89 (41) MHz. These large increases are strong quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants determined for the ground and nu 4 = 1 states are found to be anomalously large and negative, evidencing strong perturbations between stretching and bending modes.

  15. 40 CFR 86.201-11 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.201-11 General applicability. (a) This subpart describes procedures for determining the cold temperature carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from...

  16. 40 CFR 86.201-11 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.201-11 General applicability. (a) This subpart describes procedures for determining the cold temperature carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from...

  17. 40 CFR 86.201-11 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.201-11 General applicability. (a) This subpart describes procedures for determining the cold temperature carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from...

  18. 40 CFR 86.201-11 - General applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.201-11 General applicability. (a) This subpart describes procedures for determining the cold temperature carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from...

  19. Carbon-carbon cylinder block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A lightweight cylinder block composed of carbon-carbon is disclosed. The use of carbon-carbon over conventional materials, such as cast iron or aluminum, reduces the weight of the cylinder block and improves thermal efficiency of the internal combustion reciprocating engine. Due to the negligible coefficient of thermal expansion and unique strength at elevated temperatures of carbon-carbon, the piston-to-cylinder wall clearance can be small, especially when the carbon-carbon cylinder block is used in conjunction with a carbon-carbon piston. Use of the carbon-carbon cylinder block has the effect of reducing the weight of other reciprocating engine components allowing the piston to run at higher speeds and improving specific engine performance.

  20. Carbon-Carbon Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon-Carbon (C-C) Radiator was a success and proved that the technology can work to reduce Spacecraft weight. C-C has a niche, especially for high temperatures. C-C still needs further development: reduction in fabrication time and cost - high conductivity "traditional" composites are more competitive, and CTE interface issues with heat pipes. Redundancy a good idea - we flew the spare panel. CSRP was a success -informal inter-agency partnership. Possible follow-on: C-C foam for low CTE mirrors/optical benches.

  1. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  2. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  3. The 11 Micron Emissions of Cabon Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.; Cheeseman, P.; Gerbault, F.

    1995-01-01

    A new classification scheme of the IRAS LRS carbon stars is presented. It comprises the separation of 718 probable carbon stars into 12 distinct self-similar spectral groupings. Continuum temperatures are assigned and range from 470 to 5000 K. Three distinct dust species are identifiable: SiC, alpha:C-H, and MgS. In addition to the narrow 11 + micron emission feature that is commonly attributed to SiC, a broad 11 + micron emission feature, that is correlated with the 8.5 and 7.7 micron features, is found and attributed to alpha:C-H. SiC and alpha:C-H band strengths are found to correlate with the temperature progression among the Classes. We find a spectral sequence of Classes that reflects the carbon star evolutionary sequence of spectral types, or alternatively developmental sequences of grain condensation in carbon-rich circumstellar shells. If decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing evolution, then decreasing temperature corresponds to increasing CIO resulting in increasing amounts of carbon rich dust, namely alpha:C-H. If decreasing the temperature corresponds to a grain condensation sequence, then heterogeneous, or induced nucleation scenarios are supported. SiC grains precede alpha:C-H and form the nuclei for the condensation of the latter material. At still lower temperatures, MgS appears to be quite prevalent. No 11.3 micron PAH features are identified in any of the 718 carbon stars. However, one of the coldest objects, IRAS 15048-5702, and a few others, displays an 11.9 micron emission feature characteristic of laboratory samples of coronene. That feature corresponds to the C-H out of plane deformation mode of aromatic hydrocarbon. This band indicates the presence of unsaturated, sp(sup 3), hydrocarbon bonds that may subsequently evolve into saturated bonds, sp(sup 2), if, and when, the star enters the planetary nebulae phase of stellar evolution. The effusion of hydrogen from the hydrocarbon grain results in the evolution in wavelength of this

  4. Carbon-carbon piston development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorton, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    A new piston concept, made of carbon-carbon refractory-composite material, has been developed that overcomes a number of the shortcomings of aluminum pistons. Carbon-carbon material, developed in the early 1960's, is lighter in weight than aluminum, has higher strength and stiffness than aluminum and maintains these properties at temperatures over 2500 F. In addition, carbon-carbon material has a low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent resistance to thermal shock. An effort, called the Advanced Carbon-Carbon Piston Program was started in 1986 to develop and test carbon-carbon pistons for use in spark ignition engines. The carbon-carbon pistons were designed to be replacements for existing aluminum pistons, using standard piston pin assemblies and using standard rings. Carbon-carbon pistons can potentially enable engines to be more reliable, more efficient and have greater power output. By utilizing the unique characteristics of carbon-carbon material a piston can: (1) have greater resistance to structural damage caused by overheating, lean air-fuel mixture conditions and detonation; (2) be designed to be lighter than an aluminum piston thus, reducing the reciprocating mass of an engine, and (3) be operated in a higher combustion temperature environment without failure.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Carbon-11 Labeled Pyridyl Ethers: Candidate Ligands for In Vivo Imaging of α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) in the brain with Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongjun; Ravert, Hayden T.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Xiao, Yingxian; Endres, Christopher J.; Hilton, John; Holt, Daniel P.; Kumar, Anil; Alexander, Mohab; Wong, Dean F.; Dannals, Robert F.; Horti, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    The most abundant subtype of cerebral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), α4β2, plays a critical role in various brain functions and pathological states. Imaging agents suitable for visualization and quantification of α4β2 nAChRs by positron emission tomography (PET) would present unique opportunities to define the function and pharmacology of the nAChRs in the living human brain. In this study, we report the synthesis, nAChR binding affinity, and pharmacological properties of several novel 3-pyridyl ether compounds. Most of these derivatives displayed a high affinity to the nAChR and a high subtype selectivity for α4β2-nAChR. Three of these novel nAChR ligands were radiolabeled with the positron-emitting isotope 11C and evaluated in animal studies as potential PET radiotracers for imaging of cerebral nAChRs with improved brain kinetics. PMID:19481945

  6. Carbon and carbon-14 in lunar soil 14163

    SciTech Connect

    Fireman, E.L.; Stoenner, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon is removed from the surface of lunar soil 14163 size fractions by combustions at 500 and 1000/sup 0/C in an oxygen stream and the carbon contents and the carbon-14 activities are measured. The carbon contents are inversely correlated with grain size. A measured carbon content of 198 ppM for bulk 14163, obtained by combining the size fraction results, is modified to 109 +- 12 ppM by a carbon contamination correction. This value is in accord with a previous determination, 110 ppM, for bulk 14163. The small (< 53 ..mu..) grains of 14163 had more combusted carbon-14 activity, 31.2 +- 2.5 dpm /kg, than the large (> 53 ..mu..) grains, 11.2 +- 2.0 dpm/kg. The combusted carbon and carbon-14 are attributed mainly to solar-wind implantation. Melt extractions of carbon-14 from the combusted soil samples gave essentially identical activities, 21.0 +- 1.5 and 19.2 +- 2.0 dpm/kg for the small and large grains, and are attributed to cosmic-ray spallation-produced carbon-14.

  7. Thorium and uranium M-shell x-ray production cross sections for 0.4--4.0 MeV protons, 0.4--6.0 MeV helium ions, 4.5--11.3 mev carbon ions, and 4.5--13.5 MeV oxygen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinney, Lucas C.

    The M-shell x-ray production cross section for thorium and uranium have been determined for protons of energy 0.4--4.0 MeV, helium ions of energy 0.4--6.0 MeV, carbon ions of energy 4.5--11.3 MeV and oxygen ions of energy 4.5--13.5 MeV. The total cross sections and the cross sections for individual x-ray peaks in the spectrum, consisting of the following transitions Mz (M4-N2, M5-N3, M4-N3), Ma (M5-N6,7), Mb (M4-N6, M5-O3, M4-O2), and Mg (M4-O3, M5-P3, M3-N4, M3-N5), were compared to the theoretical values determined from the PWBA + OBKN and ECUSAR. The theoretical values for the carbon and oxygen ions were also modified to take into account the effects of multiple ionizations of the target atom by the heavier ions. It is shown that the results of the ECUSAR theory tend to provide better agreement with the experimental data.

  8. High pressure study of low compressibility tetracalcium aluminum carbonate hydrates 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}CaCO{sub 3}{center_dot}11H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Juhyuk; Oh, Jae Eun; Balonis, Magdalena; Glasser, Fredrik P.; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2012-01-15

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data was collected from a sample of monocarboaluminate 3CaO{center_dot}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}CaCO{sub 3}{center_dot}11H{sub 2}O from ambient pressure to 4.3 GPa. The refined crystal structure at ambient pressure is triclinic with parameters a = 5.77(2) A, b = 8.47(5) A, c = 9.93(4) A, {alpha} = 64.6(2) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 82.8(3) Degree-Sign , {gamma} = 81.4(4) Degree-Sign , and space group of P1 or P1{sup Macron }. It showed some degree of perfectly reversible pressure-induced dehydration with a non-hygroscopic pressure-transmitting medium. However the dehydration effect does not critically affect a bulk modulus due to its strong framework. The isothermal bulk modulus of monocarboaluminate was found to be 53(5) GPa and 54(4) GPa with 3rd order and 2nd order Birch-Murnaghan Equation of state, respectively. That value is higher than for any other reported AFm or AFt phase. The pressure-volume behavior of the monocarboaluminate was compared with that of previous studied hemicarboaluminate.

  9. Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices utilizing cesium–carbonate-doped 2,4,6-tris(2',4'-difluoro-[1,1'- biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, James S.; Rainbolt, James E.; Wang, Liang; Koech, Phillip K.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2011-01-20

    We report an alternative, high yielding synthesis for the known compound 2,4,6-tris(2',4'-difluoro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine, (tris-(dFB)Tz). The lowest occupied molecular orbital energy for tris-(dFB)Tz is calculated to be -3.5 eV via electrochemical characterization. The deep ELUMO of tris-(dFB)Tz affords a material with excellent electron acceptor characteristics for use in n-doped electron transport layers. Tris-(dFB)Tz shows a four order of magnitude increase in the number of carriers upon doping with 8 wt.% Cs2CO3. Enhanced electron injection was also observed upon doping with Cs2CO3, eliminating the need for a LiF injection layer. Blue phosphorescent OLEDs were fabricated using n-doped tris-(dFB)Tz electron transport layers. OLEDs with thick (700Å) Cs2CO3 doped tris-(dFB)Tz electron transport layers had lower operating voltage than OLEDS with an undoped electron transport layer of bis(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene (PO15), which has previously been used in low voltage, high efficiency OLEDs. The tris-(dFB)Tz results indicate that aromatic substituted triazines may be promising materials for use as electron acceptors in n-doped organic electronic systems.

  10. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  11. Carbon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konov, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed.

  12. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11 Section 11.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.11 The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (a) The EAS is composed of analog radio broadcast stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM...

  13. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11 Section 11.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.11 The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (a) The EAS is composed of analog radio broadcast stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM...

  14. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Emergency Alert System (EAS). 11.11 Section 11.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.11 The Emergency Alert System (EAS). (a) The EAS is composed of analog radio broadcast stations including AM, FM, and Low-power FM...

  15. 47 CFR 11.12-11.14 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 11.12-11.14 Section 11.12-11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General §§ 11.12-11.14...

  16. 47 CFR 11.12-11.14 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 11.12-11.14 Section 11.12-11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General §§ 11.12-11.14...

  17. September 11, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Christine K.

    2002-01-01

    The September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States had an impact on everyone across the nation, and certainly included college campuses. This article addresses campus responses targeted at students and identifies future implications. (Contains 20 references.) (Author)

  18. Morpheus Tether Test #11

    NASA Video Gallery

    Morpheus conducts another tethered test, April 11, 2012. Morpheus is a full spacecraft and rocket-powered lander, which demonstrates new green technology, as well as an autonomous landing and hazar...

  19. The Toxicology of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, Ken; Poland, Craig; Duffin, Rodger; Bonner, James

    2012-06-01

    1. Carbon nanotube structure, synthesis and applications C. Singh and W. Song; 2. The aerodynamic behaviour and pulmonary deposition of carbon nanotubes A. Buckley, R. Smith and R Maynard; 3. Utilising the concept of the biologically effective dose to define the particle and fibre hazards of carbon nanotubes K. Donaldson, R. Duffin, F. Murphy and C. Poland; 4. CNT, biopersistence and the fibre paradigm D. Warheit and M. DeLorme; 5. Length-dependent retention of fibres in the pleural space C. Poland, F. Murphy and K. Donaldson; 6. Experimental carcinogenicity of carbon nanotubes in the context of other fibres K. Unfried; 7. Fate and effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. Ryman-Rasmussen, M. Andersen and J. Bonner; 8. Responses to pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes V. Castranova and R. Mercer; 9. Genotoxicity of carbon nanotubes R. Schins, C. Albrecht, K. Gerloff and D. van Berlo; 10. Carbon nanotube-cellular interactions; macrophages, epithelial and mesothelial cells V. Stone, M. Boyles, A. Kermanizadeh, J. Varet and H. Johnston; 11. Systemic health effects of carbon nanotubes following inhalation J. McDonald; 12. Dosimetry and metrology of carbon nanotubes L. Tran, L. MacCalman and R. Aitken; Index.

  20. Carbon-carbon composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, Howard G.

    1992-01-01

    The current applications of C-C composites extend to aircraft brakes, rocket nozzles, missile nosetips, and leading edges of the Space Shuttle. More advanced, secondary and even primary structure applications in cyclic, high-temperature oxidizing environments depend on effective oxidation protection for repeated missions. Accounts are presently given of state-of-the-art methods in substrate fabrication, carbon deposition, and SiC and Si3N4 protective coatings. Attention is given to current levels of high temperature oxidation protection for various mission and vehicle types, as well as to performance projections for C-C composites used by a representative National Aerospace Plane airframe structure. Future technology requirements in C-C composites are projected.

  1. Distribution and significance of carbon compounds on the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.; Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Exploration of available information concerning carbon on the moon, following review of what is known about carbon on the earth, and consideration of the results of studies of meteorites, which have provided the first direct clues about extraterrestrial carbon. Carbon and carbon isotope composition data taken from Apollo 11 samples are tabulated. Carbon compounds produced by pyrolysis, extracted with benzene-methanol, extracted with water, and freed by acid treatment are discussed. Carbon and carbon compounds in lunar rocks and soils appear to be distributed heterogeneously.

  2. Carbon-Carbon Piston Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for carbon-carbon composite piston architectures consists of replacing the knitted fiber, three-dimensional piston preform architecture described in U.S. Pat. No. 4.909,133 (Taylor et al.) with a two-dimensional lay-up or molding of carbon fiber fabric or tape. Initially. the carbon fabric or tape layers are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and are laid up or molded about a mandrel. to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part shaped like a "U" channel, a "T"-bar. or a combination of the two. The molded carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. At this point, cylindrical piston blanks are cored from the "U" channel, "T"-bar, or combination part. These blanks are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also be accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston billets are machined to final piston dimensions; coated with oxidation sealants; and/or coated with a catalyst. When compared to conventional steel or aluminum-alloy pistons, the use of carbon-carbon composite pistons reduces the overall weight of the engine; allows for operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength; allows for quieter operation; reduces the heat loss; and reduces the level of hydrocarbon emissions.

  3. 11 CFR 9034.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) 10% of the overall expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 9035.1... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Winding down costs. 9034.11 Section 9034.11... MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.11 Winding down costs. (a) Winding down costs. Winding down costs...

  4. 11 CFR 9034.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) 10% of the overall expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 9035.1... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Winding down costs. 9034.11 Section 9034.11... MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.11 Winding down costs. (a) Winding down costs. Winding down costs...

  5. 11 CFR 9004.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 110.8(a)(2); or (2) 2.5% of the total of: (i) The candidate's... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Winding down costs. 9004.11 Section 9004.11... FINANCING ENTITLEMENT OF ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES TO PAYMENTS; USE OF PAYMENTS § 9004.11 Winding down costs....

  6. 11 CFR 9004.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 110.8(a)(2); or (2) 2.5% of the total of: (i) The candidate's... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Winding down costs. 9004.11 Section 9004.11... FINANCING ENTITLEMENT OF ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES TO PAYMENTS; USE OF PAYMENTS § 9004.11 Winding down costs....

  7. 11 CFR 9004.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 110.8(a)(2); or (2) 2.5% of the total of: (i) The candidate's... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Winding down costs. 9004.11 Section 9004.11... FINANCING ENTITLEMENT OF ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES TO PAYMENTS; USE OF PAYMENTS § 9004.11 Winding down costs....

  8. 11 CFR 9034.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) 10% of the overall expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 9035.1... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Winding down costs. 9034.11 Section 9034.11... MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.11 Winding down costs. (a) Winding down costs. Winding down costs...

  9. 11 CFR 9004.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 110.8(a)(2); or (2) 2.5% of the total of: (i) The candidate's... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Winding down costs. 9004.11 Section 9004.11... FINANCING ENTITLEMENT OF ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES TO PAYMENTS; USE OF PAYMENTS § 9004.11 Winding down costs....

  10. 11 CFR 9034.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) 10% of the overall expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 9035.1... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Winding down costs. 9034.11 Section 9034.11... MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.11 Winding down costs. (a) Winding down costs. Winding down costs...

  11. 11 CFR 9034.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) 10% of the overall expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 9035.1... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Winding down costs. 9034.11 Section 9034.11... MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.11 Winding down costs. (a) Winding down costs. Winding down costs...

  12. 11 CFR 9004.11 - Winding down costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... expenditure limitation pursuant to 11 CFR 110.8(a)(2); or (2) 2.5% of the total of: (i) The candidate's... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Winding down costs. 9004.11 Section 9004.11... FINANCING ENTITLEMENT OF ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES TO PAYMENTS; USE OF PAYMENTS § 9004.11 Winding down costs....

  13. Carbon/Carbon extendible Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoste, M.; Lacombe, A.; Joyez, P.; Ellis, R. A.; Lee, J. C.; Payne, F. M.

