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1

CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the carbon monoxide literature related to effects on man and his environment for the consideration of the Environmental Protection Agency in updating the information in the Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide. It emphasizes recent major advances in o...

2

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-print Network

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26

3

Carbon Monoxide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

Aniol, Michael J.

1992-01-01

4

Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask. PMID:19445736

2008-01-01

5

Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask. PMID:21418677

2010-01-01

6

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

Dolan, Michael C.

1985-01-01

7

Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells. PMID:3825110

Kirkpatrick, John N.

1987-01-01

8

Carbon Monoxide Information Center  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Portable Generator-Related Deaths More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... Engine-Driven Tools View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Inside CPSC: Recalls Safety Education ...

9

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... minutes.** Consumers die when they improperly use gas generators, charcoal grills, and fuel-burning camping heaters and stoves inside their homes or in other enclosed or partiallyenclosed spaces during power outages. *** Preparedness Tips Install a carbon monoxide (CO) ...

10

Carbon Monoxide Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Help inform residents in your community about the ... muscular coordination Loss of consciousness Ultimately death Outreach materials from the U.S. Fire Administration Handout: portable generators ...

11

Carbon Monoxide (CO)  

MedlinePLUS

... stoves, and fireplaces; gas stoves; generators and other gasoline powered equipment; automobile exhaust from attached garages; and ... page ALERT!! Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning from Small Gasoline-Powered Engines and Tools . (1996) This joint alert ...

12

Carbon Monoxide: The Silent Killer  

MedlinePLUS

... Travel & Motor Vehicle Safety En Español Holiday & Seasonal Carbon Monoxide — What You Can't See or Smell ... You Emergency physicians see the tragic consequences of carbon monoxide poisoning each year, especially during the winter ...

13

Mass carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

The largest occurrence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Britain demonstrates the potential for mass accidental poisoning. It emphasises the need for strict public health controls and the importance of good liaison between emergency services to ensure that such events are quickly recognised and that the necessary resources are organised. PMID:10658990

McGuffie, C; Wyatt, J; Kerr, G; Hislop, W

2000-01-01

14

Transmissivity of carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The line strengths and self- and nitrogen-broadened half widths for selected lines of the 4.6 micron fundamental band of carbon monoxide were determined. The band strength determined at stp. is higher than previously reported measurements. The half widths agree well with other measurements and calculations.

Drayson, S. R.; Tallamraju, R.; Chaney, L. W.

1973-01-01

15

Carbon Monoxide Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fuel cell is a system which employs an electrochemical process to convert gases- J such as hydrogen and oxygen directly into electricity. Under NASA sponsorship, GE's Aircraft Equipment Division developed fuel cells to supply electrical power for the Gemini and Biosatellite spacecraft of the sixties and is currently working on advanced fuel cell development. This long-term effort has resulted in a series of spinoff applications using the same general technology for a variety of purposes, among them the recently marketed Dosimeter. The Dosimeter is designed to help users meet safety requirements for industrial atmospheres, as specified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and other regulatory agencies. The compact, pocket-sized sensor measures personnel exposure to carbon monoxide and provides both a visual and an audible alarm if the concentration of the gas exceeds present levels. The Dosimeter offers substantial improvement in measuring accuracy over earlier warning indicators.

1978-01-01

16

Carbon Monoxide and Population Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to investigate the carbon monoxide level at a fixed latitude. Using the LAS, students will download data, and then will use Excel to create maps of the carbon monoxide level for a particular latitude. They will then look for trends and explore the population density for selected points along the latitude (urban or rural). The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes.

2010-03-14

17

(Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

Not Available

1989-01-01

18

MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

2002-01-01

19

Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground-based spectroscopic measurements. Images courtesy David Edwards and John Gille, MOPITT Science Team, NCAR

2002-01-01

20

Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. (Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City (USA))

1990-12-01

21

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2012-07-01

22

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2010-07-01

23

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2013-07-01

24

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2011-07-01

25

Molecular Structure of carbon monoxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carbon monoxide is a colorless, flammable gas that is highly toxic due to its ability to out-compete oxygen to form a complex with hemoglobin. When this happens, oxygen transport in the blood is impeded and unconsciousness and death may result. Carbon monoxide is of great industrial importance (e.g., as a fuel or producer gas) in metallurgic processes that isolate various metals from their oxides by reduction with coke. It is also a key intermediate in the catalytic production of various hydrocarbons by industry, including the production of alcohols, Sabatier methanation, and Fischer-Tropsch hydrogenation. Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (i.e., oxidation of hydrocarbons in a limited supply of oxygen) in automobiles and industrial activity (e.g., energy production) are major anthropogenic sources of CO to the atmosphere. Other sources of carbon monoxide to the atmosphere are the oxidation of methane by the atmospheric oxidant hydroxyl radical and biomass burning (e.g., slash-and-burn agriculture practices).

2006-03-09

26

MCS51 - Based Carbon Monoxide Alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and development of a MCS51-based carbon monoxide alarm. The system was designed on a single T89C51AC2 microcontroller that performed the acquisition, processing and display of carbon monoxide (CO) data from MiCS-5132 automotive pollution gas sensor and displayed the CO data on 7 segment display. The system was tested using carbon monoxide from car exhaust fumes

K. Tunlasakun; R. Nimnual

2006-01-01

27

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2013-07-01

28

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2012-07-01

29

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2010-07-01

30

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2010-07-01

31

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2014-07-01

32

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2011-07-01

33

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2013-07-01

34

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2012-07-01

35

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2011-07-01

36

40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.376 Section 52.376...Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On January...Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2013-07-01

37

40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section 52...Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island carbon monoxide attainment area for the...

2013-07-01

38

40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section 52...Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island carbon monoxide attainment area for the...

2014-07-01

39

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785...Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the Metropolitan...

2013-07-01

40

40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52...Ohio § 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon monoxide portions of rules 01,...

2014-07-01

41

21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312 Section...Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in...

2012-04-01

42

40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.349 Section 52...Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, Carbon Monoxide Redesignation...

2014-07-01

43

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1185 Section 52...Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On November...Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2013-07-01

44

40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.349 Section 52...Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, Carbon Monoxide Redesignation...

2013-07-01

45

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785...Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the Metropolitan...

2014-07-01

46

40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.376 Section 52.376...Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On January...Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2012-07-01

47

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785...Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the Metropolitan...

2012-07-01

48

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1373 Section 52...Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997...revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b)...

2012-07-01

49

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1373 Section 52...Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997...revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b)...

2014-07-01

50

21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312 Section...Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in...

2013-04-01

51

40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52...York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation...

2012-07-01

52

40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52...Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment...

2014-07-01

53

40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section 52...Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island carbon monoxide attainment area for the...

2012-07-01

54

40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52...York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation...

2013-07-01

55

21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312 Section...Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in...

2014-04-01

56

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1373 Section 52...Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997...revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b)...

2013-07-01

57

40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52...Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment...

2013-07-01

58

40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52...Ohio § 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon monoxide portions of rules 01,...

2012-07-01

59

40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52...Ohio § 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon monoxide portions of rules 01,...

2013-07-01

60

40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.349 Section 52...Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, Carbon Monoxide Redesignation...

2012-07-01

61

40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.376 Section 52.376...Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On January...Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2014-07-01

62

40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52...York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation...

2014-07-01

63

21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 ...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device...

2011-04-01

64

40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52...Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment...

2010-07-01

65

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1185 Section 52...Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On November...Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2010-07-01

66

40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1528 Section 52...Hampshire § 52.1528 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...Nashua Inspection/Maintenance program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating...

2010-07-01

67

40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52...Ohio § 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon monoxide portions of rules 01,...

2011-07-01

68

40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52...York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation...

2010-07-01

69

40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 91...Test Equipment Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer described in this...

2011-07-01

70

40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 89...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide as described in this...

2011-07-01

71

40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 91...Test Equipment Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer described in this...

2010-07-01

72

40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86...Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a...service and annually thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked...

2011-07-01

73

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1373 Section 52...Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997...revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b)...

2011-07-01

74

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1185 Section 52...Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On November...Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2011-07-01

75

40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.349 Section 52...Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, Carbon Monoxide Redesignation...

2011-07-01

76

40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86...Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a...service and annually thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked...

2010-07-01

77

40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 90...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in...

2010-07-01

78

40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52...York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation...

2011-07-01

79

40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section 52...Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island carbon monoxide attainment area for the...

2011-07-01

80

40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 89...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide as described in this...

2010-07-01

81

40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 90...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in...

2011-07-01

82

21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312 Section...Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in...

2011-04-01

83

40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52...Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785...Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the Metropolitan...

2011-07-01

85

40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1528 Section 52...Hampshire § 52.1528 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...Nashua Inspection/Maintenance program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating...

2011-07-01

86

40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1581 Section 52...Jersey § 52.1581 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state...

2011-07-01

87

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785...Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the Metropolitan...

2010-07-01

88

40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.376 Section 52.376...Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On January...Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2011-07-01

89

40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52...Ohio § 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon monoxide portions of rules 01,...

2010-07-01

90

40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1581 Section 52...Jersey § 52.1581 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state...

2010-07-01

91

CARBON MONOXIDE NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of Federal Regulations, Se...

92

CARBON MONOXIDE NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of Federal Regulations, Se...

93

Acute pulmonary edema following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a patient who presented with coma and acute pulmonary edema after severe carbon monoxide poisoning. Hemodynamic evaluation revealed elevated systemic and pulmonary arterial, pulmonary wedge and right atrial pressures, together with an increased cardiac output. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that a neurogenic mechanism plays a role in the pulmonary edema of carbon monoxide poisoning.

R. Naeije; A. Peretz; A. Cornil

1980-01-01

94

Cerebrovascular ischaemia after carbon monoxide intoxication.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide intoxication is the most prevalent cause of death from carbon monoxide poisoning. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man who was found unconscious and smelled of smoke after exposure to carbon monoxide from a heater. He scored 5 on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and had respiratory insufficiency and elevated troponin I, creatine kinase-MB fraction and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. He was treated by mechanical ventilation. After regaining consciousness, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusion restriction in the left occipital lobe; there was a loss of vision (right temporal hemianopsia), which improved by the follow-up session. Carbon monoxide intoxication may cause neurologic and cardiac sequelae, and the initial treatment includes oxygen therapy. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning can cause serious injury to the brain, heart and other organs; the most severe damages that could be inflicted to the brain include cerebral ischaemia and hypoxia, oedema, and neural cell degeneration and necrosis. PMID:25715861

Kara, H; Bayir, A; Ak, A; Degirmenci, S

2015-02-01

95

The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

2006-01-01

96

Carbon monoxide and the burning earth  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide is one of many gases whose presence in the atmosphere is blamed largely on industrial activity in the Northern Hemisphere. Data collected by the authors show that the gas is also abundant in the Southern Hemisphere, where it comes mainly from the burning of tropical rain forests and savannas. The high levels of carbon monoxide confirm other evidence that the rain forests are being diminished rapidly, which may affect the climates of these regions as well as globally. Increases in carbon monoxide could also encourage the accumulation of pollutant gases such as ozone and methane. The first is highly toxic to plants and the second would add to the greenhouse effect.

Newell, R.E.; Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Seiler, W.

1989-10-01

97

Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Nguyen, Trung V. (College Station, TX); Guante, Jr., Joseph (Denver, CO)

1993-01-01

98

Carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds  

E-print Network

Calculations are made for the energy loss rates, brightness temperatures, and line profiles of carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds. The most recent data for the H2-CO collision rates have been used in the calculations; a useful...

De Jong, T.; Chu, Shih-I; Dalgarno, A.

1975-07-01

99

Carbon-monoxide Indicators for Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several improvements that have been made on commercially available carbon-monoxide indicators to make them more suitable for aircraft use are described. These improvements include an automatic flow regulator, which permits the use of a simplified instrument on aircraft where a source of suction is available, and a more reliable alarm attachment. A field method for testing instruments on standard samples of carbon monoxide is described. Performance data and instructions in operation and maintenance are given.

Womack, S H J; Peterson, J B

1936-01-01

100

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

101

Thermophilic Bacilli growing with carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of obligately thermophilic Bacilli capable of growing with carbon monoxide as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated from settling ponds of a sugar factory. Most of them could be identified as strains of Bacillus schlegelii on the basis of cell wall composition, DNA homology menaquinone and DNA base content. Growth with CO was very fast (td=3

Bernd Kriiger; Ortwin Meyer

1984-01-01

102

CARBON MONOXIDE AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and there...

103

Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

Wayland, B.B.

1992-12-01

104

Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)  

E-print Network

Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and molecular oxygen (O2) with varying carbon-to-oxygen ratios from 1 and destruction pathways of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3

Kaiser, Ralf I.

105

Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use  

DOEpatents

A sensor and method of use for detection of low levels of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures. The approach is based on the change in an electrical property (for example: resistance) that occurs when carbon monoxide is selectively absorbed by a film of copper chloride (or other metal halides). The electrical property change occurs rapidly with both increasing and decreasing CO contents, varies with the amount of CO from the gas stream, and is insensitive to the presence of hydrogen. To make a sensor using this approach, the metal halide film will deposited onto an alumina substrate with electrodes. The sensor may be maintained at the optimum temperature with a thick film platinum heater deposited onto the opposite face of the substrate. When the sensor is operating at an appropriate (and constant) temperature, the magnitude of the electrical property measured between the interdigital electrodes will provide a measure of the carbon monoxide content of the gas.

Dutta, Prabir K.; Swartz, Scott L.; Holt, Christopher T.; Revur, Ramachandra Rao

2006-01-10

106

DIURNAL VARIATIONS IN CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS, TRAFFIC COUNTS AND METEOROLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Although pollutant emission patterns play important roles, they cannot adequately explain the diurnal variations in carbon monoxide concentrations found in urban areas. In this study, hourly data from a large network of carbon monoxide monitoring stations, with instrumentation co...

107

21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to...concentration of carbon monoxide in a gas mixture to aid in determining the...techniques such as infrared absorption or gas chromatography. (b) Classification....

2012-04-01

108

21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to...concentration of carbon monoxide in a gas mixture to aid in determining the...techniques such as infrared absorption or gas chromatography. (b) Classification....

2014-04-01

109

21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to...concentration of carbon monoxide in a gas mixture to aid in determining the...techniques such as infrared absorption or gas chromatography. (b) Classification....

2013-04-01

110

21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868.1430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a)...

2010-04-01

111

Carbon Monoxide Production From Overheated Thermal Insulation Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide production in the off-gases was determined for selected thermal insulation materials. The highest yields of carbon monoxide were observed with phenol ic rigid foam and with hardboard containing phenol-formaldehyde binder.

Carlos J. Hilado; Patricia A. Huttlinger

1980-01-01

112

[Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

Not Available

1989-12-31

113

40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...violation of the carbon monoxide NAAQS...Hampshire's low emission vehicle...tons per day for carbon monoxide to be used in determining transportation conformity for...Hampshire's low emission vehicle...tons per day for carbon monoxide to be used in determining transportation conformity...

2012-07-01

114

40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...violation of the carbon monoxide NAAQS...Hampshire's low emission vehicle...tons per day for carbon monoxide to be used in determining transportation conformity for...Hampshire's low emission vehicle...tons per day for carbon monoxide to be used in determining transportation conformity...

2014-07-01

115

40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...violation of the carbon monoxide NAAQS...Hampshire's low emission vehicle...tons per day for carbon monoxide to be used in determining transportation conformity for...Hampshire's low emission vehicle...tons per day for carbon monoxide to be used in determining transportation conformity...

2013-07-01

116

Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

Cooper, Anna Grossman

117

A miner's personal carbon monoxide alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of alerting an underground miner to life-threatening concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) a miner's personal CO alarm prototype called PEMCOAL has been developed by the Bureau of Mines. The PEMCOAL unit is small enough to be carried on a miner's belt, has a flashlamp visual alarm, requires to calibration for use, and uses a disk sensor which

JOSEPH E. CHILTON; CLARENCE R. CARPENTER

1989-01-01

118

DIRECT CARBON MONOXIDE PHOTOPRODUCTION FROM PLANT MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Initial studies to quantify direct carbon monoxide photoproduction from several plant species are reported. n addition to measuring CO emissions from live plant leaves, emission rates from dead leaf matter were also determined. enescent leaf matter photoproduced CO at rates that ...

119

CARBON MONOXIDE NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR NEVADA  

EPA Science Inventory

Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of Federal Regulations, Section 40 Part 81, for detailed information about Ambient Air ...

120

Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide  

DOEpatents

There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

2000-01-01

121

Delayed leukoencephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication  

PubMed Central

Delayed leukoencephalopathy is an uncommon complication of hypoxic-ischemic events of different etiologies, including carbon monoxide intoxication. We present a case of a 40-year-old male patient who was admitted with rapidly progressive neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. There was a history of accidental carbon monoxide intoxication one month before, presenting with loss of consciousness and short hospitalization, followed by a complete clinical recovery. The imaging studies in the delayed phase depicted confluent, symmetric supra-tentorial white matter lesions in keeping with diffuse demyelinization. Restricted diffusion and metabolite abnormalities in magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy were also seen. The diagnosis of CO-mediated delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy was assumed after exclusion of other mimickers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was tentatively performed and the patient had a favorable clinical and radiological evolution. PMID:25426224

Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Silva, Cristiana; Neutel, Dulce; Neto, Lia Lucas; Albuquerque, Luísa

2014-01-01

122

A personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer(SCSR) near the worksite that will supply

J. E. Chilton; C. R. Carpenter

1989-01-01

123

40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Providence Rhode Island carbon monoxide attainment...ten-year maintenance plan. The State of Rhode Island has committed to...Limited Maintenance Plan are triggered; and...monoxide evaluations of transportation projects in the...

2010-07-01

124

Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the alpha Fe(111)Carbon Monoxide Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoelectron spectroscopy of the alpha -Fe(111)-carbon monoxide surface at 300 K demonstrates a mixed chemisorption regime: dissociation of carbon monoxide and formation of a 'carbide-oxide' layer at submonolayer coverage is followed by associative molecular binding at higher coverages. No new surface species are detected in mixed carbon monoxide-hydrogen adlayers but preadsorption of dihydrogen considerably reduces the extent of dissociation of

M. Textor; I. D. Gay; R. Mason

1977-01-01

125

Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Carbon Composite Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed that can be incorporated into an existing sensing array architecture. The CO sensor is a low-power chemiresistor that operates at room temperature, and the sensor fabrication techniques are compatible with ceramic substrates. Sensors made from four different polymers were tested: poly (4-vinylpryridine), ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer, polyepichlorohydrin, and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The carbon black used for the composite films was Black Pearls 2000, a furnace black made by the Cabot Corporation. Polymers and carbon black were used as received. In fact, only two of these sensors showed a good response to CO. The poly (4-vinylpryridine) sensor is noisy, but it does respond to the CO above 200 ppm. The polyepichlorohydrin sensor is less noisy and shows good response down to 100 ppm.

Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.

2011-01-01

126

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23

127

40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts...

2014-07-01

128

40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52...California § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for the Los...

2012-07-01

129

40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts...

2013-07-01

130

40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts...

2012-07-01

131

40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide. 52.1164 Section 52...1164 Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than...national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized...

2014-07-01

132

40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide. 52.1164 Section 52...1164 Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than...national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized...

2013-07-01

133

40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52... Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as...

2012-07-01

134

40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide. 52.1164 Section 52...1164 Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than...national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized...

2011-07-01

135

40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52... Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as...

2010-07-01

136

40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts...

2011-07-01

137

40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52... Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as...

2011-07-01

138

40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts...

2010-07-01

139

40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52...California § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for the Los...

2010-07-01

140

40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52...California § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for the Los...

2011-07-01

141

40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for the Los Angeles-South...SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon monoxide emission reduction credits for the...

2014-07-01

142

77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance...the new motor vehicle emissions budget (MVEB) in the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maintenance...regarding the motor vehicle emissions budget (MVEB) in the carbon monoxide...

2012-02-14

143

40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for the Los Angeles-South...SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon monoxide emission reduction credits for the...

2013-07-01

144

40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...part of the maintenance plan request, CT DEP also...monoxide maintenance plan for the Hartford-New...York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island carbon monoxide attainment...develop a full maintenance plan(s) for the affected...monoxide evaluations of transportation projects in each...

2010-07-01

145

Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

1983-01-01

146

Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

1972-01-01

147

Carbon Monoxide: Its Role in Photochemical Smog Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photochemistry of trace amounts of isobutene and oxides of nitrogen in an atmosphere of air was studied both in the presence and in the absence of small amounts of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide accelerates the reaction as measured by nitric oxide oxidation or ozone formation. This finding has relevance to photochemical smog formation.

Karl Westberg; Norman Cohen; K. W. Wilson

1971-01-01

148

Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

1995-12-01

149

Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmosphere of Mars has many resources that can be processed to produce things such as oxygen, fuel, buffer gas, and water for support of human exploration missions. Successful manipulation of these resources is crucial for safe, cost-effective, and self-sufficient long-term human exploration of Mars. In our research, we are developing enabling technologies that require fundamental knowledge of adsorptive gas storage and separation processes. In particular, we are designing and constructing an innovative, low mass, low power separation device to recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU (in-situ resource utilization). The technology has broad implications for gas storage and separations for gas-solid systems that are ideally suited for reduced gravitational environments. This paper describes our separation process design and experimental procedures and reports results for the separation of CO2 and CO by a four-step adsorption cycle.

Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

2004-01-01

150

Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect

The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States))

1992-09-01

151

Carbon monoxide prevents hepatic mitochondrial membrane permeabilization  

PubMed Central

Background Low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) protect hepatocytes against apoptosis and confers cytoprotection in several models of liver. Mitochondria are key organelles in cell death control via their membrane permeabilization and the release of pro-apoptotic factors. Results Herein, we show that CO prevents mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) in liver isolated mitochondria. Direct and indirect approaches were used to evaluate MMP inhibition by CO: mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial depolarization and inner membrane permeabilization. Additionally, CO increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and their scavenging, by ß-carotene addition, decreases CO protection, which reveals the key role of ROS. Interestingly, cytochrome c oxidase transiently responds to low concentrations of CO by decreasing its activity in the first 5 min, later on there is an increase of cytochrome c oxidase activity, which were detected up to 30 min. Conclusion CO directly prevents mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, which might be implicated in the hepatic apoptosis inhibition by this gaseoustransmitter. PMID:21388535

2011-01-01

152

A personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm  

SciTech Connect

Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer(SCSR) near the worksite that will supply breathing oxygen. In many situations, miners do not know when to don either rescuer since they do not know if there is a fire in the mine, nor do they carry instrumentation necessary for the detection of the toxic, colorless, and odorless fire product CO. If each miner carried a personal CO alarm, which would respond to high concentrations of CO, the miner would then be alerted when to don either the FSR or SCSR and exit the mine. The authors report on the development of a prototype personal miner's CO alarm called PEMCOAL.

Chilton, J.E.; Carpenter, C.R.

1989-01-01

153

Carbon monoxide – physiology, detection and controlled release  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on recent developments in the area of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) and materials for controlled CO application. Novel triggers for CO release, metal carbonyls and degradation mechanisms of CORMs, are highlighted. In addition, potential formulations of CORMs for targeted CO release are discussed. PMID:24556640

Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias

2014-01-01

154

Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary  

SciTech Connect

Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

Schrock, R.R.

