Sample records for carbon carbon monoxide

  1. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips 

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26

    Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

  2. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26

    Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

  3. Estimating carbon monoxide exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Method predicts effects of carbon monoxide on astronauts confined in spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Information on need for low toxicity level also applies to confined spaces. Benefits are applicable to industry and public health.

  4. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics January 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... Engine-Driven Tools View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Inside CPSC: Recalls Safety Education ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Robbins; K. M. Borg; E. Robinson

    1968-01-01

    A carbon monoxide analyzer has been developed which is capable of continuous measurement of the carbon monoxide concentration in the atmosphere. The operating principle of the instrument is the reaction of carbon monoxide with hot mercuric oxide followed by the photometric determination of the mercury vapor produced. Oxygenated hydrocarbons and olefins are quantitatively detected. Those normally present are in the

  7. Carbon Monoxide Targeting Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Queiroga, Cláudia S. F.; Almeida, Ana S.; Vieira, Helena L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria present two key roles on cellular functioning: (i) cell metabolism, being the main cellular source of energy and (ii) modulation of cell death, by mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gaseoustransmitter, which presents several biological functions and is involved in maintaining cell homeostasis and cytoprotection. Herein, mitochondrion is approached as the main cellular target of carbon monoxide (CO). In this paper, two main perspectives concerning CO modulation of mitochondrial functioning are evaluated. First, the role of CO on cellular metabolism, in particular oxidative phosphorylation, is discussed, namely, on: cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial respiration, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial biogenesis, and general cellular energetic status. Second, the mitochondrial pathways involved in cell death inhibition by CO are assessed, in particular the control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. PMID:22536507

  8. Carbon Monoxide and Population Density

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-03-14

    This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to investigate the carbon monoxide level at a fixed latitude. Using the LAS, students will download data, and then will use Excel to create maps of the carbon monoxide level for a particular latitude. They will then look for trends and explore the population density for selected points along the latitude (urban or rural). The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes.

  9. Carbon monoxide and human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward P. Radford

    1976-01-01

    Some topics discussed are: relationship of carbon monoxide emission to ambient levels and levels in the human population; location of monitoring stations; effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system; use of epidemiologic methods to determine clustering of heart attacks by states or by time; amount of CO in blood of individuals dying of arteriosclerotic heart disease in comparison

  10. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities. PMID:9456553

  11. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground-based spectroscopic measurements. Images courtesy David Edwards and John Gille, MOPITT Science Team, NCAR

  12. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

  13. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

  14. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

  15. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact CDC-INFO Workplace Safety and Health Topics Industries & Occupations Hazards & Exposures Diseases & Injuries Safety & Prevention Chemicals Carbon Monoxide Carbon Monoxide Dangers in Boating Carbon ...

  17. Myonecrosis in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Herman, G D; Shapiro, A B; Leikin, J

    1988-02-01

    Myonecrosis is an unusual sequelae to carbon monoxide poisoning with only 16 cases having been reported in the English-language literature. At the University of Illinois Hospital, we encountered a 25-year-old fire academy student who presented to our Emergency Department with a carboxyhemoglobin level of 16% following a training exercise in a smoke-filled room. The patient was not wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus and his duration of exposure was 7-8 min, by which time he had blacked out for about 1 min. Upon arrival, the patient was lethargic, with a moderate inhalation burn. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen at 2 1/2 ATA. Following 90 min of hyperbaric oxygen, slight flexor compartment weakness, along with tenderness of the proximal lower extremities was noted. CPK was elevated to 65,998 (100% mm) with urine dipstick being positive for blood and only occasional rbc's seen in the urine sediment. The patient did well with forced diuresis and alkalinization of the urine. No oliguria was noted and the CPK fell to 893 five days later. This is the only case in the English-language literature who developed myonecrosis from carbon monoxide, despite hyperbaric oxygen treatment. We believe that this case demonstrates that hyperbaric oxygen cannot prevent the development of myonecrosis induced by carbon monoxide. PMID:3354179

  18. Molecular Structure of carbon monoxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-03-09

    Carbon monoxide is a colorless, flammable gas that is highly toxic due to its ability to out-compete oxygen to form a complex with hemoglobin. When this happens, oxygen transport in the blood is impeded and unconsciousness and death may result. Carbon monoxide is of great industrial importance (e.g., as a fuel or producer gas) in metallurgic processes that isolate various metals from their oxides by reduction with coke. It is also a key intermediate in the catalytic production of various hydrocarbons by industry, including the production of alcohols, Sabatier methanation, and Fischer-Tropsch hydrogenation. Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (i.e., oxidation of hydrocarbons in a limited supply of oxygen) in automobiles and industrial activity (e.g., energy production) are major anthropogenic sources of CO to the atmosphere. Other sources of carbon monoxide to the atmosphere are the oxidation of methane by the atmospheric oxidant hydroxyl radical and biomass burning (e.g., slash-and-burn agriculture practices).

  19. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1581 Section 52...Jersey § 52.1581 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state...

  20. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.349 Section 52...Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, Carbon Monoxide Redesignation...

  1. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.376 Section 52.376...Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On January...Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1322-84...Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the...

  3. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 91...Test Equipment Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer described in this...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52...York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1373 Section 52...Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997...revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86...Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a...service and annually thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked...

  7. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 90...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in...

  8. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.122-78...Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1581 Section 52...Jersey § 52.1581 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52...Ohio § 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon monoxide portions of rules 01,...

  11. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785...Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the Metropolitan...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section...Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52...Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312 Section...Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section 52...Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island carbon monoxide attainment area for the...

  16. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86...Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a...service and annually thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked...

  17. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785...Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements...maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the Metropolitan...

  18. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 89...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide as described in this...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52.1132 Section 52...Massachusetts § 52.1132 Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November...Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52...York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1528 Section 52...Hampshire § 52.1528 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...Nashua Inspection/Maintenance program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section...Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312 Section...Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in...

  4. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.349 Section 52...Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, Carbon Monoxide Redesignation...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section 52...Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island carbon monoxide attainment area for the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1528 Section 52...Hampshire § 52.1528 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...Nashua Inspection/Maintenance program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating...

  7. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 89...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide as described in this...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1185 Section 52...Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On November...Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

  9. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 90...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in...

  10. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 91...Test Equipment Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer described in this...

  11. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.122-78...Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52.1132 Section 52...Massachusetts § 52.1132 Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November...Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52...Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1373 Section 52...Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997...revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52...Ohio § 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval...the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon monoxide portions of rules 01,...

  16. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  17. Carbon monoxide and the burning earth

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.E.; Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Seiler, W.

    1989-10-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of many gases whose presence in the atmosphere is blamed largely on industrial activity in the Northern Hemisphere. Data collected by the authors show that the gas is also abundant in the Southern Hemisphere, where it comes mainly from the burning of tropical rain forests and savannas. The high levels of carbon monoxide confirm other evidence that the rain forests are being diminished rapidly, which may affect the climates of these regions as well as globally. Increases in carbon monoxide could also encourage the accumulation of pollutant gases such as ozone and methane. The first is highly toxic to plants and the second would add to the greenhouse effect.

  18. Carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds

    E-print Network

    De Jong, T.; Chu, Shih-I; Dalgarno, A.

    1975-07-01

    Calculations are made for the energy loss rates, brightness temperatures, and line profiles of carbon monoxide in collapsing interstellar clouds. The most recent data for the H2-CO collision rates have been used in the ...

  19. Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

    2002-01-01

    Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

  20. CARBON MONOXIDE AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and there...

  1. A Suicide Using a Homemade Carbon Monoxide \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Prahlow; Barrett W. Doyle

    Deaths related to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are common. Most represent accidents and suicides, and most result from CO production via the incomplete combustion of carbon- containing substances. Suicide via CO toxicity is not uncommon and typically involves the use of motor-vehicle exhaust as a source of CO. Presented herein is a case of suicidal CO poisoning in which the

  2. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  3. Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process

    DOEpatents

    Elek, Louis F. (Peekskill, NY); Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

  4. Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and molecular oxygen (O2) with varying carbon-to-oxygen ratios from 1 and destruction pathways of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3

  5. Microwave measurements of carbon monoxide on titan.

    PubMed

    Muhleman, D O; Berge, G L; Clancy, R T

    1984-01-27

    The ratio of the flux density of Titan was measured in two 200-megahertz bands, one centered on the (1-0) rotation line of carbon monoxide at 115.3 gigahertz and the other 2600 megahertz lower. The measurements were made with a complex-correlation technique on the new millimeter-wavelength interferometer at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, California. The excess flux in the carbon monoxide band is interpreted as a strong detection of carbon monoxide and a mixing ratio, assumed constant, of 6 x 10(-5). The brightness temperature of Titan at 112.6 gigahertz is 69 +/- 10 kelvins, consistent with atmospheric emission from just below the tropopause. PMID:17829888

  6. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...carbon monoxide nonattainment area. (b) Approval—On September 30, 1994, the Connecticut Department of Environmental...Britain-Middletown carbon monoxide attainment area (period 2006 to 2015), for the New Haven-Meriden-Waterbury...

  7. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...carbon monoxide nonattainment area. (b) Approval—On September 30, 1994, the Connecticut Department of Environmental...Britain-Middletown carbon monoxide attainment area (period 2006 to 2015), for the New Haven-Meriden-Waterbury...

  8. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...carbon monoxide nonattainment area. (b) Approval—On September 30, 1994, the Connecticut Department of Environmental...Britain-Middletown carbon monoxide attainment area (period 2006 to 2015), for the New Haven-Meriden-Waterbury...

  9. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...carbon monoxide nonattainment area. (b) Approval—On September 30, 1994, the Connecticut Department of Environmental...Britain-Middletown carbon monoxide attainment area (period 2006 to 2015), for the New Haven-Meriden-Waterbury...

  10. Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice with extraterrestrial, carbon monoxide bearing ices. The chemical modifications were monitored on line and in situ via of carbon monoxide and on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial ice analog samples. 1

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Presenting as an Isolated Seizure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Y Herman

    1998-01-01

    Seizures are generally regarded as a manifestation of extreme, generally near-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. A case is described in which a seizure attributable to carbon monoxide poisoning occurred in a small child at a level not thought to be associated with serious neurologic toxicity. A literature review of the occurrence of seizures in carbon monoxide poisoning found that no particular

  12. Methanation of carbon monoxide over tungsten carbide-containing alumina catalyst for methanation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, J.N.

    1980-08-26

    A process of preparing methane-containing gas comprising contacting carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst containing tungsten carbide. Various tungsten carbidecontaining alumina gel catalysts are also disclosed.

  13. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  14. Delayed leukoencephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Silva, Cristiana; Neutel, Dulce; Neto, Lia Lucas; Albuquerque, Luísa

    2014-05-01

    Delayed leukoencephalopathy is an uncommon complication of hypoxic-ischemic events of different etiologies, including carbon monoxide intoxication. We present a case of a 40-year-old male patient who was admitted with rapidly progressive neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. There was a history of accidental carbon monoxide intoxication one month before, presenting with loss of consciousness and short hospitalization, followed by a complete clinical recovery. The imaging studies in the delayed phase depicted confluent, symmetric supra-tentorial white matter lesions in keeping with diffuse demyelinization. Restricted diffusion and metabolite abnormalities in magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy were also seen. The diagnosis of CO-mediated delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy was assumed after exclusion of other mimickers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was tentatively performed and the patient had a favorable clinical and radiological evolution. PMID:25426224

  15. Delayed leukoencephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Silva, Cristiana; Neutel, Dulce; Neto, Lia Lucas; Albuquerque, Luísa

    2014-01-01

    Delayed leukoencephalopathy is an uncommon complication of hypoxic-ischemic events of different etiologies, including carbon monoxide intoxication. We present a case of a 40-year-old male patient who was admitted with rapidly progressive neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. There was a history of accidental carbon monoxide intoxication one month before, presenting with loss of consciousness and short hospitalization, followed by a complete clinical recovery. The imaging studies in the delayed phase depicted confluent, symmetric supra-tentorial white matter lesions in keeping with diffuse demyelinization. Restricted diffusion and metabolite abnormalities in magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy were also seen. The diagnosis of CO-mediated delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy was assumed after exclusion of other mimickers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was tentatively performed and the patient had a favorable clinical and radiological evolution. PMID:25426224

  16. Open-ocean carbon monoxide photoproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aron Stubbins; Günther Uher; Cliff S. Law; Kenneth Mopper; Carol Robinson; Robert C. Upstill-Goddard

    2006-01-01

    Sunlight-initiated photolysis of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the dominant source of carbon monoxide (CO) in the open-ocean. A modelling study was conducted to constrain this source. Spectral solar irradiance was obtained from two models (GCSOLAR and SMARTS2). Water-column CDOM and total light absorption were modelled using spectra collected along a Meridional transect of the Atlantic ocean using a

  17. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A H Kendrick; G Laszlo

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation

  18. Nonclassical activation of carbon monoxide by organoactinides

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, T.J. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, Il); Manriquez, J.M.; Fagan, P.J.; Day, V.W.; Day, C.S.; Vollmer, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews recent results on the carbonylation chemistry of bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) thorium and uranium hydrocarbyl and dialkylamide complexes. Facile migratory insertion of carbon monoxide into metal-carbon and metal-nitrogen bonds is observed. In several cases bihaptoacyl and bihaptocarbamoyl complexes were isolated and characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The great strength of the metal-oxygen bonding in these species is evident in metrical and spectral data, as well as in the reaction chemistry, which is decidedly alkoxycarbene-like. In the case of the bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) actinide dialkyls, the final carbonylation products are C-C coupled cis-1,2-enediolate complexes, while for the corresponding bis(dialkylamides), the products are bis(carbamoyl) species. Both types of compound have been characterized by x-ray diffraction. The carbon monoxide chemistry observed here may be of relevance to mechanistic discussions of catalytic CO reduction, especially that involving actinide oxide or actinide oxide supported catalysts.

  19. Carbon monoxide safety systems for gas appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, T.G.; Palmer, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the development of a self-powered carbon monoxide safety control system for application to gas appliances is reported. A comparison of the various possible technologies is made, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of each are discussed. Results of an experimental study of a chemioptical sensor, describing its CO sensitivity, dose response time, reusibility, and dependence on temperature and humidity are presented. The effects of four interfering gasses, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, acrolein, and formic acid, are also included. Details are shown for a safety control system now undergoing field tests in gas room heaters.

  20. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  1. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts...

  2. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide. 52.1164 Section 52...1164 Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than...national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide. 52.1164 Section 52...1164 Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than...national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized...

  5. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  6. Analysis of GASP carbon monoxide data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for the period March 1977 through October 1978 was analyzed. The CO data are summarized and the distribution and variations in space and time of this gas are presented. The data show that the CO mixing ratios are higher in the troposphere than those in the stratosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere the highest value of CO mixing ratio occurs in spring, although more data are needed to verify these findings. Correlation coefficients among CO, O3, air temperature (T) and winds were calculated for different regions under different seasons. It was found that the CO correlates negatively with O3 above 20 degrees latitude and positively below that latitude. Case studies using the data of CO, O3, and T measured simultaneously were performed. Discussions and suggestions are made. Ozone data on seasonal basis is also summarized.

  7. Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCammon, C S; Halperin, W F; Lemen, R A

    1981-01-01

    Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health observed deficiencies in maintenance of fueling trucks at an international airport. The exhaust system is vented under the front bumper, a standard design on fueling trucks which is intended to minimize the proximity of the exhaust system to the jet fuel in the vehicles. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the cabs of 17 fueling trucks with windows closed, heaters on, and in different positions relative to the wind. One truck had an average CO level of 300 ppm, two exceeded 100 ppm, five others exceeded 50 ppm, while levels in the other nine averaged less than or equal to 500 ppm. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and the vehicle's orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is required as the exhaust design is not fail-safe. PMID:6166254

  8. Preparation of carbon monoxide/olefin copolymer with removal of S/Fe from carbon monoxide monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Van Broekhoven, J.A.M.; Geuze, M.M.; Salter, J.A.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a process for preparation of polymers, wherein carbon monoxide containing a second component which is a member of the group consisting of: sulfur andiron, and mixtures thereof, is subjected to one or more purifying treatments. The content of the second component is decreased purifying the carbon monoxide, and the carbon thus purified is polymerized together with one or more olefinically unsaturated compounds by contacting with a palladium-containing catalyst composition.composition.

  9. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  10. Quantum molecular dynamic simulations of warm dense carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Cong; Li, Dafang; Zhang, Ping

    2011-08-14

    Using quantum molecular dynamic simulations, we have studied the thermophysical properties of warm dense carbon monoxide under extreme conditions. The principal Hugoniot pressure up to 286 GPa, which is derived from the equation of state, is calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The chemical decomposition of carbon monoxide has been predicted at 8 GPa by means of pair correlation function and the charge density distribution. Based on Kubo-Greenwood formula, the dc electrical conductivity and the optical reflectivity are determined, and the nonmetal-metal transition for shock compressed carbon monoxide is observed around 40 GPa. PMID:21842937

  11. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test...

  12. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...a) Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified...

  13. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...a) Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified...

  14. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...a) Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified...

  15. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...a) Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified...

  16. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...a) Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology is presented for designing a carbon monoxide monitoring network based on the objective of identifying concentrations that exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). The basis for identifying concentrations in excess of the NAAQS is the Concentration ...

  18. Tropospheric carbon monoxide: satellite observations and their applications 

    E-print Network

    MacCallum, Stuart Neil

    2008-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the troposphere as a product of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the oxidation of volatile hydrocarbons. It is the principal sink of the hydroxyl radical (OH), thereby affecting ...

  19. Tips on Protecting Your Family from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or oven for heating your home · Leave a car running in a closed garage · Burn charcoal indoors · Operate unvented fuel-burning appliances (including electric generators) indoors. For more information on carbon monoxide ...

  20. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ferroalloy Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the...

  1. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

  2. Carbon monoxide sensors. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the measurement and sensing of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide sensors used to prevent asphyxiation, combustion, and explosion are discussed. Carbon monoxide sensors used to measure combustion efficiency and gas levels in the atmosphere are included. Designs for gas sensors that measure several gases or carbon monoxide alone are presented. Extraterrestrial applications of carbon monoxide sensors are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Infrared studies of carbon monoxide binding to carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase from Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingyi; Huang, Shan; Seravalli, Javier; Gutzman, Howard; Swartz, Derrick J; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Bagley, Kimberly A

    2003-12-23

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reduction of carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide and the coupled synthesis of acetyl-CoA from the carbon monoxide produced. Exposure of CODH/ACS from Moorella thermoacetica to carbon monoxide gives rise to several infrared bands in the 2100-1900 cm(-1) spectral region that are attributed to the formation of metal-coordinated carbon monoxide species. Infrared bands attributable to M-CO are not detected in the as-isolated enzyme, suggesting that the enzyme does not contain intrinsic metal-coordinated CO ligands. A band detected at 1996 cm(-1) in the CO-flushed enzyme is assigned as arising from CO binding to a metal center in cluster A of the ACS subunit. The frequency of this band is most consistent with it arising from a terminally coordinated Ni(I) carbonyl. Multiple infrared bands at 2078, 2044, 1970, 1959, and 1901 cm(-1) are attributed to CO binding at cluster C of the CODH subunit. All infrared bands attributed to metal carbonyls decay in a time-dependent fashion as CO(2) appears in the solution. These observations are consistent with the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of carbon monoxide until it is completely depleted from solution during the course of the experiments. PMID:14674756

  4. Carbon monoxide and the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Raub, J A; Benignus, V A

    2002-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and thereby reducing oxygen (O(2)) delivery to the body's organs and tissues. High COHb concentrations are poisonous. Central nervous system (CNS) effects in individuals suffering acute CO poisoning cover a wide range, depending on severity of exposure: headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, disorientation, confusion, collapse, and coma. At lower concentrations, CNS effects include reduction in visual perception, manual dexterity, learning, driving performance, and attention level. Earlier work is frequently cited to justify the statement that CO exposure sufficient to produce COHb levels of ca. 5% would be sufficient to produce visual sensitivity reduction and various neurobehavioral performance deficits. In a recent literature re-evaluation, however, the best estimate was that [COHb] would have to rise to 15-20% before a 10% reduction in any behavioral or visual measurement could be observed. This conclusion was based on (1) critical review of the literature on behavioral and sensory effects, (2) review and interpretation of the physiological effects of COHb on the CNS, (3) extrapolation from the effects of hypoxic hypoxia to the effects of CO hypoxia, and (4) extrapolation from rat behavioral effects of CO to humans. Also covered in this review article are effects of chronic CO exposure, the discovery of neuroglobin, a summary of the relatively new role for endogenous CO in neurotransmission and vascular homeostasis, groups which might be especially sensitive to CO, and recommendations on further research. The interested reader is directed to other published reviews of the literature on CO and historically seminal references that form our understanding of this ubiquitous gas. PMID:12667497

  5. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    E-print Network

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  6. Carbon monoxide reverses established pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Chin, Beek Yoke; Wegiel, Barbara; Billiar, Timothy R.; Czsimadia, Eva; Rao, Jayashree; Shimoda, Larissa; Ifedigbo, Emeka; Kanno, Shin; Otterbein, Leo E.

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an incurable disease characterized by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right heart failure. Carbon monoxide (CO) has emerged as a potently protective, homeostatic molecule that prevents the development of vascular disorders when administered prophylactically. The data presented in this paper demonstrate that CO can also act as a therapeutic (i.e., where exposure to CO is initiated after pathology is established). In three rodent models of PAH, a 1 hour/day exposure to CO reverses established PAH and right ventricular hypertrophy, restoring right ventricular and pulmonary arterial pressures, as well as the pulmonary vascular architecture, to near normal. The ability of CO to reverse PAH requires functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS3) and NO generation, as indicated by the inability of CO to reverse chronic hypoxia-induced PAH in eNOS-deficient (nos3?/?) mice versus wild-type mice. The restorative function of CO was associated with a simultaneous increase in apoptosis and decrease in cellular proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, which was regulated in part by the endothelial cells in the hypertrophied vessels. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that CO reverses established PAH dependent on NO generation supporting the use of CO clinically to treat pulmonary hypertension. PMID:16908624

  7. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  8. Protective effect of carbon monoxide in transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Atsunori; Choi, Augustine M K; Murase, Noriko

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades due to the development of new immunosuppressive agents and improvements in organ preservation methods, surgical techniques, and postoperative care, organ transplantation has become an ultimate therapeutic option for irreversible organ failure. Early graft survival has significantly improved; however, the long-term outcome remains unsatisfactory. Multiple factors, both immunogenic and non-immunogenic etiologies, are involved in the deterioration of the allografts, and the recent use of expanded criteria donors to overcome the organ shortage may also contribute to the graft losses. Carbon monoxide (CO) is commonly viewed as a poison in high concentrations due to its ability to interfere with oxygen delivery. However, CO is endogenously produced in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation by the heme oxygenase (HO) and has recently received notable attention as a gaseous regulatory molecule. In fact, an augmentation of endogenous CO by induction of HO-1 or exogenously added CO is known to have potent cytoprotective effects in various disease models. Several recent reports have demonstrated that CO provides potent cytoprotective effects in the field of organ and cell transplantation. CO is able to prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury, allograft rejection, and xenograft rejection via its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferation effects, suggesting that CO might be a valuable therapeutic option in the field of transplantation. Based on the recent advancement of our understanding of CO as a new therapeutic molecule, this review attempts to summarize the functional roles as well as biological and molecular mechanisms of CO in transplantation and discusses potential CO application to the clinical transplant setting. PMID:16989726

  9. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2? significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  10. Process for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and hydrogen are produced by spraying a mixture of molten sodium and\\/or potassium from one nozzle into a chamber maintained at a temperature of 650 to 850°C along with one or more separated sprays containing a slurry of carbon, water and carbon dioxide so that the various sprays contact each other in said hot chamber so constructed so

  11. Carbon nanotubes and onions from carbon monoxide using Ni(acac) 2 and Cu(acac) 2 as catalyst precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert G. Nasibulin; Anna Moisala; David P. Brown; Esko I. Kauppinen

    2003-01-01

    New catalyst precursors (copper and nickel acetylacetonates) have been used successfully for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and onion particles from carbon monoxide. Catalyst nanoparticles and carbon products were produced by metal–organic precursor vapour decomposition and catalytic disproportionation of carbon monoxide in a laminar flow reactor at temperatures between 705 and 1216°C. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were formed in the presence

  12. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle...Where an occupant has been affected by carbon monoxide; (2) Where carbon...

  13. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle...Where an occupant has been affected by carbon monoxide; (2) Where carbon...

  14. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  15. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

  16. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

  17. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

  18. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

  19. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Certification Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and... (b) Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,...

  20. Biological significance of fluctuating concentrations of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzman, B.E.; Fox, S.H.

    1986-09-01

    The biological significance of fluctuating concentrations is not well understood. Fluctuation patterns can be approximated as a Fourier series of sine waves of different amplitudes, periods, and phases. A theoretical equation was developed for relating carboxyhemoglobin levels in blood to sine wave exposure patterns of carbon monoxide. It was experimentally validated for rabbits exposed to 50-350 ppm of CO in sine waves of periods from 37 to 280 min. Higher frequency carbon monoxide concentration fluctuations were more highly attenuated in the blood in accordance with the equation. The response may be viewed in a new perspective as a modification of the original fluctuation pattern by the transmittance of the biological window. A simplified method of evaluating biologically effective concentrations for different carbon monoxide fluctuation patterns is proposed.

  1. Sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide on graphene edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sujata; Santiso, Erik E.; Nardelli, Marco B.