    2002-03-01

    For many years, SEP has developed C-C composite materials to lighten architectures of propulsion systems, thanks to their high specific mechanical properties kept up to about 2500°C. The 3D carbon reinforcement the so-called Novoltex ® has emerged, and today more than 150 tons per year of C-C is produced by SEP using it. The advent of these thermostructural composite materials have blazed a trail for innovative solutions applicable to the extreme operating conditions of large rocket engines, to improve their performances. The extendible nozzle concept has been developed to optimize the expansion ratio with regard to size restriction required particularly for the upper stages of launchers. The first two tests of a SEP extendible nozzle extension were carried out in 1979, one on a ring design and one on a panel design. Today, nearly all possible configurations have been tested, from the simple scenario of extending a ring from a fixed nozzle prior to ignition, to the most complex one: nozzle deployment while the motor is operating and when the nozzle is being vectored. In August 1995, Pratt & Whitney have entrusted SEP with the development of the C-C exit cone dedicated to the RL10 B-2 cryotechnic engine, propulsion system of the DELTA III upper stage. One year later, in August 1996, SEP delivered the first development item which is currently under testing. When the entire C-C nozzle is attached to the RL10 B-2 engine and deployed, the nozzle diameter increases from 1.1 to 2.1 m and translates to 2.5 m in length, providing an expansion ratio of 285:1 and 30 s of specific impulse increase to the engine. Finally, the paper will describe the design and manufacturing of this huge exit cone and will report the latest test results.

  14. Carbonate aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  15. 1,1-Difluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1 - Difluoroethane ; CASRN 75 - 37 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  16. 1,1-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 75 - 34 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  17. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  18. Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The crowning achievement for the Saturn V rocket came when it launched Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, and Michael Collins, to the Moon in July 1969. In this photograph, astronaut Aldrin takes his first step onto the surface of the Moon.

  19. Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties of PA11 Nanocomposite Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latko, Paulina; Kolbuk, Dorota; Kozera, Rafal; Boczkowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Polyamide 11/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite fibers with weight fraction 2, 4, and 6 wt.% and diameter 80 μm were prepared with a twin screw mini-extruder. The morphology and degree of dispersion of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the fibers was investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In turn, the molecular structure was indicated by using wide-angle x-ray scattering and correlated with thermal analysis. It was found that carbon nanotubes lead to the formation of α phase in the fibers and they show medial level of alignment within the length of the fiber. Mechanical analysis of the fibers shows that apart from the crystallinity content, the tensile strength is strongly dependent on the macroscopic defects of the surface of the fibers. Nanocomposite fibers based on polyamide 11 with carbon nanotubes can be used as a precursor for non-woven or woven fabrics manufacturing process.

  20. Gas Interactions with Carbon Nanotubes - Chapter 11 in the book "Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes," ed. by V.A. Basiuk and E.V. Basiuk, May 2008, American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, CA, ISBN: 978-1-58883-128-6, v. 1, pp. 217-236

    SciTech Connect

    Matranga, C.S.

    2008-05-01

    This book chapter will review the growing body of literature reporting on how gases interact with carbon nanotubes. The chapter will include both experimental and computational results. Issues related to the energetics, mechanism, geometry, and nature of adsorption sites in CNTs will be highlighted. An excellent review by Migone and Talaptra has detailed a large body of experimental results for the physisorption of gases on CNTs [1]. The current review chapter will not duplicate their efforts, but instead will focus on topics not included in their work: trapped molecules, molecular transport, chemisorption, and new physisorption results of significance. Research papers related to hydrogen adsorption and storage have been omitted from this chapter since there are several reviews already published on this topic.

  1. (11)C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonds made easily for positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Benjamin H; Liang, Steven H; Placzek, Michael S; Hooker, Jacob M; Gee, Antony D; Dollé, Frédéric; Wilson, Alan A; Vasdev, Neil

    2016-08-22

    The positron-emitting radionuclide carbon-11 ((11)C, t1/2 = 20.3 min) possesses the unique potential for radiolabeling of any biological, naturally occurring, or synthetic organic molecule for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Carbon-11 is most often incorporated into small molecules by methylation of alcohol, thiol, amine or carboxylic acid precursors using [(11)C]methyl iodide or [(11)C]methyl triflate (generated from [(11)C]carbon dioxide or [(11)C]methane). Consequently, small molecules that lack an easily substituted (11)C-methyl group are often considered to have non-obvious strategies for radiolabeling and require a more customized approach. [(11)C]Carbon dioxide itself, [(11)C]carbon monoxide, [(11)C]cyanide, and [(11)C]phosgene represent alternative reactants to enable (11)C-carbonylation. Methodologies developed for preparation of (11)C-carbonyl groups have had a tremendous impact on the development of novel PET tracers and provided key tools for clinical research. (11)C-Carbonyl radiopharmaceuticals based on labeled carboxylic acids, amides, carbamates and ureas now account for a substantial number of important imaging agents that have seen translation to higher species and clinical research of previously inaccessible targets, which is a testament to the creativity, utility and practicality of the underlying radiochemistry. PMID:27276357

  2. CARBON FLUXES ON NORTH AMERICAN RANGELANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal patterns of growth and thus carbon uptake are relevant to both scientists who study ecosystem properties and managers who strive to maintain rangeland productivity. We studied seasonal patterns of net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) on 11 US rangelands over a 6-year period. All sites w...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  8. Bion 11 mission hardware.

    PubMed

    Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Skidmore, M G; Hines, J W; Kozlovskaya, I B; Korolkov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The mission hardware provided for Bion 11 shared primate experiments included the launch vehicle, biosatellite, spaceflight operational systems, spacecraft recovery systems, life support systems, bioinstrumentation, and data collection systems. Under the unique Russia/US bilateral contract, the sides worked together to ensure the reliability and quality of hardware supporting the primate experiments. Parameters recorded inflight covered biophysical, biochemical, biopotential, environmental, and system operational status. PMID:11543453

  9. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  10. 33 CFR 83.11 - Application (Rule 11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application (Rule 11). 83.11 Section 83.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND... Application (Rule 11). Rules in this subpart apply to vessels in sight of one another....

  11. 33 CFR 83.11 - Application (Rule 11).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application (Rule 11). 83.11 Section 83.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND... Application (Rule 11). Rules in this subpart apply to vessels in sight of one another....

  12. 7 CFR 11.11 - Reconsideration of Director determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reconsideration of Director determinations. 11.11... Appeals Divison Rules of Procedures § 11.11 Reconsideration of Director determinations. (a) Reconsideration of a determination of the Director may be requested by the appellant or the agency within 10...

  13. 7 CFR 11.11 - Reconsideration of Director determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reconsideration of Director determinations. 11.11... Appeals Divison Rules of Procedures § 11.11 Reconsideration of Director determinations. (a) Reconsideration of a determination of the Director may be requested by the appellant or the agency within 10...

  14. 7 CFR 11.11 - Reconsideration of Director determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reconsideration of Director determinations. 11.11... Appeals Divison Rules of Procedures § 11.11 Reconsideration of Director determinations. (a) Reconsideration of a determination of the Director may be requested by the appellant or the agency within 10...

  15. 7 CFR 11.11 - Reconsideration of Director determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconsideration of Director determinations. 11.11... Appeals Divison Rules of Procedures § 11.11 Reconsideration of Director determinations. (a) Reconsideration of a determination of the Director may be requested by the appellant or the agency within 10...

  16. 27 CFR 11.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 11.11... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL CONSIGNMENT SALES Definitions § 11.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms have the meanings given in this section. Any other...

  17. 27 CFR 11.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 11.11... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Definitions § 11.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms have the meanings given in this section. Any other...

  18. 27 CFR 11.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 11.11... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL CONSIGNMENT SALES Definitions § 11.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms have the meanings given in this section. Any other...

  19. 27 CFR 11.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 11.11... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Definitions § 11.11 Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms have the meanings given in this section. Any other...

  20. 11 CFR 9002.11 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9002.11 Section 9002.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.11 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign expense means any expenditure, including a purchase,...

  1. 11 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.1 Purpose and scope. (a) The purpose of this part is to set forth rules informing the public as to what information is maintained by the Federal...

  2. 11 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.1 Purpose and scope. (a) The purpose of this part is to set forth rules informing the public as to what information is maintained by the Federal...

  3. 11 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.1 Purpose and scope. (a) The purpose of this part is to set forth rules informing the public as to what information is maintained by the Federal...

  4. 11 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.1 Purpose and scope. (a) The purpose of this part is to set forth rules informing the public as to what information is maintained by the Federal...

  5. 11 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.1 Purpose and scope. (a) The purpose of this part is to set forth rules informing the public as to what information is maintained by the Federal...

  6. Carbon-Carbon Piston Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved structure for carbon-carbon composite piston architectures is disclosed. The improvement consists of replacing the knitted fiber, three-dimensional piston preform architecture described in U.S. Pat.No. 4,909,133 (Taylor et al.) with a two-dimensional lay-up or molding of carbon fiber fabric or tape. Initially, the carbon fabric of tape layers are prepregged with carbonaceous organic resins and/or pitches and are laid up or molded about a mandrel, to form a carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part shaped like a "U" channel, a "T"-bar, or a combination of the two. The molded carbon-fiber reinforced organic-matrix composite part is then pyrolized in an inert atmosphere, to convert the organic matrix materials to carbon. At this point, cylindrical piston blanks are cored from the "U"-channel, "T"-bar, or combination part. These blanks are then densified by reimpregnation with resins or pitches which are subsequently carbonized. Densification is also accomplished by direct infiltration with carbon by vapor deposition processes. Once the desired density has been achieved, the piston billets are machined to final piston dimensions; coated with oxidation sealants; and/or coated with a catalyst. When compared to conventional steel or aluminum alloy pistons, the use of carbon-carbon composite pistons reduces the overall weight of the engine; allows for operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength; allows for quieter operation; reduces the heat loss; and reduces the level of hydrocarbon emissions.

  7. Synthesis of C-11-{beta}-aminoisobutyric acid (C-11-{beta}-AlB): A major in vivo catabolite of [methyl-C-11]thymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Alauddin, M.M.; Conti, P.S.; Fissekis, J.D.

    1995-05-01

    Carbon-11 labeled thymidine (TdR) is being used for brain tumor imaging in patients with PET. Following clearance of 5-methyl C-11 TdR from plasma in humans, there is a progressive increase of C-11 activity in normal brain and tumor presumably secondary to accumulation of C-11 beta-AIB, a major by-product of thymidine catabolism in vivo. Canine studies have demonstrated that the major radiolabeled species in acid soluble extracts of brain and tumor tissues during C-14 TdR studies is beta-AIB. The previously reported synthesis of beta-AIB is not suitable for incorporation of carbon-11. A convenient method of synthesis of C-11 beta-AIB was developed where commercially available beta-alanine ethyl ester was converted to the cold precursor reagent, benzaldimine-beta-alanine ethyl ester, in 87% yield. Treatment of the imine derivative with LDA (1.1 eq) in THF at -78{degrees} C, followed by addition of iodomethane (1.1 eq) produced the alpha-methylated benzaldimine-beta-alanine ethyl ester in 73% chemical yield. Deprotection of the amino group by acidic hydrolysis followed by basic hydrolysis of the ester group produced the desired product in 50% chemical yield. Chemical structures of unlabeled intermediates and product were confirmed by H-1 NMR and CI mass spectrometry. Labeling was accomplished using C-11-methyl iodide prepared from C-11-CO{sub 2} according to literature methods. After removal of protecting groups and neutralization, the enatiomeric mixture was purified by HPLC using a semipreparative reverse phase C-18 column and PBS as eluent. The desired compound was eluted at 8.26 minutes. In preliminary runs, the synthesis time was 39 minutes including HPLC purification, with radiochemical yields of 5-6% (EOB). Radiochemical purity was >99%

  8. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10287 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10287 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-11-188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10287 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10287 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-11-188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10287 - Infused carbon nanostructures (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infused carbon nanostructures (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10287 Infused carbon nanostructures (generic). (a) Chemical substance... infused carbon nanostructures (PMN P-11-188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. Apollo 10 - 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This video gives overviews of the Apollo 10 and Apollo 11 missions to the moon, including footage from the launches and landings of the Command Module Columbia, which is used for both flights. The Apollo 10 crewmembers, Commander Thomas Stafford, Command Module Pilot John Young, and Lunar Module Pilot Eugene Cernan, are seen as they suit-up in preparation for launch and then as they experiment with the microgravity environment on their way to the moon. The moon's surface is seen in detail as the Command Module orbits at an altitude of 69 miles. The Apollo 11 crewmembers, Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin, are seen during various training activities, including simulated lunar gravity training, practicing collecting lunar material, and using the moonquake detector. Footage shows the approach and landing of the Lunar Module Eagle on the moon. Armstrong and Aldrin descend to the moon's surface, collect a sample of lunar dust, and erect the American flag. Eagle's liftoff from the moon is seen.

  13. Developments in carbon materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchell, Timothy D.

    1994-01-01

    The following carbon-based materials are reviewed and their applications discussed: fullerenes; graphite (synthetic and manufactured); activated carbon fibers; and carbon-carbon composites. Carbon R&D activities at ORNL are emphasized.

  14. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. PMID:26940168

  15. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  16. 11 CFR 7.11 - Political and organization activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Political and organization activity. 7.11... Responsibilities of Employees or Commissioners § 7.11 Political and organization activity. (a) Due to the Federal Election Commission's role in the political process, the following restrictions on political activities...

  17. 11 CFR 7.11 - Political and organization activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political and organization activity. 7.11... Responsibilities of Employees or Commissioners § 7.11 Political and organization activity. (a) Due to the Federal Election Commission's role in the political process, the following restrictions on political activities...

  18. 11. Historic view, Pier 11. View to north, showing concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic view, Pier 11. View to north, showing concrete pier under construction, 1956. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 11 CFR 9033.11 - Documentation of disbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or authorized committee(s) are qualified campaign expenses as defined in 11 CFR 9032.9. The candidate... of acceptable and unacceptable descriptions of goods and services purchased are listed at 11 CFR 104.3(b)(3)(i)(B). (4) The documentation requirements of 11 CFR 102.9(b) shall also apply...

  20. 11 CFR 9033.11 - Documentation of disbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or authorized committee(s) are qualified campaign expenses as defined in 11 CFR 9032.9. The candidate....3(b)(3)(i)(B). (4) The documentation requirements of 11 CFR 102.9(b) shall also apply to... documenting campaign receipts and disbursements, for a period of three years pursuant to 11 CFR 102.9(c),...

  1. Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) Expression in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Shin; Tanaka, Yasuko; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) is an intracellular aquaporin expressed in various tissues, including brain tissues in mammals. While AQP11-deficient mice have developed fatal polycystic kidneys at one month old, the role of AQP11 in the brain was not well appreciated. In this study, we examined the AQP11 expression in the mouse brain and the brain phenotype of AQP11-deficient mice. AQP11 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein were expressed in the brain, but much less than in the thymus and kidney. Immunostaining showed that AQP11 was localized at the epithelium of the choroid plexus and at the endothelium of the brain capillary, suggesting that AQP11 may be involved in water transport at the choroid plexus and blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the brain. The expression of AQP4, another brain AQP expressed at the BBB, was decreased by half in AQP11-deficient mice, thereby suggesting the presence of the interaction between AQP11 and AQP4. The brain of AQP11-deficient mice, however, did not show any morphological abnormalities and the function of the BBB was intact. Our findings provide a novel insight into a water transport mechanism mediated by AQPs in the brain, which may lead to a new therapy for brain edema. PMID:27258268

  2. 11 CFR 9033.11 - Documentation of disbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or authorized committee(s) are qualified campaign expenses as defined in 11 CFR 9032.9. The candidate... of acceptable and unacceptable descriptions of goods and services purchased are listed at 11 CFR 104.3(b)(3)(i)(B). (4) The documentation requirements of 11 CFR 102.9(b) shall also apply...

  3. Commissioned Review. Carbon: freshwater plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Sandquist, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    δ13C values for freshwater aquatic plant matter varies from −11 to −50‰ and is not a clear indicator of photosynthetic pathway as in terrestrial plants. Several factors affect δ13C of aquatic plant matter. These include: (1) The δ13C signature of the source carbon has been observed to range from +1‰ for HCO3− derived from limestone to −30‰ for CO2 derived from respiration. (2) Some plants assimilate HCO3−, which is –7 to –11‰ less negative than CO2. (3) C3, C4, and CAM photosynthetic pathways are present in aquatic plants. (4) Diffusional resistances are orders of magnitude greater in the aquatic environment than in the aerial environment. The greater viscosity of water acts to reduce mixing of the carbon pool in the boundary layer with that of the bulk solution. In effect, many aquatic plants draw from a finite carbon pool, and as in terrestrial plants growing in a closed system, biochemical discrimination is reduced. In standing water, this factor results in most aquatic plants having a δ13C value similar to the source carbon. Using Farquhar's equation and other physiological data, it is possible to use δ13C values to evaluate various parameters affecting photosynthesis, such as limitations imposed by CO2 diffusion and carbon source.

  4. High molar activity of [11C]TCH346 via [11C]methyl triflate using the "wet" [11C]CO2 reduction method.

    PubMed

    Ermert, Johannes; Stüsgen, Stefan; Lang, Markus; Roden, Werner; Coenen, Heinz H

    2008-05-01

    [(11)C]TCH346, a compound acting on the glycolytic enzyme, glycerol-aldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, was produced under optimised conditions by methylation of the desmethyl compound with no-carrier added (n.c.a.) [(11)C]methyl triflate. An i.v. injectable solution of n.c.a. [(11)C]TCH346 containing 4040+/-1550 MBq (n=6) containing a molar activity between 40 and 5700 GBq/micromol and a radiochemical purity of >99% was obtained within 30 min (after EOB) by irradiation of nitrogen gas containing 0.5% oxygen with 16.5 MeV protons at 45 microA for 30 min. The alkylation reagent [(11)C]methyl triflate was prepared via on-line conversion of [(11)C]methyl iodide. For the formation of [(11)C]methyl iodide, [(11)C]carbon dioxide from the target chamber was reduced by a lithium aluminium hydride solution, and the methanol obtained on-line was converted using triphenylphosphine diiodide. The molar activity of [(11)C]TCH346 could be improved from 40 up to nearly 5700GB q/micromol during the optimisation of the synthesis using the same stock solution of lithium aluminium hydride solution in tetrahydrofuran. PMID:17827025

  5. Carbon particles

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  6. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  7. Manual of carbonate sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Reijers, T.J.; Hsu, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    This manual, organised along encycolopaedic/lexicographic lines, summarizes information on the properties and characteristics of carbonates and their environments. Part 1 deals with the elements of carbonates; Part 2 with environments, settings, and carbonate bodies; Part 3 with carbonate diagenesis, and Part 4 with carbonate reservoirs. Contents include: Elements of carbonates; Carbonate Environments, Settings and Bodies; Carbonate diagenesis; Carbonate reservoirs; Alphabetical Indices; English, Dutch, German, Spanish, French Computer Compatible Codes; Commonly Used (Informal) abbreviations.