1981-10-01

155

Encapsulation kinetics and dynamics of carbon monoxide in clathrate hydrate.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide clathrate hydrate is a potentially important constituent in the solar system. In contrast to the well-established relation between the size of gaseous molecule and hydrate structure, previous work showed that carbon monoxide molecules preferentially form structure-I rather than structure-II gas hydrate. Resolving this discrepancy is fundamentally important to understanding clathrate formation, structure stabilization and the role the dipole moment/molecular polarizability plays in these processes. Here we report the synthesis of structure-II carbon monoxide hydrate under moderate high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. We demonstrate that the relative stability between structure-I and structure-II hydrates is primarily determined by kinetically controlled cage filling and associated binding energies. Within hexakaidecahedral cage, molecular dynamic simulations of density distributions reveal eight low-energy wells forming a cubic geometry in favour of the occupancy of carbon monoxide molecules, suggesting that the carbon monoxide-water and carbon monoxide-carbon monoxide interactions with adjacent cages provide a significant source of stability for the structure-II clathrate framework. PMID:24936712

Zhu, Jinlong; Du, Shiyu; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C; Germann, Timothy C; Francisco, Joseph S; Izumi, Fujio; Momma, Koichi; Kawamura, Yukihiko; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

2014-01-01

156

Encapsulation kinetics and dynamics of carbon monoxide in clathrate hydrate  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide clathrate hydrate is a potentially important constituent in the solar system. In contrast to the well-established relation between the size of gaseous molecule and hydrate structure, previous work showed that carbon monoxide molecules preferentially form structure-I rather than structure-II gas hydrate. Resolving this discrepancy is fundamentally important to understanding clathrate formation, structure stabilization and the role the dipole moment/molecular polarizability plays in these processes. Here we report the synthesis of structure-II carbon monoxide hydrate under moderate high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. We demonstrate that the relative stability between structure-I and structure-II hydrates is primarily determined by kinetically controlled cage filling and associated binding energies. Within hexakaidecahedral cage, molecular dynamic simulations of density distributions reveal eight low-energy wells forming a cubic geometry in favour of the occupancy of carbon monoxide molecules, suggesting that the carbon monoxide–water and carbon monoxide–carbon monoxide interactions with adjacent cages provide a significant source of stability for the structure-II clathrate framework. PMID:24936712

Zhu, Jinlong; Du, Shiyu; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C.; Germann, Timothy C.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Izumi, Fujio; Momma, Koichi; Kawamura, Yukihiko; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

2014-01-01

157

Direct carbon monoxide photoproduction from plant matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial studies to quantify direct carbon monoxide photoproduction from several plant species are reported. In addition to measuring CO emissions from live plant leaves, emission rates from dead leaf matter were also determined. Senescent leaf matter photoproduced CO at rates that ranged from 1.3 to 5.4 times higher per unit area than living leaves, and dead leaves photoproduced CO about an order of magnitude more rapidly than living leaves. It may therefore be necessary to incorporate CO photoproduction from dead plant matter into predictions of global CO emissions from plants. Methods are presented for direct measurement of CO photoproduction from live, intact leaves, from excised leaves, and from fallen leaves. Although these techniques were initially used for laboratory studies, they are directly applicable to field studies. Results of mechanistic studies indicate that oxygen affects CO photoproduction but that carbon dioxide exhibits no direct influence. Formation of CO was shown to be the result of direct photochemical transformation on or in the plant matter. Furthermore, for live plant leaves, CO photoproduction was observed to occur internal to the leaf.

Tarr, Matthew A.; Miller, William L.; Zepp, Richard G.

1995-06-01

158

Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-04

159

Quantum molecular dynamic simulations of warm dense carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

Using quantum molecular dynamic simulations, we have studied the thermophysical properties of warm dense carbon monoxide under extreme conditions. The principal Hugoniot pressure up to 286 GPa, which is derived from the equation of state, is calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The chemical decomposition of carbon monoxide has been predicted at 8 GPa by means of pair correlation function and the charge density distribution. Based on Kubo-Greenwood formula, the dc electrical conductivity and the optical reflectivity are determined, and the nonmetal-metal transition for shock compressed carbon monoxide is observed around 40 GPa. PMID:21842937

Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Cong; Li, Dafang; Zhang, Ping

2011-08-14

160

Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

Linne, Diane L.; Roncace, James; Groth, Mary F.

1990-01-01

161

Correction to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns  

E-print Network

monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results'' A. T to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry

Laat, Jos de

162

A role for nickel-iron cofactors in biological carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide utilization  

E-print Network

Ni–Fe containing enzymes are involved in the biological utilization of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Interest in these enzymes has increased in recent years due to hydrogen fuel initiatives and concerns ...

Kung, Yan

163

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01... 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of or confirmation of carbon monoxide poisoning. (b) Classification. Class...

2011-04-01

164

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01... 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of or confirmation of carbon monoxide poisoning. (b) Classification. Class...

2014-04-01

165

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01... 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of or confirmation of carbon monoxide poisoning. (b) Classification. Class...

2012-04-01

166

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of or confirmation of carbon monoxide poisoning. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

167

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01... 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of or confirmation of carbon monoxide poisoning. (b) Classification. Class...

2013-04-01

168

Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

1995-01-01

169

Tropospheric carbon monoxide: satellite observations and their applications   

E-print Network

Carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the troposphere as a product of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons. It is the principal sink of the hydroxyl radical (OH), thereby affecting the concentrations...

MacCallum, Stuart Neil

2008-01-01

170

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Languages Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) German (Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) ... for Disease Control and Prevention Return to top French (français) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning English Fiche d'information ...

171

40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

2014-07-01

172

40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

2011-07-01

173

EVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS MONITORS FOR CARBON MONOXIDE IN STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance characteristics of five commercially available continuous carbon monoxide monitors were evaluated in a two part program consisting of laboratory and field phases. The laboratory phase involved testing each instrument for response characteristics, precision, noise,...

174

40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

2012-07-01

175

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING NETWORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is presented for designing a carbon monoxide monitoring network based on the objective of identifying concentrations that exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). The basis for identifying concentrations in excess of the NAAQS is the Concentration ...

176

An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

2005-07-01

177

Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is rare in the Arabian Peninsula and occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Knowledge and perception of the hazards of carbon monoxide is limited. Migrant workers from warm climates appear particularly at risk. We investigated 46 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting at emergency departments from 2007-2009 of the two main hospitals in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Interviews, hospital records, and administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Among the 46 cases investigated, 24 (52%) were males. Foreign nationals compromised 80% of the cases and the incidence was 3.1 cases per 100,000 residents per year. Burning charcoal in poorly ventilated residences was the predominant source of the carbon monoxide poisoning. Almost all cases (98%) were admitted during the winter months, most in the early morning hours. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was significantly increased in cases with loss of consciousness and depressed consciousness. There were no reported fatalities. PMID:21905387

Al Kaabi, Juma M; Wheatley, Andrew D; Barss, Peter; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Lababidi, Anis; Mushtaq, Ahmed

2011-01-01

178

Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines  

MedlinePLUS

... Provide recommendations for equipment maintenance to reduce CO emissions. Recommend the use of portable, audible CO monitors with small gasoline-powered engines. NIOSH Publications ALERT: Preventing Carbon Monoxide ...

179

Design of Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Concentration Monitoring and Controller System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Under the situation of gas and silo operating, accidents caused by carbon monoxide occurred frequently, for example the gas\\u000a poisoning, explosion and fire hazard. For this reason, it is very important to the safety of people’s life and property to\\u000a measure the concentration of the gas accurately at any time. A kind of intelligence type carbon monoxide supervision system\\u000a is

Zou Tao; Xu Hengcheng; Zeng Xianlin

180

PIC implementation of carbon monoxide alarm for indoor parking car  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is design and construct of a PIC implementation of carbon monoxide alarm for indoor parking car. The prototype of this paper was designed on a single PIC16F877 microcontroller that performed the acquisition, processing and display of carbon monoxide (CO) data from MiCS-5132 automotive pollution gas sensor and displayed the CO data on 7 segment displays.

Charathip Chunkul; K. Tunlasakun; R. Nimnual

2008-01-01

181

Effect of carbon monoxide on the cardiorespiratory system: carbon monoxide toxicity, physiology and biochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to carbon monoxide compromises function of the cardiovascular system primarily by decreasing oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood and decreasing venous and tissue oxygen tension. In normal individuals, with concentrations of approximately 18 to 20% COHb, there is a reduction in the oxygen consumption during high levels of exercise, a higher than predicted cardiac output, and abnormally high concentrations of lactic acid. However, in patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis, concentrations of COHb of 3 to 5% significantly curtailed exercise tolerance before the onset of angina. In addition, there is suggestive evidence in animals that the hypoxia induced by increased levels of COHb induces atherosclerosis.

Turino, G.M.

1981-01-01

182

Oxidation of carbon monoxide by perferrylmyoglobin.  

PubMed

Perferrylmyoglobin is found to oxidize CO in aerobic aqueous solution to CO2. Tryptophan hydroperoxide in the presence of tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrinate-iron(III) or simple iron(II)/(III) salts shows similar reactivity against CO. The oxidation of CO is for tryptophan hydroperoxide concluded to depend on the formation of alkoxyl radicals by reductive cleavage by iron(II) or on the formation of peroxyl radicals by oxidative cleavage by iron(III). During oxidation of CO, the tryptophan peroxyl radical was depleted with a rate constant of 0.26 ± 0.01 s(-1) for CO-saturated aqueous solution of pH 7.4 at 25 °C without concomitant reduction of the iron(IV) center. Carbon monoxide is as a natural metabolite accordingly capable of scavenging tryptophan radicals in myoglobin activated by peroxides with a second-order rate constant of (3.3 ± 0.6) × 10(2) L mol(-1) s(-1), a reaction that might be of importance in cellular membranes of the intestine for protection of tissue against radical damage during meat digestion. PMID:24506496

Libardi, Silvia H; Skibsted, Leif H; Cardoso, Daniel R

2014-02-26

183

High-temperature carbon monoxide potentiometric sensor  

SciTech Connect

These sensors have been used in industrial alarm and control systems for monitoring and control of the oxygen concentration in a gas stream and for the control of air-fuel ratio in internal combustion engines as in automobiles. A high-temperature potentiometric CO sensor was developed by coating a mixture of CuO/ZnO over one of the platinum electrodes of a cell with a yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte. It showed good CO sensing characteristics over the temperature range of 450-550 C and concentration range of 0-10,000 ppm of CO in air. In particular, high sensitivity coupled with reasonably fast response and baseline recovery characteristics were observed at 450 C for CO concentration below 3,000 ppm. The sensing mechanism and operating system were adequately described by a proposed mathematical model. The model relates the induced cell EMF to the various rate phenomena occurring in the oxide layer such as diffusion, adsorption, and surface catalytic oxidation of the adsorbed carbon monoxide by the gaseous oxygen.

Li, N.; Tan, T.C.; Zeng, H.C. (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore))

1993-04-01

184

Effects of carbon monoxide on personnel  

SciTech Connect

New weapons and the vehicles on which they mount have and will continue to become increasingly complex. These weapons are potentially more demanding, and challenges need to be addressed. One important challenge is the need to accurately monitor and control the amount of toxic substances, generated by weapon systems, that may endanger the soldiers who will operate the systems. Toxic fumes generated from various sources can have debilitating effects on the efficiency of occupants and operators of vehicles and ground equipment. The insidious nature of these effects underscores the necessity for detecting, measuring, and eliminating these hazards to the extent possible. The overall problem that must be addressed is the potential exposure of soldiers to carbon monoxide, ammonia, oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, lead fumes, and other harmful substances. The exposures are likely to be relatively intense (above present Federal standards for occupational exposure), brief (1 hour or less), and rapidly repeated (as often as six times daily for periods as long as 14 days). Such exposures may occur when soldiers are trained to use various weapon systems or while in combat.

Mossa, M.

1984-08-01

185

Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre-versus postexposure exercise test at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease.

Allred, E.N.; Pagano, M. (Harvard Univ. School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)); Bleecker, E.R.; Walden, S.M. (John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States)); Hackney, J.D.; Selvester, R.H. (Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA (United States)); Warren, J. (Health Effects Inst., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Gottlieb, S.O.

1991-02-01

186

Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

Mann, Brian E.

187

Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The North Atlantic Ocean is bordered by continents which may each, under the influence of seasonal weather patterns, act as sources of natural and anthropogenic trace gas and particulate species. Photochemically active species such as carbon monoxide (CO) react to form ozone (O3), a species of critical importance in global climate change. CO is sparingly soluble in water, and the relatively long lifetime of CO in the troposphere makes this species an ideal tracer of air masses with origin over land. We have measured CO using a nondispersive infrared gas filter correlation analyzer at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland nearly continuously since August 9, 1991. Measurements of CO were acquired at 20-sec resolution and recorded as 60-sec averages. Daily, monthly, and diurnal variation data characteristics of CO mixing ratios observed at this site are reported. Depending on source regions of air parcels passing over this site, 60-min concentrations of CO range from clean air values of approximately 90 ppbv to values in excess of 300 ppbv. Data characterizing the correlation between 60-min CO and O3 mixing ratio data observed at this site are reported also.

Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Novelli, Paul C.

1994-01-01

188

Mathematical models of the uptake of carbon monoxide on hemoglobin at low carbon monoxide levels.  

PubMed Central

Coburn's differential equation for the uptake of carbon monoxide by hemoglobin and two particular types of solution of this equation were considered and the solutions verified for a group of healthy adults consisting of 73 nonsmoking pedestrians or car passengers exposed to low levels of carbon monoxide as experienced in the city of Lyon. The CO levels at the breathing level and the walking speed of the subjects was continually measured, and the carboxyhemoglobin levels determined at the beginning and the end of each test journey. The values of all the other relevant parameters were also determined. The half-life of carboxyhemoglobin was studied as a function of the degree of activity, the age, the sex and the height of the subjects. Finally a mathematical model was set up to represent a periodic uptake of CO which made it possible to estimate the variations in the carboxyhemoglobin level for any subject during a period of a day or a week without any need to know the initial level. PMID:7333242

Joumard, R; Chiron, M; Vidon, R; Maurin, M; Rouzioux, J M

1981-01-01

189

The oxidation of carbon monoxide using tin oxide based catalysts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation conditions for precious metal/tin oxide catalysts were optimized for maximum carbon monoxide/oxygen recombination efficiency. This was achieved by controlling the tin digestion, the peptization to form the sol, the calcination process and the method of adding the precious metals. Extensive studies of the tin oxide structure were carried out over the temperature range 20 to 500 C in air or hydrogen environments using Raman scattering and X ray diffraction. Adsorbed species on tin oxide, generated in an environment containing carbon monoxide, gave rise to a Raman band at about 1600 cm(exp -1) which was assigned to carbonaceous groups, possible carbonate.

Sampson, Christopher F.; Jorgensen, Norman

1990-01-01

190

Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2? significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

2013-04-01

191

Personal carbon monoxide exposure in Helsinki, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal exposure concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured for the adult urban population of Helsinki, Finland, as part of the multi-centre European EXPOLIS study. The arithmetic mean of the 48 h average personal CO exposure concentration was 1.3 mg m -3 for participants not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and 1.6 mg m -3 for those exposed to ETS at any time and in any microenvironment. The maximum 8 and 1 h exposure values were 2.0 and 2.6 mg m -3, and 4.3 and 5.7 mg m -3, respectively. As tobacco smoke is one of the major sources of CO, therefore the personal mean exposures of ETS participants were higher than the non-ETS participants for all averaging times. The long- and short-term personal exposures were higher in winter than in summer for all participants. In order to analyse in more detail the correlation between the time-activity patterns and exposure levels, cluster analysis was performed using 24 h personal exposure profiles of 1 h moving averages. The results showed clearly that the major source of CO for non-ETS exposed participants are traffic emissions. The majority of the diurnal exposure profiles showed two notable exposure peaks corresponding to the morning and evening traffic rush hours. The time spent in street traffic was the most relevant factor for describing the short-term personal exposures. The more time was spent commuting by car the higher were the exposures. The long-term exposure levels were linked both to the time spent commuting and home location. People living in low-traffic suburban areas and working in downtown spent more time commuting and ended up experiencing similar long-term exposure levels than people who lived in heavy-traffic downtown areas, but spent little time commuting. For ETS exposed participants the personal exposure profiles were dominated by both tobacco smoke and traffic emissions.

Scotto di Marco, Greta; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Jantunen, Matti

192

Plasma biomarkers in carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Objectives The severity of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is often based on non-specific clinical criteria because there are no reliable laboratory markers. We hypothesized that a pattern of plasma protein values might objectively discern CO poisoning severity. This was a pilot study to evaluate protein profiles in plasma samples collected from patients at the time of initial hospital evaluation. The goal was to assess whether any values differed from age- and sex-matched controls using a commercially available plasma screening package. Methods Frozen samples from 63 suspected CO poisoning patients categorized based on clinical signs, symptoms, and blood carboxyhemoglobin level were analyzed along with 42 age- and sex-matched controls using Luminex-based technology to determine the concentration of 180 proteins. Results Significant differences from control values were found for 99 proteins in at least one of five CO poisoning groups. A complex pattern of elevations in acute phase reactants and proteins associated with inflammatory responses including chemokines/cytokines and interleukins, growth factors, hormones, and an array of auto-antibodies was found. Fourteen protein values were significantly different from control in all CO groups, including patients with nominal carboxyhemoglobin elevations and relatively brief intervals of exposure. Conclusions The data demonstrate the complexity of CO pathophysiology and support a view that exposure causes acute inflammatory events in humans. This pilot study has insufficient power to discern reliable differences among patients who develop neurological sequelae but future trials are warranted to determine whether plasma profiles predict mortality and morbidity risks of CO poisoning. PMID:20095814

THOM, STEPHEN R.; BHOPALE, VEENA M.; MILOVANOVA, TATYANA M.; HARDY, KEVIN R.; LOGUE, CHRISTOPHER J.; LAMBERT, DAVID S.; TROXEL, ANDREA B.; BALLARD, KERRI; EISINGER, DOMINIC

2012-01-01

193

Hydrogen and carbon monoxide production by hydrocarbon steam reforming and pressure swing adsorption purification  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide from a feed mixture comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane. It comprises passing the feed mixture through a first pressure swing adsorption system containing an adsorption bed comprising an adsorbent having a greater affinity for carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide than for hydrogen to separate hydrogen as a pure non-adsorbed product and carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide as an adsorbed fraction; desorbing carbon monoxide from the pressure swing adsorption system to form a carbon monoxide-rich fraction; desorbing carbon dioxide and methane from the pressure swing absorption system to form a carbon dioxide-rich fraction; passing the carbon monoxide-rich fraction to a second pressure swing adsorption system containing an adsorption bed comprising an adsorbent having a greater affinity for carbon monoxide than for hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane to separate carbon monoxide as an absorbed fraction and hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane as a non-adsorbed fraction; and desorbing carbon monoxide from the pressure swing adsorption system to form a pure carbon monoxide product.

Krishnamurthy, R.

1992-03-17

194

49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle...Where an occupant has been affected by carbon monoxide; (2) Where carbon...

2012-10-01

195

49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle...Where an occupant has been affected by carbon monoxide; (2) Where carbon...

2014-10-01

196

49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle...Where an occupant has been affected by carbon monoxide; (2) Where carbon...

2013-10-01

197

49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle...Where an occupant has been affected by carbon monoxide; (2) Where carbon...

2011-10-01

198

49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle...Where an occupant has been affected by carbon monoxide; (2) Where carbon...

2010-10-01

199

Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. The exposures resulted in postexercise carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 0.6% +/- 0.3%, 2.0% +/- 0.1%, and 3.9% +/- 0.1%. The results obtained on the 2%-COHb day and 3.9%-COHb day were compared to those on the room air day. There were 5.1% (p = 0.01) and 12.1% (p less than or equal to 0.0001) decreases in the time to development of ischemic ST-segment changes after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. In addition, there were 4.2% (p = 0.027) and 7.1% (p = 0.002) decreases in time to the onset of angina after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre- versus postexposure exercise tests at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease. PMID:2040254

Allred, E N; Bleecker, E R; Chaitman, B R; Dahms, T E; Gottlieb, S O; Hackney, J D; Pagano, M; Selvester, R H; Walden, S M; Warren, J

1991-01-01

200

COPSS: The Carbon Monoxide Power Spectrum Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present current results from work focused on measuring the abundance of carbon monoxide and molecular gas in the early Universe. Molecular gas is a vital component of galactic evolution and star formation. But its distribution among average galaxies at high redshift understood is so poorly that models of the mean abundance of CO for z?3 span orders of magnitude. Direct detection of molecular gas in galaxies at these redshifts has only achieved the most luminous of galaxies (Mgas ? 1011 M? SFR ? 100 M? yr-1), whereas the bulk of the molecular gas is expected to be in the unseen masses of smaller galaxies (Mgas ? 109 M? SFR ? 1 M? yr-1). Theory predicts these smaller galaxies are detectable as an integrated ensemble with the technique of 'intensity mapping', where measurements of different 3D Fourier modes to construct a power spectrum. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) offers an opportunity to explore molecular gas at high redshift through this technique. The SZA, an 8-element closely packed array, is capable of observing CO (J=1?0) at z = 2.3-3.3.We present a power spectrum from of our current search for CO at z?3, utilizing a 'wide and shallow' legacy dataset with 880 hours of integration time spread across 44 different fields. To 2? confidence, we find no evidence for CO down to a sensitivity of ?2N(k=1 h Mpc-1) ? 103 µK2 (with sensitivity over size-scales of k= 0.5?2 h Mpc-1). This limit resides a factor of a few below model predictions for CO based on the observed UV star formation rate at these redshifts, as described by Pullen et al., 2013. We also present results from a recent 400 hour 'deep and narrow' observation of GOODS-North, a target rich in observational data and ripe with opportunities for cross-correlation, with sensitivity a factor of three better than what was capable with the SZA Legacy survey.

Keating, Garrett K.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Heiles, Carl E.; DeBoer, David R.

2015-01-01

201

Investigations of the efficient electrocatalytic interconversions of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide by nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH) play an important role in utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) or carbon dioxide (CO2) in the metabolism of some microorganisms. Two distinctly different types of CODH are distinguished by the elements constituting the active site. A Mo-Cu containing CODH is found in some aerobic organisms, whereas a Ni-Fe containing CODH (henceforth simply Ni-CODH) is found in some anaerobes. Two members of the simplest class (IV) of Ni-CODH behave as efficient, reversible electrocatalysts of CO2/CO interconversion when adsorbed on a graphite electrode. Their intense electroactivity sets an important benchmark for the standard of performance at which synthetic molecular and material electrocatalysts comprised of suitably attired abundant first-row transition elements must be able to operate. Investigations of CODHs by protein film electrochemistry (PFE) reveal how the enzymes respond to the variable electrode potential that can drive CO2/CO interconversion in each direction, and identify the potential thresholds at which different small molecules, both substrates and inhibitors, enter or leave the catalytic cycle. Experiments carried out on a much larger (Class III) enzyme CODH/ACS, in which CODH is complexed tightly with acetyl-CoA synthase, show that some of these characteristics are retained, albeit with much slower rates of interfacial electron transfer, attributable to the difficulty in making good electronic contact at the electrode. The PFE results complement and clarify investigations made using spectroscopic investigations. PMID:25416391

Wang, Vincent C-C; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Armstrong, Fraser A

2014-01-01

202

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2011-07-01

203

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2012-07-01

204

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2013-07-01

205

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2010-07-01

206

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

2014-07-01

207

77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance...Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets for...motor vehicle emissions budget, and the ``Revised Carbon Monoxide Maintenance...an approved carbon monoxide LMP...satisfy the emissions budget...