    2008-10-01

    The versatility of carbon nanostructures makes them attractive as possible catalytic materials, as they can be synthesized in various shapes and chemically modified by doping, functionalization, and the creation of defects in the nanostructure. In this work, we consider the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), an important problem in environmental chemistry and energy conversion. Using first principle calculations we study the key reactions of CO with carbon nanostructures, where the active sites can be regenerated by the deposition of carbon decomposed from the reactant (CO) to make the reactions self sustained. Carbon-mediated CO sequestration produces half of the CO2 compared to the direct oxidation of CO, which is used in the cleaning of automobile gas. Furthermore, the carbon-mediated oxidation of CO to CO2 is selectively favored when hydrogen is present, and could be used to purify hydrogen for use in fuel cells.

  2. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 ...CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part...

  3. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

  4. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

  5. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

  6. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

  7. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

  8. Minimisation of carbon monoxide in a hydrogen stream for fuel cell application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Trimm

    2005-01-01

    Means of minimising carbon monoxide in a hydrogen stream for fuel cell operation are reviewed. Reduction of carbon monoxide to an acceptable level of 10–50ppm involves high temperature and low temperature water gas shift, followed by selective oxidation of residual carbon monoxide. Methanation of very small amounts of carbon monoxide may be an alternative final step.A new range of promoted

  9. Carbon monoxide: A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Gamnitzer; Ute Karstens; Bernd Kromer; Rolf E. M. Neubert; Harro A. J. Meijer; Hartwig Schroeder; Ingeborg Levin

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon (14CO2) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The observations were compared with model estimates simulated with the regional transport model REMO at

  10. Unintentional Carbon Monoxide Deaths in California from Residential and Other Nonvehicular Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai-Shen Liu; Maria Katrina Paz; Peter Flessel; Jed Waldman; John Girman

    2000-01-01

    To investigate risk factors of unintentional carbon monoxide deaths in California from nonvehicular sources, we identified 270 deaths resulting from nonvehicular sources of carbon monoxide poisoning from death certificates and coroners' investigation reports. Data recorded between 1979 and 1988 in the state of California on risk factors and carbon monoxide sources were abstracted from investigation reports. We also used census

  11. Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines. Volume V: user's manual for intersection-midblock model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benesh

    1978-01-01

    As an aid to the identification and analysis of carbon monoxide hot spot locations, the Intersection-Midblock Model (IMM) has been developed for the calculation of hourly carbon monoxide concentrations at user specified locations near streets or intersections. The IMM calculates carbon monoxide emissions due to vehicle cruising, acceleration-deceleration and idling by use of the EPA Modal Analysis Model. These emissions

  12. Reduction of nitro compounds by carbon monoxide on palladium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Min'kov A.I.; Eremenko, N.K.; Merkur'eva, S.E.; Efimov, O.A.

    1986-12-20

    Various types of nitro compounds may be reduced to the corresponding amines by carbon monoxide and water in the presence of palladium acetate and a tertiary aromatic phosphine. A catalytically active complex, (HPd/sub 2/(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 4/(CO)(HSO/sub 4/))/sub n/, was isolated.

  13. Effects of Carbon Monoxide Inhalation during Experimental Endotoxemia in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian B. Mayr; Alexander Spiel; Judith Leitner; Claudia Marsik; Peter Germann; Roman Ullrich; Oswald Wagner; Bernd Jilma

    2004-01-01

    Data show that carbon monoxide (CO) exerts direct antiinflamma- tory effects in vitro and in vivo after LPS challenge in a mouse model. We hypothesized that CO may act as an antiinflammatory agent in human endotoxemia. The aim of this trial was to study the ef- fects of CO inhalation on cytokine production during experimental human endotoxemia. The main study

  14. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-01

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  15. School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems…

  16. INTERPRETING URBAN CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS BY A COMPUTERIZED COHB MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A practical, inexpensive computer model for estimating the level of blood carboxyhemoglobin (percent COHb) as a function of time for measured carbon monoxide concentrations (ppm CO) was developed from published studies on the assimilation of CO into the blood of human subjects. T...

  17. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

  18. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegr...

  19. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  20. Digital Simulation of the Global Transport of Carbon Monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. Langlois; R. A. Ellefsen

    1971-01-01

    A numerical model of the general atmospheric circulation is used to simulate the global transport of carbon monoxide. The sources are estimated from gasoline consumption data. Since the strongest sources lie in the northern hemisphere belt of strong prevailing westerly winds, \\

  1. The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

    2000-01-01

    Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

  2. Transport of carbon monoxide from the tropics to the extratropics

    E-print Network

    Transport of carbon monoxide from the tropics to the extratropics Kenneth P. Bowman Department the transport of air from the tropics to the extratropics. During southern hemisphere spring (September through the results from the trajectory analysis that transport from the tropics to the extratropics

  3. LACK OF EFFECTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON HUMAN VIGILANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous publications on the effects of low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) on human vigilance performance have found conflicting results. While several studies have found statistically reliable effects, none have gone unchallenged. This article presents a critical review of the l...

  4. Spectroscopic measurements of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Louisnard; O. Lado-Bordowsky

    1983-01-01

    Results obtained from two experiments concerning the repartition of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere are presented and compared to model predictions. TR solar absorption spectra were recorded during a balloon flight from France in September 1980. The height profile of the mixing ratio presents a minimum within 1 ppb of 8 ppb around 22-25 km; it reaches within 1 ppb

  5. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

  6. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This is EPA?s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO. The development of this docume...

  7. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalua...

  8. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalu...

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

  10. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  11. Relative and kinetic properties of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on a graphite surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Marchon; W. T. Tysoe; J. Carrazza; H. Heinemann; G. A. Somorjai

    1988-01-01

    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) results after chemisorption of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (COâ) on polycrystalline graphite are presented. CO adsorbs onto graphite with a very low sticking coefficient. After CO chemisorption CO (mass 28 amu) desorbs in two temperature regions, between 400 and 700 K and between 1000 and 1300 K, and COâ (mass 44 amu) desorbs below 950

  12. Formation of carbon monoxide in air compressors.

    PubMed

    Distler, T M

    1979-06-01

    Oil-lubricated compressors are said to contaminate the air they compress with carbon monixde from pyrolyzed and oxidized lubricants. Experiments were performed in an instrumented compressor to determine if synthetic oils as lubricants would results in less contamination. The results suggest that for all oils the contamination is actually not great. Published results from low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons support this estimate. PMID:484472

  13. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DECOMPOSITION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND FORMATION ROUTES TO CARBON DIOXIDE IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Chris J.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)], E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu

    2009-05-15

    The formation of carbon dioxide from the processing of carbon monoxide (CO) and molecular oxygen ({sup 18}O{sub 2}) via radiolysis is studied within the context of its formation in interstellar ices in quiescent clouds. With the help of isotopic labeling, we were able to 'trace' the atoms and provide mechanistical information on how carbon monoxide is decomposed, and carbon dioxide is formed in interstellar ices. Here, we quantify the production of {sup 18}O{sub 3}, O{sup 18}O{sub 2}, {sup 18}OO{sup 18}O, C{sup 18}O, CO{sub 2}, {sup 18}OCO, and C{sup 18}O{sub 2}. In contrast to experiments using ultraviolet irradiation, we find that upon exposure to energetic electrons, isolated carbon monoxide molecules are able to undergo unimolecular decomposition to give suprathermal carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atoms. Molecular oxygen decomposes to two oxygen atoms. The free oxygen atoms can react with carbon monoxide via addition to form the carbon dioxide isotopomers as observed experimentally. This mechanism to form carbon dioxide is distinctly different to the one observed in pure carbon monoxide ices where electronically excited carbon monoxide reacts with a neighboring carbon monoxide molecule to form solely carbon dioxide and a carbon atom.

  14. Carbon monoxide sensors. January 1970-April 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1970-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the measurement and sensing of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide sensors used to prevent asphyxiation, combustion, and explosion are discussed. Carbon monoxide sensors used to measure combustion efficiency and gas levels in the atmosphere are included. Designs for gas sensors that measure several gases or carbon monoxide alone are presented. Extraterrestrial applications of carbon monoxide sensors are excluded. (Contains 140 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  15. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  16. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  17. Synthesis of thiocarbamate salts from amines, sulfur, and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Manov-Yuvenskii, V.I.; Kuznetsov, S.L.

    1992-05-20

    Sulfur reacts with carbon monoxide and amines without a catalyst at 100-160{degrees}C and 10-100 atm for 1-4 h. The reaction products of primary amines are symmetric ureas. Under the same conditions, secondary amines form thiocarbamic acid salts, which are not converted to tetrasubstituted ureas. In the presence of primary amines at 100-160{degrees}C, they afford trisubstituted ureas, some of whose representatives are pesticides. The same products are formed directly in the carbonylation of a mixture of primary and secondary amines without isolation of intermediate thiocarbamic acid salts. In the presence of catalytic amounts of selenium, the reaction of sulfur with carbon monoxide and amines occurs at atmospheric pressure and affords N-substituted thiocarbamic acid salts from both secondary and primary amines. In the current work the authors present some of the characteristics of these processes. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  19. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (154). Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lim, Puay Joo; Shikhare, Sumer Nrupendra; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2014-08-01

    A 59-year-old man with a history of major depression was found by his wife to be unconscious and foaming at the mouth. On arrival at the emergency department, the patient was noted to be unresponsive. Computed tomography of the brain showed symmetrical ill-defined areas of hypoattenuation involving the medial aspects of both lentiform nuclei, while magnetic resonance images of the brain showed symmetrical increased signal in the bilateral globi pallidi on diffusion weighted, T2-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. These findings were those of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Despite aggressive treatment, the patient's condition continued to deteriorate and he eventually passed away. The various imaging findings of carbon monoxide poisoning in the brain and the differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:25189300

  20. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOEpatents

    Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  1. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y S

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

  2. Heme Oxygenase1 and Carbon Monoxide in Vascular Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan W. Ryter; Augustine M. K. Choi

    The gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), which are generated endogenously by the heme oxygenase\\u000a (HO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) systems, respectively, play significant roles in the regulation of vascular function.\\u000a The HO enzymes exist in both constitutive (HO-2, HO-3) and inducible (HO-1) isoforms, the latter identified as a component\\u000a of the cellular stress response.

  3. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  4. Severe carbon monoxide poisoning: outcome after hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hawkins; J. Harrison; P. Charters

    This paper reports the outcome after carbon monoxide poisoning in 31 consecutive patients treated with mechanical ventilation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, compared with another study of mechanically ventilated patients treated with normobaric oxygen. We found 16.1% hospital mortality and 3.8% severe short-term memory loss, compared with 30% hospital mortality and 20% incidence of serious neurological deficit after treatment with normobaric

  5. Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Nonmethane Hydrocarbons During POPCORN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Koppmann; C. Plass-Dülmer; B. Ramacher; J. Rudolph; H. Kunz; D. Melzer; P. Speth

    1998-01-01

    During the field campaign POPCORN (Photo oxidant formation by plant emitted compounds and OH radicals in North-eastern Germany) in Pennewitt (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany) in August 1994, carbon monoxide and nonmethane hydrocarbons were measured over a large maize field by in-situ gas chromatography. Throughout the campaign CO and NMHC showed, even for a remote rural area, unexpectedly low mixing ratios. Except a

  6. Marijuana smoking: effect on expired air carbon monoxide levels.

    PubMed

    Hecht, E; Vogt, T M

    1985-02-01

    A group of regular marijuana smokers was given expired air carbon monoxide (CO) tests before and after smoking low-dose, high-dose, and placebo marijuana cigarettes. Expired air CO doubled following smoking. There were no significant differences in CO levels in the different dose categories. Studies of the effects of marijuana on the body should attempt to separate effects of the drug from the effects that are secondary to the method of intake. PMID:4008128

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  8. THE EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN CYTOCHROME OXIDASE AND CARBON MONOXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Wald, George; Allen, David W.

    1957-01-01

    An evolution argument which attempted to trace the development of hemoglobins from such respiratory pigments as cytochrome oxidase presupposed that the latter possesses, in addition to its high affinity for oxygen, an approximately hyperbolic equilibrium function, and little if any Bohr effect (decline in affinity for oxygen with rise in acidity). Since cytochrome oxidase, unlike hemoglobin, is irreversibly oxidized by oxygen, the present experiments examine its combination with carbon monoxide, with which, like hemoglobin, it yields a true equilibrium. In all known hemoglobins the form of the equilibrium function and the vigor of the Bohr effect are similar with carbon monoxide and with oxygen, so that observations involving the former gas are relevant to the relations of the latter. The equilibrium function of cytochrome oxidase with carbon monoxide—percentage saturation vs. partial pressure of CO—is slightly inflected (in the Hill equation n = 1.26; for a hyperbola, n = 1). No Bohr effect is present in the range of pH 7–8. The pressure of carbon monoxide at which half-saturation occurs (p50) is about 0.17 mm. at 10–13°C. The affinity for carbon monoxide is therefore higher than commonly supposed. These properties are consistent with the evolution argument. They are important also for the physiological functioning of cytochrome oxidase, the nearly hyperbolic equilibrium function facilitating a high degree of saturation, and the lack of Bohr effect making this enzyme impervious to hyperacidity. The slight inflection of the equilibrium function shows that the Fe-porphyrin units of cytochrome oxidase interact to a degree, hence that the enzyme must contain more than one such unit per molecule. It is suggested that in cytochrome oxidase two Fe-porphyrin groups may unite with one oxygen in the manner Fe++-O2-Fe++; and that the evolution of hemoglobins proceeded over a first stage in which the hemes were separated so that each combines with only one molecule of oxygen, so tending to remain reduced; to a further stage in which the separated hemes interact through the protein to facilitate one another in combining with oxygen. PMID:13416533

  9. Metabolism of haloforms to carbon monoxide. IV. studies on the reaction mechanism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J L; Anders, M W

    1981-11-01

    In vivo studies have been carried out in order to understand more fully the mechanism of haloform oxidation to carbon monoxide. A deuterium isotope effect on carbon monoxide production from chloroform was observed in both control and phenobarbital-treated rats. Diethyl maleate treatment decreased blood carbon monoxide concentrations produced from bromoform and chloroform and attenuated the effect of deuterium substitution on the metabolism of both compounds to carbon monoxide. Cysteine also decreased blood carbon monoxide concentrations seen after giving chloroform. A reaction mechanism similar to that proposed on the basis of in vitro data, which included a central role for dihalocarbonyl compounds in the formation of 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, is suggested for the in vivo metabolism of haloforms to carbon monoxide. These data indicate that carbon monoxide production may be a detoxification pathway for haloforms and that both the inhibition of carbon monoxide production from haloforms and the potentiation of haloform-hepatotoxicity by diethyl maleate are due to the depletion of glutathione. PMID:7296701

  10. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  11. Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

  12. Gas geyser--a cause of fatal domestic carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, T S; Kanchan, Tanuj; Pinakini, K S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Singh, Manisha; Sirohi, Parmendra; Anwar, Naureen

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide is responsible for a large number of accidental domestic poisoning and deaths throughout the world. Domestic carbon monoxide poisoning is rarely reported in India and remains an under recognized problem. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is usually based on autopsy findings, circumstantial evidence and estimation of carboxy-haemoglobin in blood. We report a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a bathroom where an LPG gas water heater was installed recently. Cherry pink discolouration of the body and organs on autopsy suggested carbon monoxide poisoning. Laboratory analysis of blood by UV visible spectrophotometry revealed presence of dangerous levels of carboxy-haemoglobin. Effective preventive measures can help in bringing down the mortality and morbidity associated with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23084315

  13. Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow, we will relate observed CO fluxes to concurrently measured CO2, CH4 and N2O exchange rates in terms of CO2-equivalents and - where applicable - carbon.

  14. Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive health issues. The most indicative symptoms experienced were a severe headache, blurred vision, agitation, and confusion. Following contact with the Emergency Responses Services, she was promptly transferred to the hospital via ambulance and was treated with high-flow oxygen on the way. She was discharged from the emergency department on the same day, but carbon monoxide exposure had already had adverse effects on her fingernail beds. The fingernail tips were altered and appeared as if a bite had been taken out of their distal borders. The changes in the tips of her fingernails were significant, but they completely disappeared eight weeks later without any additional treatment. Conclusions Worldwide, carbon monoxide poisoning is a potentially lethal condition that is preventable with educational programs and installation of carbon monoxide detectors in the home setting. Exposure to carbon monoxide frequently goes unrecognized until it is too late and causes silent death. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of fingernail bed manifestations in a survivor of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:25073414

  15. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Linne, Diane L.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquid. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  16. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  17. Carbon Monoxide and Soot Formation in Inverse Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, L. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study carbon monoxide (CO) and soot formation in laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs). The IDF is used because it is a special case of underventilated combustion. The microgravity environment is crucial for this study because buoyancy-induced instabilities impede systematic variation of IDF operating conditions in normal gravity. The project described in this paper is just beginning, and no results are available. Hence, the goals of this paper are to establish the motivation for the research, to review the IDF literature, and to briefly introduce the experimental and computational plan for the research.

  18. Submillimeter heterodyne detection of interstellar carbon monoxide at 434 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, H. R.; Clifton, B. J.; Peck, D. D.; Tannenwald, P. E.; Koepf, G. A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Erickson, N. R.; Buhl, D.; Mcavoy, N.

    1981-01-01

    Laser heterodyne observations of submillimeter emissions from carbon monoxide in the Orion molecular cloud are reported. High frequency and spatial resolution observations were made at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea by the use of an optically pumped laser local oscillator and quasi-optical Schottky diode mixer for heterodyne detection of the J = 6 - 5 rotational transition of CO at 434 microns. Spectral analysis of the 434-micron emission indicates that the emitting gas is optically thin and is at a temperature above 180 K. Results thus demonstrate the potential contributions of ground-based high-resolution submillimeter astronomy to the study of active regions in interstellar molecular clouds.

  19. Transient PrOx carbon monoxide measurement, control, and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel processing systems for low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems require control of the carbon monoxide concentration to less than 100 ppm to 10 ppm in the anode feed. Conventional hydrocarbon fuel processors use a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to react CO with water to form H2 and reduce the CO concentration. The CO conversion is limited by equilibrium at the outlet temperature of the WGS reactor. The WGS outlet CO concentration can range from over 1% to 2000 ppm depending on the system and its operating parameters. At these concentrations, CO poisons low temperature PEM fuel cells and the concentrations needs to be reduced further.

  20. Carbon monoxide-induced dynamic metal-surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Carenco, Sophie

    2014-08-18

    Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous molecule in surface science, materials chemistry, catalysis and nanotechnology. Its interaction with a number of metal surfaces is at the heart of major processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or fuel-cell optimization. Recent works, coupling structural and nanoscale in situ analytic tools have highlighted the ability of metal surfaces and nanoparticles to undergo restructuring after exposure to CO under fairly mild conditions, generating nanostructures. This Minireview proposes a brief overview of recent examples of such nanostructuring, which leads to a discussion about the driving force in reversible and non-reversible situations. PMID:25044189

  1. Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, A., E-mail: aschwarz@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Köhler, A.; Grenz, J.; Wiesendanger, R. [Physics Department, Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-07

    Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

  2. Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Monoxide Ligand Dynamics in Synthetic Heme and Heme-Copper Complex Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Heather R.; Meyer, Gerald J.; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Intermolecular nitrogen monoxide (•NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) transfer from iron-to-copper and back, a phenomenon not seen before, has been accomplished by employing transient absorbance laser flash photolytic methods. A 1:1 heme/copper component system was utilized that consisted of a six-coordinate ferrous species, F8FeII(CO)(DCIM) or F8FeII(NO)(thf) {F8 = tetrakis(2,6-difluorophenyl)porphyrinate(2-); DCIM = 1,5-dicyclohexyl imidazole; thf = tetrahydrofuran}, and two ligand-copper(I)-complexes of tridentate {BzL; (benzyl)bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine} and tetradentate coordination {PyL; tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine}. The results suggest a lower affinity for NO binding to copper(I) versus CO and a higher rate for NO binding to heme versus CO. In fact, the latter event has been observed in cytochrome c oxidase aa3. PMID:19736941

  3. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, O; Schlegel, H G

    1980-01-01

    The enzyme carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from CO autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans strain OM5, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was obtained in 26% yield and was purified 36-fold. The enzyme was stable for at least 6 days, had a molecular weight of 230,000, gave a single protein and activity band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was homogeneous by the criterion of sedimentation equilibrium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis revealed a single band of molecular weight 107,000. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase did not catalyze reduction of pyridine or flavin nucleotides but catalyzed the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, thionine, toluylene blue, dichlorophenolindophenol, or pyocyanine under strictly anaerobic conditions. The visible spectrum revealed maxima at 405 and 470 nm. The millimolar extinction coefficients were 43.9 (405 nm) and 395.5 (275 nm), respectively. Absorption at 470 nm decreased in the presence of dithionite, and the spectrum was not affected by the substrate CO. Maximum reaction rates were found at pH 7.0 and 63 degrees C; temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy (delta H degree) of 36.8 kJ/mol (8.8 kcal/mol). The apparent Km was 53 microM for CO. The purified enzyme was incapable of oxidizing methane, methanol, or formaldehyde in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. Images PMID:7354006

  4. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  5. Heterogeneous metal complex catalysts for organic synthesis involving carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lisichkin, G.V.; Ioffa, A.Y.

    1983-05-01

    It is well known that a common feature of processes which occur with participation of carbon monoxide (Fischer-Tropsch reactions, hydroformylation, carbonylation) is their relatively high exothermicity, i.e. the equilibrium of these reactions is highly shifted in the direction of formation of products at ordinary temperatures. Nevertheless, the actual processes are accomplished at high pressures, since the activity of industrial catalysts is not sufficient to carry out the reactions under mild conditions. It is also known that the selectivity of these processes is not high. A solution to this problem is to fix catalytically active transition metal complexes (TMCs) on the surface of solid supports. In the last ten years a great deal of experience has been gained in the synthesis, study and use of surface-fixed complexes - heterogeneous metal complex catalysts (HMCs). The heterogeneous metal complex catalysts are reviewed. There is no doubt that if reserves of petroleum raw materials for industrial organic synthesis are exhausted and petroleum technology is replaced by coal technology, heterogenized complexes of transition metals will predominate as catalysts for processes of recovery of carbon monoxide.

  6. Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using satellite observations

    E-print Network

    Heald, Colette L.

    Quantifying the impact of model errors on topdown estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere satellite instrument, to quantify the potential contribution use of inverse modeling to better quantify regional surface emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), which

  7. CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN FOUR U.S. CITIES DURING THE WINTER OF 1981

    EPA Science Inventory

    Portable monitors were used to measure time averaged personal exposures (10-30 min) to carbon monoxide. Data were collected from January through March 1981 in four cities where carbon monoxide ambient levels in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards have been reported: ...

  8. A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

  9. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  10. The promoting effect of adsorbed carbon monoxide on the oxidation of alcohols on a gold catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paramaconi Rodriguez; Youngkook Kwon; Marc T. M. Koper

    2011-01-01

    In heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, adsorbed carbon monoxide typically acts as a poison or poisoning intermediate in the oxidation of alcohols. However, gold as an (electro)catalyst often exhibits unexpected properties. Here we show that carbon monoxide irreversibly adsorbed on a Au(111) surface in aqueous alkaline media can act as a promoter for the electrocatalytic oxidation of certain alcohols, in particular

  11. SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method Toshiaki NISHII1,2

    E-print Network

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    and Separator Quartz Tube Substrate Drain Exhaust Gas Fig. 2 Process patterns for synthesis of SWNTs #12;30min CVD SWNT Synthesis by Carbon Monoxide Catalytic Thermal CVD (COCCVD) Method * Toshiaki at relatively high (1mm over / 30min) growth speed. Carbon monoxide gas is produced in numerous industrial

  12. Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on space shuttle and aircraft measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Newell; S. T. Shipley; V. S. Connors; H. G. Reichle

    1988-01-01

    Carbon monoxide measurements made from the space shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be

  13. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section...Generating Units § 60.45Da Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX ) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section...Generating Units § 60.45Da Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX ) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section...Generating Units § 60.45Da Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX ) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a)...

  16. Iron Catalyst Chemistry in High Pressure Carbon Monoxide Nanotube Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is analyzed using a chemical reaction model coupled with properties calculated along streamlines. Streamline properties for mixing jets are calculated by the FLUENT code using the k-e turbulent model for pure carbon monixide. The HiPco process introduces cold iron pentacarbonyl diluted in CO, or alternatively nitrogen, at high pressure, ca. 30 atmospheres into a conical mixing zone. Hot CO is also introduced via three jets at angles with respect to the axis of the reactor. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Cluster reaction rates are from Krestinin, et aI., based on shock tube measurements. Another model is from classical cluster theory given by Girshick's team. The calculations are performed on streamlines that assume that a cold mixture of Fe(CO)5 in CO is introduced along the reactor axis. Then iron forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs from the Boudouard reaction on Fe-containing clusters by reaction with CO. To simulate the chemical process along streamlines that were calculated by the fluid dynamics code FLUENT, a time history of temperature and dilution are determined along streamlines. Alternative catalyst injection schemes are also evaluated.