  8. (/sup 11/C)clorgyline and (/sup 11/C)-L-deprenyl and their use in measuring functional monoamine oxidase activity in the brain using positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1986-04-17

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase in the living body by using /sup 11/C-labeled enzyme inhibitors which bind irreversibly to an enzyme as a result of catalysis. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  9. Carbon tetrachloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride ; CASRN 56 - 23 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  10. Carbon disulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Carbon disulfide ; CASRN 75 - 15 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  11. Development of additive [11C]CO2 target system in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron and its application for [11C]radiopharmaceutical production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Hong Jin; Lee, Won Kyung; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2015-08-01

    The KOTRON-13 cyclotron, which was developed in South Korea for the production of medical radioisotopes, has the structural limitation of only one beam-output port, restricting the production of the carbon-11 isotope. In the present study, we investigate the design of a switchable target system and develop an effective carbon-11 target in the KOTRON-13 cyclotron, for combination with the fluorine-18 target. The target system was designed by introducing a sliding-type element between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets, a tailor-made C-11 target and its cooling system. For the efficient production of [11C]CO2, the desirable target shape and internal volume were determined by a Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulation program, and the target grid was modified to resist the cavity pressure during beam irradiation. We evaluated the [11C]CO2 production while varying the material and thickness of the target foil, oxygen content of the nitrogen gas, and target loading pressure. Using sliding-type equipment including an additional gate valve and a high vacuum in a beam line, the bi-directional conversion between the fluorine-18 and carbon-11 targets was efficient regarding the accurate beam irradiation on both targets. The optimal [11C]CO2 production for 30 min irradiation at 60 μA (86.6 ± 1.7 GBq in the target at EOB) was observed at a thickness of 19 μm with HAVAR® material as a target foil and a target loading pressure of 24 bar with nitrogen plus 300 ppb of oxygen gas. Additionally, the coolant cavity system in the target grid and target chamber is useful to remove the heat transferred to the target body by the internal convection of water and thereby ensure the stability of the [11C]CO2 production under a high beam current. In the application of C-11 labeled radiopharmaceuticals such as [11C]PIB, [11C]DASB, [11C]PBR28, [11C]Methionine and [11C]Clozapine, the radiochemical yields were shown to be 25-38% (decay corrected) with over 166 GBq/μmol of

  12. Biosynthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol by lipase in dimethyl carbonate as the solvent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Park, Chang-Ho; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Glycerol carbonate was synthesized from renewable glycerol and dimethyl carbonate using lipase in solvent-free reaction system in which excess dimethyl carbonate played as the reaction medium. A variety of lipases have been tested for their abilities to catalyze transesterification reaction, and Candida antartica lipase B and Novozyme 435 exhibited higher catalytic activities. The silica-coated glycerol with a 1:1 ratio was supplied to prevent two-phase formation between hydrophobic dimethyl carbonate and hydrophilic glycerol. Glycerol carbonate was successfully synthesized with more than 90% conversion from dimethyl carbonate and glycerol with a molar ratio of 10 using Novozyme 435-catalyzed transesterification at 70 °C. The Novozyme 435 [5% (w/w) and 20% (w/w)] and silica gel were more than four times recycled with good stability in a repeated batch operation for the solvent-free synthesis of glycerol carbonate. PMID:20502921

  13. Equation of State of Carbonated Hydroxylapatite at Ambient Temperature up to 10 GPa: Significance of Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    X Liu; S Shieh; M Fleet; L Zhang; Q He

    2011-12-31

    The incorporation of the carbonate ion into the crystal structure of hydroxylapatite results in the creation of vacancies, oxygen-loss, and disorder, with consequent changes in physical and chemical properties. High-pressure experimental investigation up to 10 GPa of two synthetic carbonated hydroxylapatite samples with up to 11 wt% CO3, using a diamond-anvil cell and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, provides the first rigorous assessment of the mechanical behavior of the carbonated hydroxylapatite. The pressure-volume data suggest that the isothermal bulk modulus of these carbonated hydroxylapatites has been significantly decreased by the presence of the carbonate (up to about 15%), which in turn will affect all the carbonated apatite-related reactions in the geosystem. Since hydroxylapatite is one of the major components of the bones and teeth, the incorporation of the carbonate in the hydroxylapatite weakens teeth and bones not only chemically, but also physically.

  14. Global carbon budget 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Andrew, R. M.; Boden, T.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Houghton, R. A.; Marland, G.; Moriarty, R.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Arvanitis, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Doney, S. C.; Harper, A.; Harris, I.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Jones, S. D.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Körtzinger, A.; Koven, C.; Lefèvre, N.; Omar, A.; Ono, T.; Park, G.-H.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schwinger, J.; Segschneider, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Tilbrook, B.; van Heuven, S.; Viovy, N.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Yue, C.

    2013-11-01

    0.5 GtC yr-1, 2.2% above 2011, reflecting a continued trend in these emissions; GATM was 5.2 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and assuming and ELUC of 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1 (based on 2001-2010 average), SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was high in 2012 compared to the 2003-2012 average, almost entirely reflecting the high EFF. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 392.52 ± 0.10 ppm on average over 2012. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.1% (1.1-3.1%) to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC in 2013, 61% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of World Gross Domestic Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. With this projection, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 550 ± 60 GtC for 1870-2013, 70% from EFF (390 ± 20 GtC) and 30% from ELUC (160 ± 55 GtC). This paper is intended to provide a baseline to keep track of annual carbon budgets in the future. All data presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (1.1"target="_blank">10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_v1.1).

  15. Nanostructured carbons for solid phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puziy, A. M.; Poddubnaya, O. I.; Gawdzik, B.; Sobiesiak, M.; Reinish, C. A.; Tsyba, M. M.; Segeda, T. P.; Danylenko, M. I.

    2010-06-01

    Nanostructured carbons have been obtained by the template method using zeolite NaY and silica gels (SG60, Fluka and ZK, POCh) as structure directing agents. Texture and porous structure of carbons were characterized by TEM, XRD and nitrogen adsorption. Surface chemistry was investigated by the potentiometric titration method. It has been shown that all carbons show developed and uniform porous structure with mean size in the micropore range (1.1 nm) for zeolite derived carbon and in the mesopore range (3.4 and 4.8 nm) for silica gel derived carbons. The BET surface area of silica gel derived carbons is in the range 1230-1280 m 2/g whereas zeolite derived carbon possesses very high BET surface area, 3000 m 2/g. Potentiometric titration showed that carbons obtained by the template method contain significant amount of acid surface groups (carboxylic, lactone/enol and phenolic) with the total amount 1.1-1.5 mmol/g. To study adsorption-desorption properties of nanostructured carbons towards phenol and chlorophenols the solid phase extraction method was used. High recoveries of chlorophenols were obtained (80-93%) at the breakthrough volumes 1700-3000 mL. The recoveries are much higher than that obtained with commercially available carbon ACC (Supelco).

  16. 1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1 - Dichloroethylene ( 1,1 - DCE ) ; CASRN 75 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  17. 19. MANHOLE ON 9 ' 0' X 11' 0' 11 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MANHOLE ON 9 ' 0' X 11' 0' 11 ' 0' SEWER, SECTIONS. SHEET 3 OF 3. CASE A, DRAWING 784. - Mile Rock Tunnel, Under Forty-eighth Avenue from Cabrillo Street to San Francisco Bay at Point Lobos, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of C-11 formaldehyde: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Slegers, G.; Lambrecht, R.H.D.; Vandewalle, T.; Meulewaeter, L.; Vandecasteele, C.

    1984-03-01

    An enzymatic synthesis of C-11 formaldehyde from C-11 methanol is presented, with immobilized alcohol oxidase and catalase: a rapid, simple procedure, with a high and reproducible yield. Carbon-11 methanol is oxidized to C-11 formaldehyde by passage over a column on which the enzymes alcohol oxidase and catalase are immobilized. The catalase increases reaction velocity by recycling the oxygen, and prevents destruction of the alcohol oxidase by eliminating the excess of hydrogen peroxide. The yield of the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation was 80-95%. A specific activity of 400-450 mCi/..mu..mole was obtained at EOB + 20 min. Various immobilization techniques and the optimal reaction conditions of the immobilized enzymes are investigated.

  19. (Inorganic carbon surveys of oceanic basins)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, R.J.

    1991-04-25

    Measurements were made aboard the F. S. Meteor, along the 19 degree South cruise track of the following chemical parameters: total dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, pCO2, CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, CC14. This was the first cruise of OASD's newly formed CO2 group. The purpose was to survey World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) line A9 for inorganic carbon for the Department of Energy's Office of CO2 Research. 1 fig.

  20. IC Engine Applications of Carbon-Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton; Rivers, H. Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Many of the properties of carbon-carbon make it an ideal material for reciprocating materials of intermittent combustion (IC) engines. Recent diesel engine tests, shown herein, indicate that the thermal and mechanical properties of carbon-carbon are adequate for piston applications, However, reducing the manufacturing costs and providing long term oxidation protection are still issues that need to be addressed.

  1. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  2. Maintenance Downtime February 11, 2015

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-02-13

    Date(s):  Wednesday, February 11, 2015 Time:  07:00 am - TBD EST Event Impact:  ... Connectivity to the Eosweb site will be unavailable from 9 - 11 am.  * ( returned to service by 9:30 am )   ...

  3. Maintenance Downtime March 11, 2015

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-03-09

    Date(s):  Wednesday, March 11, 2015 Time:  06:00 - 01:00 pm EDT Event ... Connectivity to the Eosweb site will be unavailable from 9 - 11 am. • The Data Pool, MISR order and browse tools, TES and MOPITT ...

  4. C-11 cyanide production system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-01-13

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2 is provided, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sup.4 , the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900 .degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60%H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  5. Carbon dioxide sequestration by ex-situ mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Turner, P.C.; and Walters, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The process developed for carbon dioxide sequestration utilizes a slurry of water mixed with olivine- forsterite end member (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), which is reacted with supercritical CO{sub 2} to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Carbon dioxide is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid, which likely dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. The H{sup +} hydrolyzes the silicate mineral, freeing the cation (Mg{sup 2+}), which reacts with the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} to form the solid carbonate. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural mineral, have demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction are slow at ambient temperature (22 degrees C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 7.4 MPa). However, at elevated temperature and pressure, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant conversion to the carbonate occurs. Extent of reaction is roughly 90% within 24 h, at 185 degrees C and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 11.6 MPa. Current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, and/or solution modification. Subsequent tests are intended to examine these options, as well as other mineral groups.

  6. BOREAS TF-11 Decomposition Data over the SSA-Fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, David W.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team collected several data sets in its efforts to fully describe the flux and site characteristics at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains decomposition rates of a standard substrate (wheat straw) across treatments. The measurements were conducted in 1994 as part of a 2 x 2 factorial experiment in which we added carbon (300 g/sq m as wheat straw) and nitrogen (6 g/sq m as urea) to four replicate locations in the vicinity of the TF-11 tower. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  7. BOREAS TF-11 Biomass Data over the SSA-Fen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, David W.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TF-11 team collected several data sets in its efforts to fully describe the flux and site characteristics at the SSA-Fen site. This data set contains plant cover, standing crop of plant biomass, and estimated net primary productivity at each chamber site at the end of the 1994 field season. The measurements were conducted as part of a 2 x 2 factorial experiment in which we added carbon (300 g/sq m as wheat straw) and nitrogen (6 g/sq m as urea) to four replicate locations in the vicinity of the TF-11 tower. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  8. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... been subject to disciplinary action before September 15, 2008. (c) Sections 11.24, 11.25, 11.28 and 11... September 15, 2008. (d) Sections 11.58 through 11.60 shall apply to all cases in which an order of... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61...

  9. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... been subject to disciplinary action before September 15, 2008. (c) Sections 11.24, 11.25, 11.28 and 11... September 15, 2008. (d) Sections 11.58 through 11.60 shall apply to all cases in which an order of... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61...

  10. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... been subject to disciplinary action before September 15, 2008. (c) Sections 11.24, 11.25, 11.28 and 11... September 15, 2008. (d) Sections 11.58 through 11.60 shall apply to all cases in which an order of... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61...

  11. Target design considerations for high specific activity [{sup 11}C]O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Alexoff, D.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; McDonald, K.; Wolf, A.P.

    1993-12-31

    In the routine preparation of {sup 11}C-labeled compounds through N-[{sup 11}C]-methylation using [{sup 11}C]H{sub 3}I, total masses are always higher than synthesis mass contribution, suggesting that the target system contributes carrier carbon to the final product mass. This conclusion prompted this evaluation of target materials and target design for [{sup 11}C]O{sub 2} production. Ultimately, one is faced with the sprospect of compromising between [{sup 11}C]O{sub 2} specific activity and the amount that can be extracted from the target after a reasonable irradiation time.

  12. Carbonate diagenesis and porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.H. )

    1989-01-01

    Carbonate diagenesis is a subject of enormous complexity because of the basic chemical reactivity of carbonate minerals. These carbonate minerals react quickly with natural waters that either dissolve the carbonates, or precipitate new carbonates to bring the water into equilibrium with the host carbonate sediments and rocks. These rock-water interactions either create porosity by dissolution, or destroy porosity by the precipitation of carbonate cements into pore spaces. This book examines these relationships in detail.

  13. 27 CFR 11.11 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Delegation of the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 11, Consignment Sales. Exchange. The transfer of..., rectifier, blender, or other producer, or as an importer or wholesaler of distilled spirits, wine or...

  14. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Alongi, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are ecologically and economically important forests of the tropics. They are highly productive ecosystems with rates of primary production equal to those of tropical humid evergreen forests and coral reefs. Although mangroves occupy only 0.5% of the global coastal area, they contribute 10-15% (24 Tg C y(-1)) to coastal sediment carbon storage and export 10-11% of the particulate terrestrial carbon to the ocean. Their disproportionate contribution to carbon sequestration is now perceived as a means for conservation and restoration and a way to help ameliorate greenhouse gas emissions. Of immediate concern are potential carbon losses to deforestation (90-970 Tg C y(-1)) that are greater than these ecosystems' rates of carbon storage. Large reservoirs of dissolved inorganic carbon in deep soils, pumped via subsurface pathways to adjacent waterways, are a large loss of carbon, at a potential rate up to 40% of annual primary production. Patterns of carbon allocation and rates of carbon flux in mangrove forests are nearly identical to those of other tropical forests. PMID:24405426

  15. 40 CFR 458.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process... shall apply to this subpart. (b) The term “product” shall mean carbon black manufactured by the...

  16. 40 CFR 458.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Furnace Process... shall apply to this subpart. (b) The term “product” shall mean carbon black manufactured by the...

  17. Carbon Nanomembranes.

    PubMed

    Turchanin, Andrey; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) are synthetic 2D carbon sheets with tailored physical or chemical properties. These depend on the structure, molecular composition, and surroundings on either side. Due to their molecular thickness, they can be regarded as "interfaces without bulk" separating regions of different gaseous, liquid, or solid components and controlling the materials exchange between them. Here, a universal scheme for the fabrication of 1 nm-thick, mechanically stable, functional CNMs is presented. CNMs can be further modified, for example perforated by ion bombardment or chemically functionalized by the binding of other molecules onto the surfaces. The underlying physical and chemical mechanisms are described, and examples are presented for the engineering of complex surface architectures, e.g., nanopatterns of proteins, fluorescent dyes, or polymer brushes. A simple transfer procedure allows CNMs to be placed on various support structures, which makes them available for diverse applications: supports for electron and X-ray microscopy, nanolithography, nanosieves, Janus nanomembranes, polymer carpets, complex layered structures, functionalization of graphene, novel nanoelectronic and nanomechanical devices. To close, the potential of CNMs in filtration and sensorics is discussed. Based on tests for the separation of gas molecules, it is argued that ballistic membranes may play a prominent role in future efforts of materials separation. PMID:27281234

  18. APOLLO 11: The heroes Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The crew of APOLLO 11 return as heroes after their succesfull landing on the lunar surface. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 11:'The Eagle Has Landed'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 11: First manned lunar landing and return to Earth with Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin. Landed in the Sea of Tranquilityon July 20, 1969; deployed TV camera and EASEP experiments, performed lunar surface EVA, returned lunar soil samples. Mission Duration 195 hrs 18 min 35sec

  19. Reservoirs 3 carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, E.A.; Foster, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers the topics of Carbonates; Carbonate depositional environments and Carbonate diagenesis. Included are the following papers: pore geometry of carbonate rocks as revealed by pore casts and capillary pressure; a review of carbonate reservoirs; the chemistry of dolomitization and dolomite precipitation.

  20. Trading forest carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  1. Pioneer 11's New Saturn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    New findings about the planet, Saturn and its environs, as collected by Pioneer 11 are detailed. Topics discussed include: the composition of the planet's interior, the search for new satellites, and the planet's magnetic field. (BT)

  2. Superhydrophobic amorphous carbon/carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Z. J.; Tay, B. K.; Shakerzadeh, M.; Ostrikov, K.

    2009-06-01

    Superhydrophobic amorphous carbon/carbon nanotube nanocomposites are fabricated by plasma immersion ion implantation with carbon nanotube forests as a template. The microstructure of the fabricated nanocomposites shows arrays of carbon nanotubes capped with amorphous carbon nanoparticles. Contact angle measurements show that both advancing and receding angles close to 180° can be achieved on the nanocomposites. The fabrication here does not require patterning of carbon nanotubes or deposition of conformal coatings with low surface energy, which are usually involved in conventional approaches for superhydrophobic surfaces. The relationship between the observed superhydrophobicity and the unique microstructure of the nanocomposites is discussed.

  3. A chromosome 11 YAC library

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, S.; Zhang, J.; Isaacs, C.M.; Nagafuchi, S.; Jani Sait, S.N.; Abel, K.J.; Higgins, M.J.; Nowak, N.J.; Shows, T.B. )

    1993-06-01

    A targeted yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for chromosome 11 has been constructed from the J1 cell line that carries a single human chromosome 11 within a hamster DNA background. Interspecies chimeric clones generated during construction of the library were detected during the screening process and eliminated from the library. Contig assembly becomes much less difficult using such a library as the complexity is decreased and the ends of the clone inserts can be rescued for walking to neighboring clones. The library contains > 1824 clones with an average insert length of 337 kb. This represents a fourfold coverage of chromosome 11 or a >95% chance of recovering a unique single-copy sequence from the library. Two hundred YAC clones were localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization and found to be randomly distributed along the chromosome. The library has been screened with probes for the chromosome 11 markers HBB, GLUR4, H19, and D11S193. Corresponding YAC clones have been isolated for each locus. This analysis has indicated that the library is unbiased, that cognate YAC clones can be recovered with chromosome 11 markers, and that extensive contig assembly should be feasible. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Functional Analysis of Histone Deacetylase 11 (HDAC11).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Sahakian, Eva; Powers, John; Lienlaf, Maritza; Perez-Villarroel, Patricio; Knox, Tessa; Villagra, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The physiological role of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), the newest member of the HDAC family, remained largely unknown until the discovery of its regulatory function in immune cells. Among them, the regulation of cytokine production by antigen-presenting cells and the modulation of the suppressive ability of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) (Sahakian et al. Mol Immunol 63: 579-585, 2015; Wang et al. J Immunol 186: 3986-3996, 2011; Villagra et al. Nat Immunol 10: 92-100, 2009). Our earlier data has demonstrated that HDAC11, by interacting at the chromatin level with the IL-10 promoter, downregulates il-10 transcription in both murine and human APCs in vitro and ex vivo models (Villagra et al. Nat Immunol 10: 92-100, 2009). However the role of HDAC11 in other cell types still remains unknown. Here we present several methods that can potentially be used to identify the functional role of HDAC11, assigning special attention to the evaluation of immunological parameters. PMID:27246214

  5. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage in activation of the prodrug nabumetone.

