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1

CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the carbon monoxide literature related to effects on man and his environment for the consideration of the Environmental Protection Agency in updating the information in the Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide. It emphasizes recent major advances in o...

2

Carbon monoxide  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), a by-product released during the degradation of heme by heme oxygenases (HOS EC 1.14.99.3) in animals, plays a major role as neurotransmitter, regulator of sinusoidal tone, inhibitor of platelet aggregation and suppressor of acute hypertensive response, and most of above effects are similar to or mediated by nitric oxide (NO), another signal molecule in both the animal and plant kingdoms. Previous result demonstrated that NO could act as a promoter of plant cell elongation, acting similarly to IAA, inducing morphogenetic responses leading to expansion in plant tissues. Recent observations revealed that CO is an inducer of cell expansion in wheat root segments, acting similarly to IAA and NO. Evidence also indicated that IAA could result in either the potent induction of HO-1 transcript or endogenous CO releasing in wheat root segments. Additionally, our results suggested that above CO signaling might be related to NO/cGMP, Ca2+ and even ROS-dependent pathways. In this addendum, combined with other previous results, we further proposed a possible hypothesis for CO signaling role in regulation of plant root development induced by auxin. PMID:19704571

Xuan, Wei; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Xingxing

2008-01-01

3

Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public  

E-print Network

Staets1979 through 1988. JAMA 1991;266:659-63 3. Ernst A, Zibrak JD. Carbon monoxide poisoning. N Engl J.graber@maine.gov #12;EPHT Branch Monthly Brown BagEPHT Branch Monthly Brown Bag ---- Carbon Monoxide PoisoningCarbon-based surveillance system for carbon monoxide poisoning Judith M. Graber, M.S. Andrew E. Smith, Sc.D. Maine

4

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-print Network

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26

5

Estimating carbon monoxide exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method predicts effects of carbon monoxide on astronauts confined in spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Information on need for low toxicity level also applies to confined spaces. Benefits are applicable to industry and public health.

Edgerley, R. H.

1971-01-01

6

Carbon Monoxide Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... media accounts and ask your followers to share. Twitter 150+ people die each yr from consumer product- ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Follow us: Twitter Facebook YouTube More information on carbon monoxide safety ...

7

Carbon monoxide intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

1993-11-01

8

Carbon Monoxide Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beckman Instruments, Inc. has introduced another technical approach to pollution detection which was used aboard Skylab. This technique, developed with Ames assistance is known as nondispersive infrared spectroscopy. Previous nondispersive analyzers could not selectively distinguish between water vapor and carbon monoxide, thus necessitating water removal by another device before measurement. These analyzers also were susceptible to vibrations and other problems. New instrument which stimulates fluorescent in two carbon monoxide isotopes in two sealed cells, eliminates these problems and increases sensitivity to a tenth of a part per million.

1976-01-01

9

Solid State Carbon Monoxide Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A means for detecting carbon monoxide which utilizes an un-heated catalytic material to oxidize carbon monoxide at ambient temperatures. Because this reaction is exothermic, a thermistor in contact with the catalytic material is used as a sensing element to detect the heat evolved as carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide at the catalyst surface, without any heaters or external heating elements for the ambient air or catalytic element material. Upon comparison to a reference thermistor, relative increases in the temperature of the sensing thermistor correspond positively with an increased concentration of carbon monoxide in the ambient medium and are thus used as an indicator of the presence of carbon monoxide.

Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

10

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

11

[Unusual carbon monoxide poisoning].  

PubMed

Despite of indicative death scenes or characteristic findings of the external examination, about 40% of the accidental fatal intoxications due to carbon monoxide are not recognized before the performance of the autopsy. Six cases are reported which illustrate possible reasons for the delayed establishment of the diagnosis: unusual circumstances of the intoxication or sources of carbon monoxide, only subtle degree or lack of external signs of the intoxication or a competing cause of death at autopsy.--Cases 1 and 2: 53, respectively 54-year-old couple, found dead in a caravan, extreme putrefaction of the bodies, spectrophotometric detection of the fatal carboxyhaemoglobin level in oedema fluid of the scalp.--Case 3: 23-year-old lorry driver, found dead in the tightly closed cab of his lorry, operation of a source of electricity with "environmentally friendly" fuel, carboxyhaemoglobin level 83%.--Case 4: 19-year-old man, found dead in the flat of friends, removal of the CO-source before alerting the police forces, lack of the bright pink coloration of livor mortis, haemopericardium due to atrial rupture at postmortem examination, carboxyhaemoglobin level 65%.--Case 5: 27-year-old man, found dead in his flat, advanced decomposition of the body, residues of a charcoal fire in a metal bucket in the sink, carboxyhaemoglobin level 80%.--Case 6: 42-year-old woman, lying dead in the garage beside her car, engine switched-off, ignition key next to the body on the floor under the car, carboxyhaemoglobin level 46%. PMID:11591055

Schmidt, P; Musshoff, F; Dettmeyer, R; Madea, B

2001-01-01

12

Global distribution of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the evolution and distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory three-dimensional global chemical transport model (GFDL GCTM). The work aims to gain an improved understanding of the global carbon monoxide budget, specifically focusing on the contribution of each of the four source terms to the seasonal variability

Tracey Holloway; Hiram Levy; Prasad Kasibhatla

2000-01-01

13

[Carbon monoxide poisoning].  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete burning of coals and carbon compounds and is a gas without any typical taste, colour or smell. Defective radiators or gas pipes, open fireplaces, fires and explosions are sources of unintended CO production and inhalation. CO bonds with haemoglobin much more readily than oxygen does. CO toxicity causes impaired oxygen delivery and utilisation at cellular level. It affects different sites within the body, but has its most profound impact on the organs with the highest oxygen requirement. CO concentration and the intensity and duration of inhalation determine the extent of intoxication. Following basic life support, assisted or controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen is essential during emergency care. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) is the preferred therapeutic option for releasing CO from its binding to haemoglobin. It has been shown that CO may cause lipid peroxidation and leukocyte-mediated inflammatory changes in the brain, a process that may be inhibited by HBO. Patients with neurological symptoms including loss of consciousness and expectant mothers should undergo HBO treatment, no matter how high their CO levels are. Neonates and in-utero fetuses are more vulnerable due to the natural leftward shift of the dissociation curve of fetal haemoglobin, a lower baseline pO2 and carboxyhaemoglobin levels at equilibration that are 10-15% higher than maternal levels. Physicians need to be aware of the potential occurrence of this life threatening hazard so that appropriate emergency treatment can be administered and fatalities prevented. PMID:10920484

Jaeger, K; Ruschulte, H; Heine, J; Piepenbrock, S

2000-01-01

14

Carbon monoxide: Anticoagulant or procoagulant?  

PubMed

Within the past decade there have been several investigations attempting to define the impact of exogenous and endogenous carbon monoxide exposure on hemostasis. Critically, two bodies of literature have emerged, with carbon monoxide mediated platelet inhibition cited as a cause of in vitro human and in vitro/in vivo rodent anticoagulation. In contrast, interaction with heme groups associated with fibrinogen, ??-antiplasmin and plasmin by carbon monoxide has resulted in enhanced coagulation and decreased fibrinolysis in vitro in human and other species, and in vivo in rabbits. Of interest, the ultrastructure of platelet rich plasma thrombi demonstrates an abnormal increase in fine fiber formation and matting that are obtained from humans exposed to carbon monoxide. Further, thrombi obtained from humans and rabbits have very similar ultrastructures, whereas mice and rats have more fine fibers and matting present. In sum, there may be species specific differences with regard to hemostatic response to carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide may be a Janus-faced molecule, with potential to attenuate or exacerbate thrombophilic disease. PMID:24360115

Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia

2014-03-01

15

Carbon monoxide poisoning from Sterno.  

PubMed Central

A high school student became ill and later unconscious while working over a heating table set over three cans of burning Sterno. Measurements of 1000 to 3000 parts per million of carbon monoxide were obtained around and above the apparatus. Although the room was well ventilated there was incomplete combustion of the canned heating fuel because the apparatus was surrounded by aluminum foil, which resulted in poor oxygenation of the flame area. This case demonstrates the hazards of carbon monoxide poisoning from incompletely burned Sterno. PMID:638911

Murray, T. J.

1978-01-01

16

Carbon Monoxide From Fibers With Fire Retardants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide production was measured for selected fibers without and with fire retardants. The yield of carbon monoxide tended to decrease with increasing fire re tardant content in the majority of cases, but not in all cases. There appeared to be some fire retardant levels giving minimum yields of carbon monoxide.

Carlos J. Hilado; Patricia A. Huttlinger

1981-01-01

17

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... monoxide: Anything that burns coal, gasoline, kerosene, oil, propane, or wood Automobile engines Charcoal grills (charcoal should ... burned indoors) Indoor and portable heating systems Portable propane heaters Stoves (indoor and camp stoves) Water heater ...

18

Carbon Monoxide Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... monoxide or CO is a colorless and odorless gas. CO poisoning can occur when a fuel-burning appliance or machine, such as a furnace, heater or generator, is not working or vented properly. Breathing in ...

19

Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground-based spectroscopic measurements. Images courtesy David Edwards and John Gille, MOPITT Science Team, NCAR

2002-01-01

20

Parkinsonism after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, parkinsonism was diagnosed in 23 (9.5%). There were 11 men and 12 women. The age at onset ranged from 16 to 69 (mean 45.8) years, with the peak incidence during the 6th decade. The latency before the appearance of parkinsonism varied from 2 to 26 (median 4)

Il Saing Choi

2002-01-01

21

Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

1980-05-01

22

Environmental Carbon Monoxide Related to Pregnancy Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide pollution frequently occurs due to auto exhaust, industrial emissions, and\\/or cigarette smoke. Exogenous and endogenous carbon monoxide affects blood pressure; however, the relation of carbon monoxide exposure to pregnancy hypertension has not been systematically examined. For the present study the authors recruited a total of 2,707 apparently healthy, non-obese, non-smoking mothers, aged between 15 and 40 years, who

Mohsen Vigeh; Masoud Yunesian; Mamak Shariat; Shireen Niroomanesh; Fateme Ramezanzadeh

2011-01-01

23

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2010-07-01

24

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2010-07-01

25

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2011-07-01

26

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2011-07-01

27

40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory...Protection as a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...October 4, 1993, and August 7, 1998 revisions to the carbon monoxide state implementation...

2010-07-01

28

Echocardiographic findings after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial lesions are frequently seen at necropsy after fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. Clinically, while there have been numerous reports of chest pain and electrocardiographic changes associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning, other evidence for left ventricular abnormality has not been reported. The echocardiographic findings in five cases of non-fatal poisoning are presented here. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion was shown

B C Corya; M J Black; P L McHenry

1976-01-01

29

Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

P Davous; P Rondot; M H Marion; B Gueguen

1986-01-01

30

The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

2006-01-01

31

Interaction of Carbon Monoxide with Anatase Surfaces at High Temperatures: Optimization of a Carbon Monoxide Sensor  

E-print Network

Interaction of Carbon Monoxide with Anatase Surfaces at High Temperatures: Optimization of a Carbon-related property of the material. In this study, we examine the sensing of carbon monoxide (CO) in a nitrogen. Interaction of lanthanum with the anatase increased the reactivity of the anatase surface toward CO

Dutta, Prabir K.

32

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

I. K. Hart; P. G. Kennedy; J. H. Adams; N. E. Cunningham

1988-01-01

33

Global Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide in 2000 (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This visualization shows global carbon monoxide concentrations at the 500 millibar altitude in the atmosphere from March 1, 2000 through December 31, 2000. Areas in red have 200 parts per billion of carbon monoxide or more at that altitude (around 5,500 meters), while areas in blue are 50 parts per billion or less. Carbon monoxide is an atmospheric pollutant and the highest concentrations come from grassland and forest fires in Africa and South America, although there is evidence that industrial sources may also be a factor. Atmospheric circulation rapidly moves the carbon monoxide to other parts of the world once it has reached this altitude. This data was measured by the MOPITT instrument on the Terra satellite.

Sokolowsky, Eric; Williams, James; Gille, John; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

2004-02-12

34

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

35

Carbon-monoxide Indicators for Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several improvements that have been made on commercially available carbon-monoxide indicators to make them more suitable for aircraft use are described. These improvements include an automatic flow regulator, which permits the use of a simplified instrument on aircraft where a source of suction is available, and a more reliable alarm attachment. A field method for testing instruments on standard samples of carbon monoxide is described. Performance data and instructions in operation and maintenance are given.

Womack, S H J; Peterson, J B

1936-01-01

36

Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

Wayland, B.B.

1992-12-01

37

Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

Elek, Louis F. (Peekskill, NY); Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1984-01-01

38

Comparison of Three CarbonComparison of Three Carbon Monoxide Databases in ConnecticutMonoxide Databases in Connecticut  

E-print Network

Comparison of Three CarbonComparison of Three Carbon Monoxide Databases in ConnecticutMonoxide Monoxide ReportingCarbon Monoxide Reporting According to CPCC and DPHAccording to CPCC and DPH 0 50 100 150 the Connecticut Poison Control Centerthe Connecticut Poison Control Center MaryMary AdamcewiczAdamcewicz Summer

39

Carbon Monoxide: An Agent of Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem-based learning module places learners in the role of researchers analyzing carbon monoxide's environmental impact. Both vehicle emissions and biomass burning are cited as events producing carbon monoxide that impact the environment. Instructions for accessing NASA data from four different sources are provided along with suggested resources and investigations for classroom use. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

40

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. ...December 19, 2000, State effective December 19, 2000, and...December 19, 2000, State effective December 19, 2000, and...

2010-07-01

41

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1185 Section 52.1185 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...

2011-07-01

42

40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a)...

2011-07-01

43

40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section 52.2089 Protection...PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...

2011-07-01

44

40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52.1682 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The...

2011-07-01

45

40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1528 Section 52.1528 Protection...PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1528 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...

2011-07-01

46

40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52.2353 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has...

2011-07-01

47

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1185 Section 52.1185 Protection...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...

2010-07-01

48

Carbon monoxide poisoning: case studies and review.  

PubMed

This article describes carbon monoxide poisoning. Using a case study approach, the article covers pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and complications. A nursing care plan is presented to guide the critical care nurse in the care of patients in this type of condition. PMID:21983502

Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Zulkosky, Kristen; Fetter, Mary E

2011-01-01

49

Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

Cooper, Anna Grossman

50

Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries; fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or misdiagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxication is not known. The health effects associated with exposure to CO range from the more subtle cardiovascular and

James A. Raub; Monique Mathieu-Nolf; Neil B. Hampson; Stephen R. Thom

2000-01-01

51

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy causes deterioration and relapse of cognitive ability and behavioural movement a few weeks after complete recovery from initial hypoxic injury. A case is reported of delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning, which was diagnosed with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is also reviewed.

O Y Kwon; S P Chung; Y R Ha; I S Yoo; S W Kim

2004-01-01

52

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

1977-01-01

53

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

54

DIRECT CARBON MONOXIDE PHOTOPRODUCTION FROM PLANT MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Initial studies to quantify direct carbon monoxide photoproduction from several plant species are reported. n addition to measuring CO emissions from live plant leaves, emission rates from dead leaf matter were also determined. enescent leaf matter photoproduced CO at rates that ...

55

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

1996-08-01

56

Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide  

DOEpatents

There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

2000-01-01

57

Delayed leukoencephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication  

PubMed Central

Delayed leukoencephalopathy is an uncommon complication of hypoxic-ischemic events of different etiologies, including carbon monoxide intoxication. We present a case of a 40-year-old male patient who was admitted with rapidly progressive neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. There was a history of accidental carbon monoxide intoxication one month before, presenting with loss of consciousness and short hospitalization, followed by a complete clinical recovery. The imaging studies in the delayed phase depicted confluent, symmetric supra-tentorial white matter lesions in keeping with diffuse demyelinization. Restricted diffusion and metabolite abnormalities in magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy were also seen. The diagnosis of CO-mediated delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy was assumed after exclusion of other mimickers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was tentatively performed and the patient had a favorable clinical and radiological evolution.

Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Silva, Cristiana; Neutel, Dulce; Neto, Lia Lucas; Albuquerque, Luísa

2014-01-01

58

Iron pentacarbonyl determination in carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, was previously employed to calibrate the sealed inductively coupled plasma (SICP) for Fe in a 50% chlorine discharge. The same technique is used to determine Fe as Fe(CO)5, one of the most important metallic compound impurities present, in carbon monoxide cylinders. Iron concentrations in various CO cylinders were determined directly by SICP in 30% (v\\/v) CO. Operating

Reha K Tepe; David Vassallo; Tracey Jacksier; Ramon M Barnes

1999-01-01

59

Delayed Movement Disorders after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, delayed movement disorders were diagnosed in 32 (13.2%). There were 15 men and 17 women. Ages at insult ranged from 9 to 69 years (mean 45.3 years). Of the 32 patients with delayed movement disorders, 23 (71.9%) had parkinsonism, 5 dystonia, 3 chorea and 1 myoclonus. All

Il Saing Choi; Hwa Young Cheon

1999-01-01

60

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyte, Gabija; Plenta, Juris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaisa, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

61

Iron pentacarbonyl determination in carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO) 5, was previously employed to calibrate the sealed inductively coupled plasma (SICP) for Fe in a 50% chlorine discharge. The same technique is used to determine Fe as Fe(CO) 5, one of the most important metallic compound impurities present, in carbon monoxide cylinders. Iron concentrations in various CO cylinders were determined directly by SICP in 30% (v/v) CO. Operating parameters including incident power and maximum tolerable CO and Cl 2 concentrations in the discharge were optimized. The detection limit for Fe(CO) 5 in CO was 0.18 ?l l -1 (172 ng absolute). Statistically similar results were obtained when Fe(CO) 5 content was determined by FTIR and SICP-AES. Two- and sevenfold increases in Fe(CO) 5 concentrations were observed over a 1-year period in two different carbon steel cylinders containing CO.

Tepe, Reha K.; Vassallo, David; Jacksier, Tracey; Barnes, Ramon M.

1999-12-01

62

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation. PMID:25109087

Weaver, Lindell K

2014-01-01

63

40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval...Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan...Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide limited maintenance plan revision dated September 7, 2004, meets the...

2010-07-01

64

40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as...Act, and is therefore approved. (b) Approval—The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide limited...

2013-07-01

65

40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as...Act, and is therefore approved. (b) Approval—The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide limited...

2012-07-01

66

40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as...Act, and is therefore approved. (b) Approval—The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide limited...

2011-07-01

67

Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

1972-01-01

68

Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.  

PubMed

Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented. PMID:23307861

Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

2013-06-01

69

Carbon Monoxide: Its Role in Photochemical Smog Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photochemistry of trace amounts of isobutene and oxides of nitrogen in an atmosphere of air was studied both in the presence and in the absence of small amounts of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide accelerates the reaction as measured by nitric oxide oxidation or ozone formation. This finding has relevance to photochemical smog formation.

Karl Westberg; Norman Cohen; K. W. Wilson

1971-01-01

70

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture...zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on...

2013-07-01

71

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture...zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on...

2013-07-01

72

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture...zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on...

2012-07-01

73

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture...zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on...

2012-07-01

74

Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmosphere of Mars has many resources that can be processed to produce things such as oxygen, fuel, buffer gas, and water for support of human exploration missions. Successful manipulation of these resources is crucial for safe, cost-effective, and self-sufficient long-term human exploration of Mars. In our research, we are developing enabling technologies that require fundamental knowledge of adsorptive gas storage and separation processes. In particular, we are designing and constructing an innovative, low mass, low power separation device to recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU (in-situ resource utilization). The technology has broad implications for gas storage and separations for gas-solid systems that are ideally suited for reduced gravitational environments. This paper describes our separation process design and experimental procedures and reports results for the separation of CO2 and CO by a four-step adsorption cycle.

Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

2004-01-01

75

Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

1995-12-01

76

Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect

The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States))

1992-09-01

77

Encapsulation kinetics and dynamics of carbon monoxide in clathrate hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide clathrate hydrate is a potentially important constituent in the solar system. In contrast to the well-established relation between the size of gaseous molecule and hydrate structure, previous work showed that carbon monoxide molecules preferentially form structure-I rather than structure-II gas hydrate. Resolving this discrepancy is fundamentally important to understanding clathrate formation, structure stabilization and the role the dipole moment/molecular polarizability plays in these processes. Here we report the synthesis of structure-II carbon monoxide hydrate under moderate high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. We demonstrate that the relative stability between structure-I and structure-II hydrates is primarily determined by kinetically controlled cage filling and associated binding energies. Within hexakaidecahedral cage, molecular dynamic simulations of density distributions reveal eight low-energy wells forming a cubic geometry in favour of the occupancy of carbon monoxide molecules, suggesting that the carbon monoxide-water and carbon monoxide-carbon monoxide interactions with adjacent cages provide a significant source of stability for the structure-II clathrate framework.

Zhu, Jinlong; Du, Shiyu; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C.; Germann, Timothy C.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Izumi, Fujio; Momma, Koichi; Kawamura, Yukihiko; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

2014-06-01

78

Encapsulation kinetics and dynamics of carbon monoxide in clathrate hydrate.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide clathrate hydrate is a potentially important constituent in the solar system. In contrast to the well-established relation between the size of gaseous molecule and hydrate structure, previous work showed that carbon monoxide molecules preferentially form structure-I rather than structure-II gas hydrate. Resolving this discrepancy is fundamentally important to understanding clathrate formation, structure stabilization and the role the dipole moment/molecular polarizability plays in these processes. Here we report the synthesis of structure-II carbon monoxide hydrate under moderate high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. We demonstrate that the relative stability between structure-I and structure-II hydrates is primarily determined by kinetically controlled cage filling and associated binding energies. Within hexakaidecahedral cage, molecular dynamic simulations of density distributions reveal eight low-energy wells forming a cubic geometry in favour of the occupancy of carbon monoxide molecules, suggesting that the carbon monoxide-water and carbon monoxide-carbon monoxide interactions with adjacent cages provide a significant source of stability for the structure-II clathrate framework. PMID:24936712

Zhu, Jinlong; Du, Shiyu; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C; Germann, Timothy C; Francisco, Joseph S; Izumi, Fujio; Momma, Koichi; Kawamura, Yukihiko; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

2014-01-01

79

Purification and properties of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanococcus vannielii.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from Methanococcus vannielii grown with formate as the sole carbon source. The enzyme is composed of subunits with molecular weights of 89,000 and 21,000 in an alpha 2 beta 2 oligomeric structure. The native molecular weight of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, determined by gel electrophoresis, is 220,000. The enzyme from M. vannielii contains 2 g-atoms of nickel per mol of enzyme. Except for its relatively high pH optimum of 10.5 and its slightly greater net positive charge, the enzyme from M. vannielii closely resembles carbon monoxide dehydrogenase isolated previously from acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from M. vannielii constitutes 0.2% of the soluble protein of the cell. By comparison the enzyme comprises 5% of the soluble protein in acetate-grown cells of M. barkeri and approximately 1% in methanol-grown cells. Images PMID:3624199

DeMoll, E; Grahame, D A; Harnly, J M; Tsai, L; Stadtman, T C

1987-01-01

80

Purification and properties of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanococcus vannielii.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from Methanococcus vannielii grown with formate as the sole carbon source. The enzyme is composed of subunits with molecular weights of 89,000 and 21,000 in an alpha 2 beta 2 oligomeric structure. The native molecular weight of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, determined by gel electrophoresis, is 220,000. The enzyme from M. vannielii contains 2 g-atoms of nickel per mol of enzyme. Except for its relatively high pH optimum of 10.5 and its slightly greater net positive charge, the enzyme from M. vannielii closely resembles carbon monoxide dehydrogenase isolated previously from acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from M. vannielii constitutes 0.2% of the soluble protein of the cell. By comparison the enzyme comprises 5% of the soluble protein in acetate-grown cells of M. barkeri and approximately 1% in methanol-grown cells. PMID:3624199

DeMoll, E; Grahame, D A; Harnly, J M; Tsai, L; Stadtman, T C

1987-09-01

81

Modeling of exposure to carbon monoxide in fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is developed to predict carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in regions of the body for short exposures to carbon monoxide levels expected during escape from aircraft fires. The model includes the respiratory and circulatory dynamics of absorption and distribution of carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin. Predictions of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations are compared to experimental values obtained for human exposures to constant high carbon monoxide levels. Predictions are within 20% of experimental values. For short exposure times, transient concentration effects are predicted. The effect of stress is studied and found to increase carboxyhemoglobin levels substantially compared to a rest state.

Cagliostro, D. E.

1980-01-01

82

Quantum molecular dynamic simulations of warm dense carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

Using quantum molecular dynamic simulations, we have studied the thermophysical properties of warm dense carbon monoxide under extreme conditions. The principal Hugoniot pressure up to 286 GPa, which is derived from the equation of state, is calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The chemical decomposition of carbon monoxide has been predicted at 8 GPa by means of pair correlation function and the charge density distribution. Based on Kubo-Greenwood formula, the dc electrical conductivity and the optical reflectivity are determined, and the nonmetal-metal transition for shock compressed carbon monoxide is observed around 40 GPa. PMID:21842937

Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Cong; Li, Dafang; Zhang, Ping

2011-08-14

83

Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-04

84

A role for nickel-iron cofactors in biological carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide utilization  

E-print Network

Ni–Fe containing enzymes are involved in the biological utilization of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Interest in these enzymes has increased in recent years due to hydrogen fuel initiatives and concerns ...

Kung, Yan

85

40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2013 and CO conformity budgets for the years 2003, 2009, and 2013. [67 FR 19339, Apr. 19, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 53308, Sept. 8,...

2010-07-01

86

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

87

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

88

EVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS MONITORS FOR CARBON MONOXIDE IN STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance characteristics of five commercially available continuous carbon monoxide monitors were evaluated in a two part program consisting of laboratory and field phases. The laboratory phase involved testing each instrument for response characteristics, precision, noise,...

89

40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

2011-07-01

90

40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

2012-07-01

91

40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...electric submerged arc furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis...carbon monoxide. Combustion of such gases under conditions acceptable to...include, but are not limited to, flaring of gases or use of gases as fuel for...

2012-07-01

92

40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...electric submerged arc furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis...carbon monoxide. Combustion of such gases under conditions acceptable to...include, but are not limited to, flaring of gases or use of gases as fuel for...

2011-07-01

93

40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...electric submerged arc furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis...carbon monoxide. Combustion of such gases under conditions acceptable to...include, but are not limited to, flaring of gases or use of gases as fuel for...

2013-07-01

94

Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Brain Cellular Metabolism In Monkeys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The toxicity of carbon monoxide has been extensively studied in many animal species and in man. The current interest is primarily concerned with air pollution and with establishing standards and controls for community and industrial atmospheric contaminat...

M. E. George, J. P. F. Murphy, K. C. Back

1970-01-01

95

The Reaction of Organic Anions with Carbon Monoxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research described has been directed toward two objectives: first, elucidation of the mechanism of reaction of carbon monoxide with organolithium reagents; and second, exploration of the reactions of dialkyl-substituted acetylenes with triarylchromium...

G. M. Whitesides

1969-01-01

96

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of or confirmation of carbon monoxide poisoning. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

97

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01... 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...of or confirmation of carbon monoxide poisoning. (b) Classification. Class...

2011-04-01

98

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING NETWORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is presented for designing a carbon monoxide monitoring network based on the objective of identifying concentrations that exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). The basis for identifying concentrations in excess of the NAAQS is the Concentration ...

99

Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

Mann, Brian E.

100

Carbon Monoxide Production Associated with Ineffective Erythropoiesis*  

PubMed Central

The rate of endogenous carbon monoxide production (?Vco), determined by the closed rebreathing system technique, was elevated above the normal range in four of five patients studied with ineffective erythropoiesis (four patients with primary refractory anemia, one with thalassemia). The mean molar ratio of ?Vco to ?Vheme (rate of circulating heme catabolism, determined from 51Cr red cell survival curves) was 3.0 ± 0.6 (SE), indicating that most of the CO originated from sources other than circulating erythrocyte hemoglobin, in contrast to previous findings in patients with hemolytic anemia, where ?Vco paralleled ?Vheme closely. After administration of glycine-2-14C to these patients, endogenous CO was isolated by washout of body CO stores at high pO2 or by reacting peripheral venous blood samples with ferricyanide. The CO was then oxidized to CO2 by palladium chloride and trapped for counting in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. “Early labeled” peaks of 14CO were demonstrated which paralleled “early labeled” peaks of stercobilin and preceded maximal labeling of circulating heme. Production of “early labeled” 14CO in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis was greatly increased, up to 14 times that found in a normal subject. The increased ?Vco and “early 14CO” production shown by these patients are presumably related mainly to heme catabolism in the marrow. The possibility exists that hepatic heme and porphyrin compounds may also contribute significantly to ?Vco, as suggested by the finding of a high ?Vco in an additional patient with porphyria cutanea tarda. PMID:6074003

White, Peter; Coburn, Ronald F.; Williams, William J.; Goldwein, Manfred I.; Rother, Mary L.; Shafer, Brenda C.