  17. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by Voyager 2, and only now confirmed in this study from Earth, plays an important role as well. "Climate and atmospheric models of Triton have to be revisited now, now that we have found carbon monoxide and re-measured the methane," says co-author Catherine de Bergh. Of Neptune's 13 moons, Triton is by far the largest, and, at 2700 kilometres in diameter (or three quarters the Earth's Moon), is the seventh largest moon in the whole Solar System. Since its discovery in 1846, Triton has fascinated astronomers thanks to its geologic activity, the many different types of surface ices, such as frozen nitrogen as well as water and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), and its unique retrograde motion [1]. Observing the atmosphere of Triton, which is roughly 30 times further from the Sun than Earth, is not easy. In the 1980s, astronomers theorised that the atmosphere on Neptune's moon might be as thick as that of Mars (7 millibars). It wasn't until Voyager 2 passed the planet in 1989 that the atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, at an actual pressure of 14 microbars, 70 000 times less dense than the atmosphere on Earth, was measured. Since then, ground-based observations have been limited. Observations of stellar occultations (a phenomenon that occurs when a Solar System body passes in front of a star and blocks its light) indicated that Triton's surface pressure was increasing in the 1990's. It took the development of the Cryogenic High-Resolution Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to provide the team the chance to perform a far more detailed study of Triton's atmosphere. "We needed the sensitivity and capability of CRIRES to take very detailed spectra to look at the very tenuous atmosphere," says co-author Ulli Käufl. The observations are part of a campaign that also includes a study of Pluto [eso0908]. Pluto, often considered a cousin of Triton and with similar conditions, is receiving renewed interest in the light of the carbon monoxide discovery, and astronomers are racing to find this chemical o

  18. Synthesis of novel solid materials from carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yan

    The increase of atmospheric CO2 has been identified as the primary cause for the observed global warming over the past century. The geological and oceanic sequestration of CO2 has issues, such as cost and leakage as well as effects on sea biota. The ideal solution should be the conversion of CO2 into useful materials. However, most processes require high energy input. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel processes with low energy demands to convert CO2 to useful solid materials. Amorphous carbon nitride and graphone received much attention due to their unusual structures and properties as well as their potential applications. However, to date there has been no attempt to synthesize those solid materials from CO2. Lithium nitride (Li3N) and lithium imide (Li2NH) are important hydrogen storage materials. However, their optical properties and reactivity has not yet studied. This dissertation research is aimed at the synthesis of carbon nitrides and graphone from CO2 and CO via their reaction with Li3N and Li2NH. The research was focused on (1) the evaluation of Li 3N and Li2NH properties, (2) thermodynamic analysis of conversion of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide into carbon nitride and other solid materials, (3) synthesis of carbon nitride from carbon dioxide, and (4) synthesis of graphone from carbon monoxide. First, the properties of Li3N, Li2NH, and LiNH 2 were investigated. The X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that heat-treatment at 500°C introduce a phase transformation of ?-Li3N to ?-Li3N. Furthermore, the UV-visible absorption evaluation showed that the energy gaps of ?-Li3N and ?-Li 3N are 1.81 and 2.14 eV, respectively. The UV-visible absorption measurements also revealed that energy gaps are 3.92 eV for Li2NH and 3.93 eV for LiNH2. This thermodynamic analysis was performed to predict the reactions. It was demonstrated that the reaction between carbon dioxide and lithium nitride is thermodynamically favorable and exothermic, which can generate carbon nitride and lithium cyanamide. Furthermore, the thermodynamic calculation indicated that the reaction between carbon monoxide and lithium imide can produce graphone and lithium cyanamide along with releasing heat. Based on the above thermodynamic analysis, the experiment of CO 2 and Li3N reaction and CO and Li2NH were carried out. It was found that the reaction between CO2 and Li3N is very fast and exothermic. The XRD and element analysis revealed that the products are crystal lithium cyanamide and amorphous carbon nitrides with Li2O and Li2CO3. Furthermore, TEM images showed that carbon nitrides possess layer-structure, namely, it is graphene-structured carbon nitride. It was found that the reaction between Li2NH and CO was also exothermic, which produced graphone instead of carbon nitride. The composition and structures of graphone were evaluated by XRD, element analysis, TEM observation, and Raman spectra.

  19. Carbon Monoxide: To Boldly Go Where NO Has Gone Before

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stefan W. Ryter (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; Department of Medicine REV)

    2004-04-27

    The discovery that nitric oxide (NO) gas acts as a physiological regulator of blood vessel tone represented a milestone in modern biological research. Carbon monoxide (CO), a similar gas, is produced by living cells as an endogenous by-product of heme degradation. Long thought to represent a metabolic waste, endogenous CO, like NO, has attracted much recent attention as a potential physiological regulator. The processes affected by CO include neurotransmission, vasorelaxation, and the regulation of cell growth or death. The mechanisms by which CO affects such biological processes include the production of cyclic nucleotide second messengers and the modulation of protein kinase–dependent signal transduction cascades. Low concentrations of exogenous CO have been shown to confer potent protection to cells and tissues in a number of disease models, offering the promise of future therapeutic applications for CO.

  20. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  1. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Planetary Haze Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N2/CH4 to a variety of energy sources. However, many N2/CH4 atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  2. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes in Reactions Involving Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeletic, Matthew; Veige, Adam

    This chapter focuses on carbon monoxide as a reagent in M-NHC catalysed reactions. The most important and popular of these reactions is hydroformylation. Unfortunately, uncertainty exists as to the identity of the active catalyst and whether the NHC is bound to the catalyst in a number of the reported reactions. Mixed bidentate NHC complexes and cobalt-based complexes provide for better stability of the catalyst. Catalysts used for hydroaminomethylation and carbonylation reactions show promise to rival traditional phosphine-based catalysts. Reports of decarbonylation are scarce, but the potential strength of the M-NHC bond is conducive to the harsh conditions required. This report will highlight, where appropriate, the potential benefits of exchanging traditional phosphorous ligands with N-heterocyclic carbenes as well as cases where the role of the NHC might need re-evaluation. A review by the author on this topic has recently appeared [1].

  3. Reduction of carbon monoxide emissions with regenerative thermal oxidizers

    SciTech Connect

    Firmin, S.M.; Lipke, S.; Baturay, A.

    1996-09-01

    Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) have been extensively used for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from various sources. However, very little information is available on the ability of RTOs to control carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. This paper presents the results of extensive tests conducted on two RTOs to determine their VOC and CO control efficiencies. The inlet gas stream to the RTOs includes VOC and CO concentrations as high as 2,000 ppm and 3,600 ppm, respectfully. The testing demonstrated that both RTOs were capable of controlling greater than 98% of both inlet VOCs and CO. While the destruction efficiencies within the combustion chambers exceeded 99.9%, direct leakage past valves accounted for the lower control efficiencies. The tests indicated that the overall VOC and CO control efficiencies of the RTOs may be limited by valve leakage. The design and permitting of a RTO should include conservative control estimates which account for possible valve leakage.

  4. Metallocarboranes structurally engineered for the reduction of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    The research conducted in this initial period has involved the development and evaluation of various metallacarborane complexes as homogeneous catalysts for the transformation of carbon monoxide into useful chemical feedstocks. The discussions presented herein summarize our preliminary results in several areas of primary interest: (1) the evaluation of the activity of certain rhoda- and ruthenacarborane complexes as catalyst precursors for the water gas shift reaction; (2) the synthesis of heterobimetallic metallacarboranes which possess both early and late transition metal vertices, as well as those which contain main group elements such as aluminium and gallium, for the study of metal-metal cooperativity in the reduction of carbon monoxide; and (3) the preparation and screening of a series of rhodacarborane complexes as hydroformylation catalysts. We believe that the use of these species as catalysts precursors should offer distinct synthetic and practical advantages over simple metal carbonyl complexes in the catalytic reduction of CO. The ease of derivatization of the carboranyl moiety utilized in the synthesis of potential catalysts has provided a virtually unparalleled capability for molecular design. The catalyst precursors used in these studies have been shown to exhibit several novel structural features which include a structurally sensitive closo/exo-nido tautomerism, which appears to be a key feature in the ability of these species activate small molecules such as dihydrogen. While practical hydroformylation, water gas shift, and methanation catalysts based upon metallacarborane species have yet to be developed, many stoichiometric reactions important catalytic schemes have been observed, and rational methods for the modification of the chemical reactivity of existing compounds have been developed.

  5. Adsorption of carbon monoxide on activated carbon impregnated with metal halide

    SciTech Connect

    Tamon, Hajime; Kitamura, Kenji; Okazaki, Morio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) removal is important in the purification of ammonia-synthesis gas produced by the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, the water-gas reaction, or the steam reforming of hydrocarbons. A coke-oven gas, a blast-furnace gas, and a converter gas also contain 8--89% CO. Activated carbon was impregnated with a metal halide, and adsorption and desorption characteristics of CO on the carbon were measured by fixed-bed runs. It was found that the impregnation of PdCl{sub 2} or CuCl effectively increases CO absorption. PdCl{sub 2}/CuCl-impregnated carbons were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, SEM, EPMA, and XPS. Adsorption isotherms of CO were also measured on these carbons, and the influence of the loading of impregnant on CO adsorption was experimentally elucidated. A selection procedure of impregnant was proposed based on the frontier orbital theory. The perturbation energy for molecular orbital mixing was estimated by the HOMO-LUMO interaction. CO adsorption on impregnated carbons was qualitatively interpreted using the perturbation energy, and the energy was regarded as an index of impregnant selection.

  6. EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON ORGANIC MATTER CYCLING: FORMATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND CARBONYL SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide-are examined. oth of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or at...

  7. COSMIC: Carbon Monoxide and Soot in Microgravity Inverse Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, L. G.; Fernandez, M. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.; Moore, E. F.; Steel, E. B.; Scott, J. H. J.

    2001-01-01

    Almost seventy percent of deaths in accidental fires are caused by inhalation of toxins such as carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke (soot) that form during underventilated burning. The COSMIC project examines the formation mechanisms of CO and soot during underventilated combustion, achieved presently using laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) formed between an air jet and surrounding fuel. A major hypothesis of the project is that the IDF mimics underventilated combustion because carbon-containing species that form on the fuel side of the flame (such as CO and soot) can escape without passing through an oxidizing flame tip. An IDF literature review was presented at the last microgravity workshop, and a few additional IDF papers have appeared since that meeting. The COSMIC project is entering the third year of its four-year funding cycle. The first two years have been devoted to designing and constructing a rig for use in the NASA 2.2-second drop tower. A few computations and laboratory experiments have been performed. The goals of this paper are to discuss the use of numerical simulation during burner design, to present computational and experimental results that support the hypothesis that IDFs are similar to underventilated flames, and to delineate future plans.

  8. The interaction of carbon monoxide with model astrophysical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Collings, Mark P; Dever, John W; McCoustra, Martin R S

    2014-02-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important component of the icy mantles that accrete on interstellar dust grains. To develop a better understanding of the physicochemical basis of its infrared spectroscopy, we have studied the interaction of submonolayer coverages of CO with the surface of films of other astrophysically relevant species--(13)CO, carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3), methanol (CH3OH) and water (H2O)--under ultrahigh vacuum and cryogenic (10 K) conditions using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). In support of these measurements, we have performed ab initio calculations of gas phase dimer complexes, and made comparisons to experimental results of gas phase and matrix isolated complexes, which are extensively reported in the literature. The interaction of CO can be categorised as occurring via the C atom (C(CO) bonded), the O atom (O(CO) bonded) or in a ?-bonded configuration. The C(CO) configuration is characterised by a blue shifted C?O stretch frequency, and is observed for CO adsorbed on (13)CO, CO2 and H2O surfaces. From the absence of such a feature from the spectra of CO adsorbed on CH3OH it can be concluded that the dangling OH bonds required for this adsorption configuration are not present at the surface of the CH3OH film. PMID:24406473

  9. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  10. Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on Space Shuttle and aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, R. E.; Shipley, S. T.; Connors, V. S.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Carbon monoxide measurements made from the Space Shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be consistent with this view. In the tropics the three regions of long-term mean rising motion, which form part of the Walker circulation, are associated with elevated carbon monoxide.

  11. Observation of black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide in the Kali Gandaki Valley Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Kathayat, B.

    2014-12-01

    The increased melting of snow and ice in the arctic and the Himalaya is a growing concern for all of the earth's population. Deposition of black carbon (BC) on the snow and ice surface accelerates melting by absorbing the radiative energy and directly transferring all that energy onto the underlying surface. During pre-monsoon season, satellite images show a thick layer of haze covering the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills. Sub-micron particles are transported to the Himalaya from the IGP predominantly driven by the thermal valley wind system. The Himalayas consist of some of the tallest mountain ranges in the world, over 8000m tall that reach the stratosphere. The Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal is one of the deepest gorges in the world, and has some of the highest up-valley winds in the world. It is also one of the most open connecting points for air from IGP to reach the Tibetan Plateau. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.) half-way along the Kali Gandaki valley. The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we present our observations of black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide at Jomsom to show the diurnal and seasonal variability of the pollutants. The results show diurnal patterns in the concentration of these pollutants and also episodes of high pollutant transport along the valley. These transport episodes are more common during the pre-monsoon season which indicates that deep mountain valleys like the Kali Gandaki valley facilitate the transport of pollutants and thus promote snow and glacial melting.

  12. Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. McKee; I. M. Pritts

    1981-01-01

    Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an 8-h period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their threshold limit values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NHâ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (COâ), hydrogen sulfide (HâS), nitrogen dioxide

  13. A carbon monoxide gas sensor using oxygen plasma modified carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiyun; Fam, Derrick Wen Hui; Yin, Zongyou; Sun, Ting; Tan, Hui Teng; Liu, Weiling; Iing Yoong Tok, Alfred; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy; Zhang, Hua; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2012-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that can be commonly found in many places. However, it is not easily detected by human olfaction due to its colorless and odorless nature. Therefore, highly sensitive sensors need to be developed for this purpose. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an immense potential in gas sensing. However, CNT-based gas sensors for sensing CO are seldom reported due to the lack of reactivity between CO and CNTs. In this work, O2 plasma modified CNT was used to fabricate a CNT gas sensor. The plasma treated CNTs showed selectively towards CO, with the capability of sensing low concentrations of CO (5 ppm) at room temperature, while the pristine CNTs showed no response. UV spectra and oxygen reduction reaction provided evidence that the difference in sensing property was due to the elimination of metallic CNTs and enhancement of the oxygen reduction property.

  14. FIELD SURVEYS OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN COMMERCIAL SETTINGS USING PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording ...

  15. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  16. Investigation of low temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts. [for Spacelab atmosphere control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B.; Katan, T.; Ray, C. D.; Lamparter, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon monoxide generation rates related to the use of commerical equipment in Spacelab, added to the normal metabolic and subsystem loads, will produce carbon monoxide levels in excess of the maximum allowable concentration. In connection with the sensitivity of carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts to poisoning at room temperature, catalysts for an oxidation of carbon monoxide at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that platinum and palladium are the only effective room temperature catalysts which are effective at 333 K. Hopcalite was ineffective at ambient temperatures, but converted CO with 100 percent efficiency at 333 K. Poisoning tests showed the noble metal catalysts to be very sensitive, and Hopcalite to be very resistant to poisoning.

  17. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    E-print Network

    Yu, K.N.

    Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong a r as a pharmaceutical agent to release a low dose of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) to attenuate the effect on bystander

  18. The Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule CORM-2 Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

    E-print Network

    Dietrich, Lars

    The Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule CORM-2 Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation, France Abstract Chronic infections resulting from biofilm formation are difficult to eradicate surface-associated growth of the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by both preventing biofilm

  19. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Mathematical modeling of a solid-state limiting current carbon monoxide sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tan; T. C. Tan

    1996-01-01

    A solid-state carbon monoxide sensor was fabricated using a 9% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) disc sandwiched between two platinum thin-film electrodes. One of the electrodes was coated with a thin layer of 7 CuO\\/10 ZnO\\/3 AlâOâ catalyst. The sensor showed limiting current behavior at an applied voltage between 0.5 and 1.2 V. Linear response was observed with carbon monoxide in a

  3. Carbon monoxide levels at a toll plaza near Durban, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Diab; S. J. Foster; K. François; B. S. Martincigh; L. F. Salter

    2005-01-01

    Reliable measurements of pollutant levels in the vicinity of a toll plaza appear to be rare. In order to assess the exposure\\u000a of toll booth operators to carbon monoxide, a continuous carbon monoxide monitor was installed at head height in the booth\\u000a of a medium density traffic lane at the Mariannhill toll plaza, situated on a busy highway near Durban,

  4. Carbon monoxide production from five volatile anesthetics in dry sodalime in a patient model: halothane and sevoflurane do produce carbon monoxide; temperature is a poor predictor of carbon monoxide production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiaan Keijzer; Roberto SGM Perez; Jaap J De Lange

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desflurane and enflurane have been reported to produce substantial amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) in desiccated sodalime. Isoflurane is said to produce less CO and sevoflurane and halothane should produce no CO at all. The purpose of this study is to measure the maximum amounts of CO production for all modern volatile anesthetics, with completely dry sodalime. We also

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

  6. A general circulation model study of atmospheric carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, J. P.; Rind, D.; Russell, G. L.; Lerner, J. A.; Hansen, J. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Hameed, S.

    1983-01-01

    The carbon monoxide cycle is studied by incorporating the known and hypothetical sources and sinks in a tracer model that uses the winds generated by a general circulation model. Photochemical production and loss terms, which depend on OH radical concentrations, are calculated in an interactive fashion. The computed global distribution and seasonal variations of CO are compared with observations to obtain constraints on the distribution and magnitude of the sources and sinks of CO, and on the tropospheric abundance of OH. The simplest model that accounts for available observations requires a low latitude plant source of about 1.3 x 10 to the 15th g/yr, in addition to sources from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and oxidation of methane. The globally averaged OH concentration calculated in the model is 750,000/cu cm. Models that calculate globally averaged OH concentrations much lower than this nominal value are not consistent with the observed variability of CO. Such models are also inconsistent with measurements of CO isotopic abundances, which imply the existence of plant sources.

  7. Carbon monoxide: present and future indications for a medical gas

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous molecules continue to hold new promise in molecular medicine as experimental and clinical therapeutics. The low molecular weight gas carbon monoxide (CO), and similar gaseous molecules (e.g., H2S, nitric oxide) have been implicated as potential inhalation therapies in inflammatory diseases. At high concentration, CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard, and is a common component of air pollution. CO is also produced endogenously as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase enzymes. CO binds avidly to hemoglobin, causing hypoxemia and decreased oxygen delivery to tissues at high concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a signal transduction molecule in the regulation of neural and vascular function and cellular homeostasis. CO has been demonstrated to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammation, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and organ transplantation. Additional experimental indications for this gas include pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, metabolic diseases, and preeclampsia. The development of chemical CO releasing compounds constitutes a novel pharmaceutical approach to CO delivery with demonstrated effectiveness in sepsis models. Current and pending clinical evaluation will determine the usefulness of this gas as a therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23525151

  8. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children's Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The world has experienced some very large shifts in the epidemiology of carbon monoxide poisoning, but it remains one of the most important toxicological global causes of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis can be quickly confirmed with blood gases (pulse oximeters lack both sensitivity and specificity). Several strong predictors for serious neurological sequelae (prolonged loss of consciousness and elevated S100B) and reduced life expectancy (elevated troponin) are now reasonably well established. Despite this clearly defined high-risk group and extensive research into the pathophysiology, there has been little translation into better treatment. Much of the pathophysiological research has focused on hyperbaric oxygen. Yet it is apparent that clinical trials show little evidence for benefit from hyperbaric oxygen, and the most recent even raises the possibility of harm for repeated courses. More logical and promising potential antidotes have been under-researched, although recently both animal and small human studies suggest that erythropoietin may reduce S100B and prevent neurological sequelae. Major breakthroughs are likely to require further research on this and other treatments that may inhibit post-hypoxic inflammatory responses and apoptosis.

  10. Shocked carbon monoxide in G333.6-0.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, J. W. V.; Harnett, J. I.; Lugten, J. B.; Crawford, M. K.; Stacey, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    Rotationally excited carbon monoxide has been detected in the Galactic H II region/molecular cloud complex G333.6-0.2 in the 163-micron J = 16 to 15 and 186-micron J = 14 to 13 transitions. These detections, together with an upper limit to the J = 21 to 20 transition at 124 microns indicate that the excited CO emission comes from gas of kinetic temperature 200 to 800 K and pressure of about 5 x 10 to the 7th/cu cm. A high-resolution spectrum of the J = 14 to 13 transition shows CO emission over more than 80 km/s, possibly with a double peaked profile centered near the systemic velocity of G333.6-0.2. The far-infrared CO emission probably comes from shocked gas in the mass outflow from newly formed, massive stars. The detection of the J = 14 to 13 transition is the first to be made of this line in any source, and is the longest wavelength line yet detected in interstellar space by nonheterodyne techniques.

  11. Carbon monoxide in disks around young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Daniel J.

    2007-05-01

    I present preliminary high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC spectra of ro- vibrational carbon monoxide (CO) absorptions found in disks around three Class II T Tauri stars: DG Tau B, AA Tau and Haro 6-5 B. 12 CO column densities were measured via overtone and fundamental lines in the 2 and 5 mm regions, respectively. 13 CO absorptions were observed for DG Tau B and upper limits were calculated for Haro 6-5 B. Rotational temperatures and column densities are presented for each source along with a comparison of N CO /A V to inclination angle for DG Tau B and Haro 6-5 B. Data for these sources were compared to results presented by Rettig et al. (2006) to test a model of disk stratification. Initial results for Haro 6-5 B are consistent with the data reported by Rettig et al. (2006). Values for DG Tau B were inconclusive due to discrepancies between M-Wide and K band data for both rotational temperatures and column densities. However, values for DG Tau B were only off by a factor of ~2-3 when compared to Rettig et al. (2006). N CO /A V values for AA Tau did not fit the trends presented by Rettig et al. (2006). However the source showed strong band head absorptions at K-band which indicate high temperatures and contamination of spectral lines by photospheric absorption.

  12. Carbon monoxide in disks around young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Daniel J.

    I present preliminary high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC spectra of ro- vibrational carbon monoxide (CO) absorptions found in disks around three Class II T Tauri stars: DG Tau B, AA Tau and Haro 6-5 B. 12 CO column densities were measured via overtone and fundamental lines in the 2 and 5 mm regions, respectively. 13 CO absorptions were observed for DG Tau B and upper limits were calculated for Haro 6-5 B. Rotational temperatures and column densities are presented for each source along with a comparison of N CO /A V to inclination angle for DG Tau B and Haro 6-5 B. Data for these sources were compared to results presented by Rettig et al. (2006) to test a model of disk stratification. Initial results for Haro 6-5 B are consistent with the data reported by Rettig et al. (2006). Values for DG Tau B were inconclusive due to discrepancies between M-Wide and K band data for both rotational temperatures and column densities. However, values for DG Tau B were only off by a factor of ~2-3 when compared to Rettig et al. (2006). N CO /A V values for AA Tau did not fit the trends presented by Rettig et al. (2006). However the source showed strong band head absorptions at K-band which indicate high temperatures and contamination of spectral lines by photospheric absorption.

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, A.; Amphlett, J.C.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The platinum-alloy catalyst used in proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell anodes is highly susceptible to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. CO reduces the catalyst activity by blocking active catalyst sites normally available for hydrogen chemisorption and dissociation. The reaction kinetics at the anode catalyst surface can be used to estimate the decrease in cell voltage due to various levels of CO contamination in the inlet fuel streams on PEM fuel cell performance have been reviewed and analyzed in an attempt to further understand the electrochemical properties of the CO adsorption process. A fuel cell performance model of bipolar, Nafion 117 PEM fuel cell stack has been developed which predicts equilibrium cell output voltage as a function of current density and partial pressure of CO. The model contains both empirical and mechanistic parameters and evolved from a steady-state electrochemical model for a PEM fuel cell fed with a CO-free anode gas. Reaction kinetics and equilibrium surface coverage have been incorporated into the electrochemical model to predict the decrease in fuel cell performance at equilibrium. The effects of CO were studied at various concentrations of CO in hydrogen as the anode feed gas. Literature data were used to develop the model parameters and the resulting model is used to compare the model-predicted voltages, with and without CO, to data found in the literature.

  14. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

    2015-02-01

    Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

  15. Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

  16. Removal of carbon monoxide from hydrogen-rich fuels by selective oxidation over platinum catalyst supported on zeolite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Igarashi; Hiroyuki Uchida; Miki Suzuki; Yuko Sasaki; Masahiro Watanabe

    1997-01-01

    Special catalysts — Pt supported zeolites — for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in reformed fuels from methanol or natural gas were proposed. They can be applied for the application to polymer electrolyte fuel membrane cells of which anode Pt catalysts suffer serious poisoning by the presence of trace carbon monoxide. The proposed Pt-supported zeolite catalysts can oxidize carbon

  17. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  18. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  19. CROSS-CORRELATIONS AS A COSMOLOGICAL CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Pullen, Anthony R.; Dore, Olivier [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-237, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Chang, Tzu-Ching [IAA, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lidz, Adam, E-mail: anthony.r.pullen@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of large-scale structure (LSS), the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other LSS tracers offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. We propose a novel use of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data set. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 6 and 7, respectively. We are unable to detect a cross-correlation signal with either CO(1-0) or CO(2-1) lines, mainly due to the instrumental noise in the WMAP data. However, we are able to rule out models more than three times greater than our more optimistic model. We discuss the cross-correlation signal from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and dust as potential contaminants, and quantify their impact for our CO measurements. We discuss forecasts for current CMB experiments and a hypothetical future CO-focused experiment, and propose to cross-correlate CO temperature data with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Ly{alpha}-emitter sample, for which a signal-to-noise ratio of 58 is possible.

  20. Carbon monoxide over Indian region as observed by MOPITT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girach, I. A.; Nair, Prabha R.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive study has been carried out on tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) over the Indian land mass and surrounding oceanic region using the CO retrievals from MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) for a period of ?14 years (2000-2014). The lower-tropospheric CO maximises during winter and shows a broad minimum during summer-monsoon over most of the regions, but with regionally varying seasonal amplitudes. Tropospheric column CO also exhibits a seasonal pattern similar to lower-tropospheric CO. But the upper-tropospheric CO shows an opposite seasonal pattern which peaks during summer monsoon. Columnar CO showed strong positive correlation with fire counts over west, east and north-east India, indicating the dominant role of biomass burning in controlling the seasonal variation of CO. The lower-tropospheric and columnar CO showed decreasing trend of 2.0-3.4 ppb year-1 (1.1-2.0% year-1) and 6.0-13.6 × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1 (0.3-0.6% year-1) respectively over most of the regions. However, over many land regions trend in columnar CO is not significant. Most strikingly, the upper tropospheric CO showed increasing trend of 1.4-2.4 ppb year-1 (1.8-3.2% year-1). The analysis of biases in the estimated trends due to temporal changes in the MOPITT averaging kernels shows that magnitude of the realistic trend may change depending upon the bias but the sign (positive or negative) of trend remains the same. The decreasing trend in lower tropospheric and columnar CO could be attributed partly to increase in lower tropospheric water vapour and/or tropospheric ozone. The strengthening of convective activity, uplifting the CO to higher altitudes, could be a reason for increasing trend in the upper-tropospheric CO.