    PubMed

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N A; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Challinor, Victoria L; De Voss, James J; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their substrates, these reactions have been difficult to characterize. A CYP1A2-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction is required for conversion of the prodrug nabumetone to its active form, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA). Despite worldwide use of nabumetone as an anti-inflammatory agent, the mechanism of its carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction remains obscure. With the help of authentic synthetic standards, we report here that the reaction involves 3-hydroxylation, carbon-carbon cleavage to the aldehyde, and oxidation of the aldehyde to the acid, all catalyzed by CYP1A2 or, less effectively, by other P450 enzymes. The data indicate that the carbon-carbon bond cleavage is mediated by the ferric peroxo anion rather than the ferryl species in the P450 catalytic cycle. CYP1A2 also catalyzes O-demethylation and alcohol to ketone transformations of nabumetone and its analogs. PMID:24584631

  6. Carbon-Carbon Bond Cleavage in Activation of the Prodrug Nabumetone

    PubMed Central

    Varfaj, Fatbardha; Zulkifli, Siti N. A.; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Challinor, Victoria L.; De Voss, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions are catalyzed by, among others, lanosterol 14-demethylase (CYP51), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11), sterol 17β-lyase (CYP17), and aromatase (CYP19). Because of the high substrate specificities of these enzymes and the complex nature of their substrates, these reactions have been difficult to characterize. A CYP1A2-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction is required for conversion of the prodrug nabumetone to its active form, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA). Despite worldwide use of nabumetone as an anti-inflammatory agent, the mechanism of its carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction remains obscure. With the help of authentic synthetic standards, we report here that the reaction involves 3-hydroxylation, carbon-carbon cleavage to the aldehyde, and oxidation of the aldehyde to the acid, all catalyzed by CYP1A2 or, less effectively, by other P450 enzymes. The data indicate that the carbon-carbon bond cleavage is mediated by the ferric peroxo anion rather than the ferryl species in the P450 catalytic cycle. CYP1A2 also catalyzes O-demethylation and alcohol to ketone transformations of nabumetone and its analogs. PMID:24584631

  7. Inclusion of soil carbon lateral movement alters terrestrial carbon budget in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haicheng; Liu, Shuguang; Yuan, Wenping; Dong, Wenjie; Ye, Aizhong; Xie, Xianhong; Chen, Yang; Liu, Dan; Cai, Wenwen; Mao, Yuna

    2014-01-01

    The lateral movement of soil carbon has a profound effect on the carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems; however, it has never been quantified in China, which is one of the strongest soil erosion areas in the world. In this study, we estimated that the overall soil erosion in China varies from 11.27 to 18.17 Pg yr−1 from 1982 to 2011, accounting for 7–21% of total soil erosion globally. Soil erosion induces a substantial lateral redistribution of soil organic carbon ranging from 0.64 to 1.04 Pg C yr−1. The erosion-induced carbon flux ranges from a 0.19 Pg C yr−1 carbon source to a 0.24 Pg C yr−1 carbon sink in the terrestrial ecosystem, which is potentially comparable in magnitude to previously estimated total carbon budget of China (0.19 to 0.26 Pg yr−1). Our results showed that the lateral movement of soil carbon strongly alters the carbon budget in China, and highlighted the urgent need to integrate the processes of soil erosion into the regional or global carbon cycle estimates. PMID:25430970

  8. Carbon Farming as a Carbon Negative Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Laird, D.; Hayes, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon farms have a pivotal role in national and international efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change. A carbon farm in its broadest sense is one that reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. Their capacity to remove carbon from the air and store it safely and permanently, while providing additional human and ecosystem benefits, means they could contribute significantly to national efforts to stabilize or reduce GHGs. We examine carbon farms in the context of corn and soybean production agriculture. We illustrate, using Iowa data but with relevance across United States corn and soybean production, the potential for carbon farms to reduce human GHG emissions and sequester carbon permanently at a rate that has meaningful impact on global greenhouse gas concentration. Carbon has been viewed as a next generation cash crop in Iowa for over a decade. The carbon farm perspective, however, goes beyond carbon as cash crop to make carbon the center of an entire farm enterprise. The transformation is possible through slight adjustment crop practices mixed with advances in technology to sequester carbon through biochar. We examine carbon balance of Iowa agriculture given only the combination of slight reduction in fertilizer and sequestration by biochar. We find the following. Iowa carbon farms could turn Iowa agriculture into a carbon sink. The estimated range of GHG reduction by statewide implementation of carbon farms is 19.46 to 90.27 MMt CO2-equivalent (CO2-e), while the current agricultural CO2-e emission estimate is 35.38 MMt CO2-e. Iowa carbon farm GHG reduction would exceed Iowa GHG reduction by wind energy (8.7 MMt CO2-e) and could exceed combined reductions from wind energy and corn grain ethanol (10.7 MMt CO2-e; 19.4 MMt CO2-e combined). In fact, Iowa carbon farms alone could exceed GHG reduction from national corn grain ethanol production (39.6 MMt CO2-e). A carbon price accessible to agricultural

  9. Carbon dioxide concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. F.; Huebscher, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Passed exhaled air through electrochemical cell containing alkali metal carbonate aqueous solution, and utilizes platinized electrodes causing reaction of oxygen at cathode with water in electrolyte, producing hydroxyl ions which react with carbon dioxide to form carbonate ions.

  10. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOEpatents

    Engle, Glen B.

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  11. 11. "TEST STANDS NOS. 11, 13, & 15; CONCRETE STRUCTURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. "TEST STANDS NOS. 1-1, 1-3, & 1-5; CONCRETE STRUCTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. OC12-50-10; Drawing No. 60-09-04; no sheet number within title block. D.O. SERIES 1109/15, Rev. E. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract DA-04353 Eng. 177, Rev. E; Date: 21 Dec. 1951. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Transition metal mediated [(11) C]carbonylation reactions: recent advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Kealey, Steven; Gee, Antony; Miller, Philip W

    2014-04-01

    [(11) C]Carbon monoxide is undoubtedly a highly versatile radiolabelling synthon with many potential applications for the synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET) tracer molecules and functional groups, but why has it not found more applications in the PET radiolabelling arena? Today, (11) CO radiolabelling is still primarily viewed as a niche area; however, there are signs that this is beginning to change as some of the technical and chemistry challenges of producing, handling and reacting (11) CO are overcome. This mini review covers the more recent developments of (11) CO-labelling chemistry and is focused on palladium and rhodium-mediated carbonylation reactions that are growing in importance and finding wider application for carbon-11 PET radiotracer development. PMID:24425679

  13. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  14. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  15. Carbon-carbon grid for ion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus of manufacturing a grid member for use in an ion discharge apparatus provides a woven carbon fiber in a matrix of carbon. The carbon fibers are orientated to provide a negatibe coefficient of thermal expansion for at least a portion of the grid member's operative range of use.

  16. Carbon-carbon grid for ion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus of manufacturing a grid member for use in an ion discharge apparatus provides a woven carbon fiber in a matrix of carbon. The carbon fibers are orientated to provide a negatibe coefficient of thermal expansion for at least a portion of the grid member's operative range of use.

  17. Carbon-Carbon Heat Pipe Testing and Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rovang, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses development and proof-of-concept testing of a new lightweight carbon-carbon (C-C) space radiator heat pipe developed under the NASA Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Program. The heat pipe was filled with potassium working fluid and tested for 11 hours including startup from ambient temperature with the working fluid initially in the frozen state to near 700 K condenser temperature. Steady-state heat pipe input power during testing was facility limited to about 300 watts, representing about 50 percent of the design input power. Post test inspection showed the heat pipe to be in excellent condition after eight thermal cycles from ambient to steady-state operating temperature. Potential applications, ranging from small spacecraft heat rejection to aircraft and terrestrial uses, are discussed.

  18. 11 CFR 9008.11 - Examinations and audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... examination and audit of the convention committee no later than December 31 of the calendar year of the... will follow the same procedures during the audit, and will afford the committee the same right to respond, as are provided for audits of publicly funded candidates under 11 CFR 9007.1 and 9038.1....

  19. 47 CFR 11.11 - The Emergency Alert System (EAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Broadband Service (EBS) stations; DBS services, as defined in 47 CFR 25.701(a) (including certain Ku-band Fixed-Satellite Service Direct to Home providers); SDARS, as defined in 47 CFR 25.201; participating... herein. At a minimum EAS Participants must use a common EAS protocol, as defined in § 11.31, to send...

  20. 48 CFR 6101.11 - Conferences; conference memorandum [Rule 11].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... agreements disposing of matters in dispute; or (6) Ways to expedite disposition of the case or to facilitate settlement of the dispute, including, if the parties and the Board agree, the use of alternative dispute... APPEALS, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.11 Conferences; conference...

  1. 48 CFR 6101.11 - Conferences; conference memorandum [Rule 11].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... agreements disposing of matters in dispute; or (6) Ways to expedite disposition of the case or to facilitate settlement of the dispute, including, if the parties and the Board agree, the use of alternative dispute... APPEALS, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.11 Conferences; conference...

  2. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  3. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  4. Deep Soil Carbon: The Insight into Global Carbon Estimation and Deforestation Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangmanee, Podjanee; Dell, Bernard; Harper, Richard; Henry, David

    2015-04-01

    World carbon stocks have been dramatically changed by deforestation. The current estimation of carbon loss is based on allometric techniques assisted with satellite imagery and the assumption that, 20% of the total biomass carbon stock is below ground. However, the monitoring of soil carbon is limited to 0.3 m despite many soils being much deeper than this. For example, direct measurement of soil carbon demonstrated the occurrence of two to five times more carbon stored in deep soils of south Western Australia (SWA) compared to what would normally be reported, although the land had been deforested for 80 years. This raises important questions about the dynamics of this deeper carbon and whether it will contribute to global climate change. This paper reports the form and variation of carbon in soil at three adjacent areas at three different depths (0-1, 11-12 and 18-19 m). Techniques were developed to quantitatively and qualitatively determine small concentrations of carbon in deep soils. There were marked differences in carbon compounds with depth. Near the surface these were macromolecular organic compounds derived from lignin, polysaccharides, proteins, terpenes, whereas at depth they were low molecular weight compounds, 13-docosenamide, 13-docosenoate, xanthone, benzophenone. The deeper compounds are likely derived from the roots of the previous forest whereas the surface soils are affected by current land use. The in situ decomposition of deep roots was revealed by the pyridine compound. The variation of compounds and location of carbon in clay could imply the state of decomposition. The result demonstrated that carbon is contained in deep soils and should be considered in global carbon accounting, particularly given ongoing deforestation on deep soils.

  5. Predicting new phases of carbon, carbonates, and carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oganov, A. R.; Zhu, Q.; Lyakhov, A. O.; Zeng, Q.

    2012-12-01

    We will discuss latest developments and applications of the USPEX code [1] to carbon-based materials: -We predicted structures of two high-pressure phases of CaCO3 [2] and two complex new high-pressure structures of MgCO3 [3], and our predictions have just been confirmed by experiment. We find that in the top part of the Earth's mantle diamond and MgCO3 magnesite will be the main host of C, but most of the lower mantle will contain carbon in the form of Fe3C cementite, diamond and MgCO3 phases (magnesite and post-magnesite phase). In the D" layer, CaCO3 with a pyroxene-like structure will be stable. -For the Fe-C system at pressures of the Earth's inner core, contrary to conventional wisdom, Fe3C and Fe7C3 are not thermodynamically stable compounds at relevant pressures - the only stable iron carbide is the orthorhombic (Pnma) phase of Fe2C [4]. The upper bound for the carbon content in the inner core is 11-15 mol.% (2.6-3.7 wt.%), and we conclude that carbon is a likely important light alloying element in the core. -We studied possible decomposition of methane. We confirm [5] that methane on compression initially polymerizes into ethane and butane, and it still higher pressures diamond is formed. Thus, it is confirmed that heat can be is produced in Neptune's interior by sinking large amounts of diamond. -Now it is possible to perform optimization of physical properties, e,g, the density and hardness [6,7], which allowed the predicted the densest possible structures of carbon [6]. These are up to 3.2% denser than diamond and possess interesting optical and electronic properties and their strong similarities with known phases of silica, quartz and keatite. It was also proven [7] that diamond is the hardest possible allotrope of carbon. -The evolutionary metadynamics technique [8] allowed us to predict the full set of candidate structures that could be formed upon low-temperature compression of graphite [9]. This includes our earlier proposed [1,10] monoclinic (M-carbon

  6. detached_shells_carbon_stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hony, Sacha; Bouwman, Jeroen; Waters, Laurens

    2004-09-01

    We propose to obtain 19-37 micrometer IRS spectra of the detached shells around nearby carbon-stars. We have selected a small (11) sample of bright, well studied, carbon-stars with known detached shells. The sample covers a range of angular diameters of the detached shells from 8-200" and stellar effective temperatures between 800-2600 K. With the spectra of the dust in the detached shell we aim to establish: i) The location of the shell. ii) The chemistry of the shell in order to constrain it's origin. iii) Test the MgS identification for the ``30'' micrometer emission feature. iv) Determine observationally the relationship between the ``30'' micrometer feature peak-position and the distance to the star. These observations will contribute greatly to the understanding AGB-star mass loss, in general, and the phenomenon of detached shells around carbon-stars, in particular. They will also be used to develop a diagnostic tool that allows to study detached shell properties of distant carbon-stars, that cannot be spatially resolved, based on their IR spectrum alone. The total requested time is 2.5h.

  7. Variable Carbon Isotopes in ALH84001 Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, P. B.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2002-12-01

    The Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains a small amount of carbonate that was deposited from aqueous fluids on the Martian surface approximately 3.9 Ga.. McKay et al. (1996) proposed evidence for the existence of life preserved within the carbonate grains. In order to determine the nature of the ancient Martian aqueous system we have combined previously collected oxygen isotopic data with new carbon isotopic measurements performed on the Cameca 6f ion microprobe at Arizona State University. Isotopic measurements were made at high mass resolution with a spot size of 10 microns. The measured carbon isotopic values range from 29.2‰ to 64.5‰ (PDB) with an average uncertainty of +/-1.6‰ (1σ ). These data agree very well with previous acid dissolution and stepped combustion experiments which range from a δ13C of +32‰ to +41‰ . As observed with the oxygen isotopic data, the carbon isotopic composition is correlated with the chemical composition of the carbonates. This allows us to establish that the earliest (Ca-rich) carbonates had the lightest carbon isotopic composition while the latest forming (Mg-rich) carbonates had the heaviest carbon isotopic composition. The large range of carbon isotopic compositions measured in this study cannot be explained by previously proposed models. Temperature change or a Rayleigh distillation process caused by progressive carbonate precipitation are insufficient to create the observed carbon isotopic compositions. Furthermore, processes such as evaporation or photosynthesis will not produce large carbon isotopic variations due to rapid isotopic equilibration with the atmosphere. We propose two possible models for the formation of the ALH84001 carbonates consistent with the isotopic data collected thus far. Carbonates could have formed from an evolving system where the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of the carbonates reflects a mixing between magmatic hydrothermal fluids and fluids in equilibrium with an isotopically

  8. 40 CFR 63.990 - Absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regeneration cycle; and a carbon bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording the carbon bed... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, and carbon..., Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.990 Absorbers, condensers, and...

  9. 40 CFR 63.990 - Absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regeneration cycle; and a carbon bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording the carbon bed... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, and carbon..., Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.990 Absorbers, condensers, and...

  10. 40 CFR 63.990 - Absorbers, condensers, and carbon adsorbers used as control devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regeneration cycle; and a carbon bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording the carbon bed... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, and carbon..., Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.990 Absorbers, condensers, and...

  11. Carbon in, Carbon out: Reevaluating Carbon Fluxes in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction zones exert a fundamental control on the deep carbon cycle. We reevaluated carbon inputs and outputs in convergent margins considering new estimates of C concentration in subducting mantle peridotites, carbonate solubility in aqueous fluids along subduction geotherms, melting and diapirism of carbon-bearing metasediments, and diffuse degassing from arcs. Our updated estimate of carbon inputs to the global subduction system, which includes estimates for C in altered peridotite, is 40-66 megatons carbon/year (MtC/y). We find that estimates of C lost from slabs (14-66 MtC/y) must take into account the high CaCO3 solubility in aqueous fluids, which contributes significant C that must be added to that derived from mineral decarbonation reactions. When taken together with hydrous silicate and carbonatite melts and metasediment diapirs, nearly all C can be scavenged from subducting lithosphere. The return of C to the atmosphere via arc-volcano degassing is only 18-43 MtC/y, but consideration deep volatile saturation of arc magmas, magma ponding in the middle and deep arc crust, and CO2 venting in forearcs can account for the remaining C lost from the slab. Thus, whereas previous studies concluded that about half the subducting carbon is returned to the convecting mantle, we find that relatively little carbon may be recycled. If so, substantial quantities of carbon are stored in the mantle lithosphere and crust and the carbon content of the mantle lithosphere + crust + ocean + atmosphere must be increasing, at least over the last 5-10 My. This is consistent with inferences from noble gas data. Recycled carbon in diamonds is a small fraction of the global carbon inventory.

  12. Activity Book. Celebrate Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchert, Linda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An activity book helps students learn about the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon as they get a sense of the mission's impact on their lives. The activities enhance understanding of science, math, social studies, and language arts. A teacher's page offers information on books, magazines, computer materials, and special resources. (SM)

  13. Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Wendell

    1970-01-01

    Report of a conference called to discuss the findings of 142 scientists from their investigations of samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission. Significant findings reported include the age and composition of the lunar samples, and the absence of water and organic matter. Much discussed was the origin and structure of…

  14. Apollo 11: 20th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The Apollo 11 Mission which culminated in the first manned lunar landing on July 20, 1969 is recounted. Historical footage of preparation, takeoff, stage separation, the Eagle Lunar Lander, and the moon walk accompany astronauts Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neal Armstrong giving their recollections of the mission are shown.