2012-05-25

208

40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

209

40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

210

40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

211

40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

212

Carbon monoxide in the earth's atmosphere - Increasing trend  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an analysis of more than 60,000 atmospheric measurements of carbon monoxide taken over 3-1/2 years at Cape Meares, Oregon (45 deg N, 125 deg W), indicate that the background concentration of this gas is increasing. The rate of increase, although uncertain, is about 6 percent per year on average. Human activities are the likely cause of a substantial portion of this observed increase; however, because of the short atmospheric lifetime of carbon monoxide and the relatively few years of observations, fluctuations of sources and sinks related to the natural variability of climate may have affected the observed trend. Increased carbon monoxide may deplete tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, slowing down the removal of dozens of man-made and anthropogenic trace gases and thus indirectly affecting the earth's climate and possibly the stratospheric ozone layer.

Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.

1984-01-01

213

Aircraft instrumentation system for the remote sensing of carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light twin-engine aircraft has been instrumented with a carbon monoxide remote gas sensor system and test flown over the Southern Lake Michigan basin during August, 1976. The remote sensor is based on the gas filter correlation technique. The radiance levels from the sensor along with the data on the surface temperature, air temperature, dewpoint, and altitude were digitized and recorded on seven-track magnetic tape. Air samples were collected at various altitudes over selected sites for later analysis of carbon monoxide concentration and comparison with the inferred concentration from the remote sensor. The values of carbon monoxide obtained from the air samples and the values inferred from the remote sensor for data collected over water are in good agreement.

Beck, S. M.; Hesketh, W. D.; Sherrill, R. T.

1978-01-01

214

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01

215

MY NASA DATA: Carbon Monoxide and Population Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then use the data to investigate the carbon monoxide level at a fixed latitude. Using the LAS, students will download data, and will then use a spreadsheet program to create maps of the carbon monoxide level for a particular latitude. They will then look for trends and explore the population density for selected points along the latitude (urban or rural). The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes.

2006-04-10

216

Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples  

E-print Network

Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice O and 13 C18 O), carbon dioxide (12 C16 O2, 12 C18 O16 O, 12 C18 O2, 13 C16 O2, 13 C18 O16 O, and 13 and of carbon dioxide were extracted and fit to derive reaction mechanisms and information on the decomposition

Kaiser, Ralf I.

217

40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

2014-07-01

218

40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

2011-07-01

219

40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

2013-07-01

220

40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

2012-07-01

221

40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined...as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which...

2010-07-01

222

Minimisation of carbon monoxide in a hydrogen stream for fuel cell application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Means of minimising carbon monoxide in a hydrogen stream for fuel cell operation are reviewed. Reduction of carbon monoxide to an acceptable level of 10–50ppm involves high temperature and low temperature water gas shift, followed by selective oxidation of residual carbon monoxide. Methanation of very small amounts of carbon monoxide may be an alternative final step.A new range of promoted

D. L. Trimm

2005-01-01

223

Carbon Monoxide Exposures during the Use of Propane-Powered Floor Burnishers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Custodians' exposures to carbon monoxide were monitored during the use of propane-powered floor burnishers to assess the health hazard risk to operators. Real-time carbon monoxide detectors with data logging capabilities were placed on the burnishers in the breathing zone of operators during burnisher use. Carbon monoxide levels were recorded every 30 seconds. Ventilation and physical characteristics of the spaces of

Frank R. Demer; Julia C. Rosen; Timothy J. Finman

1996-01-01

224

40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection...Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) For each AQCR or portion of...primary standard for carbon monoxide or ozone will not be attained by July 1,...

2010-07-01

225

Survey of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ventilation in residences of patients with Ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is designed to characterize indoor exposure and address factors influencing indoor exposure to carbon monoxide for a high risk population. Background exposure to carbon monoxide is relatively high in many urban areas due primarily to the high density of automobiles. Added to this ambient background is carbon monoxide produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels inside residential or

S. D. Colome; W. E. Lambert; N. Castenada

1985-01-01

226

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2013-07-01

227

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2011-07-01

228

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2010-07-01

229

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2014-07-01

230

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2012-07-01

231

Carbon monoxide detector. [electrochemical gas detector for spacecraft use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensitive carbon monoxide detector, developed specifically for spacecraft use, is described. An instrument range of 0 to 60 ppm CO in air was devised. The fuel cell type detector is used as a highly sensitive electrolysis cell for electrochemically detecting gases. The concept of an electrochemical CO detector is discussed and the CO oxidation behavior in phosphoric and sulfuric acid electrolytes is reported.

Holleck, G. L.; Bradspies, J. L.; Brummer, S. B.; Nelsen, L. L.

1973-01-01

232

Antimicrobial Action of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is endogenously produced in the human body, mainly from the oxidation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. The induction of HO and the consequent increase in CO production play important physiological roles in vasorelaxation and neurotransmission and in the immune system. The exogenous administration of CO gas and CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has been shown to

L. S. Nobre; J. D. Seixas; C. C. Romao; L. M. Saraiva

2007-01-01

233

CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN FORMATION DUE TO CARBON MONOXIDE IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFKE) ia a well tested model for prediction of COHb formation due to carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in humans. here have been few and relatively poorly tested attempts to implement a CFKE for rats. uch an implementation is of interest because many...

234

Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

Itikawa, Yukikazu

2015-03-01

235

Metallocarboranes structurally engineered for the reduction of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research conducted in this initial period has involved the development and evaluation of various metallacarborane complexes as homogeneous catalysts for the transformation of carbon monoxide into useful chemical feedstocks. The discussions presented herein summarize our preliminary results in several areas of primary interest: (1) the evaluation of the activity of certain rhoda- and ruthenacarborane complexes as catalyst precursors for

Hawthorne

1982-01-01

236

Carbon monoxide sensitivity of vacuum deposited polyaniline semiconducting thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

By utilizing the semiconducting polymeric thin films on various substrates a new simple and quick technique has been developed for sensing carbon monoxide gas. The thin films of polyaniline were prepared by vacuum deposition. The particular doping combination in the polymer makes the sensor specific for detection of CO. Polyaniline was prepared by copolymerization of aniline and formaldehyde. Metal halides

V. Dixit; S. C. K. Misra; B. S. Sharma

2005-01-01

237

Carbon Monoxide Isotopes: On the Trail of Galactic Chemical Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the early days of the discovery of radio emission from carbon monoxide it was realized that it offered unusual potential for under- standing the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and external galaxies through measurements of molecular isotopes. These results bear on stellar nucleosynthesis, star formation, and gases in the interstellar medium. Progress in isotopic radio measurements will be reviewed.

Langer, W.

1995-01-01

238

Tita: discovery of carbon monoxide in its atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 3-D rotation-vibration band of carbon monoxide was identified in the near-infrared spectrum of Titan. A preliminary mixing ratio of CO/N2 = 0.00006 was determined. This result supports the probable detection of CO2 by Samuelson et al and strengthens possible analogies between the atmosphere of Titan and conditions on the primitive Earth.

Lutz, B. L.; Debergh, C.; Owen, T.

1982-01-01

239

An Urban Diffusion Simulation Model For Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively simple Gaussian-type diffusion simulation model for calculating urban carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations as a function of local meteorology and the distribution of traffic is described. The model can be used in two ways: (1) in the synoptic mode, in which hourly concentrations at one or many receptor points are calculated from historical or forecast traffic and meteorological data;

W. B. Johnson; F. L. Ludwig; W. F. Dabberdt; R. J. Allen

1973-01-01

240

Carbon monoxide knowledge, attitudes and practices in urban households  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePreventing carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is increasingly recognised by safety advocates as a public health priority. CO alarms are the best defence against CO poisoning yet little attention has been placed on developing and evaluating comprehensive CO programs. The presentation shares CO knowledge, attitudes and practices from a household survey conducted in an urban area prior to the implementation of

E M McDonald; W Shields; R Stepnitz; S Frattaroli; D Valentine; A C Gielen

2010-01-01

241

Indoor Carbon Monoxide Dilution and Alarm System with Wireless Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a public health problem. Because CO is a colorless and odorless gas, with its affinity to hemoglobin 240 times more than oxygen's, poisoning accidents frequently result from incomplete indoor combustion. For example, an improperly vented natural gas heater in a small room can make the air unsafe to breathe within a few minutes. The aim

MING-FENG WU

2006-01-01

242

Carbon monoxide … the silent killer with an audible solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for more poisoning fatalities each year than any other toxic agent. The often insidious nature of the symptom progression and its ability to imitate many common illnesses may result in the failure to diagnose a potentially fatal outcome. CO detectors equipped with an audible alarm can alert potential victims of CO poisoning before toxic sequelae

Edward P Krenzelok; Ronald Roth; Robert Full

1996-01-01

243

Heating Oil Company Responses to Inquiries Concerning Carbon Monoxide Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Carbon monoxide (CO) is the leading cause of poisoning fatalities in the United States. We conducted a survey to sample the quality of the information available to the public from Connecticut heating oil distributors regarding these risks. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional telephone survey of oil distributors in Connecticut was conducted, using a scripted set of questions regarding CO

Michael J Drescher; Marc J Bayer; Iris Barko; Lucinda Caros; Mary A McCormick

1999-01-01

244

Portable device for monitoring consistency of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity to nondestructively monitor concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), which is a colorless, tasteless and poisonous gas and is harmful to people, is disclosed. The portable device for monitoring concentration of CO plays an important role in health care and environment supervising for civil and industrial purposes. A basic circuit-based principle for the implementation of the device is presented

Qingyu Zheng; Fuping Liang; Gang Liu; Xiaofei Wang

2002-01-01

245

CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

246

INTERPRETING URBAN CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS BY A COMPUTERIZED COHB MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

A practical, inexpensive computer model for estimating the level of blood carboxyhemoglobin (percent COHb) as a function of time for measured carbon monoxide concentrations (ppm CO) was developed from published studies on the assimilation of CO into the blood of human subjects. T...

247

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

248

Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from

J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock

1984-01-01

249

Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter  

EPA Science Inventory

Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegr...

250

DIURNAL VARIATIONS IN TRAFFIC FLOW AND CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Traffic count and carbon monoxide (CO) data for January and July from three states are compared in order to reveal any diurnal variations in the two measurements. The diurnal patterns for the 18 traffic count stations indicate that there are average patterns of traffic flow that ...

251

LACK OF EFFECTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON HUMAN VIGILANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous publications on the effects of low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) on human vigilance performance have found conflicting results. While several studies have found statistically reliable effects, none have gone unchallenged. This article presents a critical review of the l...

252

Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

Ford, P.C.

1992-06-04

253

Rationalizing Burned Carbon with Carbon Monoxide Exported from South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present several estimates cross-checking the fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere from burning, comparing models that are based on simple land-surface parameterizations and atmospheric transport dynamics. Both estimates made by NASA Ames and USP modeling techniques are quite high compared to some detailed satellite/land-use studies of emissions. The flux of carbon liberated to the atmosphere via biomass burning is important for several reasons. This flux is a fundamental statistic for the parameterization of the large-scale flux of gases controlling the reactive greenhouse gases methane and ozone. Similarly, it is central to the estimation of the translocation of nitrogen and pyrodenitrification in the tropics. Thirdly, CO2 emitted from rainforest clearing contributes directly to carbon lost from the rainforest system as it contributes to greenhouse gas forcing. While CO2 from pasturage, agriculture, etc, is considered to be reabsorbed seasonally, and so "off budget" for the carbon cycle, it must also be accounted. CO2 anomalies related to daily weather and interannual climatic variation are strong enough to perturb our scientific perception of long-term carbon storage trends. We compare fluxes deduced from land-use statistics (originally, W.M. Hao) and from satellite hot pixels (A. Setzer) with atmospheric fluxes determined by the mesoscale/continental scale models RAMS and MM5, and point to some new work with highly resolved global models (the NASA Data Assimilation Office's GEOS4). Our simulations are tied to events, so that measured tracers like CO tie the models directly to the burning and meteorology of a specific period. We point out a particular sensitivity in estimates based on CO, and indicate how analysis of CO2 along with other biomass-burning tracers may lead to an improved multi-species estimator of carbon burned.

Chatfield, R.; Freitas, S. R.; SilvaDias, M. A.; SilvaDias, P. O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

254

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on activated carbon impregnated with metal halide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) removal is important in the purification of ammonia-synthesis gas produced by the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, the water-gas reaction, or the steam reforming of hydrocarbons. A coke-oven gas, a blast-furnace gas, and a converter gas also contain 8--89% CO. Activated carbon was impregnated with a metal halide, and adsorption and desorption characteristics of CO on the carbon

Hajime Tamon; Kenji Kitamura; Morio Okazaki

1996-01-01

255

Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas  

DOEpatents

The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

1985-01-01

256

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOEpatents

A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

1996-01-01

257

Therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced during the catabolism of free haem, catalyzed by haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes, and its physiological roles include vasodilation, neurotransmission, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti-proliferative effects on smooth muscle. In vivo preclinical studies have shown that exogenously administered quantities of CO may represent an effective treatment for conditions characterized by a dysregulated immune response. The carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) represent a group of compounds capable of carrying and liberating controlled quantities of CO in the cellular systems. This review covers the physiological and anti-inflammatory properties of the HO/CO pathway in the central nervous system. It also discusses the effects of CORMs in preclinical models of inflammation. The accumulating data discussed herein support the possibility that CORMs may represent a novel class of drugs with disease-modifying properties in multiple sclerosis. PMID:22235993

Fagone, P; Mangano, K; Coco, M; Perciavalle, V; Garotta, G; Romao, C C; Nicoletti, F

2012-01-01

258

Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July-August 1990  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the results of a 1990 study of the concentrations of tropospheric methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere above central and eastern Canada. Gas concentrations were measured in the 0.15 to 6 kilometer range of the troposphere using a tunable diode laser instrument. Variable concentrations of both methane and carbon monoxide were documented at altitudes of 0.15 to 6 kilometers over relatively pristine areas. The variability of gas concentration is explained by meteorological factors and local emission sources. The sources are thought to include uncontrolled wildfires, American industrial and urban emissions, retreat of the polar fronts, and emissions from wetland sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Harriss, R.C.; Bartlett, K.B.; Talbot, R.W. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)] [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Sachse, G.W.; Collins, J.E. Jr.; Browell, E.V.; Hill, G.F. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)] [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Wade, L. [Lockheed Engineering and Science, Hampton, VA (United States)] [Lockheed Engineering and Science, Hampton, VA (United States); Barrie, L.A. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada)] [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada); Burney, L.G. [STC Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)] [STC Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)

1994-01-20

259

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOEpatents

A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

1996-03-19

260

Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

1990-01-01

261

Carbon monoxide prevents apoptosis induced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli). Previous studies have demonstrated that up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) may trigger a survival mechanism against renal cell death induced by E. coli toxins. The present study analyses the role of carbon monoxide (CO), an end product of HO-1, in the survival mechanism. Moreover, we identified hemolysin as

Ming Chen; Roshan Tofighi; Wenjie Bao; Olle Aspevall; Timo Jahnukainen; Lars E. Gustafsson; Sandra Ceccatelli; Gianni Celsi

2006-01-01

262

Titan - Discovery of carbon monoxide in its atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 3-0 rotation-vibration band of carbon monoxide was identified in the near-infrared spectrum of Titan. A preliminary mixing ratio of CO/N2 = 0.00006 was determined. This result supports the probable detection of CO by Samuelson et al and strengthens possible analogies between the atmosphere of Titan and conditions on the primitive earth. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14039

Lutz, B. L.; De Bergh, C.; Owen, T.

1983-01-01

263

Residential carbon monoxide detector failure rates in the United States.  

PubMed

There are more than 38 million residential carbon monoxide detectors installed in the United States. We tested 30 detectors in use and found that more than half failed to function properly, alarming too early or too late. Forty percent of detectors failed to alarm in hazardous concentrations, despite outward indications that they were operating as intended. Public health professionals should consider community education concerning detector use and should work with stakeholders to improve the reliability and accuracy of these devices. PMID:21852643

Ryan, Timothy J; Arnold, Katherine J

2011-10-01

264

Personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm. Information Circular\\/1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR) near the worksite that will

J. E. Chilton; C. R. Carpenter

1989-01-01

265

Residential Carbon Monoxide Detector Failure Rates in the United States  

PubMed Central

There are more than 38 million residential carbon monoxide detectors installed in the United States. We tested 30 detectors in use and found that more than half failed to function properly, alarming too early or too late. Forty percent of detectors failed to alarm in hazardous concentrations, despite outward indications that they were operating as intended. Public health professionals should consider community education concerning detector use and should work with stakeholders to improve the reliability and accuracy of these devices. PMID:21852643

Arnold, Katherine J.

2011-01-01

266

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.  

PubMed Central

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

Kim, Y S

1985-01-01

267

Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2006-03-15

268

Empirical correlations between black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide in the lower and middle troposphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-particle measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol and simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were acquired aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS). Observed average BC mass loadings, estimated to account for ?90% of the ambient BC mass, decreased by more than 2 orders of magnitude from the polluted boundary layer to the clean

J. R. Spackman; J. P. Schwarz; R. S. Gao; L. A. Watts; D. S. Thomson; D. W. Fahey; J. S. Holloway; J. A. de Gouw; T. B. Ryerson

2008-01-01

269

Gas-phase catalytic growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes from carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been produced in a gas-phase catalytic process. Catalysts for SWNT growth form in situ by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in a heated flow of carbon monoxide at pressures of 1–10 atm and temperatures of 800–1200°C. The SWNT yield and diameter distribution can be varied by controlling the process parameters, and SWNTs as small as

Pavel Nikolaev; Michael J Bronikowski; R. Kelley Bradley; Frank Rohmund; Daniel T Colbert; K. A Smith; Richard E Smalley

1999-01-01

270

78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan...monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan for the Fairbanks Area, and associated revisions to sections of the Fairbanks Transportation Control Program,...

2013-08-09

271

Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

Linne, Diane L.

1996-01-01

272

Gas geyser--a cause of fatal domestic carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide is responsible for a large number of accidental domestic poisoning and deaths throughout the world. Domestic carbon monoxide poisoning is rarely reported in India and remains an under recognized problem. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is usually based on autopsy findings, circumstantial evidence and estimation of carboxy-haemoglobin in blood. We report a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a bathroom where an LPG gas water heater was installed recently. Cherry pink discolouration of the body and organs on autopsy suggested carbon monoxide poisoning. Laboratory analysis of blood by UV visible spectrophotometry revealed presence of dangerous levels of carboxy-haemoglobin. Effective preventive measures can help in bringing down the mortality and morbidity associated with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23084315

Mohankumar, T S; Kanchan, Tanuj; Pinakini, K S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Singh, Manisha; Sirohi, Parmendra; Anwar, Naureen

2012-11-01

273

Carbon monoxide absorption through the oral and nasal mucosae of cynomolgus monkeys  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that blood levels of carbon monoxide increase during cigarette smoking. It has genrally been assumed that increases in blood levels of carbon monoxide could be interpreted as evidence that deep lung penetration of cigarette smoke had occurred. This study was designed to examine whether increased blood levels of carbon monoxide could result from absorption in the nasal and oral cavitites. The nasal and oral cavities of cynomolgus monkeys were exposed, independently of the lungs, to cigarette smoke under rigorous smoking conditions. Pre- and post-exposure blood levels of carbon monoxide were measured. As a positive control, similar volumes of cigarette smoke were passed directly into the lungs, thus bypassing the oral and nasal cavities, and blood levels of carbon monoxide were again measured. The results inidcate that absorption of carbon monoxide in the oral and nasal cavities is negligible under the heavy smoking regimen employed here, and hence, would be negligible under normal smoking conditions.

Schoenfisch, W.H. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee); Hoop, K.A.

1980-05-01

274

FORMATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE FROM THE PHOTODEGRADATION OF TERRESTRIAL DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON IN NATURAL WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The photochemical formation of carbon monoxide (CO) in water samples obtained from wetlands, lakes, and near-coastal/shelf areas and in aqueous solutions of soil organic matter was investigated. ll of these samples contained dissolved organic matter that was largely derived from ...

275

Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure  

SciTech Connect

At higher altitudes, ambient carbon monoxide levels are increasing with the number of residents and tourists and their use of motor vehicles and heating devices (such as fireplaces, furnaces, and stoves). Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide or high altitude causes pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as in animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Data from acute studies and theoretical considerations suggest that carbon monoxide inhaled at altitude may be more detrimental than carbon monoxide inhaled at sea level. It is not known, however, if the cardiovascular system adapts or deteriorates with continuous, concurrent exposure to carbon monoxide and high altitude. Male laboratory rats were exposed for six weeks in steel barometric chambers to altitudes ranging from 3,300 ft (ambient) to 18,000 ft and to concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 parts per million (ppm)2. Carbon monoxide had no effect on body weight at any altitude. There was a tendency for hematocrit to increase even at the lowest concentration of carbon monoxide (9 ppm), but the increase did not become significant until 100 ppm. At 10,000 ft, there was a tendency for total heart weight to increase in rats inhaling 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Although its effects on the heart at altitude are complex, carbon monoxide, in concentrations of 500 ppm or less, had little effect on the right ventricle; it did not exacerbate any effects due to altitude. There was a tendency for the left ventricle weight to increase with exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide at altitude, but the increase was not significant until 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance were unaffected by exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide or 10,000-ft altitude singly or in combination.

McGrath, J.J. (Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, Lubbock (USA))

1989-07-01

276

Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow, we will relate observed CO fluxes to concurrently measured CO2, CH4 and N2O exchange rates in terms of CO2-equivalents and - where applicable - carbon.

Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2014-05-01

277

Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive health issues. The most indicative symptoms experienced were a severe headache, blurred vision, agitation, and confusion. Following contact with the Emergency Responses Services, she was promptly transferred to the hospital via ambulance and was treated with high-flow oxygen on the way. She was discharged from the emergency department on the same day, but carbon monoxide exposure had already had adverse effects on her fingernail beds. The fingernail tips were altered and appeared as if a bite had been taken out of their distal borders. The changes in the tips of her fingernails were significant, but they completely disappeared eight weeks later without any additional treatment. Conclusions Worldwide, carbon monoxide poisoning is a potentially lethal condition that is preventable with educational programs and installation of carbon monoxide detectors in the home setting. Exposure to carbon monoxide frequently goes unrecognized until it is too late and causes silent death. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of fingernail bed manifestations in a survivor of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:25073414

2014-01-01

278

Ambient carbon monoxide and the risk of hospitalization due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Data from recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that lower concentrations of inhaled carbon monoxide might have beneficial antiinflammatory effects. Inhaled carbon monoxide has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). However, population-based epidemiologic studies of environmentally relevant carbon monoxide exposure have generated mixed findings. We conducted a time-series study in Hong Kong to estimate the association of short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide with emergency hospitalizations for COPD. We collected daily emergency hospital admission data and air pollution data from January 2001 to December 2007. We used log-linear Poisson models to estimate the associations between daily hospital admissions for COPD and the average daily concentrations of carbon monoxide while controlling for the traffic-related co-pollutants nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m. Results showed that ambient carbon monoxide was negatively associated with the risk of hospitalizations for COPD. After adjustment for levels nitrogen dioxide or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m, the negative associations of carbon monoxide with COPD hospitalizations became stronger. The risk estimates were similar for female and male subjects. In conclusion, short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization for COPD, which suggests that carbon monoxide exposure provides some acute protection of against exacerbation of COPD. PMID:25480818

Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Wang, Tong; Qiu, Hong; Pun, Vivian C; Chan, Chi Sing; Louie, Peter K K; Yu, Ignatius T S

2014-12-15

279

Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

1991-01-01

280

Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

1992-12-20

281

Carbon monoxide binding to a fish hemoglobin under photostationary conditions.  