1967-01-01

101

Review: hemodynamic response to carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Historically, and at present, carbon monoxide is a major gaseous poison responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. From threshold to maximal nonlethal levels, a variety of cardiovascular changes occur, both immediately and in the long term, whose homeostatic function it is to renormalize tissue oxygen delivery. However, notwithstanding numerous studies over the past century, the literature remains equivocal regarding the hemodynamic responses in animals and humans, although CO hypoxia is clearly different in several respects from hypoxic hypoxia. Factors complicating interpretation of experimental findings include species, CO dose level and rate, route of CO delivery, duration, level of exertion, state of consciousness, and anesthetic agent used. Augmented cardiac output usually observed with moderate COHb may be compromised in more sever poisoning for the same reasons, such that regional or global ischemia result. The hypotension usually seen in most animal studies is thought to be a primary cause of CNS damage resulting from acute CO poisoning, yet the exact mechanism(s) remains unproven in both animals and humans, as does the way in which CO produces hypotension. This review briefly summarizes the literature relevant to the short- and long-term hemodynamic responses reported in animals and humans. It concludes by presenting an overview using data from a single species in which the most complete work has been done to date.

Penney, D.G.

1988-04-01

102

Modeling carbon monoxide uptake during work  

SciTech Connect

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning is the result of a diminished capacity of the blood to transport oxygen and sustain a level of metabolic activity. The diminished capacity is expressed in terms of the carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level in the blood which is dependent upon the concentration of CO in the inhaled air. The rate of CO uptake or elimination is dependent upon the concentration of CO in the air as well as pulmonary diffusion capacity and alveolar ventilation which change with different metabolic rates. Coburn, Forster, and Kane (CFK) developed a mathematical model to describe the uptake and elimination kinetics of CO in sedentary individuals. The CFK model was used in a mathematical simulation of CO uptake and elimination where the independent variables were inhaled CO concentration and metabolic rate. The metabolic rate was used to specify pulmonary diffusing capacity and alveolar ventilation. As the level of COHb increased the metabolic rate was decreased to a level compatible with the impaired oxygen transport. A physical fatigue limit was also included. The theoretical model was used to simulate conditions beyond the range of exposures permissible under experimental laboratory conditions.

Bernard, T.E. (Westinghouse R and D Center, Pittsburgh, PA); Duker, J.

1981-05-01

103

On the Course of Carbon Monoxide Uptake and Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time course of carbon monoxide exchange has been predicted, using an improved computer model with well and poorly perfused body compartments. The model gives a good description of the time course of early uptake (2–6 min following a 40-ml dose of carbon monoxide). The half-time of subsequent elimination (4h breathing air) is also realistic. However, the early fall of

G. Godin; R. J. Shephard

1972-01-01

104

Myocardial Infarction After Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 28-year-old man with acute myocardial infarction after carbon monoxide poisoning is reported. He had chest pain after the exposure to carbon monoxide. The electrocardiogram, serum enzymes, and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigrams showed anterior myocardial infarction. The coronary angiogram, which was performed one month after the onset, showed no visible atheroscler otic lesion. As to the cause of myocardial infarction, it

Shoji Ebisuno; Masao Yasuno; Yoshio Yamada; Yoshihide Nishino; Masatsugu Hori; Michitoshi Inoue; Takenobu Kamada

1986-01-01

105

Production of hydrogen from carbon monoxide and water  

SciTech Connect

An improved process is described for producing hydrogen from carbon monoxide and water in which carbon monoxide is contacted under homogeneous conditions with an alkaline aqueous liquid phase containing a soluble rhodium-containing catalyst at a reaction temperature from about 100 to 300/sup 0/C and at a reaction pressure from about 1 to 300 atmospheres in the presence of a saturated paraffinic water-soluble alcohol.

Anderson, L.R.; Novotny, M.

1980-09-16

106

Effect of carbon monoxide on the cardiorespiratory system: carbon monoxide toxicity, physiology and biochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to carbon monoxide compromises function of the cardiovascular system primarily by decreasing oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood and decreasing venous and tissue oxygen tension. In normal individuals, with concentrations of approximately 18 to 20% COHb, there is a reduction in the oxygen consumption during high levels of exercise, a higher than predicted cardiac output, and abnormally high concentrations of lactic acid. However, in patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis, concentrations of COHb of 3 to 5% significantly curtailed exercise tolerance before the onset of angina. In addition, there is suggestive evidence in animals that the hypoxia induced by increased levels of COHb induces atherosclerosis.

Turino, G.M.

1981-01-01

107

Carbon monoxide sensors. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the measurement and sensing of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide sensors used to prevent asphyxiation, combustion, and explosion are discussed. Carbon monoxide sensors used to measure combustion efficiency and gas levels in the atmosphere are included. Designs for gas sensors that measure several gases or carbon monoxide alone are presented. Extraterrestrial applications of carbon monoxide sensors are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

108

Influence of the concentration measurement of carbon monoxide with temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to figure out the concentration of carbon monoxide, by measuring the second and third harmonics of the absorption spectrum line, this paper obtained results which indicate that this method can be applied to industry field. Tunable semiconductor laser of 1.58um can be used, and its wavelength is a nice window of communication in long wavelength band of fiber. The measurement optical paths can well be integrated with fiber and passive component in fiber system and it is already applied to industry field. Moreover, the 1.58um spectrum line is an absorption peak of carbon monoxide and around the spectrum line, there is a good transmission window in the background gas of atmosphere. It is very well to measure carbon monoxide concentration. Through measuring peaks of the first and second harmonic or the second and fourth harmonic of absorption spectrum lines of carbon monoxide with tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique, the carbon monoxide concentration can accurately be calculated by composition algebra. This paper focuses on the study that the absorption coefficient changes with temperature. As the absorption coefficient of different temperature changes, the parameters of concentration measurement will change. This is a very complicated process.

Guo, Jian-qiang; Gao, Xiao-rong; Wang, Li; Wang, Ze-yong; Hou, Jun-hui

2011-12-01

109

Carbon monoxide-releasing micelles for immunotherapy.  

PubMed

With the discovery of important biological roles of carbon monoxide (CO), the use of this gas as a therapeutic agent has attracted attention. However, the medical application of this gas has been hampered by the complexity of the administration method. To overcome this problem, several transition-metal carbonyl complexes, such as Ru(CO)(3)Cl(glycinate), [Ru(CO)(3)Cl(2)](2), and Fe(?(4)-2-pyrone)(CO)(3), have been used as CO-releasing molecules both in vitro and in vivo. We sought to develop micellar forms of metal carbonyl complexes that would display slowed diffusion in tissues and thus better ability to target distal tissue drainage sites. Specifically, we aimed to develop a new CO-delivery system using a polymeric micelle having a Ru(CO)(3)Cl(amino acidate) structure as a CO-releasing segment. The CO-releasing micelles were prepared from triblock copolymers composed of a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block, a poly(ornithine acrylamide) block bearing Ru(CO)(3)Cl(ornithinate) moieties, and a hydrophobic poly(n-butylacrylamide) block. The polymers formed spherical micelles in the range of 30-40 nm in hydrodynamic diameter. Further characterization revealed the high CO-loading capacity of the micelles. CO-release studies showed that the micelles were stable in physiological buffer and serum and released CO in response to thiol-containing compounds such as cysteine. The CO release of the micelles was slower than that of Ru(CO)(3)Cl(glycinate). In addition, the CO-releasing micelles efficiently attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-?B activation of human monocytes, while Ru(CO)(3)Cl(glycinate) did not show any beneficial effects. Moreover, cell viability assays revealed that the micelles significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of the Ru(CO)(3)Cl(amino acidate) moiety. This novel CO-delivery system based on CO-releasing micelles may be useful for therapeutic applications of CO. PMID:21128648

Hasegawa, Urara; van der Vlies, André J; Simeoni, Eleonora; Wandrey, Christine; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

2010-12-29

110

Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. The exposures resulted in postexercise carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 0.6% +/- 0.3%, 2.0% +/- 0.1%, and 3.9% +/- 0.1%. The results obtained on the 2%-COHb day and 3.9%-COHb day were compared to those on the room air day. There were 5.1% (p = 0.01) and 12.1% (p less than or equal to 0.0001) decreases in the time to development of ischemic ST-segment changes after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. In addition, there were 4.2% (p = 0.027) and 7.1% (p = 0.002) decreases in time to the onset of angina after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre- versus postexposure exercise tests at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease. PMID:2040254

Allred, E N; Bleecker, E R; Chaitman, B R; Dahms, T E; Gottlieb, S O; Hackney, J D; Pagano, M; Selvester, R H; Walden, S M; Warren, J

1991-01-01

111

[Unusual findings in carbon monoxide-related deaths].  

PubMed

The authors present three cases of carbon monoxide poisoning (two suicides and one accident) from the autopsy material of the Institute of Legal Medicine at Basel, which are unusual with regard to the circumstances at the scene of death, the method of suicide and the post-mortem findings: Suicide of a 27-year-old male by burning charcoal in the bathroom, documentation of the suicide and previous attempted suicides on a tablet PC. Suicide of a 27-year-old male by carbon monoxide chemically, produced by dehydration of formic acid with sulphuric acid and inhalation of the gas through a breathing mask. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning of a 34-year-old male by car exhaust fumes in an open garage. Difficult establishment of the diagnosis in the post-mortem examination due to unspecific colour of livores and varnished fingernails. PMID:25004621

Hecht, Lars; Dittmann, Volker; Dussy, Franz; Gerlach, Kathrin

2014-01-01

112

Measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide using gas filter radiometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide with gas filter radiometers is examined on the basis of the MAPS experiment. The performance characteristics of an instrument that uses the MAPS detectors, broadband filters, and gas cells in a system similar to the GASCOFIL system described by Morrow and Nicholls (1985) is determined. The signal function for two carbon monoxide channels of the MAPS instrument as it was flown in 1981 is shown. The measurements of the lower pressure channel are weighted to a higher altitude. The signal function, when integrated over altitude and multiplied by the normalization constant, yields the value of the signal. Both signal functions approach zero at the top because the gas concentration approaches zero. The present data reduction technique assumes that there are no clouds in the field of view. If clouds are present, the inferred carbon monoxide mixing ratio is too high, and those points must be rejected from the data set.

Reichle, Henry G., Jr.

1991-01-01

113

Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide, a byproduct of incomplete hydrocarbon combustion, has been responsible for many accidental poisonings worldwide. The signs and symptoms of poisoning are diverse, ranging from headache, dizziness, and confusion to cardiac and neurological disturbances. Oxygen is the cornerstone of treatment, because it accelerates the dissociation of carbon monoxide from heme proteins. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of CO poisoning is still questionable. Only a few randomized, controlled studies have been conducted, and their results are inconsistent. In the present review, we discuss the conclusions of four randomized controlled studies and propose a hyperbaric oxygen treatment protocol based on these conclusions. PMID:15902792

Domachevsky, Liran; Adir, Yochai; Grupper, Motti; Keynan, Yoav; Bentur, Yedidia

2005-01-01

114

[An unusual case of suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning].  

PubMed

A 35 years old student with prior suicidal tendencies was found dead laying enclosed in a plastic-bag together with four plastic-bags of minor capacity. Three bags were opened by cuts and empty, one bag contained 73 1 of 83.2 Vol.% carbon monoxide. Postmortem carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in blood of five different regions of the corpse ranged from 80.3% to 93.4%. From the circumstances--chemicals and apparatus--it could be reconstructed that carbon monoxide was produced by the reactions of formic acid and sulfuric acid. PMID:3439831

Wehr, K; Schäfer, A

1987-01-01

115

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2010-07-01

116

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2011-07-01

117

40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

118

40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

119

49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected...SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices...66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when...

2012-10-01

120

49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected...SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices...66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when...

2011-10-01

121

49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected...SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices...66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when...

2010-10-01

122

49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected...SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices...66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when...

2013-10-01

123

40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.  

... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined...as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which...

2014-07-01

124

Minimisation of carbon monoxide in a hydrogen stream for fuel cell application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Means of minimising carbon monoxide in a hydrogen stream for fuel cell operation are reviewed. Reduction of carbon monoxide to an acceptable level of 10–50ppm involves high temperature and low temperature water gas shift, followed by selective oxidation of residual carbon monoxide. Methanation of very small amounts of carbon monoxide may be an alternative final step.A new range of promoted

D. L. Trimm

2005-01-01

125

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2011-07-01

126

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2010-07-01

127

Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran – Tabriz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were

Iman Dianat; Jalil Nazari

2011-01-01

128

Prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide delays postnatal cardiac maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal exposure to toxicants, such as maternal smoking, may impair cardiovascular autonomic maturation in infants. We recently showed that exposure of pregnant rats to a mild concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), a component of cigarette smoke, delays postnatal electrophysiological maturation of ventricular myocytes from newborns rats, likely predisposing to life-threatening arrhythmias. To get a comprehensive view of developmental molecular abnormalities

Laura Sartiani; Francesca Stillitano; Cristina Luceri; Silvia Suffredini; Simona Toti; Carlotta De Filippo; Vincenzo Cuomo; Maria Tattoli; Piero Dolara; Alessandro Mugelli; Elisabetta Cerbai

2010-01-01

129

School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

130

Changes in Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide During the Past Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future changes in the abundance atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) have the potential to exert significant effects on the earths radiative balance. Although CO is not strong absorber of infrared radiation, and thus not considered a greenhouse gas, the photochemically-driven cycle of CO provides it with an indirect greenhouse effect similar in magnitude to that of nitrous oxide ( ˜10% that

P. C. Novelli

2003-01-01

131

Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT.

F. Illum

1980-01-01

132

Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the

M. V. Balzan; G. Agius; A. Galea Debono

1996-01-01

133

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The platinum-alloy catalyst used in proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell anodes is highly susceptible to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. CO reduces the catalyst activity by blocking active catalyst sites normally available for hydrogen chemisorption and dissociation. The reaction kinetics at the anode catalyst surface can be used to estimate the decrease in cell voltage due to various levels of CO

Aida Rodrigues; John C. Amphlett; Ronald F. Mann; Brant A. Peppley; Pierre R. Roberge

1997-01-01

134

The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

2000-01-01

135

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The

Y S Kim

1985-01-01

136

Epidemic carbon monoxide poisoning following a winter storm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital emergency departments were surveyed to estimate the number of patients treated for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a severe winter storm disrupted electrical service in western Washington State. At least 81 persons were treated. The two main sources of CO were charcoal briquettes (54% of cases) and gasoline-powered electrical generators (40% of cases). Of the 44 persons affected by

Peter M. Houck; Neil B. Hampson

1997-01-01

137

Delayed neurological deterioration following carbon monoxide poisoning: MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two patients with delayed neurological deterioration following apparent recovery from carbon monoxide poisoning in whom magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormalities. In the first patient, cortical grey matter abnormalities were seen without white matter changes. Visual evoked potentials were, however, abnormal. In the second, diffuse white matter lesions were detected. In neither patient were basal ganglia lesions seen.

Alessandro S. Zagami; A. Keith Lethlean; Ross Mellick

1993-01-01

138

Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

B Roy; R Crawford

1996-01-01

139

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

140

MRI of the brain in chronic carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 13 patients with chronic carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); all of them had been in an explosion in a coal mine 25 years previously. Symmetrical globus pallidus lesions were observed in 12, as was degeneration of the white matter, with focal cortical atrophy. The temporal parietal and occipital lobes were usually affected, the parietooccipital

A. Uchino; K. Hasuo; K. Shida; S. Matsumoto; K. Yasumori; K. Masuda

1994-01-01

141

Prognostic factors in unintentional mild carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify early predictors of recovery from mild carbon monoxide poisoning, and to search for qualitative interactions between subsets of patients and treatment effects. Design and setting: Inception cohort study from a 4-year, randomised, controlled trial, which compared normobaric oxygen therapy to the combination of normobaric plus hyperbaric oxygen therapy in 307 patients. Study was conducted at a hyperbaric

Djillali Annane; Sylvie Chevret; Marie Jars-Guincestre; Patrick Chillet; David Elkharrat; Philippe Gajdos; Jean Raphael

2001-01-01

142

Confirmation of the Pulse Oximetry Gap in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To demonstrate the degree to which pulse oximetry overestimates actual oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This phenomenon has been reported in fewer than 20 humans in the English medical literature. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 191 patients evaluated for CO poisoning at a regional hyperbaric center identified 124 patients 10 years of

William P Bozeman; Roy AM Myers; Robert A Barish

1997-01-01

143

Study on infrared carbon monoxide monitoring system used in mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide does enormously harm to people and safety production in coal mine and other industries. But because the situation in coal mine is complicated and the interference factors are diversified, at present carbon monoxide detection system has the general problems of low detecting precision, easily poisoning and aging, short service life, narrow measurement range and bed anti-jamming ability. Carbon monoxide concentration is detected by using the infrared absorption principle, and this detection is applied in many fields. A new optics structure was developed with a reference gas cell, dual light sources and dual detectors in this paper, it could compensate to power source anti-jamming, mismatch of the detectors, gas cell material's absorption, and dust's influence. In addition, an infrared carbon monoxide sensor's mathematical model was built by adopting radial basic function's (RBF) neural network model, so as to dispel the influence of temperature, pressure and humidity. A momentum factor's gradient descending method could be applied to adjust the parameters of RBF neural network. The experimental results show that whole system runs very well with a high precision, a strong capacity of anti-jamming, a wide measurement range, a good selectivity, and an online detecting ability.

He, Yukai; Wang, Rulin; Liu, Zhongqi; Wang, Shufang; Deng, Junmin; Guan, Zhonghui

2005-12-01

144

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

145

CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN FORMATION DUE TO CARBON MONOXIDE IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFKE) ia a well tested model for prediction of COHb formation due to carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in humans. here have been few and relatively poorly tested attempts to implement a CFKE for rats. uch an implementation is of interest because many...

146

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

147

The neuropsychiatry of carbon monoxide poisoning in attempted suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: There are few prospective comprehensive controlled studies of the neuropsychiatric outcome in people who attempt suicide with carbon monoxide (CO). The present study aimed to evaluate this. Methods: A consecutive series of 41 adults (81% men) with CO exposure presenting over 3 years, and 20 matched controls, were evaluated with instruments to assess orientation, attention, concentration, speed of information

Phillipa J Hay; Linley A Denson; Miranda van Hoof; Natalia Blumenfeld

2002-01-01

148

40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

...to be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either purified synthetic air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of three percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An...

2014-07-01

149

40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

...to be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either purified synthetic air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of three percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An...

2014-07-01

150

Solubilization of coal with hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of coal to products soluble in common solvents and conversion of coal tar to products of lower molecular weight, effected in liquid or fused reaction medium using a hydrogenating reactant, are carried out employing hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide as the sole or major hydrogenating reactant, without need of elemental hydrogen or a hydrogen donor solvent.

Abdel-baset, M.B.; Ratcliffe, C.T.

1980-11-25

151

Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor  

E-print Network

Titanium dioxide based high temperature carbon monoxide selective sensor Nancy O. Savagea , Sheikh of lanthanum oxide and copper oxide (labeled as ALC sensor), the sensor showed minimal response towards CH4 at elevated temperatures. Lanthanum oxide was used to inhibit the anatase to rutile transformation. Infrared

Dutta, Prabir K.

152

INTERPRETING URBAN CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS BY A COMPUTERIZED COHB MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

A practical, inexpensive computer model for estimating the level of blood carboxyhemoglobin (percent COHb) as a function of time for measured carbon monoxide concentrations (ppm CO) was developed from published studies on the assimilation of CO into the blood of human subjects. T...

153

Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from

J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock

1984-01-01

154

78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-R10-OAR-2013-0420; FRL-9844-7] Approval and Promulgation...Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance...EPA is proposing to approve a carbon monoxide Limited Maintenance...Fairbanks Area will maintain the carbon monoxide National Ambient...

2013-08-09

155

S100B protein in carbon monoxide poisoning: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common form of lethal poisoning. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to assess the possible role of S100B, the structural protein in the astroglia, as a biochemical marker of brain injury in carbon monoxide poisoning. Serum S100B determination was performed in 38 consecutive patients poisoned by carbon monoxide who were admitted

Miran Brvar; Hugon Možina; Josko Osredkar; Martin Možina; Marko No?; Andrej Bru?an; Matjaž Bunc

2004-01-01

156

Trends in the incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeRecent data demonstrate that the mortality rate from carbon monoxide poisoning has declined over the past 2 decades. It is not known whether this decrease in mortality is reflective of the total burden of carbon monoxide poisoning. This study sought to examine trends in other potential indicators of the incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States.

Neil B. Hampson

2005-01-01

157

Rationalizing Burned Carbon with Carbon Monoxide Exported from South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present several estimates cross-checking the fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere from burning, comparing models that are based on simple land-surface parameterizations and atmospheric transport dynamics. Both estimates made by NASA Ames and USP modeling techniques are quite high compared to some detailed satellite/land-use studies of emissions. The flux of carbon liberated to the atmosphere via biomass burning is important for several reasons. This flux is a fundamental statistic for the parameterization of the large-scale flux of gases controlling the reactive greenhouse gases methane and ozone. Similarly, it is central to the estimation of the translocation of nitrogen and pyrodenitrification in the tropics. Thirdly, CO2 emitted from rainforest clearing contributes directly to carbon lost from the rainforest system as it contributes to greenhouse gas forcing. While CO2 from pasturage, agriculture, etc, is considered to be reabsorbed seasonally, and so "off budget" for the carbon cycle, it must also be accounted. CO2 anomalies related to daily weather and interannual climatic variation are strong enough to perturb our scientific perception of long-term carbon storage trends. We compare fluxes deduced from land-use statistics (originally, W.M. Hao) and from satellite hot pixels (A. Setzer) with atmospheric fluxes determined by the mesoscale/continental scale models RAMS and MM5, and point to some new work with highly resolved global models (the NASA Data Assimilation Office's GEOS4). Our simulations are tied to events, so that measured tracers like CO tie the models directly to the burning and meteorology of a specific period. We point out a particular sensitivity in estimates based on CO, and indicate how analysis of CO2 along with other biomass-burning tracers may lead to an improved multi-species estimator of carbon burned.

Chatfield, R.; Freitas, S. R.; SilvaDias, M. A.; SilvaDias, P. O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

158

Diffusing capacity and anatomic dead space for carbon-18 monoxide.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is difficult to measure with a respiratory mass spectrometer because of the similar mass numbers of CO and nitrogen, but this is possible using carbon-18 monoxide. The mass resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, linearity, and background were all found to be adequate. The measurement of the single-breath diffusing capacity was examined. Unless the mean alveolar volume during breath holding is used in the calculation, the value for Dco obtained depends on which portion of the alveolar sample is analyzed. The anatomic dead space for CO was found to be almost the same as that for argon suggesting that the diffusion rate at the dead space-alveolar gas interface was not greatly affected by the alveolar concentration of the gas.

Wagner, P. D.; Mazzone, R. W.; West, J. B.

1971-01-01

159

Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

1990-01-01

160

Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas  

DOEpatents

The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

1985-01-01

161

Clinics in diagnostic imaging (154). Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man with a history of major depression was found by his wife to be unconscious and foaming at the mouth. On arrival at the emergency department, the patient was noted to be unresponsive. Computed tomography of the brain showed symmetrical ill-defined areas of hypoattenuation involving the medial aspects of both lentiform nuclei, while magnetic resonance images of the brain showed symmetrical increased signal in the bilateral globi pallidi on diffusion weighted, T2-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. These findings were those of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Despite aggressive treatment, the patient's condition continued to deteriorate and he eventually passed away. The various imaging findings of carbon monoxide poisoning in the brain and the differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:25189300

Lim, Puay Joo; Shikhare, Sumer Nrupendra; Peh, Wilfred C G

2014-08-01

162

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOEpatents

A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

1996-01-01

163

Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July-August 1990  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the results of a 1990 study of the concentrations of tropospheric methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere above central and eastern Canada. Gas concentrations were measured in the 0.15 to 6 kilometer range of the troposphere using a tunable diode laser instrument. Variable concentrations of both methane and carbon monoxide were documented at altitudes of 0.15 to 6 kilometers over relatively pristine areas. The variability of gas concentration is explained by meteorological factors and local emission sources. The sources are thought to include uncontrolled wildfires, American industrial and urban emissions, retreat of the polar fronts, and emissions from wetland sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Harriss, R.C.; Bartlett, K.B.; Talbot, R.W. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)] [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Sachse, G.W.; Collins, J.E. Jr.; Browell, E.V.; Hill, G.F. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)] [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Wade, L. [Lockheed Engineering and Science, Hampton, VA (United States)] [Lockheed Engineering and Science, Hampton, VA (United States); Barrie, L.A. [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada)] [Atmospheric Environment Service, Ontario (Canada); Burney, L.G. [STC Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)] [STC Corp., Hampton, VA (United States)

1994-01-20

164

Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Nonmethane Hydrocarbons During POPCORN  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the field campaign POPCORN (Photo oxidant formation by plant emitted compounds and OH radicals in North-eastern Germany) in Pennewitt (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany) in August 1994, carbon monoxide and nonmethane hydrocarbons were measured over a large maize field by in-situ gas chromatography. Throughout the campaign CO and NMHC showed, even for a remote rural area, unexpectedly low mixing ratios. Except a

R. Koppmann; C. Plass-Dülmer; B. Ramacher; J. Rudolph; H. Kunz; D. Melzer; P. Speth

1998-01-01

165

Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Diffusion MR Imaging Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: During the acute stage of carbon monoxide poi- soning, diffusion MR images obtained at b 1000 s\\/mm2 revealed high signal intensity lesions in the white matter, consistent with restricted diffusion. Low apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.18 - 0.34 103 mm2\\/s) were noted in the affected white matter regions. Follow-up MR imaging performed 16 days later revealed disappearance of white

R. Nuri Sener

166

Intravascular Neutrophil Activation Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: We hypothesized that platelet-neutrophil interactions occur as a result of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and subsequent neutrophil activation triggers events that cause neuro- logic sequelae. Objectives: To identify platelet-neutrophil interactions and neutro- phil activation in patients and in animal models, and to establish the association between these intravascular events and changes linked to CO-mediated neurologic sequelae in an

Stephen R. Thom; Veena M. Bhopale; Shih-Tsung Han; James M. Clark; Kevin R. Hardy

167

Carbon-monoxide poisoning presenting as an afebrile seizure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1-year-old male who experienced an afebrile seizure and loss of consciousness caused by carbon-monoxide poisoning is reported. His blood gas analysis revealed an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level (up to 25%) and metabolic acidosis. A cranial computed tomography depicted diffuse swelling of the brain. He was promptly treated with hyperbaric oxygen. He recovered fully 8 hours after the onset of the

Toshihiko Mori; Kazushige Nagai

2000-01-01

168

Microscopic model of carbon monoxide binding to myoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a microscopic model of carbon monoxide (CO) binding to myoglobin which reproduces the experimentally observed Arrhenius pre-exponential factor of 109 s-1 and activation enthalpy distribution centered at 12 kJ\\/mol. The model is based on extensive ab initio calculations of CO interacting with a model heme-imidazole group which we performed using a fully quantum mechanical Hartree-Fock\\/density functional theory (HF\\/DFT)

Benjamin H. McMahon; Branko P. Stojkovic; P. Jeffrey Hay; Richard L. Martin; Angel E. García

2000-01-01

169

Guideline for modeling carbon monoxide from roadway intersections  

SciTech Connect

The guideline is designed to evaluate air quality impacts at one or more roadway intersections where vehicular traffic will cause or contribute to increased emissions of carbon monoxide (CO). The explicit purpose of the guideline is to provide a consistent, scientifically acceptable method for estimating the air quality impacts of vehicular traffic at intersections to determine if such impacts may exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for CO.

DiCristofaro, D.C.

1992-11-01

170

Imaging Carbon Monoxide Emission in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 6000  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of carbon monoxide emission in the central region of the nearby starburst NGC 6000 taken with the Submillimeter Array. The J = 2-1 transition of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O were imaged at a resolution of ~3'' × 2'' (450 × 300 pc). We accurately determine the dynamical center of NGC 6000 at alphaJ2000.0 = 15h49m49.s5 and deltaJ2000.0

Sergio Martín; Matthew R. George; David J. Wilner; Daniel Espada

2010-01-01

171

IMAGING CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 6000  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of carbon monoxide emission in the central region of the nearby starburst NGC 6000 taken with the Submillimeter Array. The J = 2-1 transition of ¹²CO, ¹³CO, and C¹O were imaged at a resolution of 3'' x 2'' (450 x 300 pc). We accurately determine the dynamical center of NGC 6000 at {sub J2000.0} = 15{sup h}49{sup

Sergio Martin; Matthew R. George; David J. Wilner; Daniel Espada

2010-01-01

172

Severe carbon monoxide poisoning: outcome after hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the outcome after carbon monoxide poisoning in 31 consecutive patients treated with mechanical ventilation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, compared with another study of mechanically ventilated patients treated with normobaric oxygen. We found 16.1% hospital mortality and 3.8% severe short-term memory loss, compared with 30% hospital mortality and 20% incidence of serious neurological deficit after treatment with normobaric

M. Hawkins; J. Harrison; P. Charters

173

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

SciTech Connect

An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

1989-10-01

174

Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Research activity has included continued mechanistic investigations of the nucleophilic activation of carbon monoxide such as homogeneous catalysis of the water gas shift and key steps in the relevant catalytic cycles. Other investigations of related processes included the application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate quantitatively reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and other functionalizations. 8 refs.