  1. Passive Colorimetric Dosimeter Tubes for Ammonia, Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Sulfide, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL W. McCONNAUGHEY; ELMER S. McKEE; IRVIN M. PRITTS

    1985-01-01

    Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an eight-hour period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their Threshold Limit Values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide

  2. Manufacture of a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas from a starting material containing carbon and/or hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Santen, S.; Johansson, B.

    1984-08-21

    In a process for manufacturing a gas substantially containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas from a starting material containing carbon and/or hydrocarbon, the starting material is injected in powder or liquid form together with an oxidizing agent and slag former in a combustion zone while heat energy is simultaneously supplied. The combustion zone is formed in the lower portion of a shaft filled with particulate, solid, carbonaceous material and sulphur-binding slag former.

  3. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  4. Crystallization and mutational studies of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from moorella thermoacetica 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Eun Jin

    2004-09-30

    in methanogenic archaea that are grown anaerobically. The X-ray crystallographic studies of the enzyme isolated from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum revealed the active site at 1.45 Å resolution from the inactive enzyme (24, 25). Methyl-CoM Reductase from... Monoxide Dehydrogenase (CODH) has been studied. Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase is found in 2 classes of Methanogenic Archaea (Class I and II), in Acetogenic Bacteria (Class III), and in CO-utilizing Bacteria (Class IV) (27). This enzyme has been named...

  5. Effects of carbon monoxide on isolated heart muscle cells. Research report, March 1989-February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, B.A.; Wittenberg, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    By sequestering intracellular myoglobin of cardiac muscle cells in the nonfunctioning carboxymyoglobin form, carbon monoxide blocks myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen, as well as myoglobin-mediated oxidative phosphorylation. The authors explored the hypothesis that the carbon monoxide blockade of myoglobin function may be responsible at the cellular level for a component of the cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide observed during exercise. At physiological oxygen pressures no greater than 5 torr, after sequestration of approximately 50% of the myoglobin, steady-state oxygen uptake decreased significantly less than the respiration of cell groups for which the fraction of carboxymyoglobin was 0% to 40%. When respiration is diminished, the rate of oxidative phosphorylation also decreases. Thus, they concluded that sequestering intracellular myoglobin as carboxymyoglobin significantly decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation of isolated cardiac myocytes. They estimate that intracellular myoglobin-dependent oxidative phosphorylation will be inhibited when approximately 20% to 40% of the arterial hemoglobin in the whole animal is carboxyhemoglobin.

  6. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... (b) On December 21, 1999, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management...quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental...

  7. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... (b) On December 21, 1999, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management...quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental...

  8. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... (b) On December 21, 1999, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management...quality standard. (c) Approval—The Indiana Department of Environmental...

  9. Measuring carbon monoxide gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred tank reactor for syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Seth S; Heindel, Theodore J

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-liquid mass transfer rates in a water-filled stirred tank reactor are determined using a myoglobin protein method to measure dissolved carbon monoxide concentrations as a function of time. Data are acquired over a range of stirrer speeds (200 < or = N < or = 600 rpm) and gas flow rates (1 < or = Q < or = 6 L/min), corresponding to a gas retention time range of 1.2-7 min. Volumetric CO-water mass transfer coefficients range from 0.003 to 0.043 s(-1) and are well-correlated using the power density and the superficial gas velocity. PMID:16739978

  10. The photochemistry of methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere in 1950 and 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Rinsland, C. P.; Tennille, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    The roughly 1 percent/year increase in tropospheric methane and roughly 2 percent/year increase in tropospheric carbon monoxide deduced from recent analyses of ground-based solar infrared spectra recorded in 1950 and 1951 have very important implications for the photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere. Photochemical calculations indicate that as a result of the increase of methane and carbon monoxide since 1950-51, levels of the hydroxyl radical, the key species in the photochemistry of the troposphere, may have decreased by about 25 percent.

  11. Ozone, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon monoxide during pollution events over the eastern United States: An evaluation of emissions

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    of nitrogen, and carbon monoxide during pollution events over the eastern United States: An evaluationOzone, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon monoxide during pollution events over the eastern United on air pollution control strategies. We evaluate the performance of a 12 km resolution CMAQ simulation

  12. Carbon monoxide levels experienced by heavy smoker...[Inhal Toxicol. 2008] -PubMed Result Inhal Toxicol. 2008 May;20(7):635-46. Links

    E-print Network

    Brand, Paul H.

    Carbon monoxide levels experienced by heavy smoker...[Inhal Toxicol. 2008] - PubMed Result Inhal of long-term inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) administrated to give concentrations in the blood similar

  13. Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the Sgr A complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, R.; Sandqvist, Aa.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Winnberg, A.; Fathi, K.; Frisk, U.; Olberg, M.

    2014-05-01

    We observed Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the +50 km s-1 cloud (M-0.02-0.07), the circumnuclear disk (CND) and the +20 km s-1 (M-0.13-0.08) cloud in the Sgr A complex with the VLA, Odin and SEST. Strong OH absorption, H2O emission and absorption lines were seen at all three positions. Strong C18O emissions were seen towards the +50 and +20 km s-1 clouds. The CND is rich in H2O and OH, and these abundances are considerably higher than in the surrounding clouds, indicating that shocks, star formation and clump collisions prevail in those objects. A comparison with the literature reveals that it is likely that PDR chemistry including grain surface reactions, and perhaps also the influences of shocks has led to the observed abundances of the observed molecular species studied here. In the redward high-velocity line wings of both the +50 and +20 km s-1 clouds and the CND, the very high H2O abundances are suggested to be caused by the combined action of shock desorption from icy grain mantles and high-temperature, gas-phase shock chemistry. Only three of the molecules are briefly discussed here. For OH and H2O three of the nine observed positions are shown, while a map of the C18O emission is provided. An extensive paper was recently published with Open Access (Karlsson et al. 2013, A&A 554, A141).

  14. Analysis of solid products formed in atmospheric non-thermal carbon monoxide plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Geiger; David Staack

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis indicates that non-equilibrium plasma-chemistry of carbon monoxide can lead to the deposition of solid carbon oxides at low temperatures. Using a dielectric barrier discharge we are able to create deposits from CO readily at atmospheric pressure conditions. Deposition rates are on the order of 0.2 mg min-1 at power of 12 W corresponding to about 1000 kW-h kg-1.

  15. Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane

    E-print Network

    Weidner, John W.

    Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Sivagaminathan Balasubramanian, Charles E. Holland,* and John W. Weidner*,z Center in reformate hydrogen. In this design, the potential and gas flow are switched between the two filter cells so

  16. A carbon monoxide sensor in polymer electrolyte fuel cells based on symbolic dynamic filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Bhambare; S. Guptab; M. M. Mench; A. Rayb

    Carbon monoxide (CO) dramatically reduces the performance of a fuel cell stack if not remediated. Reme- diation generally requires parasitic bleeding of a small fraction (<5%) of air into the fuel stream to promote oxidation of the CO and use of a platinum-ruthenium or other noble metal based catalyst. For enhance- ment of system efficiency, air bleed should be controlled

  17. Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

    2012-01-01

    Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

  18. Modeling and control of carbon monoxide concentration using a neuro-fuzzy technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Tanaka; Manabu Sano; Hiroyuki Watanabe

    1995-01-01

    Modeling and control of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration using a neuro-fuzzy technique are discussed. A self-organizing fuzzy identification algorithm (SOFIA) for identifying complex systems such as CO concentration is proposed. The main purpose of SOFIA is to reduce the computational requirement for identifying a fuzzy model. In particular, the authors simplify a procedure for finding the optimal structure of fuzzy

  19. Protective Effect of Carbon Monoxide Donor Compounds in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Renal Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunji Shiohira; Takumi Yoshida; Satsuki Shirota; Ken Tsuchiya; Kosaku Nitta

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is a common cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in clinical practice. However, the precise mechanism of endotoxin-induced ARF is not fully understood. There have been several reports that inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) gas could be protective against acute rejection in intestine, lung, and kidney transplantation. Thus, we investigated the direct effect of CO in an experimental

  20. STUDY OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES OF RESIDENTS OF WASHINGTON, D.C.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper will describe a study conducted in the Washington, D.C., area during the winter of 1982-83 for the purpose of measuring the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of a representative population of the area. The population distributions were determined by direct ...

  1. FINAL SAMPLING REPORT FOR THE STUDY OF PERSONAL CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the sample selection procedures used for a study funded by the EPA and conducted by the Research Triangle Institute in 1982 and 1983 to evaluate methodology for collecting data on personal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO). These data were collected in the me...

  2. The role of temperature on carbon monoxide production in compartment fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel T. Gottuk; Richard J. Roby; Craig L. Beyler

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on carbon monoxide production in compartment fires in order to resolve the difference between global equivalence ratio-yield correlations obtained in simplified upper layer environments and more realistic compartment fires. The chemical reactivity of upper layer gases was studied using a detailed chemical kinetics model. An analysis of the

  3. Crystal field theory analysis of rovibrational spectra of carbon monoxide monomers isolated in solid parahydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario E. Fajardo; C. Michael Lindsay; Takamasa Momose

    2009-01-01

    We report the first rotationally resolved and completely assigned rovibrational spectrum for a nonhydride molecule rotating in the solid phase: carbon monoxide (CO) monomers isolated in cryogenic solid parahydrogen (p-H2). We employ a modified crystal field theory model, in which the CO molecular spectroscopic constants are taken as adjustable parameters, to make good spectroscopic assignments for all the observed features.

  4. Approval and promulgation of Michigan State Implementation Plan (SIP). carbon monoxide and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-02

    These two US Environmental Protection Agency notices approve the revised Michigan SIP for ozone control strategy for the Flint, Lansing, Grand Rapids, and other rural nonattainment areas; ozone, carbon monoxide control, and vehicle inspection/maintenance programs fr the Detroit urban areas; and transportation control plans for all these areas. These final rules are effective as of 5/23/80.

  5. Evidence for long-range transport of carbon monoxide in the Southern Hemisphere from SCIAMACHY observations

    E-print Network

    Laat, Jos de

    columns in both emission areas and in areas that are affected by long-range transport of CO. Model results., 2001]). Thus, both local emissions and CO transported from overseas emission areas can be studiedEvidence for long-range transport of carbon monoxide in the Southern Hemisphere from SCIAMACHY

  6. VCD spectroscopy as an excellent probe of chiral metal complexes containing a carbon monoxide vibrational chromophore.

    PubMed

    Fusè, Marco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Longhi, Giovanna; Abbate, Sergio; Zerla, Daniele; Rimoldi, Isabella; Contini, Alessandro; Cesarotti, Edoardo

    2015-05-21

    Vibrational circular dichroism, VCD, gives evidence that the carbon monoxide chromophore in a heteroleptic cyclopentadienyl Ru(ii)-carbonyl complex is very sensitive to the chirality of the metal centre and becomes an excellent probe to define the configuration of chiral metal complexes. PMID:25966832

  7. Carbon Monoxide Reduces Neuropathic Pain and Spinal Microglial Activation by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in wild type (WT) or inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (NOS2-KO) mice using two carbon monoxide (HO-2), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) and NOS2 as well as a microglial marker (CD11b/c) were/Significance: This study reports that an interaction between the CO and nitric oxide (NO) systems is taking place following

  8. CARBON MONOXIDE REVERSIBLY DISRUPTS IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron dissociation from heme is a major factor in iron metabolism and cellular concentrations of the metal correlate inversely with the expression of heme oxygenase (HO). We tested the hypothesis that 1) exposure to a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), disturbs iron homeostas...

  9. Neuropsychologic and Functional Recovery From Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Without Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindell K Weaver; Ramona O Hopkins; Valerie Larson-Lohr

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: To test the hypothesis that neuropsychologic test results and functional outcome will be abnormal if hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is not used in patients with severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: For a 1-year interval, we retrospectively identified all CO-poisoned patients who were comatose on presentation at a large, urban tertiary hospital and did not receive HBO therapy. Prospectively,

  10. Effect of redox potential, sulfide ions and a persulfide forming cysteine residue on carbon monoxide dehydrogenase 

    E-print Network

    Feng, Jian

    2005-08-29

    The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster of carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, can be stabilized in four redox states: Cox, Cred1, Cint, and Cred2. The best-supported mechanism of catalysis involves a one...

  11. Tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen measurements over Kalimantan in Indonesia and northern Australia during October, 1997

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yousuke Sawa; Hidekazu Matsueda; Yukitomo Tsutsumi; Jørgen B. Jensen; Hisayuki Y. Inoue; Yukio Makino

    1999-01-01

    During the PACE-5 campaign over Australia and Indonesia in October 1997, we used an aircraft to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). Latitudinal distributions of CO and H2 clearly showed a large increase from northern Australia to Kalimantan in Indonesia. Elevated CO levels over northern Australia were observed only in the smoke plumes of savanna fires. A thick smoke

  12. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-06-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions, in several cases under milder conditions than previously reported. PMID:26000869

  13. PREDICTION OF CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN FORMATION DUE TO TRANSIENT EXPOSURE TO CARBON MONOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of carboxyhemoglobin formation due to transient xposure to carbon monoxide. . Appl. Physiol. 76(4):1739-1745, 1994.-Fifteen men were exposed to 6,683 ppm C18O for 3.09-6.65 min. rterial and antecubital vein blood samples were drawn at 1-min intervals beginning at the s...

  14. EFFECTS OF LOW LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE. BLOOD LIPIDS AND COAGULATION PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study examined the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in 50 and 100 ppm doses on response to treadmill exercise, blood coagulation and blood lipids in normal men. Twenty-three men were exposed to CO or to air in a double-blind protocol. After exposure, each underwent a graded ex...

  15. EFFECT ON CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS IN MOBILE HOMES USING UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS FOR RESIDENTIAL HEATINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (Co) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old . These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. espondents were asked to operate their heater...

  16. Applicability of the Single-Breath Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity in a Norwegian Community Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IDA WELLE; GEIR EGIL EIDE; PER BAKKE; AMUND GULSVIK

    The test of single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (D LCO ) has been widely used in pop- ulation surveys. However, little is known about the effect of meeting or failing to meet the criteria for acceptability of this test. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommends a breathholding time of 9 to 11 s, two measurements within 6 10% or

  17. Single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide in an asymptomatic population of never smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gulsvik; P Bakke; S Humerfelt; E Omenaas; T Tosteson; S T Weiss; F E Speizer

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on reference values of transfer factor variables in general populations of asymptomatic never smokers are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between test variables and age, height, haemoglobin concentration and carboxyhaemoglobin concentration. METHODS: Measurements of single breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide (TLCO) were obtained for a randomly selected sample of never smokers

  18. Submitted to the Annals of Applied Statistics INTERPOLATING FIELDS OF CARBON MONOXIDE

    E-print Network

    Nychka, Douglas

    of this interpolation problem is to combine cloud-free observations with prior information, computed by a de fields have to be estimated based on the cloud-free observations. The current state-of-the-art solution and transport. CO AMS 2000 subject classifications: Carbon monoxide; satellite data; Bayesian hierarchi- cal

  19. Carbon Monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen Exposure during Offloading of Car Carrier Vessels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron C. Davenport; William C. Hinds

    1996-01-01

    A field study was conducted from April to October 1994 to evaluate worker exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during offloading of vehicles from car carrier vessels. Personal and area samples for CO and NOx were taken during offloading operations aboard ten ships dedicated to vehicle cargo. Personal exposure results can be summarized as follows: 20

  20. Crystallization and mutational studies of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from moorella thermoacetica

    E-print Network

    Kim, Eun Jin

    2004-09-30

    Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase (CODH), also known as Acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), is one of seven known Ni containing enzymes. CODH/ACS is a bifunctional enzyme which oxidizes CO to CO2 reversibly and synthesizes acetyl-CoA. Recently, X-ray crystal...

  1. Feedback versus Information concerning Carbon Monoxide as an Early Intervention Strategy in Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.; Evans, Richard I.

    1982-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of several programs using feedback about carbon monoxide as strategies for deterring experimentation with cigarettes in sixth-grade children (N=405). Compared to no-treatment controls, the only program to reduce experimentation with cigarettes was the information-only program. Several programs had increases in rates of…

  2. Orbital Contributions to CO Oxidation in Mo-Cu Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin W.; Kirk, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    A molecular orbital analysis provides new insight into the mechanism of Mo/Cu carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, and reveals electronic structure contributions to reactivity that are remarkably similar to the structurally related molybdenum hydroxylases. A calculated reaction barrier of ~12 kcal/mol is in excellent agreement with experiment. PMID:24322538

  3. EDUCATION LEVEL IS GREATEST RISK-FACTOR IN CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels. In confined spaces, inefficient combustion sources, such as furnaces, stoves, kerosene heaters and automobiles can generate levels of CO that interrupt oxygen transport throughout the body, potentially ...

  4. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (1999) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This revised criteria document consolidates and updates the current scientific basis for another reevaluation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide (CO), currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) for 1 h. Although emphasis is plac...

  5. Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whitney A. Cesari (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies)

    2006-12-01

    Student report on the physiological response to acute carbon monoxide exposure in a simulated healthy adult male and a coal miner and represents how 1) human patient simulators can be used in a nonclinical way for experiential hypothesis testing; 2) students can transition from traditional textbook learning to practical application of their knowledge; and 3) student-initiated group investigation drives critical thought

  6. CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES INSIDE AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING ON AN URBAN ARTERIAL HIGHWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. n each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the...

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning surveillance: a French Environmental & Health surveillance system integrated in preventive policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Verrier; J Daoudi; C Gourier-Frry; G Salines

    2010-01-01

    In France, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning strikes over 5000 people who have to be managed in emergency conditions. In order to improve our knowledge on CO poisoning circumstances, a specific surveillance system has been set up. Its main objective is to provide epidemiological description of poisoning in order to improve preventive messages and rules.MethodsIn France, governmental procedures impose that each

  8. Effect of redox potential, sulfide ions and a persulfide forming cysteine residue on carbon monoxide dehydrogenase

    E-print Network

    Feng, Jian

    2005-08-29

    The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster of carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH), which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2, can be stabilized in four redox states: Cox, Cred1, Cint, and Cred2. The best-supported mechanism of catalysis involves a one...

  9. An Urban Diffusion Simulation Model for Carbon Monoxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A relatively simple Gaussian-type diffusion simulation model for calculating urban carbon (CO) concentrations as a function of local meteorology and the distribution of traffic is described. The model can be used in two ways: in the synoptic mode and in the climatological mode. (Author/BL)

  10. Assessment of the Sources of Black Carbon and Carbon Monoxide using OMI Aerosol Absorption Optical Depth, MOPITT Carbon Monoxide, and the adjoint of GEOS-Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Henze, D. K.; Grell, G. A.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) are byproducts of incomplete combustion from similar sources but their emission ratio varies significantly between sources. Accurate estimates of the emissions and distribution of BC and CO are critical to studies of the atmospheric environment and climate change. We attempt to reduce uncertainties in BC emissions and improve BC model simulations by developing top-down, spatially resolved, estimates of BC emissions through assimilation of OMI observations aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) over Southeast Asian (70°E-150°E, 11°S-55°N) with the GEOS-Chem model. The impacts of different inversion approaches (scaling factor based and emission based), observation operators, a priori constraints and resolution errors on the optimization are investigated and discussed. A remarkable correlation between BC and CO has been found in a number of studies of in situ measurements or model results, and the source-specific emission ratios are an important constraint on global climate and regional air quality models. We thus diagnose these correlations with satellite observations by analyzing the long-term OMI AAOD and MOPITT CO from 2005 to 2013 to investigate the AAOD/CO ratio in seasonal and inter annual scale to assess the seasonal variability and long-term trends of BC and CO sources, including the major emissions sources of anthropogenic activities by sectors and biomass mass burning emissions. The strengths and deficiencies of simulated AAOD/CO ratio using global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem are discovered and compared to the observed AAOD/CO ratio to quantify the biases and uncertainties of corresponding emission sources of BC and CO.

  11. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  12. Life in Hot Carbon Monoxide: The Complete Genome Sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a “minimal” model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously. PMID:16311624

  13. Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Parshina, Sofiya N.; Sipma, Jan; Henstra, Anne Meint; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are able to use carbon monoxide (CO) as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) as an electron donor. PMID:20628586

  14. Photochemical production and microbial consumption of carbon monoxide in the Caribbean Sea as influenced by the Orinoco River

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D. (Florida International Univ., Miami (United States))

    1990-01-09

    Carbon monoxide is an important trace gas in the surface waters of the marine environment. An understanding of the mechanisms by which this gas is produced and consumed is important to our understanding carbon cycling in the world's oceans. Carbon monoxide is produced by photochemical processes involving dissolved organic material (DOM) and consumed by microorganism. Major rivers greatly influence the DOM content of the oceans. The Orinoco River of Venezuela inputs its waters into the Caribbean Sea and can, thus, influence production and consumption of carbon monoxide. Microbial consumption rates and photoproduction capacity for carbon monoxide were determined along 2 Caribbean cruise tracks during the spring (low river flow) and fall (high river flow) of 1988. Carbon monoxide production capacity was highest during the fall and the Orinoco influenced a greater area of the Caribbean than during the spring. The highest production capacity was observed in the waters of 22 ppt salinity during the fall and 6.5 ppt during the spring. Correlation of microbial consumption with the highest consumption rate occurring in waters with the highest production capacity. Turnover times for carbon monoxide were as low as 2.2 h, indicating the importance of microbial consumption in these waters.

  15. A palladium - catalyzed domino reaction of 3-acetyl-5-hexyn-2-one with aryl iodides under carbon monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Arcadi; Elisabetta Rossi

    1996-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed reaction of 3-acetyl-5-hexyn-2-one with aryl iodides under a carbon monoxide atmosphere produces different 2,3,5-trisubstituted furans depending on the alkyne\\/aryl iodide ratio.

  16. Vibrational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide at the Active Sites of Mutant Heme Proteins Jeffrey R. Hill and Dana D. Dlott*

    E-print Network

    Boxer, Steven G.

    and increasing the relative affinity for oxygen versus poisonous carbon monoxide.1 Many studies have been made conventional mid-IR absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique, it is not capable of revealing the fast

  17. Thermodynamics of carbon monoxide binding to monomeric cytochrome c'.

    PubMed

    Doyle, M L; Gill, S J; Meyer, T E; Cusanovich, M A

    1987-12-15

    The thermodynamic parameters for carbon binding to monomeric Rhodopseudomonas palustris cytochrome c' are determined. An enthalpy change for CO(aq) binding to the cytochrome is measured directly by titration calorimetry as -6.7 +/- 0.2 kcal/mol of heme, the CO binding equilibrium constant is measured at 35 degrees C as (1.96 +/- 0.05) X 10(5) M-1, and the binding equilibrium constant at 25 degrees C is calculated from the van't Hoff equation as (2.8 +/- 0.1) X 10(5) M-1. Comparison of the results to the known energetics of CO binding to dimeric cytochrome c', where the CO binding site is buried in the protein interior, indicates that the heme binding site on the monomer form is, in contrast, more exposed. PMID:2831936

  18. Studies of carbon monoxide diffusion in an urban area

    E-print Network

    Thomas, John Charles

    1970-01-01

    SANPLEE 5 1 I 12' 10 2I L ' l I ~' ~l f 2 6 8 10 1 2 2 6 8 10 12 PiM Tli'G OF DAY (I:ours) Fig. 4. Carbon s. onozide concentra. fiona us time of day for July 18, 1969 ~ 18, 16~ I 14 I? SAMPLER 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ SAMPLER 2 a ? e SARPLL... 18, 1969 (r = %0. 87) . 30 7 . . 6, pm 686 Vch, ric: /icmi i iu 30 E 6 $1 5 0 c. Z l ct o 3 7 (6 'e, b) j (Si y 2. '60 I !V, i. 66) 12:. ', 0 , 5' ?(sn, s) mgs (V!" 9', 3 1'", 0~ ) 0 0 (s, c) 3 0 ) 0 6 00 70 0 800 900 10...

  19. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas. PMID:21400198

  20. The promoting effect of adsorbed carbon monoxide on the oxidation of alcohols on a gold catalyst.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Paramaconi; Kwon, Youngkook; Koper, Marc T M

    2012-03-01

    In heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, adsorbed carbon monoxide typically acts as a poison or poisoning intermediate in the oxidation of alcohols. However, gold as an (electro)catalyst often exhibits unexpected properties. Here we show that carbon monoxide irreversibly adsorbed on a Au(111) surface in aqueous alkaline media can act as a promoter for the electrocatalytic oxidation of certain alcohols, in particular methanol. In comparison with bare Au(111), the onset potential for methanol oxidation is significantly lower in the presence of adsorbed CO, and formation of the main methanol oxidation products--formaldehyde and formic acid--is enhanced. By studying the effect of adsorbed CO on the oxidation of other alcohols on gold, we conclude that the presence of adsorbed CO promotes beta-hydrogen elimination, that is, C-H bond breaking. Apart from its importance to gold catalysis, this is an unanticipated example of promotion effects by co-adsorbed small molecules in electrocatalysis. PMID:22354413

  1. The promoting effect of adsorbed carbon monoxide on the oxidation of alcohols on a gold catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Paramaconi; Kwon, Youngkook; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2012-03-01

    In heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, adsorbed carbon monoxide typically acts as a poison or poisoning intermediate in the oxidation of alcohols. However, gold as an (electro)catalyst often exhibits unexpected properties. Here we show that carbon monoxide irreversibly adsorbed on a Au(111) surface in aqueous alkaline media can act as a promoter for the electrocatalytic oxidation of certain alcohols, in particular methanol. In comparison with bare Au(111), the onset potential for methanol oxidation is significantly lower in the presence of adsorbed CO, and formation of the main methanol oxidation products—formaldehyde and formic acid—is enhanced. By studying the effect of adsorbed CO on the oxidation of other alcohols on gold, we conclude that the presence of adsorbed CO promotes beta-hydrogen elimination, that is, C-H bond breaking. Apart from its importance to gold catalysis, this is an unanticipated example of promotion effects by co-adsorbed small molecules in electrocatalysis.