PubMed

Determinations of carbon monoxide binding curves for hemoglobin from Brevoortia tyrannus under equilibrium and photostationary conditions show that in the light, the curve is shifted to the right and altered in shape. The Bohr effect is much less in the light. The kinetics of the transition between equilibrium and photostationary states has been examined. All of the results are satisfactorily described using the two-state model of Monod, J. Wyman, J., and Changeux, J.P. (1965) J. Mol. Biol. 12, 88-118 with the assumption that light produces an additive increase in the rate of dissociation of ligand from the R and T states. PMID:701255

Torkelson, S J; Gibson, Q H

1978-10-25

282

Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule  

SciTech Connect

Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

Schwarz, A., E-mail: aschwarz@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Köhler, A.; Grenz, J.; Wiesendanger, R. [Physics Department, Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

2014-07-07

283

Compact carbon monoxide sensor utilizing a confocal optical cavity.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The carbon monoxide sensor discussed in this paper utilizes a unique confocal cavity which allows the complete system to be packaged in a small volume suitable for hand-held use. The optical system is the heart of the instrument with equal emphasis placed on the electronics support circuitry, consisting essentially of a thermal infrared pyroelectric detector and lock-in amplifier. The pyroelectric detector offers a major advantage over other thermal detectors, providing a signal-to-noise ratio and detectivity that remain nearly constant over the frequency range from dc to 2000 Hz. Since bias voltage is not required, low frequency noise is not generated in the detector.

Scott, B.; Magyar, J.; Weyant, R.; Hall, J.

1973-01-01

284

Adsorption of carbon monoxide and hydrogen on graphite.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adsorption of carbon monoxide and hydrogen was investigated on three graphites: a high-density pyrolytic graphite, a small-grain extruded graphite, and a processed pyrolytic graphite tape. The sticking probability of CO was found to decrease rapidly as the average surface coverage approached 0.01 monolayer. Lower sticking probabilities were observed on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite which indicated that adsorption occurs principally on the edge atoms. There is negligible adsorption of molecular hydrogen on graphite that has been heated to 2400 K in vacuo.

Beitel, G. A.

1972-01-01

285

Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

Schwarz, A.; Köhler, A.; Grenz, J.; Wiesendanger, R.

2014-07-01

286

Membrane topography of anaerobic carbon monoxide oxidation in Rhodocyclus gelatinosus.  

PubMed Central

Rhodocyclus gelatinosus 1 grows anaerobically in the dark at the expense of carbon monoxide. Topographical studies with methyl viologen as the membrane probe indicated that CO oxidation and H2 production sites were on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. Membrane-associated hydrogen gas production appeared to be a unidirectional reaction. In the dark, strain 1 whole cells oxidized CO and incorporated about 306 pmol of 32Pi into ATP per min per mg of protein. With CO as the sole energy-yielding substrate, cells grew with a low growth yield coefficient of 3.7 g (dry weight) of cells per mg of CO oxidized. PMID:3308854

Champine, J E; Uffen, R L

1987-01-01

287

Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats  

E-print Network

Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats, France Rationale: Epidemiologic studies associate atmospheric carbon mon- oxide (CO) pollution with five peaks of 100 ppm per 24-h period), consistent with urban pollution. Myocardial function

Boyer, Edmond

288

Studies of carbon monoxide diffusion in an urban area  

E-print Network

(aIc 2) 2. 'C 0 0 P&00 90 J TRAFFIC/15 I';IN Fig. 3 2. Carbon monoxicIc concentration vs traffic for Sampler 1 from 6:00 4~1 ? 2:00 Piil CDT on July 19, (r = -0. 31). 27 Cl H p ai O ce CJ (NY, ', I, 6: 7:Io(l", !, ~neo (i ((, 9 -' I 5... J 7 j 3 , '. ', 73 . J ('. J &", , i j 100 200 300 400 500 60il TPMI'FIC/15 Mi(( Fig. 13. Carbon monoxide concenrration vs Lraf6ic for gamp j er 2 from 6:15 A(1 - 11:15 AM CDT on July 20, 1969 (r = -0. 23) . !! a)9 6:00 H p o 4 O Q...

Thomas, John Charles

1970-01-01

289

Evidence for isotopic fractionation of carbon monoxide in dark clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical fractionation of the various isotopes of carbon monoxide has been studied in four isolated dark clouds. At positions away from the centers of three of the objects - B5, B335, and L1262 - the abundance of (CO-13) relative to C(O-18) is at least a factor of 4 greater than at the central positions. This detection of carbon isotope fractionation is consistent with theoretical predictions of (CO-13) enhancement in the outer parts of cool clouds. Combined observations of the J = 2 to 1 and J = 1 to 0 transitions of several CO isotopes have enabled us to derive molecular hydrogen densities and to assess the effect of saturation and resonant scattering. Abundance ratios of the rarer isotopic species in the cloud centers have also been determined.

Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Carlson, E. R.; Wilson, R. W.

1980-01-01

290

Some observations on the oscillatory behavior of carbon monoxide oxidation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oscillatory behavior of the oxidation of carbon monoxide was experimentally studied in an attempt to further elucidate the reaction at low pressure. The phenomenon is observed as multiple explosions and involves successive flashes of light accompanying the slow reaction in a static system, including over 450 flashes in one case. Electronically excited hydroxyl radicals (water impurity) and carbon dioxide have been identified as components of the emission. The phase difference between the two was seen to be negligible. The nature of the temperature and pressure changes during a cycle indicates that the oscillation is purely kinetic rather than thermokinetic. A procedure is presented whereby sustained oscillations can be obtained for particular regions in the pressure-temperature plane, vessel surface pretreatments, and H2O-containing reactants.

Mccaffrey, B. J.; Berlad, A. L.

1976-01-01

291

Portable device for monitoring consistency of carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity to nondestructively monitor concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), which is a colorless, tasteless and poisonous gas and is harmful to people, is disclosed. The portable device for monitoring concentration of CO plays an important role in health care and environment supervising for civil and industrial purposes. A basic circuit-based principle for the implementation of the device is presented with a detailed analysis for the key issues in designing. Specifically, the designing for the preamplifier is of great importance to the performance of the device. There is also introduced a method for getting standard voltage value from the micro-ampere current signal outputted from a carbon monoxide sensor and for restraining other gases to exert influence on the CO monitoring. Meanwhile, the paper teaches an anti-jamming technique for eliminating interference between analog and digital circuits within a very small system. In said device, a multi-function alarm circuit, which periodically performing its self-checking function, produces alarm with sound and light if the power of a battery is insufficient or the concentration of CO is detected to be over a set threshold. In addition, the major characteristics and applications for the device are also presented.

Zheng, Qingyu; Liang, Fuping; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xiaofei

2002-06-01

292

Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

1981-01-01

293

A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs  

SciTech Connect

In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

1991-11-01

294

Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

1981-10-01

295

Carbon monoxide affects electrical and contractile activity of rat myocardium  

PubMed Central

Background Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas, which also acts in the organism as a neurotransmitter. It is generated as a by-product of heme breakdown catalyzed by heme oxygenase. We have investigated changes in electrical and contractile activity of isolated rat atrial and ventricular myocardium preparations under the influence of CO. Methods Standard microelectrode technique was used for intracellular registration of electrical activity in isolated preparations of atrial and ventricular myocardium. Contractions of atrial myocardial stripes were registered via force transducer. Results CO (10-4 - 10-3 M) caused prominent decrease of action potential duration (APD) in working atrial myocardium as well as significant acceleration of sinus rhythm. In addition CO reduced force of contractions and other parameters of contractile activity. Inhibitor of heme oxygenase zinc protoporphyrin IX exerts opposite effects: prolongation of action potential, reduction of sinus rhythm rate and enhancement of contractile function. Therefore, endogenous CO, which may be generated in the heart due to the presence of active heme oxygenase, is likely to exert the same effects as exogenous CO applied to the perfusing medium. In ventricular myocardium preparations exogenous CO also induced shortening of action potential, while zinc protoporphyrin IX produced the opposite effect. Conclusions Thus, endogenous or exogenous carbon monoxide may act as an important regulator of electrical and contractile cardiac activity. PMID:21676214

2011-01-01

296

40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

297

Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

Alfani, F.; Greco, G., Jr.; Iroio, G.

1982-01-01

298

CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN FOUR U.S. CITIES DURING THE WINTER OF 1981  

EPA Science Inventory

Portable monitors were used to measure time averaged personal exposures (10-30 min) to carbon monoxide. Data were collected from January through March 1981 in four cities where carbon monoxide ambient levels in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards have been reported: ...

299

METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) LEVELS IN ALASKAN CITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

High winter carbon monoxide levels in Anchorage, as in Fairbanks, are due to intense nocturnal (ground-based) inversions persisting through the periods of maximum emissions and at times throughout the day. The problem is exacerbated by the large amounts of carbon monoxide emitted...

300

THE EFFECT OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER PUPAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

(With Three Text-figures) THE aim of these investigations is a study of the effect of carbon monoxide on developmental processes in Drosophila. Such a study involves, of course, a deter- mination of the carbon-monoxide action in a quantitative manner, and for this purpose it seemed to be most suitable to undertake a study of the oxygen uptake in different pupal

ALEXANDER WOLSKY

301

New Physiological Importance of Two Classic Residual Products: Carbon Monoxide and Bilirubin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase the rate-limiting step in the degradation of heme to bilirubin, generates carbon monoxide. This gaseous molecule plays important roles in neuronal signaling and modulation of vascular tone. Additionally, carbon monoxide is involved in some pathological conditions (e.g., ischemia, endotoxic shock, excitotoxicity) as a protective or toxic factor. Bilirubin, another heme metabolite, exhibits intriguing biological activities as an antioxidant,

Gilca Marilena

1997-01-01

302

A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY  

EPA Science Inventory

An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

303

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. CASE PRESENTATION: A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found

Luke Bennetto; Louise Powter; Neil J Scolding

2008-01-01

304

Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on space shuttle and aircraft measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide measurements made from the space shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be

R. E. Newell; S. T. Shipley; V. S. Connors; H. G. Reichle

1988-01-01

305

40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section...Generating Units § 60.45Da Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX ) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a)...

2013-07-01

306

40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section...Generating Units § 60.45Da Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX ) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a)...

2012-07-01

307

40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section...Generating Units § 60.45Da Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX ) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a)...

2014-07-01

308

Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comets at large heliocentric distances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a simple model for outgassing from a small flat surface area, the sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two species more volatile than water ice that are known to be present in comets, are calculated for a suddenly activated discrete source on the rotating nucleus. The instantaneous sublimation rate depends upon the comet's heliocentric distance and the Sun's zenith angle at the location of the source. The values are derived for the constants of CO and CO2 in an expression that yields the local rotation-averaged sublimation rate as a function of the comet's spin parameters and the source's cometocentric latitude.

Sekanina, Zdenek

1992-01-01

309

Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1982-01-01

310

Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia  

E-print Network

Top-down estimate of a large source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion modeling methodology, we find that the source of carbon monoxide from fossil-fuel and biofuel combustion source of atmospheric carbon monoxide associated with fuel combustion in Asia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29

Palmer, Paul

311

Crystallographic Snapshots of Cyanide- and Water-Bound C-Clusters from Bifunctional Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase/Acetyl-CoA Synthase  

E-print Network

Nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs) reversibly catalyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and are of vital importance in the global carbon cycle. The unusual catalytic CODH C-cluster ...

Kung, Yan

312

Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by Voyager 2, and only now confirmed in this study from Earth, plays an important role as well. "Climate and atmospheric models of Triton have to be revisited now, now that we have found carbon monoxide and re-measured the methane," says co-author Catherine de Bergh. Of Neptune's 13 moons, Triton is by far the largest, and, at 2700 kilometres in diameter (or three quarters the Earth's Moon), is the seventh largest moon in the whole Solar System. Since its discovery in 1846, Triton has fascinated astronomers thanks to its geologic activity, the many different types of surface ices, such as frozen nitrogen as well as water and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), and its unique retrograde motion [1]. Observing the atmosphere of Triton, which is roughly 30 times further from the Sun than Earth, is not easy. In the 1980s, astronomers theorised that the atmosphere on Neptune's moon might be as thick as that of Mars (7 millibars). It wasn't until Voyager 2 passed the planet in 1989 that the atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, at an actual pressure of 14 microbars, 70 000 times less dense than the atmosphere on Earth, was measured. Since then, ground-based observations have been limited. Observations of stellar occultations (a phenomenon that occurs when a Solar System body passes in front of a star and blocks its light) indicated that Triton's surface pressure was increasing in the 1990's. It took the development of the Cryogenic High-Resolution Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to provide the team the chance to perform a far more detailed study of Triton's atmosphere. "We needed the sensitivity and capability of CRIRES to take very detailed spectra to look at the very tenuous atmosphere," says co-author Ulli Käufl. The observations are part of a campaign that also includes a study of Pluto [eso0908]. Pluto, often considered a cousin of Triton and with similar conditions, is receiving renewed interest in the light of the carbon monoxide discovery, and astronomers are racing to find this chemical o

2010-04-01

313

Carbon Monoxide Exposures from Propane-Powered Floor Burnishers Following Addition of Emissions Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous published work by this author suggests that propane-powered floor burnisher use represents a potentially serious health hazard from carbon monoxide exposures, particularly for susceptible individuals. This earlier study, which assessed custodians' exposures to carbon monoxide during burnisher use, was repeated using burnishers retrofitted with emission controls consisting of self-aspirating catalytic mufflers and computerized air\\/fuel monitors and alarms. Realtime carbon

Frank R. Demer

1998-01-01

314

Size-dependent dissociation of carbon monoxide on cobalt nanoparticles.  

PubMed

In situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was employed to study the adsorption and dissociation of carbon monoxide molecules on cobalt nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 4 to 15 nm. The majority of CO molecules adsorb molecularly on the surface of the nanoparticles, but some undergo dissociative adsorption, leading to oxide species on the surface of the nanoparticles. We found that the tendency of CO to undergo dissociation depends critically on the size of the Co nanoparticles. Indeed, CO molecules dissociate much more efficiently on the larger nanoparticles (15 nm) than on the smaller particles (4 nm). We further observed a strong increase in the dissociation rate of adsorbed CO upon exposure to hydrogen, clearly demonstrating that the CO dissociation on cobalt nanoparticles is assisted by hydrogen. Our results suggest that the ability of cobalt nanoparticles to dissociate hydrogen is the main parameter determining the reactivity of cobalt nanoparticles in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. PMID:23339635

Tuxen, Anders; Carenco, Sophie; Chintapalli, Mahati; Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Escudero, Carlos; Pach, Elzbieta; Jiang, Peng; Borondics, Ferenc; Beberwyck, Brandon; Alivisatos, A Paul; Thornton, Geoff; Pong, Way-Faung; Guo, Jinghua; Perez, Ruben; Besenbacher, Flemming; Salmeron, Miquel

2013-02-13

315

Carbon Monoxide Expedites Metabolic Exhaustion to Inhibit Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion. PMID:24121491

Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M.; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

2013-01-01

316

Carbon Monoxide in the Type Ic SN 2000ew  

E-print Network

We present K-band (1.9 -- 2.5 micron) spectra of the Type Ic SN 2000ew observed with IRCS on the Subaru Telescope. These data show the first detection of carbon monoxide (CO) emission in a Type Ic supernova. The detection of CO in SN 2000ew provides further evidence that molecule formation may be a common occurrence in core-collapse supernova ejecta. The spectrum also contains narrow emission lines of [Fe II] and He I probably from dense clumps of hydrogen-poor circumstellar gas surrounding SN 2000ew. Our spectrum of SN 2000ew shows no trace of an unidentified feature seen near 2.26 micron, just blueward of the CO emission, in the spectrum of SN 1987A and we discuss proposed detections of this feature in other Type II supernovae.

Christopher L. Gerardy; Robert A. Fesen; Ken'ichi Nomoto; Keiichi Maeda; Peter Hoeflich; J. Craig Wheeler

2002-07-22

317

Carbon Monoxide in the Type Ic SN 2000ew  

E-print Network

We present K-band (1.9 -- 2.5 micron) spectra of the Type Ic SN 2000ew observed with IRCS on the Subaru Telescope. These data show the first detection of carbon monoxide (CO) emission in a Type Ic supernova. The detection of CO in SN 2000ew provides further evidence that molecule formation may be a common occurrence in core-collapse supernova ejecta. The spectrum also contains narrow emission lines of [Fe II] and He I probably from dense clumps of hydrogen-poor circumstellar gas surrounding SN 2000ew. Our spectrum of SN 2000ew shows no trace of an unidentified feature seen near 2.26 micron, just blueward of the CO emission, in the spectrum of SN 1987A and we discuss proposed detections of this feature in other Type II supernovae.

Gerardy, C L; Nomoto, K; Maeda, K; Höflich, P; Wheeler, J C; Gerardy, Christopher L.; Fesen, Robert A.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Maeda, Keiichi; Hoeflich, Peter

2002-01-01

318

Carbon monoxide measurement in the global atmospheric sampling program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The carbon monoxide measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available infrared absorption analyzer. The modifications increased the sensitivity of the analyzer to 1 ppmv full scale, with a limit of detectability of 0.02 ppmv. Packaging was modified for automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. The GASP system is described along with analyzer operation, calibration procedures, and measurement errors. Uncertainty of the CO measurement over a 2-year period ranged from + or - 3 to + or - 13 percent of reading, plus an error due to random fluctuation of the output signal + or - 3 to + or - 15 ppbv.

Dudzinski, T. J.

1979-01-01

319

UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity-enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop to either a chamber on a field of grass or a plant-leaf scale chamber. Leaves of all plant species that were examined exhibited emission of CO in response to artificial UV radiation as well as the UV component of natural solar radiation. The UV-induced rate of CO emission exhibited a low dependence on temperature, indicating an abiotic process. The emission of CO in response to the UV component of natural solar radiation was also evident at the natural grassland scale.

Bruhn, D.; Albert, K. R.; Mikkelsen, T. N.; Ambus, P.

2013-12-01

320

UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a plant-leaf scale chamber. Leaves of all examined plant species exhibited emission of CO in response to artificial UV-radiation as well as the UV-component of natural solar radiation. The UV-induced rate of CO emission exhibited a rather low dependence on temperature, indicating an abiotic process. The emission of CO in response to the UV-component of natural solar radiation was also evident at the ecosystem scale.

Bruhn, D.; Albert, K. R.; Mikkelsen, T. N.; Ambus, P.

2013-06-01

321

The oxidation of carbon monoxide using a tin oxide catalyst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines some of the steps involved in the development by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) of a catalytic device for the recombination of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a CO2 laser system. It contrasts the differences between CO oxidation for air purification and for laser environmental control, but indicates that there are similarities between the physical specifications. The principal features of catalytic devices are outlined and some experimental work described. This includes measurements concerning the structure and mechanical properties of the artifact, the preparation of the catalyst coating and its interaction with the gaseous environment. The paper concludes with some speculation about the method by which the reaction actually occurs.

Sampson, Christopher F.; Gudde, Nicholas J.

1987-01-01

322

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04

323

Carbon monoxide poisoning in narghile (water pipe) tobacco smokers.  

PubMed

Narghile (water pipe, hookah, shisha, goza, hubble bubble, argeela) is a traditional method of tobacco use. In recent years, its use has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We present an acutely confused adolescent patient who had CO poisoning after narghile tobacco smoking. She presented with syncope and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 24% and was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Five additional cases of CO poisoning after narghile smoking were identified during a literature search, with carboxyhemoglobin levels of 20 to 30%. Each patient was treated with oxygen supplementation and did well clinically. In light of the increasing popularity of narghile smoking, young patients presenting with unexplained confusion or nonspecific neurologic symptoms should be asked specifically about this exposure, followed by carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:22417961

La Fauci, Giovanna; Weiser, Giora; Steiner, Ivan P; Shavit, Itai

2012-01-01

324

Carbon Monoxide: To Boldly Go Where NO Has Gone Before  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery that nitric oxide (NO) gas acts as a physiological regulator of blood vessel tone represented a milestone in modern biological research. Carbon monoxide (CO), a similar gas, is produced by living cells as an endogenous by-product of heme degradation. Long thought to represent a metabolic waste, endogenous CO, like NO, has attracted much recent attention as a potential physiological regulator. The processes affected by CO include neurotransmission, vasorelaxation, and the regulation of cell growth or death. The mechanisms by which CO affects such biological processes include the production of cyclic nucleotide second messengers and the modulation of protein kinase–dependent signal transduction cascades. Low concentrations of exogenous CO have been shown to confer potent protection to cells and tissues in a number of disease models, offering the promise of future therapeutic applications for CO.

Stefan W. Ryter (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; Department of Medicine REV)

2004-04-27

325

Carbon monoxide mixing ratio inference from gas filter radiometer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new algorithm has been developed which permits, for the first time, real time data reduction of nadir measurements taken with a gas filter correlation radiometer to determine tropospheric carbon monoxide concentrations. The algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of the equations to be solved while providing accuracy comparable to line-by-line calculations. The method is based on a regression analysis technique using a truncated power series representation of the primary instrument output signals to infer directly a weighted average of trace gas concentration. The results produced by a microcomputer-based implementation of this technique are compared with those produced by the more rigorous line-by-line methods. This algorithm has been used in the reduction of Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites, Shuttle, and aircraft data.

Wallio, H. A.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Casas, J. C.; Saylor, M. S.; Gormsen, B. B.

1983-01-01

326

Carbon Monoxide and the Brain: Time to Rethink the Dogma  

PubMed Central

Carbon Monoxide (CO), long thought to be a simple environmental pollutant is now known to have a critical role in cellular functions ranging from vasodilation to circadian rhythms. In this review, we will begin with a discussion of the enzyme responsible for CO production: heme oxygenase. Because this review will focus on the effects of CO in the brain, we will transition to CO toxicology and determine if this simple diatomic gas has really earned its nefarious reputation. An in depth analysis of the roles for CO in circadian rhythms and as a gasotransmitter will be provided in the neurological functional role section, followed by its vascular effects derived mainly from interactions with soluble guanylyl cyclase. We will then describe the evidence for CO’s protective roles through the MAPK pathway, and finally touch upon the potential therapeutic roles for CO in neurological diseases including ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23092321

Hanafy, Khalid A.; Oh, Justin; Otterbein, Leo E.