Ford, P.C.

1991-09-04

175

[Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].  

PubMed

Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed. PMID:24860052

Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

2014-06-01

176

Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2006-03-15

177

Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1983-01-01

178

Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*  

E-print Network

Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,* , A.-M. Azada , S-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells require sensors to detect carbon monoxide to extremely low levels ($1 ppm) in the presence of hydrogen and other gaseous components (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and steam). The CO

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

179

Critical review of carbon monoxide pressure measurements in the uranium–carbon–oxygen ternary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

For high temperature reactors (HTR), the high level of fuel operating temperature in normal and accidental conditions requires to predict the possible chemical interactions between the fuel components. Among the concerns of the TRISO fuel particle thermomechanical behavior, it is necessary to better understand the carbon monoxide formation due to chemical interactions at the UO2 kernel and graphite buffer’s interface.

S. Gossé; C. Guéneau; C. Chatillon; S. Chatain

2006-01-01

180

Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

Linne, Diane L.

1996-01-01

181

Gas geyser--a cause of fatal domestic carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide is responsible for a large number of accidental domestic poisoning and deaths throughout the world. Domestic carbon monoxide poisoning is rarely reported in India and remains an under recognized problem. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is usually based on autopsy findings, circumstantial evidence and estimation of carboxy-haemoglobin in blood. We report a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a bathroom where an LPG gas water heater was installed recently. Cherry pink discolouration of the body and organs on autopsy suggested carbon monoxide poisoning. Laboratory analysis of blood by UV visible spectrophotometry revealed presence of dangerous levels of carboxy-haemoglobin. Effective preventive measures can help in bringing down the mortality and morbidity associated with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23084315

Mohankumar, T S; Kanchan, Tanuj; Pinakini, K S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Singh, Manisha; Sirohi, Parmendra; Anwar, Naureen

2012-11-01

182

Carbon monoxide poisoning from gas water heater installed and operated in the bathroom.  

PubMed

Two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning involving 3 victims occurred in Cameron Highlands in the months of August and September 1995. Two of the victims were found dead in the bathrooms where they were taking a bath while the other one survived. Blood toxicology from the post mortems revealed high levels of carbon monoxide. The only significant source of carbon monoxide in both cases were the gas water heaters which were installed in the bathrooms. A multigas detector was used to monitor the level of carbon monoxide in one of the bathrooms and carbon monoxide was found to be produced to 1200 ppm in 16 minutes during operation of the heater. Carbon monoxide poisoning from gas water heaters installed in bathroom is a significant hazard. PMID:10968076

Chong, C K; Senan, P; Kumar, G V

1997-06-01

183

Deaths caused by carbon monoxide poisoning in an open environment (outdoors)  

SciTech Connect

Three deaths as a result of inhalation of carbon monoxide from the exhaust fumes of automobiles are reported. All deaths occurred outside and not in a structure. The individuals were white males, ages 24 to 26 years. Blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations ranged from 58 (in a decomposing body) to 81%. The three cases illustrate the fact that even in the outdoors death from carbon monoxide inhalation can occur if an individual is in close proximity to a rich source of carbon monoxide.

DiMaio, V.J.; Dana, S.E.

1987-11-01

184

Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquid. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

Hepp, Aloysius F.; Linne, Diane L.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

1991-01-01

185

Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

1991-01-01

186

Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive health issues. The most indicative symptoms experienced were a severe headache, blurred vision, agitation, and confusion. Following contact with the Emergency Responses Services, she was promptly transferred to the hospital via ambulance and was treated with high-flow oxygen on the way. She was discharged from the emergency department on the same day, but carbon monoxide exposure had already had adverse effects on her fingernail beds. The fingernail tips were altered and appeared as if a bite had been taken out of their distal borders. The changes in the tips of her fingernails were significant, but they completely disappeared eight weeks later without any additional treatment. Conclusions Worldwide, carbon monoxide poisoning is a potentially lethal condition that is preventable with educational programs and installation of carbon monoxide detectors in the home setting. Exposure to carbon monoxide frequently goes unrecognized until it is too late and causes silent death. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of fingernail bed manifestations in a survivor of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:25073414

2014-01-01

187

Carbon monoxide in the antarctic atmosphere: Observations of decreasing concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Hydroxyl radical remove hundreds of organic gases from the atmosphere and are often regarded as an index of the oxidizing capacity of the Earth's atmosphere. Carbon monoxide is a key component in the determination of hydroxyl radical concentrations: increases of CO would lead to a decline of OH. Global increases of CO had been observed in the 1980's but now it appears that the atmospheric concentrations of CO are falling. This paper reports data from the Antarctic that suggest recent decreases in the concentration of CO. 7 refs., 2 figs.

Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A. (Oregon Graduate Institute, Beaverton, OR (United States))

1993-01-01

188

Laser detoxication of acute poisonings with carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of model experiments have been carried out. Those experiments have proved the fact of laser-induced photo dissociation of HbCO using Nd:YAG-laser with wavelength 533 nm at different conditions. Spontaneous reassociation of ligand to hemoproteid has been observed during the interpulse period. In order to prevent the reversibility of the reaction some oxidizing substances as well as trap-like functioning agents have been tested. The preliminary results allow us to propose the application of nonreversible laser- induced HbCO photodissotiation in the capacity of new physical method to treat acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

Provorov, Alexander S.; Salmin, Vladimir V.; Stavitskaya, Ekaterina Y.; Egorova, Alla B.

2002-05-01

189

Quoth the Raven: carbon monoxide and nothing more  

PubMed Central

The articles contained in this review series exemplify the diverse applications and succinct biological relevance of this simple gas. Articles summarizing the important effects of carbon monoxide in preventing the rejection of an organ, in its neuroprotective properties in piglets, regulation of mycobacterial growth, in its anti-inflammatory effects in the gut and in its use in new and innovative modalities and avenues by which to harness adjuvant therapies are eloquently and precisely described and reviewed. Each of these reports offers but a glimpse of continued prudent and sound evidence that this simple diatomic gas offers astonishingly potent and extremely diverse biological and medicinal qualities. PMID:23497398

2013-01-01

190

Shock-tube study of carbon monoxide dissociation kinetics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide dissociation-rate data were obtained over the temperature range 5600-12,000 K. The experiments were conducted with undiluted CO to emphasize rate constants applicable to molecular gas systems. Data were obtained as time-resolved pressure measurements on the end wall of a shock tube and, in some cases, as emission histories of the C2 Swan system (0-0 band) behind incident shock waves. Results confirm the presence of C2 as an intermediate species in CO decomposition.

Hanson, R. K.

1974-01-01

191

Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

Schwarz, A.; Köhler, A.; Grenz, J.; Wiesendanger, R.

2014-07-01

192

Carbon monoxide binding to a fish hemoglobin under photostationary conditions.  

PubMed

Determinations of carbon monoxide binding curves for hemoglobin from Brevoortia tyrannus under equilibrium and photostationary conditions show that in the light, the curve is shifted to the right and altered in shape. The Bohr effect is much less in the light. The kinetics of the transition between equilibrium and photostationary states has been examined. All of the results are satisfactorily described using the two-state model of Monod, J. Wyman, J., and Changeux, J.P. (1965) J. Mol. Biol. 12, 88-118 with the assumption that light produces an additive increase in the rate of dissociation of ligand from the R and T states. PMID:701255

Torkelson, S J; Gibson, Q H

1978-10-25

193

Carbon Monoxide and Soot Formation in Inverse Diffusion Flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to study carbon monoxide (CO) and soot formation in laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs). The IDF is used because it is a special case of underventilated combustion. The microgravity environment is crucial for this study because buoyancy-induced instabilities impede systematic variation of IDF operating conditions in normal gravity. The project described in this paper is just beginning, and no results are available. Hence, the goals of this paper are to establish the motivation for the research, to review the IDF literature, and to briefly introduce the experimental and computational plan for the research.

Blevins, L. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.

1999-01-01

194

Compact carbon monoxide sensor utilizing a confocal optical cavity.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The carbon monoxide sensor discussed in this paper utilizes a unique confocal cavity which allows the complete system to be packaged in a small volume suitable for hand-held use. The optical system is the heart of the instrument with equal emphasis placed on the electronics support circuitry, consisting essentially of a thermal infrared pyroelectric detector and lock-in amplifier. The pyroelectric detector offers a major advantage over other thermal detectors, providing a signal-to-noise ratio and detectivity that remain nearly constant over the frequency range from dc to 2000 Hz. Since bias voltage is not required, low frequency noise is not generated in the detector.

Scott, B.; Magyar, J.; Weyant, R.; Hall, J.

1973-01-01

195

Some observations on the oscillatory behavior of carbon monoxide oxidation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oscillatory behavior of the oxidation of carbon monoxide was experimentally studied in an attempt to further elucidate the reaction at low pressure. The phenomenon is observed as multiple explosions and involves successive flashes of light accompanying the slow reaction in a static system, including over 450 flashes in one case. Electronically excited hydroxyl radicals (water impurity) and carbon dioxide have been identified as components of the emission. The phase difference between the two was seen to be negligible. The nature of the temperature and pressure changes during a cycle indicates that the oscillation is purely kinetic rather than thermokinetic. A procedure is presented whereby sustained oscillations can be obtained for particular regions in the pressure-temperature plane, vessel surface pretreatments, and H2O-containing reactants.

Mccaffrey, B. J.; Berlad, A. L.

1976-01-01

196

Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats  

E-print Network

Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats, France Rationale: Epidemiologic studies associate atmospheric carbon mon- oxide (CO) pollution with five peaks of 100 ppm per 24-h period), consistent with urban pollution. Myocardial function

Boyer, Edmond

197

Fractional carbon monoxide uptake in an employed population  

PubMed Central

Stebbings, J. H. (1974).Thorax, 29, 505-510. Fractional carbon monoxide uptake in an employed population. The fractional carbon monoxide uptake in 913 New York City transit workers was studied. A prediction equation for white males, based on nonsmokers, was obtained: fractional CO uptake = 0·58032 ? 0·00204 × age + 0·0004 × weight (kilograms). Weight was the index of body size most strongly correlated with the fractional CO uptake. Decline in function with age by amount of tobacco smoked is described. A correction factor for respiration, based on results from 581 workers with two or more tests, was calculated: ? 0·123654 × (standard tidal volume ? observed tidal volume). Tidal volume was the most important contributor to individual variability of the fractional CO uptake, and minute volume or respiration rate do not add significantly to it. For epidemiological or screening uses, prediction equations are given for the fractional CO uptake corrected to 0·5 1. tidal volume. Respiration variables explain only 1·5% of individual variability, and individual variability over a mean period of 16·6 months was much larger (an individual standard error of 0·07) than the unexplained population variability (a population standard error of 0·01?0·02); thus the usefulness of the fractional CO uptake as a test of respiratory function is in doubt. PMID:4428451

Stebbings, James H.

1974-01-01

198

Portable device for monitoring consistency of carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity to nondestructively monitor concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), which is a colorless, tasteless and poisonous gas and is harmful to people, is disclosed. The portable device for monitoring concentration of CO plays an important role in health care and environment supervising for civil and industrial purposes. A basic circuit-based principle for the implementation of the device is presented with a detailed analysis for the key issues in designing. Specifically, the designing for the preamplifier is of great importance to the performance of the device. There is also introduced a method for getting standard voltage value from the micro-ampere current signal outputted from a carbon monoxide sensor and for restraining other gases to exert influence on the CO monitoring. Meanwhile, the paper teaches an anti-jamming technique for eliminating interference between analog and digital circuits within a very small system. In said device, a multi-function alarm circuit, which periodically performing its self-checking function, produces alarm with sound and light if the power of a battery is insufficient or the concentration of CO is detected to be over a set threshold. In addition, the major characteristics and applications for the device are also presented.

Zheng, Qingyu; Liang, Fuping; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xiaofei

2002-06-01

199

A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs  

SciTech Connect

In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

1991-11-01

200

Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule attenuates allograft airway rejection.  

PubMed

Acute rejection after lung transplantation is the main risk factor for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). Carbon monoxide (CO) can provide anti-inflammatory effects and may serve to limit tissue injury in airway transplant. Here, we tested the ability of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) to prevent airway rejection. Tracheal grafts from BALB/c or C57BL/6 were transplanted to C57BL/6 recipients. Experimental groups were treated with multiple doses of CORM-2. Histopathological evaluation of luminal obliteration was blindly reviewed. Immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR analyses were performed. Allografts treated with CORM-2 revealed a striking reduction of thickening in epithelial and subepithelial airway layers (P < 0.01) at day 7 in orthotopic trachea transplantation model compared with allografts treated with vehicle. In heterotopic trachea transplantation model, CORM-2 treated allografts showed a reduction of luminal obliteration (P < 0.01) at days 14 and 21. There was also a concordant decrease in CD3(+) lymphocytes and macrophages in CORM-2 treated allografts. IFN-?, IL-2 and IL17A mRNA expressions were reduced dramatically by systemic administration of CORM-2. These data implicate CORM-2-derived CO has an important protective function in experimental BO, and may represent a target for the therapeutic intervention of chronic lung allograft rejection. PMID:24628975

Ohtsuka, Takashi; Kaseda, Kaoru; Shigenobu, Takao; Hato, Tai; Kamiyama, Ikuo; Goto, Taichiro; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Shimoda, Masayuki

2014-07-01

201

Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

1981-10-01

202

Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comets at large heliocentric distances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a simple model for outgassing from a small flat surface area, the sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two species more volatile than water ice that are known to be present in comets, are calculated for a suddenly activated discrete source on the rotating nucleus. The instantaneous sublimation rate depends upon the comet's heliocentric distance and the Sun's zenith angle at the location of the source. The values are derived for the constants of CO and CO2 in an expression that yields the local rotation-averaged sublimation rate as a function of the comet's spin parameters and the source's cometocentric latitude.

Sekanina, Zdenek

1992-01-01

203

Vasoregulatory function of the heme-heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arterial vessels express one or more heme oxygenase (HO) isoenzymes that catalyze the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin. Carbon monoxide promotes vasorelaxation through mechanisms that, depending on the vessels, involve activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, stimulation of calcium-activated potassium channels, or diminished synthesis of constrictor mediators, such as, endothelin and 20-HETE. Inhibitors of HO elicit vasoconstriction

Fan Zhang; Jun-Ichi Kaide; Francisca Rodriguez-Mulero; Nader G. Abraham; Alberto Nasjletti

2001-01-01

204

Compression factors and virial equation of state coefficients for the system carbon monoxide + ethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide and ethane are components in both natural and synthetic fuel gases as well as in a large range of other industrial gas mixtures. Compression factors were measured using a weighing method for carbon monoxide + ethane mixtures at 10 K intervals from 298.15 to 343.15 K and at pressures up to 10 MPa. Unlike interaction second and third

Peter J. McElroy; Ben D. Ababio

1994-01-01

205

CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN FOUR U.S. CITIES DURING THE WINTER OF 1981  

EPA Science Inventory

Portable monitors were used to measure time averaged personal exposures (10-30 min) to carbon monoxide. Data were collected from January through March 1981 in four cities where carbon monoxide ambient levels in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards have been reported: ...

206

A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY  

EPA Science Inventory

An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

207

Reduced pulmonary inflammatory response during cardiopulmonary bypass: effects of combined pulmonary perfusion and carbon monoxide inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Pulmonary inflammation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is one of the main causes for lung injury after cardiac surgery. Pulmonary perfusions as well as carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation are known to reduce the inflammatory reaction of the lung. We hypothesized that a combination of pulmonary perfusion and carbon monoxide inhalation leads to an even stronger reduction of the lung

Ulrich Goebel; Matthias Siepe; Anne Mecklenburg; Torsten Doenst; Friedhelm Beyersdorf; Torsten Loop; Christian Schlensak

2010-01-01

208

Reduced pulmonary inflammatory response during cardiopulmonary bypass: effects of combined pulmonary perfusion and carbon monoxide inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Pulmonary inflammation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is one of the main causes for lung injury after cardiac surgery. Pulmonary perfusions as well as carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation are known to reduce the inflammatory reaction of the lung. We hypothesized that a combination of pulmonary perfusion and carbon monoxide inhalation leads to an even stronger reduction of the lung

Ulrich Goebel; Matthias Siepe; Anne Mecklenburg; Torsten Doenst; Friedhelm Beyersdorf; Torsten Loop; Christian Schlensak

2008-01-01

209

Carbon monoxide poisoning: Bilateral lesions in the thalamus on MR imaging of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging of the brain in a child with carbon monoxide poisoning revealed bilateral diffuse high signal in the centrum semiovale and the previously unreported finding of bilateral high intensity lesions in the anterior thalami. This case illustrates a previously unrecognized effect of carbon monoxide poisoning and demonstrates the superiority of MR imaging over computed tomography in cases

R. F. Tuchman; F. G. Moser; S. L. Moshé

1990-01-01

210

Pallidoreticular Damage in Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We describe a case of carbon monoxide poison- ing that led to pallidoreticular damage and delayed leu- koencephalopathy. Serial diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed. A restricted water diffusion pattern was demonstrated in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra in the early stage. Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful for early identification of the effects of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

Toshibumi Kinoshita; Shuji Sugihara; Eiji Matsusue; Shinya Fujii; Motoki Ametani; Toshihide Ogawa

211

Electron microscopic studies on the cerebral lesions of rats in experimental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental carbon monoxide poisoning, more marked and widespread pathological changes in the brain were seen in the white matter as compared with the gray matter. No essential difference, in the appearance of cerebral alterations, was detected between acute and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning. It was confirmed that the changes resulting from chronic poisoning showed a higher degree of severity

TSUTOMU MIYAGISHI; Nozomi Suwa

1969-01-01

212

Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of recent unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States. DESIGN. Descriptive analysis of carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States from 1979 through 1988, based on death certificate reports compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. POPULATION STUDIED. All US deaths, 1979 through 1988. RESULTS. We reviewed data from 56,133 death certificates

N. Cobb; R. A. Etzel

1991-01-01

213

Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected.

N. B. Hampson; D. M. Norkool

1992-01-01

214

Successful cardiac transplantation with methanol or carbon monoxide-poisoned donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Patients succumbing to methanol or carbon monoxide poisoning are usually rejected for heart donation. Increasing demand for donors has lead to the expansion of acceptance criteria and increased use of the marginal donor.Methods. We transplanted hearts from donors who had had methanol intoxication in three cases and carbon monoxide exposure in two cases. Standard donor evaluation criteria and transplantation

Michael J Bentley; John C Mullen; Steven R Lopushinsky; Dennis L Modry

2001-01-01

215

Discharge driven precious metal catalyst with application to carbon monoxide lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved carbon monoxide laser apparatus. It includes a closed envelope made of a material capable of maintaining a partial vacuum, the envelope containing a cavity filled with a laser gas mixture which includes carbon monoxide. The laser also having electrically powered electrode means for establishing an electric field and a discharge through the laser gas mixture

Macken

1990-01-01

216

Improved outcome with organs from carbon monoxide poisoned donors for intrathoracic transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The success of intrathoracic organ transplantation has lead to a growing imbalance between the demand and supply of donor organs. Accordingly, there has been an expansion in the use of organs from nonconventional donors such as those who died from carbon monoxide poisoning. We describe our experience with 7 patients who were transplanted using organs after fatal carbon monoxide

Heyman Luckraz; Steven S Tsui; Jayan Parameshwar; John Wallwork; Stephen R Large

2001-01-01

217

New Physiological Importance of Two Classic Residual Products: Carbon Monoxide and Bilirubin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase the rate-limiting step in the degradation of heme to bilirubin, generates carbon monoxide. This gaseous molecule plays important roles in neuronal signaling and modulation of vascular tone. Additionally, carbon monoxide is involved in some pathological conditions (e.g., ischemia, endotoxic shock, excitotoxicity) as a protective or toxic factor. Bilirubin, another heme metabolite, exhibits intriguing biological activities as an antioxidant,

Gilca Marilena

1997-01-01

218

METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) LEVELS IN ALASKAN CITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

High winter carbon monoxide levels in Anchorage, as in Fairbanks, are due to intense nocturnal (ground-based) inversions persisting through the periods of maximum emissions and at times throughout the day. The problem is exacerbated by the large amounts of carbon monoxide emitted...

219

Iron Catalyst Chemistry in High Pressure Carbon Monoxide Nanotube Reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is analyzed using a chemical reaction model coupled with properties calculated along streamlines. Streamline properties for mixing jets are calculated by the FLUENT code using the k-e turbulent model for pure carbon monixide. The HiPco process introduces cold iron pentacarbonyl diluted in CO, or alternatively nitrogen, at high pressure, ca. 30 atmospheres into a conical mixing zone. Hot CO is also introduced via three jets at angles with respect to the axis of the reactor. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Cluster reaction rates are from Krestinin, et aI., based on shock tube measurements. Another model is from classical cluster theory given by Girshick's team. The calculations are performed on streamlines that assume that a cold mixture of Fe(CO)5 in CO is introduced along the reactor axis. Then iron forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs from the Boudouard reaction on Fe-containing clusters by reaction with CO. To simulate the chemical process along streamlines that were calculated by the fluid dynamics code FLUENT, a time history of temperature and dilution are determined along streamlines. Alternative catalyst injection schemes are also evaluated.

Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Smalley, Richard E.

2001-01-01

220

Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1982-01-01

221

Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by Voyager 2, and only now confirmed in this study from Earth, plays an important role as well. "Climate and atmospheric models of Triton have to be revisited now, now that we have found carbon monoxide and re-measured the methane," says co-author Catherine de Bergh. Of Neptune's 13 moons, Triton is by far the largest, and, at 2700 kilometres in diameter (or three quarters the Earth's Moon), is the seventh largest moon in the whole Solar System. Since its discovery in 1846, Triton has fascinated astronomers thanks to its geologic activity, the many different types of surface ices, such as frozen nitrogen as well as water and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), and its unique retrograde motion [1]. Observing the atmosphere of Triton, which is roughly 30 times further from the Sun than Earth, is not easy. In the 1980s, astronomers theorised that the atmosphere on Neptune's moon might be as thick as that of Mars (7 millibars). It wasn't until Voyager 2 passed the planet in 1989 that the atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, at an actual pressure of 14 microbars, 70 000 times less dense than the atmosphere on Earth, was measured. Since then, ground-based observations have been limited. Observations of stellar occultations (a phenomenon that occurs when a Solar System body passes in front of a star and blocks its light) indicated that Triton's surface pressure was increasing in the 1990's. It took the development of the Cryogenic High-Resolution Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to provide the team the chance to perform a far more detailed study of Triton's atmosphere. "We needed the sensitivity and capability of CRIRES to take very detailed spectra to look at the very tenuous atmosphere," says co-author Ulli Käufl. The observations are part of a campaign that also includes a study of Pluto [eso0908]. Pluto, often considered a cousin of Triton and with similar conditions, is receiving renewed interest in the light of the carbon monoxide discovery, and astronomers are racing to find this chemical o

2010-04-01

222

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04

223

Carbon monoxide inhibits inward rectifier potassium channels in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) severely threatens the lives of post-myocardial infarction patients. Carbon monoxide (CO)--produced by haem oxygenase in cardiomyocytes--has been reported to prevent VF through an unknown mechanism of action. Here, we report that CO prolongs action potential duration (APD) by inhibiting a subset of inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels. We show that CO blocks Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 but not Kir2.1 channels in both cardiomyocytes and HEK-293 cells transfected with Kir. CO directly inhibits Kir2.3 by interfering with its interaction with the second messenger phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2). As the inhibition of Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 by CO prolongs APD in myocytes, cardiac Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 are promising targets for the prevention of reperfusion-induced VF. PMID:25118981

Liang, Shenghui; Wang, Quanyi; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Hailin; Tan, Shengjiang; Ahmed, Asif; Gu, Yuchun

2014-01-01

224

[Ozone and carbon monoxide concentration distribution on Taishan Mountain].  

PubMed

The concentrations of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) on the top of Taishan Mountain were monitored, and the variations and correlation were studied. The results show that the frequency of O3 hourly concentrations more than the first-degree of National Ambient Air Quality Standard(GB-3095-1996, NAAQS) was 15.81%, and the frequency of CO concentrations more than the first-degree of NAAQS was zero. The variation of O3 concentrations appears in a narrow scope, which indicates that there is scarcely influenced by the pollution of industry around. The diurnal variation of the concentrations of O3 and that of CO both present two peaks with the peaks of O3 in the behind of CO, which indicates that the concentration variations of O3 and its precursor CO are primarily controlled by local photochemical reaction process. The daily concentrations of O3 correlated well with CO. PMID:16599112

Yin, Yong-Quan; Shan, Wen-Po; Wang, Tao; Ji, Xia; Li, Chang-Mei; Cui, Zhao-Jie

2006-01-01

225

Mean platelet volume in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is frequent and can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Some studies have indicated increased platelet activation and aggregation in CO poisoning. Thus, we investigated mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet activation, in patients with CO poisoning. We included 193 (117 women) patients who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2011 and March 2013. Control group was composed of 39 (15 women) patients. Troponin and creatine kinase MB levels were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Platelet counts were significantly higher in patients with CO poisoning (281 ± 76 vs 248 ± 65 × 10(9), respectively; P = .01). Similarly, MPV was significantly higher in the CO poisoning group (8.9 ± 0.8 vs 7.9 ± 0.9 fL, respectively; P < .001). Elevated MPV values may indicate that patients with CO poisoning have a higher risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications due to platelet activation. PMID:23901146

Karabacak, Mustafa; Varol, Ercan; Türkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Duman, Ali; Akpinar, Orhan; Karabacak, Pinar

2014-03-01

226

Neuropsychological performance in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

This study investigated changes in cognitive function in acute and delayed carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning groups with comprehensive neuropsychological tests at 1 month and 6 months after therapy. For this study, 11 patients with acute and 14 with delayed CO poisoning were recruited. The neuropsychological tests included psychomotor speed, visual-spatial ability, language, logical memory, working memory, and executive function. The results showed that patients with delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome (DNS) had poorer performance on neuropsychological tasks than did those with acute CO poisoning at the 1st month and reached almost the same level as the acute group on the neuropsychological tasks at the 6-month follow-up assessment. The DNS group had more significant progress on general cognitive function, psychomotor speed, and visual-spatial ability than did the acute group after continuous hyperbaric-oxygen therapy. PMID:25265309

Yeh, Zai-Ting; Tsai, Chung-Fen; Yip, Ping-Keung; Lo, Chiao-Yu; Peng, Su-Min; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Kung, Lan-Yu

2014-01-01

227

The dissociation of shock-heated carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the dissociation kinetics of undiluted carbon monoxide over the 5,600 to 12,000 K temperature range. Data are presented that have been obtained as time-resolved pressure measurements on the end wall of a shock tube and radiation emission of a C2 Swan system (0-0 band) behind incident shock waves. The decomposition of CO is complex and includes a chain with C2 as an intermediate species. The dissociation rate for the overall process has been found to be independent of the proportions of the collision partners M = CO, C, and O. The rate constant found is on the average about 10 times that previously measured with argon as the collision partner.

Hanson, R. K.

1973-01-01

228

The Social Network of Carbon Monoxide in Medicine  

PubMed Central

Networking between cells is critical for proper functioning of the cellular milieu and is mediated by cascades of highly regulated and overlapping signaling molecules. The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) generates three separate signaling molecules through the catalysis of heme – carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron – each of which acts via distinct molecular targets to influence cell function, both proximally and distally. This review focuses on state-of-the art developments and insights into the impact of HO-1 and CO on the innate immune response, the effects of which are responsible for an ensemble of functions that help regulate complex immunologic responses to bacterial sepsis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. HO-1 exemplifies an evolutionarily conserved system necessary for the cellular milieu to adapt appropriately, function properly, and ensure survival of the organism. PMID:23140858

Wegiel, Barbara; Hanto, Douglas W.; Otterbein, Leo E.