  2. Identical linkage and cooperativity of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding to Octopus dofleini hemocyanin

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, P.R.; Gill, S.J.; Miller, K.I.; Zhou, G.; van Holde, K.E. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

    1989-02-21

    Employment of high-precision thin-layer methods has enabled detailed functional characterization of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding for (1) the fully assembled form with 70 binding sites and (2) the isolated chains with 7 binding sites of octopus dofleini hemocyanin. The striking difference in the cooperativities of the two ligands for the assembled decamer is revealed through an examination of the binding capacities and the partition coefficient, determined as functions of the activities of both ligands. A global analysis of the data sets supported by a two-state allosteric model assuming an allosteric unit of 7. Higher level allosteric interactions were not indicated. This contrasts to results obtained for arthropod hemocyanins. Oxygen and carbon monoxide experiments performed on the isolated subunit chain confirmed the presence of functional heterogeneity reported previously. The analysis shows two types of binding sites in the ratio of 4:3.

  3. Embryotoxicity of inhaled sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Murray, F J; Schwetz, B A; Crawford, A A; Henck, J W; Quast, J F; Staples, R E

    1979-01-01

    The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of sulfur dioxide (SO2) was evaluated in CF-1 and New Zealand rabbits exposed to SO2 alone or in combination with carbon monoxide (CO). The animals inhaled filtered room air (controls), SO2 (mice, 25 ppm; rabbits, 70 ppm), or SO2 plus CO (250 ppm) for 7 hr/day from days 6 through 15 (mice) and from days 6 through 18 (rabbits) of gestation. In both species, inhalation of SO2 resulted in slight toxicity in the dams and an increased incidence of minor skeletal variants among their offspring; exposure to the combination did not potentiate the increased incidence of these variants. A teratogenic effect was not discerned in either mice or rabbits exposed to SO2 alone or in combination with carbon monoxide, but the fetuses of mice exposed to the combination were significantly smaller than those exposed only to SO2. PMID:555466

  4. Evaluation of airborne carbon monoxide exposure monitoring program in produce cooler operations (Palm Beach County, Florida)

    SciTech Connect

    Garsik, D.A. [Palm Beach County Public Health Unit, West Palm Beach, FL (United States). Div. of Environmental Health

    1995-05-01

    The effectiveness of a carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring program was evaluated by measuring changes in employee exposure levels annually over a three-year period following various reduction strategies. Workers in produce coolers were monitored for exposure to CO from the exhaust of propane lift trucks used to load and unload produce during the spring corn season in western Palm Beach County. Personal monitoring, using dosimeter tubes attached to the employees` breathing zones, was performed over 8-hour workshifts to determine the time weighted average (TWA) airborne exposures to CO in parts per million (ppm). Intervention strategies used at the operations found to have elevated employee CO exposure levels were: (1) source elimination; (2) source reduction; and (3) administrative control. The interventions were found to reduce significantly CO exposure levels. The greatest decrease in carbon monoxide resulted from source elimination.

  5. Some effects of argon and helium upon explosions of carbon monoxide and oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiock, Ernst F; Roeder, Carl H

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted to study the effects of the inert gases, argon and helium, upon flame speed and expansion ratio in exploding mixtures of carbon monoxide, oxygen and water.For the particular gas mixtures investigated the results show that: (1) With the possible exception of helium in small amounts the addition of inert gas always produces decreased flame speed and expansion ratio; (2) like volumes of argon and helium have very different effects upon flame speed but practically the same effect upon expansion ratio; and (3) the difference in the effect of these two gases upon speed is independent of the ratio of carbon monoxide to oxygen. A discussion of some possible modes by which inert gases may produce the observed effects is included.

  6. Many-body interactions of carbon monoxide cyclic oligomers: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Prabhat K.; Lee, Shyi-Long

    Structural properties and energetics for the optimized carbon monoxide cyclic oligomers are analyzed at the correlated ab initio second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) and density functional methods (B3LYP and mPW1PW), using Dunning's cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q) basis set, augmented with diffuse functions. Many-body interactions of the stable carbon monoxide cyclic oligomers, (CO)4 and (CO)5 are computed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Contributions of two- to five-body terms to each of these oligomers for their interaction energies, including corrections for basis set superposition error (BSSE) are investigated by using function counterpoise and its generalized version. It has been found that three-body terms are attractive in nature and essential in order to describe the cooperative effects in the stable cyclic CO oligomers.

  7. The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

  8. Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.R.; Browse, N.L.; Rutt, D.L.; Butler, L.; Fletcher, C.

    1988-01-01

    The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine.

  9. The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Connors, V.S.; Wallio, H.A.; Holland, J.A.; Sherrill, R.T.; Casas, J.C.; Gormsen, B.B.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide measure by the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument carried aboard the space shuttle is reported. The data represent average mixing ratios in the middle troposphere and are presented in the form of maps that show the carbon monoxide mixing ratios averaged for 6 days of the mission. Comparisons with concurrent, direct measurements taken aboard aircraft show that the inferred concentrations are systematically low by from 20 to 40 percent depending upon which direct measurement calibration standard is used. The data show that there are very large CO sources resulting from biomass burning over South America and southern Africa. Measured mixing ratios were high over northeast Asia and were highly variable over Europe.

  10. [Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning caused by incomplete combustion of liquid gases].

    PubMed

    Gujer, H R

    1982-02-01

    Amongst mortal accidents by carbon monoxide intoxication, an incomplete combustion of liquid gas consists a frequent CO-source. In Switzerland, during the last two years, at least seventeen persons died from such intoxications. Non conform installation of gas apparatus, for example the placing of a five-liter boiler without evacuation pipes in a small room, lack of fresh air conduction, or deficient installation of the apparatus, are the principal causes. Even professionals are not sufficiently aware of the danger of this kind of apparatus. Since a carbon monoxide intoxication is difficult to diagnose, it should be thought of at once if a CO-source is present. Information of the public on one hand, technical measures on the other hand could help avoiding such accidents. PMID:7072383

  11. Sensing and identification of carbon monoxide using carbon films fabricated by methane arc discharge decomposition technique.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Enzevaee, Aria; Yazdi, Mahsa Khoshkhooy; Bahadoran, Mahdi; Nikoukar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials have recently received attention in electronic applications and measurement systems. In this work, we demonstrate the electrical behavior of carbon films fabricated by methane arc discharge decomposition technique. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of carbon films are investigated in the presence and absence of gas. The experiment reveals that the current passing through the carbon films increases when the concentration of CO2 gas is increased from 200 to 800 ppm. This phenomenon which is a result of conductance changes can be employed in sensing applications such as gas sensors. PMID:25177219

  12. Carbon monoxide oxidation on lithium fluoride supported gold nanoparticles: A significance of F-centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvauri, I. V.; Gergieva, B. E.; Magkoeva, V. D.; Grigorkina, G. S.; Bliev, A. P.; Ashkhotov, O. G.; Sozaev, V. A.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2015-07-01

    Oxidation of carbon monoxide on ultrasmall Au particles supported on LiF film has been studied by means of vibrational and thermal desorption spectroscopy. It is found that the efficiency of this process is dramatically enhanced when Au is deposited on defect LiF film obtained by electron bombardment to produce Fx--centers. Local electronic charge of the Fx- center is a key point determining formation of an (C-O-O*) intermediate on (Au-Fx-) adsorption site as carbon dioxide precursor.

  13. The single-breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Welle; G. E. Eide; P. S. Bakke; A. Gulsvik

    1999-01-01

    Relationship between the single-breath transfer factor for carbon monoxide and res- piratory symptoms in a Norwegian community sample. I. Welle, G.E. Eide, P.S. Bakke, A. Gulsvik. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: Reduced single-breath transfer factors of the lung for carbon monoxide are seen in a number of conditions. The hypothesis of the present study was that self- reported respiratory symptoms

  14. Carbon monoxide removal from hydrogen-rich fuel cell feedstreams by selective catalytic oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Se. H. Oh; R. M. Sinkevitch

    1993-01-01

    Indirect methanol fuel cells currently being investigated at General Motors for transportation applications require removal of carbon monoxide from the hydrogen-rich gas stream produced by the fuel processing section. A variety of catalytic materials, including noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ru) and base metals (Co\\/Cu, Ni\\/Co\\/Fe, Ag, Cr, Fe, and Mn), were evaluated in a laboratory reactor feedstream containing

  15. Catalytic and electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on a Fe electrode in a solid electrolyte cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E Marnellos; S. T Zisekas; A. G Kungolos

    2003-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on Fe catalyst was studied at 300–500°C and atmospheric total pressure. The reaction was studied under both open- and closed-circuit operation in an yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte cell. The technique of Solid Electrolyte Potentiometry (SEP) was used to monitor the thermodynamic activity of oxygen adsorbed on the Fe electrode under open circuit. Kinetic and

  16. Temperature dependence of the rotational relaxation cross-section in carbon monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Belikov; M. L. Strekalov; A. V. Storozhev

    1999-01-01

    This Letter presents an investigation into the temperature dependence of the relaxation cross-section of the mean rotational energy, ?rot, in carbon monoxide. Our data obtained in a free jet at 20–200 K together with high-temperature measurements made by other authors point to non-monotonic behavior of the rotational relaxation cross-section as a function of temperature. A theoretical explanation for such a

  17. Trends in sales weighted tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields of UK cigarettes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M J Jarvis

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDReducing tar yields of manufactured cigarettes has been an important plank of government policy on tobacco, but sale weighted yields are not routinely published.METHODSTar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields measured by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist were combined with cigarette brand market shares from national surveys of smoking behaviour to generate sales weighted yield estimates for the period 1972–99.RESULTSSales

  18. Carbon monoxide inhibits Fas activating antibody-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xue Wang; Yong Wang; Seon-Jin Lee; Hong Pyo Kim; Augustine MK Choi; Stefan W Ryter

    2011-01-01

    Background  The extrinsic apoptotic pathway initiates when a death ligand, such as the Fas ligand, interacts with its cell surface receptor\\u000a (ie., Fas\\/CD95), forming a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). The Fas-dependent apoptotic pathway has been implicated in\\u000a several models of lung or vascular injury. Carbon monoxide, an enzymatic product of heme oxygenase-1, exerts antiapoptotic\\u000a effects at low concentration in vitro and

  19. Probing Electric Fields in Protein Cavities by Using the Vibrational Stark Effect of Carbon Monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartwig Lehle; Jan M. Kriegl; Karin Nienhaus; Pengchi Deng; Stephanus Fengler; G. Ulrich Nienhaus

    2005-01-01

    To determine the magnitude and direction of the internal electric field in the Xe4 cavity of myoglobin mutant L29W-S108L, we have studied the vibrational Stark effect of carbon monoxide (CO) using infrared spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. CO was photodissociated from the heme iron and deposited selectively in Xe4. Its infrared spectrum exhibits Stark splitting into two bands associated with CO

  20. Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western Pacific

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul I. Palmer; Daniel J. Jacob; Dylan B. A. Jones; Colette L. Heald; Robert M. Yantosca; Jennifer A. Logan; Glen W. Sachse; David G. Streets

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. We use aircraft observations of continental outflo w over the western Pacific from the TRACE-P mission (March-April, 2001), in combination with an optimal estimation inverse model, to improve emission estimates of carbon monoxide (CO) from Asia. A priori emissions and their errors are from a customised bottom-up Asian emission inventory for the TRACE-P period. The global 3-D GEOS-CHEM chemical

  1. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Piotrowski, J. [Tenneco Packaging, Inc., Tomahawk, WI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  2. On-road emission rates of carbon monoxide, nitrogen, oxides, and gaseous hyrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Gorse; R. A. Jr

    1984-01-01

    On-road emission rate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO\\/sub x\\/), and gaseous hydrocarbons (HC) from light-duty gasoline (spark-ignition) vehicles and from heavy-duty diesel vehicles operating at constant speed highway conditions are described. The measurements were made at the Allegheny Mountain Tunnel on the Pennsylvania Turnpike during July of 1981. Over 98,000 highway vehicle km were monitored during the

  3. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, V W Y; Wong, M Y P; Cheng, S H; Yu, K N

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, the influence of a low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) liberated from tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium (II) (CORM-3) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE was assessed through the number of apoptotic signals revealed on embryos at 25 h post fertilization (hpf). A significant attenuation of apoptosis on the bystander embryos induced by RIBE in a CO concentration dependent manner was observed. PMID:22119559

  4. Effect of dietary protein, zinc, and carbon monoxide on fetal zinc concentration in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmin H. Neggers; Jarnail Singh

    2004-01-01

    Dietary protein and zinc deficiencies known to be detrimental to the developing fetus are common in pregnant women in developing\\u000a countries. Everyone in modern society is at risk of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO). This study was conducted to observe\\u000a the effect of dietary protein, zinc, and exposure to CO on the fetal zinc concentrations by factorial experimentation. Pregnant\\u000a mice

  5. Compressed air sample technology for isotopic analysis of atmospheric carbon monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Mak; Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for the collection of large (1000 L) air samples for isotopic analysis of atmospheric carbon monoxide is presented. A low-background, high-pressure, high-flow sampling system with a residual background of less than 2 ppbv CO has been built and employed for collection of samples both from the ground and from an aircraft platform. The time required for obtaining a

  6. FTIR spectroscopy of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane adsorbed and co-adsorbed on zinc oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Scarano; S Bertarione; G Spoto; A Zecchina; C Otero Areán

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption of dihydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane, and co-adsorption of H2\\/CO, H2\\/CH4 and CO\\/CH4 on zinc oxide was studied by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Besides the already known dissociation of dihydrogen and molecular adsorption of CO, methane was found to be adsorbed molecularly on coordinatively unsaturated Zn2+ ions. Adsorption lowers the CH4 symmetry from Td to C3v, which

  7. Forecasting carbon monoxide concentrations near a sheltered intersection using video traffic surveillance and neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Moseholm; Jeff Silva; Timothy Larson

    1996-01-01

    In this preliminary study we investigated the relationships between traffic and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations measured near an intersection which is sheltered from the wind by multi-story buildings. Detailed information on traffic parameters was obtained by video camera technology during a single, 4-h period (2–6 p.m. local time) of calm winds (< 1 m\\/s). A neural network was trained with

  8. Relation of expired carbon monoxide to smoking history, lapsed time, T LCO measurement and passive smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Leitch; R. Harkawat; J. Askew; P. Masel; D. J. Hendrick

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the influence of lapsed time, measurement of gas-transfer factor (TLCO), and passive smoking on expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and then evaluated the accuracy of smoking histories against expired CO measurements in patients newly attending ‘occupational’ compared with ‘general’ chest clinics.Expired CO levels had an estimated average rate of decline of 3.4ppm\\/h in the presumed absence of further

  9. Visible-light photocatalytic conversion of carbon monoxide to methane by nickel(II) oxide.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francesc; Corma, Avelino; García, Hermenegildo

    2013-12-01

    Solar Fuels: Different n- and p-type semiconductors have been investigated for sustainable solar fuel production. p-Type semiconductors, such as NiO, Fe3 O4 , Co3 O4 , and CuO, are able to reduce carbon monoxide by water or hydrogen to methane. The highest CH4 yield achieved was 17.26?mmol of CH4 per gram of catalyst using NiO in an excess of H2 . PMID:24167093

  10. Roles of Heme Oxygenase\\/Carbon Monoxide System in Genetically Hypertensive Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshirou Seki; Mitsuhide Naruse; Kiyoko Naruse; Takanobu Yoshimoto; Akiyo Tanabe; Ken Tsuchiya; Shigehisa Hirose; Toshihiro Imaki; Hiroshi Nihei; Hiroshi Demura

    1997-01-01

    Although carbon monoxide (CO) has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, the pathophysiological significance in hypertension remains unknown. We therefore examined the effects of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX) on blood pressure and determined HO mRNA expression level in various tissues in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

  11. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  12. Nootropic effect of nicotine on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced delayed amnesia in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Hiramatsu; Hisae Satoh; Tsutomu Kameyama; Toshitaka Nabeshima

    1994-01-01

    The effects of nicotine on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced amnesia in mice were investigated using a step-down type passive avoidance task. Mice were exposed to CO 3 times at 1-h intervals, 7 days before the first training and retention test and 24 h after the first training session. Memory deficiency occurred in mice when training commenced more than 3 days after

  13. On carbonaceous deposit formation in carbon monoxide hydrogenation on a natural iron catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Loaiza-Gil; Bernardo Fontal; Fulgencio Rueda; Juan Mendialdua; Rodrigo Casanova

    1999-01-01

    During carbon monoxide hydrogenation on a natural iron catalyst, two different behaviors were observed when the operating pressure was changed from 3.5 to 20.4bar at 513K and inlet H2\\/CO of 2.0.A gradual increase in the catalyst activity to a maximum followed by a gradual loss in activity was observed at lower operating pressure. The surface composition (XPS) for the used

  14. Heme oxygenase-1-derived carbon monoxide is an autocrine inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly J. Peyton; Sylvia V. Reyna; Gary B. Chapman; Diana Ensenat; Xiao-ming Liu; Hong Wang; Andrew I. Schafer; William Durante

    2002-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) generate carbon monoxide (CO) via the catabolism of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO). In the present study, we found that serum stimulated a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the levels of HO-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in vascular SMCs. The induc- tion of HO-1 expression by serum was inhibited by actinomycin D

  15. Smooth Muscle Cell-Derived Carbon Monoxide is a Regulator of Vascular cGMP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshisuke Morita; Mark A. Perrella; Mu-En Lee; Stella Kourembanas

    1995-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3). In vascular smooth muscle cells, exogenously administered CO increases cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which is an important regulator of vessel tone. We report here that smooth muscle cells produce CO via HO and that it regulates cGMP levels in these cells. Hypoxia, which has profound effects

  16. Model analysis of seasonal variations in tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide over East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijie Gao; Meigen Zhang; Zhiwei Han

    2009-01-01

    Temporal-spatial variations in tropospheric ozone concentrations over East Asia in the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December\\u000a 2004 were simulated by using the Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with meteorological fields\\u000a calculated by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). The simulated concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide were\\u000a compared with ground level observations at two

  17. Inhibition of stomatal opening in sunflower leaves by carbon monoxide, and reversal of inhibition by light

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pollok; U. Heber; M. S. Naik

    1989-01-01

    When leaves of Helianthus annuus, whose stomates had been opened in the dark in the absence of CO2, were exposed to 25% carbon monoxide (CO), stomatal conductivity for water vapor decreased from about 0.4 to 0.2 cm·s-1. The CO effect on stomatal aperture required a CO\\/O2 ratio of about 25. As this ratio was decreased the stomata opened, indicating that

  18. Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning by combining formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter T; Dunn, William A

    2014-01-01

    Suicide by inhalation of carbon monoxide produced by mixing formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space is a rare method of suicide. This method is similar to the so-called "detergent suicide" method where an acid-based detergent is mixed with a sulfur source to produce hydrogen sulfide. Both methods produce a toxic gas that poses significant hazards for death investigators, first responders and bystanders. Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas, while hydrogen sulfide has a characteristic rotten eggs odor, so the risks associated with carbon monoxide are potentially greater due to lack of an important warning signal. While detergent suicides have become increasingly common in the USA, suicide with formic acid and sulfuric acid is rare with only three prior cases being reported. Greater awareness of this method among death investigators is warranted because of the special risks of accidental intoxication by toxic gas and the possibility that this method of suicide will become more common in the future. PMID:24328850

  19. A survey of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in indoor ice arenas in Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Paulozzi, L.J. (Vermont Health Dept., Burlington, VT (United States)); Spengler, R.F.; Vogt, R.L.; Carney, J.K.

    1993-12-01

    Because of the history of health problems traceable to the exhaust of ice resurfacing machines, state sanitarians used detector tubes to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) levels in enclosed ice arenas in Vermont during high school hockey games. Five of eight arenas had average game CO measurements of 30 ppm carbon monoxide or more. Two of the three periods of play had average CO readings in excess of 100 ppm in one arena. Only six arenas had the complete series of nitrogen dioxide measurements. One had an average game NO[sub 2] level of 1.2 ppm. Two had one or more periods of play that averaged in excess of 0.5 ppm. Despite the ample documentation of the hazards of operating combustion-powered resurfacing machines inside enclosed ice arenas, a significant portion of the arenas had undesirable levels of carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide. Ice arenas should be routinely monitored for air contaminants. Considerations should be given to the purchase of electric ice resurfacing machines for new arenas and arenas that have air contamination that cannot be resolved with ventilation.

  20. Marijuana smoking as cause of reduction in single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity.

    PubMed

    Tilles, D S; Goldenheim, P D; Johnson, D C; Mendelson, J H; Mello, N K; Hales, C A

    1986-04-01

    To investigate the effects of chronic marijuana smoking on lung function, pulmonary function tests including single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacities were performed in 15 healthy women who smoked 1.7 +/- 1.4 (mean +/- SD) marijuana cigarettes per day for 235 +/- 135 days per year for a mean of 10.5 +/- 3.7 years. Control groups included 27 nonsmoking and 26 tobacco-smoking women. Results revealed that marijuana smoking with or without tobacco is associated with a reduction in the single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity to 74 +/- 20 percent of predicted, which was significantly different from that in the nonsmoking control subjects (92 +/- 11 percent; p less than 0.05). The subset of subjects who smoked marijuana and tobacco had a further reduction of the single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity to 65 +/- 17 percent, which was significantly different from that in both nonsmoking and smoking control subjects (80 +/- 7 percent). These results suggest that heavy marijuana smoking when added to tobacco smoking may damage the gas exchange surface of the lung. PMID:3963040

  1. Hemodialysis patients have plasmatic hypercoagulability and decreased fibrinolytic vulnerability: role of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Matika, Ryan W; Nielsen, Vance G; Steinbrenner, Evangelina B; Sussman, Amy N; Madhrira, Machaiah

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hemodialysis is associated with significant thrombophilia. Of interest, hemodialysis patients have increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), signs of upregulated heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity. Given that CO enhances plasmatic coagulation, we determined whether patients requiring chronic hemodialysis had an increase in endogenous CO, plasmatic hypercoagulability and decreased fibrinolytic vulnerability. Carbon monoxide was determined by noninvasive pulse oximetry measurement of COHb. Blood samples were obtained just before hemodialysis. Thrombelastographic methods to assess plasma coagulation kinetics, fibrinolytic kinetics, and formation of carboxyhemefibrinogen (COHF) were used. Hemodialysis patients (n = 45) had abnormally increased COHb concentrations of 2.2 ± 1.9%, indicative of Hmox upregulation. Coagulation and fibrinolytic parameter normal values were determined with normal individual (n = 30) plasma. Thirty-seven patients of the hemodialysis cohort had COHF formation (82.2%, [67.9%-92.0%]; mean, [95% confidence interval]), and many of this group of patients had abnormally great velocity of clot growth (73.3%, [58.1%-85.4%]) and strength (75.6%, [60.5%-87.1%]). Furthermore, over half of COHF positive patients had a hypofibrinolytic state, evidenced by an abnormally prolonged time to maximum rate of lysis (53.3%, [37.9%-68.6%]) and clot lysis time (64.4%, [48.8%-78.1%]). Carbon monoxide enhanced coagulation and diminished fibrinolytic vulnerability in hemodialysis patients. Future investigation of hemodialysis, CO-related thrombophilia is warranted. PMID:25232771

  2. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  3. Nicotine, Carbon Monoxide, and Carcinogen Exposure after a Single Use of a Waterpipe

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a waterpipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world, including the US, where it is especially popular among young people. Many perceive waterpipe smoking to be less hazardous than cigarette smoking. We studied systemic absorption of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogens from one waterpipe smoking session. Methods Sixteen subjects smoked a waterpipe on a clinical research ward. Expired carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin were measured, plasma samples were analyzed for nicotine concentrations, and urine samples were analyzed for the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolite biomarker concentrations. Results We found substantial increases in plasma nicotine concentrations, comparable to cigarette smoking, and increases in carbon monoxide levels that are much higher than is typically observed from cigarette smoking, as previously published. Urinary excretion of NNAL and PAH biomarkers increased significantly following waterpipe smoking. Conclusions Absorption of nicotine in amounts comparable to cigarette smoking indicates a potential for addiction, and absorption of significant amounts of carcinogens raises concerns of cancer risk in people who smoke tobacco products in waterpipes. Impact Our data contributes to an understanding of the health impact of waterpipe use. PMID:21908725

  4. Transient control of carbon monoxide with staged PrOx reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel Processor systems generate hydrogen for fuel cell systems from hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline for automotive fuel cell systems and natural gas for stationary fuel cell systems. These fuel processor systems must remove any contaminants to levels that won't poison the fuel cell before the outlet hydrogen-rich gas stream can be used by the fuel cell to generate electricity. Carbon monoxide is a contaminant that must be removed to levels of < 100 ppm or < 10 ppm depending on the CO tolerance of the fuel cell. Typically, the last unit operation in a fuel processor is a preferential oxidation reactor or a selective oxidation reactor, which removes CO by oxidizing it to form C02. These are catalytic reactors where the catalyst and operating conditions are selected so that the oxidation rate of the carbon monoxide is higher than the oxidation rate of hydrogen, even though the hydrogen is present at much higher concentrations (> 30%) than carbon monoxide which is present at trace concentrations (< 1%).