2013-01-01

327

13C isotope separation using multiphoton excitation of carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a possible means to selectively isolate 13C from carbon monoxide (CO) exploiting multiphoton dissociation near 199 nm. At ?=199.363 nm we observed mass spectra with greater than 95% 13C+ ions produced from CO with normal isotopic abundance. The technique of velocity map ion imaging was applied to explore this effect. The complete mechanism for the 13C+ detection reads as follows: CO( X1? +)+h?? CO( a3? 1), CO( a3? 1)+h?? C( 1D2)+ O( 3P0), C( 1D2)+h?? C( 3P1), C( 3P1)+h?? C++ e-. We also report the molecular constants for the CO h 3? + state for 12CO(? 00=100 385 .5 cm-1, B=1.97 1 cm-1) .

Hansen, Nils; Wodtke, Alec M.

2002-04-01

328

Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

2015-01-01

329

Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

2015-04-01

330

Metallocarboranes structurally engineered for the reduction of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

The research conducted in this initial period has involved the development and evaluation of various metallacarborane complexes as homogeneous catalysts for the transformation of carbon monoxide into useful chemical feedstocks. The discussions presented herein summarize our preliminary results in several areas of primary interest: (1) the evaluation of the activity of certain rhoda- and ruthenacarborane complexes as catalyst precursors for the water gas shift reaction; (2) the synthesis of heterobimetallic metallacarboranes which possess both early and late transition metal vertices, as well as those which contain main group elements such as aluminium and gallium, for the study of metal-metal cooperativity in the reduction of carbon monoxide; and (3) the preparation and screening of a series of rhodacarborane complexes as hydroformylation catalysts. We believe that the use of these species as catalysts precursors should offer distinct synthetic and practical advantages over simple metal carbonyl complexes in the catalytic reduction of CO. The ease of derivatization of the carboranyl moiety utilized in the synthesis of potential catalysts has provided a virtually unparalleled capability for molecular design. The catalyst precursors used in these studies have been shown to exhibit several novel structural features which include a structurally sensitive closo/exo-nido tautomerism, which appears to be a key feature in the ability of these species activate small molecules such as dihydrogen. While practical hydroformylation, water gas shift, and methanation catalysts based upon metallacarborane species have yet to be developed, many stoichiometric reactions important catalytic schemes have been observed, and rational methods for the modification of the chemical reactivity of existing compounds have been developed.

Hawthorne, M.F.

1982-01-01

331

The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

2013-12-01

332

Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

2013-01-01

333

COSMIC: Carbon Monoxide and Soot in Microgravity Inverse Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Almost seventy percent of deaths in accidental fires are caused by inhalation of toxins such as carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke (soot) that form during underventilated burning. The COSMIC project examines the formation mechanisms of CO and soot during underventilated combustion, achieved presently using laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) formed between an air jet and surrounding fuel. A major hypothesis of the project is that the IDF mimics underventilated combustion because carbon-containing species that form on the fuel side of the flame (such as CO and soot) can escape without passing through an oxidizing flame tip. An IDF literature review was presented at the last microgravity workshop, and a few additional IDF papers have appeared since that meeting. The COSMIC project is entering the third year of its four-year funding cycle. The first two years have been devoted to designing and constructing a rig for use in the NASA 2.2-second drop tower. A few computations and laboratory experiments have been performed. The goals of this paper are to discuss the use of numerical simulation during burner design, to present computational and experimental results that support the hypothesis that IDFs are similar to underventilated flames, and to delineate future plans.

Blevins, L. G.; Fernandez, M. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.; Moore, E. F.; Steel, E. B.; Scott, J. H. J.

2001-01-01

334

EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON ORGANIC MATTER CYCLING: FORMATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND CARBONYL SULFIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide-are examined. oth of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or at...

335

Autumn photoproduction of carbon monoxide in Jiaozhou Bay, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Global oceans are net natural sources of atmospheric CO. CO at surface ocean is primarily produced from the photochemical degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In this study, the effects of photobleaching, temperature and the origin (terrestrial or marine) of CDOM on the apparent quantum yields (AQY) of CO were studied for seawater samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay. Our results demonstrat that photobleaching, temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The concentration, absorbance and fluorescence of CDOM exponentially decreased with increasing light dose. Terrestrial riverine organic matter could be more prone to photodegradation than the marine algae-derived one. The relationships between CO AQY and the dissolved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm for the photobleaching study were nonlinear, whereas those of the original samples were strongly linear. This suggests that: 1) terrestrial riverine CDOM was more efficient than marine algae-derived CDOM for CO photoproduction; 2) aromatic and olefinic moieties of the CDOM pool were affected more strongly by degradation processes than by aliphatic ones. Water temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The photoproduction rate of CO in autumn was estimated to be 31.98 ?mol m-2 d-1 and the total DOC photomineralization was equivalent to 3.25%-6.35% of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Our results indicate that CO photochemistry in coastal areas is important for oceanic carbon cycle.

Ren, Chunyan; Yang, Guipeng; Lu, Xiaolan

2014-06-01

336

Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nitride: Influence of Surface Hydroxyls on Low Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the synthesis of 2.5 nm gold clusters on the oxygen free and chemically labile support carbon nitride (C3N4). Despite having small particle sizes and high enough water partial pressure these Au/C3N4 catalysts are inactive for the gas phase and liquid phase oxidation of carbon monoxide. The reason for the lack of activity is attributed to the lack of surface OH groups on the C3N4. These OH groups are argued to be responsible for the activation of CO in the oxidation of CO. The importance of basic OH groups explains the well document dependence of support isoelectric point versus catalytic activity.

Singh, Joseph A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2012-01-01

337

Empirical correlations between black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide in the lower and middle troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-particle measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol and simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were acquired aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS). Observed average BC mass loadings, estimated to account for ~90% of the ambient BC mass, decreased by more than 2 orders of magnitude from the polluted boundary layer to the clean middle troposphere (6 km). A strong positive, but non-linear, correlation was observed between simultaneous measurements of BC and CO. Based on an analysis of all the data below 1 km, we report a compact relationship between BC and CO with a slope of 5.8 +/- 1.0 ng BC (kg dry air)-1 (ppb CO)-1 that is representative of regional urban and industrial emissions from Houston and Dallas. The BC/CO emission ratio for a fresh biomass-burning plume was estimated at 9 +/- 2 ng kg-1 ppb-1.

Spackman, J. R.; Schwarz, J. P.; Gao, R. S.; Watts, L. A.; Thomson, D. S.; Fahey, D. W.; Holloway, J. S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Trainer, M.; Ryerson, T. B.

2008-10-01

338

Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

339

Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

340

Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

341

Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

342

40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1164 Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975,...

2012-07-01

343

A Micro-Computer-Based Fuel Optimization System Utilizing In-Situ Measurement of Carbon Monoxide  

E-print Network

gas analyzer that mounts directly in the flue or stack to continuously measure carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, opacity and temperature. The control console interfaces directly with the boiler's existing analog control system to provide precise...

DeVivo, D. G.

1980-01-01

344

APPLICATION OF THE MICROENVIRONMENT MONITORING APPROACH TO ASSESS HUMAN EXPOSURE TO CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure estimates based on monitoring carbon monoxide in microenvironments are compared to exposure estimates based on personal monitoring with individual, portable monitors. Methods of calculation are reviewed and discussed, and results of calculations are presented. These data...

345

Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source  

DOEpatents

The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

2008-11-18

346

FIELD SURVEYS OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN COMMERCIAL SETTINGS USING PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study employed miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording ...

347

Carbon monoxide exposures from propane-powered floor burnishers following addition of emissions controls  

SciTech Connect

Previous published work by this author suggests that propane-powered floor burnisher use represents a potentially serious health hazard from carbon monoxide exposures, particularly for susceptible individuals. This earlier study was repeated using burnishers retrofitted with emission controls consisting of self-aspirating catalytic mufflers and computerized air/fuel monitors and alarms. Real-time carbon monoxide detectors with data-logging capabilities were placed on the burnishers in the breathing zones of operators during burnisher use. Carbon monoxide levels were recorded every 30 seconds. Ventilation and physical characteristics of the spaces of burnisher use were characterized, as were burnisher maintenance practices. Thirteen burnishing events were monitored under conditions comparable to previously published monitoring. All carbon monoxide exposures were well below even the most conservative recommended limits from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Potential failures of the emission controls were also identified and included air filter blockage, spark plug malfunction, and faulty alarm function design.

Demer, F.R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Risk Management and Safety

1998-11-01

348

Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor  

SciTech Connect

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

2012-11-13

349

Carbon monoxide-induced reduction and healing of graphene oxide Badri Narayanana)  

E-print Network

#12;LETTERS Carbon monoxide-induced reduction and healing of graphene oxide Badri Narayanana, The Netherlands and Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands Peter monoxide; the energy barriers for reduction by CO are very small and easily overcome at low temperatures

Ciobanu, Cristian

350

Resonantly enhanced vacuum-ultraviolet generation and multiphoton ionization in carbon monoxide gas  

SciTech Connect

Competition between three-photon resonantly enhanced vacuum ultraviolet third-harmonic generation and six-photon multiphoton ionization using the A state in gaseous carbon monoxide is observed. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission exhibit increasing blue shifts and broadening with increasing pressure due to the phase matching requirements. Estimates for the efficiency and tunability show that third-harmonic generation in carbon monoxide molecules is a promising source for coherent vacuum ultraviolet light.

Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.

1982-01-01

351

Effects of chemical modifications of heme on kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to free home  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of carbon monoxide recombination to six different kinds of chemically modified heme with various substituents at positions 2 and 4 have been studied in the protein-free state (free heme) by the laser flash photolysis method in a mixture of ethylene glycol and 0.02 N NaOH (80:20, v\\/v) (80% ethylene glycol). The carbon monoxide combination rate constants to the

M. Sono; J. A. McCray; T. Asakura

1977-01-01

352

Adsorption, desorption, and reactions of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide on clean polycrystalline rhodium surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption, desorption, and reactions of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide on clean polycrystalline rhodium surfaces were studied in an ultrahigh vacuum apparatus. Carbon monoxide adsorbed with near-unit sticking probability and a heat of adsorption of approx. 31 kcal\\/mole; it desorbed at about 540°K with an activation energy equal to its heat of adsorption and a frequency factor near

1979-01-01

353

Carbon monoxide sensors. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and evaluation of carbon monoxide sensors. Citations discuss chemical and electrochemical sensors, sensor response, sensor materials, and carbon monoxide measurements in flow and flame environments. Emission monitoring and identification systems, and portable emission analyzers are presented. Applications in automobile emission analysis and control, reactor control, and alarm systems are examined. (Contains a minimum of 191 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-05-01

354

Chemisorption on surfaces — an historical look at a representative adsorbate: carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the interaction of molecules with clean surfaces extends back to the work of Irving Langmuir. In this historical account, the development of selected experimental methods for the study of molecular adsorption will be discussed. This will be done by historically reviewing research on one of the most well-studied adsorbate molecules, carbon monoxide. Many of the modern surface science techniques have first been used to study chemisorbed carbon monoxide, and the CO molecule is employed even today as a test molecule for currently developing surface measurement instruments such as the low temperature STM. In addition to being a good test molecule for new surface measurement techniques, adsorbed carbon monoxide is one of the centrally important molecules in the field of heterogeneous catalysis where the production of synthetic fuels and useful organic molecules often depends on the catalytic behavior of the adsorbed CO molecule. Interestingly, the carbon monoxide molecule also serves as a bridge between surface chemistry on the transition metals and the field of organometallic chemistry. Concepts about the chemical bonding and the reactive behavior of CO chemisorbed on transition metal surfaces and CO bound in transition metal carbonyls link these two fields together in a significant manner. The carbon monoxide molecule has been the historical focal point of many endeavors in surface chemistry and surface physics, and research on adsorbed carbon monoxide well represents many of the key advances which characterize the first thirty years of the development of surface science.

Yates, John T.

1994-01-01

355

Memory one month after acute carbon monoxide intoxication: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Serious delayed neuropsychological sequelae may complicate carbon monoxide intoxication. The existence of minor manifestations, especially memory disturbances, is not well documented. Aims: To study several memory functions after carbon monoxide intoxication. Methods: In a prospective study, 32 poisoned patients without risk factors for cognitive disturbances were compared to 32 paired control subjects one month after acute carbon monoxide intoxication (blood carbon monoxide concentration at least 1.0 mmol/l), who had been treated with standard conventional therapy. Psychometric tests included Buschke's verbal memory testing, verbal digit span, Corsi's visuospatial span, reaction times, Stroop's colours decoding test, and verbal fluency test. Results: (1) Memory functions in poisoned subjects were not worse than in the control group and were even better in some areas: learning, word recall, and quality of learning by Buschke's verbal memory testing. Attention was also better in the patients, in whom visual reaction time was shorter than in controls. (2) Results of several memory functions—quality of learning and immediate visual memory—were positively correlated with the initial carbon monoxide level. Conclusions: In a highly selected subset of patients devoid of risk factors for memory impairment, memory, objectively evaluated by psychometric testing, was not worse one month after carbon monoxide intoxication in patients undergoing standard treatment than in paired control subjects. PMID:12598670

Deschamps, D; Geraud, C; Julien, H; Baud, F; Dally, S

2003-01-01

356

Microbial metabolism of carbon monoxide in culture and in soil.  

PubMed Central

Nocardia salmonicolor readily oxidized CO to CO2. Slight activity was found among species of Actinoplanes, Agromyces, Microbispora, Mycobacterium, and other nocardias, and no oxidation was detected in the algae, fungi, and other bacteria tested. Carbon monoxide was oxidized rapidly to CO2 in the dark in two soils incubated in air or under flooded conditions, but little of the 14C from 14CO was incorporated into the organic fraction of these soils. The reaction was microbial because appreciable CO was not converted to CO2 in autoclaved or gamma-irradiated soil. Heating the soil for 25 min at 70 degrees C destroyed its CO-oxidizing activity. The incorporation of 14CO2 into the cells of microorganisms in soil and soil suspension was not enhanced by incubating the samples in the presence of CO, suggesting that CO oxidation was not the result of autotrophic metabolism. The oxidation of 17 mu 1 of CO per liter in the head space was nearly complete in 6 h in soil incubated in air or anaerobically. PMID:485139

Bartholomew, G W; Alexander, M

1979-01-01

357

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

358

The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation  

PubMed Central

The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO) had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field. PMID:23295066

2013-01-01

359

Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

2013-03-01

360

Causes of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide poisonings in California.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the annual number and incidence of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in California and to identify specific factors that caused or contributed to the deaths. Unintentional CO deaths in California over a ten-year period (1979 to 1988) were identified from the database of the California Master Mortality File and coroners' investigation reports. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths were determined based on the information from the investigation reports. The annual number of unintentional CO deaths varied from 27 to 58 over the ten years examined, with an average annual death incidence of 1.7 x 10(-6). Death rates were high among males and African-Americans. Alcohol appeared to be a factor in 31% of the cases. The types of combustion sources associated with unintentional CO deaths were: heating or cooking appliances; motor vehicles; charcoal grills and hibachis; small engines; and camping equipment. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths interact in a complex way. To reduce the rate of unintentional CO deaths effectively, joint efforts involving several prevention methods are suggested. PMID:9549414

Girman, J R; Chang, Y L; Hayward, S B; Liu, K S

1998-01-01

361

Personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm. Information Circular/1989  

SciTech Connect

Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR) near the worksite that will supply breathing oxygen. In many situations, miners do not know when to do either rescuer since they do not know if there is a fire in the mine nor do they carry instrumentation necessary for the detection of the toxic, colorless, and odorless fire product CO. If each miner carried a personal CO alarm, which would respond to high concentrations of CO, the miner would then be alerted when to do either the FSR or SCSR and exit the mine. A prototype personal miner's CO alarm called PEMCOAL unit is small enough to be carried on a miner's belt, has a flash lamp visual alarm, requires no calibration for use, and uses a chemical sensor that changes color by reaction with trace quantities of CO. The chemical sensor was tested at concentrations of CO from 10 to 1,000 ppm, at temperatures from 5 to 40 C, and with several potential mine gas interferents. The PEMCOAL alarm times were sufficiently fast to warn miners before they are exposed to hazardous quantities of CO.

Chilton, J.E.; Carpenter, C.R.

1989-01-01

362

Carbon monoxide ... the silent killer with an audible solution.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for more poisoning fatalities each year than any other toxic agent. The often insidious nature of the symptom progression and its ability to imitate many common illnesses may result in the failure to diagnose a potentially fatal outcome. CO detectors equipped with an audible alarm can alert potential victims of CO poisoning before toxic sequelae develop. A study was conducted in which all calls to 911 concerning a CO detector in alarm or regarding possible CO poisoning were investigated by a paramedic crew; 101 possible CO exposures were investigated. CO detectors with audible alarms were the genesis of 59.4% of the calls. Detectable CO levels were found in 69.3% of the investigations, and 80% of the homes with detectors had verifiable CO concentrations. The mean CO concentration in homes with detectors was 18.6 ppm, compared with 96.6 ppm when no detector was available; 63.4% of the victims with no alarm were symptomatic, compared with 13.3% of victims with alarms. CO detectors with audible alarms were effective in alerting the potential victims of CO poisoning to its presence. Persons with CO detectors were less likely to become symptomatic from a CO exposure than those who did not have CO detectors. PMID:8765117

Krenzelok, E P; Roth, R; Full, R

1996-09-01

363

Residential carbon monoxide alarm use: opportunities for poisoning prevention.  

PubMed

Prevalence of carbon monoxide (CO) alarm usage in localities where they are not required is poorly defined and the reasons for failing to have a home CO alarm have never been described. In this study, the authors conducted a computer-based survey among employees of similar major medical centers in Seattle, Washington, and Salt Lake City, Utah. Questions were asked about the prevalence of use of residential smoke and CO alarms with regard to home style and structure, ownership status, and energy use. Respondents not using home CO detectors were asked the reasons. Among 1,351 individuals participating in the survey, 98% reported residential use of smoke alarms, while only 51% used CO alarms. CO alarm use was more common among residents of Utah than Washington, among home owners than renters, and among those with single family homes rather than other styles. Reasons for failure to use CO alarms related largely to lack of knowledge about the devices and motivation. PMID:21306092

Hampson, Neil B; Weaver, Lindell K

2011-01-01

364

Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

Mcdonald, Glen E

1954-01-01

365

Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

2015-02-01

366

Multilayer Adsorption of Neon, Hydrogens, and Carbon Monoxide on Graphite.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multilayer adsorption of neon, hydrogens (H _2, HD, and D_2), and carbon monoxide on graphite have been investigated using ellipsometric-coverage vapor-pressure isotherm measurements. Chemical potentials at layer condensations and widths of the layer condensation steps were tabulated, and layer critical points were determined from the temperature dependence of the widths for all five adsorbates. In Ne we do not find evidence for reentrant first -order layering, which was previously found in Ar, Kr, and Xe. The adsorption behavior on graphite of H_2, HD, and D_2 is very similar. We observed temperature-dependent splitting and hysteresis in the fourth, fifth, and sixth layers in all three adsorbates. This may suggest structure changes, possibly between face-centered cubic and hexagonal closed-packed stacking, in these layers. In CO, below the bulk alpha- beta transition temperature, we have seen incomplete wetting with a series of layer-appearance transitions from the third to the tenth layer. Above the alpha-beta transition temperature, the thickness of the film remains around 11 layers. We observed reentrant first-order layering in the condensation of the fourth layer in CO. But the broadening feature is much weaker compared to Ar, Kr, and Xe, and is not observed at all in the higher layers.

Wu, Hong

1995-11-01

367

Carbon monoxide: an emerging regulator of ion channels  

PubMed Central

Abstract Carbon monoxide is rapidly emerging as an important cellular messenger, regulating a wide range of physiological processes. Crucial to its role in both physiology and disease is its ability differentially to regulate several classes of ion channels, including examples from calcium-activated K+ (BKCa), voltage-activated K+ (Kv) and Ca2+ channel (L-type) families, ligand-gated P2X receptors (P2X2 and P2X4), tandem P domain K+ channels (TREK1) and the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). The mechanisms by which CO regulates these ion channels are still unclear and remain somewhat controversial. However, available structure–function studies suggest that a limited range of amino acid residues confer CO sensitivity, either directly or indirectly, to particular ion channels and that cellular redox state appears to be important to the final integrated response. Whatever the molecular mechanism by which CO regulates ion channels, endogenous production of this gasotransmitter has physiologically important roles and is currently being explored as a potential therapeutic. PMID:21521759

Wilkinson, William J; Kemp, Paul J

2011-01-01

368

Fire fighters' exposure to carbon monoxide during Australian bushfires.  

PubMed

Fatal entrapments of Australian bushfire fighters have led to suggestions that carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning could have contributed to these accidents by impairing the fire fighters' judgement. Carboxyhemoglobin saturation (COHb%) levels were assessed from alveolar CO levels in 24 fire fighters working with handtools and in 12 accompanying scientific observers, before and after fire fighting (duration 37-187 min) on 15 experimental bushfires. Carboxyhemoglobin levels increased on average by 0.7% per hour in the fire fighters and by 0.3% per hour in the observers. Nonsmoking fire fighters had lower COHb% after fires than the smokers had before fires. Estimates of environmental CO concentrations (including cigarette smoke) during the fires averaged 31 parts per million (ppm) for the smokers, 17 ppm for the nonsmoking crew members, and 11 ppm for the observers, none of whom smoked. The highest estimates of environmental CO arising solely from bushfire smoke were 40 to 50 ppm. Smokers were exposed to as much CO from their cigarettes as from bushfire smoke. Carboxyhemoglobin levels at the end of 8-hr fire fighting shifts, predicted from these levels of environmental CO, averaged about 5% (maximum 11%) in smokers and about 3% (maximum 7%) in nonsmokers. Acute levels of COHb% of this degree are not considered to have significant effects on health or performance. These results indicate that bushfire fighters are generally unlikely to experience hazardous levels of CO exposure. PMID:2327333

Brotherhood, J R; Budd, G M; Jeffery, S E; Hendrie, A L; Beasley, F A; Costin, B P; Wu, Z E

1990-04-01

369

Rates of carbon monoxide elimination in males and females  

PubMed Central

Abstract The purpose of this study was to verify the previously reported shorter half?time of elimination (t½) of carbon monoxide (CO) in females compared to males. Seventeen healthy subjects (nine men) completed three sessions each, on separate days. For each session, subjects were exposed to CO to raise the carboxyhemoglobin percentage (COHb) to ~10%; then breathed in random order, either (a) 100% O2 at poikilocapnia (no CO2 added), or (b) hyperoxia while maintaining normocapnia using sequential gas delivery, or (c) voluntary hyperpnea at~4x the resting minute ventilation. We measured minute ventilation, hemoglobin concentration [Hb] and COHb at 5 min intervals. The half?time of reduction of COHb (t½) was calculated from serial blood samples. The total hemoglobin mass (HbTOT) was calculated from [Hb] and estimated blood volume from a nomogram based on gender, height, and weight. The t½ in the females was consistently shorter than in males in all protocols. This relationship was sustained even after controlling for alveolar ventilation (P <0.05), with the largest differences in t½ between the genders occurring at low alveolar ventilation rates. However, when t½ was further normalized for HbTOT, there was no significant difference in t½ between genders at alveolar ventilation rates between 4 and 40 L/min (P =0.24). We conclude that alveolar ventilation and HbTOT are sufficient to account for a major difference in CO clearance between genders under resting (nonexercising) conditions. PMID:25501428

Zavorsky, Gerald S.; Tesler, Janet; Rucker, Joshua; Fedorko, Ludwik; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

370

Carbon monoxide poisoning in the 21st century  

PubMed Central

The world has experienced some very large shifts in the epidemiology of carbon monoxide poisoning, but it remains one of the most important toxicological global causes of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis can be quickly confirmed with blood gases (pulse oximeters lack both sensitivity and specificity). Several strong predictors for serious neurological sequelae (prolonged loss of consciousness and elevated S100B) and reduced life expectancy (elevated troponin) are now reasonably well established. Despite this clearly defined high-risk group and extensive research into the pathophysiology, there has been little translation into better treatment. Much of the pathophysiological research has focused on hyperbaric oxygen. Yet it is apparent that clinical trials show little evidence for benefit from hyperbaric oxygen, and the most recent even raises the possibility of harm for repeated courses. More logical and promising potential antidotes have been under-researched, although recently both animal and small human studies suggest that erythropoietin may reduce S100B and prevent neurological sequelae. Major breakthroughs are likely to require further research on this and other treatments that may inhibit post-hypoxic inflammatory responses and apoptosis.