2012-01-01

229

The oxidation of carbon monoxide using a tin oxide catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines some of the steps involved in the development by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) of a catalytic device for the recombination of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a CO2 laser system. It contrasts the differences between CO oxidation for air purification and for laser environmental control, but indicates that there are similarities between the physical specifications. The principal features of catalytic devices are outlined and some experimental work described. This includes measurements concerning the structure and mechanical properties of the artifact, the preparation of the catalyst coating and its interaction with the gaseous environment. The paper concludes with some speculation about the method by which the reaction actually occurs.

Sampson, Christopher F.; Gudde, Nicholas J.

1987-04-01

230

Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery) via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed. PMID:22928087

Choi, Yoon Kyung; Por, Elaine D.; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

2012-01-01

231

Status of EPA's air quality standards for carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish, and periodically review and revise national air quality standards. EPA established standards for carbon monoxide in 1971 and in August 1980 proposed updated revisions to those standards. Seven of the eight key studies EPA used to support the revisions were authored by a cardiologist employed by the Veterans Administration. In March 1983 EPA was about to issue its revised standards when it learned that the cardiologist had been under investigation by the Food and Drug Administration and the Veterans Administration since 1979 for, among other things, alleged falsification of research. As a result, EPA delayed issuing the standards, conducted an audit of the research data, and concluded that it could not rely on the cardiologist's research. Even without this research, EPA believes that there is a sufficient scientific basis to support revised standards but has not yet decided what those standards will be.

Not Available

1984-09-27

232

Vibrational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide at the Active Sites of Mutant Heme Proteins Jeffrey R. Hill and Dana D. Dlott*  

E-print Network

and increasing the relative affinity for oxygen versus poisonous carbon monoxide.1 Many studies have been madeVibrational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide at the Active Sites of Mutant Heme Proteins Jeffrey R. Hill suggest that the mechanism of carbon monoxide VR in heme proteins such as Mb occurs by through

Boxer, Steven G.

233

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

...2013-07-01 true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure...

2014-07-01

234

Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet both cultivation studies and emerging genome sequences of bacteria and archaea establish that CO is a widely utilized microbial growth substrate. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases ([Ni,Fe]-CODHs) in currently available genomic sequence databases. Currently, 185 out of 2887, or 6% of sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. Many genomes encode multiple copies of [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes whose functions and regulation are correlated with their associated gene clusters. The phylogenetic analysis of this extended protein family revealed six distinct clades; many clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that were encoded by microbes from disparate phylogenetic lineages, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. To more clearly define if the branching patterns observed in the [Ni,Fe]-CODH trees are due to functional conservation vs. evolutionary lineage, the genomic context of the [Ni,Fe]-CODH gene clusters was examined, and superimposed on the phylogenetic trees. On the whole, there was a correlation between genomic contexts and the tree topology, but several functionally similar [Ni,Fe]-CODHs were found in different clades. In addition, some distantly related organisms have similar [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes. Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used to observe horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of [Ni,Fe]-CODH gene clusters by applying Kullback–Leibler divergence analysis methods. Divergent tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage showed that the gene cluster of T. carboxydivorans that encodes a [Ni,Fe]-CODH and an energy-converting hydrogenase is dissimilar to its whole genome but is similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant Firmicute, Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results imply that T carboxydivorans acquired this gene cluster via HGT from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans. PMID:22529840

Techtmann, Stephen M.; Lebedinsky, Alexander V.; Colman, Albert S.; Sokolova, Tatyana G.; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Robb, Frank T.

2012-01-01

235

Carbochlorination kinetics of titanium dioxide with carbon and carbon monoxide as reductant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kinetic study of the chlorination of titanium dioxide (rutile and anatase) was carried out in a fixedbed reactor at temperature ranging from 800 °C to 1000 °C and normal pressure. In our experiment, titanium dioxide powder and gaseous chlorine with carbon or carbon monoxide as reductant were used. The products of the reaction are all in gaseous phase under the temperatures and pressure studied. With CO as reductant, reaction is of noncatalytic gas-solid nature and experimental data fit the shrinking core model. When using C as reductant, solid-solid reaction is involved. Reactivity is highly enhanced by solid carbon and it is concluded that an activated C-TiO2-Cl complex contributes to the enhanced reactivity. A reaction model based on phase boundary control applies to the experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis supports the experimental observation.

Yang, Fenglin; Hlavacek, Vladimir

1998-12-01

236

Crystallographic Snapshots of Cyanide- and Water-Bound C-Clusters from Bifunctional Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase/Acetyl-CoA Synthase  

E-print Network

Nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs) reversibly catalyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and are of vital importance in the global carbon cycle. The unusual catalytic CODH C-cluster ...

Kung, Yan

237

Influence of carbon monoxide on metabolite formation in Methanosarcina acetivorans.  

PubMed

Methanogenic archaea conserve energy for growth by reducing some one- and two-carbon compounds to methane and concomitantly generating an ion motive force. Growth of Methanosarcina acetivorans on carbon monoxide (CO) is peculiar as it involves formation of, besides methane, formate, acetate and methylated thiols. It has been argued that methane formation is partially inhibited under carboxidotrophic conditions and that the other products result from either detoxification of CO or from bypassing methanogenesis with other pathways for energy conservation. To gain a deeper understanding of the CO-dependent physiology of M. acetivorans we analyzed metabolite formation in resting cells. The initial rates of methane, acetate, formate, and dimethylsulfide formation increased differentially with increasing CO concentrations but were maximal already at the same moderate CO partial pressure. Strikingly, further increase of the amount of CO was not inhibitory. The maximal rate of methane formation from CO was approximately fivefold lower than that from methanol, consistent with the previously observed significant downregulation of the energy converting sodium-dependent methyltransferase. The rate of dimethylsulfide formation from CO was only 1-2% of that of methane formation under any conditions tested. Implications of the data presented for previously proposed pathways of CO utilization are discussed. PMID:19191870

Oelgeschläger, Ellen; Rother, Michael

2009-03-01

238

The Production of Carbon Monoxide from Hemoglobin In Vivo*  

PubMed Central

Dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital were shown to produce carbon monoxide at an average rate of 0.21 ± (SD) 0.05 ml per hour. After intravenous injection of erythrocytes damaged by incubation with N-ethylmaleimide, CO was produced in excess of base-line production for 3 to 4 hours with an average yield of 0.89 ± (SE) 0.046 ?mole of carbon monoxide to 1 ?mole of heme degraded. After intravenous injection of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-treated erythrocytes containing hemoglobin labeled with 14carbon, 14CO was produced. Its specific activity was approximately one-eighth that of the injected heme. It was also produced after intravenous injection of solutions of hemoglobin-14C and of reconstituted methemoglobin containing hemin-14C, but not after injections of methemoglobin containing globin-14C. The average yields of 14CO from metabolized heme in the experiments with damaged erythrocytes and hemoglobin solutions were 89 ± (SE) 4.6 and 97 ± (SE) 17.0%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the CO produced during hemoglobin degradation arises from the heme moiety. The yield of 14CO after injection of hemoglobin-14C solutions decreased significantly to values of 35 and 42% in two experiments when exogenous CO was added to the body stores, resulting in blood carboxyhemoglobin levels of 11.3 and 13.2% saturation. This finding suggests that oxidative metabolism is required during catabolism of hemoglobin to CO and that carboxy-hemoglobin levels in this range are sufficient to cause inhibition. After intravenous injection of either hemin-14C or protoporphyrin-14C, 14CO was also produced. After injection of protoporphyrin-14C labeled bilirubin was isolated from gall bladder bile, and labeled hemin was isolated from the liver. It is thus very likely that protoporphyrin is converted to heme before the formation of CO. There was a large difference between the maximal rates of catabolism of hemoglobin to CO observed after injection of damaged erythrocytes and hemoglobin solutions. The limiting parameters in these processes are not yet clear. PMID:6024892

Coburn, R. F.; Williams, W. J.; White, P.; Kahn, S. B.

1967-01-01

239

Regulation of Multiple Carbon Monoxide Consumption Pathways in Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO-utilization, has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: one clade (CooA-1) is found in the majority of CooA-containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2) is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21808633

Techtmann, Stephen M.; Colman, Albert S.; Murphy, Michael B.; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Robb, Frank T.

2011-01-01

240

The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

2013-12-01

241

EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON ORGANIC MATTER CYCLING: FORMATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND CARBONYL SULFIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide-are examined. oth of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or at...

242

Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on Space Shuttle and aircraft measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide measurements made from the space shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be consistent with this view. In the tropics the three regions of long-term mean rising motion, which form part of the Walker circulation, are associated with elevated carbon monoxide.

Newell, R. E.; Shipley, S. T.; Connors, V. S.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

1988-01-01

243

Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on Space Shuttle and aircraft measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide measurements made from the Space Shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be consistent with this view. In the tropics the three regions of long-term mean rising motion, which form part of the Walker circulation, are associated with elevated carbon monoxide.

Newell, R. E.; Shipley, S. T.; Connors, V. S.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

1988-01-01

244

Diagnosing black carbon trends in large urban areas using carbon monoxide measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) has been analyzed using measurements from two sites in Mexico City and five urban areas in Germany. The correlation coefficient between BC and CO is greater than 0.90 for all sites. The average slope of the linear regression line for BC versus CO is 2.2 ?g mg-1 for German sites and 1.1 ?g mg-1 in Mexico City. The most important factors that affect the BC to CO relationship appear to be the ratio of diesel to gasoline usage and the combustion efficiency of vehicles in a particular area. The results of this analysis suggest that CO measurements in urban areas can be used to estimate BC mass when direct measurements are not available.

Baumgardner, Darrel; Raga, G.; Peralta, O.; Rosas, I.; Castro, T.; Kuhlbusch, T.; John, A.; Petzold, A.

2002-11-01

245

A carbon monoxide gas sensor using oxygen plasma modified carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that can be commonly found in many places. However, it is not easily detected by human olfaction due to its colorless and odorless nature. Therefore, highly sensitive sensors need to be developed for this purpose. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an immense potential in gas sensing. However, CNT-based gas sensors for sensing CO are seldom reported due to the lack of reactivity between CO and CNTs. In this work, O2 plasma modified CNT was used to fabricate a CNT gas sensor. The plasma treated CNTs showed selectively towards CO, with the capability of sensing low concentrations of CO (5 ppm) at room temperature, while the pristine CNTs showed no response. UV spectra and oxygen reduction reaction provided evidence that the difference in sensing property was due to the elimination of metallic CNTs and enhancement of the oxygen reduction property.

Zhao, Weiyun; Fam, Derrick Wen Hui; Yin, Zongyou; Sun, Ting; Tan, Hui Teng; Liu, Weiling; Iing Yoong Tok, Alfred; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy; Zhang, Hua; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

2012-10-01

246

Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nitride: Influence of Surface Hydroxyls on Low Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the synthesis of 2.5 nm gold clusters on the oxygen free and chemically labile support carbon nitride (C3N4). Despite having small particle sizes and high enough water partial pressure these Au/C3N4 catalysts are inactive for the gas phase and liquid phase oxidation of carbon monoxide. The reason for the lack of activity is attributed to the lack of surface OH groups on the C3N4. These OH groups are argued to be responsible for the activation of CO in the oxidation of CO. The importance of basic OH groups explains the well document dependence of support isoelectric point versus catalytic activity.

Singh, Joseph A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2012-01-01

247

Mechanism of the ventilatory response to carbon monoxide.  

PubMed Central

The effects of carbon monoxide on ventilation were studied in unanesthetized goats. Responses to single breaths of 10-25% CO in O2, which rapidly raised carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) from 5 to 60%, were considered to reflect peripheral chemoreceptor-mediated reflexes whereas responses to continuous inhalation of 1% CO in O2, which slowly raised COHb from 0 to 60%, were considered to reflect both peripheral chemoreceptor and nonperipheral chemoreceptor mechanisms. In each of six goats, single breaths of CO failed to elicit any immediate ventilatory response. However, slow buildup of carboxyhemoglobinemia in the same animals always elicited ventilatory stimulation (from a mean of 7.43 to 16.02 liter/min, P less than 0.001) beginning 5-6 min after onset of 1% CO in O2 inhalation when COHb saturation reached 50-60%. In eight studies of six animals HCO3- concentration fell (from 21.3 to 15.8 meq/liter; P less than 0.001) and lactate concentration rose (from 2.5 to 4.2 meq/liter; P less than 0.05) in the cisternal cerebrospinal fluid during the CO-induced hyperpnea. Additional studies ruled out ventilatory stimulation from left heart failure or enhanced chemo-sensitivity to carbon dioxide. Although the delayed hyperpnea was associated with a hyperdynamic cardiovascular response to CO, blockade of these circulatory effects with propranolol (2 mg/kg) failed to abolish the delayed hyperpnea; however, the propranolol did unmask an element of ventilatory depression which preceded the hyperpnea. Conclusions were: (a) hyperventilation in response to CO inhalation is not mediated by the carotid bodies; (b) the delayed hyperpnea in response to CO inhalation is primarily due to brain-cerebrospinal fluid acidosis; (c) mobilization of body CO2 stores due to the circulatory response to CO may obscure an initial depression of ventilation by CO. PMID:947962

Santiago, T V; Edelman, N H

1976-01-01

248

Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

249

40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1164 Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975,...

2012-07-01

250

FIELD SURVEYS OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN COMMERCIAL SETTINGS USING PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study employed miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording ...

251

40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...areas of potentially high carbon monoxide concentrations by reviewing all available traffic data, physical site data and air quality and meteorological data for all major intersections and roadway complexes within the Region. The Regional...

2011-07-01

252

40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...areas of potentially high carbon monoxide concentrations by reviewing all available traffic data, physical site data and air quality and meteorological data for all major intersections and roadway complexes within the Region. The Regional...

2013-07-01

253

Investigation of low temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts. [for Spacelab atmosphere control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide generation rates related to the use of commerical equipment in Spacelab, added to the normal metabolic and subsystem loads, will produce carbon monoxide levels in excess of the maximum allowable concentration. In connection with the sensitivity of carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts to poisoning at room temperature, catalysts for an oxidation of carbon monoxide at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that platinum and palladium are the only effective room temperature catalysts which are effective at 333 K. Hopcalite was ineffective at ambient temperatures, but converted CO with 100 percent efficiency at 333 K. Poisoning tests showed the noble metal catalysts to be very sensitive, and Hopcalite to be very resistant to poisoning.

Jagow, R. B.; Katan, T.; Ray, C. D.; Lamparter, R. A.

1977-01-01

254

The Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule CORM-2 Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation  

E-print Network

The Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule CORM-2 Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation, France Abstract Chronic infections resulting from biofilm formation are difficult to eradicate with current antimicrobial agents and consequently new therapies are needed. This work demonstrates

Dietrich, Lars

255

40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.  

...the national standards for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide in the San Francisco Bay Area, San Diego, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley, and Southeast Desert Intrastate Regions by May 31, 1975. (b)...

2014-07-01

256

Evaluation of Catalytic Emission Controls to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisonings from Houseboat Generator Exhaust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Working under an interagency agreement with the United States Coast Guard, researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, exposures, and controls from gasoline-powered generator...

A. Garcia, G. S. Earnest, R. McCleery, R. M. Hall

2006-01-01

257

Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Information for Older Adults and Their Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... CO poisoning due to their high frequency of pre-existing medical conditions. 1 While CO alarms can ... poisoned by carbon monoxide exposure. Older adults with pre-existing conditions, such as chronic heart disease, anemia, ...

258

Performance and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Carbon Monoxide/Oxygen Rocket Engine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combustion and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide and oxygen rocket engine were evaluated. The test hardware consisted of a calorimeter combustion chamber with a heat sink nozzle and an eighteen element concentric tube injector. Experi...

D. L. Linne

1993-01-01

259

75 FR 54805 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO) Limited Maintenance Plan for the Twin Cities Area AGENCY...The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment...9 ppm, respectively. This limited maintenance plan satisfies section 175A of the...

2010-09-09

260

Model-Based Estimate of Carbon Monoxide Uptake by Heart Muscle During Exercise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations that exceed the Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) (50 ppm averaged over 8 hr) is the most common cause of work-related inhalation fatalities. The morbidity and mortality resulting from these CO exposures are ...

A. Patwardhan, E. Bruce, M. C. Bruce

2010-01-01

261

Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source  

DOEpatents

The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

2008-11-18

262

Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor  

DOEpatents

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

2012-11-13

263

Exhaled carbon monoxide levels in atopic asthma: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) is a potential non-invasive marker of airway inflammation. We have investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between eCO and lung function and bronchial reactivity in 69 adults with atopic asthma, in the course of participation in a 6-week randomised placebo-controlled trial of vitamin E supplementation. At baseline, there was no cross-sectional association between absolute eCO levels and either forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) or bronchial reactivity. However, in the longitudinal analysis within the placebo group, a rise in mean eCO was significantly associated with improvement in bronchial reactivity (change in eCO (parts per million) per natural log unit change in bronchial hyperreactivity 0.498, 95% confidence interval 0.071 to 0.924, P=0.024). These findings suggest that, contrary to previous data, there is no cross-sectional relationship between eCO and lung function or bronchial reactivity, but that there may be a longitudinal trend with bronchial reactivity that is worth further investigation. PMID:16140229

Pearson, Philip; Lewis, Sarah; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew

2005-10-01

264

Carbon monoxide in gastrointestinal physiology and its potential in therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Background While carbon monoxide (CO) is a known toxin, it is now recognized that CO is also an important signaling molecule involved in physiology and pathophysiology. Aims To summarize our current understanding of the role of endogenous CO in the regulation of gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology and potential therapeutic applications of modulating CO. Methods This review is based on a comprehensive search of the Ovid Medline comprehensive database and supplemented by our ongoing studies evaluating the role of CO in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology. Results CO derived from heme oxygenase-2 is predominantly involved in neuromodulation and in setting the smooth muscle membrane potential while CO derived from heme oxygenase-1 has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties which protect gastrointestinal smooth muscle from damage caused by injury or inflammation. Exogenous CO is being explored as a therapeutic agent in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including diabetic gastroparesis, postoperative ileus, organ transplantation, inflammatory bowel disease and sepsis. However, identifying the appropriate mechanism for safely delivering CO in humans is a major challenge. Conclusions CO is an important regulator of gastrointestinal function and protects the gastrointestinal tract against noxious injury. CO is a promising therapeutic target in conditions associated with gastrointestinal injury and inflammation. Elucidating the mechanisms by which CO works and developing safe CO delivery mechanisms are necessary to refine therapeutic strategies. PMID:23992228

Gibbons, Simon J.; Verhulst, Pieter-Jan; Bharucha, Adil; Farrugia, Gianrico

2013-01-01

265

Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

Mcdonald, Glen E

1954-01-01

266

Carbon Monoxide Epidemic Among Immigrant Populations: King County, Washington, 2006  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated an outbreak of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a power outage to determine its extent, identify risk factors, and develop prevention measures. Methods. We reviewed medical records and medical examiner reports of patients with CO poisoning or related symptoms during December 15 to 24, 2006. We grouped patients into households exposed concurrently to a single source of CO. Results. Among 259 patients with CO poisoning, 204 cases were laboratory confirmed, 37 were probable, 10 were suspected, and 8 were fatal. Of 86 households studied, 58% (n = 50) were immigrant households from Africa (n = 21), Asia (n = 15), Latin America (n = 10), and the Middle East (n = 4); 34% (n = 29) were US-born households. One percent of households was European (n = 1), and the origin for 7% (n = 6) was unknown. Charcoal was the most common fuel source used among immigrant households (82%), whereas liquid fuel was predominant among US-born households (34%). Conclusions. Educational campaigns to prevent CO poisoning should consider immigrants’ cultural practices and languages and specifically warn against burning charcoal indoors and incorrect ventilation of gasoline- or propane-powered electric generators. PMID:19608962

Kwan-Gett, Tao; Hampson, Neil B.; Baer, Atar; Shusterman, Dennis; Shandro, Jamie R.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

267

Carbon monoxide: present and future indications for a medical gas  

PubMed Central

Gaseous molecules continue to hold new promise in molecular medicine as experimental and clinical therapeutics. The low molecular weight gas carbon monoxide (CO), and similar gaseous molecules (e.g., H2S, nitric oxide) have been implicated as potential inhalation therapies in inflammatory diseases. At high concentration, CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard, and is a common component of air pollution. CO is also produced endogenously as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase enzymes. CO binds avidly to hemoglobin, causing hypoxemia and decreased oxygen delivery to tissues at high concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a signal transduction molecule in the regulation of neural and vascular function and cellular homeostasis. CO has been demonstrated to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammation, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and organ transplantation. Additional experimental indications for this gas include pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, metabolic diseases, and preeclampsia. The development of chemical CO releasing compounds constitutes a novel pharmaceutical approach to CO delivery with demonstrated effectiveness in sepsis models. Current and pending clinical evaluation will determine the usefulness of this gas as a therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23525151

Choi, Augustine M. K.

2013-01-01

268

The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation  

PubMed Central

The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO) had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field. PMID:23295066

2013-01-01

269

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The platinum-alloy catalyst used in proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell anodes is highly susceptible to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. CO reduces the catalyst activity by blocking active catalyst sites normally available for hydrogen chemisorption and dissociation. The reaction kinetics at the anode catalyst surface can be used to estimate the decrease in cell voltage due to various levels of CO contamination in the inlet fuel streams on PEM fuel cell performance have been reviewed and analyzed in an attempt to further understand the electrochemical properties of the CO adsorption process. A fuel cell performance model of bipolar, Nafion 117 PEM fuel cell stack has been developed which predicts equilibrium cell output voltage as a function of current density and partial pressure of CO. The model contains both empirical and mechanistic parameters and evolved from a steady-state electrochemical model for a PEM fuel cell fed with a CO-free anode gas. Reaction kinetics and equilibrium surface coverage have been incorporated into the electrochemical model to predict the decrease in fuel cell performance at equilibrium. The effects of CO were studied at various concentrations of CO in hydrogen as the anode feed gas. Literature data were used to develop the model parameters and the resulting model is used to compare the model-predicted voltages, with and without CO, to data found in the literature.

Rodrigues, A.; Amphlett, J.C.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

1997-12-31

270

Carbon monoxide poisoning in the 21st century  

PubMed Central

The world has experienced some very large shifts in the epidemiology of carbon monoxide poisoning, but it remains one of the most important toxicological global causes of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis can be quickly confirmed with blood gases (pulse oximeters lack both sensitivity and specificity). Several strong predictors for serious neurological sequelae (prolonged loss of consciousness and elevated S100B) and reduced life expectancy (elevated troponin) are now reasonably well established. Despite this clearly defined high-risk group and extensive research into the pathophysiology, there has been little translation into better treatment. Much of the pathophysiological research has focused on hyperbaric oxygen. Yet it is apparent that clinical trials show little evidence for benefit from hyperbaric oxygen, and the most recent even raises the possibility of harm for repeated courses. More logical and promising potential antidotes have been under-researched, although recently both animal and small human studies suggest that erythropoietin may reduce S100B and prevent neurological sequelae. Major breakthroughs are likely to require further research on this and other treatments that may inhibit post-hypoxic inflammatory responses and apoptosis.

2014-01-01

271

Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. PMID:24090814

Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

272

Causes of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide poisonings in California.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the annual number and incidence of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in California and to identify specific factors that caused or contributed to the deaths. Unintentional CO deaths in California over a ten-year period (1979 to 1988) were identified from the database of the California Master Mortality File and coroners' investigation reports. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths were determined based on the information from the investigation reports. The annual number of unintentional CO deaths varied from 27 to 58 over the ten years examined, with an average annual death incidence of 1.7 x 10(-6). Death rates were high among males and African-Americans. Alcohol appeared to be a factor in 31% of the cases. The types of combustion sources associated with unintentional CO deaths were: heating or cooking appliances; motor vehicles; charcoal grills and hibachis; small engines; and camping equipment. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths interact in a complex way. To reduce the rate of unintentional CO deaths effectively, joint efforts involving several prevention methods are suggested. PMID:9549414

Girman, J R; Chang, Y L; Hayward, S B; Liu, K S

1998-01-01

273

Carbon monoxide over the Amazon basin during the wet season  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made over the Amazon Basin of Brazil during the 1987 wet season as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). The distribution of CO over the altitude range sampled (0.15-4.5 km) was influenced by surface emissions from biological sources, long-range transport of pollutants from northern hemisphere sources, and by transport processes associated with local convective mixing. Surface sources are indicated by a qualitative interpretation of the typical pattern of decreasing concentrations with increasing altitude and increasing concentrations of CO at 0.15-km altitude during a transect from the Atlantic coast to the central basin. Atmospheric convective activity produced irregular patterns of variability at time scales of less than 1 hour over a localized area. The disruption of mixed layer growth and decay processes has a particularly important influence on CO concentrations in the daytime lower troposphere. Intrusions of northern hemisphere air into the central Amazon resulted in increased CO concentrations in the lower and midtroposphere. The correlation of CO with O{sub 3} was positive under conditions interpreted as being influenced by northern hemisphere air, and negative during all other meteorological conditions experienced in ABLE 2B.

Harriss, R.C. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA)); Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Gregory, G.L. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA)); Wade, L.O. (Planning Research Corp., Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-09-20

274

Imaging Carbon Monoxide Emission in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 6000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of carbon monoxide emission in the central region of the nearby starburst NGC 6000 taken with the Submillimeter Array. The J = 2-1 transition of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O were imaged at a resolution of ~3'' × 2'' (450 × 300 pc). We accurately determine the dynamical center of NGC 6000 at ?J2000.0 = 15h49m49.s5 and ?J2000.0 = -29°23'13'' which agrees with the peak of molecular emission position. The observed CO dynamics could be explained in the context of the presence of a bar potential affecting the molecular material, likely responsible for the strong nuclear concentration where more than 85% of the gas is located. We detect a kinematically detached component of dense molecular gas at relatively high velocity which might be fueling the star formation. A total nuclear dynamical mass of 7 × 109 M sun is derived and a total mass of gas of 4.6 × 108 M sun, yielding a M gas/M dyn ~ 6%, similar to other previously studied barred galaxies with central starbursts. We determined the mass of molecular gas with the optically thin isotopologue C18O and we estimate a CO-to-H2 conversion factor X CO = 0.4 × 1020 cm-2(K km s-1)-1 in agreement with that determined in other starburst galaxies.

Martín, Sergio; George, Matthew R.; Wilner, David J.; Espada, Daniel

2010-06-01

275

Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

2013-01-01

276

Carbon monoxide sensors. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and evaluation of carbon monoxide sensors. Citations discuss chemical and electrochemical sensors, sensor response, sensor materials, and carbon monoxide measurements in flow and flame environments. Emission monitoring and identification systems, and portable emission analyzers are presented. Applications in automobile emission analysis and control, reactor control, and alarm systems are examined. (Contains a minimum of 191 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-05-01

277

The Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearances of the Brain in Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning, the commonest cause of accidental poisoning in Europe and the U.S.A. To attempt to correlate the imaging findings with patient outcome as an aid to prognosis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MRI was performed on 19 consecutive patients, who had sustained acute carbon monoxide poisoning,

P. O'DONNELL; P. J. BUXTON; A. PITKIN; L. J. JARVIS

2000-01-01

278

Myocardial findings in fatal carbon monoxide poisoning: a human and experimental morphometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to define the status of the myocardium in selected human cases of acute, fatal carbon monoxide\\u000a intoxication and the myocardial changes in rats exposed to carbon monoxide in relation to the type of cardiac arrest and the\\u000a effects of reoxygenation following pre-fatal CO intoxication. The human study consisted of 26 cases (17 accidental and

Vittorio Fineschi; Eustachio Agricola; Giorgio Baroldi; Giancarlo Bruni; Daniela Cerretani; Sergio Mondillo; Marina Parolini; Emanuela Turillazzi

2000-01-01

279

[Research on carbon monoxide multi-parameter detection based on ultra-narrow-linewidth laser].  

PubMed

Through measuring and analyzing the infrared absorption spectrum of carbon monoxide, a kind of carbon monoxide multi-parameter detection system was designed based on the characteristics of ultra-narrow-linewidth laser and the spectrum scanning technology. A ultra-narrow-linewidth tunable semiconductor laser was utilized as light source and carbon monoxide temperature detection was achieved by measuring direct absorption spectra at different temperatures. According to temperature data and the principle of differential absorption concentration detection, carbon monoxide concentration and temperature were obtained simultaneously. With the spectrum scanning technology of ultra-narrow-linewidth laser, the spectra of carbon monoxide near the region of 6 354.179 and 6 383.09 cm(-1) at different temperatures were measured, and also analyzed and fitted by Voigt profile. Finally the experiments indicate that the temperature measurement relative error is less than 4% and relative temperature fluctuation is less than 3.5%; the concentration measurement relative error is less than 5%, and the minimum detectable carbon monoxide is 0.05%. The multi-parameter detecting system has advantages of high accuracy and good stability, and can be used in power transformer fault gases on-line monitoring in real time. PMID:22250565

Chen, Xiao; Sui, Qing-Mei; Miao, Fei; Jia, Lei; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Ming-Shun

2011-10-01

280

REVISED EVALUATION OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE: AN ADDENDUM TO THE 1979 U.S. EPA AIR QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The addendum re-evaluates the scientific data base concerning health effects associated with exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) at ambient or near ambient levels by providing: (1) a concise summary of key health effects information pertaining to relatively low-level CO exposure; an...