  5. Carbon monoxide photoproduction from rice and maize leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, S.; Morokuma, M.; Kawashima, S.; Tsuruta, H.

    We investigated CO photoproduction from intact leaves of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) by laboratory experiments. CO photoproduction showed positive correlation with light intensity and was positively dependent on oxygen concentration. The average CO photoproduction was 2.6±0.3×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from rice leaves and 2.2±0.1×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from maize leaves ( n=5) at a radiation intensity of 49 mW cm -2. CO photoproduction from senescent rice leaves was 9 times greater (25.7±1.5×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1, n=2) at the same radiation intensity than from live leaves, and responded slowly to changes in oxygen concentration and light intensity. CO photoproduction showed no correlation with CO 2 concentration or humidity. This indicates that CO photoproduction in leaves is not directly controlled by carbon metabolism or stomatal conductance. The lack of dependence on stomatal conductance leads to the conclusion that the diffusion of CO from inside the leaves to the atmosphere is not a controlling factor for CO photoproduction from rice and maize leaves.

  6. GASP: A computer code for calculating the thermodynamic and transport properties for ten fluids: Parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Hendricks; A. K. Baron; I. C. Peller

    1975-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV subprogram called GASP is discussed which calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties for 10 pure fluids: parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. The pressure range is generally from 0.1 to 400 atmospheres (to 100 atm for helium and to 1000 atm for hydrogen). The temperature ranges are from the triple

  7. Variations of carbon monoxide in the martian lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2015-06-01

    Our observations of variations of CO on Mars by means of the ground-based spatially-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2003]. J. Geophys. Res. 108(E2), 5010; Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2007]. Icarus 190, 93-102) have been significantly improved using the 13CO lines near 4148 cm-1 and the CO2 lines near 4570 cm-1. These lines are of optimal strength, of low sensitivity to variations of temperature, and covered by the ATMOS solar spectrum that makes it possible to use the synthetic spectra technique for retrieval of CO and CO2 to get CO mixing ratios. The CO2 line strengths from Toth et al. (2008) were also essential to improve accuracy of the results. The 13CO/CO ratio of 1.023 times the terrestrial carbon isotope ratio was calculated using the known 13CO2/CO2 = 1.046 in the martian atmosphere (Webster, C.R., et al. [2013]. Science 341, 260-263), the photo-induced isotope fractionation (Miller, C.E., Yung, Y.L. [2000]. J. Geophys. Res. 105(D23), 29039-29051) in the CO2 photolysis, and isotope fractionation in the reaction between CO and OH (Feilberg, K.L., Johnson, M.S., Nielsen, C.J. [2005]. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 2318-2323). The observations were conducted at LS = 60°, 89°, 110°, and 145° and extend over the maximum of CO in the southern hemisphere during the northern summer. The CO mixing ratio was observed to be constant over the 55°S-90°N latitudinal range to within 7%, for each observed LS period. Therefore our observations show that the enrichment of incondensable gases by condensation of CO2 in the southern polar regions does not significantly extend to the middle and low latitudes. This behavior agrees with the Mars Climate Database (Lefevre, F., Forget, F. [2009]. Nature 460, 720-722), whereas most other observations exhibit much larger latitudinal gradients and seasonal variations. Our measurements do not show the CO depletion at high northern latitudes predicted by MCD of ?20% at LS? 60-150° and observed as much stronger by MRO/CRISM (Toigo, A.D., et al. [2013]. J. Geophys. Res. 118E, 89-104). The retrieved global and annually mean CO abundance is equal to 700 ppm on Mars, which is also smaller than many recent results by a factor of ?1.4.

  8. Synthesis of a silicon carbide coating on carbon fibers by deposition of a layer of pyrolytic carbon and reacting it with silicon monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ouyang Haibo; Li Hejun; Qi Lehua; Li Zhengjia; Wei Jian; Wei Jianfeng

    2008-01-01

    A method for preparing a SiC coating on carbon fibers is presented. The SiC coating was generated from the reaction of silicon monoxide (SiO) with a pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer deposited on the fibers. The influence of holding time on the microstructure of the SiC layer was discussed. The oxidation behaviors of the uncoated and SiC coated carbon fibers were

  9. Ab initio molecular orbital studies of the vibrational spectra of some van der Waals complexes. Part 3: Complexes of carbon monoxide with carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonyl sulphide and carbon disulphide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manomayi Venayagamoorthy; Thomas A. Ford

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the molecular electron donor–acceptor complexes formed between carbon monoxide, as the electron donor, and the linear triatomic molecules carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonyl sulphide and carbon disulphide as the electron acceptors, have been studied. These properties include their structures, interaction energies and vibrational spectra. The studies were performed using the Gaussian 98 computer program, at the second

  10. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  11. Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale W. Funk; E. R. Pullmann; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

    1994-01-01

    Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of COâ, CHâ, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

  12. Carbon Deposition on Iron–Nickel during Interaction with Carbon Monoxide–Hydrogen Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Rodriguez; R. T. K. Baker

    1997-01-01

    We have found that the composition of Fe–Ni catalysts can have a profound effect on the activity for the decomposition of CO\\/H2mixtures at 600°C. As the fraction of nickel in the bimetallic is increased above 70% there is a significant decline in the percentage conversion of CO. The amount of solid carbon deposited on a given bimetallic catalyst was shown

  13. AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe: Time Series from 8/1/2005 to 9/30/2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe

    Forest fires and agricultural burning create large amounts of carbon monoxide. AIRS provides daily global maps of carbon monoxide from space, allowing scientists to follow the global transport of this gas day-to-day. In this image sequence, carbon monoxide pollution from agricultural burning blooms repeatedly over the Amazonian basin. The gas is then transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Carbon monoxide pollution from fires in sub-Saharan Africa is also apparent.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. An operando FTIR spectroscopic and kinetic study of carbon monoxide pressure influence on rhodium-catalyzed olefin hydroformylation.

    PubMed

    Kubis, Christoph; Sawall, Mathias; Block, Axel; Neymeyr, Klaus; Ludwig, Ralf; Börner, Armin; Selent, Detlef

    2014-09-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide concentration on the kinetics of the hydroformylation of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene with a phosphite-modified rhodium catalyst has been studied for the pressure range p(CO)=0.20-3.83?MPa. Highly resolved time-dependent concentration profiles of the organometallic intermediates were derived from IR spectroscopic data collected in situ for the entire olefin-conversion range. The dynamics of the catalyst and organic components are described by enzyme-type kinetics with competitive and uncompetitive inhibition reactions involving carbon monoxide taken into account. Saturation of the alkyl-rhodium intermediates with carbon monoxide as a cosubstrate occurs between 1.5 and 2?MPa of carbon monoxide pressure, which brings about a convergence of aldehyde regioselectivity. Hydrogenolysis of the acyl intermediate is fast at 30?°C and low pressure of p(CO)=0.2?MPa, but is of minus first order with respect to the solution concentration of carbon monoxide. Resting 18-electron hydrido and acyl complexes that correspond to early and late rate-determining states, respectively, coexist as long as the conversion of the substrate is not complete. PMID:25081298

  15. Structural influence of ordered mesoporous carbon supports for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ji; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Ha, Kyoung Su; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2013-11-01

    A series of ordered mesoporous carbon materials (OMCs) possessing well-ordered nanoporosity with different mesopore structures were synthesized by the template-synthesis route. Two different pore strucutes (2-dimensional hexagonal and 3-dimensional cubic structures) and two different framework-configurations (rod-type and hollow-type carbon frameworks) are prepared by using the two different silica templates and synthetic conditions. The ordered mesoporous carbon supported promoted-rhodium catalysts were preparted by an incipient wetness method. The promoted Rh-OMC catalysts are tested by a fixed bed reactor for the catalytic conversion of syngas-to-alcohols. The characteristics of the promoted Rh-OMCs catalysts were scrutinized through a series of different techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and N2 sorption analysis, and the catalytic performance was tested in a fixed-bed reactor. It was found that the promoted Rh-OMC catalysts exhibited the different catalytic activity and selectivity of alcohols, which could be attributed to the size of metal nanoparticles being confined by the different mesostructure of OMCs. PMID:24245283

  16. Comment on "Coherent interference in the resonant dissociative electron attachment to carbon monoxide"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2015-05-01

    In a recent article [Phys. Rev. A 88, 012708 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.012708], Tian et al. claimed coherent interference among the various negative ion resonant states involved in the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to carbon monoxide (CO) by investigating O- angular distribution using the anion velocity time-sliced map imaging technique. However, our recent detailed study [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 7130 (2015), 10.1039/C4CP05678G] on DEA to CO using the identical technique shows that the above claim can be questioned.

  17. Compartment syndrome on a patient's forearm related to carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Al, Behçet; Subas?, Mehmet; Karsli, Burçin; Yarbil, P?nar; Zengin, Suat

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating, toxic gas produced by the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons. Common sources of CO include motor vehicles, house fires, furnaces/heaters, and wood-burning stoves. It is a serious health problem resulting in approximately 50,000 visits to the emergency department and is responsible for 3500 deaths annually in the United States. Besides accidental exposure, CO is also one of the leading causes of death by suicide. In the present study, we discuss compartment syndrome caused by CO poisoning in a 15-year-old boy. To our knowledge, this is the first CO poisoning case causing compartment syndrome. PMID:22657397

  18. Research and development of a luminol-carbon monoxide flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Adaption of the luminol-carbon monoxide injection system to a flowing type system is reported. Analysis of actual wastewater samples was carried out and revealed that bacteria can be associated with particles greater than 10 microns in size in samples such as mixed liquor. Research into the luminol reactive oxidation state indicates that oxidized iron porphyrins, cytochrome-c in particular, produce more luminol chemiluminescence than the reduced form. Correlation exists between the extent of porphyrin oxidation and relative chemiluminescence. In addition, the porphyrin nucleus is apparently destroyed under the current chemiluminescent reaction conditions.

  19. Formation of Carbon Monoxide and Bile Pigment in Red and Blue-Green Algae 1

    PubMed Central

    Troxler, Robert F.; Dokos, Joy M.

    1973-01-01

    Five blue-green and one red algal species produced carbon monoxide during photosynthetic growth. The blue-green algae synthesized CO and phycocyanobilin in equimolar quantities at identical rates. The red alga, Porphyridium cruentum, incorporated ?-aminolevulinic acid-5-14C into phycoerythrobilin and CO. The ratio of the specific radioactivity of phycoerythrobilin to that of CO, and the kinetics and stoichiometry of phycocyanobilin and CO formation suggest that linear tetrapyrroles in plants are derived by the porphyrin pathway via the intermediate formation of heme. The similarity between bile pigment production in algae and in mammalian systems is discussed. PMID:16658300

  20. Detection of the Carbon Monoxide Ion (CO+) in the Interstellar Medium and a Planetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latter, William B.; Walker, Christopher K.; Maloney, Philip R.

    1993-01-01

    We report detection of the carbon monoxide ion (CO+) in the interstellar medium (Ml7SW) and a planetary nebula (NGC 7027). These detections are based on observations of three millimeter and submillimeter transitions in M17SW and one in NGC 7027. Chemical models suggest that CO+ should be most abundant where complex molecules are least likely to be present. In our search for CO+ we therefore minimized the chance of confusion while maximizing the probability of detection by observing regions whose chemistry is dominated by the effects of ultraviolet radiation.

  1. Measuring the Kinetics of the Reduction of Iron Oxide with Carbon Monoxide in a Fluidized Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnt, C. D.; Cleeton, J. P.; Miiller, C. M.; Scotr, S. A.; Dennis, J. S.

    Combusting a solid fuel in the presence of a metal oxide rather than air, chemical looping combustion, generates CO2suitable for sequestration and the reduced metal. For the case of iron, the reduced oxide can be re-oxidized with steam to produce high-purity hydrogen. The reduction reactions of iron oxide in carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide mixtures were investigated in a fluidized bed. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors for the reactions (i) 3 Fe2O3+CO?2 Fe3O4+CO2 and?(ii)0.947 Fe3O4+0.788 CO?3 Fe0.947O+0.788 CO2?were determined. The reaction order was verified to be unity, and the change in rate with conversion was examined.

  2. Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.

  3. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched chain formaldehyde-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants were measured for formaldehyde carbon monoxide-oxygen systems by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 2000 K. The data were analyzed using a formaldehyde oxidation mechanism involving 12 elementary reaction steps. The computed growth constants are roughly in accord with experimental values, but are much more temperature dependent. The data was also analyzed assuming formaldehyde is rapidly decomposed to carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Growth constants computed for the resulting carbon monoxide hydrogen oxygen mixtures have a temperature dependence similar to experiments; however, for most mixtures, the computed growth constants were larger than experimental values.

  4. Synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on Co-Ca alumina catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, A.L.; Bruk, I.A.; Yakerson, V.I.; Mamayeva, I.L.; Golosman, Ye.Z.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of carriers is of considerable importance for developing high-activity catalysts for the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Natural diatomites - kieselguhrs used at the present time in industry for these purposes are characterized by the dependence of chemical composition and physical-chemical properties on the occurrence and depth of the diatomite layer. Furthermore, a general shortcoming of this type of carrier is the low mechanical strength of catalysts based on them, involving considerable loss of catalysts in handling and loading reactors. Reported is a catalyst system based on high-strength calcium aluminates containing cobalt and various intermediate additives as active components. It was established that this system was active in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. A study of the effect of MgO contents in Catalysts on properties showed that catalysts containing 2.5 parts by weight MgO had the highest activity. The yield of liquid hydrocarbons reached 102.4 g/nm/sup 3/ at 220/sup 0/C. (JMT)

  5. Field surveys of carbon monoxide in commercial settings using personal exposure monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flachsbart, P. G.; Ott, W. R.

    1984-02-01

    Miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) were employed to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording the instantaneous instrument reading at 1-minute intervals as the investigators walked along sidewalks and into buildings. For 11 of 15 survey dates, two investigators walked side-by-side, permitting two adjacent PEMs to be compared. Quality assurance tests for 1706 pairs of values showed a very high degree of agreement. CO levels for indoor commercial settings were similar to those measured outdoors on sidewalks, apparently because the pollutant seeps into the structures from traffic outside. Although indoor levels usually were above 0 ppm, they seldom were above 9 ppm (the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for an 8-hour exposure), unless some indoor source could be identified. Carbon monoxide levels on outdoor streets did not vary greatly on different sides of the street, on corners and faces of blocks, and intersections.

  6. cor, a Novel Carbon Monoxide Resistance Gene, Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zacharia, Vineetha M.; Manzanillo, Paolo S.; Nair, Vidhya R.; Marciano, Denise K.; Kinch, Lisa N.; Grishin, Nick V.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Shiloh, Michael U.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. PMID:24255121

  7. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking arterial gas embolism in a commercial diver.

    PubMed

    Holt, Julie; Weaver, Lindell K

    2012-01-01

    A 32-year-old male commercial diver was working at 7,000 feet of altitude in a municipal water tank, at a depth of 27 feet for two hours. While surfacing from a compressed-air surface-supplied dive, he exhibited loss of consciousness and neurological symptoms. He was presumptively diagnosed with arterial gas embolism, flown by pressurized aircraft to a regional medical center and treated with hyperbaric oxygen. During the U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6, new information suggested the patient's air supply had been contaminated by a continuously running engine and compressor. His admission blood was then assayed for carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), which measured 8.8% six hours after surfacing, including four hours of normobaric oxygen inhalation. His estimated COHb based on rough reported half-life calculations at the conclusion of the dive was approximately 45%. The patient's diagnosis was changed to carbon monoxide poisoning from contaminated breathing gas. Upon hospital discharge, he exhibited problems with balance and gait, nystagmus, word-finding limitations and slurred speech. Also, he had cardiac injury treated with carvedilol. When evaluating diving-related casualties, including in commercial divers, clinicians should consider carbon monoxide poisoning as a differential diagnosis. PMID:22530451

  8. Combining a road pollution dispersion model with GIS to determine carbon monoxide concentration in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Pantaleoni, Eva

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop an air pollution model that is independent from pollution monitoring sites and highly accurate through space and time. Total carbon monoxide concentration is computed with the use of traffic flow data, vehicle speed and dimensions, emission rates, wind speed, and temperature. The data are interpolated using a geographic information system universal kriging technique, and the end results produce state level air pollution maps with high local accuracy. The model is validated against Environment Protection Agency (EPA) pollution data. Overall, the model has 71 % agreement with EPA, overestimating values of carbon monoxide for less than 1 ppm. The model has three advantages over already assessed air pollution models. First, it is completely independent of any air pollution monitoring stations; thus, possible temporary or permanent unreliability or lack of the data is avoided. Second, being based on a 5,710 traffic count network, the problem of remote places coverage is avoided. Third, it is based on a straightforward equation, where minimal preprocessing of traffic and climatic data is required. PMID:22760791

  9. Yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in the sidestream smoke from 15 brands of Canadian cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, W.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Collishaw, N.

    1984-03-01

    Sidestream smoke yields for 15 brands of cigarettes were determined under conditions where mainstream yields were approximately equal to those used for determining the values which appear on packages of Canadian cigarettes. Sidestream yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were much higher than mainstream yields for all brands tested. The average sidestream-to-mainstream ratios for the 15 brands were 3.5, 6.6, and 6.8 for tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, respectively. The highest yields of sidestream were obtained from the brands with the lowest mainstream yields.

  10. Blood carbon monoxide levels in persons 3 to 74 years of age: United States, 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, E.P. (Univ. of Pittsburg, PA); Drizd, T.A.

    1982-03-17

    This report presents national estimates of the distribution of carbon monoxide levels in the blood of persons ages 3 to 74 years in the United States by age, smoking status, race, urbanization status of residence, annual family income, and season of the year. These findings will be described and analyzed further in a report in the Vital and Health Statistics series (in preparation). In this report the relative contributions of the four principal sources of carbon monoxide (smoking, ambient or outdoor exposures, occupational exposures, and indoor exposures) to COHb levels are examined. Of these, smoking is the most significant and widespread, although in special circumstances each of the other contributors assumes some importance.

  11. The effect of ambient temperature and humidity on the carbon monoxide emissions of an idling gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, C. W.; Subramaniam, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature and humidity affect the exhaust emissions of a gas turbine engine. The results of a test program employing a JT8D combustor are presented which quantize the effect of these changes on carbon monoxide emissions at simulated idle operating conditions. Analytical results generated by a kinetic model of the combustion process and reflecting changing ambient conditions are given. It is shown that for a complete range of possible ambient variations, significant changes do occur in the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a gas turbine engine.

  12. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Adding Expired Carbon Monoxide Feedback to Brief Stop Smoking Advice: Evaluation of Cognitive and Behavioral Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lion Shahab; Robert West; Ann McNeill

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of adding biomarker feedback (expired air carbon monoxide) to standard quit advice on cognitive antecedents of behavior change and smoking cessation and to identify potential effect moderators and mediators. Design: Smokers (N = 160) were randomized to a control (quit advice plus leaflet) or an intervention condition (as control group plus carbon-monoxide level feedback). Cognitive

  13. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kristin A.; Halterman, Jill S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (? 2.5 micrograms [?m]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1 to 7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. Methods We conducted a pilot study using data from 3–10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Results Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088 p/cm3; OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90–1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17 ppm; OR=1.63; 95% CI=1.03–2.59). Relative odds estimates were larger among children receiving school-based inhaled corticosteroid treatment. We observed no such associations with accumulation mode particles, black carbon, fine particles (? 2.5 ?m), or sulfur dioxide. Ozone concentrations were inversely associated with the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit. Conclusions These findings suggest a response to markers of traffic pollution among urban asthmatic children. Effects were strongest among children receiving preventive medications through school, suggesting that this group of children was particularly sensitive to environmental triggers. Medication adherence alone may be insufficient to protect the most vulnerable from environmental asthma triggers. However, further research is necessary to confirm this finding. PMID:24528997

  14. An essential role of CO2 and H2O during single-walled CNT synthesis from carbon monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert G. Nasibulin; David P. Brown; Paula Queipo; David Gonzalez; Hua Jiang; Esko I. Kauppinen

    2005-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized from carbon monoxide and iron catalyst nanoparticles by two different aer- osol methods. The catalyst particles were produced by physical vapor nucleation using a resistively heated iron wire (hot wire generator) and by thermal decomposition of ferrocene vapor. The essential role of etching agents (CO2 and H2O) in the CNT formation process was demonstrated.

  15. Spectroscopic Detection of Carbon Monoxide in the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, J.; Onaka, T.; Cami, J.; Reach, W. T.

    2012-03-01

    We report the detection of carbon monoxide (CO) emission from the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) at wavelengths corresponding to the fundamental vibrational mode at 4.65 ?m. We obtained AKARI Infrared Camera spectra toward four positions which unambiguously reveal the broad characteristic CO ro-vibrational band profile. The observed positions include unshocked ejecta at the center, indicating that CO molecules form in the ejecta at an early phase. We extracted a dozen spectra across Cas A along the long 1' slits and compared these to simple CO emission models in local thermodynamic equilibrium to obtain first-order estimates of the excitation temperatures and CO masses involved. Our observations suggest that significant amounts of carbon may have been locked up in CO since the explosion 330 years ago. Surprisingly, CO has not been efficiently destroyed by reactions with ionized He or the energetic electrons created by the decay of the radiative nuclei. Our CO detection thus implies that less carbon is available to form carbonaceous dust in supernovae than is currently thought and that molecular gas could lock up a significant amount of heavy elements in supernova ejecta.

  16. A Survey Technique for Determining The Representativeness of Urban Air Monitoring Stations With Respect to Carbon Monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Ott; Rolf Eliassen

    1973-01-01

    An air quality survey technique for measuring the horizontal spatial variation of carbon monoxide concentrations in urban areas is described; it was used to determine how representative an urban air monitoring station is of concentrations throughout the city.The survey technique was applied in San Jose, Calif., where 1128 samples were collected over a six-month period and were compared with the

  17. An intelligent instrument to measure the vapor-to-carbon monoxide ratio in the synthetic ammonia process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian Jianyan; Zheng Sheng

    2000-01-01

    A new kind of intelligent instrument designed to measure and display vapor-to-carbon monoxide ratio for water-gas-transform reaction in the synthetic ammonia process is developed. It has a good effect on directing operation in order to save in energy and stabilize yields

  18. MODELING THE TIME SERIES OF RESPIRABLE SUSPENDED PARTICLES AND CARBON MONOXIDE FROM MULTIPLE SMOKERS: VALIDATION IN TWO PUBLIC SMOKING LOUNGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multiple Cigarette Exposure Model (MCEM) was applied to ten field studies of the time series of carbon monoxide (CO), respirable suspended particles (RSP), and number of smokers, conducted inside cigarette smoking lounges at the San Francisco Airport (SFO) and the San Jose In...

  19. Cigarette Smoke Components and Disease: Cigarette Smoke Is More Than a Triad of Tar, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey E. Harris

    INTRODUCTION Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of chemicals. Some smoke components, such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and nitrogen oxides, are gases. Others, such as formaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, and certain N-nitrosamines, are volatile chemicals contained in the liquid- vapor portion of the smoke aerosol. Still others, such as nicotine, phenol, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and certain tobacco-specific nitrosamines

  20. Simulations of exercise and brain effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide in normal and vascular-diseased persons.

    EPA Science Inventory

    At some level, carboxyhemoglobin (RbCO) due to inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) reduces maximum exercise duration in normal and ischemic heart patients. At high RbCO levels in normal subjects, brain function is also affected and behavioral performance is impaired. These are fin...

  1. Development of a portable carbon monoxide optical sensor based on an extended cavity diode laser at 1564 nm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva S. Norris; Síle G. Nic Chormaic

    2002-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a major trace gas pollutant with road traffic being responsible for most emissions. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy will be used to measure CO in vehicle emissions, thereby identifying offenders. A portable device will be constructed, which is capable of measuring CO at concentrations of 10 ppm. Design emphasis is on using low cost commercial components.

  2. Vibration–rotation spectrum of the acetylene–carbon monoxide van der Waals molecule in the 3 ? region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Marshall; Diana G. Prichard; J. S. Muenter

    1989-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectrum of the acetylene–carbon monoxide van der Waals molecule has been obtained in the 3 ? region. A color center laser was used to excite the vibration of the complex which corresponds to the antisymmetric hydrogen stretching mode in the monomer in a pulsed molecular jet. The form of the spectrum indicates that the molecule is a

  3. Vibration-rotation spectrum of the acetylene-carbon monoxide van der Waals molecule in the 3 µ region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Marshall; Diana G. Prichard; J. S. Muenter

    1989-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectrum of the acetylene--carbon monoxide van der Waals molecule has been obtained in the 3 ..mu.. region. A color center laser was used to excite the vibration of the complex which corresponds to the antisymmetric hydrogen stretching mode in the monomer in a pulsed molecular jet. The form of the spectrum indicates that the molecule is a

  4. E4ects of Restraint and Animal Interaction on Carbon Monoxide Lethality: Stress and the Role of Corticosterone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B. Larsen; Katherine T. Fokakis; Melissa A. Massett; Lisa R. Smith

    Stress is known to alter physiological homeostasis and distort experimental results. In particular, stress associated with restraint and group-interaction may modify the lethality of toxic substances. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) for carbon monoxide (CO) were determined using restrained or unrestrained mice exposed for 30 min as groups or individuals. To evaluate stress levels, the serum concentration of corticosterone (COS) was

  5. Natural emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen from North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Guenther; Chris Geron; Tom Pierce; Brian Lamb; Peter Harley; Ray Fall

    2000-01-01

    The magnitudes, distributions, controlling processes and uncertainties associated with North American natural emissions of oxidant precursors are reviewed. Natural emissions are responsible for a major portion of the compounds, including non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO), that determine tropospheric oxidant concentrations. Natural sources include soil microbes, vegetation, biomass burning, and lightning. These sources are

  6. Radio frequency discharge excited diffusively cooled kilowatt carbon monoxide slab waveguide laser with a three mirror resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Jianguo; Zhang, Wang; Jiao, Wentao

    1999-09-01

    In this letter, we describe a kilowatt radio frequency discharge excited diffusively cooled slab waveguide carbon monoxide laser, in which the top and bottom electrodes were cooled with liquid nitrogen and which utilized a modified resonator. With this design we obtained a maximum laser power output of 1020 W, which was 10% higher than the same device employing a conventional unstable resonator.