  15. Parenting after September 11, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Val J.

    Many mothers and fathers are parenting differently since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. This booklet describes how parents are discovering new ways to strengthen and build upon their relationships with their children and provides advice to parents on how to help their children grow closer to them, to become caring and sharing people,…

  16. Pioneer 11 Encounter. [with Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter is discussed in detail. The scientific experiments carried out on the probe are described along with the instruments used. Tables are included which provide data on the times of experiments, encounters, and the distances from Jupiter. Educational study projects are also given.

  17. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N.; Leu, A.; Munoz, E.; Olsen, J.; Kwong, E.; Des Marais, D.

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4 percent depleted in C-13 relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3 percent enriched in C-13. The acetate C-13 enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6 percent depleted in C-13, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7 percent, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7 percent, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle.

  18. Carbon distribution profiles in lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    Radial distribution profiles of elemental carbon in lunar soils consisting of particles in the size range of 50 to 150 microns were investigated. Initial experiments on specimen preparation and the analysis of prepared specimens by Auger electron spectrometry (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are described. Results from splits of samples 61501,84 and 64421,11, which were mounted various ways in several specimen holders, are presented. A low carbon content was observed in AES spectra from soil particles that were subjected to sputter-ion cleaning with 960eV argon ions for periods of time up to a total exposure for one hour. This ion charge was sufficient to remove approximately 70 nm of material from the surface. All of the physically adsorbed carbon (as well as water vapor, etc.) would normally be removed in the first few minutes, leaving only carbon in the specimen, and metal support structure, to be detected thereafter.

  19. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, N; Leu, A; Muñoz, E; Olsen, J; Kwong, E; Des Marais, D

    1985-01-01

    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4% depleted in 13C relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3% enriched in 13C. The acetate 13C enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6% depleted in 13C, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7%, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7%, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle. PMID:2867741

  20. Carbon isotopic fractionation in heterotrophic microbial metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Leu, A.; Munoz, E.; Olsen, J.; Kwong, E.; Des Marais, D.

    1985-10-01

    Differences in the natural-abundance carbon stable isotopic compositions between products from aerobic cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 were measured. Respired CO2 was 3.4 percent depleted in C-13 relative to the glucose used as the carbon source, whereas the acetate was 12.3 percent enriched in C-13. The acetate C-13 enrichment was solely in the carboxyl group. Even though the total cellular carbon was only 0.6 percent depleted in C-13, intracellular components exhibited a significant isotopic heterogeneity. The protein and lipid fractions were -1.1 and -2.7 percent, respectively. Aspartic and glutamic acids were -1.6 and +2.7 percent, respectively, yet citrate was isotopically identical to the glucose. Probable sites of carbon isotopic fractionation include the enzyme, phosphotransacetylase, and the Krebs cycle. 38 references.

  1. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-16

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  2. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOEpatents

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  3. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOEpatents

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  4. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOEpatents

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  5. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOEpatents

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  6. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  8. 7 CFR 1735.11 - Area coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... effect this requirement. See 7 CFR 1737.11(a), Preapplication Determinations: Area to be Served. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area coverage. 1735.11 Section 1735.11 Agriculture... Policies § 1735.11 Area coverage. Borrowers must make adequate telephone service available to the...

  9. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  10. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  11. 41 CFR 301-11.11 - How do I make my lodging reservations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I make my lodging reservations? 301-11.11 Section 301-11.11 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.11 How do I make...

  12. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section 11(a)(1) of the Act or specified in 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) shall be deemed to be revenue derived..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A...

  13. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section 11(a)(1) of the Act or specified in 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) shall be deemed to be revenue derived..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A...

  14. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section 11(a)(1) of the Act or specified in 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) shall be deemed to be revenue derived..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A...

  15. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section 11(a)(1) of the Act or specified in 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) shall be deemed to be revenue derived..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A...

  16. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section 11(a)(1) of the Act or specified in 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) shall be deemed to be revenue derived..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A...

  17. New Carbonate Standard Reference Materials for Boron Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Christopher, S. J.; Day, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic composition of boron (δ11B) in marine carbonates is well established as a proxy for past ocean pH. Yet, before palaeoceanographic interpretation can be made, rigorous assessment of analytical uncertainty of δ11B data is required; particularly in light of recent interlaboratory comparison studies that reported significant measurement disagreement between laboratories [1]. Well characterised boron standard reference materials (SRMs) in a carbonate matrix are needed to assess the accuracy and precision of carbonate δ11B measurements throughout the entire procedural chemistry; from sample cleaning, to ionic separation of boron from the carbonate matrix, and final δ11B measurement by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To date only two carbonate reference materials exist that have been value-assigned by the boron isotope measurement community [2]; JCp-1 (porites coral) and JCt-1 (Giant Clam) [3]. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will supplement these existing standards with new solution based inorganic carbonate boron SRMs that replicate typical foraminiferal and coral B/Ca ratios and δ11B values. These new SRMs will not only ensure quality control of full procedural chemistry between laboratories, but have the added benefits of being both in abundant supply and free from any restrictions associated with shipment of biogenic samples derived from protected species. Here we present in-house δ11B measurements of these new boron carbonate SRM solutions. These preliminary data will feed into an interlaboratory comparison study to establish certified values for these new NIST SRMs. 1. Foster, G.L., et al., Chemical Geology, 2013. 358(0): p. 1-14. 2. Gutjahr, M., et al., Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP): Development of a new carbonate standard for stable isotopic analyses. Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly 2014, 2014. 16(EGU2014-5028-1). 3. Inoue, M., et al., Geostandards and

  18. Reduced Martian Carbon: Evidence from Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, SImon J.; Pillinger, COlin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Verchovsky, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of indigenous reduced carbon species on Mars has been a challenge since the first hypotheses about life on Mars were proposed. Ranging from the early astronomical measurements to analyses of samples from the Martian surface in the form of Martian meteorites. The first direct attempt to analyze the carbon species on the surface was in 1976 with the Viking GC-MS in-situ experiment which gave inconclusive results at two sites on Mars [1]. With the recognition in 1983 that samples of the Martian surface were already present on Earth in the form of Martian meteorites by Bogard and Johnson [2] new opportunities became available for direct study of Mars's samples in te rlraesbtrioalratories. Carbon isotopic compositional information suggested a reduced carbon component was present in the Martian meteorites [3-5]. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with carbonate globules in ALH84001 were later identified [6,7]. Jull et al [8] noted that an insoluble component was present within Nakhla and more than 75% of its C lacked any 14C, which is modern-day carbon contaminant. This carbon fraction was believed to be either indigenous (i..e. Martian) or ancient meteoritic carbon phase. Within the fractures of Nakhla and ALH84001, Fisk et al [9,10] identified reduced carbon-enriched areas. Gibson et al. [11] using a combination of NanoSIMS, Focused Electron microscopy, Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Stepped-Combustion Static Mass Spectrometry analyses the presence of possible indigenous reduced carbon components within the 1.3 Ga old Nakhla.

  19. 22 CFR 223.11 - Appropriate action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appropriate action. 223.11 Section 223.11...-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 223.11 Appropriate action. The Administrator may take appropriate action in the... action....

  20. Properties Of Carbon/Carbon and Carbon/Phenolic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, John R.; Canfield, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents data on physical properties of carbon-fiber-reinforced carbon-matrix and phenolic-matrix composite materials. Based on tests conducted on panels, cylinders, blocks, and formed parts. Data used by designers to analyze thermal-response and stress levels and develop structural systems ensuring high reliability at minimum weight.

  1. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-07

    component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005–2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005–2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005–2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870–2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. Finally, this living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).« less

  2. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-07

    atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005–2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005–2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005–2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870–2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. Finally

  3. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005-2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005-2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005-2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870-2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).

  4. 11 CFR 300.30 - Accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., 11 CFR 102.5(a)(4), 11 CFR 106.7(d)(1)(i), 11 CFR 300.33 and 11 CFR 300.34. (2) Levin account. The funds deposited into this account must comply with 11 CFR 300.31. Such funds may be used for the categories of activities described at 11 CFR 300.32(b). (3) Federal account. Federal accounts may be used...

  5. 11 CFR 300.30 - Accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., 11 CFR 102.5(a)(4), 11 CFR 106.7(d)(1)(i), 11 CFR 300.33 and 11 CFR 300.34. (2) Levin account. The funds deposited into this account must comply with 11 CFR 300.31. Such funds may be used for the categories of activities described at 11 CFR 300.32(b). (3) Federal account. Federal accounts may be used...

  6. Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Benninger, Larry; Alperin, Marc; de Dios Morales, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested) surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g). Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 ± 0.002 g cm−3 (11.3 ± 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean ± 1 SE) up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 ± 0.002 g cm−3 (8.0 ± 0.3%) in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks. PMID:24883249

  7. Organic carbon inventories in natural and restored Ecuadorian mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    DelVecchia, Amanda G; Bruno, John F; Benninger, Larry; Alperin, Marc; Banerjee, Ovik; de Dios Morales, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves can capture and store organic carbon and their protection and therefore their restoration is a component of climate change mitigation. However, there are few empirical measurements of long-term carbon storage in mangroves or of how storage varies across environmental gradients. The context dependency of this process combined with geographically limited field sampling has made it difficult to generalize regional and global rates of mangrove carbon sequestration. This has in turn hampered the inclusion of sequestration by mangroves in carbon cycle models and in carbon offset markets. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative carbon capture and storage potential in natural and restored mangrove forests. We measured depth profiles of soil organic carbon content in 72 cores collected from six sites (three natural, two restored, and one afforested) surrounding Muisne, Ecuador. Samples up to 1 m deep were analyzed for organic matter content using loss-on-ignition and values were converted to organic carbon content using an accepted ratio of 1.72 (g/g). Results suggest that average soil carbon storage is 0.055 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (11.3 ± 0.8% carbon content by dry mass, mean ± 1 SE) up to 1 m deep in natural sites, and 0.058 ± 0.002 g cm(-3) (8.0 ± 0.3%) in restored sites. These estimates are concordant with published global averages. Evidence of equivalent carbon stocks in restored and afforested mangrove patches emphasizes the carbon sink potential for reestablished mangrove systems. We found no relationship between sediment carbon storage and aboveground biomass, forest structure, or within-patch location. Our results demonstrate the long-term carbon storage potential of natural mangroves, high effectiveness of mangrove restoration and afforestation, a lack of predictability in carbon storage strictly based on aboveground parameters, and the need to establish standardized protocol for quantifying mangrove sediment carbon stocks. PMID:24883249

  8. Neoplastic Transformation Induced by Carbon Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bettega, Daniela Calzolari, Paola; Hessel, Petra; Stucchi, Claudio G.; Weyrather, Wilma K.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: The objective of this experiment was to compare the oncogenic potential of carbon ion beams and conventional photon beams for use in radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The HeLa X human skin fibroblast cell line CGL1 was irradiated with carbon ions of three different energies (270, 100, and 11.4 MeV/u). Inactivation and transformation data were compared with those for 15 MeV photons. Results: Inactivation and transformation frequencies for the 270 MeV/u carbon ions were similar to those for 15-MeV photons. The maximal relative biologic effectiveness (RBE{sub {alpha}}) values for 100MeV/u and 11.4 MeV/u carbon ions, respectively, were as follows: inactivation, 1.6 {+-} 0.2 and 6.7 {+-} 0.7; and transformation per surviving cell, 2.5 {+-} 0.6 and 12 {+-} 3. The curve for dose-transformation per cell at risk exhibited a maximum that was shifted toward lower doses at lower energies. Conclusions: Transformation induction per cell at risk for carbon ions in the entrance channel was comparable to that for photons, whereas for the lower energies, 100 MeV/u and 11 MeV/u, which are representative of the energies delivered to the tumor margins and volume, respectively, the probability of transformation in a single cell was greater than it was for photons. In addition, at isoeffective doses with respect to cell killing, the 11.4-MeV/u beam was more oncogenic than were photons.

  9. Accelerating Mineral Carbonation Using Carbonic Anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M

    2016-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have gained considerable attention for their potential use in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technologies because they are able to catalyze rapidly the interconversion of aqueous CO2 and bicarbonate. However, there are challenges for widespread implementation including the need to develop mineralization process routes for permanent carbon storage. Mineral carbonation of highly reactive feedstocks may be limited by the supply rate of CO2. This rate limitation can be directly addressed by incorporating enzyme-catalyzed CO2 hydration. This study examined the effects of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) and CO2-rich gas streams on the carbonation rate of brucite [Mg(OH)2], a highly reactive mineral. Alkaline brucite slurries were amended with BCA and supplied with 10% CO2 gas while aqueous chemistry and solids were monitored throughout the experiments (hours to days). In comparison to controls, brucite carbonation using BCA was accelerated by up to 240%. Nesquehonite [MgCO3·3H2O] precipitation limited the accumulation of hydrated CO2 species, apparently preventing BCA from catalyzing the dehydration reaction. Geochemical models reproduce observed reaction progress in all experiments, revealing a linear correlation between CO2 uptake and carbonation rate. Data demonstrates that carbonation in BCA-amended reactors remained limited by CO2 supply, implying further acceleration is possible. PMID:26829491

  10. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  11. Modern carbonate environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

  12. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a flare, conduct visible emission observations. Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A). Maintain a 2... of the gas being combusted and exit velocity. 40 CFR 60.11(b)(6)through(8). ...) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) 11 Table 11 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  13. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for net heating value of the gas being combusted and exit velocity. 40 CFR 60.11(b)(6)through(8). ... from all the readings. f. If you use a flare, conduct visible emission observations. Method 22 (40 CFR...) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) 11 Table 11 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  14. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for net heating value of the gas being combusted and exit velocity. 40 CFR 60.11(b)(6)through(8). ... from all the readings. f. If you use a flare, conduct visible emission observations. Method 22 (40 CFR...) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) 11 Table 11 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  15. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units Not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a flare, conduct visible emission observations. Method 22 (40 CFR part 60, appendix A). Maintain a 2... of the gas being combusted and exit velocity. 40 CFR 60.11(b)(6)through(8). ...) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) 11 Table 11 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  16. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  17. [11C]PR04.MZ, a promising DAT ligand for low concentration imaging: synthesis, efficient 11C-0-methylation and initial small animal PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Riss, P.J.; Hooker, J.; Alexoff, D.; Kim, Sung-Won; Fowler, J.S.; Roesch, F.

    2009-05-01

    PR04.MZ was designed as a highly selective dopamine transporter inhibitor, derived from natural cocaine. Its binding profile indicates that [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ may be suited as a PET radioligand for the non-invasive exploration of striatal and extrastriatal DAT populations. As a key feature, its structural design facilitates both, labelling with fluorine-18 at its terminally fluorinated butynyl moiety and carbon-11 at its methyl ester function. The present report concerns the efficient [{sup 11}C]MeI mediated synthesis of [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ from an O-desmethyl precursor trifluoroacetic acid salt with Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in DMF in up to 95 {+-} 5% labelling yield. A preliminary {mu}PET-experiment demonstrates the reversible, highly specific binding of [{sup 11}C]PR04.MZ in the brain of a male Sprague-Dawley rat.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10420 - Fluoropolymers (generic) (P-11-567, P-11-568, and P-11-569).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fluoropolymers (generic) (P-11-567, P-11-568, and P-11-569). 721.10420 Section 721.10420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10420 Fluoropolymers (generic) (P-11-567,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10420 - Fluoropolymers (generic) (P-11-567, P-11-568, and P-11-569).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fluoropolymers (generic) (P-11-567, P-11-568, and P-11-569). 721.10420 Section 721.10420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10420 Fluoropolymers (generic) (P-11-567,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10420 - Fluoropolymers (generic) (P-11-567, P-11-568, and P-11-569).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fluoropolymers (generic) (P-11-567, P-11-568, and P-11-569). 721.10420 Section 721.10420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10420 Fluoropolymers (generic) (P-11-567,...

  1. Metallic carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Marvin Lou; Crespi, Vincent Henry; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  2. High rates of organic carbon burial in fjord sediments globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Allison, Mead; Savage, Candida; Galy, Valier

    2015-06-01

    The deposition and long-term burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has played a key role in controlling atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations over the past 500 million years. Marine carbon burial represents the dominant natural mechanism of long-term organic carbon sequestration. Fjords--deep, glacially carved estuaries at high latitudes--have been hypothesized to be hotspots of organic carbon burial, because they receive high rates of organic material fluxes from the watershed. Here we compile organic carbon concentrations from 573 fjord surface sediment samples and 124 sediment cores from nearly all fjord systems globally. We use sediment organic carbon content and sediment delivery rates to calculate rates of organic carbon burial in fjord systems across the globe. We estimate that about 18 Mt of organic carbon are buried in fjord sediments each year, equivalent to 11% of annual marine carbon burial globally. Per unit area, fjord organic carbon burial rates are one hundred times as large as the global ocean average, and fjord sediments contain twice as much organic carbon as biogenous sediments underlying the upwelling regions of the ocean. We conclude that fjords may play an important role in climate regulation on glacial-interglacial timescales.

  3. Repair materials and processes for the MD-11 Composite Tailcone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Bonnar, Gerard R.

    This paper describes field and depot level repair methods for the MD-11 Composite Tailcone. The repair materials, processing methods, and mechanical properties of the test specimens and subcomponents are discussed. According to recent tests, the dry carbon cloth and the liquid resin matrix that can be cured under 93 C have better processing and mechanical properties than the 121 C curing prepregs and film adhesives. The moisture in the parent CFRP is the main cause of creating voids in the adhesive layer during the 121 C/vacuum pressure cure cycle. The lower processing temperature (wet layup) showed better results than higher processing temperature (prepreg/adhesive layup) for composite repair.

  4. 26 CFR 11.412(c)-11 - Election with respect to bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election with respect to bonds. 11.412(c)-11 Section 11.412(c)-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... OF 1974 § 11.412(c)-11 Election with respect to bonds. (a) In general. Section 412(c)(2)(B)...

  5. 29 CFR 11.11 - Development of environmental analyses and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Development of environmental analyses and documents. 11.11 Section 11.11 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor DEPARTMENT OF LABOR NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES Administrative Procedures § 11.11 Development of environmental analyses and documents. (a) Potential...

  6. 37 CFR 11.11 - Administrative suspension, inactivation, resignation, and readmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., inactivation, resignation, and readmission. 11.11 Section 11.11 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... Other Non-Patent Law § 11.11 Administrative suspension, inactivation, resignation, and readmission. (a... §§ 1.21(a)(7)(iii) and (iv) of this subchapter. (e) Resignation. A registered practitioner or...