281

Removal of carbon monoxide from hydrogen-rich fuels by selective oxidation over platinum catalyst supported on zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special catalysts — Pt supported zeolites — for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in reformed fuels from methanol or natural gas were proposed. They can be applied for the application to polymer electrolyte fuel membrane cells of which anode Pt catalysts suffer serious poisoning by the presence of trace carbon monoxide. The proposed Pt-supported zeolite catalysts can oxidize carbon

Hiroshi Igarashi; Hiroyuki Uchida; Miki Suzuki; Yuko Sasaki; Masahiro Watanabe

1997-01-01

282

Prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide delays postnatal cardiac maturation.  

PubMed

Prenatal exposure to toxicants, such as maternal smoking, may impair cardiovascular autonomic maturation in infants. We recently showed that exposure of pregnant rats to a mild concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), a component of cigarette smoke, delays postnatal electrophysiological maturation of ventricular myocytes from newborns rats, likely predisposing to life-threatening arrhythmias. To get a comprehensive view of developmental molecular abnormalities induced, at cardiac level, by prenatal CO exposure, we used microarray analysis approach on the rat heart at 4, 7 and 20 days postnatal life. The relationship between molecular and functional alterations was investigated by assessing the ventricular expression of f-current, an electrophysiological marker of immature cardiac phenotype. Rats were prenatally exposed to 0 (CTR) or 150?p.p.m. CO and mRNA obtained from ventricular samples. Differential analysis and biological pathway analysis of microarray data were performed by using Newton's approach and the GENMAPP/MAPPFinder, respectively. The real-time RT-PCR reactions were performed by TaqMan probe-based chemistry. Freshly isolated patch-clamped ventricular cardiomyocytes were used to measure I(f). Genes and pathways controlling cell cycle and excitation-contraction coupling were significantly modified in CO-exposed rats. The higher effect was observed in cardiomyocytes harvested from 7-day-old rats, in which mRNA expression for crucial sarcomeric proteins (myosin and actin subunits, troponin I), transporters (Ca(2+) transporting ATPase) and enzymes (aldolase) were significantly downregulated. Accordingly, the molecular and functional expression of f-channels, which represents a marker of fetal ventricular phenotype, was transiently greater in CO-exposed rats (+200%) than in control ones. In conclusion, our study provides new insights into the molecular and functional mechanisms underlying cardiac maturation and its impairment by prenatal exposure to toxic components of smoking, such as CO. PMID:20644522

Sartiani, Laura; Stillitano, Francesca; Luceri, Cristina; Suffredini, Silvia; Toti, Simona; De Filippo, Carlotta; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Tattoli, Maria; Dolara, Piero; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta

2010-11-01

283

MOPITT Multispectral Retrievals of Carbon Monoxide: Validation and Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new MOPITT Version 5 product is the first satellite product for carbon monoxide (CO) to exploit multispectral observations. Together, near-infrared (NIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) observations permit the retrieval of CO concentrations in the lower troposphere, near the actual sources. However, while this feature is potentially valuable for applications including chemical weather forecasting and inverse modeling, the retrieval characteristics of the new multispectral product (e.g., the retrieval averaging kernels) are highly variable. The underlying causes of this variability include thermal contrast and geophysical noise. Validating the new V5 product is challenging for several reasons. Compared to the TIR-only MOPITT product, random retrieval errors in the multispectral product are substantially larger. To compensate, stronger temporal and spatial averaging may be necessary. However, the temporal and spatial variability of CO in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are much greater than in the free troposphere. Consequently, in-situ CO measurements made in the PBL may be poorly correlated with CO concentrations averaged over areas representative of MOPITT pixels (~ 22 km). Errors from this effect are only compounded as multiple MOPITT pixels are averaged together, particularly if there are significant regional sources. Previous MOPITT validation efforts have relied mainly on in-situ profiles measured from aircraft. While these are valuable, we are also exploring new sources of validation data. For example, we have begun comparing MOPITT retrieval results with CO in-situ measurements from the NOAA 'Tall Tower' network. Instruments on these towers measure CO concentrations at high temporal frequency and at multiple fixed altitudes within the PBL.

Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.

2011-12-01

284

Antimicrobial Action of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Compounds?  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) is endogenously produced in the human body, mainly from the oxidation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. The induction of HO and the consequent increase in CO production play important physiological roles in vasorelaxation and neurotransmission and in the immune system. The exogenous administration of CO gas and CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has been shown to induce vascular effects and to alleviate hypoxia-reoxygenation injury of mammalian cells. In particular, due to its anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antiproliferative properties, CO inhibits ischemic-reperfusion injury and provides potent cytoprotective effects during organ and cell transplantation. In spite of these findings regarding the physiology and biology of mammals, nothing is known about the action of CO on bacteria. In the present work, we examined the effect of CO on bacterial cell proliferation. Cell growth experiments showed that CO caused the rapid death of the two pathogenic bacteria tested, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, particularly when delivered through organometallic CO-RMs. Of importance is the observation that the effectiveness of the CO-RMs was greater in near-anaerobic environments, as many pathogens are anaerobic organisms and pathogen colonization occurs in environments with low oxygen concentrations. Our results constitute the first evidence that CO can be utilized as an antimicrobial agent. We anticipate our results to be the starting point for the development of novel types of therapeutic drugs designed to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens, which are widespread and presently a major public health concern. PMID:17923486

Nobre, Ligia S.; Seixas, Joao D.; Romao, Carlos C.; Saraiva, Ligia M.

2007-01-01

285

Carbon monoxide activates autophagy via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation.  

PubMed

Autophagy, an autodigestive process that degrades cellular organelles and protein, plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis during environmental stress. Carbon monoxide (CO), a toxic gas and candidate therapeutic molecule, confers cytoprotection in animal models of acute lung injury. The mechanisms underlying CO-dependent lung cell protection and the role of autophagy in this process remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that CO exposure time-dependently increased the expression and activation of the autophagic protein, microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B) in mouse lung, and in cultured human alveolar (A549) or human bronchial epithelial cells. Furthermore, CO increased autophagosome formation in epithelial cells by electron microscopy and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 puncta assays. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the activation of autophagy. CO up-regulated mitochondria-dependent generation of ROS in epithelial cells, as assayed by MitoSOX fluorescence. Furthermore, CO-dependent induction of LC3B expression was inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine and the mitochondria-targeting antioxidant, Mito-TEMPO. These data suggest that CO promotes the autophagic process through mitochondrial ROS generation. We investigated the relationships between autophagic proteins and CO-dependent cytoprotection using a model of hyperoxic stress. CO protected against hyperoxia-induced cell death, and inhibited hyperoxia-associated ROS production. The ability of CO to protect against hyperoxia-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation was compromised in epithelial cells infected with LC3B-small interfering (si)RNA, indicating a role for autophagic proteins. These studies uncover a new mechanism for the protective action of CO, in support of potential therapeutic application of this gas. PMID:21441382

Lee, Seon-Jin; Ryter, Stefan W; Xu, Jin-Fu; Nakahira, Kiichi; Kim, Hong Pyo; Choi, Augustine M K; Kim, Young Sam

2011-10-01

286

Carbon monoxide over Indian region as observed by MOPITT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive study has been carried out on tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) over the Indian land mass and surrounding oceanic region using the CO retrievals from MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) for a period of ?14 years (2000-2014). The lower-tropospheric CO maximises during winter and shows a broad minimum during summer-monsoon over most of the regions, but with regionally varying seasonal amplitudes. Tropospheric column CO also exhibits a seasonal pattern similar to lower-tropospheric CO. But the upper-tropospheric CO shows an opposite seasonal pattern which peaks during summer monsoon. Columnar CO showed strong positive correlation with fire counts over west, east and north-east India, indicating the dominant role of biomass burning in controlling the seasonal variation of CO. The lower-tropospheric and columnar CO showed decreasing trend of 2.0-3.4 ppb year-1 (1.1-2.0% year-1) and 6.0-13.6 × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1 (0.3-0.6% year-1) respectively over most of the regions. However, over many land regions trend in columnar CO is not significant. Most strikingly, the upper tropospheric CO showed increasing trend of 1.4-2.4 ppb year-1 (1.8-3.2% year-1). The analysis of biases in the estimated trends due to temporal changes in the MOPITT averaging kernels shows that magnitude of the realistic trend may change depending upon the bias but the sign (positive or negative) of trend remains the same. The decreasing trend in lower tropospheric and columnar CO could be attributed partly to increase in lower tropospheric water vapour and/or tropospheric ozone. The strengthening of convective activity, uplifting the CO to higher altitudes, could be a reason for increasing trend in the upper-tropospheric CO.

Girach, I. A.; Nair, Prabha R.

2014-12-01

287

IMAGING CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSION IN THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 6000  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of carbon monoxide emission in the central region of the nearby starburst NGC 6000 taken with the Submillimeter Array. The J = 2-1 transition of {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O were imaged at a resolution of {approx}3'' x 2'' (450 x 300 pc). We accurately determine the dynamical center of NGC 6000 at {alpha}{sub J2000.0} = 15{sup h}49{sup m}49.{sup s}5 and {delta}{sub J2000.0} = -29{sup 0}23'13'' which agrees with the peak of molecular emission position. The observed CO dynamics could be explained in the context of the presence of a bar potential affecting the molecular material, likely responsible for the strong nuclear concentration where more than 85% of the gas is located. We detect a kinematically detached component of dense molecular gas at relatively high velocity which might be fueling the star formation. A total nuclear dynamical mass of 7 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} is derived and a total mass of gas of 4.6 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, yielding a M{sub gas}/M{sub dyn} {approx} 6%, similar to other previously studied barred galaxies with central starbursts. We determined the mass of molecular gas with the optically thin isotopologue C{sup 18}O and we estimate a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor X{sub CO} = 0.4 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}(K km s{sup -1}){sup -1} in agreement with that determined in other starburst galaxies.

Martin, Sergio [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); George, Matthew R.; Wilner, David J.; Espada, Daniel, E-mail: smartin@eso.or [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2010-06-15

288

Monitoring ambient air quality with carbon monoxide sensor-based wireless network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a poisonous air pollutant produced from the incomplete oxidation of carbon during the combustion process. It has a direct effect on the human body due to its affinity for blood hemoglobin, which inhibits the absorption of oxygen to the blood. The formation of carboxyhemoglobin complex can profoundly affect human health both on an acute and

Demin Wang; Dharma P. Agrawal; Wassana Toruksa; Chaichana Chaiwatpongsakorn; Mingming Lu; Tim C. Keener

2010-01-01

289

Carbon Monoxide as a Basis for Primitive Life on Other Planets: a Comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

WOLFGANG1 has made the interesting suggestion that photodissociation of carbon dioxide to CO + O may provide the necessary ingredients for a chemotrophic primary production process conducted by living creatures on other planets, analogous to the primary production function of photosynthesis on the Earth. Wolfgang cites Bacillus oligocarbophilus as a terrestrial precedent for biological oxidation of carbon monoxide; Hydrogenomonas carboxydovorans2

John Postgate

1970-01-01

290

Carbon monoxide fuel cells as a source for Mars rover electric power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical fuel cells which can efficiently provide electrical energy from chemical energy are considered. The possible use of carbon monoxide and oxygen obtained from the separation of the carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere to make electricity to power planetary rover vehicles on planet Mars is discussed. Although fuel cells are heavier than internal combustion engines of the same power

Mitchell Burnside Clapp

1993-01-01

291

Bench-to-bedside review: Carbon monoxide – from mitochondrial poisoning to therapeutic use  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide (CO) is generated during incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds and leads to acute and chronic toxicity in animals and humans depending on the concentration and exposure time. In addition to exogenous sources, CO is also produced endogenously by the activity of heme oxygenases (HOs) and the physiological significance of HO-derived CO has only recently emerged. CO exerts

Inge Bauer; Benedikt HJ Pannen

2009-01-01

292

Carbon deposition on nickel cermet anodes of solid oxide fuel cells operating on carbon monoxide fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon deposition characteristics of CO/CO2 fuel on an anode support button cell are investigated. The anodic carbon deposition degree increases with the discharging time, the operation temperature and the CO mole fraction in anode gas. The deposited carbon on the anode cross-sections is characterized by an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a Raman spectrometer to analyze the differences and similarities of CO and CH4 deposited carbon microstructure. The carbon is mainly deposited on the Ni surface for CO while the deposited carbon consists of carbon on the Ni surface and carbonyl group Cdbnd O for CH4. Not similar to CH4, there is no obvious disordered carbon peak in the CO deposited carbon Raman spectra. The CO deposited carbon is mainly in regular crystal graphitic carbon structure and rarely in amorphous carbon structure.

Li, Chen; Shi, Yixiang; Cai, Ningsheng

2013-03-01

293

A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

Apte, M.G.

1997-09-01

294

Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.31+/-0.12Tgyr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

Chen, L.-W. Antony; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

2001-05-01

295

Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.31±0.12 Tg yr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

Antony Chen, L.-W.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

296

Carbon monoxide tolerant platinum electrocatalysts on niobium doped titania and carbon nanotube composite supports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the anode of electrochemical cells operating at low temperature, the hydrogen oxidation reaction is susceptible to poisoning from carbon monoxide (CO) which strongly adsorbs on platinum (Pt) catalysts and increases activation overpotential. Adsorbed CO is removed by oxidative processes such as electrochemical stripping, though cleaning can also cause corrosion. One approach to improve the tolerance of Pt is through alloying with less-noble metals, but the durability of alloyed electrocatalysts is a critical concern. Without sacrificing stability, tolerance can be improved by careful design of the support composition using metal oxides. The bifunctional mechanism is promoted at junctions of the catalyst and metal oxides used in the support. Stable metal oxides can also form strong interactions with catalysts, as is the case for platinum on titania (TiOx). In this study, niobium (Nb) serves as an electron donor dopant in titania. The transition metal oxides are joined to functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) supports in order to synthesize composite supports. Pt is then deposited to form electrocatalysts which are characterized before fabrication into anodes for tests as an electrochemical hydrogen pump. Comparisons are made between the control from Pt-CNT to Pt-TiOx-CNT and Pt-Ti0.9Nb0.1Ox-CNT in order to demonstrate advantages.

Rigdon, William A.; Huang, Xinyu

2014-12-01

297

Anatase titanium dioxide thin film based carbon monoxide gas sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas sensors are finding increasing number of applications in home, industrial and automotive areas. Incomplete combustion in gas and coal fired electricity plants can generate harmful gases and pollutants. The purpose of the proposed research was to develop titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film based materials for carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing to detect a very low concentration (20--100 ppm) of CO gas. Anatase TiO2 thin films (100--1000 nm) have been developed using pulsed DC magnetron reactive sputtering technique on glass, Si(100) and sapphire substrates. Optimum deposition parameters were determined by studying the crystalline quality of the films using X-ray diffraction. The x-ray photo-emission (XPS) studies indicated a good stoichiometric TiO 2 surface with O to Ti ratio of 1.95 +/- 0.05. Film residual stress was measured using curvature measurements of the substrates before and after deposition of the films. The anatase TiO2 thin films on sapphire showed lower stress compared to glass and Si substrates. Raman spectroscopy measurements were further used to study the correlation between the residual stress and Raman shifts of characteristic peaks to obtain a calibration factor. Anatase TiO2 thin films showed n-type electrical conductivity indicating the presence of shallow electron donors caused by oxygen vacancies. The response of films was tested for 100 ppm of CO in 100 sccm of N2 gas flow as a function of temperature, film thickness, and the substrate. The films show the highest response at 200°C. The films grown on sapphire substrates show the highest response. The response is higher for a film with 1000 nm thickness than the 250 nm thickness film. The CO sensor was tested as a function of CO concentration and as well as under different environs: The films respond to very low concentration, 20--100 ppm, of CO gas, with good reversibility. The response and recovery time were from 2 min to 1 min as the concentration increased from 20 to 100 ppm. It can be completely regenerated by turn off the CO gas without exposing it to oxygen or air. The sensor showed sensitivity for CO with as high as 2000 PPM of O2 concentration. It has the same response in dry and in humid environments. Furthermore, the anatase TiO2 thin film with no doping showed to have higher response than the doped films with Cu or La at 300°C.

Al-Homoudi, Ibrahim Abdullah

298

Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides  

SciTech Connect

The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

1991-11-01

299

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... (b) On December 21, 1999, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management...quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental...

2011-07-01

300

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... (b) On December 21, 1999, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management...quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental...

2012-07-01

301

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... (b) On December 21, 1999, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management...quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental...

2014-07-01

302

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... (b) On December 21, 1999, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management...quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental...

2013-07-01

303

Microcalorimetric Study of Argon, Nitrogen, and Carbon Monoxide Adsorption on Mesoporous Vycor Glass.  

PubMed

The adsorption of argon, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide in porous Vycor glass has been studied by volumetric and microcalorimetric methods and by thermoporometry. Samples with particle sizes ranging from <50 to >200 µm have been selected and treated by sample controlled thermal analysis (SCTA). Subsequent characterization indicates that the particle size has no influence on the pore texture and nature. Thermal treatment, however, modifies the chemical nature of the surface. It would seem that nitrogen and carbon monoxide assume a distinct mean orientation leading to smaller effective cross-sectional areas than those usually accepted. Carbon monoxide clearly distinguishes two different types of adsorption site for samples treated at low temperature. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9756665

Torralvo; Grillet; Llewellyn; Rouquerol

1998-10-15

304

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

DOEpatents

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

1996-01-01

305

Effects of carbon monoxide on isolated heart muscle cells. Research report, March 1989-February 1992  

SciTech Connect

By sequestering intracellular myoglobin of cardiac muscle cells in the nonfunctioning carboxymyoglobin form, carbon monoxide blocks myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen, as well as myoglobin-mediated oxidative phosphorylation. The authors explored the hypothesis that the carbon monoxide blockade of myoglobin function may be responsible at the cellular level for a component of the cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide observed during exercise. At physiological oxygen pressures no greater than 5 torr, after sequestration of approximately 50% of the myoglobin, steady-state oxygen uptake decreased significantly less than the respiration of cell groups for which the fraction of carboxymyoglobin was 0% to 40%. When respiration is diminished, the rate of oxidative phosphorylation also decreases. Thus, they concluded that sequestering intracellular myoglobin as carboxymyoglobin significantly decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation of isolated cardiac myocytes. They estimate that intracellular myoglobin-dependent oxidative phosphorylation will be inhibited when approximately 20% to 40% of the arterial hemoglobin in the whole animal is carboxyhemoglobin.

Wittenberg, B.A.; Wittenberg, J.B.

1993-01-01

306

Does public education reduce ice storm-related carbon monoxide exposure?  

PubMed

Public education to prevent carbon monoxide exposure during ice storms has been recommended; its effects remain unexamined. We compared patients seen for carbon monoxide inhalation at the area's only academic Emergency Department during 1991 and 2003 ice storms; educational efforts were more intense in 2003. There were fewer patients during the second storm (45 vs. 55); all recovered fully. The percentage of Caucasian patients rose (from 57% to 89%) whereas that of African-American patients fell (from 39% to 7%). Indoor grill use, associated with 11% of 1991 cases, was eliminated in 2003. Indoor gas generators remain the most common source. Carboxyhemoglobin levels correlate poorly with ambient carbon monoxide levels. Enhanced public education had a modest effect, especially in reducing the proportion of African-American patients and those from indoor grill use. Research on more effective public health education targeted at gas generator users and combined with physical interventions should be considered. PMID:16243198

Lin, George; Conners, Gregory P

2005-11-01

307

Butene and carbon monoxide flammable clouds in a glovebox with two hotplates  

SciTech Connect

Two flammable gases in a glovebox (HC-230C-3) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) were modeled to quantify the amount of flammable gas and its spatial location. The two flammable gases are butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}) and carbon monoxide (CO). Butene is a hydrocarbon (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}) gas that is released from magnesium hydroxide precipitate containing dibutyl-phosphate when sufficiently heated. Carbon monoxide is a flammable gas that is released from precipitate containing oxalic acid when sufficiently heated. The model for calculating butene and carbon monoxide gas concentrations is described in Section 2.0. The scenarios of release with the specific model and parameters are described in Section 3.0. The results of calculations are described in Section 4.0 with the summary and conclusions appearing in Section 5.0.

PIEPHO, M.G.

2002-02-22

308

Magnetic field and electromagnetic wave properties of carbon monoxide with high-pressure disproportionation single-walled carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

A double-fluid theory is used to find the electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco)-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with HiPco SWNTs is obtained and is studied numerically. The absorption is then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, cyclotron frequency, and angle of propagation is studied. The double-fluid theory predicts that there is an electromagnetic frequency dependency on the energy absorption properties of the system under investigation. The calculation results show that effects of magnetic field strength and the angle of microwave propagation on the absorption coefficient as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant.

Tooski, S. B. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Materials and Nanotechnology and Laboratory of Applied Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran P.O. Box 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-10-15

309

Measurements of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Other Related Tracers at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to quantify the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide on the urban scale is essential for understanding the atmospheric drivers to global climate change. In the 'top-down' approach, overall carbon fluxes are determined by combining remote measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with complex atmospheric transport models, and these emissions measurements are compared to "bottoms-up" predictions based on detailed inventories of the sources and sinks of carbon, both anthropogenic and biogenic in nature. This approach, which has been proven to be effective at continental scales, becomes challenging to implement at the urban scale, due to poorly understood micrometeorological atmospheric transport models and high variability of the emissions sources in space (e.g., factories, highways, residences) and time (rush hours, factory shifts and shutdowns, residential energy usage variability during the day and over the year). New measurement and analysis techniques are required to make sense of the carbon dioxide signal in cities. Here we present detailed, high spatial- and temporal-resolution greenhouse gas measurements in Silicon Valley in California. The synthesis of two experimental campaigns is presented: real-time measurements from two ten-meter urban 'towers,' and ground-based mobile mapping measurements. Real-time carbon dioxide data from a nine-month period are combined with real-time carbon monoxide, methane, acetylene, and carbon 13 measurements to partition the observed CO2 concentrations between different anthropogenic sectors (e.g., transport, residential) and biogenic sources. The carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide ratio is shown to vary over more than a factor of two from season to season or even from day to night, indicating rapid and frequent shifts in the balance between different carbon dioxide sources. Clear differences are seen between the two urban sites, which are separated by 7 km. Further information is given by the carbon 13 signature and by acetylene, another tracer that provides complementary information to carbon monoxide as an indicator of combustion. In spring and summer, the combined signal of the urban center and the surrounding biosphere and urban green space is explored. These methods show great promise for quantifying and partitioning carbon dioxide emissions in an urban and mixed urban / ecological setting.

Rella, C.; Jacobson, G.

2012-04-01

310

Dissipation of phonons by subsystem of disordered molecules - Case of thermal conductivity of carbon monoxide crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Order or disorder in subsystem of dipolar constituents of a solid often significantly influences its physical properties. The results of investigation of the effect of glassy state in subsystem of carbon monoxide molecules on thermal conductivity of CO crystal in its equilibrium vapor pressure are reported. The thermal conductivity of a high quality carbon monoxide crystal was specified over the temperature range 1.2-45 K. The results of these measurements were analyzed within the frame of relaxation time approximation. It was shown that at low temperatures phonon scattering by subsystem of disordered CO molecules is the most significant dissipative mechanism of heat transfer in the investigated crystal.

Romanova, Tetiana; Stachowiak, Piotr; Je?owski, Andrzej

2014-11-01

311

Cerebral infarction due to carotid occlusion and carbon monoxide exposure III. Influence of neck vein occlusion.  

PubMed Central

Unilateral cerebral infarcts were produced in the rat by ligation of one common carotid artery and a subsequent exposure to carbon monoxide. In animals which had undergone an additional ligation of the external jugular veins leading to a moderate increase of the cephalic venous pressure the outcome of the procedure was ameliorated significantly. Venous pressure elevation was thought to reduce the venous vascular resistance effectively by preventing the leptomeningeal veins from collapsing. Collapse of the leptomeningeal veins probably occurred during the severe carbon monoxide-induced hypotension causing a steep increase of cerebral vascular resistance. Images PMID:6886722

Laas, R; Igloffstein, J

1983-01-01

312

Carbon monoxide detection using passive and active millimeter-wave radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the use of the rotational molecular resonance lines of carbon monoxide for the detection of this gas. Active and passive techniques are investigated, concluding that a passive technique is feasible, but that an active technique is not. The passive technique would use a three channel spectral radiometer tuned on and around the resonance line. Concentrations of 10 parts per million could be detected over a path length of 100 m. Such a system could be incorporated into a passive millimeter wave imager to detect and measure remotely concentrations of carbon monoxide. Using active techniques, it is shown that modulated radiation temperature changes are too small to be measured using radiometry.

Salmon, Neil A.; Appleby, Roger

2000-07-01

313

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

SciTech Connect

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M. [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); and others

1994-09-01

314

On the effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene/air coflow diffusion flame  

SciTech Connect

The effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in an ethylene/air diffusion flame is investigated by experiment and detailed numerical simulation. The paper focuses on the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition by comparing the results of carbon monoxide and nitrogen diluted flames. Both experiment and simulation show that although overall the addition of carbon monoxide monotonically reduces the formation of soot, the chemical effect promotes the formation of soot in an ethylene/air diffusion flame. The further analysis of the details of the numerical result suggests that the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition may be caused by the modifications to the flame temperature, soot surface growth and oxidation reactions. Flame temperature increases relative to a nitrogen diluted flame, which results in a higher surface growth rate, when carbon monoxide is added. Furthermore, the addition of carbon monoxide increases the concentration of H radical owing to the intensified forward rate of the reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H and therefore increases the surface growth reaction rates. The addition of carbon monoxide also slows the oxidation rate of soot because the same reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H results in a lower concentration of OH. (author)

Guo, Hongsheng; Thomson, Kevin A.; Smallwood, Gregory J. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council of (Canada)

2009-06-15

315

Critical review of carbon monoxide pressure measurements in the uranium carbon oxygen ternary system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high temperature reactors (HTR), the high level of fuel operating temperature in normal and accidental conditions requires to predict the possible chemical interactions between the fuel components. Among the concerns of the TRISO fuel particle thermomechanical behavior, it is necessary to better understand the carbon monoxide formation due to chemical interactions at the UO 2 kernel and graphite buffer's interface. In a first step, the thermodynamic properties of the U-C-O system have to be assessed. The experimental data from literature on the equilibrium CO gas pressure measurements in the UO 2-UC 2-C ternary section of the U-C-O system are critically reviewed. Discrepancies between the different determinations can be explained - (i) by the different gaseous flow regimes in the experiments and - (ii) by the location of the measuring pressure gauge away from the reaction site. Experimental values are corrected - (i) from the gaseous flow type (molecular, transition or viscous) defined by the Knudsen number and - (ii) from the thermomolecular effect due to the temperature gradient inside the experimental vessels. Taking account of the selected and corrected values improves greatly the consistency of the original set of measurements.

Gossé, S.; Guéneau, C.; Chatillon, C.; Chatain, S.

2006-06-01

316

Studies of carbon monoxide diffusion in an urban area  

E-print Network

could be accounted for by instrumen. - tal error. Legs 6 snd 7 show a steady carbon s;oiioxide concpotr Ition, The decrease of carbo. . monoxic!e concentration in !. cg 8 apparently is causccl by the steady traffic and the samll increase in virid... could be accounted for by instrumen. - tal error. Legs 6 snd 7 show a steady carbon s;oiioxide concpotr Ition, The decrease of carbo. . monoxic!e concentration in !. cg 8 apparently is causccl by the steady traffic and the samll increase in virid...