2014-01-01

371

Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July - August 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) were measured in the 0.15- to 6-km portion of the troposphere over subarctic and boreal landscapes of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July - August 1990. In the mid-continent region, Arctic air entering the region was characterized by relatively uniform CO concentrations (86-108 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)) and CH4 concentrations (1729-1764 ppbv). Local biomass burning and long-range transport of CO into the area from industrial/urban sources and distant fires did frequently produce enhanced and variable concentrations. Emissions of CH4 from the Hudson Bay lowlands was the primary source for enhanced and variable concentrations, especially at altitudes of 0.15-1 km. In eastern Canada, most of the observed variability in CO and CH4 was similar in origin to the phenomena described for the midcontinent region. However, unexpectedly low concentrations of CO (51 ppbv) and CH4 (1688 ppbv) were measured in the midtroposphere on several flights. Combined meteorological and chemical data indicated that the low CO-CH4 events were the result of long-range transport of tropical Pacific marine air to subarctic latitudes.

Harriss, R. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K. B.; Talbot, R. W.; Browell, E. V.; Barrie, L. A.; Hill, G. F.; Burney, L. G.

1994-01-01

372

Inhibition of trichloroethylene oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide.  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of trichloroethylene (TCE) oxidation by the transformation intermediate carbon monoxide (CO) was evaluated with the aquifer methanotroph Methylomonas sp. strain MM2. CO was a TCE transformation intermediate. During TCE oxidation, approximately 9 mol% of the TCE was transformed to CO. CO was oxidized by Methylomonas sp. strain MM2, and when formate was provided as an electron donor, the CO oxidation rate doubled. The rate of CO oxidation without formate was 4.6 liter mg (dry weight)-1 day-1, and the rate with formate was 10.2 liter mg (dry weight)-1 day-1. CO inhibited TCE oxidation, both by exerting a demand for reductant and through competitive inhibition. The Ki for CO inhibition of TCE oxidation, 4.2 microM, was much less than the Ki for methane inhibition of TCE oxidation, 116 microM. CO also inhibited methane oxidation, and the degree of inhibition increased with increasing CO concentration. When CO was present, formate amendment was necessary for methane oxidation to occur and both substrates were simultaneously oxidized. CO at a concentration greater than that used in the inhibition studies was not toxic to Methylomonas sp. strain MM2. PMID:1908211

Henry, S M; Grbi?-Gali?, D

1991-01-01

373

40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested...the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon...

2013-07-01

374

40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested...the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon...

2014-07-01

375

40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested...the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon...

2011-07-01

376

40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested...the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon...

2012-07-01

377

40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested...the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon...

2010-07-01

378

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon...a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative...control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation Plan, Carbon...

2010-07-01

379

Removal of carbon monoxide from hydrogen-rich fuels by selective oxidation over platinum catalyst supported on zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special catalysts — Pt supported zeolites — for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in reformed fuels from methanol or natural gas were proposed. They can be applied for the application to polymer electrolyte fuel membrane cells of which anode Pt catalysts suffer serious poisoning by the presence of trace carbon monoxide. The proposed Pt-supported zeolite catalysts can oxidize carbon

Hiroshi Igarashi; Hiroyuki Uchida; Miki Suzuki; Yuko Sasaki; Masahiro Watanabe

1997-01-01

380

Monitoring ambient air quality with carbon monoxide sensor-based wireless network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a poisonous air pollutant produced from the incomplete oxidation of carbon during the combustion process. It has a direct effect on the human body due to its affinity for blood hemoglobin, which inhibits the absorption of oxygen to the blood. The formation of carboxyhemoglobin complex can profoundly affect human health both on an acute and

Demin Wang; Dharma P. Agrawal; Wassana Toruksa; Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn; Mingming Lu; Tim C. Keener

2010-01-01

381

New clean fuel from coal -- Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Dimethyl ether (DME), which has similar physical properties to propane and is easily liquefied at low pressure, has a significant possibility as a clean and non-toxic fuel from coal or coal bed methane. Equilibrium calculation also shows a big advantage of high carbon monoxide conversion of DME synthesis compared to methanol synthesis. By using a 50 kg/day DME bench scale test plant, direct synthesis of DME from hydrogen and carbon monoxide has been studied with newly developed catalysts which are very fine particles. This test plant features a high pressure three-phase slurry reactor and low temperature DME separator. DME is synthesized at temperatures around 533--553 K and at pressures around 3--5 MPa. According to the reaction stoichiometry, the same amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide react to DME and carbon dioxide. Carbon conversion to DME is one third and the rest of carbon is converted to carbon dioxide. As a result of the experiments, make-up CO conversion is 35--50% on an once-through basis, which is extremely high compared to that of methanol synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. DME selectivity is around 60 c-mol %. Most of the by-product is CO{sub 2} with a small amount of methanol and water. No heavy by-products have been recognized. Effluent from the reactor is finally cooled to 233--253 K in a DME separator and liquid DME is recovered as a product.

Ogawa, T.; Ono, M.; Mizuguchi, M.; Tomura, K.; Shikada, T.; Ohono, Y. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1997-12-31

382

A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane  

PubMed Central

Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

2014-01-01

383

Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

2009-01-01

384

A fire department community health intervention to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning following a hurricane.  

PubMed

Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

2014-01-01

385

Antimicrobial action of carbon monoxide-releasing compounds.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is endogenously produced in the human body, mainly from the oxidation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. The induction of HO and the consequent increase in CO production play important physiological roles in vasorelaxation and neurotransmission and in the immune system. The exogenous administration of CO gas and CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has been shown to induce vascular effects and to alleviate hypoxia-reoxygenation injury of mammalian cells. In particular, due to its anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antiproliferative properties, CO inhibits ischemic-reperfusion injury and provides potent cytoprotective effects during organ and cell transplantation. In spite of these findings regarding the physiology and biology of mammals, nothing is known about the action of CO on bacteria. In the present work, we examined the effect of CO on bacterial cell proliferation. Cell growth experiments showed that CO caused the rapid death of the two pathogenic bacteria tested, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, particularly when delivered through organometallic CO-RMs. Of importance is the observation that the effectiveness of the CO-RMs was greater in near-anaerobic environments, as many pathogens are anaerobic organisms and pathogen colonization occurs in environments with low oxygen concentrations. Our results constitute the first evidence that CO can be utilized as an antimicrobial agent. We anticipate our results to be the starting point for the development of novel types of therapeutic drugs designed to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens, which are widespread and presently a major public health concern. PMID:17923486

Nobre, Lígia S; Seixas, João D; Romão, Carlos C; Saraiva, Lígia M

2007-12-01

386

Carbon monoxide from composting due to thermal oxidation of biomass.  

PubMed

Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) were observed from decomposing organic wastes and litter under laboratory, pilot composting plant, and natural conditions. Field studies included air from inside a compost heap of about 200 m3, emissions from composting of livestock wastes at a biologically operating farm, and leaf litter pile air samples. The concentration of CO was up to 120 micromol mol(-1) in the compost piles of green waste, and up to 10 micromol mol(-1) in flux chambers above livestock waste windrow composts. The mean CO flux rates were approximately 20 mg CO m(-2) h(-1) for compost heaps of green waste, and varied from 30 to 100 mg CO m(-2) h(-1) for fresh dung windrows. Laboratory studies using a temperature and ventilation-controlled substrate container were performed to elucidate the origin of CO, and included hay samples of fixed moisture content at temperatures between 5 and 65 degrees C, including nonsterilized as well as sterilized samples. The concentration of CO was up to 160 micromol mol(-1) in these experiments, and Arrhenius-type plot analyses resulted in activation energies of 65 kJ mol(-1) for thermochemically produced CO from the nonsterilized compost substrate. Sterilized samples showed dramatically reduced CO2 but virtually unchanged CO emissions, albeit at a slightly lower activation energy, likely a result of the high-temperature sterilization. Though globally and regionally these CO emissions are only a minor source, thermochemically produced CO emissions might affect local air quality in and near composting facilities. PMID:18396545

Hellebrand, H J; Schade, G W

2008-01-01

387

MOPITT Multispectral Retrievals of Carbon Monoxide: Validation and Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new MOPITT Version 5 product is the first satellite product for carbon monoxide (CO) to exploit multispectral observations. Together, near-infrared (NIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) observations permit the retrieval of CO concentrations in the lower troposphere, near the actual sources. However, while this feature is potentially valuable for applications including chemical weather forecasting and inverse modeling, the retrieval characteristics of the new multispectral product (e.g., the retrieval averaging kernels) are highly variable. The underlying causes of this variability include thermal contrast and geophysical noise. Validating the new V5 product is challenging for several reasons. Compared to the TIR-only MOPITT product, random retrieval errors in the multispectral product are substantially larger. To compensate, stronger temporal and spatial averaging may be necessary. However, the temporal and spatial variability of CO in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are much greater than in the free troposphere. Consequently, in-situ CO measurements made in the PBL may be poorly correlated with CO concentrations averaged over areas representative of MOPITT pixels (~ 22 km). Errors from this effect are only compounded as multiple MOPITT pixels are averaged together, particularly if there are significant regional sources. Previous MOPITT validation efforts have relied mainly on in-situ profiles measured from aircraft. While these are valuable, we are also exploring new sources of validation data. For example, we have begun comparing MOPITT retrieval results with CO in-situ measurements from the NOAA 'Tall Tower' network. Instruments on these towers measure CO concentrations at high temporal frequency and at multiple fixed altitudes within the PBL.

Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.

2011-12-01

388

Carbon monoxide induces chromatin remodelling to facilitate endothelial cell migration.  

PubMed

Vascular injury to vessel endothelial cells (EC), caused by either mechanical damage or chronic inflammation, is still awaiting effective therapies. In the present study we hypothesised that carbon monoxide (CO) acts on the nuclear receptor Rev-erb? to induce chromatin modification and endothelial cell migration. We demonstrate that administration of low, safe doses of exogenous CO enhances endothelial cell (EC) migration, which occurs in part through chromatin remodelling and histone H3 acetylation. Further, we show that the effects of CO are dependent on inhibition of phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 ? (GSK3?), activation of haem synthesis, and increased expression of Rev-erb?. Rev-erb? is a haem-containing transcription factor which in response to CO binds to target DNA, recruits the Histone Deacetylase/nuclear Receptor Corepressor (HDAC/N-CoR) complex, and regulates transcription of genes responsible for endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Decreased levels of Rev-erb? in chimeric mice after bone marrow transplant from Rev-erb? following bone marrow transplantation from rev-erb+/- mice resulted in loss of protective effects of CO against neointima formation after wire injury. Collectively, CO modifies chromatin structure through enhanced acetylation of histone H3 via a GSK3?-Rev-erb?-mediated pathway to increase EC migration. We propose that CO enhances vessel repair following injury in part by regulating EPC/EC motility via Rev-erb?. Thus, inhaled CO may be beneficial in the treatment of vascular syndromes associated with dysregulated thrombosis, wound healing, and angiogenesis. PMID:24477332

Li, Mailin; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Otterbein, Leo E; Wegiel, Barbara

2014-05-01

389

Carbon monoxide over Indian region as observed by MOPITT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive study has been carried out on tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) over the Indian land mass and surrounding oceanic region using the CO retrievals from MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) for a period of ?14 years (2000-2014). The lower-tropospheric CO maximises during winter and shows a broad minimum during summer-monsoon over most of the regions, but with regionally varying seasonal amplitudes. Tropospheric column CO also exhibits a seasonal pattern similar to lower-tropospheric CO. But the upper-tropospheric CO shows an opposite seasonal pattern which peaks during summer monsoon. Columnar CO showed strong positive correlation with fire counts over west, east and north-east India, indicating the dominant role of biomass burning in controlling the seasonal variation of CO. The lower-tropospheric and columnar CO showed decreasing trend of 2.0-3.4 ppb year-1 (1.1-2.0% year-1) and 6.0-13.6 × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1 (0.3-0.6% year-1) respectively over most of the regions. However, over many land regions trend in columnar CO is not significant. Most strikingly, the upper tropospheric CO showed increasing trend of 1.4-2.4 ppb year-1 (1.8-3.2% year-1). The analysis of biases in the estimated trends due to temporal changes in the MOPITT averaging kernels shows that magnitude of the realistic trend may change depending upon the bias but the sign (positive or negative) of trend remains the same. The decreasing trend in lower tropospheric and columnar CO could be attributed partly to increase in lower tropospheric water vapour and/or tropospheric ozone. The strengthening of convective activity, uplifting the CO to higher altitudes, could be a reason for increasing trend in the upper-tropospheric CO.

Girach, I. A.; Nair, Prabha R.

2014-12-01

390

Carbon Monoxide Activates Autophagy via Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Formation  

PubMed Central

Autophagy, an autodigestive process that degrades cellular organelles and protein, plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis during environmental stress. Carbon monoxide (CO), a toxic gas and candidate therapeutic molecule, confers cytoprotection in animal models of acute lung injury. The mechanisms underlying CO-dependent lung cell protection and the role of autophagy in this process remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that CO exposure time-dependently increased the expression and activation of the autophagic protein, microtubule-associated protein–1 light chain-3B (LC3B) in mouse lung, and in cultured human alveolar (A549) or human bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, CO increased autophagosome formation in epithelial cells by electron microscopy and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 puncta assays. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the activation of autophagy. CO up-regulated mitochondria-dependent generation of ROS in epithelial cells, as assayed by MitoSOX fluorescence. Furthermore, CO-dependent induction of LC3B expression was inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and the mitochondria-targeting antioxidant, Mito-TEMPO. These data suggest that CO promotes the autophagic process through mitochondrial ROS generation. We investigated the relationships between autophagic proteins and CO-dependent cytoprotection using a model of hyperoxic stress. CO protected against hyperoxia-induced cell death, and inhibited hyperoxia-associated ROS production. The ability of CO to protect against hyperoxia-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation was compromised in epithelial cells infected with LC3B-small interfering (si)RNA, indicating a role for autophagic proteins. These studies uncover a new mechanism for the protective action of CO, in support of potential therapeutic application of this gas. PMID:21441382

Lee, Seon-Jin; Ryter, Stefan W.; Xu, Jin-Fu; Nakahira, Kiichi; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Young Sam

2011-01-01

391

Predictors for delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Background In Japan, many carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning cases are transported to emergency settings, making treatment and prognostic assessment an urgent task. However, there is currently no reliable means to predict whether “delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS)” will develop after acute CO poisoning. This study is intended to find out risk factors for the development of DNS and to characterize the clinical course following the development of DNS in acute CO poisoning cases. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 79 consecutive patients treated at a single institution for CO poisoning. This study included 79 cases of acute CO poisoning admitted to our emergency department after attempted suicide, who were divided into two groups consisting of 13 cases who developed DNS and 66 cases who did not. The two groups were compared and analyzed in terms of clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, etc. Results Predictors for the development of DNS following acute CO poisoning included: serious consciousness disturbance at emergency admission; head CT findings indicating hypoxic encephalopathy; hematology findings including high creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase levels; and low Global Assessment Scale scores. The clinical course of the DNS-developing cases was characterized by prolonged hospital stay and a larger number of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy sessions. Conclusion In patients with the characteristics identified in this study, administration of HBO therapy should be proactively considered after informing their family, at initial stage, of the risk of developing DNS, and at least 5 weeks’ follow-up to watch for the development of DNS is considered necessary. PMID:24484081

2014-01-01

392

Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

2013-12-01

393

CROSS-CORRELATIONS AS A COSMOLOGICAL CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR  

SciTech Connect

We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of large-scale structure (LSS), the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other LSS tracers offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. We propose a novel use of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data set. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 6 and 7, respectively. We are unable to detect a cross-correlation signal with either CO(1-0) or CO(2-1) lines, mainly due to the instrumental noise in the WMAP data. However, we are able to rule out models more than three times greater than our more optimistic model. We discuss the cross-correlation signal from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and dust as potential contaminants, and quantify their impact for our CO measurements. We discuss forecasts for current CMB experiments and a hypothetical future CO-focused experiment, and propose to cross-correlate CO temperature data with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Ly{alpha}-emitter sample, for which a signal-to-noise ratio of 58 is possible.

Pullen, Anthony R.; Dore, Olivier [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-237, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Chang, Tzu-Ching [IAA, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lidz, Adam, E-mail: anthony.r.pullen@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

2013-05-01

394

Carbon deposition on nickel cermet anodes of solid oxide fuel cells operating on carbon monoxide fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon deposition characteristics of CO/CO2 fuel on an anode support button cell are investigated. The anodic carbon deposition degree increases with the discharging time, the operation temperature and the CO mole fraction in anode gas. The deposited carbon on the anode cross-sections is characterized by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a Raman spectrometer to analyze the differences and similarities of CO and CH4 deposited carbon microstructure. The carbon is mainly deposited on the Ni surface for CO while the deposited carbon consists of carbon on the Ni surface and carbonyl group Cdbnd O for CH4. Not similar to CH4, there is no obvious disordered carbon peak in the CO deposited carbon Raman spectra. The CO deposited carbon is mainly in regular crystal graphitic carbon structure and rarely in amorphous carbon structure.

Li, Chen; Shi, Yixiang; Cai, Ningsheng

2013-03-01

395

A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

Apte, M.G.

1997-09-01

396

Risk and Protective Factors for Fires, Burns, and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in U.S. Households  

PubMed Central

Background More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households. Methods A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population. Results Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device. Conclusions Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed. PMID:15626564

Runyan, Carol W.; Johnson, Renee M.; Yang, Jingzhen; Waller, Anna E.; Perkis, David; Marshall, Stephen W.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; McGee, Kara S.

2011-01-01

397

Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias. Research report, Jul 85-Jan 89  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction. The combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation in 60 percent of the animals. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as susceptible; dogs that survive the test without fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk and are defined as 'resistant.' The effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, the reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. The worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, the observation that carbon monoxide exposure increases heart rate at rest and during moderate exercise may have clinical implications relevant to patients with coronary artery disease.

Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.

1990-01-01

398

Carbon monoxide tolerant platinum electrocatalysts on niobium doped titania and carbon nanotube composite supports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the anode of electrochemical cells operating at low temperature, the hydrogen oxidation reaction is susceptible to poisoning from carbon monoxide (CO) which strongly adsorbs on platinum (Pt) catalysts and increases activation overpotential. Adsorbed CO is removed by oxidative processes such as electrochemical stripping, though cleaning can also cause corrosion. One approach to improve the tolerance of Pt is through alloying with less-noble metals, but the durability of alloyed electrocatalysts is a critical concern. Without sacrificing stability, tolerance can be improved by careful design of the support composition using metal oxides. The bifunctional mechanism is promoted at junctions of the catalyst and metal oxides used in the support. Stable metal oxides can also form strong interactions with catalysts, as is the case for platinum on titania (TiOx). In this study, niobium (Nb) serves as an electron donor dopant in titania. The transition metal oxides are joined to functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) supports in order to synthesize composite supports. Pt is then deposited to form electrocatalysts which are characterized before fabrication into anodes for tests as an electrochemical hydrogen pump. Comparisons are made between the control from Pt-CNT to Pt-TiOx-CNT and Pt-Ti0.9Nb0.1Ox-CNT in order to demonstrate advantages.

Rigdon, William A.; Huang, Xinyu

2014-12-01

399

Carbon monoxide-induced suspended animation protects against hypoxic damage in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Oxygen deprivation is a major cause of cellular damage and death. Here we demonstrate that Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, which can survive both in anoxia (<0.001 kPa O2) by entering into suspended animation and in mild hypoxia (0.25-1 kPa O2) through a hypoxia-inducible factor 1-mediated response, cannot survive in intermediate concentrations of oxygen, between 0.01 and 0.1 kPa O2. Moreover, we show that carbon monoxide can protect C. elegans embryos against hypoxic damage in this sensitive range. Carbon monoxide can also rescue the hypoxia-sensitive mutant hif-1(ia04) from lethality in hypoxia. This work defines the oxygen tensions over which hypoxic damage occurs in C. elegans embryos and demonstrates that carbon monoxide can prevent this damage by inducing suspended animation. PMID:15184665

Nystul, Todd G.; Roth, Mark B.

2004-01-01

400

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

DOEpatents

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

1996-05-28

401

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

DOEpatents

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

1996-01-01

402

[Carboxyhemoglobin concentration in carbon monoxide poisoning. Critical appraisal of the predictive value].  

PubMed

In cases of unclear depression of conciousness, arrhythmia and symptoms of cardiac insufficiency inadvertent carbon monoxide intoxication should always be taken into consideration. Rapid diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide intoxication with mostly unspecific symptoms requires an immediate supply of high dose oxygen which enables a distinct reduction of mortality and long-term morbidity. Levels of carboxyhemoglobin, however, should not be used as a parameter to decide whether to supply normobaric or the more efficient hyperbaric oxygen. There is no sufficient coherence between carboxyhemoglobin blood levels and clinical symptoms. Increased carboxyhemoglobin concentrations help to diagnose acute carbon monoxide intoxication but do not allow conclusions to be drawn about possible long-term neuropsychiatric or cardiac consequences. PMID:20442979

Köthe, L; Radke, J

2010-06-01

403

Effects of carbon monoxide on isolated heart muscle cells. Research report, March 1989-February 1992  

SciTech Connect

By sequestering intracellular myoglobin of cardiac muscle cells in the nonfunctioning carboxymyoglobin form, carbon monoxide blocks myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen, as well as myoglobin-mediated oxidative phosphorylation. The authors explored the hypothesis that the carbon monoxide blockade of myoglobin function may be responsible at the cellular level for a component of the cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide observed during exercise. At physiological oxygen pressures no greater than 5 torr, after sequestration of approximately 50% of the myoglobin, steady-state oxygen uptake decreased significantly less than the respiration of cell groups for which the fraction of carboxymyoglobin was 0% to 40%. When respiration is diminished, the rate of oxidative phosphorylation also decreases. Thus, they concluded that sequestering intracellular myoglobin as carboxymyoglobin significantly decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation of isolated cardiac myocytes. They estimate that intracellular myoglobin-dependent oxidative phosphorylation will be inhibited when approximately 20% to 40% of the arterial hemoglobin in the whole animal is carboxyhemoglobin.

Wittenberg, B.A.; Wittenberg, J.B.