  7. 22 CFR 11.11 - Mid-level Foreign Service officer career candidate appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mid-level Foreign Service officer career candidate appointments. 11.11 Section 11.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL APPOINTMENT OF FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS § 11.11 Mid-level Foreign Service officer career candidate appointments. (a) General considerations—(1) Authority....

  8. 22 CFR 11.11 - Mid-level Foreign Service officer career candidate appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mid-level Foreign Service officer career candidate appointments. 11.11 Section 11.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL APPOINTMENT OF FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS § 11.11 Mid-level Foreign Service officer career candidate appointments. (a) General considerations—(1) Authority....

  9. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to −41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle. PMID:27488228

  10. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Frances M; Troll, Valentin R; Whitehouse, Martin J; Jolis, Ester M; Freda, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ(11)B values down to -41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of (10)B into the assimilating melt. Loss of (11)B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports (11)B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ(11)B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle. PMID:27488228

  11. Boron isotope fractionation in magma via crustal carbonate dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Jolis, Ester M.; Freda, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    Carbon dioxide released by arc volcanoes is widely considered to originate from the mantle and from subducted sediments. Fluids released from upper arc carbonates, however, have recently been proposed to help modulate arc CO2 fluxes. Here we use boron as a tracer, which substitutes for carbon in limestone, to further investigate crustal carbonate degassing in volcanic arcs. We performed laboratory experiments replicating limestone assimilation into magma at crustal pressure-temperature conditions and analysed boron isotope ratios in the resulting experimental glasses. Limestone dissolution and assimilation generates CaO-enriched glass near the reaction site and a CO2-dominated vapour phase. The CaO-rich glasses have extremely low δ11B values down to ‑41.5‰, reflecting preferential partitioning of 10B into the assimilating melt. Loss of 11B from the reaction site occurs via the CO2 vapour phase generated during carbonate dissolution, which transports 11B away from the reaction site as a boron-rich fluid phase. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of boron isotope fractionation during crustal carbonate assimilation and suggest that low δ11B melt values in arc magmas could flag shallow-level additions to the subduction cycle.

  12. 50 CFR 296.11 - Final determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final determination. 296.11 Section 296.11 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.11...

  13. 11 CFR 9036.5 - Resubmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... presentation of resubmissions. If the candidate chooses to resubmit any contributions under 11 CFR 9036.5(a... the submission review pursuant to 11 CFR 9036.4(b), or of an inquiry pursuant to 11 CFR 9039.3 that... specified in 11 CFR 9036.2(b)(1), except that: (1) The candidate need not provide photocopies of...

  14. 14 CFR 77.11 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope. 77.11 Section 77.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE (Eff. until 1-18-11) Notice of Construction or Alteration § 77.11 Scope....

  15. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...

  16. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...

  17. 47 CFR 11.32 - EAS Encoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EAS Encoder. 11.32 Section 11.32 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.32 EAS Encoder. (a) EAS Encoders must at a minimum be capable of encoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31 and providing the EAS...

  18. 7 CFR 1739.11 - Eligible project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible project. 1739.11 Section 1739.11 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.11 Eligible project. To be eligible for a grant, the Project must: (a) Serve a Rural Area where Broadband Transmission Service does not...

  19. 47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EAS Decoder. 11.33 Section 11.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.33 EAS Decoder. (a) An EAS Decoder must at a minimum be capable of providing the EAS monitoring functions described in § 11.52, decoding...

  20. 47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EAS Decoder. 11.33 Section 11.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.33 EAS Decoder. (a) An EAS Decoder must at a minimum be capable of providing the EAS monitoring functions described in § 11.52, decoding...

  1. 47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EAS Decoder. 11.33 Section 11.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.33 EAS Decoder. (a) An EAS Decoder must at a minimum be capable of providing the EAS monitoring functions described in § 11.52, decoding...

  2. 47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EAS Decoder. 11.33 Section 11.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.33 EAS Decoder. (a) An EAS Decoder must at a minimum be capable of decoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31, provide the EAS...

  3. 11 CFR 100.142 - Bank loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... political committee in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a) and (d). (c) Endorsers and guarantors. Each endorser... the candidate's spouse, the provisions of 11 CFR 100.52(b)(4) shall apply. Any reduction in the unpaid... of 11 CFR part 110 or contravene the prohibitions of 11 CFR 110.4, 110.20, part 114 and part 115;...

  4. 11 CFR 100.142 - Bank loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... political committee in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a) and (d). (c) Endorsers and guarantors. Each endorser... the candidate's spouse, the provisions of 11 CFR 100.52(b)(4) shall apply. Any reduction in the unpaid... of 11 CFR part 110 or contravene the prohibitions of 11 CFR 110.4, 110.20, part 114 and part 115;...

  5. 11 CFR 100.142 - Bank loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... political committee in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a) and (d). (c) Endorsers and guarantors. Each endorser... the candidate's spouse, the provisions of 11 CFR 100.52(b)(4) shall apply. Any reduction in the unpaid... of 11 CFR part 110 or contravene the prohibitions of 11 CFR 110.4, 110.20, part 114 and part 115;...

  6. 11 CFR 100.142 - Bank loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... political committee in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a) and (d). (c) Endorsers and guarantors. Each endorser... the candidate's spouse, the provisions of 11 CFR 100.52(b)(4) shall apply. Any reduction in the unpaid... of 11 CFR part 110 or contravene the prohibitions of 11 CFR 110.4, 110.20, part 114 and part 115;...

  7. 11 CFR 100.142 - Bank loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... political committee in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a) and (d). (c) Endorsers and guarantors. Each endorser... the candidate's spouse, the provisions of 11 CFR 100.52(b)(4) shall apply. Any reduction in the unpaid... of 11 CFR part 110 or contravene the prohibitions of 11 CFR 110.4, 110.20, part 114 and part 115;...

  8. 7 CFR 1739.11 - Eligible project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible project. 1739.11 Section 1739.11 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.11 Eligible project. To be eligible for a grant, the Project must: (a) Serve a Rural Area where Broadband Transmission Service does not...

  9. 7 CFR 1739.11 - Eligible project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible project. 1739.11 Section 1739.11 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.11 Eligible project. To be eligible for a grant, the Project must: (a) Serve a Rural Area where Broadband Transmission Service does not...

  10. 7 CFR 1739.11 - Eligible project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible project. 1739.11 Section 1739.11 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.11 Eligible project. To be eligible for a grant, the Project must: (a) Serve a Rural Area where Broadband Transmission Service does not...

  11. 11 CFR 300.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... connection with a Federal election as that term is used in 11 CFR 300.11, 300.37, 300.50, and 300.51 includes... a public communication (see 11 CFR 100.26). (c) Directly or indirectly establish, finance, maintain... its allocated share of proceeds jointly raised pursuant to 11 CFR 102.17, and otherwise...

  12. 11 CFR 300.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... connection with a Federal election as that term is used in 11 CFR 300.11, 300.37, 300.50, and 300.51 includes... a public communication (see 11 CFR 100.26). (c) Directly or indirectly establish, finance, maintain... its allocated share of proceeds jointly raised pursuant to 11 CFR 102.17, and otherwise...

  13. 26 CFR 1.162-11 - Rentals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) and (b)(2)(iii) of this section, § 1.162-11(b) as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rentals. 1.162-11 Section 1.162-11 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-11 Rentals....

  14. 47 CFR 11.33 - EAS Decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS Decoder. 11.33 Section 11.33 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Equipment Requirements § 11.33 EAS Decoder. (a) An EAS Decoder must at a minimum be capable of decoding the EAS protocol described in § 11.31, provide the EAS...

  15. 50 CFR 697.11 - Civil procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....11 Civil procedures. The civil procedure regulations at 15 CFR part 904 apply to civil penalties... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil procedures. 697.11 Section 697.11 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  16. 11 CFR 116.10 - Disputed debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(d) and 104.11 if the creditor has provided something of value to the political... political committee may have against the creditor. (See also 11 CFR 9035.1(a)(2) regarding the effect of disputed debts on a candidate's expenditure limitations under 11 CFR part 9035.) (b) Disputed debts owed...

  17. 11 CFR 116.10 - Disputed debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(d) and 104.11 if the creditor has provided something of value to the political... political committee may have against the creditor. (See also 11 CFR 9035.1(a)(2) regarding the effect of disputed debts on a candidate's expenditure limitations under 11 CFR part 9035.) (b) Disputed debts owed...

  18. 11 CFR 9036.5 - Resubmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the submission review pursuant to 11 CFR 9036.4(b), or of an inquiry pursuant to 11 CFR 9039.3 that... presentation of resubmissions. If the candidate chooses to resubmit any contributions under 11 CFR 9036.5(a... specified in 11 CFR 9036.2(b)(1), except that: (1) The candidate need not provide photocopies of...

  19. 11 CFR 9036.5 - Resubmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the submission review pursuant to 11 CFR 9036.4(b), or of an inquiry pursuant to 11 CFR 9039.3 that... presentation of resubmissions. If the candidate chooses to resubmit any contributions under 11 CFR 9036.5(a... specified in 11 CFR 9036.2(b)(1), except that: (1) The candidate need not provide photocopies of...

  20. 11 CFR 9036.5 - Resubmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the submission review pursuant to 11 CFR 9036.4(b), or of an inquiry pursuant to 11 CFR 9039.3 that... presentation of resubmissions. If the candidate chooses to resubmit any contributions under 11 CFR 9036.5(a... specified in 11 CFR 9036.2(b)(1), except that: (1) The candidate need not provide photocopies of...

  1. 11 CFR 9036.5 - Resubmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the submission review pursuant to 11 CFR 9036.4(b), or of an inquiry pursuant to 11 CFR 9039.3 that... presentation of resubmissions. If the candidate chooses to resubmit any contributions under 11 CFR 9036.5(a... specified in 11 CFR 9036.2(b)(1), except that: (1) The candidate need not provide photocopies of...

  2. 14 CFR 1300.11 - Eligible borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... attacks on the United States that occurred on September 11, 2001, which may include losses due to the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible borrower. 1300.11 Section 1300.11....11 Eligible borrower. (a) An eligible borrower must be an air carrier that can demonstrate, to...

  3. 14 CFR 1300.11 - Eligible borrower.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... attacks on the United States that occurred on September 11, 2001, which may include losses due to the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible borrower. 1300.11 Section 1300.11....11 Eligible borrower. (a) An eligible borrower must be an air carrier that can demonstrate, to...

  4. Development of a NiO target for the production of 11C at ISAC/TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricault, Pierre G.; Ames, Friedhelm; Dombsky, Marik; Kunz, Peter; Lassen, Jens; Mjøs, Anders; Wong, John

    2016-01-01

    High intensity 11C beams are necessary for the investigation of the formation of 12C via the nuclear reaction 11C(p, γ)12N → 12C + e+ + ν. The production of intense carbon beams on-line is quite challenging due to the thermodynamic properties and chemical reactivity of carbon at high temperatures. A previous attempt, using a medical isotope cyclotron production method in batch mode, was not conclusive. The intensity obtained was at least one order of magnitude too low for a direct proton capture experiment using the DRAGON facility at ISAC/TRIUMF. Producing a 11C beams using the ISOL method requires a target capable of efficiently releasing the carbon isotopes. NiO has been selected as a target material because most of the nickel carbides are not stable at high temperature. The development of carbon beams using a composite NiO/Ni target on-line is described.

  5. Carbon Nanotubes for Polymer Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anctil, Annick; Dileo, Roberta; Schauerman, Chris; Landi, Brian; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being investigated for optical absorption, exciton dissociation, and carrier transport in polymer photovoltaic devices. In the present work, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized by an Alexandrite pulsed laser vaporization reactor at standard conditions and purified based upon our previously reported TOP procedure. The SWNTs were dispersed in polymer composites for pure MEH-PPV, pure P3HT, and [C60]-PCBM-P3HT (1:1 by weight) as a function of nanotube weight loading (0.1 -- 5% w/w). The AM0 current-voltage measurements for structures sandwiched between PEDOT/PSS coated ITO substrates and an evaporated aluminum contact demonstrate the dramatic effect of SWNT content on the short circuit current density, with conversions efficiencies consistently greater than 1%. The temperature coefficient for nanotube-containing polymer photovoltaics has been compared to conventional PCBM-P3HT devices, and the general relationship of increasing efficiency with increasing temperature is observed. However, the necessity to control nanotube percolation to prevent device shunting has led to recent developments which focus on controlling nanotube length through oxidative cutting, the deposition of intrinsic polymer layers, and the use of aligned carbon nanotube arrays for preferential charge transport.

  6. Bion 11 mission: primate experiments.

    PubMed

    Ilyin, E A; Korolkov, V I; Skidmore, M G; Viso, M; Kozlovskaya, I B; Grindeland, R E; Lapin, B A; Gordeev, Y V; Krotov, V P; Fanton, J W; Bielitzki, J T; Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Hines, J W

    2000-01-01

    A summary is provided of the major operations required to conduct the wide range of primate experiments on the Bion 11 mission, which flew for 14 days beginning December 24, 1996. Information is given on preflight preparations, including flight candidate selection and training; attachment and implantation of bioinstrumentation; flight and ground experiment designs; onboard life support and test systems; ground and flight health monitoring; flight monkey selection and transport to the launch site; inflight procedures and data collection; postflight examinations and experiments; and assessment of results. PMID:11543472

  7. Apollo 11: The Twentieth Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows the Apollo 11 crew, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, preparing for their mission. The crewmembers are seen getting their medical examinations, suiting up, and walking out to the Astro-van. Scenes include a brief view of the Launch Control Center (LCC), ignition, liftoff, and shell and engine skirt separation. The most important images are those of the moon landing and astronauts walk on the moon. Also shown are the parachute landing of the shuttle and the celebration of the world.

  8. A Symbiosis: Carbon Monitoring and Carbon Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, M.

    2015-12-01

    "We measure what we value and value what we measure." This old dictum characterizes the usefulness of carbon monitoring in serving society, both in advancing research on carbon cycles and in applying new scientific knowledge to help carbon management. Many attempts to design policy for carbon management have been limited, ineffective, or otherwise unsuccessful in part due to inadequate capacity to observe carbon sources and sinks with sufficient measurement certainty and at appropriate spatial scale. Too often, policy designers fail to understand the complexities of carbon science and carbon researchers fail to align at least a portion of their science goals with policy requirements. The carbon monitoring systems research and applications activities under the auspices of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration have significantly advanced both science and applications. To further this necessary symbiosis, this paper will synthesize current and prospective spatial and temporal requirements for emerging policy needs, discuss likely requirements for measurement certainty, and draw lessons from experiences in policies designed to monitor and manage other natural resources for which scientific research necessarily influenced policy design and effectiveness.

  9. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOEpatents

    Engle, Glen B.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

  10. Carbon nanotube cathode with capping carbon nanosheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhao, Dengchao; Pang, Kaige; Pang, Junchao; Liu, Weihua; Liu, Hongzhong; Wang, Xiaoli

    2013-10-01

    Here, we report a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) film capped with a few layer of carbon nanosheet (FLCN) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using a carbon source from iron phthalocyanine pyrolysis. The square resistance of the VACNT film is significantly reduced from 1500 Ω/□ to 300 Ω/□ when it is capped with carbon nanosheet. The VACNT capped with carbon nanosheet was transferred to an ITO glass substrate in an inverted configuration so that the carbon nanosheet served as a flexible transparent electrode at the bottom and the VACNT roots served as emission tips. Because all of the VACNTs start growing from a flat silicon substrate, the VACNT roots are very neat and uniform in height. A field emission test of the carbon nanosheet-capped VACNT film proved that the CNT roots show better uniformity in field emission and the carbon nanosheet cap could also potentially serve as a flexible transparent electrode, which is highly desired in photo-assisted field emission.

  11. A reduced organic carbon component in martian basalts.

    PubMed

    Steele, A; McCubbin, F M; Fries, M; Kater, L; Boctor, N Z; Fogel, M L; Conrad, P G; Glamoclija, M; Spencer, M; Morrow, A L; Hammond, M R; Zare, R N; Vicenzi, E P; Siljeström, S; Bowden, R; Herd, C D K; Mysen, B O; Shirey, S B; Amundsen, H E F; Treiman, A H; Bullock, E S; Jull, A J T

    2012-07-13

    The source and nature of carbon on Mars have been a subject of intense speculation. We report the results of confocal Raman imaging spectroscopy on 11 martian meteorites, spanning about 4.2 billion years of martian history. Ten of the meteorites contain abiotic macromolecular carbon (MMC) phases detected in association with small oxide grains included within high-temperature minerals. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected along with MMC phases in Dar al Gani 476. The association of organic carbon within magmatic minerals indicates that martian magmas favored precipitation of reduced carbon species during crystallization. The ubiquitous distribution of abiotic organic carbon in martian igneous rocks is important for understanding the martian carbon cycle and has implications for future missions to detect possible past martian life. PMID:22628557

  12. T-carbon: a novel carbon allotrope.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xian-Lei; Yan, Qing-Bo; Ye, Fei; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Su, Gang

    2011-04-15

    A structurally stable crystalline carbon allotrope is predicted by means of the first-principles calculations. This allotrope can be derived by substituting each atom in diamond with a carbon tetrahedron, and possesses the same space group Fd3m as diamond, which is thus coined as T-carbon. The calculations on geometrical, vibrational, and electronic properties reveal that T-carbon, with a considerable structural stability and a much lower density 1.50  g/cm3, is a semiconductor with a direct band gap about 3.0 eV, and has a Vickers hardness 61.1 GPa lower than diamond but comparable with cubic boron nitride. Such a form of carbon, once obtained, would have wide applications in photocatalysis, adsorption, hydrogen storage, and aerospace materials. PMID:21568576

  13. Carbon Based Nanotechnology: Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews publicly available information related to carbon based nanotechnology. Topics covered include nanomechanics, carbon based electronics, nanodevice/materials applications, nanotube motors, nano-lithography and H2O storage in nanotubes.

  14. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  15. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  16. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  17. The global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sedjo, R.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The author discusses the global carbon cycle and cites the results of several recently completed research projects, that seem to indicate that the temperate zone forests are a sink for carbon rather than a source, as was previously believed.

  18. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  19. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  20. Interstellar carbon in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swart, P. K.; Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C. T.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Murchison and Allende chondrites contain up to 5 parts per million carbon that is enriched in carbon-13 by up to +1100 per mil (the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-13 is approximately 42, compared to 88 to 93 for terrestrial carbon). This 'heavy' carbon is associated with neon-22 and with anomalous krypton and xenon showing the signature of the s-process (neutron capture on a slow time scale). It apparently represents interstellar grains ejected from late-type stars. A second anomalous xenon component ('CCFXe') is associated with a distinctive, light carbon (depleted in carbon-13 by 38 per mil), which, however, falls within the terrestrial range and hence may be of either local or exotic origin.