Thomas, John Charles

2012-06-07

317

Single-wall nanotubes produced by metal-catalyzed disproportionation of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were grown by disproportionation of carbon monoxide at 1200°C, catalyzed by molybdenum particles a few nanometers in size. The tube diameters, ranging from 1 to 5 nm, closely correlated with the size of the catalytic particle found attached to the tube end. This result represents the first experimental evidence of SWNT produced by pre-formed catalytic

Hongjie Dai; Andrew G. Rinzler; Pasha Nikolaev; Andreas Thess; Daniel T. Colbert; Richard E. Smalley

1996-01-01

318

An Urban Diffusion Simulation Model for Carbon Monoxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relatively simple Gaussian-type diffusion simulation model for calculating urban carbon (CO) concentrations as a function of local meteorology and the distribution of traffic is described. The model can be used in two ways: in the synoptic mode and in the climatological mode. (Author/BL)

Johnson, W. B.; And Others

1973-01-01

319

Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of ethylene and propylene by butyl nitrite and carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

In the oxidative carbonylation of ethylene by carbon monoxide and butyl nitrite catalyzed by PdCl{sub 2}(PhCN){sub 2} in the presence of triphenylphosphine, the pentacoordinated tetravalent palladium complex PdCl{sub 2}(COOBu)NO(PPh{sub 3}) has been isolated and has proved to be an intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

Brechot, P.; Chauvin, Y.; Commereuc, D.; Saussine, L. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

1990-01-01

320

The utility of volatile hydrocarboan analysis in cases of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to investigate the circumstances relating to carbon monoxide intoxication by analysing volatile hydrocarbons in the blood of cadavers is reported. Headspace gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the hydrocarbons. The results can be characterized into four categories depending on the compounds detected. In construction fire cases where no accelerants were found at the scene benzene, toluene

M. Morinaga; S. Kashimura; K. Hara; Y. Hieda; M. Kageura

1996-01-01

321

CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES INSIDE AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING ON AN URBAN ARTERIAL HIGHWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. n each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the...

322

End-expiratory carbon monoxide levels in healthy subjects living in a densely populated urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) has a high affinity for haemoglobin and is a common cause of poisoning in industry and the home. Exhaled CO levels in patients with respiratory disease have been reported but exhaled CO in a large cohort of healthy subjects grouped by age and gender has not been reported. Exhaled CO levels and spirometry lung function data were

A. Y. M. Jones; P. K. W. Lam

2006-01-01

323

Effect of redox potential, sulfide ions and a persulfide forming cysteine residue on carbon monoxide dehydrogenase  

E-print Network

The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster of carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, can be stabilized in four redox states: Cox, Cred1, Cint, and Cred2. The best-supported mechanism of catalysis involves a one...

Feng, Jian

2005-08-29

324

Ability of Fixed Monitoring Stations to Represent Personal Carbon Monoxide Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the ability of fixed location ambient air quality monitoring stations to represent personal environmental exposures to carbon monoxide (CO) accurately. The relationship between residential location, commuting transportation mode, employment location, and time-weighted average human exposure to CO in the metropolitan area was also explored. Personal exposure was measured by equipping 66 nonsmoking volunteers in the Boston area

Anthony D. Cortese; John D. Spengler

1976-01-01

325

Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product  

E-print Network

Carbon monoxide oxidation on Rh(111): Velocity and angular distributions of the CO2 product J. I and angular distributions of CO2 produced by CO oxidation on Rh 111 have been measured as a function a fundamental and a practical point of view. CO2 formation serves as a model recombina- tion reaction

Sibener, Steven

326

Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

2012-01-01

327

STUDY OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES OF RESIDENTS OF WASHINGTON, D.C.  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper will describe a study conducted in the Washington, D.C., area during the winter of 1982-83 for the purpose of measuring the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of a representative population of the area. The population distributions were determined by direct ...

328

Breath carbon monoxide as an indication of smoking habit in the military setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The breath carbon monoxide (CO) monitor has been shown to be an effective tool in predicting smoking habits. This study aims to assess whether the breath CO level can be employed to determine a person's smoking habit in the military setting and to analyse various factors that can influence the breath CO levels. Methods: 155 navy personnel were questioned

M C C Ong; M Tan

329

Effect of Competition on Nitric Oxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Levels in Training Horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of exercise on nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and cyclic guanosyl monophosphate (cGMP) levels in jumping and dressage horses involved in competition. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 100 horses involved in jumping or dressage competition at three time points: baseline at rest, on reaching the

Gonzalo Marañon; Bárbara Muñoz-Escassi; William Manley; Cruz García; Rosa León; Begoña Olábarri; Patricia Cayado; Cristina Domínguez; Mercedes Sánchez de la Muela; Maria Suarez; Elena Vara

2009-01-01

330

Carbon Monoxide as an Attenuator of Vasoconstriction in Piglet Cerebral Arterioles1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous dilator in the newborn cerebral circulation. The present study addressed the hypoth- esis that endogenous CO attenuates pial arteriolar vasocon- striction caused by hypocapnia, platelet activating factor, and elevated blood pressure. Experiments used anesthetized pig- lets with implanted, closed cranial windows. Topical application of a metal porphyrin inhibitor of heme oxygenase was used to

JOHN S. WINESTONE; C LARISSIA BONNER; CHARLES W. LEFFLER

331

Analysis of Carbon Monoxide and Propane Concentrations in Moped Exhaust Emission using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to determine the concentration of carbon monoxide and propane in exhaust emission from a Piaggio Ciao moped. Emissions from vary- ing ways of driving have been collected and examined using a Perkin- Elmer 1725X Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The obtained spectra have then been compared to spectra from calibration gases.

Lisa Carlsson; Martin Engstrom; Ulrika Kumlien; Ami Ljungstrom; Sara Nordenhall

332

Operations and maintenance manual, atmospheric contaminant sensor. Addendum 1: Carbon monoxide monitor model 204  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument for monitoring the carbon monoxide content of the ambient atmosphere is described. The subjects discussed are: (1) theory of operation, (2) system features, (3) controls and monitors, (4) operational procedures, and (5) maintenance and troubleshooting. Block drawings and circuit diagrams are included to clarify the text.

1972-01-01

333

Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student report on the physiological response to acute carbon monoxide exposure in a simulated healthy adult male and a coal miner and represents how 1) human patient simulators can be used in a nonclinical way for experiential hypothesis testing; 2) students can transition from traditional textbook learning to practical application of their knowledge; and 3) student-initiated group investigation drives critical thought

Whitney A. Cesari (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Dominique M. Caruso (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Enela L. Zyka (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Stuart T. Schroff (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Charles H. Evans, Jr. (Georgetown University Department of Human Science,School of Nursing and Health Studies); PhD Jon-Philippe K. Hyatt (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies)

2006-12-01

334

Carbon Monoxide Inhalation Reduces Pulmonary Inflammatory Response during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with pulmonary inflammation and dysfunction. This may lead to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syn- drome with increased morbidity and mortality. The authors hypothesized that inhaled carbon monoxide before initiation of CPB would reduce inflammatory response in the lungs. Methods: In a porcine model, a beating-heart CPB was used. The animals were

Ulrich Goebel; Matthias Siepe; Anne Mecklenburg; Phillip Stein; Martin Roesslein; Christian I. Schwer; Rene Schmidt; Torsten Doenst; Klaus K. Geiger; Heike L. Pahl; Christian Schlensak; Torsten Loop

2008-01-01

335

International comparison CCQM-K51: Carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen (5 ?mol mol?1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first key comparison on carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen dates back to 1992 (CCQM-K1a). It was one of the first types of gas mixtures that were used in an international key comparison. Since then, numerous national metrology institutes (NMIs) have been setting up facilities for gas analysis, and have developed claims for their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for

Angelique Botha; Mellisa Janse van Rensburg; James Tshilongo; Nompumelelo Leshabane; Napo Ntsasa; Kenji Kato; Nobuhiro Matsumoto; Volker Stummer; L A Konopelko; Y A Kustikov; V V Pankratov; I I Vasserman; C V Zavyalov; E V Gromova; Ian Uprichard; Gergely Vargha; M Maruyama; Hans-Joachim Heine; Francisco Rangel Murillo; Victor M Serrano Caballero; Tatiana Mace; Franklin Guenther; Walter Miller; Dariusz Cieciora; Valnei S Cunha; Claudia C Ribeiro; Cristiane R Augusto; Han Qiao; Zeyi Zhou; Damian Smeulders; Michel Gerboles; Matej Kapus; Rob M Wessel; Florbela Dias; Prabhat K Gupta; P Johri; Bunthoon Laongsri; Ratirat Sinweeruthai; Bernhard Niederhauser; Andreas Ackermann; Marina Froehlich; Andreas Wolf; Jeongsoon Lee; Stanislav Musil; Miroslava Valkova; Jari Walden; Sisko Laurila

2010-01-01

336

Approval and promulgation of Michigan State Implementation Plan (SIP). carbon monoxide and ozone  

SciTech Connect

These two US Environmental Protection Agency notices approve the revised Michigan SIP for ozone control strategy for the Flint, Lansing, Grand Rapids, and other rural nonattainment areas; ozone, carbon monoxide control, and vehicle inspection/maintenance programs fr the Detroit urban areas; and transportation control plans for all these areas. These final rules are effective as of 5/23/80.

Not Available

1980-06-02

337

COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSES OF THE UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) IN HUMAN SUBJECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas that binds to hemoglobin with high affinity. This property underlies the use of low doses of CO to determine hemoglobin mass (MHb) in the fields of clinical and sports medicine. However, hemoglobin bound to CO is unable to transport oxygen and exposure to high CO concentrations is a significant environmental and

Kinnera Chada

2011-01-01

338

Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988  

SciTech Connect

OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of recent unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States. DESIGN. Descriptive analysis of carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States from 1979 through 1988, based on death certificate reports compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. POPULATION STUDIED. All US deaths, 1979 through 1988. RESULTS. We reviewed data from 56,133 death certificates that contained codes implicating carbon monoxide as a contributing cause of death. Of these, 25,889 were suicides, 210 were homicides, 15,523 were associated with severe burns or house fires, and 11,547 were classified as unintentional. The number of unintentional deaths decreased steadily by about 63 deaths per year, from 1513 in 1979 to 878 in 1988. The highest death rates occurred in winter and among males, blacks, the elderly, and residents of northern states. Motor vehicle exhaust gas caused 6552 (57%) of the unintentional deaths; 5432 (83%) of these were associated with stationary automobiles. CONCLUSIONS. The rate of unintentional death from carbon monoxide poisoning is decreasing. This may be attributable to improvements in automobile pollution control systems and improved safety of cooking and heating appliances. Prevention programs should target young drivers, males, and the elderly.

Cobb, N.; Etzel, R.A. (Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1991-08-07

339

Daily global maps of carbon monoxide from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. AIRS daily coverage of ~70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite trace gas remote sensing. Tropospheric CO abundances are retrieved from AIRS 4.55 mum spectral region using the full AIRS retrieval algorithm run in a research

W. W. McMillan; C. Barnet; L. Strow; M. T. Chahine; M. L. McCourt; J. X. Warner; P. C. Novelli; S. Korontzi; E. S. Maddy; S. Datta

2005-01-01

340

Carbon monoxide pollution from cities and urban areas observed by the Terra\\/MOPITT mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a key species for tracking pollution plumes. The Measurement Of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) mission onboard the Terra satellite has already provided 7.5 years of CO atmospheric concentration measurements around the globe. Limited sensitivity to the boundary layer is well known to be a weakness of nadir looking thermal infrared sounders. This paper investigates the

Cathy Clerbaux; David P. Edwards; Merritt Deeter; Louisa Emmons; Jean-François Lamarque; Xue Xi Tie; Steve T. Massie; John Gille

2008-01-01

341

EFFECTS OF LOW LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE. BLOOD LIPIDS AND COAGULATION PARAMETERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study examined the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in 50 and 100 ppm doses on response to treadmill exercise, blood coagulation and blood lipids in normal men. Twenty-three men were exposed to CO or to air in a double-blind protocol. After exposure, each underwent a graded ex...

342

An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a defined population, identifying those at greatest risk from acute poisoning resulting in admission to hospital or death. METHODS: A retrospective study with routinely collected information, set in the former West Midlands Regional Health Authority; population of 5.2 million. The data comprised 939 deaths and 701 hospital admissions due

R. C. Wilson; P. J. Saunders; G. Smith

1998-01-01

343

A positron emission tomography study of patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning treated by hyperbaric oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven patients with an acute and severe carbon monoxide intoxication were treated with hyperbaric oxygen and underwent a positron emission tomographic examination 2–5 days after the acute event. Although the final clinical outcome was good in all patients, ischaemic changes were observed. Three patients with temporary sequelae after hyperbaric oxygen treatment showed the most severe changes, mainly in striatum and

J. De Reuck; D. Decoo; I. Lemahieu; K. Strijckmans; P. Boon; G. Maele; W. Buylaert; D. Leys; H. Petit

1993-01-01

344

Carbon monoxide poisoning during ice storms: A tale of two cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a retrospective case series conducted at two university hospital emergency departments of 68 patients with a discharge diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning presenting during two different ice storms (March 1991 and February 1994) in two cities (Rochester, NY, and Nashville, TN). Fifty-five patients were seen over 10 d in Rochester and 13 patients over 4 d in

Keith Wrenn; Gregory P. Conners

1997-01-01

345

Outcome of patients experiencing cardiac arrest with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: We sought to examine the outcome of a subgroup of patients with extreme carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, specifically those discovered in cardiac arrest, resuscitated, and subsequently treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2). Opinions of hyperbaric medicine physicians regarding the treatment of such patients were also sought. Methods: Records of patients treated with HBO2 for acute CO poisoning at Virginia

Neil B. Hampson; Jennette L. Zmaeff

2001-01-01

346

Serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a patient with the interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies were performed from immediately after the appearance of sequelae in a patient with the interval form of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The volume of interest was set over the frontal lobe white matter. In the early period a persistent increase in choline was found, which was thought to reflect the course of progressive

T Murata; S Itoh; Y Koshino; M Omori; I Murata; K Sakamoto; K Isaki; H Kimura; Y Ishii

1995-01-01

347

Carbon monoxide poisoning and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen in the subacute phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of normobaric versus hyperbaric (>2 atm) oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide intoxication continues to be a matter of debate despite reports of increased efficacy with hyperbaric oxygen. When hyperbaric oxygen is used, immediate treatment is preferred for best results. The therapeutic window of time, however, is unknown. A patient presented with acute confusion and partial retrograde

Vladimir Coric; Dan A Oren; Frank A Wolkenberg; Richard E Kravitz

1998-01-01

348

Carboxyhemoglobin measurement by hospitals: Implications for the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most case definitions for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning include demonstration of an elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentration. Further, it is generally believed that treatment of CO poisoning is more effective when performed as soon as possible after the exposure. This suggests that a hospital’s inability to measure blood COHb could lead to delayed or missed diagnosis or treatment. This study

Neil B. Hampson; Karen L. Scott; Jennette L. Zmaeff

2006-01-01

349

Computerized tomographies of 34 patients at the chronic stage of acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brains of 34 patients at the chronic stage of acute carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning) were examined using computerized tomography (CT). Ventricular and sulcal dilatations were measured quantitatively, with picture analysis of CT for the measurement of ventricular dilatation. Significant ventricular and sulcal dilatations were found in all cases of the CO group compared with age-matched controls, and bilateral

Eisuke Kono; Ryosuke Kono; Kenshiro Shida

1983-01-01

350

Selection criteria utilized for hyperbaric oxygen treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical directors of North American hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) facilities were surveyed to assess selection criteria applied for treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning within the hyperbaric medicine community. Responses were received from 85% of the 208 facilities in the United States and Canada. Among responders, 89 monoplace and 58 multiplace chamber facilities treat acute CO poisoning, managing a total

Neil B. Hampson; Richard G. Dunford; Christine C. Kramer; Diane M. Norkool

1995-01-01

351

Myelin basic protein in cerebrospinal fluid: a predictive marker of delayed encephalopathy from carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate whether myelin basic protein (MBP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be a predictive marker of delayed encephalopathy from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Five patients with CO poisoning were included in the study. The CSF was serially sampled to determine the MBP concentration. All patients were classified into group DE or group non-DE according to

Toshimitsu Ide; Yoshito Kamijo

2008-01-01

352

Emergency department visits for carbon monoxide poisoning in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the annual number of emergency department (ED) visits and rate of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Washington, Idaho, and Montana. All hospital emergency departments and hyperbaric treatment facilities in the region were surveyed by mail and telephone regarding their patient treatment experience for calendar year 1994. Results demonstrated that

Neil B Hampson

1998-01-01

353

Electronic and chemical interactions between boron and carbon monoxide on Rb(0001)  

E-print Network

Electronic and chemical interactions between boron and carbon monoxide on Rb(0001) Jo& A. Rodriguez poison CO chemisorption approximately on a one-to-one basis. No reaction or direct bonding between B in which adsorption sites that are within - 1 bond length of the surface impurity are poisoned.6

Goodman, Wayne

354

CT Findings of the Interval Form of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Compared with Neuropathological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral computed tomography findings were described in 2 clinical cases of the interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning and comparison with postmortem CT finding of an autopsy case was made. There was low density in the bilateral frontal region, centrum semiovale and pallidal parts. In the course of the disease, the degree of low density in the white matter showed

Katsuji Kobayashi; Kiminori Isaki; Yuken Fukutani; Masayoshi Kurachi; Akira Eboshida; Rokuro Matsubara; Nariyoshi Yamaguchi

1984-01-01

355

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (1999) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This revised criteria document consolidates and updates the current scientific basis for another reevaluation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide (CO), currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) for 1 h. Although emphasis is plac...

356

A rapid spectroscopic method to detect the fraudulent treatment of tuna fish with carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) can be used to treat fresh meat and fish in order to retain its ‘fresh’ red colour appearance for a longer period of time. In fact, upon aging, myoglobin is oxidized to met-myoglobin with the concomitant blue-shift and broadening of the Soret maximum, which brings about a change in the colour of the fish, revealing that it

Giulietta Smulevich; Enrica Droghetti; Claudia Focardi; Massimo Coletta; Chiara Ciaccio; Mila Nocentini

2007-01-01

357

A narcotic dose of carbon monoxide induces neuronal haeme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthetase in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Romney ewes were exposed to either 1% carbon monoxide (CO) in air (n=6) or room air alone for 120 min and were killed 15 days later for histological and immunohistochemical examination. This dose of CO was narcotic and induced both haeme oxygenase and nitric oxide synthetase in brain neurons, but not in endothelial cells. The mechanism of the induction

Des Gorman; Y. L Huang; Chris Williams

2002-01-01

358

PREDICTION OF CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN FORMATION DUE TO TRANSIENT EXPOSURE TO CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Prediction of carboxyhemoglobin formation due to transient xposure to carbon monoxide. . Appl. Physiol. 76(4):1739-1745, 1994.-Fifteen men were exposed to 6,683 ppm C18O for 3.09-6.65 min. rterial and antecubital vein blood samples were drawn at 1-min intervals beginning at the s...

359

[Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning in an electric car. An unusual case report].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of a man who committed suicide by poisoning with carbon monoxide in his electric vehicle. He applied a small motor generator with no exhaust normally used for charging the vehicle's batteries at home, that was found on the loading space behind the seat. This demonstrates the value of a thorough scene investigation. PMID:7832611

Bohnert, M; Zollinger, U

1994-01-01

360

CARBON MONOXIDE REVERSIBLY DISRUPTS IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Iron dissociation from heme is a major factor in iron metabolism and cellular concentrations of the metal correlate inversely with the expression of heme oxygenase (HO). We tested the hypothesis that 1) exposure to a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), disturbs iron homeostas...

361

Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in bilateral cataracts and a cystic globus pallidus lesion  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of a 43-year-old lady who developed bilateral cataracts, seizures and a unilateral cystic lesion of the basal ganglia following low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) exposure over 7 years. Cataract formation may result from sustained oxidative stress as a result of chronic environmental CO exposure. PMID:22689549

Kasbekar, Shivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Jose Argelio

2011-01-01

362

Sequential combination of self-report, breath carbon monoxide, and saliva cotinine to assess smoking status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis was to develop an algorithm for the cost effective and accurate assessment of smoking during the previous few days by combining self-report, breath carbon monoxide (BCO), and saliva cotinine (sCOT). These measurements are convenient, quantitative, and do not require invasive procedures. The data used to devise the algorithm were gathered during a treatment trial of

M. A. Javors; J. P. Hatch; R. J. Lamb

2011-01-01

363

CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

364

SEASONAL SOIL FLUXES OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BURNED AND UNBURNED BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured from September 1999 through November 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) under different fire regimes using transparent and opaque static chambers. Studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto...

365

Kinetic study of chlorination of niobium (V) oxide with chlorine and carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic study of the chlorination of niobium oxide was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor under temperatures from 800 to 1000°C and normal pressure. Thermodynamic simulation was performed to analyze the reaction system. Reactants introduced were niobium (V) oxide powder and gaseous chlorine with carbon monoxide as reductant. The chlorination products were all in gaseous phase under the temperatures and

Fenglin Yang; Vladimir Hlavacek

1999-01-01

366

Catalyst of uranium, platinum and rhodium for converting carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides  

SciTech Connect

A catalytic composite suitable for use in the continuous and simultaneous conversion of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides contained in hot gases particularly from hot gases from an internal combustion engine is disclosed. The catalytic composite comprises uranium and a metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, rhodium, or mixtures thereof.

Joy III., G. C.

1985-07-02

367

Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE  

E-print Network

and incomplete combustion from burning fossil fuels and biomass. Although in the developed countries one canSubmitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE DATA USING A HYBRID STATISTICAL-PHYSICAL MODEL By Anders Malmberg Avelino Arellano David P. Edwards Natasha Flyer Doug

Nychka, Douglas

368

EDUCATION LEVEL IS GREATEST RISK-FACTOR IN CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels. In confined spaces, inefficient combustion sources, such as furnaces, stoves, kerosene heaters and automobiles can generate levels of CO that interrupt oxygen transport throughout the body, potentially ...

369

Neuropsychologic and Functional Recovery From Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Without Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To test the hypothesis that neuropsychologic test results and functional outcome will be abnormal if hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is not used in patients with severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: For a 1-year interval, we retrospectively identified all CO-poisoned patients who were comatose on presentation at a large, urban tertiary hospital and did not receive HBO therapy. Prospectively,

Lindell K Weaver; Ramona O Hopkins; Valerie Larson-Lohr

1996-01-01

370

LOW-LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE AND WORK CAPACITY AT 1600 METERS  

EPA Science Inventory

At sea level, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure impairs exercise performance. To determine if altitude residence at 1600 m augments this CO effect, two studies of graded treadmill work capacity were done. The Initial Study investigated nine, non-smoking male subjects breath...

371

EFFECT ON CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS IN MOBILE HOMES USING UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS FOR RESIDENTIAL HEATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (Co) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old . These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. espondents were asked to operate their heater...

372

Carbon Monoxide Production in Compartment Fires: Reduced-Scale Enclosure Test Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon monoxide production during room fires has been investigated using natural-gas fires within a reduced-scale enclosure (RSE), an 0.98 m x 0.98 m x 1.46 m(w x h x d) room with a single door opening centered in the front wall. This series of 125 fires ...

N. P. Bryner, E. L. Johnsson, W. M. Pitts

1994-01-01

373

Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991  

SciTech Connect

Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

Ford, P.C.

1992-06-04

374

Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comet nuclei at large distances from the Sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more attractive among the plausible scenarios for the major emission event recently observed on Comet Halley at a heliocentric distance of 14.3 AU is activation of a source of ejecta driven by an icy substance much more volatile than water. As prerequisite for the forthcoming detailed analysis of the imaging observations of this event, a simple model is proposed that yields the sublimation rate versus time at any location on the surface of a rotating cometary nucleus for two candidate ices: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model's variable parameters are the comet's heliocentric distance r and the Sun's instantaneous zenith angle z.

Sekanina, Zdenek

1991-01-01

375

Large-Scale Atmospheric Pollution Over Eastern China: Results From Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global CTM studies, satellite data analysis, and air pollution statistics have verified the large-scale atmospheric pollution over East Asia. Long-range transport studies of these air pollutants indicate that theirs effect could be observed even in the intercontinental or hemispherical scale. According to the models results and satellite data, the largest anthropogenic emission region is found over the mid-latitude eastern China. In this work, we investigated the present situation of large-scale atmospheric ozone and carbon monoxide pollution over eastern China. Since 2003, three regional ozone and carbon monoxide monitoring sites have been established at Mt. Tai (36 15N, 117 07E, 1524 m above sea level) in Shandon Province, Mt. Huang (30 10N, 118 11E, 1841 m asl) in Anhui Province, and Mt. Hua (34 20N, 110 05E, 2065 m asl) in Shaanxi Province. The results from observation show high mixing ratios and large variations of ozone and carbon monoxide, especially during spring and early-summer, at every observatory. Seasonal cycles of ozone and CO at these sites could be partly explained by the air mass climatology but the enhancements by regional anthropogenic emission are found to be dominant throughout the year. The large episodic ozone pollution events have been observed in early-summer for three consecutive years. Comparison of ozone and carbon monoxide in eastern China with the data from remote mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere background site in eastern Siberia show clearly different characteristics attributed to the regional sources. In this presentation, the sources and distribution of ozone and carbon monoxide in eastern China, theirs controlling factors, and their potential impact to environment will be discussed based mainly on observational results.

Pochanart, P.; Akimoto, H.; Li, J.; Wang, Z.

2005-12-01

376

Life in Hot Carbon Monoxide: The Complete Genome Sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901  

PubMed Central

We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a “minimal” model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously. PMID:16311624

2005-01-01

377

Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate  

PubMed Central

Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are able to use carbon monoxide (CO) as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) as an electron donor. PMID:20628586

Parshina, Sofiya N.; Sipma, Jan; Henstra, Anne Meint; Stams, Alfons J. M.

2010-01-01

378

Hydrogen oxidation on gas diffusion electrodes for phosphoric acid fuel cells in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide present in the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80 to 150 C. It was found that throughout the temperature range, the potential loss due to the CO poisoning can be reduced to a great extent by the injection of small amounts of gaseous oxygen into the hydrogen gas containing carbon monoxide. By adding 5 volume percent (v/o) oxygen, an almost CO-free performance can be obtained for carbon monoxide concentrations up to 0.5 v/o CO at 130 C, 0.2 v/o CO at 100 C, and 0.1 v/o CO at 80 C, respectively.

Gang, X.; Qingfeng, L.; Hjuler, H.A.; Bjerrum, N.J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

1995-09-01

379

The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

1936-01-01

380

A new iron-based carbon monoxide oxidation catalyst: structure-activity correlation.  

PubMed

A new iron-based catalyst for carbon monoxide oxidation, as a potential substitute for precious-metal systems, has been prepared by using a facile impregnation method with iron tris-acetylacetonate as a precursor on ?-Al2 O3 . Light-off and full conversion temperatures as low as 235 and 278?°C can be reached. However, the catalytic activity strongly depends on the loading; lower loadings perform better than higher ones. The different activities can be explained by variations of the structures formed. The structures are thoroughly characterized by a multimethodic approach by using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas, and Mössbauer spectroscopy combined with diffuse reflectance UV/Vis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Consequently, isolated tetrahedrally coordinated Fe(3+) centers and phases of AlFeO3 are identified as structural requirements for high activity in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. PMID:25212843

Schoch, Roland; Huang, Heming; Schünemann, Volker; Bauer, Matthias

2014-12-01

381

Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall  

SciTech Connect

The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine.

Allen, D.R.; Browse, N.L.; Rutt, D.L.; Butler, L.; Fletcher, C.

1988-01-01

382

The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide measure by the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument carried aboard the space shuttle is reported. The data represent average mixing ratios in the middle troposphere and are presented in the form of maps that show the carbon monoxide mixing ratios averaged for 6 days of the mission. Comparisons with concurrent, direct measurements taken aboard aircraft show that the inferred concentrations are systematically low by from 20 to 40 percent depending upon which direct measurement calibration standard is used. The data show that there are very large CO sources resulting from biomass burning over South America and southern Africa. Measured mixing ratios were high over northeast Asia and were highly variable over Europe.

Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Connors, V.S.; Wallio, H.A.; Holland, J.A.; Sherrill, R.T.; Casas, J.C.; Gormsen, B.B.

1989-01-01

383

40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Compliance with Standards § 63.1182 How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new...

2012-07-01

384

40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production Compliance with Standards § 63.1182 How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new...

2011-07-01

385

UNDERSTANDING THE KINETICS AND DYNAMICS OF RADIATION-INDUCED REACTION PATHWAYS IN CARBON MONOXIDE ICE AT 10 K  

E-print Network

solar system like Kuiper Belt objects. With the intense radiation fields that permeate virtually all with its gas phase detection by Wilson et al. (1970) in the Orion Nebula, the carbon monoxide molecule has

Kaiser, Ralf I.

386

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-print Network

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

387

Mechanistic studies of carbon monoxide insertion into metal-nitrene and metal-carbene bonds  

SciTech Connect

Work this quarter continued in the following areas: halide-promoted insertion of carbon monoxide into iron-{mu}-carbene bonds; ferra-pyrrolinone and ferra-azetine complexes formed from the reaction of Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}({mu}-CH{sub 2}) with phosphinimines; fluorine substituted ferra-cyclopentadiene complexes with an unprecedented fluorine atom bridge between boron and carbon; synthesis of substituted pyrridinones from the combination of Fe{sub 2}({mu}-CH{sub 2})(CO{sub 8}) with phosphinimines and alkynes; and new addition and cycloaddition reactions with highly nucleophilic and chiral manganese acetylide complexes. (CBS)

Geoffroy, G.L.