1993-01-01

404

Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisonings continue to be significant and preventable for a number of work operations. This study assesses occupational carbon monoxide morbidity and mortality for the state of Washington based on a review of workers' compensation records for the years 1994-1999. The study characterizes sources, industries, and causative factors, and further attempts to identify work operations most at risk. Records were identified by both injury source and diagnostic codes. The study limits itself to non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisonings and primarily those from acute exposure. A decline in the number of claims was not evident, but the number of incidents per year showed a slight decline. Carbon monoxide poisonings were found to occur throughout all types of industries. The greatest number of claims was found in agriculture, followed by construction and wholesale trade, with these three accounting for more than half the claims and nearly half of the incidents. The more severe poisonings did not necessarily occur in industries with the greatest number of incidents. The major source for carbon monoxide poisoning was forklift trucks, followed by auto/truck/bus, portable saws, and more than 20 other sources. Fruit packing and storage had the highest number of incidents mostly due to fuel-powered forklift activity, with nearly half of the incidents occurring in cold rooms. Adverse health effects as measured by carboxyhemoglobin, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, unconsciousness, and number and cost of claims were indexed by source. Though several specific work operations were identified, the episodic nature of carbon monoxide poisonings, as well as the diverse industries and sources, and the opportunity for a severe poisoning in any number of operations, poses challenges for effective intervention. PMID:11942672

Lofgren, Don J

2002-04-01

405

Variability of the magnetic moment of carbon monoxide hemoglobin from carp.  

PubMed Central

Deionized carp carbon monoxide hemoglobin in distilled water or in bis(2-hydroxyethyl)imino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane or Tris buffer exhibits a slight but significant paramagnetism. This is most clearly demonstrated by the decrease in this paramagnetism that is caused by the addition of inositol hexaphosphate to this protein in the former buffer at pH 6.3-6.4. No such effect is seen when inositol hexaphosphate is added to carp cyanomethemoglobin, demonstrating that the change observed with carbon monoxide derivative is not due to a modification in the diamagnetic properties of the protein. PMID:6929497

Cerdonio, M; Morante, S; Vitale, S; De Young, A; Noble, R W

1980-01-01

406

Carbon monoxide chemisorption on Cu 3Au(100) and related surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemisorption of carbon monoxide on Cu 3Au(100) was investigated using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The saturation coverage at 100 K was found to be 0.3 monolayer, about half that attained on Cu(100). Desorption spectra indicate that the surface appears homogeneous with a CO-surface bond strength which is less (by about 25%) than that for Cu(100) but greater than that for Au(100). Virtually identical behavior was also found for chemisorption of carbon monoxide on an analogous ordered Cu-Au surface corresponding to one described by Palmberg 0 and Rhodin as Cu(100)-c(2×2)Au.

Graham, G. W.

1987-09-01

407

Occupational carbon monoxide violations in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide continues to cause a number of injuries and deaths. This study reviewed the State of Washington OSHA inspection records for occupational safety or health violations related to carbon monoxide for the time period 1994-1999 to assess the agency's efforts and further identify and characterize causative factors. Inspection data were also compared with carbon monoxide claims data from a companion study to determine if the agency was visiting the most at risk work operations. Inspections were identified by searching computerized violation texts for "carbon monoxide" or "CO." The study found 142 inspections with one or more carbon monoxide violations. Inspections were spread over 84 different 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes. Most inspections were initiated as a result of a complaint or other informant. Inspections were predominantly in construction and manufacturing, whereas carbon monoxide claims were mores evenly distributed between the major industries. Inspections also may have failed to find violations for some types of equipment responsible for carbon monoxide claims. Forklifts were the source of carbon monoxide most often associated with a violation, followed by compressors for respirators, auto/truck/bus, and temporary heating devices. Inspections in response to poisonings found common factors associated with lack of recognition and failure to use or maintain equipment and ventilation. Some work sites with one or more poisonings were not being inspected. Only 10 of the 51 incidents with industrial insurance claim reports of carboxyhemoglobin at or above 20 percent were inspected. Further, it was found more preventive efforts should be targeted at cold storage operations and certain warehouse and construction activities. It is proposed that more specific standards, both consensus and regulatory, would provide additional risk reduction. Reliance upon safe work practices as a primary method of control in the use of fuel-powered equipment in cold storage or other enclosed and unventilated environments needs to be prohibited. The study further demonstrates how inspection and industrial insurance records can assist with preventive efforts and better focus an agency's efforts. PMID:12083171

Lofgren, Don J

2002-07-01

408

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the

Ayusman Sen; Zhaozhong Jiang

1996-01-01

409

Measuring carbon monoxide gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred tank reactor for syngas fermentation.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide-liquid mass transfer rates in a water-filled stirred tank reactor are determined using a myoglobin protein method to measure dissolved carbon monoxide concentrations as a function of time. Data are acquired over a range of stirrer speeds (200 < or = N < or = 600 rpm) and gas flow rates (1 < or = Q < or = 6 L/min), corresponding to a gas retention time range of 1.2-7 min. Volumetric CO-water mass transfer coefficients range from 0.003 to 0.043 s(-1) and are well-correlated using the power density and the superficial gas velocity. PMID:16739978

Riggs, Seth S; Heindel, Theodore J

2006-01-01

410

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Pregnancy: Presentation of a Rare Severe Case with Fetal Bladder Complications  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy is a rare and potentially serious condition. Fetal complications are uncommon, related to anoxic lesions. The severity of these complications does not depend on the level of maternal COHb. We report the case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman who at 30 weeks of gestation had carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to a fire in her home, complicated by cardiac arrest and severe fetal damage. The child had not brain damage, but presented bladder lesions not previously described, with urinary ascites complicating megacystis.

Delomenie, Myriam; Schneider, Floriane; Beaudet, Joëlle; Gabriel, René; Bednarek, Nathalie; Graesslin, Olivier

2015-01-01

411

A CONTINUOUSLY RECORDING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING SYSTEM WITH FULLY AUTOMATIC ALARMS IN A BLAST FURNACE AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuously recording carbon monoxide monitoring system with fully automatic alarms is described for use in blast furnace areas. The equipment comprised the Mines Safety Appliances Model 200 infra-red analyser, pumping system, recorder, extension meter, and alarm unit.Use of the apparatus showed that concentrations of carbon monoxide in the blast furnace area studied were mostly in the range of 0

G. M. Davies; J. Graham Jones; C. G. Warner

1965-01-01

412

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

SciTech Connect

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M. [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); and others

1994-09-01

413

Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the Sgr A complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the +50 km s-1 cloud (M-0.02-0.07), the circumnuclear disk (CND) and the +20 km s-1 (M-0.13-0.08) cloud in the Sgr A complex with the VLA, Odin and SEST. Strong OH absorption, H2O emission and absorption lines were seen at all three positions. Strong C18O emissions were seen towards the +50 and +20 km s-1 clouds. The CND is rich in H2O and OH, and these abundances are considerably higher than in the surrounding clouds, indicating that shocks, star formation and clump collisions prevail in those objects. A comparison with the literature reveals that it is likely that PDR chemistry including grain surface reactions, and perhaps also the influences of shocks has led to the observed abundances of the observed molecular species studied here. In the redward high-velocity line wings of both the +50 and +20 km s-1 clouds and the CND, the very high H2O abundances are suggested to be caused by the combined action of shock desorption from icy grain mantles and high-temperature, gas-phase shock chemistry. Only three of the molecules are briefly discussed here. For OH and H2O three of the nine observed positions are shown, while a map of the C18O emission is provided. An extensive paper was recently published with Open Access (Karlsson et al. 2013, A&A 554, A141).

Karlsson, R.; Sandqvist, Aa.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Winnberg, A.; Fathi, K.; Frisk, U.; Olberg, M.

2014-05-01

414

The origin of carbon monoxide in Neptunes's atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CO abundance in the observable atmosphere of Neptune can be plausibly explained by rapid vertical mixing from the deeper atmosphere if Neptune has a greater complement of water than Uranus. Thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations reveal that Neptune must and Uranus may have about 10 times more oxygen than carbon, whereas for Jupiter and Saturn equal enrichments of carbon and oxygen are satifactory to explain the observed CO abundances by deep vertical mixing. Relative to hydrogen and solar composition, the respective enrichment factors for carbon and oxygen are 41, 440 (Neptune); 32, less than or equal 260 (Uranus); 6.6, 6.6 (Saturn); and 2.8, 2.8 (Jupiter). Because water ice is the most refractory ice among the ices assumed to be present in the outer solar nebula, the most massive H2O enrichment is expected for the outermost planet of this group. Thus, Neptune can indeed be regarded as the 'god of the seas.'

Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

1994-01-01

415

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

416

Effects of Grades and Other Loads on On-Road Emissions of Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was developed to assess driving patterns that promote high emissions episodes, also known as emission excursions, particularly while driving on roads with grade. An instrumented vehicle was equipped to record driving conditions such as speed and grade, as well as measure emission rates of total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Controlled runs with predetermined cruise speeds between 35 and

Pablo Cicero-Fernândez; Jeffrey R. Long; Arthur M. Winer

1997-01-01

417

Reaction engineering for materials processing in space: Reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen and carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen is a consumable material which needs to be produced continuously in most space missions. Its use for propulsion as well as life support makes oxygen one of the largest volume chemicals to be produced in space. Production of oxygen from lunar materials is of particular interest and is very attractive possibility. The kinetics and mechanism of reduction of ilmenite by carbon monoxide and hydrogen at 800 to 1100 C were investigated. The temporal profiles of conversion for carbon monoxide have a sigmoidal shape and indicate the presence of three different stages (induction, acceleration, and deceleration) during the reduction reaction. The apparent activation energy decreases from 18 kcal/mole at 10 percent conversion to 10 kcal/mole at 50 percent conversion. The reaction is first order with respect to carbon monoxide under the experimental conditions studied. Both SEM and EDX analysis show that the diffusion of Fe product away from the reaction front and through the TiO2 phase, followed by the nucleation and growth of a separate Fe phase are important steps affecting the process kinetics. The results from hydrogen reduction show that the mechanism of ilmenite reduction by hydrogen is similar to that by carbon monoxide. However, the titanium dioxide can be further reduced by hydrogen at 800 to 1000 C. The detailed comparison and theoretical modeling of both reduction processes is presented.

Zhao, Y.; Shadman, F.

1991-01-01

418

STUDY OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES OF RESIDENTS OF WASHINGTON, D.C.  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper will describe a study conducted in the Washington, D.C., area during the winter of 1982-83 for the purpose of measuring the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of a representative population of the area. The population distributions were determined by direct ...

419

PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS  

E-print Network

PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES;2 ABSTRACT Silicon microreactors with thin-film wall catalyst were adopted for kinetic studies of CO of the microreactor were examined and comparisons were made to typical packed-bed lab reactors (m-PBR's). We found

Besser, Ronald S.

420

Testing a small detailed chemical-kinetic mechanism for the combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively small detailed mechanism has been developed for the combustion of various fuels, mainly hydrocarbons, in air or oxygen-inert mixtures. This mechanism has been tested previously for autoignition, premixed-flame burning velocities, and structures and extinction of diffusion flames and of partially premixed flames of many of these fuels. While submechanisms for hydrogen and carbon monoxide are essential components of

Priyank Saxena; Forman A. Williams

2006-01-01

421

Fatal carbon monoxide poisoning after the detonation of explosives in an underground mine: a case report.  

PubMed

An unusual death caused by carbon monoxide poisoning after the detonation of explosives in an underground mine was investigated by the Office of the Medical Investigator of the State of New Mexico. The 50-year-old miner had 18 years of mining experience but no documented safety training. He collapsed approximately 20 minutes after entering the mine and working at the bottom of the single vertical shaft. The tight confines of the mine shaft hindered rescue personnel from reaching him, and the body was not recovered until 2 days later. The autopsy showed severe coronary artery atherosclerosis with remote and resolving myocardial microinfarcts, as well as the characteristic pink lividity of carbon monoxide poisoning, which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Detailed investigation of the scene revealed no sources of carbon monoxide other than the explosives. The case represents an uncommon cause of death in mining that may have been avoided through the use of proper safety procedures, and illustrates the importance of recognizing the many sources of carbon monoxide. PMID:11764907

Markey, M A; Zumwalt, R E

2001-12-01

422

CARBON MONOXIDE COMMUTER EXPOSURE DATA BASE: A 5-DAY STUDY IN LOS ANGELES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent concern about carbon monoxide exposure to the commuter population prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a five-day field project to assess the CO exposure to Los Angeles commuters. The purpose of this report is to document the field project and to pr...

423

Cost-effectiveness analysis: Residential carbon monoxide detectors. Final report, January 1995-August 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of nationwide use of carbon monoxide (CO) detectors in U.S. residences. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) proposed changing the Uniform Building Code to require installation of detectors in new residential construction.

Chernoff, H.; Sanchez, G.; Friedman, D.

1996-08-16

424

Airborne intercomparison of vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence and tunable diode laser absorption measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the fall 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97), two separate intercomparisons of aircraft-based carbon monoxide measurement instrumentation were conducted. On September 2, CO measurements were simultaneously made aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3 by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence and by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). On September 18, an intercomparison flight was conducted between

John S. Holloway; Roger O. Jakoubek; David D. Parrish; Christoph Gerbig; Andreas Volz-Thomas; Sandra Schmitgen; Alan Fried; Brian Wert; Bruce Henry; James R. Drummond

2000-01-01

425

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR: Applications of a carbon monoxide laser in surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was made of potential applications of a carbon monoxide laser (?=5-6 ?) in surgery. It was established that the radiation emitted by this laser had better cutting and coagulating properties than CO2 laser radiation currently used widely in medicine.

Ale?nikov, V. S.; Belyaev, V. P.; Devyatkov, N. D.; Klimenko, V. I.; Mamedli, L. D.; Masychev, V. I.; Sysoev, V. K.

1983-10-01

426

CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH REVIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires periodic review of existing criteria that form the basis for carbon monoxide (CO) air quality standards. These air quality criteria are to reflect the latest scientific information useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effec...

427

Daily global maps of carbon monoxide from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. AIRS daily coverage of ~70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite trace gas remote sensing. Tropospheric CO abundances are retrieved from AIRS 4.55 mum spectral region using the full AIRS retrieval algorithm run in a research

W. W. McMillan; C. Barnet; L. Strow; M. T. Chahine; M. L. McCourt; J. X. Warner; P. C. Novelli; S. Korontzi; E. S. Maddy; S. Datta

2005-01-01

428

Comparative in-mine evaluation of carbon monoxide and smoke detectors. Report of investigations\\/1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of liquid fuel fire experiments evaluated the comparative responses of five types of commercially available smoke detectors and a diffusion-mode carbon monoxide (CO) detector under normal and reduced airflow conditions based upon the alarm times of the detectors. A correlation was developed of the travel time of 5 ppm CO between pairs of CO detectors with the travel

J. C. Edwards; G. F. Friel

1996-01-01

429

Evaluation of a nitric-oxide-compensated carbon monoxide fire sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This US Bureau of Mines report describes the results of two large-scale tests conducted to evaluate a prototype nitric oxide (NO)-compensated carbon monoxide (CO) fire sensor, developed by Carnegie Mellon Research Institute (CMRI). In the tests, small coal fires were allowed to develop in the presence of diesel exhaust at relatively low ventilation airflows. These tests compared the response of

C. D. Litton; R. S. Conti; J. G. Tabacchi; R. Grace

1993-01-01

430

Quantitative signal processing algorithms for low cost methane and carbon monoxide detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas and carbon monoxide domestic detectors available in the market present serious deficiencies in terms of selectivity. Their problems result in a high percentage of false alarms. A possible solution of this problem is to improve the performance by means of signal processing. The authors present the work carried out towards the improvement of signal processing in quantitative analysis.

T. Sundic; S. Marco; A. Pardo; A. Ortega; M. Ortiz; J. Sainitier

1999-01-01

431

Orbital Contributions to CO Oxidation in Mo-Cu Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase  

PubMed Central

A molecular orbital analysis provides new insight into the mechanism of Mo/Cu carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, and reveals electronic structure contributions to reactivity that are remarkably similar to the structurally related molybdenum hydroxylases. A calculated reaction barrier of ~12 kcal/mol is in excellent agreement with experiment. PMID:24322538

Stein, Benjamin W.; Kirk, Martin L.

2014-01-01

432

Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student report on the physiological response to acute carbon monoxide exposure in a simulated healthy adult male and a coal miner and represents how 1) human patient simulators can be used in a nonclinical way for experiential hypothesis testing; 2) students can transition from traditional textbook learning to practical application of their knowledge; and 3) student-initiated group investigation drives critical thought

Whitney A. Cesari (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies)

2006-12-01

433

CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

434

CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES INSIDE AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING ON AN URBAN ARTERIAL HIGHWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. n each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the...

435

Carbon monoxide in indoor ice skating rinks: Evaluation of absorption by adult hockey players  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) levels of 122 male, adult hockey players active in recreational leagues of the Quebec City region (Canada), before and after 10 weekly 90-minute games in 10 different rinks. We also determined exposure by quantifying the average CO level in the rink during the games. Other variables documented included age, pulmonary function, aerobic capacity, and

B. Levesque; E. Dewailly; R. Lavoie; D. PrudHomme; S. Allaire

1990-01-01

436

Factors affecting exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide in adult cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to cigarette smoke among smokers is highly variable. This variability has been attributed to differences in smoking behavior as measured by smoking topography, as well as other behavioral and subjective aspects of smoking. The objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting smoke exposure as estimated by biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO). In

Raheema Muhammad-Kah; Qiwei Liang; Kimberly Frost-Pineda; Paul E. Mendes; Hans J. Roethig; Mohamadi Sarkar

2011-01-01

437

EDUCATION LEVEL IS GREATEST RISK-FACTOR IN CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels. In confined spaces, inefficient combustion sources, such as furnaces, stoves, kerosene heaters and automobiles can generate levels of CO that interrupt oxygen transport throughout the body, potentially ...

438

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (1999) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This revised criteria document consolidates and updates the current scientific basis for another reevaluation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide (CO), currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) for 1 h. Although emphasis is plac...

439

SEASONAL SOIL FLUXES OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BURNED AND UNBURNED BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured from September 1999 through November 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) under different fire regimes using transparent and opaque static chambers. Studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto...

440

Carbon monoxide response survey analyses: Suburban chicago data. Interim report. Topical report, October 1994June 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has sponsored a series of research projects aimed at answering questions about the levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in residences, the performance of CO detectors, and emergency response activities associated with CO detector alarms. The report presents the preliminary findings from analyses of data collected by Chicago Suburban Mutual Aid Box Alarm System (MABAS) Divisions

S. M. Tikalsky; J. M. Kramer

1995-01-01

441

Carbon monoxide response survey analyses: Utility data. Interim report. Topical report, October 1994June 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Research Insitiute (GRI) has sponspored a series of research projects aimed at answering questions about the levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in residences, the performance of CO detectors, and utility response activities associated with CO detector alarms. This report presents the preliminary findings from analyses of survey data collected by thirty-seven gas utilities across the U.S. and Canada

S. M. Tikalsky; J. M. Kramer

1996-01-01

442

EFFECT ON CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS IN MOBILE HOMES USING UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS FOR RESIDENTIAL HEATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (Co) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old . These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. espondents were asked to operate their heater...

443

EFFECTS OF LOW LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE. BLOOD LIPIDS AND COAGULATION PARAMETERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study examined the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in 50 and 100 ppm doses on response to treadmill exercise, blood coagulation and blood lipids in normal men. Twenty-three men were exposed to CO or to air in a double-blind protocol. After exposure, each underwent a graded ex...

444

Approval and promulgation of Michigan State Implementation Plan (SIP). carbon monoxide and ozone  

SciTech Connect

These two US Environmental Protection Agency notices approve the revised Michigan SIP for ozone control strategy for the Flint, Lansing, Grand Rapids, and other rural nonattainment areas; ozone, carbon monoxide control, and vehicle inspection/maintenance programs fr the Detroit urban areas; and transportation control plans for all these areas. These final rules are effective as of 5/23/80.

Not Available

1980-06-02

445

Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

2012-01-01

446

Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo  

E-print Network

Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos Zebrafish embryos CO CORM-3 a b s t r a c t In the present work, the influence of a low concentration) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE

Yu, K.N.

447

CARBON MONOXIDE REVERSIBLY DISRUPTS IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Iron dissociation from heme is a major factor in iron metabolism and cellular concentrations of the metal correlate inversely with the expression of heme oxygenase (HO). We tested the hypothesis that 1) exposure to a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), disturbs iron homeostas...

448

40 CFR Appendix A - Protocol for Using an Electrochemical Analyzer to Determine Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the correct calibration gas flow rate at the analyzer...ppm of the up-scale gas value, whichever is less...Determination of Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Monoxide...Emissions from Natural Gas-Fired Engines, Boilers, and Process Heaters Using Portable...

2014-07-01

449

40 CFR Appendix A - Protocol for Using an Electrochemical Analyzer to Determine Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the correct calibration gas flow rate at the analyzer...ppm of the up-scale gas value, whichever is less...Determination of Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Monoxide...Emissions from Natural Gas-Fired Engines, Boilers, and Process Heaters Using Portable...

2013-07-01

450

Carbon Monoxide and Sulfur Dioxide Adsorption on— and Desorption from Glass, Plastic, and Metal Tubings  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was planned to install 305 m (1000 ft) of tubing on a television tower to transport ambient air samples from different height levels to pollutant monitoring instruments at ground level. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the sorption characteristics of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide on various conduit materials. Sorption studies were completed on 30.5 m (100 ft)

Henry C. Wohlers; Herman Newstein; Diane Daunis

1967-01-01

451

EFFECT OF LOW LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE ON COMPENSATORY TRACKING AND EVENT MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments by Putz et al. concerning the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on compensatory tracking and monitoring in healthy young men were replicated. Task and procedural variables were reproduced as closely as practical. Subjects were exposed to either room air or 100 p...

452

LOW-LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE AND WORK CAPACITY AT 1600 METERS  

EPA Science Inventory

At sea level, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure impairs exercise performance. To determine if altitude residence at 1600 m augments this CO effect, two studies of graded treadmill work capacity were done. The Initial Study investigated nine, non-smoking male subjects breath...

453

Evaluation of Length-of-Stain Gas Indicator Tubes for Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Air.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques for detection and measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in air are of interest and utility in many aspects of automotive safety. CO concentrations may range from less than 100 parts per million (ppm), or 0.01 percent, to about 10 percent by volume. Gas indicator tubes have been used for many years primarily as detectors of hazardous gases…

Klaubert, Earl C.; And Others

454

Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991  

SciTech Connect

Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

Ford, P.C.

1992-06-04

455

Life in Hot Carbon Monoxide: The Complete Genome Sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901  

PubMed Central

We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a “minimal” model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously. PMID:16311624

2005-01-01

456

Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate  

PubMed Central

Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are able to use carbon monoxide (CO) as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) as an electron donor. PMID:20628586

Parshina, Sofiya N.; Sipma, Jan; Henstra, Anne Meint; Stams, Alfons J. M.

2010-01-01

457

Chalcogen extrusion from heteroallenes and carbon monoxide by a three-coordinate rh(i) disilylamide.  