  1. Not just carbon widgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-08-01

    Forests are important for the global carbon cycle, and for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. However, the role forests play in carbon sequestration should not eclipse everything else we value them for.

  2. Regulation of carbonic-anhydrase activity, inorganic-carbon uptake and photosynthetic biomass yield inChlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Patel, B N; Merrett, M J

    1986-03-01

    The regulation of carbonic anhydrase by environmental conditions was determined forChlamydomonas reinhardtii. The depression of carbonic anhydrase in air-grown cells was pH-dependent. Growth of cells on air at acid pH, corresponding to 10 μm CO2 in solution, resulted in complete repression of carbonic-anhydrase activity. At pH 6.9, increasing the CO2 concentration to 0.15% (v/v) in the gas phase, corresponding to 11 μM in solution, was sufficient to completely repress carbonic-anhydrase activity. Photosynthesis and intracellular inorganic carbon were measured in air-grown and high-CO2-grown cells using a silicone-oil centrifugation technique. With carbonic anhydrase repressed cells limited inorganic-carbon accumulation resulted from non-specific binding of CO2. With air-grown cells, inorganic-carbon uptake at acid pH, i.e. 5.5, was linear up to 0.5 mM external inorganic-carbon concentration whereas at alkaline pH, i.e. 7.5, the accumulation ratio decreased with increase in external inorganic-carbon concentration. It is suggested that in air-grown cells at acid pH, CO2 is the inorganic carbon species that crosses the plasmalemma. The conversion of CO2 to HCO 3 (-) by carbonic anhydrase in the cytosol results in inorganic-carbon accumulation and maintains the diffusion gradient for carbon dioxide across the cell boundary. However, this mechanism will not account for energy-dependent accumulation of inorganic carbon when there is little difference in pH between the exterior and cytosol. PMID:24232432

  3. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  4. Melting Behaviour of Carbonated MORB: the transition zone carbon filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. R.; Walter, M. J.; Kohn, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    ledge may act as a carbon filter for downgoing slabs, and might be responsible for some low velocity anomalies seen above the 410 km seismic discontinuity. [1] Maruyama & Okamoto (2007) Gond Res 11, 148-165. [2] Martin and Hammouda (2011) Eur J Min 23, 5-16. [3] Syracuse et al. (2010) Phys Earth Plan Int 183, 73-90.

  5. (11)C-Methionine uptake in secondary brain epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lopci, E; Bello, L; Chiti, A

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-11 methionine ((11)C-Methionine) is a radio-labeled amino acid currently utilized in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for imaging primary and metastatic brain tumors. Its clinical use relies mostly on oncologic applications, but the tracer has the potential to investigate other non-malignant conditions. So far, very limited evidence concerns the use of (11)C-Methionine in patients suffering from seizure; however, the tracer can find a proper utilization in this setting especially as a diagnostic complement to (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). Herein we report the case of a 57-year-old patient presenting with epileptic crises secondary to a brain metastasis from bladder carcinoma, who was investigated in our institution with (11)C-Methionine PET. The scan documented the disease recurrence in the left parietal lobe associated with a diffused tracer uptake in the surrounding cerebral circumvolutions, derived from the comitial status. After surgical removal of the metastatic lesion, the patient experienced a complete recovery of symptoms and no further onset of secondary seizure. PMID:24630372

  6. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  7. Protolytic carbon film technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  8. Carbon Goes To…

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this activity are to help middle school students understand the carbon cycle and realize how human activities affect the carbon cycle. This activity consists of two parts. The first part of the activity focuses on the carbon cycle, especially before the Industrial Revolution, while the second part of the activity focuses on how…

  9. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  10. Carbon/Carbon Pistons for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon/carbon piston performs same function as aluminum pistons in reciprocating internal combustion engines while reducing weight and increasing mechanical and thermal efficiencies of engine. Carbon/carbon piston concept features low piston-to-cylinder wall clearance - so low piston rings and skirts unnecessary. Advantages possible by negligible coefficient of thermal expansion of carbon/carbon.

  11. Final report on SNAC 11

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Patrick

    2013-06-26

    This report details how the $5,000 DOE grant to support the workshop titled “Sterile Neutrinos at the Crossroads” (or SNAC11) was allocated and spent. The SNAC11 workshop covered three days during which there were 28 talks, multiple discussion sessions, a poster session with 9 posters delivered, and an impromptu public lecture on the OPERA superluminal neutrino result by the former project manager of OPERA (this was the first official OPERA talk on the subject in North America). The workshop scientific agenda can be viewed at http://www.cpe.vt.edu/snac/program.html. Emerging out of the workshop discussions, was the idea to write a comprehensive white paper describing the current state of the light sterile neutrino. This effort soon became an international collaboration. The final document, titled “Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper” has nearly 200 authors, is 267 pages long, and cites 730 unique references. It has been posted the preprint archive as arXiv:1204.5379 [hep-ph]. Workshop local organizing committee co-chairs, Patrick Huber and Jonathan Link, are the white paper’s head editors. The white paper’s sections and section editors are as follows: 1. Theory and Motivation (Gabriela Barenboim, Valencia and Werner Rodejohann, MPI Heidelberg) 2. Astrophysical Evidence (Kev Abazajian, UC Irvine and Yvonne Wong, Aachen) 3. Evidence from Oscillation Experiments (Joachim Kopp, FNAL and Bill Louis, LANL) 4. Global Picture (Thierry Lasserre, CEA Saclay and Thomas Schwetz, MPI Heidelberg) 5. Requirements for Future Measurements (Bonnie Fleming, Yale and Joe Formaggio, MIT) 6. Appendix: Possible Future Experiments (Patrick Huber, Virginia Tech and Jon Link, Virginia Tech) In all 56 people participated in the workshop, of these 11 were young scientists. The workshop was covered in a feature article in Science (Science, 334, (2011), 304-306.). The DOE award was spent, as budgeted, as contractual services to VT CPE, which is the unit within the University

  12. Evaluation of [11C]metergoline as a PET radiotracer for 5HTR in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.M.; Hooker, J.M.; Kim, S.W.; Reibel, A.T.; Alexoff, D.; Xu, Y.; Shea, C.

    2010-04-20

    Metergoline, a serotonin receptor antagonist, was labeled with carbon-11 in order to evaluate its pharmacokinetics and distribution in non-human primates using positron emission tomography. [{sup 11}C]Metergoline had moderate brain uptake and exhibited heterogeneous specific binding, which was blocked by pretreatment with metergoline and altanserin throughout the cortex. Non-specific binding and insensitivity to changes in synaptic serotonin limit its potential as a PET radiotracer. However, the characterization of [{sup 11}C]metergoline pharmacokinetics and binding in the brain and peripheral organs using PET improves our understanding of metergoline drug pharmacology.

  13. Ocean sciences after September 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    The terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington D.C. on September 11, 2001 shocked the world with their audacity and destruction. Shortly thereafter, bioterrorists struck through the U.S. postal system. Virtually overnight, major policy shifts took place in the United States that catapulted national security and homeland defense to the top of the political agenda. The consequences were unimaginable just a few months before: an international coalition at war against the Taliban in Afghanistan, major increases in U.S. defense spending, tightened security measures at airports, government facilities, and research laboratories, and a new sense of vulnerability in the post-cold war era. AGU itself was directly affected: three of its members perished in the hijacked planes, or on the ground in New York City.

  14. Emisacrectomy, experience in 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Solini, Antonio; Gargiulo, Giosuè; Fronda, Gianruggero; De Paolis, Paolo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Garino, Mauro

    2009-06-01

    Emisacrectomy is a challenging surgery in the treatment of tumours that affect the sacrum. Authors report their experience in 11 cases affected by tumours of the sacrum (9 chordomas, 1 ependymoma, 1 monostotic bladder metastasis) operated on at the Orthopaedic Department of A.S.O S. Giovanni Battista Molinette in Turin, Italy, from 1998 through 2005 discussing planning surgery, level of osteotomy, functional and oncological results and complications of the treatment at a median follow-up of 5 years (range 2-9), describing the surgical and medical teaching learned from the treatment of these patients. Despite the potential complications, emisacrectomy can be performed successfully and is an important procedure in the treatment of sacral tumours. PMID:19468760

  15. Emisacrectomy, experience in 11 cases

    PubMed Central

    Solini, Antonio; Fronda, Gianruggero; De Paolis, Paolo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Garino, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Emisacrectomy is a challenging surgery in the treatment of tumours that affect the sacrum. Authors report their experience in 11 cases affected by tumours of the sacrum (9 chordomas, 1 ependymoma, 1 monostotic bladder metastasis) operated on at the Orthopaedic Department of A.S.O S. Giovanni Battista Molinette in Turin, Italy, from 1998 through 2005 discussing planning surgery, level of osteotomy, functional and oncological results and complications of the treatment at a median follow-up of 5 years (range 2–9), describing the surgical and medical teaching learned from the treatment of these patients. Despite the potential complications, emisacrectomy can be performed successfully and is an important procedure in the treatment of sacral tumours. PMID:19468760

  16. CARBON STARS WITH INFRARED SPECTRA IN GROUP P OF THE IRAS/LRS DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.

    2012-10-01

    Sources with infrared spectra in Group P of the IRAS/LRS database all show polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features. They are often planetary nebulae, H II regions, reflection/dark nebulae, Wolf-Rayet stars, or external galaxies. However, we noted that some carbon stars are also included in this group. We searched for and investigated all infrared spectra in Group P of the IRAS/LRS database. Finally, we found 11 previously known carbon stars and identified 8 new candidate carbon stars in Group P. Infrared spectra of these stars may present the 11.2 {mu}m SiC emission features indicative of their carbon-rich properties.

  17. On Carbon Burning in Super Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, R.; Fields, C. E.; Timmes, F. X.

    2015-07-01

    We explore the detailed and broad properties of carbon burning in Super Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGB) stars with 2755 MESA stellar evolution models. The location of first carbon ignition, quenching location of the carbon-burning flames and flashes, angular frequency of the carbon core, and carbon core mass are studied as a function of the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass, initial rotation rate, and mixing parameters such as convective overshoot, semiconvection, thermohaline, and angular momentum transport. In general terms, we find that these properties of carbon burning in SAGB models are not a strong function of the initial rotation profile, but are a sensitive function of the overshoot parameter. We quasi-analytically derive an approximate ignition density, ρign ≈ 2.1 × 106 g cm-3, to predict the location of first carbon ignition in models that ignite carbon off-center. We also find that overshoot moves the ZAMS mass boundaries where off-center carbon ignition occurs at a nearly uniform rate of ΔMZAMS/Δfov ≈ 1.6 {M}⊙ . For zero overshoot, fov = 0.0, our models in the ZAMS mass range ≈8.9-11 {M}⊙ show off-center carbon ignition. For canonical amounts of overshooting, fov = 0.016, the off-center carbon ignition range shifts to ≈7.2-8.8 {M}⊙ . Only systems with fov ≥ 0.01 and ZAMS mass ≈7.2-8.0 {M}⊙ show carbon burning is quenched a significant distance from the center. These results suggest a careful assessment of overshoot modeling approximations on claims that carbon burning quenches an appreciable distance from the center of the carbon core.

  18. Mechanisms of soil carbon storage in experimental grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbeiss, S.; Temperton, V. M.; Gleixner, G.

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the fate of root and litter derived carbon into soil organic matter and dissolved organic matter in soil profiles, in order to explain unexpected positive effects of plant diversity on carbon storage. A time series of soil and soil solution samples was investigated at the field site of The Jena Experiment. In addition to the main biodiversity experiment with C3 plants, a C4 species (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) naturally labeled with 13C was grown on an extra plot. Changes in organic carbon concentration in soil and soil solution were combined with stable isotope measurements to follow the fate of plant carbon into the soil and soil solution. A split plot design with plant litter removal versus double litter input simulated differences in biomass input. After 2 years, the no litter and double litter treatment, respectively, showed an increase of 381 g C m-2 and 263 g C m-2 to 20 cm depth, while 71 g C m-2 and 393 g C m-2 were lost between 20 and 30 cm depth. The isotopic label in the top 5 cm indicated that 11 and 15% of soil organic carbon were derived from plant material on the no litter and the double litter treatment, respectively. Without litter, this equals the total amount of carbon newly stored in soil, whereas with double litter this corresponds to twice the amount of stored carbon. Our results indicate that litter input resulted in lower carbon storage and larger carbon losses and consequently accelerated turnover of soil organic carbon. Isotopic evidence showed that inherited soil organic carbon was replaced by fresh plant carbon near the soil surface. Our results suggest that primarily carbon released from soil organic matter, not newly introduced plant organic matter, was transported in the soil solution and contributed to the observed carbon storage in deeper horizons.

  19. A comparison of black carbon measurement methods for combustion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, A. L.; Pavlovic, J.; Yelverton, T.; Hagler, G.; Aurell, J.; Ebersviller, S.; Seay, B.; Jetter, J.; Gullett, B.; Hays, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon is an important short-term climate forcer that has been linked with adverse health effects. Multiple black carbon measurement methodologies exist, but no standard measurement method or calibration material has been agreed upon. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses elemental carbon in its ambient monitoring networks and in its emissions inventory, assuming that elemental carbon is equivalent to black carbon. Instrument comparisons with ambient aerosols have demonstrated considerable differences between black carbon and elemental carbon, as well as among different black carbon measurements. However, there have been few published comparable studies for source emissions. We used multiple measurement methods to quantify black carbon and elemental carbon emissions from a range of combustion sources (diesel gensets, coal fired boilers, prescribed fires and cookstoves) emitting particles of varying composition and physical characteristics. The ratio of black carbon to elemental carbon (BC/EC) ranged from 0.50 to 2.8 and depended upon the combustion source. The greatest agreement was observed for emissions from cookstoves (BC/EC = 1.1 ± 0.3). The largest differences were seen for emissions from large stationary diesel genset (BC/EC = 2.3 ± 0.5) and were most pronounced when a diesel particulate filter was used (BC/EC 2.5 ± 0.6). This suggests that this source category may be underrepresented in emissions inventories based on elemental carbon. Black carbon concentrations derived from filter-based attenuation were highly correlated with photo-acoustic absorption measurements, but were generally 50% greater. This is likely due to the choice of calibration factor, which is currently ambiguously defined. These results highlight the importance of developing a standard calibration material to improve comparability among measurements.

  20. Imaging Evaluation of 5HT2C Agonists, [11C]WAY-163909 and [11C]Vabicaserin, Formed by Pictet–Spengler Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin subtype 2C (5HT2C) receptor is an emerging and promising drug target to treat several disorders of the human central nervous system. In this current report, two potent and selective 5HT2C full agonists, WAY-163909 (2) and vabicaserin (3), were radiolabeled with carbon-11 via Pictet–Spengler cyclization with [11C]formaldehyde and used in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Reaction conditions were optimized to exclude the major source of isotope dilution caused by the previously unknown breakdown of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) to formaldehyde at high temperature under mildly acid conditions. In vivo PET imaging was utilized to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and distribution of the carbon-11 labeled 5HT2C agonists. Both radiolabeled molecules exhibit high blood–brain barrier (BBB) penetration and nonspecific binding, which was unaltered by preadministration of the unlabeled agonist. Our work demonstrates that Pictet–Spengler cyclization can be used to label drugs with carbon-11 to study their pharmacokinetics and for evaluation as PET radiotracers. PMID:24491146

  1. Perturbations in the carbon budget of the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Grace, John; Mitchard, Edward; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    The carbon budget of the tropics has been perturbed as a result of human influences. Here, we attempt to construct a ‘bottom-up’ analysis of the biological components of the budget as they are affected by human activities. There are major uncertainties in the extent and carbon content of different vegetation types, the rates of land-use change and forest degradation, but recent developments in satellite remote sensing have gone far towards reducing these uncertainties. Stocks of carbon as biomass in tropical forests and woodlands add up to 271 ± 16 Pg with an even greater quantity of carbon as soil organic matter. Carbon loss from deforestation, degradation, harvesting and peat fires is estimated as 2.01 ± 1.1 Pg annum−1; while carbon gain from forest and woodland growth is 1.85 ± 0.09 Pg annum−1. We conclude that tropical lands are on average a small carbon source to the atmosphere, a result that is consistent with the ‘top-down’ result from measurements in the atmosphere. If they were to be conserved, they would be a substantial carbon sink. Release of carbon as carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning in the tropics is 0.74 Pg annum−1 or 0.57 MgC person−1 annum−1, much lower than the corresponding figures from developed regions of the world. PMID:24902948

  2. Perturbations in the carbon budget of the tropics.

    PubMed

    Grace, John; Mitchard, Edward; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    The carbon budget of the tropics has been perturbed as a result of human influences. Here, we attempt to construct a 'bottom-up' analysis of the biological components of the budget as they are affected by human activities. There are major uncertainties in the extent and carbon content of different vegetation types, the rates of land-use change and forest degradation, but recent developments in satellite remote sensing have gone far towards reducing these uncertainties. Stocks of carbon as biomass in tropical forests and woodlands add up to 271 ± 16 Pg with an even greater quantity of carbon as soil organic matter. Carbon loss from deforestation, degradation, harvesting and peat fires is estimated as 2.01 ± 1.1 Pg annum(-1); while carbon gain from forest and woodland growth is 1.85 ± 0.09 Pg annum(-1). We conclude that tropical lands are on average a small carbon source to the atmosphere, a result that is consistent with the 'top-down' result from measurements in the atmosphere. If they were to be conserved, they would be a substantial carbon sink. Release of carbon as carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning in the tropics is 0.74 Pg annum(-1) or 0.57 MgC person(-1) annum(-1) , much lower than the corresponding figures from developed regions of the world. PMID:24902948

  3. Double layer capacitance of carbon foam electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnick, F. M.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.

    We have evaluated a wide variety of microcellular carbon foams prepared by the controlled pyrolysis and carbonization of several polymers including: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF), divinylbenzene/methacrylonitrile (DVB), phenolics (furfuryl/alcohol), and cellulose polymers such as Rayon. The porosity may be established by several processes including: gelation (1-5), phase separation (1-3,5-8), emulsion (1,9,10), aerogel/xerogel formation (1,11,12,13), replication (14), and activation. In this report we present the complex impedance analysis and double layer charging characteristics of electrodes prepared from one of these materials for double layer capacitor applications, namely activated cellulose derived microcellular carbon foam.

  4. Double layer capacitance of carbon foam electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Delnick, F.M.; Ingersoll, D.; Firsich, D.