1989-01-01

388

CORM-A1: a new pharmacologically active carbon monoxide-releasing molecule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is emerging as an important and versatile mediator of physiological processes to the extent that treatment of animals with exogenous CO gas has beneficial effects in a range of vascular- and inflammatory-related disease models. The recent discovery that certain transition metal carbonyls function as CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) in biological systems highlighted the potential of exploiting this and

Roberto Motterlini; Philip Sawle; Sandip Bains; Jehad Hammad; Roger Alberto; Roberta Foresti; Colin J. Green

2004-01-01

389

Carbon monoxide exposure enhances arrhythmia after cardiac stress: involvement of oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrhythmias following cardiac stress are a key predictor of death in healthy population. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous\\u000a pollutant promoting oxidative stress and associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease and cardiac mortality.\\u000a We investigated the effect of chronic CO exposure on the occurrence of arrhythmic events after a cardiac stress test and the\\u000a possible involvement of related oxidative stress.

Lucas André; Fares Gouzi; Jérôme Thireau; Gregory Meyer; Julien Boissiere; Martine Delage; Aldja Abdellaoui; Christine Feillet-Coudray; Gilles Fouret; Jean-Paul Cristol; Alain Lacampagne; Philippe Obert; Cyril Reboul; Jérémy Fauconnier; Maurice Hayot; Sylvain Richard; Olivier Cazorla

390

A new carbon monoxide occupational dosimeter: results from a worker exposure assessment survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LBNL\\/QGI occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), a new, inexpensive CO passive sampler, was field-validated in an occupational exposure assessment study in the Moscone Convention Center (MCC) in San Francisco, CA in January, 1997. The LOCD measures time-weighed-average (TWA) CO exposures from 10 to 800 parts per million hours (ppm h; accuracy ±20%; precision 10 ppm h). This device

MICHAEL G APTE; DANIEL D COX; S KATHARINE HAMMOND; LARA A GUNDEL

1999-01-01

391

In vivo carbon monoxide exposure and hypoxic hypoxia stimulate immediate early gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine the influence of acute tissue hypoxygenation on the expression of immediate early genes in different\\u000a rat tissues. To this end male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.1% carbon monoxide for 0.5, 1 and 6 h or to 9% oxygen\\u000a for 6 h and mRNA levels for c-jun, c-fos, c-myc and EGR-1 were assayed by RNase

Bernhard Gess; Konrad Wolf; Michael Pfeifer; Günter A. J. Riegger; A. Kurtz

1997-01-01

392

Carbon Monoxide Enhances Human Neutrophil Migration in a Cyclic GMP-dependent Way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) enhanced random migration of human neutrophils. An optimally stimulatory effect was observed with 10 ?M CO. CO caused a rapid and transient increase in intracellular level of guanosine-3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). The enhancing effect of CO on random migration was reversed to a large extent by inhibitors of cGMP accumulation, and by antagonists of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase).

B. E. VanUffelen; B. M. de Koster; J. VanSteveninck; J. G. R. Elferink

1996-01-01

393

DETERMINATION OF THE EXTRAVASCULAR BURDEN OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) ON HUMAN HEART  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive measurements of myocardial carboxymyoglobin levels (%MbCO) and oxygen tensions (PtO2) are difficult to obtain experimentally. We have developed a compartmental model which allows prediction of myocardial %MbCO levels and PtO2 for varied carbon monoxide (CO) exposures. The cardiac compartment in the model consists of vascular subcompartments which contain two tissue subcompartments varying in capillary density. Mass-balance equations for oxygen

Kinnera Erupaka

2008-01-01

394

Treatment of methylene-induced carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygenation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Methylene chloride is an organic solvent with many industrial uses. Inhalation of methylene chloride fumes can result in toxicity, caused by hepatic biotransformation of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide. A case of acute methylene chloride poisoning is presented, including successful treatment of this patient with the use of hyperbaric oxygenation. The rationale for the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of methylene chloride poisoning is discussed. (aw)

Rudge, F.W.

1989-01-01

395

Carbon monoxide poisoning: clinical, neurophysiological, and brain imaging observations in acute disease and follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five patients (aged 19–52 years) were treated for a midbrain syndrome due to acute carbon monoxide poisoning and had clinical follow-up investigations for up to 18 months. Three patients recovered with minor neurological and neuropsychological deficits and resumed their premorbid life-style. One patient had normal findings, while the fifth remained in a permanent vegetative state. Initial CT of the brain

P. Vieregge; W. Klostermann; R. G. Blümm; K. J. Borgis

1989-01-01

396

Relationship Between Venous and Arterial Carboxyhemoglobin Levels in Patients With Suspected Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To test the hypothesis that venous carboxyhemoglobin (V-COHb) levels accurately predict arterial (A-COHb) levels.Design: Prospective comparison of A-COHb and V-COHb levels in patients with suspected carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Setting: Municipal hospital emergency department with contiguous multiplace hyperbaric chamber staffed 24 hours a day. Participants: Unselected convenience sample of 61 adults with suspected CO toxicity. Intervention: Simultaneous sampling

Michael Touger; E. John Gallagher; Jim Tyrell

1995-01-01

397

Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell operating on diluted hydrogen feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient behavior of a 50cm2 PEM fuel cell fed on simulated reformate containing diluted hydrogen and trace quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) was experimentally investigated. It was found that the overall cell performance throughout the CO poisoning process can be described with a lumped model of hydrogen and CO adsorption, desorption, and electro-oxidation coupled with a current–voltage relationship for

Krishan Kumar Bhatia; Chao-Yang Wang

2004-01-01

398

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning—3 years experience in a defined population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 1967, 206 episodes of carbon monoxide poisoning were known to the coroner or the city hospitals in Newcastle upon Tyne.The mortality rates were: suicidal exposure 38·2%; accidental exposure 39·7%.In 21·3% of suicidal and 18·9% of accidental exposures recovery was complicated by prolonged delirium suggesting that all degrees of functional or structural neurological damage

J. Sydney Smith; S. Brandon

1970-01-01

399

Morbidity from Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning at Three-year Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-four survivors of acute carbon monoxide poisoning were followed up for an average of three years. In eight patients gross neuropsychiatric damage was directly attributable to the poisoning. Three patients had committed suicide and eight had died from other causes. Morbidity and mortality in those deliberately and accidentally poisoned was approximately equal.Of 63 patients alive at follow-up eight showed an

J. Sidney Smith; S. Brandon

1973-01-01

400

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

1935-01-01

401

Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show large underestimates of Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropical CO, while typically performing reasonably well elsewhere. The results suggest that year-round

D. T. Shindell; G. Faluvegi; D. S. Stevenson; M. C. Krol; L. K. Emmons; J.-F. Lamarque; G. Pétron; F. J. Dentener; K. Ellingsen; M. G. Schultz; O. Wild; M. Amann; C. S. Atherton; D. J. Bergmann; I. Bey; T. Butler; J. Cofala; W. J. Collins; R. G. Derwent; R. M. Doherty; J. Drevet; H. J. Eskes; A. M. Fiore; M. Gauss; D. A. Hauglustaine; L. W. Horowitz; I. S. A. Isaksen; M. G. Lawrence; V. Montanaro; J.-F. Müller; G. Pitari; M. J. Prather; J. A. Pyle; S. Rast; J. M. Rodriguez; M. G. Sanderson; N. H. Savage; S. E. Strahan; K. Sudo; S. Szopa; N. Unger; T. P. C. van Noije; G. Zeng

2006-01-01

402

Carbon monoxide removal from hydrogen-rich fuel cell feedstreams by selective catalytic oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect methanol fuel cells currently being investigated at General Motors for transportation applications require removal of carbon monoxide from the hydrogen-rich gas stream produced by the fuel processing section. A variety of catalytic materials, including noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ru) and base metals (Co\\/Cu, Ni\\/Co\\/Fe, Ag, Cr, Fe, and Mn), were evaluated in a laboratory reactor feedstream containing

Se. H. Oh; R. M. Sinkevitch

1993-01-01

403

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on Au(1 1 0)-(1 × 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of carbon monoxide on a gold (110)-(1×2) surface was studied between 28 and 300 K by means of TDS, UPS, ??, NEXAFS, and LEED. Below 150 K, CO adsorbs non-dissociatively with high initial sticking probability (S0=0.9 at 28 K). The isosteric heat of CO adsorption is 59 kJ\\/mol for ?CO?0 and decreases strongly with coverage, indicating weak chemisorption

J. M. Gottfried; K. J. Schmidt; S. L. M. Schroeder; K. Christmann

2003-01-01

404

Oxidation of carbon monoxide over Au(1 1 0)-(1 × 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) on an oxygen-precovered gold (110)-(1×2) surface. At low oxygen coverages, the reaction is first-order in the oxygen coverage and has an apparent activation energy of ?1.8 kJ\\/mol. Assuming a Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism we evaluated a true activation energy of 57 kJ\\/mol. A complete reaction energy diagram of the CO oxidation on Au(110)

J. Michael Gottfried; Klaus Christmann

2004-01-01

405

TEXIN2: a model for predicting carbon monoxide concentrations near intersections  

E-print Network

to vehicular emissions. moreover, busy intersections create local "hot spots", or areas of high carbon monoxide concentrations' In response to this problem, the government has introduced certain regulatory measures. Prior to the construction of any major... are distributed: steady state, deceleration, decal-idle, accel-idle, and acceleration. Steady state emissions are incorporated into el 1 five sections of each link, while the idle emissions are distributed between the decel-idle and the accel-idle sections...

Korpics, J. J

2012-06-07

406

Biohydrogen production from carbon monoxide and water by Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reactor-scale hydrogen (H2) productionvia the water-gas shift reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and water was studied using the purple nonsulfur bacterium,Rhodopseudomonas palustris P4. The experiment was conducted in a two-step process: an aerobic\\/chemoheterotrophic cell growth step and a subsequent anaerobic\\u000a H2 production step. Important parameters investigated included the agitation speed, inlet CO concentration and gas retention\\u000a time. P4 showed

You-Kwan Oh; Yu-Jin Kim; Ji-Young Park; Tae Ho Lee; Mi-Sun Kim; Sunghoon Park

2005-01-01

407

Inhalation of carbon monoxide prevents liver injury and inflammation following hind limb ischemia\\/reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of heme oxygenase (HO), the rate limiting enzyme in the conversion of heme into carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, limits liver injury following remote trauma such as hind limb ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R). Using intravital video microscopy, we tested the hypothesis that inhaled CO (250 ppm) would mimic HO-derived liver protection. Hind limb I\\/R significantly decreased sinusoidal diameter and volumetric

Michael C. Ott; Jeffrey R. Scott; Aurelia Bihari; Amit Badhwar; Leo E. Otterbein; Daryl K. Gray; Kenneth A. Harris; Richard F. Potter

2004-01-01

408

End-tidal Breath Carbon Monoxide Measurements are Lower in Pregnant Women with Uterine Contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCOc) among women with and without uterine contractions in term and preterm pregnancies.STUDY DESIGN: In all, 55 nonsmoking healthy pregnant women were enrolled. ETCOc levels were compared among women with contractions (10 preterm and 13 term) and 32 women without contractions (34–41 weeks gestation).RESULTS: Maternal age, gravidity and parity were similar

Israel Hendler; Micha Baum; Doron Kreiser; Eyal Schiff; Maurice Druzin; David K Stevenson; Daniel S Seidman

2004-01-01

409

Intramolecular condensation reactions in protonated dipeptides: Carbon monoxide, water, and ammonia losses in competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elimination of carbon monoxide and water from a series of protonated dipeptides, [XxxYyy + H]+, is investigated by tandem mass spectrometry experiments and density functional theory. The combined results show that CO\\u000a loss occurs on the a1-y1 pathway, which begins by rearrangement of the added proton to the amide N-atom and creates the proton-bound dimer of an amino\\u000a acid

Francesco Pingitore; Michael J. Polce; Ping Wang; Chrys Wesdemiotis; Béla Paizs

2004-01-01

410

Photo-promoted carbonylation of chloroalkanes with carbon monoxide by non-precious metal catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photo-promoted carbonylation of chloroalkanes with carbon monoxide was carried out under ambient conditions with copper and cadmium salts catalysts. The results indicated that the corresponding esters were produced with three salt catalysts, i.e. CuBr2, CuCl2 and CdI2. Among these catalysts, CdI2 was the most efficient in terms of ester yield and selectivity, particularly, 60% yield and 75% selectivity in

Hong Wei Wang; Ying Ping Jia; Da Bin Gao; Jing Mei Yin; Guang Yun Zhou; Shen Min Li

2007-01-01

411

A Spectroscopic Study of Structural Heterogeneity and Carbon Monoxide Binding in Neuroglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a small globular protein that binds diatomic ligands like oxygen, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide\\u000a at a heme prosthetic group. We have performed FTIR spectroscopy in the infrared stretching bands of CO and flash photolysis\\u000a with monitoring in the electronic heme absorption bands to investigate structural heterogeneity at the active site of Ngb\\u000a and its effects

Karin Nienhaus; G. Ulrich Nienhaus

2005-01-01

412

Reaction of atomic oxygen with adsorbed carbon monoxide on a platinum surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of gas-phase oxygen atoms with carbon monoxide molecules adsorbed on a platinum surface is studied by the use of the classical trajectory approach. Collisions taking place at gas temperature 300 K are considered as a function of the incident angle. Gas atoms approaching CO in the angle range of 0°–50° are very efficient at producing vibrationally excited CO2

J. Ree; Y. H. Kim; H. K. Shin

1996-01-01

413

Inhibition of L-Type Ca 2+ Channels by Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of K+ channels in glomus cells underlies excitation of the carotid body by hypoxia. It has recently been proposed that hypoxic\\u000a inhibition involves either activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) or inhibition of carbon monoxide (CO) production\\u000a by heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2). In the vasculature, L-type Ca2+ channels are also O2 sensitive. Here, we have investigated the possible

M. L. Dallas; J. L. Scragg; C. Peers

414

A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide and temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mid-infrared (mid-IR) absorption sensor based on quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology has been developed and demonstrated for high-temperature thermometry and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in combustion environments. The sensor probes the high-intensity fundamental CO ro-vibrational band at 4.6 mum enabling sensitive measurement of CO and temperature at kHz acquisition rates. Because the sensor operates in the mid-IR CO fundamental

Jeremy Vanderover; Matthew A. Oehlschlaeger

2010-01-01

415

Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. The study took place in a private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age were studies. All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% {plus minus} 2.4% (mean {plus minus} SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided.

Hampson, N.B.; Norkool, D.M. (Department of Medicine, Virginia Mason Clinic, Seattle, WA (United States))

1992-01-22

416

Pd-catalyzed thiocarbonylation with stoichiometric carbon monoxide: scope and applications.  

PubMed

A general protocol for the Pd-catalyzed thiocarbonylation of aryl iodides with stoichiometric carbon monoxide has been established employing a catalytic system composed of Pd(OAc)(2) and DPEphos with low catalyst loading (1 mol %). Both electron-rich and -deficient aryl iodides proved effective for these couplings with aryl and alkyl thiols. The choice of the metal ligands and the solvent system was crucial for the efficiency and chemoselectivity of these transformations. PMID:23383647

Burhardt, Mia N; Taaning, Rolf H; Skrydstrup, Troels

2013-02-15

417

Preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen-rich gas over platinum–cobalt–alumina aerogel catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the platinum–cobalt catalysts in a carbon monoxide preferential oxidation (PROX) reactor was investigated for polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems. First, the PROX reaction was analyzed based on two major reactions involved in it, i.e., oxidation of carbon monoxide and the H2–O2 reaction. Both reactions were affected by the other reaction depending on the reaction temperature regions, but

Chan Kwak; Tae-Jin Park; Dong Jin Suh

2005-01-01

418

Increasing concentrations of CO and O 3 rising deforestation rates and increasing troposheric carbon monoxide and ozone in Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations have been observed in the lower troposphere of the Brazilian Amazon region\\u000a in recent years (1989–1995). Carbon monoxide and ozone have been measured in the region continuously; from observations at\\u000a a single site and many sporadic field missions, there is a clear indication that the chemical activity in the troposphere\\u000a is growing, with increasing

Volker W. J. H. Kirchhoff; S. Jos; S. Paulo

1996-01-01

419

Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes  

SciTech Connect

An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

1986-07-11

420

A survey of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in indoor ice arenas in Vermont  

SciTech Connect

Because of the history of health problems traceable to the exhaust of ice resurfacing machines, state sanitarians used detector tubes to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) levels in enclosed ice arenas in Vermont during high school hockey games. Five of eight arenas had average game CO measurements of 30 ppm carbon monoxide or more. Two of the three periods of play had average CO readings in excess of 100 ppm in one arena. Only six arenas had the complete series of nitrogen dioxide measurements. One had an average game NO[sub 2] level of 1.2 ppm. Two had one or more periods of play that averaged in excess of 0.5 ppm. Despite the ample documentation of the hazards of operating combustion-powered resurfacing machines inside enclosed ice arenas, a significant portion of the arenas had undesirable levels of carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide. Ice arenas should be routinely monitored for air contaminants. Considerations should be given to the purchase of electric ice resurfacing machines for new arenas and arenas that have air contamination that cannot be resolved with ventilation.

Paulozzi, L.J. (Vermont Health Dept., Burlington, VT (United States)); Spengler, R.F.; Vogt, R.L.; Carney, J.K.

1993-12-01

421

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method. PMID:18430228

Bennetto, Luke; Powter, Louise; Scolding, Neil J

2008-01-01

422

Reductive coupling of carbon monoxide to C sub 2 products  

SciTech Connect

We first prepared Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}W{equivalent to}CH from a conversion of the cationic phosphonium carbyne Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}W{equivalent to}CPMe{sub 3}+ to a neutral carbene by hydride addition at carbon. Removal of PMe{sub 3} with a Lewis acid trap yielded milligram quantities of the desired terminal carbyne. More recently we have prepared a silylcarbyne precursor which reacts with Bu{sub 4}NF in wet THF to form substantial amounts of the CH carbyne. Dimerization to form an unusual vinylidene bridged complex is a facile decomposition route which consumes the Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}M{equivalent to}CH monometer for both M=MO and M=W,. Preparation of other carbyne complexes has been achieved using Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}W{equivalent to}C-Cl as a reagent. Another carbyne derivative was synthesized from Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}M{equivalent to}C-Cl by adding K(CpFe(Co){sub 2}) to displace the chloride. Organometallic products formed from the reaction of an electrophilic iron carbene complex with nitrosoarenes or azobenzene reflect net insertion of the ArN-X moiety into the Fe=CHAr bond. Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-O-N(Ar{prime})=CHAr+ and Cp(CO){sub 2}FeN(Ph)-N(Pha)=CHAr+ have been isolated and spectroscopically characterized. More promising results for long term progress in building electrophilic nitrene complexes have been achieved with Group VI reagents. Simple methods for generating Tp{prime}(CO){sub 2}W=NHR for R= Ar and Bu{sup t} are encouraging. Furthermore, removal of H{sup minus} from the amido ligand with either I{sub 2} or (Ph{sub 3}C)(BF{sub 4}) provides access to cationic nitrene complexes.

Templeton, J.L.

1991-08-01

423

A Method for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide and Sulphur Dioxide in Air by Gas Chromatography Using an Emissive Helium Plasma Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of workers have used molecular sieves to separate carbon monoxide from air (1,2,3) and it has been shown that PORAPAKÅ ? is suitable for the resolution of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide from air (3,4,5). However, the sensitive detection of such gases frequently presents problems without recourse to the use of large sample volumes.

R. M. Dagnall; D. J. Johnson; T. S. West

1973-01-01

424

Iron catalyst chemistry in modeling a high-pressure carbon monoxide nanotube reactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is analyzed with the use of a chemical reaction model coupled with flow properties calculated along streamlines, calculated by the FLUENT code for pure carbon monoxide. Cold iron pentacarbonyl, diluted in CO at about 30 atmospheres, is injected into a conical mixing zone, where hot CO is also introduced via three jets at 30 degrees with respect to the axis. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Then iron nucleates and forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs by a disproportionation reaction (Boudouard) of CO on Fe-containing clusters. Alternative nucleation rates are estimated from the theory of hard sphere collision dynamics with an activation energy barrier. The rate coefficient for carbon nanotube growth is estimated from activation energies in the literature. The calculated growth was found be about an order of magnitude greater than measured, regardless of the nucleation rate. A study of cluster formation in an incubation zone prior to injection into the reactor shows that direct dimer formation from Fe atoms is not as important as formation via an exchange reaction of Fe with CO in FeCO.

Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Willis, Peter A.; Smalley, Richard E.

2003-01-01

425

Iron catalyst chemistry in modeling a high-pressure carbon monoxide nanotube reactor.  

PubMed

The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is analyzed with the use of a chemical reaction model coupled with flow properties calculated along streamlines, calculated by the FLUENT code for pure carbon monoxide. Cold iron pentacarbonyl, diluted in CO at about 30 atmospheres, is injected into a conical mixing zone, where hot CO is also introduced via three jets at 30 degrees with respect to the axis. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Then iron nucleates and forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs by a disproportionation reaction (Boudouard) of CO on Fe-containing clusters. Alternative nucleation rates are estimated from the theory of hard sphere collision dynamics with an activation energy barrier. The rate coefficient for carbon nanotube growth is estimated from activation energies in the literature. The calculated growth was found be about an order of magnitude greater than measured, regardless of the nucleation rate. A study of cluster formation in an incubation zone prior to injection into the reactor shows that direct dimer formation from Fe atoms is not as important as formation via an exchange reaction of Fe with CO in FeCO. PMID:12908231

Scott, Carl D; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gökçen, Tahir; Willis, Peter A; Smalley, Richard E

2003-01-01

426

Solar thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide for the production of catalytic filamentous carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated solar radiation is used as the clean source of process heat for the production of catalytic filamentous carbon (CFC) by thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons (CH4 and C4H10) and by CO disproportionation in the presence of small metal catalyst particles. Depending on the catalyst, two different types of CFC, namely nanotubes and nanofibers, are obtained in solar experiments. Nanotubes

A. Meier; V. A. Kirillov; G. G. Kuvshinov; Yu. I. Mogilnykh; A. Reller; A. Steinfeld; A. Weidenkaff

1999-01-01

427

Emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane from boreal forest fires in 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global boreal forest region experienced some 17.9 million ha of fire in 1998, which could be the highest level of the decade. Through the analysis of fire statistics from North America and satellite data from Russia, semimonthly estimates of area burned for five different regions in the boreal forest were generated and used to estimate total carbon release and

Eric S. Kasischke; Lori P. Bruhwiler

2003-01-01

428

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of COâ, CHâ, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; E. R. Pullmann; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

429

Safe Tolerability Limits for Carbon Monoxide? A Review of the Clinical and Fire Engineering Implications of a Single, Acute, SubLethal Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is the dominant gas in fire smoke toxic ity. In many cases, according to Babrauskas [1], carbon monoxide, carbon diox ide and the depletion of oxygen are the only toxic agents of consequence. The problems of CO have been studied [2] at the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the views of Babrauskas would be

S. D. Christian; T. J. Shields

2000-01-01

430

Carbon Monoxide I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Ve r m o n t  

E-print Network

;Prevention is the Key to Avoiding Carbon Monoxide Poisoning DO properly equip your home with CO alarmsCarbon Monoxide I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Ve r m o n t A g r A b i l i t y P r o j e c-656-5420 or 1-800-571-0668, Fax:802-656-5422 Carbon monoxide (CO) is highly toxic; it is the leading cause

Hayden, Nancy J.

431

An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

1997-09-01

432

Carbon monoxide in the solar atmosphere II. Radiative cooling by CO lines  

E-print Network

The role of carbon monoxide as a cooling agent for the thermal structure of the mid-photospheric to low-chromospheric layers of the solar atmosphere in internetwork regions is investigated. The treatment of radiative cooling via spectral lines of carbon monoxide (CO) has been added to the radiation chemo-hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD. [...] The CO opacity indeed causes additional cooling at the fronts of propagating shock waves in the chromosphere. There, the time-dependent approach results in a higher CO number density compared to the equilibrium case and hence in a larger net radiative cooling rate. The average gas temperature stratification of the model atmosphere, however, is only reduced by roughly 100 K. Also the temperature fluctuations and the CO number density are only affected to small extent. A numerical experiment without dynamics shows that the CO cooling process works in principle and drives the atmosphere to a cool radiative equilibrium state. At chromospheric heights, the radiative relaxation of the atmosphere to a cool state takes several 1000 s. The CO cooling process thus would seem to be too slow compared to atmospheric dynamics to be responsible for the very cool temperature regions observed in the solar atmosphere. The hydrodynamical timescales in our solar atmosphere model are much too short to allow for the radiative relaxation to a cool state, thus suppressing the potential thermal instability due to carbon monoxide as a cooling agent. Apparently, the thermal structure and dynamics of the outer model atmosphere are instead determined primarily by shock waves.

S. Wedemeyer-Böhm; M. Steffen

2006-12-07

433

Research and development of a luminol-carbon monoxide flow system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaption of the luminol-carbon monoxide injection system to a flowing type system is reported. Analysis of actual wastewater samples was carried out and revealed that bacteria can be associated with particles greater than 10 microns in size in samples such as mixed liquor. Research into the luminol reactive oxidation state indicates that oxidized iron porphyrins, cytochrome-c in particular, produce more luminol chemiluminescence than the reduced form. Correlation exists between the extent of porphyrin oxidation and relative chemiluminescence. In addition, the porphyrin nucleus is apparently destroyed under the current chemiluminescent reaction conditions.

Thomas, R. R.

1977-01-01

434

Crystallization and mutational studies of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from moorella thermoacetica  

E-print Network

systems is nickel. Currently just seven Ni-containing enzymes are known, including NiFe hydrogenases, ureases, glyoxalase I, cis - trans isomerase, Ni-containing superoxide dismutase, methyl -coenzyme M reductase, and Ni-containing carbon monoxide... carbonyl ligands ligate the iron center. The enzyme from Desulfovibrio gigas, which is the most widely studied, has an ?? heterodimeric structure of 89 kDa with one nickel and twelve iron ions. The metals are divided into one NiFe active site, one Fe3S4...

Kim, Eun Jin

2004-09-30

435

Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

Baron, R.C.; Backer, R.C.; Sopher, I.M.

1989-03-01

436

Effect of carbon monoxide on the electrooxidation of hydrogen by tungsten carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on the anodic oxidation of hydrogen by tungsten carbide (WC) electrocatalysts is described. CO poisoning of these base electrocatalysts is small, with reductions of ?6% of the hydrogen current. Tests of the anodic oxidation of CO alone on these catalysts show the reaction to be very slow. The low degree of poisoning is quite reversible and ascribed to weak adsorption of CO on WC surfaces. The experiments have been conducted on a variety of WCs synthesised from several different routes, all showing similar results.

McIntyre, D. R.; Burstein, G. T.; Vossen, A.

437

Carbon monoxide levels during indoor sporting events--Cincinnati, 1992-1993.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by internal combustion engines is an indoor health hazard. High CO levels can occur during indoor sporting events--such as tractor pulls--that involve vehicles modified to achieve high horsepower. In January and March 1992 and January 1993, the Cincinnati Health Department evaluated CO levels during tractor pulls, monster-truck jumps, and a mud race event held in an indoor arena with a seating capacity of approximately 16,000 persons. This report summarizes findings from the evaluations. PMID:7506348

1994-01-21

438

Performance and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide/oxygen rocket engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide and oxygen rocket engine were evaluated. The test hardware consisted of a calorimeter combustion chamber with a heat sink nozzle and an eighteen element concentric tube injector. Experimental results are given at chamber pressures of 1070 and 3070 kPa, and over a mixture ratio range of 0.3 to 1.0. Experimental C efficiency was between 95 and 96.5 percent. Heat transfer results are discussed both as a function of mixture ratio and axial distance in the chamber. They are also compared to a Nusselt number correlation for fully developed turbulent flow.

Linne, Diane L.

1993-01-01

439

Unsuccessful suicide by carbon monoxide: a secondary benefit of emissions control  

SciTech Connect

Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus, emissions control has produced a secondary benefit in reducing the number of suicides by CO poisoning from automobile exhaust fumes.

Landers, D.

1981-11-01

440

Detection of the Carbon Monoxide Ion (CO+) in the Interstellar Medium and a Planetary Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report detection of the carbon monoxide ion (CO+) in the interstellar medium (Ml7SW) and a planetary nebula (NGC 7027). These detections are based on observations of three millimeter and submillimeter transitions in M17SW and one in NGC 7027. Chemical models suggest that CO+ should be most abundant where complex molecules are least likely to be present. In our search for CO+ we therefore minimized the chance of confusion while maximizing the probability of detection by observing regions whose chemistry is dominated by the effects of ultraviolet radiation.

Latter, William B.; Walker, Christopher K.; Maloney, Philip R.