  7. Carbon monoxide detection and autonomous countermeasure system for a steel mill using Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Fahim Jan; Qaiser Habib; Muhammad Irfan; Mohsin Murad; K. M. Yahya; G. M. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning is a seamless and dangerous problem in steel mill's hot-process areas where the dirty and hazardous environment offers unique challenges to any deployed gas detection system. Slow accumulation of the gas causes headaches, dizziness, nausea and confusion which are harmful for workers' safety and environmental protection. The gas detection solution needs to be wireless and instantly

  8. Ambient carbon monoxide and daily mortality in three Chinese cities: The China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renjie Chen; Guowei Pan; Yanping Zhang; Qun Xu; Guang Zeng; Xiaohui Xu; Bingheng Chen; Haidong Kan

    2011-01-01

    Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is an air pollutant primarily generated by traffic. CO has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity in developed countries, but few studies have been conducted in Asian developing countries. In the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES), the short-term associations between ambient CO and daily mortality were examined in three Chinese cities: Shanghai,

  9. Design and Development of a Mid-Infrared Carbon Monoxide Sensor for a High-Pressure Combustor Rig

    E-print Network

    Camou, Alejandro

    2014-05-03

    A sensor for carbon monoxide measurement has been developed using a mid-infrared quantum-cascade (QC) laser operating in the fundamental band (?v= 1) of CO near 4.5 ?m. The fundamental band was chosen due to its stronger absorption line...

  10. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia: comparison of a carbon monoxide rebreathing method and dye dilution with Evans' blue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troels Dirch Poulsen; Tom Klausen; Jean-Paul Richalet; Inge-Lis Kanstrup; Niels Fogh-Andersen; Niels Vidiendal Olsen

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PVEvans') with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PVCO) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level and again 24 h after rapid passive ascent to high altitude (4,350 m). Hypobaric

  11. Adsorption of Ammonia and Its Influence on Coadsorbed Carbon Monoxide on Monolayer and Multilayer Palladium Epitaxially Grown on Mo(110)

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Wayne

    Adsorption of Ammonia and Its Influence on Coadsorbed Carbon Monoxide on Monolayer and Multilayer 30, 1998 The adsorption of ammonia on a monolayer of Pd on Mo(110), Pd1ML/Mo(110), and multilayer Pd pattern has been observed for ammonia on the Pd1ML/Mo(110) surface. TPD measurements indicate a shift

  12. Foucault, surveillance, and carbon monoxide testing within stop-smoking services.

    PubMed

    Grant, Aimee; Ashton, Kathryn; Phillips, Rhiannon

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals have adopted proactive testing for early evidence of disease. Researchers have identified that this leads to enumerated understandings and shapes behavior in productive ways. Smoking-cessation advisors regularly test clients for carbon monoxide (CO), but client views of this had not previously been explored. We interviewed 23 clients of a United Kingdom-based stop-smoking service regarding their experiences of CO testing. The majority of participants were successful quitters. We used ATLAS.ti 7 as a data-management tool during structured qualitative analysis. Our findings reveal that clients believed the results of their CO tests. Many became enumerated in their understanding, and thus placed themselves in a hierarchy with other members of their group. Almost all clients found that knowing their CO test score was motivating. We conclude that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of CO testing among clients who do not quit. PMID:25294348

  13. Low-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysed by regenerable atomically dispersed palladium on alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Eric J.; Delariva, Andrew T.; Lin, Sen; Johnson, Ryan S.; Guo, Hua; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Hun Kwak, Ja; Peden, Charles H. F.; Kiefer, Boris; Allard, Lawrence F.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2014-09-01

    Catalysis by single isolated atoms of precious metals has attracted much recent interest, as it promises the ultimate in atom efficiency. Most previous reports are on reducible oxide supports. Here we show that isolated palladium atoms can be catalytically active on industrially relevant ?-alumina supports. The addition of lanthanum oxide to the alumina, long known for its ability to improve alumina stability, is found to also help in the stabilization of isolated palladium atoms. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm the presence of intermingled palladium and lanthanum on the ?-alumina surface. Carbon monoxide oxidation reactivity measurements show onset of catalytic activity at 40?°C. The catalyst activity can be regenerated by oxidation at 700?°C in air. The high-temperature stability and regenerability of these ionic palladium species make this catalyst system of potential interest for low-temperature exhaust treatment catalysts.

  14. Carbon monoxide uptake and excretion: testing assumptions made in deriving the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Ronald F

    2013-07-01

    The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFKE) describes physiological variables that define pulmonary carbon monoxide (CO) uptake and excretion, and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. This equation is useful in predicting CO uptakes and COHb values in normal humans. However, some assumptions made in its derivation have never been proven and whether or not it accurately describes the physiology of CO excretion is not known. Two assumptions specifically addressed are: that the mean capillary PCO can be computed using the Haldane equation; and that the diffusing capacity relevant to CO uptake is equal to the diffusing capacity relevant to CO excretion. Both assumptions were supported by results obtained in this study. These findings plus results of experiments that compared measured and CFKE-calculated changes in the body CO stores suggest that the CFKE accurately describes the physiology of both pulmonary CO excretion and uptake. PMID:23602912

  15. Foucault, Surveillance, and Carbon Monoxide Testing Within Stop-Smoking Services

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Kathryn; Phillips, Rhiannon

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals have adopted proactive testing for early evidence of disease. Researchers have identified that this leads to enumerated understandings and shapes behavior in productive ways. Smoking-cessation advisors regularly test clients for carbon monoxide (CO), but client views of this had not previously been explored. We interviewed 23 clients of a United Kingdom-based stop-smoking service regarding their experiences of CO testing. The majority of participants were successful quitters. We used ATLAS.ti 7 as a data-management tool during structured qualitative analysis. Our findings reveal that clients believed the results of their CO tests. Many became enumerated in their understanding, and thus placed themselves in a hierarchy with other members of their group. Almost all clients found that knowing their CO test score was motivating. We conclude that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of CO testing among clients who do not quit. PMID:25294348

  16. Probing the Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on Transition Metal Clusters Using IR Action Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapoutre, Vivike J. F.; Oomens, Jos; Bakker, Joost M.

    2012-06-01

    The discovery of enhanced catalytic activity of small gold clusters has led to a great interest in size-dependent catalytic properties of metal clusters. To obtain a better understanding of the catalytic mechanisms it is essential to know the structures of these clusters and the nature of their interaction with reactant molecules. We have studied the structure of gas-phase niobium clusters with a carbon monoxide adsorbed using IR action spectroscopy. We present size-selective IR spectra obtained via IR multiple photon spectroscopy monitoring either photodetachment or photodissociation depending on the charge state. The combination of these spectra with DFT calculations allows for the structural determination of the adsorption product. M. Haruta et al., Journal of Catalysis 115 301-309 (1989). M. Haertelt et al., The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2 1720-1724 (2011)

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute domestic carbon monoxide poisoning: two randomized controlled trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djillali Annane; Karim Chadda; Philippe Gajdos; Marie-Claude Jars-Guincestre; Sylvie Chevret; Jean-Claude Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is broadly used for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, its efficacy and practical modalities\\u000a remain controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To assess HBO in patients poisoned with CO.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Two prospective randomized trial on two parallel groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Critical Care Unit, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects  Three hundred eighty-five patients with acute domestic CO poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Intervention  Patients with transient loss of consciousness (trial

  18. Should hyperbaric oxygen be used to treat the pregnant patient for acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, K.B.; Camporesi, E.M.; Moon, R.E.; Hage, M.L.; Piantadosi, C.A. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1989-02-17

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the leading cause of death due to poisoning. Although uncommon, CO poisoning does occur during pregnancy and can result in fetal mortality and neurological malformations in fetuses who survive to term. Uncertainty arises regarding the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) as a treatment for the pregnant patient because of possible adverse effects on the fetus that could be induced by oxygen at high partial pressures. While the dangers of hyperoxia to the fetus have been demonstrated in animal models, careful review of animal studies and human clinical experience indicates that the short duration of hyperoxic exposure attained during HBO therapy for CO poisoning can be tolerated by the fetus in all stages of pregnancy and reduces the risk of death or deformity to the mother and fetus. A case is presented of acute CO poisoning during pregnancy that was successfully treated with HBO. Recommendations are suggested for the use of HBO during pregnancy.

  19. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  20. Density function theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of carbon monoxide on tungsten nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Weng, Meng-Hsiung; Ju, Shin-Pon; Chen, Hsin-Tsung; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lu, Jian-Ming; Lin, Ken-Huang; Lin, Jenn-Sen; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2013-02-01

    The adsorption and dissociation properties of carbon monoxide (CO) molecule on tungsten W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles have been investigated by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The lowest-energy structures for W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles are found by the basin-hopping method and big-bang method with the modified tight-binding many-body potential. We calculated the corresponding adsorption energies, C-O bond lengths and dissociation barriers for adsorption of CO on nanoparticles. The electronic properties of CO on nanoparticles are studied by the analysis of density of state and charge density. The characteristic of CO on W(n) nanoparticles are also compared with that of W bulk. PMID:23646573

  1. The role of carbon monoxide signaling in the responses of plants to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    He, Huyi; He, Longfei

    2014-11-15

    Whether carbon monoxide (CO) exerts toxic or protective effect is dependent on the concentration and location of CO in animals. Similarly, it has been increasingly evident that CO also is involved in diverse physiological processes in plants, from seed germination and dormancy to stomatal closure to regulation of multiple environmental stresses. In this review, we focus on CO synthesis and the role of CO in plant responses to abiotic stresses, such as salinity, drought, cadmium and mercury. In general, abiotic stresses induce CO production in plants. CO can alleviate oxidative damage by improving the activities of antioxidative enzymes and antioxidant metabolism. In addition, cross talk between CO signaling and other signaling molecules including nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) also is discussed. PMID:25178167

  2. Vibrationally selective optimal control of alignment and orientation using infrared laser pulses: Application to carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shiyang; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G.; Manby, Frederick R.

    2007-07-01

    Optimal control methods are used to study molecular alignment and orientation using infrared laser pulses. High order molecule-field interactions are taken into account through the use of the electric-nuclear Born-Oppenheimer approximation [G. G. Balint-Kurti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 084110 (2005)]. High degrees of alignment and orientation are achieved by optimized infrared laser pulses of duration on the order of one rotational period of the molecule. It is shown that, through the incorporation of a vibrational projection operator into the optimization procedure, it is possible not only to maximize the alignment and orientation but also to bring the whole system into a single prescribed vibrational manifold. Numerical calculations are performed for carbon monoxide using ab initio potential energies computed in the presence of external electric fields.

  3. The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Connors, V.S.; Holland, J.A.; Sherrill, R.T.; Wallio, H.A. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia (USA)); Casas, J.C. (SpaceTec Ventures, Incorporated, Hampton, Virginia (USA)); Condon, E.P. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, (CA)); Gormsen, B.B. (ST Systems Corporation, Hampton, Virginia (USA)); Seiler, W. (Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Federal Republic of Germany (DE))

    1990-06-20

    The Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellite (MAPS) experiment measured the distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from the space shuttle during October 1984. The data represent average mixing ratios in the middle troposphere between 57{degree}N and 57{degree}S. Approximately 75,000 individual CO measurements were obtained during the 9-day mission. The data are presented in maps that show the CO mixing ratios averaged over 5{degree} latitude by 5{degree} longitude areas for 6 days of the mission. Comparisons with concurrent, direct measurements taken aboard aircraft show that the inferred concentrations are systematically low by 20--40% depending upon which direct measurement calibration standard is used. The data show that there are very large CO sources resulting from biomass burning over South America and southern Africa. Measured mixing ratios were high over northeast Asia and were highly variable over Europe. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1990

  4. Chronic altitude plus carbon monoxide exposure causes left ventricular hypertrophy but an attenuation of coronary capillarity

    SciTech Connect

    McDonagh, P.F.; Reynolds, J.M.; McGrath, J.J.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the nature of the cardiomegaly and coronary capillarity changes that occur with chronic hypoxia plus carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, F-344 rats (64-69 days old) were exposed to simulated altitude (18,000 ft) and four doses of CO (0, 50, 100, and 500 ppm) for six weeks. Left (LVT) and right (RVT) ventricular thickness and total coronary capillary density (LV Caps) were measured from sections of KCl-arrested hearts. Heart weight: Body weight ratios (HW:BW) were also calculated. Thus, altitude alone caused RV hypertrophy and an increase in LV Caps. Altitude plus CO attenuated the capillarity increase and caused further thickening of the LV but not the RV, suggesting concentric LV hypertrophy due to CO.

  5. Personal carbon monoxide exposures among firefighters at prescribed forest burns in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Dunn, K H; Shulman, S; Stock, A L; Naeher, L P

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to combustion products from wildland fires causes respiratory irritation and decreased lung function among firefighters. The authors evaluated carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of a group of wildland firefighters who conducted prescribed burns in the southeastern United States of America. A total of 149 person-days of samples were collected using data logging CO monitors. A questionnaire was administered to collect data on job tasks and self-reported smoke exposure. Overall, the highest exposures were seen amongst firefighters assigned to holding and mop-up tasks (geometric mean [GM]: 2.6 ppm), whereas the lowest were associated with lighting and jobs such as burn boss (GM: 1.6 and 0.3 ppm, respectively). The self-reported smoke exposure showed a significant linear trend with increasing CO exposure. The numbers of acres burned or burn duration, however, were not good predictors of exposure. PMID:23298425

  6. Does the vertical profile of ethane contain more insight into mixing layer height than carbon monoxide?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Pusede, Sally; Diskin, Glenn; DiGangi, Joshua; Sachse, Glenn; Crawford, James

    2015-04-01

    To improve the interpretation of satellite data measurements near the surface, the DISCOVER-AQ project embarked on a four year campaign to produce an integrated dataset of airborne and surface based measurements at various locations in North America. One of the key metrics when pursuing the the goal of measuring the surface air quality from space is the mixing layer height. The measurement phase in 2014 included the novel 1-Hz Aerodyne Research, Inc. fast Ethane Spectrometer to distinguish the methane emissions from thermogenic (oil&gas) and biogenic sources in the Denver-Julesberg basin. A second potential use of ethane as a determinant of mixing layer height is revealed in the analysis of 213 vertical profiles collected at 7 points during 21 flights. The findings are evaluated relative to other in-situ metrics, such as carbon monoxide and remote sensing attributions of mixing layer height.

  7. [Unrecognized carbon monoxide poisoning--the importance of subsequent studies in death with undetermined cause].

    PubMed

    Nowak, R

    1996-02-01

    The author reports a case of an old man and his wife, who were found dead in the bedroom of their apartment with signs of putrifaction. The physician certified an internal cause of death respectively death by an overdosage of drugs. But toxicological investigations induced by a forensic scientist proved, that death was due to poisoning with carbon monoxide. Blood saturation levels were 70 and 66 per cent. The origin of the intoxication was a malfunctioning gas geyser in the kitchen. The heater had been installed many years previously and had not been checked by competent authorities in the last 6 years. If the poisoning had not been detected, other people might come into the risk of a fatal accident too. PMID:8852069

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON THE SECRETION OF MELATONIN BY PINEALOCYTES MEASURED IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Romerowicz-Misielak, M; Kusak, O; Koziorowska, A; Przekop, F; Koziorowski, M

    2015-01-01

    Photoperiod is considered the most important factor entraining the circannual physiological rhythms through changing circadian patterns of melatonin (MEL) secretion from the pineal gland. The pineal gland of mammals does not respond directly to light but is controlled by light via neuronal phototransduction originating in the retina. In accordance with humoral phototransduction hypothesis, the aim of this study was to determine whether an increased concentration of CO, as a carrier of a light signal in pineal cell culture, affects the synthesis of melatonin. This study demonstrates that a commonly used carbon monoxide donor (CORM-2) markedly stimulated melatonin release from pineal cells incubated in vitro in a time-dependent manner, but the mechanism whereby CO modulates MEL release needs to be further explored. PMID:26122216

  9. Kinetics of the Reduction of Wüstite by Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide for the Chemical Looping Production of Hydrogen

    E-print Network

    Liu, Wen; Lim, Jin Yang; Saucedo, Marco A.; Hayhurst, Allan N.; Scott, Stuart A.; Dennis, J. S.

    2014-08-13

    produced could be stored, e.g. by geological sequestration, making the overall process “carbon-neutral”, or “carbon-negative” when biomass is used as fuel. In addition, the hydrogen produced during the oxidation of FexO and metallic Fe in steam can be kept... Kinetics of the reduction of wüstite by hydrogen and carbon monoxide for the chemical looping production of hydrogen Wen Liu a,n, Jin Yang Lim b, Marco A. Saucedo a, Allan N. Hayhurst b, Stuart A. Scott a, J.S. Dennis b a Department of Engineering...

  10. Ab initio studies of the complexes of benzene with carbon monoxide and formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Peter I.; Ulmer, Charles W., II; Smith, Douglas A.

    1995-05-01

    Benzene...carbon monoxide and benzene...formaldehyde complexes are studied using ab initio methods with the highest calculations at the MP4SDTQ/6-31+G**//MP2/6-31+G** level. The benzene...carbon monoxide dimer forms a ? complex of Cs symmetry where the CO top is nearly parallel with the benzene plane. In the benzene...formaldehyde ? complex the dimer is without any symmetry. In this arrangement a weak hydrogen bond is expected between the elements where benzene acts as the acceptor, while in a linear benzene...formaldehyde alignment benzene has been identified as a weak hydrogen bond donor to the carbonyl oxygen. Changes in the intramolecular geometric parameters upon dimerization are small. Interaction energy of the benzene...CO dimer seems to be underestimated compared to the experimental value. No experimental value has been found for the benzene...formaldehyde binding energy. The calculated value is more negative by 0.7 kcal/mol with reference to the benzene...CO dimer. Calculated intermolecular vibrational frequencies are in partial agreement with the experiment. The stretching frequency of the benzene...CO dimer is well reproduced, intermolecular bending and torsional frequencies are overestimated. The intramolecular vibrational frequencies for the monomers show over and underestimation in the high and low frequency ranges, respectively. Experimental results in the literature suggest an almost free internal rotation of the CO top above benzene. The calculated barrier to internal rotation is 0.01 kcal/mol in good agreement with the experimental value. Based on this theoretical value the model with the almost free internal rotation was supported. Analysis for the benzene...formaldehyde dimer suggests more hindered rotation, if at all, with a H2CO top.

  11. Fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide exposure concentrations in urban street transport microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Colvile, R. N.

    Personal exposure studies are crucial alongside microenvironment and ambient studies in order to get a better understanding of the health risks posed by fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide in the urban transport microenvironment and for making informed decisions to manage and reduce the health risks. Studies specifically assessing the PM 2.5, ultrafine particle count and carbon monoxide personal exposure concentrations of adults in an urban transport microenvironment have steadily increased in number over the last decade. However, no recent collective summary is available, particularly one which also considers ultrafine particles; therefore, we present a review of the personal exposure concentration studies for the above named pollutants on different modes of surface transportation (walking, cycling, bus, car and taxi) in the urban transport microenvironment. Comparisons between personal exposure measurements and concentrations recorded at fixed monitoring sites are considered in addition to the factors influencing personal exposure in the transport microenvironment. In general, the exposure studies examined revealed pedestrians and cyclists to experience lower fine particulate matter and CO exposure concentrations in comparison to those inside vehicles—the vehicle shell provided no protection to the passengers. Proximity to the pollutant sources had a significant impact on exposure concentration levels experienced, consequently individuals should be encouraged to use back street routes. Fixed monitoring stations were found to be relatively poor predictors of CO and PM 2.5 exposure concentration levels experienced by individuals in the urban transport microenvironment. Although the mode of transport, traffic and meteorology parameters were commonly identified as significant factors influencing exposure concentrations to the different pollutants under examination, a large amount of the exposure concentration variation in the exposure studies remained unexplained.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Distribution over Peninsular Malaysia from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajab, Jaso M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. It daily coverage of ˜70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite traces gas remote sensing. AIRS, the part of a large international investment to upgrade the operational meteorological satellite systems, is first of the new generation of meteorological advanced sounders for operational and research use, Providing New Insights into Weather and Climate for the 21st Century. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous, an indoor and outdoor air pollutant, is not a significant greenhouse gas as it absorbs little infrared radiation from the Earth. However, it does have an influence on oxidization in the atmosphere through interaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), which also react with methane, halocarbons and tropospheric ozone. It produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning, and that it has a role as a smog. The aim of this investigation is to study the (CO) carbon monoxide distribution over Peninsular Malaysia. The land use map of the Peninsular Malaysia was conducted by using CO total column amount, obtained from AIRS data, the map & data was processed and analyzed by using Photoshop & SigmaPlot 11.0 programs and compared for timing of various (day time) (28 August 2005 & 29 August 2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison using the same a priori profile, the CO concentrations in 28/8/2005 higher. The CO maps were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. This interpolation technique produced high correlation coefficient, R2 and low root mean square error, RMS for CO. This study provided useful information for influence change of CO concentration on varies temperature.

  13. A Unified Electrocatalytic Description of the Action of Inhibitors of Nickel Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Vincent C.-C.; Can, Mehmet; Pierce, Elizabeth; Ragsdale, Stephen W.; Armstrong, Fraser A.

    2014-01-01

    Several small molecules and ions, notably carbon monoxide, cyanide, cyanate, and hydrogen sulfide, are potent inhibitors of Ni-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (Ni-CODH) that catalyze very rapid, efficient redox interconversions of CO2 and CO. Protein film electrochemistry, which probes the dependence of steady-state catalytic rate over a wide potential range, reveals how these inhibitors target particular oxidation levels of Ni-CODH relating to intermediates (Cox, Cred1, and Cred2) that have been established for the active site. The following properties are thus established: (1) CO suppresses CO2 reduction (CO is a product inhibitor), but its binding affinity decreases as the potential becomes more negative. (2) Cyanide totally inhibits CO oxidation, but its effect on CO2 reduction is limited to a narrow potential region (between ?0.5 and ?0.6 V), below which CO2 reduction activity is restored. (3) Cyanate is a strong inhibitor of CO2 reduction but inhibits CO oxidation only within a narrow potential range just above the CO2/CO thermodynamic potential—EPR spectra confirm that cyanate binds selectively to Cred2. (4) Hydrogen sulfide (H2S/HS?) inhibits CO oxidation but not CO2 reduction—the complex on/off characteristics are consistent with it binding at the same oxidation level as Cox and forming a modified version of this inactive state rather than reacting directly with Cred1. The results provide a new perspective on the properties of different catalytic intermediates of Ni-CODH—uniting and clarifying many previous investigations. PMID:23368960

  14. Two Membrane-Associated NiFeS-Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases from the Anaerobic Carbon-Monoxide-Utilizing Eubacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

    PubMed Central

    Svetlitchnyi, Vitali; Peschel, Christine; Acker, Georg; Meyer, Ortwin

    2001-01-01

    Two monofunctional NiFeS carbon monoxide (CO) dehydrogenases, designated CODH I and CODH II, were purified to homogeneity from the anaerobic CO-utilizing eubacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. Both enzymes differ in their subunit molecular masses, N-terminal sequences, peptide maps, and immunological reactivities. Immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections revealed both CODHs in association with the inner aspect of the cytoplasmic membrane. Both enzymes catalyze the reaction CO + H2O ? CO2 + 2 e? + 2 H+. Oxidized viologen dyes are effective electron acceptors. The specific enzyme activities were 15,756 (CODH I) and 13,828 (CODH II) ?mol of CO oxidized min?1 mg?1 of protein (methyl viologen, pH 8.0, 70°C). The two enzymes oxidize CO very efficiently, as indicated by kcat/Km values at 70°C of 1.3 · 109 M?1 CO s?1 (CODH I) and 1.7 · 109 M?1 CO s?1 (CODH II). The apparent Km values at pH 8.0 and 70°C are 30 and 18 ?M CO for CODH I and CODH II, respectively. Acetyl coenzyme A synthase activity is not associated with the enzymes. CODH I (125 kDa, 62.5-kDa subunit) and CODH II (129 kDa, 64.5-kDa subunit) are homodimers containing 1.3 to 1.4 and 1.7 atoms of Ni, 20 to 22 and 20 to 24 atoms of Fe, and 22 and 19 atoms of acid-labile sulfur, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed signals indicative of [4Fe-4S] clusters. Ni was EPR silent under any conditions tested. It is proposed that CODH I is involved in energy generation and that CODH II serves in anabolic functions. PMID:11489867

  15. Emissions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from uncompressed and pelletized biomass fuel burning in typical household stoves in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Tong, Yindong; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Xuejun

    2012-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) impact climate change and human health. The uncertainties in emissions inventories of CO2 and CO are primarily due to the large variation in measured emissions factors (EFs), especially to the lack of EFs from developing countries. China's goals of reducing CO2 emissions require a maximum utilization of biomass fuels. Pelletized biomass fuels are well suited for the residential biomass market, providing possibilities of more automated and optimized systems with higher modified combustion efficiency (MCE) and less products from incomplete combustion. However, EFs of CO2 and CO from pellet biomass fuels are seldom reported, and a comparison to conventional uncompressed biomass fuels has never been conducted. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to experimentally determine the CO2 and CO EFs from uncompressed biomass (i.e., firewood and crop residues) and biomass pellets (i.e., pine wood pellet and corn straw pellet) under real residential applications and to compare the influences of fuel properties and combustion conditions on CO2 and CO emissions from the two types of biomass fuels. For the uncompressed biomass examples, the CO2 and CO EFs were 1649.4 ± 35.2 g kg-1 and 47.8 ± 8.9 g kg-1, respectively, for firewood and 1503.2 ± 148.5 g kg-1 and 52.0 ± 14.2 g kg-1, respectively, for crop residues. For the pellet biomass fuel examples, the CO2 and CO EFs were 1708.0 ± 3.8 g kg-1 and 4.4 ± 2.4 g kg-1, respectively, for pellet pine and 1552.1 ± 16.3 g kg-1 and 17.9 ± 10.2 g kg-1, respectively, for pellet corn. In rural China areas during 2007, firewood and crop residue burning produced 721.7 and 23.4 million tons of CO2 and CO, respectively.