    1993-11-01

    We have evaluated a wide variety of microcellular carbon foams prepared by the controlled pyrolysis and carbonization of several polymers including: polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde (RF), divinylbenzene/methacrylonitrile (DVB), phenolics (furfuryl/alcohol), and cellulose polymers such as Rayon. The porosity may be established by several processes including: Gelation (1-5), phase separation (1-3,5-8), emulsion (1,9,10), aerogel/xerogel formation (1,11,12,13), replication (14) and activation. In this report we present the complex impedance analysis and double layer charging characteristics of electrodes prepared from one of these materials for double layer capacitor applications, namely activated cellulose derived microcellular carbon foam.

  5. Synthesis and 11C-Radiolabelling of 2-Carboranyl Benzothiazoles.

    PubMed

    Gona, Kiran B; Thota, Jaya Lakshmi V N P; Baz, Zuriñe; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Llop, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Dicarba-closo-dodecaboranes, commonly known as carboranes, possess unique physico-chemical properties and can be used as hydrophobic moieties during the design of new drugs or radiotracers. In this work, we report the synthesis of two analogues of 2-(4-aminophenyl)benzothiazole (a compound that was found to elicit pronounced inhibitory effects against certain breast cancer cell lines in vitro) in which the phenyl ring has been substituted by a m-carborane cage. Two different synthetic strategies have been used. For the preparation of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl)-benzo-thiazole, the benzothiazole group was first introduced on one of the cluster carbon atoms of m-carborane and the amine group was further attached in three steps. For the synthesis of 1-(9-amino-1,7-dicarba-closo-dodecaboran-1-yl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, iodination was performed before introducing the benzothiazole group, and the amino group was subsequently introduced in six steps. Both compounds were radiolabelled with carbon-11 using [11C]CH3OTf as the labelling agent. Radiolabelling yields and radiochemical purities achieved should enable subsequent in vitro and in vivo investigations. PMID:25915463

  6. Assessing variability in belowground carbon for CMIP-5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd-Brown, K. E.; Hoffman, F. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Post, W. M.; Allison, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon stocks and heterotrophic respiration are critical components of the global carbon cycle. This study compared soil carbon survey data with modeled stocks and assessed the magnitude of change in modeled soil carbon between 1850 and 2005. Model means (1995-2005) from the CMIP-5 historical experiment were compared to soil carbon estimates from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) across biomes derived from the MODIS/Terra+Aqua land cover type. Changes in soil carbon stocks were calculated as the difference between the 1850-1860 and 1995-2005 model means. In general, the models overestimated modern soil carbon stocks in areas of relatively low soil carbon (<100 kg m^-2) by 310 Pg (28%) and underestimated modern soil carbon stocks in areas of relatively high soil carbon (>100 kg m^-2) by 1012 Pg (85%) (n=7). Total modern soil carbon ranged from 1120-2523 Pg among the models versus 2280 Pg from the HWSD. These results imply that the models do not represent the high soil carbon of peatlands well. Models underestimated soil carbon in the boreal forest by 417 Pg (61%) (sd=47, cv=0.11, n=7). Soil carbon predictions for temperate forests were closest to HWSD with an overestimate of 13 Pg (21%) (sd=13, cv=0.96, n=7). Over the course of the simulations, average model soil carbon stocks increased 6% gobally (sd=4, cv=0.65, n=7) from 1563 Pg to 1664 Pg. This change was accompanied by a 22% (sd=5, cv=0.26, n=4) increase in modeled NPP from 73 Pg-C/yr to 89 Pg-C/yr for models that report NPP. In summary, the CMIP5 models tend to underestimate total soil carbon stocks, particularly in areas with high soil carbon concentration. Despite rising temperatures over the past 150 years, these models also predicted a substantial increase in soil carbon stocks that is likely due to increased NPP. Whether this rate of increase can be verified with empirical data or sustained over the 21st century is unclear. Given the discrepancies between modeled and observed distributions of

  7. 40 CFR 63.993 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... flow for each regeneration cycle; and a carbon-bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, carbon... Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 63.993 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flow for each regeneration cycle; and a carbon-bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, carbon... Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 63.993 - Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flow for each regeneration cycle; and a carbon-bed temperature monitoring device, capable of recording... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Absorbers, condensers, carbon... Absorbers, condensers, carbon adsorbers and other recovery devices used as final recovery devices. (a)...

  10. 78 FR 16247 - Approval for Export-Only Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 203, SGL Automotive Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... public comment has been given in the Federal Register (76 FR 1599, 1/11/2011) and the application has... Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, (Carbon Fiber Manufacturing), Moses Lake, Washington Pursuant to its authority... requested export-only manufacturing authority on behalf of SGL Automotive Carbon Fibers, LLC, within FTZ...

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction

  12. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine

  13. Process of making carbon-carbon composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withers, James C. (Inventor); Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor); Kowbel, Witold (Inventor); Bruce, Calvin (Inventor); Vaidyanathan, Ranji (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A carbon composite structure, for example, an automotive engine piston, is made by preparing a matrix including of a mixture of non crystalline carbon particulate soluble in an organic solvent and a binder that has a liquid phase. The non crystalline particulate also contains residual carbon hydrogen bonding. An uncured structure is formed by combining the matrix mixture, for example, carbon fibers such as graphite dispersed in the mixture and/or graphite cloth imbedded in the mixture. The uncured structure is cured by pyrolyzing it in an inert atmosphere such as argon. Advantageously, the graphite reinforcement material is whiskered prior to combining it with the matrix mixture by a novel method involving passing a gaseous metal suboxide over the graphite surface.

  14. 1 CFR 11.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 11.6 Section 11.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS §...

  15. 1 CFR 11.6 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 11.6 Section 11.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS SUBSCRIPTIONS §...

  16. 11 CFR 9008.13 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Convention Committees § 9008.13 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  17. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an...

  18. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  19. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an...

  20. 11 CFR 9008.13 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Convention Committees § 9008.13 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  1. 11 CFR 9008.13 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Convention Committees § 9008.13 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 11

    MedlinePlus

    ... with mental impairment and thin corpus callosum HSP-TCC SPG11-related hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus ... A, Stevanin G, Santorelli FM. Screening of ARHSP-TCC patients expands the spectrum of SPG11 mutations and ...

  3. 7 CFR 1215.11 - Person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Person. 1215.11 Section 1215.11 Agriculture... Person. Person means any individual, group of individuals, partnership, corporation, association, cooperative, or any other legal entity....

  4. Mechanical behavior of carbon-carbon composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozak, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    A general background, test plan, and some results of preliminary examinations of a carbon-carbon composite material are presented with emphasis on mechanical testing and inspection techniques. Experience with testing and evaluation was gained through tests of a low modulus carbon-carbon material, K-Karb C. The properties examined are the density - 1.55 g/cc; four point flexure strength in the warp - 137 MPa (19,800 psi) and the fill - 95.1 MPa (13,800 psi,) directions; and the warp interlaminar shear strength - 14.5 MPa (2100 psi). Radiographic evaluation revealed thickness variations and the thinner areas of the composite were scrapped. The ultrasonic C-scan showed attenuation variations, but these did not correspond to any of the physical and mechanical properties measured. Based on these initial tests and a survey of the literature, a plan has been devised to examine the effect of stress on the oxidation behavior, and the strength degradation of coated carbon-carbon composites. This plan will focus on static fatigue tests in the four point flexure mode in an elevated temperature, oxidizing environment.

  5. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  6. 11 CFR 2.4 - Exempted meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... observation in accordance with the procedures of 11 CFR 2.5. (1) As required by 2 U.S.C. 437g(a)(12), all... forth in 11 CFR part 111. (b) Meetings closed by Commission determination. Except as provided in 11 CFR... with 11 CFR 2.5, that an open meeting or the release of information is likely to result in...

  7. 11 CFR 2.4 - Exempted meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... observation in accordance with the procedures of 11 CFR 2.5. (1) As required by 2 U.S.C. 437g(a)(12), all... forth in 11 CFR part 111. (b) Meetings closed by Commission determination. Except as provided in 11 CFR... with 11 CFR 2.5, that an open meeting or the release of information is likely to result in...

  8. 11 CFR 2.4 - Exempted meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... observation in accordance with the procedures of 11 CFR 2.5. (1) As required by 2 U.S.C. 437g(a)(12), all... forth in 11 CFR part 111. (b) Meetings closed by Commission determination. Except as provided in 11 CFR... with 11 CFR 2.5, that an open meeting or the release of information is likely to result in...

  9. 11 CFR 2.4 - Exempted meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in 11 CFR part 111. (b) Meetings closed by Commission determination. Except as provided in 11 CFR... with 11 CFR 2.5, that an open meeting or the release of information is likely to result in the... observation in accordance with the procedures of 11 CFR 2.5. (1) As required by 2 U.S.C. 437g(a)(12),...

  10. 11 CFR 9034.2 - Matchable contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... later than December 31 following the matching payment period as defined under 11 CFR 9032.6. Donations received by an individual who is testing the waters pursuant to 11 CFR 100.72(a) and 100.131(a) may be... requirements of 11 CFR 110.1(k) and the documentation described in 11 CFR 110.1 (1), (3), (5) and (6)...

  11. Hypochondriasis: considerations for ICD-11.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Odile A; Veale, David; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently revisiting the ICD. In the 10th version of the ICD, approved in 1990, hypochondriacal symptoms are described in the context of both the primary condition hypochondriacal disorder and as secondary symptoms within a range of other mental disorders. Expansion of the research base since 1990 makes a critical evaluation and revision of both the definition and classification of hypochondriacal disorder timely. This article addresses the considerations reviewed by members of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in their proposal for the description and classification of hypochondriasis. The proposed revision emphasizes the phenomenological overlap with both anxiety disorders (e.g., fear, hypervigilance to bodily symptoms, and avoidance) and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (e.g., preoccupation and repetitive behaviors) and the distinction from the somatoform disorders (presence of somatic symptom is not a critical characteristic). This revision aims to improve clinical utility by enabling better recognition and treatment of patients with hypochondriasis within the broad range of global health care settings. PMID:25388609

  12. Activated carbon from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  13. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Lee, Inhee; Akbar, Sheikh A.

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  14. Detection of a new carbon-chain molecule, CCO.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, M; Suzuki, H; Ishikawa S-I; Yamada, C; Kanamori, H; Irvine, W M; Brown, R D; Godfrey, P D; Kaifu, N

    1991-10-10

    We have detected a new carbon-chain molecule, CCO(3 sigma-), in the cold, dark molecular cloud TMC-1. The excitation temperature and the column density of CCO are, respectively, approximately 6 K and approximately 6 x 10(11) cm-2. This column density corresponds to a fractional abundance relative to H2 of approximately 6 x 10(-11). This value is two orders of magnitude less than the abundance of the related carbon-chain molecule CCS, and about half that of C3O. The formation mechanism for CCO is discussed. PMID:11538087

  15. Detection of a new carbon-chain molecule, CCO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohishi, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Yamada, Chikashi; Kanamori, Hideto; Irvine, William M.; Brown, Ronald D.; Godfrey, Peter D.; Kaifu, Norio; Suzuki, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    A new carbon-chain molecule, CCO 3Sigma(-), has been detected in the cold dark molecular cloud TMC-1. The excitation temperature and the column density of CCO are, respectively, about 6 K and about 6 x 10 to the 11th/sq cm. This column density corresponds to a fractional abundance relative to H2 of about 6 x 10 to the -11th. This value is two orders of magnitude less than the abundance of the related carbon-chain molecule CCS, and about half that of C3O. The formation mechanism for CCO is discussed.

  16. 7 CFR 3560.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 3560.11 Section 3560.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.11 Definitions. Unless otherwise noted, terms listed in...

  17. 29 CFR 33.11 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communications. 33.11 Section 33.11 Labor Office of the... CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR § 33.11 Communications. (a) The Department shall take appropriate steps to ensure effective communication with applicants, participants, personnel of other Federal...

  18. 37 CFR 11.50 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 11.50 Section 11.50... Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.50 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law and equity are not controlling in hearings...

  19. 10 CFR 470.11 - Eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility requirements. 470.11 Section 470.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.11 Eligibility... requirements but exclusive of manufacturing and production engineering. The dominant characteristic is that...

  20. 10 CFR 470.11 - Eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility requirements. 470.11 Section 470.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.11 Eligibility... requirements but exclusive of manufacturing and production engineering. The dominant characteristic is that...

  1. 10 CFR 470.11 - Eligibility requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility requirements. 470.11 Section 470.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.11 Eligibility... requirements but exclusive of manufacturing and production engineering. The dominant characteristic is that...

  2. 11 CFR 9038.1 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... audit and examination conducted under 11 CFR 9038.1(a) (1) and (2) may be used by the Commission as the... determination made by the Commission pursuant to 11 CFR 9038.2(c)(1). (2) The audit report may contain issues....C. 437g and 11 CFR part 111. (3) Addenda to the audit report may be approved and issued by...

  3. 11 CFR 9007.1 - Audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Such examination and audit will include, but will not be limited to, expenditures pursuant to 11 CFR... Commission pursuant to 11 CFR 9007.2(c)(1). (2) The audit report may contain issues that warrant referral to... from the legal and accounting compliance fund established under 11 CFR 9003.3(a),...

  4. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for...

  5. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for...

  6. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for...

  7. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for...

  8. 33 CFR 66.01-11 - Lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights. 66.01-11 Section 66.01-11 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Aids to Navigation Other Than Federal or State § 66.01-11 Lights. (a) Except for...

  9. 49 CFR 701.11 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fees. 701.11 Section 701.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL RAILROAD PASSENGER CORPORATION (AMTRAK) AMTRAK FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 701.11 Fees. (a) General. Amtrak shall charge for processing requests under the FOIA in accordance...

  10. 16 CFR 1115.11 - Imputed knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imputed knowledge. 1115.11 Section 1115.11... PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.11 Imputed knowledge. (a) In evaluating whether or... care to ascertain the truth of complaints or other representations. This includes the knowledge a...

  11. 19 CFR 102.11 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules. 102.11 Section 102.11 Customs... RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.11 General rules. The following rules shall apply for purposes of... rules are satisfied. (b) Except for a good that is specifically described in the Harmonized System as...

  12. 23 CFR 1200.11 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contents. 1200.11 Section 1200.11 Highways NATIONAL... Highway Safety Plan § 1200.11 Contents. Each fiscal year, the State's Highway Safety Plan shall consist of... Governor's Representative for Highway Safety, certifying the HSP application contents and...

  13. 23 CFR 1200.11 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contents. 1200.11 Section 1200.11 Highways NATIONAL... Highway Safety Plan § 1200.11 Contents. Each fiscal year, the State's Highway Safety Plan shall consist of... Governor's Representative for Highway Safety, certifying the HSP application contents and...

  14. 25 CFR 11.1001 - Warrant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Warrant. 11.1001 Section 11.1001 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1001 Warrant. The children's court may issue a warrant directing that...

  15. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne...

  16. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne...

  17. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne...

  18. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne...

  19. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne...

  20. 14 CFR 221.11 - Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agent. 221.11 Section 221.11 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Who is Authorized To Issue and File Tariffs § 221.11 Agent. An agent may issue and...

  1. 21 CFR 530.11 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations. 530.11 Section 530.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... in Animals § 530.11 Limitations. In addition to uses which do not comply with the provision set...

  2. 29 CFR 4050.11 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations. 4050.11 Section 4050.11 Labor Regulations... § 4050.11 Limitations. (a) Exclusive benefit. The benefits provided for under this part will be the only... missing participants. (b) Limitation on benefit value. The total actuarial present value of all...

  3. 21 CFR 530.11 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations. 530.11 Section 530.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS... in Animals § 530.11 Limitations. In addition to uses which do not comply with the provision set...

  4. 29 CFR 2.11 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General principles. 2.11 Section 2.11 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.11 General... involve administrative hearings. If such administrative hearings are held, we encourage their...

  5. 29 CFR 2.11 - General principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General principles. 2.11 Section 2.11 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.11 General... involve administrative hearings. If such administrative hearings are held, we encourage their...

  6. 25 CFR 11.415 - Fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud. 11.415 Section 11.415 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Criminal Offenses § 11.415 Fraud. A person who shall by willful misrepresentation or deceit, or by false... fraud, a misdemeanor....

  7. 25 CFR 11.415 - Fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fraud. 11.415 Section 11.415 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Criminal Offenses § 11.415 Fraud. A person who shall by willful misrepresentation or deceit, or by false... fraud, a misdemeanor....

  8. 25 CFR 11.415 - Fraud.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud. 11.415 Section 11.415 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Criminal Offenses § 11.415 Fraud. A person who shall by willful misrepresentation or deceit, or by false... fraud, a misdemeanor....

  9. 11 CFR 9006.1 - Separate reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be filed pursuant to the requirements of 11 CFR part 104. (b) The authorized committee(s) of a... disbursements of: (i) Contributions and loans received by a major party candidate pursuant to 11 CFR part 9003 to make up deficiencies in Fund payments due to the application of 11 CFR part 9005;...

  10. 49 CFR 552.11 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to add a test procedure to 49 CFR 571.208, S28. ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application. 552.11 Section 552.11 Transportation... Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection § 552.11 Application. This subpart...

  11. 7 CFR 15a.11 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application. 15a.11 Section 15a.11 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING OR BENEFITTING FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 15a.11 Application. Except as provided in this subpart, this...

  12. 34 CFR 106.11 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application. 106.11 Section 106.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Coverage § 106.11 Application. Except as provided in this subpart, this part 106 applies to every...

  13. 14 CFR 314.11 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications. 314.11 Section 314.11... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.11 Applications. (a) Who may file. An application may be filed by an employee who has been deprived of employment or...

  14. 14 CFR 414.11 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Application. 414.11 Section 414.11... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.11 Application. (a) The application must... application must identify the following basic information: (1) Name and address of the applicant. (2)...

  15. 14 CFR 414.11 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application. 414.11 Section 414.11... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.11 Application. (a) The application must... application must identify the following basic information: (1) Name and address of the applicant. (2)...

  16. 27 CFR 11.3 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application. 11.3 Section 11.3 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Scope of Regulations § 11.3 Application. (a) General....

  17. 34 CFR 106.11 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application. 106.11 Section 106.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Coverage § 106.11 Application. Except as provided in this subpart, this part 106 applies to every...

  18. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11... UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information. Members... outstanding fees for information services at this or other federal agencies will not be accepted and action...

  19. 25 CFR 42.11 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Information collection. 42.11 Section 42.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION STUDENT RIGHTS § 42.11 Information... person be subject to a penalty for failure to comply with a collection of information, subject to...

  20. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11... RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary information... outstanding fees for information services at this or other federal agencies will not be accepted and action...