1993-01-01

441

AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe: Time Series from 8/1/2005 to 9/30/2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe

Forest fires and agricultural burning create large amounts of carbon monoxide. AIRS provides daily global maps of carbon monoxide from space, allowing scientists to follow the global transport of this gas day-to-day. In this image sequence, carbon monoxide pollution from agricultural burning blooms repeatedly over the Amazonian basin. The gas is then transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Carbon monoxide pollution from fires in sub-Saharan Africa is also apparent.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2007-01-01

442

An operando FTIR spectroscopic and kinetic study of carbon monoxide pressure influence on rhodium-catalyzed olefin hydroformylation.  

PubMed

The influence of carbon monoxide concentration on the kinetics of the hydroformylation of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene with a phosphite-modified rhodium catalyst has been studied for the pressure range p(CO)=0.20-3.83?MPa. Highly resolved time-dependent concentration profiles of the organometallic intermediates were derived from IR spectroscopic data collected in situ for the entire olefin-conversion range. The dynamics of the catalyst and organic components are described by enzyme-type kinetics with competitive and uncompetitive inhibition reactions involving carbon monoxide taken into account. Saturation of the alkyl-rhodium intermediates with carbon monoxide as a cosubstrate occurs between 1.5 and 2?MPa of carbon monoxide pressure, which brings about a convergence of aldehyde regioselectivity. Hydrogenolysis of the acyl intermediate is fast at 30?°C and low pressure of p(CO)=0.2?MPa, but is of minus first order with respect to the solution concentration of carbon monoxide. Resting 18-electron hydrido and acyl complexes that correspond to early and late rate-determining states, respectively, coexist as long as the conversion of the substrate is not complete. PMID:25081298

Kubis, Christoph; Sawall, Mathias; Block, Axel; Neymeyr, Klaus; Ludwig, Ralf; Börner, Armin; Selent, Detlef

2014-09-01

443

Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.  

PubMed

Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation. PMID:23493423

Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

2013-03-22

444

Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.

Atherton, C.S.

1995-11-01

445

Adsorption Equilibrium for Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goal of this part of our research is to determine experimentally the adsorption equilibrium data that will enable efficient design of a separation process to remove carbon dioxide from a CO/CO2 mixture. An effective separation process will depend on the adsorbent capacity for both the strongly and weakly adsorbed components at the desired operating temperature and pressure ranges, as well as regeneration requirements. Pure component and binary adsorption isotherms are used to determine the most CO2- selective adsorbent. A quick uptake of pure CO2 on a given adsorbent at low pressures compared to the uptake of pure CO on the same adsorbent indicates that CO2 molecules have a much stronger interaction with the adsorbent surface than CO. This is a necessary property for successful separation by adsorption. Adsorption isotherms are widely available in the literature for many pure components on various adsorbents. Pure component isotherms can be found in various publications and data handbooks for CO and CO2 on activated carbon and many zeolites. However, the pressure range seldom extends beyond 300 kPa, and the temperature is usually limited as well. Binary adsorption data are much less abundant and are more difficult to measure experimentally. There are models that can predict binary adsorption from the pure component isotherms, but such models rarely provide the desired accuracy. Hence it is necessary to determine both pure component and binary adsorption isotherms to accurately design the separation system.

Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

2002-11-01

446

Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched chain formaldehyde-carbon monoxide-oxygen system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exponential free radical growth constants were measured for formaldehyde carbon monoxide-oxygen systems by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 2000 K. The data were analyzed using a formaldehyde oxidation mechanism involving 12 elementary reaction steps. The computed growth constants are roughly in accord with experimental values, but are much more temperature dependent. The data was also analyzed assuming formaldehyde is rapidly decomposed to carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Growth constants computed for the resulting carbon monoxide hydrogen oxygen mixtures have a temperature dependence similar to experiments; however, for most mixtures, the computed growth constants were larger than experimental values.

Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

1982-01-01

447

The first regular measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide in the Pacific UTLS taken by IAGOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the features seen in the first six months of data collected over the Pacific by IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) equipped aircraft. IAGOS is the continuation and development of the well known MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus in-service Aircraft) project where scientific instruments were carried on commercially operated A340 aircraft to make measurements of chemical species in the atmosphere. Here, we show data from an aircraft operated by China Airlines on routes from Taipei to Vancouver, which provided the first trans-Pacific measurements of ozone and carbon monoxide by IAGOS equipped aircraft. We describe the chemical composition of the extratropical UTLS across the Pacific basin in the northern hemisphere. The observed concentrations of ozone span a range from 18 to 500ppbv indicating sources in the marine boundary layer and lowermost stratosphere. Concentrations of carbon monoxide > 400ppbv are observed in the UTLS suggesting that plumes of pollution have been exported from Eurasia and crossed the Pacific Ocean. These extreme concentrations of ozone and CO were rarely recorded in 8 years of MOZAIC observations over the Atlantic.

Clark, Hannah; Sauvage, Bastien; Nédélec, Philippe; Thouret, Valérie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Kuoying; Cousin, Jean-Marc; Auby, Antoine; Athier, Gilles; Boulanger, Damien

2013-04-01

448

Field surveys of carbon monoxide in commercial settings using personal exposure monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) were employed to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording the instantaneous instrument reading at 1-minute intervals as the investigators walked along sidewalks and into buildings. For 11 of 15 survey dates, two investigators walked side-by-side, permitting two adjacent PEMs to be compared. Quality assurance tests for 1706 pairs of values showed a very high degree of agreement. CO levels for indoor commercial settings were similar to those measured outdoors on sidewalks, apparently because the pollutant seeps into the structures from traffic outside. Although indoor levels usually were above 0 ppm, they seldom were above 9 ppm (the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for an 8-hour exposure), unless some indoor source could be identified. Carbon monoxide levels on outdoor streets did not vary greatly on different sides of the street, on corners and faces of blocks, and intersections.

Flachsbart, P. G.; Ott, W. R.

1984-02-01

449

A Positive Babinski Reflex Predicts Delayed Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in Chinese Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS) of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1–79.6), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7–92.1), positive predictive value (PPV) = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1–37.5), and negative predictive value (NPV) = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0–98.9). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544–0.880). A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP. PMID:24959589

Zou, Jian-Fang; Guo, Qiming; Shao, Hua; Li, Bin; Du, Yuxiu; Liu, Maofeng; Liu, Fengling; Dai, Lixin; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin

2014-01-01

450

Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.  

PubMed

An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights. PMID:16270560

Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

2005-11-01

451

A study of carbon monoxide distribution determinations for a global transport model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system of programs which model the chemistry and transport of carbon monoxide and methane in the Earth's atmosphere on a global scale was installed onto the NASA-Langley central scientific computer network. This system, the GLOBAL system, consists of a user-friendly set of procedural files which allow for simplified pre-processing, execution, and post-processing for all program elements. The package includes procedures for obtaining the NMC meteorological data, calculating the vertical winds to satisfy mass conservation, determining the boundary layer, and executing the transport/chemical model for carbon monoxide. In addition, plotting, saving to tape, and reading from tape routines were developed. Final modifications to the subprograms for processing the input data for the transport/chemistry model have improved these data to more accurately reflect true atmospheric conditions. The transfer of the transport/chemistry model from the NCAR CRAY system to the NASA-Langley VPS-32 system was completed. The problems encountered during this process and their resolutions are discussed.

Peters, Leonard K.; Manning, James O.

1987-01-01

452

The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of three main tobacco types (flue-cured FC, air-cured AC and sun-cured SC) and two tobacco-based materials (reconstituted tobacco - recon RT and expanded stem) on the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke. AC and SC tobaccos had the most evident impact. The amount of tobacco in mixtures M1, M2 and M3 as well as the addition of expanded stems had an impact on the amount of CO formed in the cigarette smoke. There is weak correlation between CO content in the smoke and the chemical composition of the tobacco. Draw resistance had an impact on CO production. The research results are of great importance, since tobacco selection is the first step in the production of cigarettes with reduced emission of harmful elements contained in the smoke. PMID:23612614

Djulan?i?, Nermina; Radoji?i?, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

2013-01-01

453

A positive Babinski reflex predicts delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae in Chinese patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS) of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1-79.6), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7-92.1), positive predictive value (PPV) = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1-37.5), and negative predictive value (NPV) = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0-98.9). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544-0.880). A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP. PMID:24959589

Zou, Jian-Fang; Guo, Qiming; Shao, Hua; Li, Bin; Du, Yuxiu; Liu, Maofeng; Liu, Fengling; Dai, Lixin; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin

2014-01-01

454

Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm-1. The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty <1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights.

Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G.; Baer, Douglas S.; Ricci, Kenneth N.; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R.

2005-11-01

455

Neuropsychological outcome after carbon monoxide exposure following a storm: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background The cognitive consequences of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are well described. However, most studies have been carried out without an ad-hoc group of control subjects. The main aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and psychiatric outcome after CO exposure during the storm Klaus in the South West of France (January 2009) in a homogeneous group of patients compared to a group of 1:1 paired controls. Methods Patients and controls were asked to fill out questionnaires about quality of life and cognitive complaints. They then underwent a cognitive assessment derived from the Carbon Monoxide Neuropsychological Screening Battery. Psychiatric assessment was performed using subtests of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results 38 patients and 38 paired controls were included (mean age 38.8 years) and evaluated 51 days after the poisoning. No difference was found between groups on the cognitive complaint questionnaire but patients had a lower quality of life than controls. Patients showed significantly lower cognitive performance than controls on processing speed, mental flexibility, inhibition and working and verbal episodic memories. Patients were more depressed than controls, and suffered more from post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusions We report the first study investigating cognitive and psychiatric outcome in consecutive patients after CO poisoning during a natural disaster, using a group comparison method. CO poisoning during storms needs to be dealt with adequately and clinicians should be aware of its possible consequences. PMID:25048040

2014-01-01

456

Analysis of trace amounts of carbon dioxide, oxygen and carbon monoxide in nitrogen using dual capillary columns and a pulsed discharge helium ionisation detector.  

PubMed

Gas mixtures of trace amounts of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), dioxygen (O(2)), and carbon monoxide (CO) in dinitrogen (N(2)) were separated and quantified using parallel dual capillary columns and pulsed discharge helium ionisation detection (PDHID). The detection limits (9 x 10(-9) mol mol(-1) for CO(2), 7 x 10(-9) mol mol(-1) for O(2) and 37 x 10(-9) mol mol(-1) for CO) were lower than those reported previously for similar methods. Uncertainties were calculated and results were validated by comparison of the CO and CO(2) results with those obtained using conventional methods. The method was also used to analyse nitrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in oxygen. PMID:17765907

Janse van Rensburg, M; Botha, A; Rohwer, E

2007-10-01

457

The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

2012-07-01

458

The effect of ambient conditions on carbon monoxide emissions from an idling gas turbine combustor. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A test program employing a gas turbine combustor is outlined; the results of which quantize the effects of changes in ambient temperature and humidity on carbon monoxide emissions at simulated idle operating conditions. A comparison of the experimental results with analytical results generated by a kinetic model of the combustion process, and reflecting changing ambient conditions, is given. It is demonstrated that for a complete range of possible ambient variations, significant changes do occur in the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a gas turbine at idle, and that the analytical model is reasonably successful in predicting changes.

Subramanian, A. K.

1977-01-01

459

Analysis of trace amounts of carbon dioxide, oxygen and carbon monoxide in nitrogen using dual capillary columns and a pulsed discharge helium ionisation detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas mixtures of trace amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), dioxygen (O2), and carbon monoxide (CO) in dinitrogen (N2) were separated and quantified using parallel dual capillary columns and pulsed discharge helium ionisation detection (PDHID). The detection limits (9×10?9molmol?1 for CO2, 7×10?9molmol?1 for O2 and 37×10?9molmol?1 for CO) were lower than those reported previously for similar methods. Uncertainties were calculated and

M. Janse van Rensburg; A. Botha; E. Rohwer

2007-01-01

460

Matrix infrared spectra of the products of uranium-atom reactions with carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Uranium atoms from pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation of a uranium metal target were codeposited with carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in excess argon at 10K. Infrared spectra following the U + CO reaction revealed strong new absorption bands at 804.4 and 852.6 cm[sup [minus]1], which are assigned to the CUO product on the basis of isotopic shifts, FG matrix calculations, and ab initio pseudopotential calculations. An absorption at 2027.5 cm[sup [minus]1] is attributed to the asymmetric secondary reaction product CU(O)CO. In both the U + Co and U + CO[sub 2] reactions, bands at 870.9 and 1963.8 cm[sup [minus]1] were observed and assigned to the association product of UO[sub 2] and CO. Lastly, in the U + CO[sub 2] experiments, new absorption band pairs were observed at 804.4 and 1799.6 cm[sup [minus]1] and at 801.5 and 2011.7 cm[sup [minus]1]. The former pair was almost destroyed on annealing and is assigned to the OUCO insertion product. The latter pair is attributed to an OCU(O)CO species. The direct reaction of U atoms with CO and CO[sub 2] requires an activation energy, which is provided by hyperthermal U atoms from pulsed laser evaporation. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Tague, T.J. Jr.; Andrews, L. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlotteville, VA (United States)); Hunt, R.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1993-10-21

461

Formulation of defined media for carbon monoxide fermentation by Eubacterium limosum KIST612 and the growth characteristics of the bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate-buffered (PBBM) and carbonate-buffered (CBBM) basal media were used in the formulation of defined media for the cultivation of Eubacterium limosum KIST612 with carbon monoxide (CO) as the sole energy source. The bacterium was adapted to the minimal media by sequential passage in media containing casamino acids and those containing ammonium chloride in the place of yeast extract. Biological growth

In-Seop Chang; Byung-Hong Kim; Do-Hee Kim; Robert W. Lovitt; Ha-Chin Sung

1999-01-01

462

Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the human and animal studies, Astrup et al. (1972) implied fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event mentioned above. Tachi and Aoyama (1983) demonstrated that pregnant rats which had inhaled either cigarette smoke or CO at the similar CO concentration, had smaller conceptuses than those in the control

Norihide Tachi; Mitsuko Aoyama

1986-01-01

463

Carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity improves risk stratification in patients without airflow limitation: evidence for systematic measurement before lung resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In many centers, carbon monoxide lung diffusion capacity (DLCO) is still not routinely measured in all patients but only in patients with airflow limitation. The objective of the study was to assess the degree of correlation between forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) and DLCO, and verify whether a low predicted postoperative DLCO (ppoDLCO) could have a role in

Alessandro Brunelli; Majed Al Refai; Michele Salati; Armando Sabbatini; Nicholas J. Morgan-Hughes; Gaetano Rocco

2006-01-01

464

The effect of carbon monoxide and steam on the hydrogen permeability of a Pd\\/stainless steel membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the hydrogen permeation rate through a Pd\\/stainless steel membrane have been carried out in the presence of carbon monoxide and steam and with mixtures of these two additives. Significant reductions in hydrogen permeability were observed, the extent of the reduction being dependent on the amount of CO or steam added. At low concentrations of additive (high feed flux),

A Li; W Liang; R Hughes

2000-01-01

465

KEY COMPARISON: International comparison CCQM-K51: Carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen (5 µmol mol-1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first key comparison on carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen dates back to 1992 (CCQM-K1a). It was one of the first types of gas mixtures that were used in an international key comparison. Since then, numerous national metrology institutes (NMIs) have been setting up facilities for gas analysis, and have developed claims for their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for

Angelique Botha; Mellisa Janse van Rensburg; James Tshilongo; Nompumelelo Leshabane; Napo Ntsasa; Kenji Kato; Nobuhiro Matsumoto; Volker Stummer; L. A. Konopelko; Y. A. Kustikov; V. V. Pankratov; I. I. Vasserman; C. V. Zavyalov; E. V. Gromova; Ian Uprichard; Gergely Vargha; M. Maruyama; Hans-Joachim Heine; Francisco Rangel Murillo; Victor M. Serrano Caballero; Alejandro Pérez Castorena; Tatiana Mace; Franklin Guenther; Walter Miller; Andrés Rojo; Teresa Fernández; Dariusz Cieciora; Valnei S. Cunha; Claudia C. Ribeiro; Cristiane R. Augusto; Han Qiao; Zeyi Zhou; Damian Smeulders; Michel Gerboles; Matej Kapus; Rob M. Wessel; Florbela Dias; Gonçalo Baptista; Prabhat K. Gupta; P. Johri; Bunthoon Laongsri; Ratirat Sinweeruthai; Bernhard Niederhauser; Andreas Ackermann; Marina Froehlich; Andreas Wolf; Jeongsoon Lee; Stanislav Musil; Miroslava Valkova; Jari Walden; Sisko Laurila

2010-01-01

466

Comparative study on pathogenesis of selective cerebral lesions in carbon monoxide poisoning and nitrogen hypoxia in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since in a previous study hypoxia and subsequent hypotension were considered to be essential for the pathogenesis of carbon monoxide encephalopathy (CO-encephalopathy), experiments were conducted to see whether a combination of nitrogen hypoxia and subsequent systemic hypotension of similar degree and duration as in the previous experimental CO poisoning could induce the same lesion in the CNS of cats. The

R. Okeda; N. Funata; S.-J. Song; F. Higashino; T. Takano; K. Yokoyama

1982-01-01

467

Biochemistry 1994,33,8355-8360 8355 Determination of the Carbon Monoxide Binding Constants of Myoglobin Mutants  

E-print Network

and dissociation rate constants (ken and koff, respectively). The reaction of a monomeric protein such as MbBiochemistry 1994,33,8355-8360 8355 Determination of the Carbon Monoxide Binding Constants constants of human myoglobin (Mb) and several single-site mutants have been determined using two different

Boxer, Steven G.

468

Orthogonal optimization of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans culture medium for hydrogen production from carbon monoxide by biological water-gas shift reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to investigate the optimal nutritional requirements for hydrogen production from carbon monoxide by biological water-gas shift (WGS) reaction with Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans using orthogonal layout methods. Cultures of C. hydrogenoformans on the medium as formulated by the strain supplier (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH) unexpectedly showed a large content in inorganic material.

Ya Zhao; Ruxandra Cimpoia; Zhijun Liu; Serge R. Guiot

2011-01-01

469

Natural emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen from North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitudes, distributions, controlling processes and uncertainties associated with North American natural emissions of oxidant precursors are reviewed. Natural emissions are responsible for a major portion of the compounds, including non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO), that determine tropospheric oxidant concentrations. Natural sources include soil microbes, vegetation, biomass burning, and lightning. These sources are

Alex Guenther; Chris Geron; Tom Pierce; Brian Lamb; Peter Harley; Ray Fall

2000-01-01

470

A Novel Method For Predicting Carbon Monoxide Apparent Quantum Yield Spectra in Coastal Water Using Remote Sensing Reflectance Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemical oxidation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the major source of carbon monoxide to the surface ocean. Bacterial consumption and air-sea exchange comprise the two known sinks for CO in marine systems. Though the two loss terms are relatively efficient, CO remains supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in the surface ocean. Global oceanic estimates of CO photoproduction

H. E. Reader; W. L. Miller

2010-01-01

471

Fatal Accident Circumstances and Epidemiology (FACE) Report: Carbon Monoxide Kills Three Volunteer Firefighters Inside Well in Pennsylvania, May 1, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The deaths of three volunteer firefighters from carbon-monoxide (630080) inside a 33 foot deep water well were investigated. A total of four volunteer firefighters responded to a request from a local resident to remove the remains of a dead animal from a ...

1990-01-01

472

Simulations of exercise and brain effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide in normal and vascular-diseased persons.  

EPA Science Inventory

At some level, carboxyhemoglobin (RbCO) due to inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) reduces maximum exercise duration in normal and ischemic heart patients. At high RbCO levels in normal subjects, brain function is also affected and behavioral performance is impaired. These are fin...

473

Meteorological context for fall experiments including distributions of water vapor, ozone, and carbon monoxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorological contexts for the NASA GTE/CITE 1 fall 1983 flight series are presented and discussed. The large-scale wind, cold cloud, and moisture patterns are illustrated by composite diagrams based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 700-, 500-, and 250-mbar analyses and the GOES-West broadband and 6.7-micron (water vapor) infrared photographs. Detailed flight path diagrams are included for seven maritime flights and one continental flight in the free troposphere and boundary layer. For three flights from Hickam Field, in Honolulu, HI, to the Intertropical Convergence Zone, vertical profiles of temperature, dew/frost point departures, wind velocity, and ozone, and carbon monoxide mixing ratios are also presented and discussed. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between the in situ and remote measurements. In particular, the predictive and diagnostic value of the 6.7-micron water vapor photographs is demonstrated.

Danielsen, Edwin F.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, G. F.; Gaines, Steven E.

1987-01-01

474

Carbon monoxide poisoning. Five-years' experience in a defined population  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of 302 cases in East Denmark in 1982-1986 in which the manner of death was fatal carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The incidence of this far too frequent single-substance poisoning has as yet not decreased over the years despite preventive measures. The number of fatal CO poisoning cases may diminish as a result of a natural gas project in progress. The purpose of this survey, therefore, is to contribute to the evaluation of the actual causes of these fatal poisonings in East Denmark, and to discuss existing measures that prevent gas poisonings, in the expectation of a decline both in gas suicides and in accidental gas poisonings within the next few years.

Theilade, P. (Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark))

1990-09-01

475

Low-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysed by regenerable atomically dispersed palladium on alumina.  

PubMed

Catalysis by single isolated atoms of precious metals has attracted much recent interest, as it promises the ultimate in atom efficiency. Most previous reports are on reducible oxide supports. Here we show that isolated palladium atoms can be catalytically active on industrially relevant ?-alumina supports. The addition of lanthanum oxide to the alumina, long known for its ability to improve alumina stability, is found to also help in the stabilization of isolated palladium atoms. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm the presence of intermingled palladium and lanthanum on the ?-alumina surface. Carbon monoxide oxidation reactivity measurements show onset of catalytic activity at 40 °C. The catalyst activity can be regenerated by oxidation at 700 °C in air. The high-temperature stability and regenerability of these ionic palladium species make this catalyst system of potential interest for low-temperature exhaust treatment catalysts. PMID:25222116

Peterson, Eric J; DeLaRiva, Andrew T; Lin, Sen; Johnson, Ryan S; Guo, Hua; Miller, Jeffrey T; Hun Kwak, Ja; Peden, Charles H F; Kiefer, Boris; Allard, Lawrence F; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Datye, Abhaya K

2014-01-01

476

Titanium-decorated graphene oxide for carbon monoxide capture and separation.  

PubMed

We propose titanium-decorated graphene oxide (Ti-GO) as an ideal sorbent for carbon monoxide (CO) capture and separation from gas mixtures. Based on first-principles calculations, Ti-GO exhibits a large binding energy of ~70 kJ mol(-1) for CO molecules, while the binding energies for other gases, such as N(2), CO(2), and CH(4), are significantly smaller. The gas adsorption properties of Ti-GO are independent of the local GO structures once Ti atoms are anchored by the oxygen-containing groups on the GO surface. The strong interaction between CO molecule and Ti is a result of dative bonding, i.e., hybridization between an empty d orbital of Ti and an occupied p orbital of CO. Adsorption isotherms from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations clearly demonstrate the strong selectivity of Ti-GO for CO adsorption in a mixture with other gas. PMID:22025026

Wang, Lu; Zhao, Jijun; Wang, Lili; Yan, Tianyin; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai B

2011-12-21

477

High-sensitive monitoring of carbon monoxide in industry flue gases using tunable diode lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a very important gas generated in the industrial process; therefore to implement CO concentration on-line monitoring is a key factor for industrial process control. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a high sensitive, high selective and fast trace gas detection technique. With the features of tunability and narrow linewidth of distributed feedback (DFB) laser and by precisely tuning its wavelength to a single isolated absorption line of the gas, TDLAS technique can be utilized to accurately perform online gas concentration monitoring with very high sensitivity. In this paper, a system for online monitoring of CO concentration is developed by our group employing TDLAS technique. The experimental results are present and discussed in this report. The characteristics of the system are: the sensitivity, 10ppm; detection accuracy, 0.02%; long term stability, 1%.

Zhang, Zhi-rong; Dong, Feng-zhong; Xia, Hua; Tu, Guo-jie; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu

2009-07-01

478

Direct measurement of the oceanic carbon monoxide flux by eddy correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents results from a field trial of ship-based air-sea flux measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) by direct eddy correlation with an infrared-laser trace gas analyzer. The analyzer utilizes Off-Axis Integrated-Cavity-Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) to achieve high selectivity for CO, rapid response (~2 Hz) and low noise. Over a two-day sea trial, peak daytime seawater CO concentrations were ~1.5 nM and wind speeds were consistently 10-12 m s-1. A clear diel cycle in CO flux with an early afternoon maximum was observed. An analysis of flux error suggests the effects of non-stationarity are important, and air-sea CO flux measurements are best performed in regions remote from continental pollution sources.

Blomquist, B. W.; Fairall, C. W.; Huebert, B. J.; Wilson, S. T.

2012-12-01

479

Evaluation of MOPITT retrievals of lower-tropospheric carbon monoxide over the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new Version 5 MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) product for carbon monoxide (CO) is the first satellite product to exploit simultaneous near-infrared and thermal-infrared observations to enhance retrieval sensitivity in the lower troposphere. This feature is important to air quality analyses and studies of CO sources. However, because of the influence of both thermal contrast and geophysical noise, the retrieval characteristics for this new multispectral product are highly variable. New V5 products for surface-level CO concentrations have been evaluated over the contiguous United States using both in situ vertical profiles and NOAA ground-based "Tall Tower" measurements. Validation results based on the in situ profiles indicate that retrieval biases are on the order of a few percent. However, direct comparisons with the Tall Tower measurements demonstrate that smoothing error, which depends on both the retrieval averaging kernels and CO variability in the lower troposphere, exhibits significant geographical and seasonal variability.

Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Andrews, A. E.

2012-07-01

480

Carbon monoxide poisoning and death in a large enclosed ventilated area.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old man with a medical history of tobacco use suddenly collapsed while power washing an empty indoor pool in a hotel. The decedent was transported to the local hospital where he was pronounced. A postmortem examination revealed atherosclerotic heart disease and bilateral pulmonary edema and congestion. A postmortem blood carbon monoxide (CO) level was 27% saturation, and a CO performed on hospital admission blood was 49% saturation. CO poisoning is a common cause of toxicological morbidity and mortality in the United States. The circumstances most often occur in an enclosed environment and may be intentional or unintentional. CO poisoning has been reported in open, well-ventilated spaces, but rarely results in death. A warning label was present on the engine clearly stating the dangers of CO emission. However, there was a false sense of security due to the large size of the pool room and the presence of industrial blowers that were being used for ventilation. PMID:24117948

Huston, Butch; Froloff, Victor; Mills, Kelly; McGee, Michael

2013-11-01

481

Pathophysiology of brain injuries in acute carbon monoxide poisoning: a novel hypothesis.  

PubMed

Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning causes the neurologic symptoms and brain lesions during both acute and delayed phase. We propose that catecholamine crises in globus pallidus and deep white matter are the key pathophysiological factors causing acute and delayed brain injuries respectively. Increased sympathetic activities due to acute CO poisoning is followed by increases of catecholamine levels in synapses or nerve terminals in organs including the brain, especially, limbic system. A dopamine excess in the synaptic cleft of the mesolimbic system, including globus pallidus, may cause the destruction of synapses and nuclei in the globus pallidus. Consequently, the striatal lesion is affected in the acute phase of CO intoxication. Moreover, an increase of catecholamine levels in synapses of deep white matter can persist after the acute stage of CO intoxication. A dopamine excess could lead to oxidative metabolism of dopamine, serotonergic axonal injury, or secondary myelin damage. PMID:24857260

Park, Eun-Jung; Min, Young-Gi; Kim, Gi-woon; Cho, Joon-pil; Maeng, Woo-jae; Choi, Sang-cheon

2014-08-01

482

Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-?m cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

2009-12-01

483

Ice storm-related carbon monoxide poisonings in North Carolina: a reminder.  

PubMed

Severe winter weather, such as ice storms, that results in loss of electrical power, is frequently mentioned as a contributing factor in acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. However, in our literature review, such events are infrequently reported. This article reports on such an event in which more than 200 patients were evaluated and treated at a single facility because of the crippling effects of an ice storm leading to prolonged loss of power and subsequent catastrophes with alternative heating and cooking sources. One hundred seventy-six patients were treated and subsequently released after Emergency Department-based treatment for CO exposure, and three patients were admitted. Eighteen patients were treated with hyperbaric treatments and discharged. Three others left before treatment was completed. Three cases representing varying levels of severity at presentation leading to differing treatment algorithms are discussed to demonstrate a suggested clinical decision pathway in the treatment of unintentional CO poisoning. PMID:15586595

Ghim, Michael; Severance, Harry W

2004-11-01

484

Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

1985-01-01

485

Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.  

PubMed

We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obs