PubMed

We report the reactions of several heteroallenes (carbon disulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and phenyl isocyanate) and carbon monoxide with a three-coordinate, bis(phosphine)-supported Rh(I) disilylamide (1). Carbon disulfide reacts with 1 to afford a silyltrithiocarbonate complex similar to an intermediate previously invoked in the deoxygenation of CO2 by 1, and prolonged heating affords a structurally unusual ?-?(2)(S,S'):?(2)(S,S')-trithiocarbonate dimer. Carbonyl sulfide reacts with 1 to afford a structurally unique Rh(SCNCS) metallacycle derived from two insertions of OCS and N-to-O silyl-group migrations. Phenyl isocyanate reacts with 1 to afford a dimeric bis(phenylcyanamido)-bridged complex resulting from multiple silyl-group migrations and nitrogen-for-oxygen metathesis, akin to reactivity previously observed with carbon dioxide. The ability of 1 to activate carbon-chalcogen multiple bonds via silyl-group migration is further supported by its reactivity with carbon monoxide, where a nitrogen-for-oxygen metathesis is also observed with expulsion of hexamethyldisiloxane. For all reported reactions, intermediates are observable under appropriate conditions, allowing the formulation of mechanisms where insertion of the unsaturated substrate is followed by one or more silyl-group migrations to afford the observed products. This rich variety of reactivity confirms the ability of metal silylamides to activate exceptionally strong carbon-element multiple bonds and suggests that silylamides may be useful intermediates in nitrogen-atom and nitrene-group-transfer schemes. PMID:25799316

Whited, Matthew T; Qiu, Lisa; Kosanovich, Alex J; Janzen, Daron E

2015-04-01

458

Outcome of Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning at a Far-East Poison Center  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many cases of carbon monoxide poisoning in Taiwan are due to burning charcoal. Nevertheless, few reports have analyzed the mortality rate of these patients who survive to reach a hospital and die despite intensive treatment. Therefore, this study examined the clinical features, physiological markers, and outcomes after carbon monoxide poisoning and the associations between these findings. Methods We analyzed the records of 261 patients who were referred for management of carbon monoxide intoxication between 2000 and 2010. Patients were grouped according to status at discharge as alive (survivor, n = 242) or dead (non-survivor, n = 19). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. Results Approximately half of the cases (49.4%) attempted suicide by burning charcoal. Most of the patients were middle-aged adults (33±19 years), and were referred to our hospital in a relatively short period of time (6±10 hours). Carbon monoxide produced many serious complications after exposure: fever (26.1%), hypothermia (9.6%), respiratory failure (34.1%), shock (8.4%), myocardial infarction (8.0%), gastrointestinal upset (34.9%), hepatitis (18.4%), renal failure (25.3%), coma (18.0%) and rhabdomyolysis (21.8%). Furthermore, the non-survivors suffered greater incidences of hypothermia (P<0.001), respiratory failure (P<0.001), shock (P<0.001), hepatitis ((P=0.016), renal failure (P=0.003), coma (P<0.001) than survivors. All patients were treated with high concentration of oxygen therapy using non-rebreather mask. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was only used in 18.8% of the patients. In a multivariate-Cox-regression model, it was revealed that shock status was a significant predictor for mortality after carbon monoxide poisoning (OR 8.696, 95% CI 2.053-37.370, P=0.003). Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with shock suffered greater cumulative mortality than without shock (Log-rank test, Chi-square 147.404, P<0.001). Conclusion The mortality rate for medically treated carbon monoxide-poisoned patients at our center was 7.3%. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that shock was most strongly associated with higher risk of mortality. PMID:25745854

Lin, Ja-Liang; Huang, Wen-Hung; Yang, Huang-Yu; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lin, Che-Min; Lee, Shwu-Hua; Wang, I-Kuan; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Lin, Wey-Ran; Yen, Tzung-Hai

2015-01-01

459

Elevated Carbon Monoxide to Carbon Dioxide Ratio in the Exhaled Breath of Mice Treated With a Single Dose of Lipopolysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Background ?Analysis of volatile organic chemicals in breath holds promise for noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of patients, but investigation of this in experimental mouse models has been limited. Of particular interest is endogenous production of carbon monoxide as a biomarker of inflammation and, more particularly, during sepsis. Methods ?Using a nose-only collection procedure for unanesthetized individual adult mice and sensitive gas chromatography of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) of sampled breath, we investigated the responses of mice to one-time injections with different doses of purified Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Two strains of mice were examined: BALB/c and C3H, including an endotoxin-resistant mutant (HeJ) as well as the wild type (HOuJ). Results ?The CO to CO2 ratio increased in a dose-responsive manner within hours in treated BALC/c mice but not control mice. The CO/CO2 values declined to the range of control mice within 48–72 h after the injection of lipopolysaccharide. Breath CO/CO2 values correlated with systemic inflammation biomarkers in serum and heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in blood. C3H/HOuJ mice, but not the HeJ mice, had similar increases of the CO/CO2 ratio in response to the endotoxin. Conclusions ?Carbon monoxide concentrations in exhaled breath of at least 2 strains of mice increase in response to single injections of endotoxin. The magnitude of increase was similar to what was observed with a bacteremia model. These findings with an experimental model provide a rationale for further studies of normalized CO concentrations in human breath as an informative biomarker for staging and monitoring of sepsis. PMID:25734151

Langeroudi, Arash Ghalyanchi; Hirsch, Charlotte M.; Estabragh, Azadeh Shojaee; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R.; Barbour, Alan G.

2014-01-01

460

Sensing and identification of carbon monoxide using carbon films fabricated by methane arc discharge decomposition technique  

PubMed Central

Carbonaceous materials have recently received attention in electronic applications and measurement systems. In this work, we demonstrate the electrical behavior of carbon films fabricated by methane arc discharge decomposition technique. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of carbon films are investigated in the presence and absence of gas. The experiment reveals that the current passing through the carbon films increases when the concentration of CO2 gas is increased from 200 to 800 ppm. This phenomenon which is a result of conductance changes can be employed in sensing applications such as gas sensors. PMID:25177219

2014-01-01

461

TES carbon monoxide validation during two AVE campaigns using the Argus and ALIAS instruments on NASA's WB-57F  

E-print Network

Christopher R. Webster,3 and Greg Osterman3 Received 11 April 2007; revised 15 February 2008; accepted 25. R. Webster, and G. Osterman (2008), TES carbon monoxide validation during two AVE campaigns using

462

40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Compliance with Standards § 63.1182 How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and...

2010-07-01

463

40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Compliance with Standards § 63.1182 How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and...

2013-07-01

464

40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Compliance with Standards § 63.1182 How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and...

2014-07-01

465

Maximal aerobic capacity at several ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide at several altitudes. Research report, April 1984-January 1988  

SciTech Connect

To assess the combined effects of altitude and acute carbon monoxide exposure, 11 male and 12 female subjects, all nonsmokers in good health, were given incremental maximal aerobic-capacity tests. Each subject, after attaining the required altitude and ambient carbon monoxide level, performed the maximal aerobic capacity test. Blood samples were drawn at several points in the aerobic capacity test protocol, and analyzed for hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma proteins, lactates, and carboxyhemoglobin. Carbon-monoxide-carboxyhemoglobin uptake rates were derived from the submaximal workloads. Despite increases in carboxyhemoglobin, no additional significant decreases in maximal aerobic capacity were observed. Immediately prior to and at maximal workloads, carbon monoxide shifted into extravascular spaces and returned to the vascular space within five minutes after exercise stopped.

Horvath, S.M.; Agnew, J.W.; Wagner, J.A.; Bedi, J.F.

1988-12-01

466

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-print Network

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

467

Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6 V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors.

Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

2013-10-01

468

Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application  

PubMed Central

A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6?V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors. PMID:24113335

Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

2013-01-01

469

Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01

470

Nano-crystalline porous tin oxide film for carbon monoxide sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tin oxide sol is deposited on platinum electrodes (12) of a sensor (10). The sol is calcined at a temperature of 500 to 800.degree. C. to produce a thin film of tin oxide with a thickness of about 150 nm to 2 .mu. and having a nano-crystalline structure with good stability. The sensor rapidly detects reducing gases, such as carbon monoxide, or hydrocarbons and organic vapors. Sensors using films calcined at around 700.degree. C. have high carbon monoxide selectivity with a response time of around 4 minutes and a recovery time of 1 minute, and therefore provide good detection systems for detection of trace amounts of pollutants such as toxic and flammable gases in homes, industrial settings, and hospitals.

Liu, Chung-Chiun (Inventor); Savinell, Robert F. (Inventor); Jin, Zhihong (Inventor)

2000-01-01

471

The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

1936-01-01

472

The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide measure by the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument carried aboard the space shuttle is reported. The data represent average mixing ratios in the middle troposphere and are presented in the form of maps that show the carbon monoxide mixing ratios averaged for 6 days of the mission. Comparisons with concurrent, direct measurements taken aboard aircraft show that the inferred concentrations are systematically low by from 20 to 40 percent depending upon which direct measurement calibration standard is used. The data show that there are very large CO sources resulting from biomass burning over South America and southern Africa. Measured mixing ratios were high over northeast Asia and were highly variable over Europe.

Reichle, Henry G., Jr.; Connors, Vickie S.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Holland, J. Alvin; Sherrill, Robert T.; Casas, Joseph C.; Gormsen, Barbara B.

1989-01-01

473

Morbidity from Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning at Three-year Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Seventy-four survivors of acute carbon monoxide poisoning were followed up for an average of three years. In eight patients gross neuropsychiatric damage was directly attributable to the poisoning. Three patients had committed suicide and eight had died from other causes. Morbidity and mortality in those deliberately and accidentally poisoned was approximately equal. Of 63 patients alive at follow-up eight showed an improvement and 21 (33.3%) a deterioration of personality after poisoning, and 27 (43%) reported a subsequent impairment of memory. Deterioration of personality and memory impairment were highly correlated. The level of consciousness on admission to hospital in the acute phase of poisoning correlated significantly with the development of gross neuropsychiatric sequelae. These findings emphasize the importance of prompt and efficient treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning and the need to follow-up all cases in the anticipation of a relapsing course or the development of sequelae. PMID:4685620

Smith, J. Sidney; Brandon, S.

1973-01-01

474

Nootropic effect of nicotine on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced delayed amnesia in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nicotine on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced amnesia in mice were investigated using a step-down type passive avoidance task. Mice were exposed to CO 3 times at 1-h intervals, 7 days before the first training and retention test and 24 h after the first training session. Memory deficiency occurred in mice when training commenced more than 3 days after

Masayuki Hiramatsu; Hisae Satoh; Tsutomu Kameyama; Toshitaka Nabeshima

1994-01-01

475

The equation of state and thermodynamic properties of liquid carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of p,V,T measurements on liquid carbon monoxide at temperatures from near the normal boiling point to 125 K and at pressures between the vapor pressure and 140 MPa, at regular intervals of these two variables are given. Experimental p, V, T measurements are shown in charts and graphs. Vapor pressure correlation and derived quantities are shown with detailed tables on thermodynamic properties of liquid and gaseous CO.

Barreiros, S.F.; da Ponte, M.N.; Calado, J.C.G.; Streett, W.B.

1982-01-01

476

Measurements of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the troposphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide and methane grab samples were obtained simultaneously with ozone, aerosol, nitric oxide and DACOM CO measurements. Eighty grab samples were collected at various altitudes up to 19,000 ft. along a north-south flight path from Wallops Flight Center, VA to 11 N. CO and CH were analyzed by flame ionization gas chromatography with cryogenic preconcentration. The relationship between CO and O3 concentrated is examined. A comparative analysis between trends in aerosol and CO concentration is performed.

Hinton, R. R.

1982-01-01

477

FTIR spectroscopy of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane adsorbed and co-adsorbed on zinc oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of dihydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane, and co-adsorption of H2\\/CO, H2\\/CH4 and CO\\/CH4 on zinc oxide was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Besides the already known dissociation of dihydrogen and molecular adsorption of CO, methane was found to be adsorbed molecularly on coordinatively unsaturated Zn2+ ions. Adsorption lowers the CH4 symmetry from Td to C3v, which

D. Scarano; S Bertarione; G Spoto; A Zecchina; C Otero Areán

2001-01-01

478

Carbon monoxide removal from hydrogen-rich fuel cell feedstreams by selective catalytic oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect methanol fuel cells currently being investigated at General Motors for transportation applications require removal of carbon monoxide from the hydrogen-rich gas stream produced by the fuel processing section. A variety of catalytic materials, including noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ru) and base metals (Co\\/Cu, Ni\\/Co\\/Fe, Ag, Cr, Fe, and Mn), were evaluated in a laboratory reactor feedstream containing

Se. H. Oh; R. M. Sinkevitch

1993-01-01

479

Apolipoprotein E Genotype and Response of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning to Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) reduced the incidence of cognitive sequelae 6 weeks after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning compared with normobaric oxygen (NBO2). The apolipoprotein (APOE) e4 allele predicts unfavorable neurologic outcome after brain injury and stroke. Objectives: To assess the effects of the e4 allele on 6-week cognitive sequelae after CO poisoning. Methods: We tested APOE genotypes in 86 of

Ramona O. Hopkins; Lindell K. Weaver; Karen J. Valentine; Chrissa Mower; Susan Churchill; John Carlquist

480

The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellite (MAPS) experiment measured the distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from the space shuttle during October 1984. The data represent average mixing ratios in the middle troposphere between 57°N and 57°S. Approximately 75,000 individual CO measurements were obtained during the 9-day mission. The data are presented in maps that show the CO

Henry G. Reichle; Vickie S. Connors; J. Alvin Holland; Robert T. Sherrill; H. Andrew Wallio; Joseph C. Casas; Estelle P. Condon; Barbara B. Gormsen; Wolfgang Seiler

1990-01-01

481

Carbon monoxide mixing ratio in the mesosphere derived from ground-based microwave measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution ground-based measurements have been made of the J = 0-1 and the J = 1-2 rotational transitions of carbon monoxide in the earth's atmosphere. These transitions, which occur at frequencies near 115 and 230 GHz, were observed in absorption against the solar continuum. The two absorption profiles have been used to derive the CO mixing ratio as a function of altitude between 50 and 80 km in the atmosphere.

Goldsmith, P. F.; Litvak, M. M.; Plambeck, R. L.; Williams, D. R. W.

1979-02-01

482

Research and Design of Distributed Carbon Monoxide (CO) Concentration On-Line Detection System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of carbon monoxide (CO) density distributed on-line detection system is designed based on single chip microprocessor (SCM) technology and CAN bus technology, etc. Collection signal by sensor is converted by conditioning circuit and sent into SCM AT89C51. When CO concentration beyond setting limits value, field alarming and ventilation equipment are droved to start, which assures CO concentration value

Xinling Wen

2008-01-01

483

Night of the Sirens: Analysis of Carbon Monoxide-Detector Experience in Suburban Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To determine the pattern and environmental causes of carbon monoxide (CO)–detector alarms. Methods: Data including time, location, detector manufacturer, CO measurements in the home, reported illness, cause, and actions taken were collected between July 15, 1994, and January 26, 1995, on all calls to 17 suburban Chicago fire departments for CO-detector alarms. We used univariate time-series analysis involving

Kenneth E Bizovi; Jerrold B Leikin; Daniel O Hryhorczuk; Lawrence J Frateschi

1998-01-01

484

A bio-inspired nonlinear algorithm to integrate carbon monoxide concentration aiming to fulfil international standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

International standards for carbon monoxide (CO) alarms in domestic premises dictate the permissible alarm-triggering times for different CO concentration levels. Simple, but reliable, integration algorithms should be included in low-cost smart alarms based on microcontrollers. Here, we present a bio-inspired digital integrator and its performance is tested against American and European standards. The difficulties to fulfil the later are discussed,

A Perera; T Sundic; S Marco

2000-01-01

485

Carbon monoxide levels in popular passenger commuting modes traversing major commuting routes in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle exhaust is a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities. Commuters are exposed to high traffic-related pollutant concentrations. Public transportation is the most popular commuting mode in Hong Kong and there are about 10.8 million passenger trips every day. Two-thirds of them are road commuters. An extensive survey was conducted to measure carbon monoxide in three popular passenger

L. Y. Chan; Y. M. Liu

2001-01-01

486

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

1935-01-01

487

Personal exposure monitoring of particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide, including susceptible groups  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same microenvironments, for healthy individuals and members of susceptible groups. Methods: Eleven healthy adult subjects and 18 members of groups more susceptible to adverse health changes in response to a given level of exposure to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or PM10 than the general population (six schoolchildren, six elderly subjects, and six with pre-existing disease—two with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two with left ventricular failure (LVF), and two with severe asthma) were recruited. Daytime personal exposures were determined either directly or through shadowing. Relations between personal exposures and simultaneously measured microenvironment concentrations were examined. Results: Correlations between personal exposures and microenvironment concentration were frequently weak for individual subjects because of the small range in measured concentrations. However, when all subjects were pooled, excellent relations between measured personal exposure and microenvironment concentration were found for both carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, with slopes of close to one and near zero intercepts. For PM10, a good correlation was also found with an intercept of personal exposure (personal cloud) of 16.7 (SD 10.4) µg/m3. Modelled and measured personal exposures were generally in reasonably good agreement, but modelling with generic mean microenvironment data was unable to represent the full range of measured concentrations. Conclusions: Microenvironment measurements of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide can well represent the personal exposures of individuals within that microenvironment. The same is true for PM10 with the addition of a personal cloud increment. Elderly subjects and those with pre-existing disease received generally lower PM10 exposures than the healthy adult subjects and schoolchildren by virtue of their less active lifestyles. PMID:12356927

Harrison, R; Thornton, C; Lawrence, R; Mark, D; Kinnersley, R; Ayres, J

2002-01-01

488

Intramolecular condensation reactions in protonated dipeptides: Carbon monoxide, water, and ammonia losses in competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elimination of carbon monoxide and water from a series of protonated dipeptides, [XxxYyy + H]+, is investigated by tandem mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory. The combined results show that CO\\u000a loss occurs on the a1-y1 pathway, which begins by rearrangement of the added proton to the amide N-atom and creates the proton-bound dimer of an amino\\u000a acid

Francesco Pingitore; Michael J. Polce; Ping Wang; Chrys Wesdemiotis; Béla Paizs

2004-01-01

489

Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the\\u000a ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application\\u000a for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production\\u000a from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas

Abid Hussain; Serge R. Guiot; Punita Mehta; Vijaya Raghavan; Boris Tartakovsky

2011-01-01

490

Effect of carbon deposition by carbon monoxide disproportionation on electrochemical characteristics at low temperature operation for solid oxide fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deterioration by carbon deposition was evaluated for electrolyte- and anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in comparison with carbon monoxide disproportionation and methane cracking. The polarization resistance of the nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) anode increased with a rise in CO concentration in H2-CO-CO2 mixture for the electrolyte-supported cells at 923 K. The resistance, however, did not change against CO concentration for the anode-supported cells. In a methane fuel with a steam/carbon (S/C) ratio of 0.1, the cell performance decreased for both of the cells at 1073 K. A large amount of agglomerated amorphous carbon was deposited from the anode surface to the interface between the anode and the electrolyte after power generation at S/C = 0.1 in methane fuel. On the other hand, the crystalline graphite was deposited only at the anode surface for the anode-supported cell after power generation in CO-CO2 mixture. These results suggest that the reaction rate of CO disproportionation is faster than that of methane cracking. The deposited carbon near the anode/electrolyte interface caused the increase in the polarization resistance.

Sumi, Hirofumi; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Muroyama, Hiroki; Matsui, Toshiaki; Kamijo, Motohisa; Mimuro, Shin; Yamanaka, Mitsugu; Nakajima, Yasushi; Eguchi, Koichi

2011-05-01

491

GASP: A computer code for calculating the thermodynamic and transport properties for ten fluids: Parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FORTRAN IV subprogram called GASP is discussed which calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties for 10 pure fluids: parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. The pressure range is generally from 0.1 to 400 atmospheres (to 100 atm for helium and to 1000 atm for hydrogen). The temperature ranges are from the triple

R. C. Hendricks; A. K. Baron; I. C. Peller

1975-01-01

492

Iron catalyst chemistry in modeling a high-pressure carbon monoxide nanotube reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is analyzed with the use of a chemical reaction model coupled with flow properties calculated along streamlines, calculated by the FLUENT code for pure carbon monoxide. Cold iron pentacarbonyl, diluted in CO at about 30 atmospheres, is injected into a conical mixing zone, where hot CO is also introduced via three jets at 30 degrees with respect to the axis. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Then iron nucleates and forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs by a disproportionation reaction (Boudouard) of CO on Fe-containing clusters. Alternative nucleation rates are estimated from the theory of hard sphere collision dynamics with an activation energy barrier. The rate coefficient for carbon nanotube growth is estimated from activation energies in the literature. The calculated growth was found be about an order of magnitude greater than measured, regardless of the nucleation rate. A study of cluster formation in an incubation zone prior to injection into the reactor shows that direct dimer formation from Fe atoms is not as important as formation via an exchange reaction of Fe with CO in FeCO.

Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Willis, Peter A.; Smalley, Richard E.

2003-01-01

493

Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

Quick, E.E.

1980-03-01

494

Solar thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide for the production of catalytic filamentous carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated solar radiation is used as the clean source of process heat for the production of catalytic filamentous carbon (CFC) by thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons (CH4 and C4H10) and by CO disproportionation in the presence of small metal catalyst particles. Depending on the catalyst, two different types of CFC, namely nanotubes and nanofibers, are obtained in solar experiments. Nanotubes

A. Meier; V. A. Kirillov; G. G. Kuvshinov; Yu. I. Mogilnykh; A. Reller; A. Steinfeld; A. Weidenkaff

1999-01-01

495

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of COâ, CHâ, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; E. R. Pullmann; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

496

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO2, CH4, and CO in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; Erik R. Pullman; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

497

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from Taiga Bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO2, CH4, and CO in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; Erik R. Pullman; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

498

The impact of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons on the tropospheric budget of carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to quantify the relative contributions of surface sources and photochemical production of atmospheric carbon monoxide has been implemented in a three-dimensional chemical-transport model. The impact of biogenic and anthropogenic hydrocarbons has been calculated. The oxidation of isoprene contributes to about 10% of the global tropospheric burden of carbon monoxide, with a maximum contribution over southern America and Africa. Oxidation of methane and terpenes contribute to 28 and 2%, respectively, of the tropospheric burden of CO. The oxidation of the other hydrocarbons, which include ethane, propane, ethylene, propylene and the surrogate hydrocarbon representing other hydrocarbons results in 12% of the CO tropospheric burden, among which 69% results from the oxidation of hydrocarbons of biologic origin. The overall global CO yield from the oxidation of isoprene is estimated to be 23% on a carbon basis. Comparisons between model results and the few available observations of isoprene, terpenes and their oxidation products show that there is no evidence that the current global isoprene emissions proposed in the IGAC/GEIA emissions data base are substantially overestimated, as suggested by previous studies.

Granier, Claire; Pétron, Gabrielle; Müller, Jean-François; Brasseur, Guy

499

An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

1997-09-01

500

Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and Ozone Measurements on the NCAR C-130 During ACE-Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several in situ trace gases were measured from the NCAR C-130 to provide indications of air mass origin during the ACE-Asia intensive field campaign. Carbon dioxide was measured using a dual cell, non-dispersive infrared absorption instrument, modified to provide temperature and pressure control. This instrument was developed to be highly precise and accurate, having a 0.1 ppmv precision and +\\/-

T. L. Campos; I. Faloona; S. R. Hall; L. Cinquini; R. E. Shetter

2001-01-01