  16. Genome annotation provides insight into carbon monoxide and hydrogen metabolism in Rubrivivax gelatinosus.

    PubMed

    Wawrousek, Karen; Noble, Scott; Korlach, Jonas; Chen, Jin; Eckert, Carrie; Yu, Jianping; Maness, Pin-Ching

    2014-01-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS. This microbe is a model for studies of its carboxydotrophic life style under anaerobic condition, based on its ability to utilize carbon monoxide (CO) as the sole carbon substrate and water as the electron acceptor, yielding CO2 and H2 as the end products. The CO-oxidation reaction is known to be catalyzed by two enzyme complexes, the CO dehydrogenase and hydrogenase. As expected, analysis of the genome of Rx. gelatinosus CBS reveals the presence of genes encoding both enzyme complexes. The CO-oxidation reaction is CO-inducible, which is consistent with the presence of two putative CO-sensing transcription factors in its genome. Genome analysis also reveals the presence of two additional hydrogenases, an uptake hydrogenase that liberates the electrons in H2 in support of cell growth, and a regulatory hydrogenase that senses H2 and relays the signal to a two-component system that ultimately controls synthesis of the uptake hydrogenase. The genome also contains two sets of hydrogenase maturation genes which are known to assemble the catalytic metallocluster of the hydrogenase NiFe active site. Collectively, the genome sequence and analysis information reveals the blueprint of an intricate network of signal transduction pathways and its underlying regulation that enables Rx. gelatinosus CBS to thrive on CO or H2 in support of cell growth. PMID:25479613

  17. High Temperature Line Lists For Carbon Monoxide From Microwave Discharge Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, Farnood; Figueiredo, P.; Arnold, J.; Peale, R.

    2011-05-01

    In gas giant exoplanets that orbit close to their parent stars, known as hot Jupiters, carbon is thought to be sequestered primarily in carbon monoxide and methane. The relative CO and CH4 abundances inform us about temperature and pressure conditions and also about mixing by global winds driven by intense but asymmetric heating for these tidally-locked bodies. Emission spectra collected during secondary eclipses, as the hot Jupiter passes behind its parent star, in principle allows a determination of the CO:CH4 concentration ratio. Since hot Jupiters exist at temperatures of order 1000 K, accurate model atmospheres require high temperature line lists for relevant molecules, for which existing data bases are apparently incomplete. Here we present high temperature emission spectra of CO. The spectra were obtained using a microwave discharge apparatus where the source of CO was carbon dioxide that dissociates under microwave heating. The pressure inside the discharge tube was of order 1 Torr and the microwave power applied to the cavity was 70 W. Emission exited the discharge tube via a ZnSe window and entered through a NaCl window the emission port of the evacuated Fourier spectrometer. The spectrum was measured in the range 1800-2400 cm-1 at a resolution of 0.1 cm-1 using a KBr beamsplitter and a 77 K InSb detector. Vibrational transitions V(1->0) centered at 2147 cm-1 and V(2->1) at 2120 cm-1 were clearly identified. From the J values for maximum intensity lines within the rotational fine structure we obtain a temperature estimate of 1400 K, which is comparable to the atmospheric conditions of hot-Jupiters. Obtained line lists are compared with existing information in the HITRAN database.

  18. Catalytic Oxidation of Propylene, Toluene, Carbon Monoxide, and Carbon Black over Au/CeO2 Solids: Comparing the Impregnation and the Deposition-Precipitation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Aboukaïs, Antoine; El-Ayadi, Houda; Skaf, Mira; Labaki, Madona; Cousin, Renaud; Abi-Aad, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Au/CeO2 solids were prepared by two methods: deposition-precipitation (DP) and impregnation (Imp). The prepared solids were calcined under air at 400°C. Both types of catalysts have been tested in the total oxidation of propylene, toluene, carbon monoxide, and carbon black. Au/CeO2-DP solids were the most reactive owing to the high number of gold nanoparticles and Au+ species and the low concentration of Cl? ions present on its surface compared to those observed in Au/CeO2-Imp solids. PMID:24198730

  19. NATIONAL PERFORMANCE AUDIT PROGRAM: 1979 PROFICIENCY SURVEYS FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, CARBON MONOXIDE, SULFATE, NITRATE, LEAD AND HIGH VOLUME FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Quality Assurance Division of the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, administers semiannual Surveys of Analytical Proficiency for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfate, nitrate and lead. Sample material, s...

  20. Carbon monoxide toxicity. January 1978-March 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include carbon monoxide binding affinity studies with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels as related to tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 221 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Carbon monoxide toxicity. April 1978-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for April 1978-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include carbon monoxide binding affinity studies with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels as related to tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 237 citations, 16 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Investigation of the transport processes controlling the geographic distribution of carbon monoxide at the tropical tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.; Ueyama, R.; Bergman, J. W.; Kinnison, D.

    2015-03-01

    Convectively influenced trajectory calculations are used to investigate the impact of different Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) transport pathways for establishing the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) at 100 hPa as observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Aura satellite. Carbon monoxide is a useful tracer for investigating TTL transport and convective influence because the CO lifetime (?1-2 months) is comparable to the time required for slow ascent through the TTL. MERRA horizontal winds are used for the diabatic trajectories, and off-line calculations of TTL radiative heating are used to determine the vertical motion field. The locations and times of convective influence events along the trajectories are determined from 3-hourly, geostationary satellite measurements of convective clouds. The trajectory model reproduces most of the prominent features in the 100 hPa CO geographic distribution indicated by the MLS observations for the winter and summer 2007 periods simulated. CO concentrations and tendencies simulated with the Whole Atmosphere Climate Chemistry Model (WACCM) are used to specify boundary-layer concentrations for convective influence and CO loss rates resulting from reaction with OH. The broad maximum in CO concentration over the Pacific during Boreal winter is primarily a result of the strong radiative heating (corresponding to upward vertical motion) associated with the abundant TTL cirrus in this region. Convection over the Pacific brings clean maritime air to the tropopause region and actually decreases the 100 hPa CO. The relative abundance of CO over the continental convective regions during wintertime is sensitive to small variations in convective cloud-top height. Both the simulated and the observed summertime 100 hPa CO distributions are dominated by the maximum co-located with the upper level anticyclone forced by the Asian monsoon convection. Sensitivity tests indicate that the summertime Asian monsoon anticyclone 100 hPa CO maximum is dominated by extreme convective systems with detrainment of polluted air above about 360-365 K potential temperature. This result stems directly from the fact that the heating rates are negative (downward motion) below 360-365 K during summertime through most of the tropics; therefore, air detrained from convection at lower levels will generally just sink back down into the middle troposphere. We find that most of the CO feeding into the Asian monsoon anticyclone comes from convection over the Tibetan Plateau and India, with relatively minor contributions from southeast Asia and eastern China.

  3. Inhalation Exposures to Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide during Ethiopian Coffee Ceremonies in Addis Ababa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Chris; Kassa, Hailu; Brown, Alexander; Kumie, Abera; Tefera, Worku

    2010-01-01

    The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57??g/m3) and median (72??g/m3) contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels. PMID:20886061

  4. Inhalation exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide during Ethiopian coffee ceremonies in Addis Ababa: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keil, Chris; Kassa, Hailu; Brown, Alexander; Kumie, Abera; Tefera, Worku

    2010-01-01

    The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57??g/m³) and median (72??g/m³) contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels. PMID:20886061

  5. A Ni-Fe-Cu center in a bifunctional carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase.

    PubMed

    Doukov, Tzanko I; Iverson, Tina M; Seravalli, Javier; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Drennan, Catherine L

    2002-10-18

    A metallocofactor containing iron, sulfur, copper, and nickel has been discovered in the enzyme carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA (coenzyme A) synthase from Moorella thermoacetica (f. Clostridium thermoaceticum). Our structure at 2.2 angstrom resolution reveals that the cofactor responsible for the assembly of acetyl-CoA contains a [Fe4S4] cubane bridged to a copper-nickel binuclear site. The presence of these three metals together in one cluster was unanticipated and suggests a newly discovered role for copper in biology. The different active sites of this bifunctional enzyme complex are connected via a channel, 138 angstroms long, that provides a conduit for carbon monoxide generated at the C-cluster on one subunit to be incorporated into acetyl-CoA at the A-cluster on the other subunit. PMID:12386327

  6. Regulation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: Effects of CO and oxygen on synthesis and activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bonam, D.; Lehman, L.; Roberts, G.P.; Ludden, P.W.

    1989-06-01

    Exposure of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to carbon monoxide led to increased carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities due to de novo protein synthesis of both enzymes. Two-dimensional gels of (/sup 35/S)methionine-pulse-labeled cells showed that induction of CO dehydrogenase synthesis was rapidly initiated (less than 5 min upon exposure to CO) and was inhibited by oxygen. Both CO dehydrogenase and the CO-induced hydrogenase were inactivated by oxygen in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to CO dehydrogenase, the CO-induced hydrogenase was 95% inactivated by heating at 70 degrees C for 5 min. Unlike other hydrogenases, this CO-induced hydrogenase was inhibited only 60% by a 100% CO gas phase.

  7. Three-dimensional analysis of potential vorticity associated with tropopause folds and observed variations of ozone and carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielsen, Edwin F.; Hipskind, R. Stephen; Gaines, Steven E.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Hill, G. F.

    1987-01-01

    The usability and reliability of potential vorticity as a meteorological stratospheric tracer are evaluated. The concept of potential vorticity conservation during transport in which stratospheric and tropospheric air are mixing is tested. Aircraft data collected on April 20, 1984 in the western and southwestern U.S. are analyzed in order to derive potential vorticity data; vertical cross sections of constant-pressure data and temperature and wind speed gradients are examined. The tropopause fold observed during the April 20, 1984 aircraft flights is described. The potential vorticity, ozone mixing ratio, and carbon monoxide mixing ratio are compared; a positive correlation between potential vorticity and the ozone mixing ratio and a negative correlation between the potential vorticity and the carbon monoxide mixing ratio are detected. The data support the concepts of the conservation of potential vorticity, the entrainment and mixing of tropospheric air across the boundaries of the fold, and the applicability of potential vorticity as a stratospheric tracer.

  8. A Novel Role of Exogenous Carbon Monoxide on Protecting Cardiac Function and Improving Survival against Sepsis via Mitochondrial Energetic Metabolism Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Qiu, Xuefeng; Cao, Jie; Liu, Dadong; Sun, Bingwei

    2014-01-01

    Septic cardiac dysfunction is the main cause of death in septic patients. Here we investigate whether exogenous carbon monoxide can protect cardiac function and improve survival against sepsis by interfering with mitochondrial energetic metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture to induce sepsis. Exogenous carbon monoxide delivered from Tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (carbon monoxide releasing molecule II, 8mg/kg) was used intravenously as intervention. We found that carbon monoxide significantly improved cardiac function (LVEF 80.26 ± 2.37% vs. 71.21 ± 1.37%, P < 0.001; LVFS 43.52 ± 1.92% vs. 34.93 ± 1.28%, P < 0.001) and increased survival rate of septic mice (63% vs. 25%, P < 0.01). This phenomenon might be owing to the beneficial effect of carbon monoxide on abolishing the elevation of cardiac enzyme activity, cytokines levels and apoptosis rate, then attenuating cardiac injury in septic mice. Meanwhile, carbon monoxide significantly reversed the loss of mitochondrial number, effectively inhibited cardiac mitochondrial damage in septic mice by modulating glucose uptake, adenosine triphosphate and lactate content. Furthermore upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A genes in cardiac tissue were revealed in septic mice treated with carbon monoxide. Taken together, the results indicate that exogenous carbon monoxide effectively modulated mitochondrial energetic metabolisms by interfering with expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A genes, consequently exerted an important improvement in sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:25076854

  9. DRIFTS studies of carbon monoxide coverage on highly dispersed bimetallic Pt-Cu and Pt-Au catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert D. Chandler; Louis H. Pignolet

    2001-01-01

    Silica supported platinum-gold and platinum-copper catalysts prepared from organometallic cluster precursors were characterized with diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) of adsorbed CO. Because of the effects that dipole coupling of adsorbed carbon monoxide molecules can have on the infrared spectrum, coverage studies were employed to evaluate the interactions between CO and the catalyst surfaces. DRIFTS spectra of the catalysts prepared

  10. CuO–CeO2 mixed oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in excess hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Avgouropoulos; Theophilos Ioannides; Haralambos K. Matralis; Jurka Batista; Stanko Hocevar

    2001-01-01

    A series of mixed oxide CuO–CeO2 catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation and tested for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of excess hydrogen. These catalysts were found to be very active and exceptionally selective for this reaction and exhibited a good resistance towards CO2 and H2O. The catalytic performance of these non-noble metal containing catalysts is compared

  11. Metabolic responses to auxin. V. Dissociation by carbon monoxide of effects of indoleacetic acid on growth and respiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Marre; G. Forti; B. K. Gaur

    1960-01-01

    In isolated pea internode segments the effect of indoleacetic acid on oxygen uptake is completely suppressed, or reversed, by a carbon monoxide\\/oxygen ratio of 2.8\\/1, which inhibits only 20 to 25% of the basal respiration. The reversal by light of the CO induced inhibition is followed by the abrupt reappearance of the auxin effect on respiration, which almost immediately reaches

  12. Dicarbonyl-bis(cysteamine)iron(II): A light induced carbon monoxide releasing molecule based on iron (CORM-S1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Kretschmer; Guido Gessner; Helmar Görls; Stefan H. Heinemann; Matthias Westerhausen

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) deliver controlled amounts of CO to biological targets and organs. The reaction of cysteamine with triirondodecacarbonyl yields dicarbonyl bis(aminoethylthiolato)iron(II) that represents an iron-based CORM with biogenic ligands. X-ray diffraction studies at a single crystal show a cis-arrangement of the carbonyl ligands in trans-position to the amino groups with average Fe–C and C–O distances of 176.8

  13. Carbon monoxide protects hepatocytes from TNF-?\\/Actinomycin D by inhibition of the caspase-8-mediated apoptotic pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoe Suk Kim; Patricia A. Loughran; Peter K. Kim; Timothy R. Billiar; Brian S. Zuckerbraun

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that carbon monoxide (CO) (250ppm) prevented tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?)-induced apoptosis and activated the transcription factor NF-?B in hepatocytes both in vivo and in vitro. These studies were conducted to further determine the mechanisms by which CO suppresses apoptotic signaling in TNF? (10ng\\/ml) and Actinomycin D (ActD, 200ng\\/ml)-treated hepatocytes. Consistent with our previous findings, CO protected

  14. Formation of iron carbonyl between a 1\\/2% Mo steel and high-pressure gases containing carbon monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Inouye; J. H. DeVan

    1978-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to measure the formation of iron carbonyl between ¹\\/â% Mo steel pipes and flowing high-pressure gases (to 6.9 MPa) containing carbon monoxide. The net formation rate, r, of iron carbonyl was measured as a function of the velocity, temperature, and pressure of the gases to determine the conditions that prevent its formation. These variables

  15. Formation of iron carbonyl between a 1\\/2 pct Mo steel and high-pressure gases containing carbon monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Inouye; J. H. DeVan

    1979-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to measure the formation of iron carbonyl between 1\\/2 pct Mo steel pipes and\\u000a flowing high-pressure gases (to 6.9 MPa) containing carbon monoxide. The net formation rate, r, of iron carbonyl was measured\\u000a as a function of the velocity, temperature, and pressure of the gases to determine the conditions that prevent its formation.\\u000a These

  16. Distribution, flux, and photoproduction of carbon monoxide in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea in spring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gui-Peng Yang; Chun-Yan Ren; Xiao-Lan Lu; Chun-Ying Liu; Hai-Bing Ding

    2011-01-01

    The distribution, photoproduction, and sea-to-air flux of carbon monoxide (CO) were investigated in the East China Sea (ECS) and the Yellow Sea (YS) during April–May 2009. The concentrations of CO in the surface seawater ranged from 0.12 to 6.99 nmol L?1, with a mean of 2.24 nmol L?1. Concentrations of CO showed pronounced diurnal variations within the euphotic zone with

  17. Carbon monoxide released by CORM3 inhibits human platelets by a mechanism independent of soluble guanylate cyclase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Chlopicki; Rafal Olszanecki; Ewa Marcinkiewicz; Magdalena Lomnicka; Roberto Motterlini

    Objective: Carbon monoxide (CO) modulates several physiological functions through activation of a cGMP-dependent pathway similar to that of nitric oxide (NO). Here we investigated the possible involvement of soluble guanylate cyclase in the anti-aggregatory effect of micromolar concentrations of CO released by a novel, water-soluble, CO releasing molecule (CORM) in human platelets. Methods: Human platelet aggregation was induced by collagen

  18. Association of the transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide with emphysema progression in male smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Mohamed Hoesein; P. Zanen; B. van Ginneken; R. J. van Klaveren; J. W. Lammers

    2011-01-01

    A decreased transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide (K(CO)) is associated with emphysema. We evaluated whether in heavy smokers, baseline K(CO) was associated with the progression of computed tomography (CT)-detected emphysema, and the progression of airflow limitation. Heavy smokers, mean+\\/-sd 41.3+\\/-18.7 pack-yrs, participating in a lung cancer screening trial underwent diffusion testing and CT scanning of the lungs.

  19. Remote Measurements of Carbon Monoxide over North America and Europe during Summer Fall 2004 and Southern Hemisphere 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Connors; G. Chen; B. Pierce; P. E. Hopkins; T. Meriwether; H. G. Reichle; Nia Sachse G; W. McMillan; M. Sandy; J. Companion

    2007-01-01

    The MicroMAPS instrument is a nadir-viewing, gas filter-correlated radiometer which operating in the 4.67 micrometer fundamental band of carbon monoxide. Originally designed and built for a space mission, this CO remote sensor is being flown in support of satellite validation and science instrument demonstrations for potential UAV applications. The MicroMAPS instrument system was integrated and tested at NASA LaRC, in

  20. Circumpolar measurements of speciated mercury, ozone and carbon monoxide in the boundary layer of the Arctic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sommar; M. E. Andersson; H.-W. Jacobi

    2010-01-01

    Using the Swedish icebreaker Oden as a platform, continuous measurements of airborne mercury (gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent gaseous mercury species HgIIX2(g) (acronym RGM) and mercury attached to particles (PHg)) and some long-lived trace gases (carbon monoxide CO and ozone O3) were performed over the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The measurements were performed for nearly three months (July-September

  1. Circumpolar measurements of speciated mercury, ozone and carbon monoxide in the boundary layer of the Arctic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sommar; M. E. Andersson; H.-W. Jacobi

    2009-01-01

    Using the Swedish icebreaker Oden as a platform, continuous measurements of airborne mercury (gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury HgII(g) (acronym RGM) and mercury attached to particles (PHg)) and some long-lived trace gases (carbon monoxide CO and ozone O3) were performed over the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The measurements were performed for nearly three months (July-September, 2005) during

  2. Experimental determination of the 1 Sigma(+) state electric dipole moment function of carbon monoxide up to a large internuclear separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Farrenq, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Rossetti, C.; Urban, W.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental intensity information is combined with numerically obtained vibrational wave functions in a nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure to obtain the ground electronic state electric dipole moment function of carbon monoxide valid in the range of nuclear oscillation (0.87-1.91 A) of about the V = 38th vibrational level. Vibrational transition matrix elements are computed from this function for Delta V = 1, 2, 3 with V not more than 38.

  3. Air pollution of Moscow by the carbon monoxide and aerosols, boundary layer parameters and estimation of the CO sources intensity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Rakitin; E. Fokeeva; R. Kuznetsov; A. Emilenko; V. Kopeikin

    2009-01-01

    The results of measurements of the carbon monoxide total content, the soot and submicron aerosols content are given for the period 2005-2008 over Moscow. Two identical grating spectrometers of medium resolution (0,2sm-1) are used with appropriate solar tracking systems, one of which is located outside the city at Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS 56oN, 38oE, 60km West from Moscow in the

  4. Investigation of the state-to-state rotational relaxation rate constants for carbon monoxide (CO) using infrared double resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve P. Phipps; Tony C. Smith; Gordon D. Hager; Michael C. Heaven; J. K. McIver; W. G. Rudolph

    2002-01-01

    State-to-state rotational relaxation of carbon monoxide (CO) has been studied using an ir double resonance technique. Individual rotational lines of the (2-0) vibrational overtone band were pumped by a pulsed tunable ir laser and the subsequent evolution of the v=2 rotational population distribution was monitored by the absorption of a tunable cw ir laser via the (3-2) band transitions. Both

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisonings From Small, Gasoline-Powered, Internal Combustion Engines: Just What Is a “Well-ventilated Area”?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Earnest; R. Leroy Mickelsen; Jane B. McCammon; Dennis M. OBrien

    1997-01-01

    This study modeled the time required for a gasoline-powered, 5 horsepower (hp), 4-cycle engine to generate carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations exceeding the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 200-ppm ceiling and 1200-ppm immediately dangerous to life and health concentration for various room sizes and ventilation rates. The model permitted the ambiguous term “well-ventilated area” to be defined. The model

  6. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper.

    PubMed

    Li, Christina W; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W

    2014-04-24

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H(+) source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O ('oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25?volts to -0.5?volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity. PMID:24717429

  7. Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane, and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Travis S.; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Absorption lines from water, methane, and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR 8799 b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between ?3.09 and ?3.91, CO between ?3.30 and ?3.72, and CH4 between ?5.06 and ?5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at a similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 106–108 cm2 s?1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupiter. The model comparisons also indicate a carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) between ?0.58 and 0.7, encompassing previous estimates for a second planet in the same system, HR 8799 c. Super-stellar C/O could indicate planet formation by core-accretion however, the range of possible C/O for these planets (and the star) is currently too large to comment strongly on planet formation. More precise values of the bulk properties (e.g., effective temperature and surface gravity) are needed for improved abundance estimates.

  8. Bench-to-bedside review: Carbon monoxide--from mitochondrial poisoning to therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Inge; Pannen, Benedikt H J

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is generated during incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds and leads to acute and chronic toxicity in animals and humans depending on the concentration and exposure time. In addition to exogenous sources, CO is also produced endogenously by the activity of heme oxygenases (HOs) and the physiological significance of HO-derived CO has only recently emerged. CO exerts vasoactive, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects and contributes substantially to the important role of the inducible isoform HO-1 as a mediator of tissue protection and host defense. Exogenous application of low doses of gaseous CO might provide a powerful tool to protect organs and tissues under various stress conditions. Experimental evidence strongly suggests a beneficial effect under pathophysiological conditions such as organ transplantation, ischemia/reperfusion, inflammation, sepsis, or shock states. The cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating CO effects are only partially characterized. So far, only a few studies in humans are available, which, however, do not support the promising results observed in experimental studies. The protective effects of exogenous CO may strongly depend on the pathological condition, the mode, time point and duration of application, the administered concentration, and on the target tissue and cell. Differences in bioavailability of endogenous CO production and exogenous CO supplementation might also provide an explanation for the lack of protective effects observed in some experimental and clinical studies. Further randomized, controlled clinical studies are needed to clarify whether exogenous application of CO may turn into a safe and effective preventive and therapeutic strategy to treat pathophysiological conditions associated with inflammatory or oxidative stress. PMID:19691819

  9. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  10. Hazardous off-gassing of carbon monoxide and oxygen depletion during ocean transportation of wood pellets.

    PubMed

    Svedberg, Urban; Samuelsson, Jerker; Melin, Staffan

    2008-06-01

    Five ocean vessels were investigated for the characterization and quantification of gaseous compounds emitted during ocean transportation of wood pellets in closed cargo hatches from Canada to Sweden. The study was initiated after a fatal accident with several injured during discharge in Sweden. The objective with the investigation was to better understand the off-gassing and issues related to workers' exposure. Air sampling was done during transport and immediately before discharge in the undisturbed headspace air above the wood pellets and in the staircase adjacent to each hatch. The samples were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and direct reading instruments. The following compounds and ranges were detected in samples from the five ships: carbon monoxide (CO) 1460-14650 ppm, carbon dioxide (CO2) 2960-21570 ppm, methane 79.9-956 ppm, butane equivalents 63-842 ppm, ethylene 2-21.2 ppm, propylene 5.3-36 ppm, ethane 0-25 ppm and aldehydes 2.3-35 ppm. The oxygen levels were between 0.8 and 16.9%. The concentrations in the staircases were almost as high as in the cargo hatches, indicating a fairly free passage of air between the two spaces. A potentially dangerous atmosphere was reached within a week from loading. The conclusions are that ocean transportation of wood pellets in confined spaces may produce an oxygen deficient atmosphere and lethal levels of CO which may leak into adjacent access spaces. The dangerous combination of extremely high levels of CO and reduced oxygen produces a fast-acting toxic combination. Measurement of CO in combination with oxygen is essential prior to entry in spaces having air communication with cargo hatches of wood pellets. Forced ventilation of staircases prior to entry is necessary. Redesign, locking and labeling of access doors and the establishment of rigorous entry procedures and training of onboard crew as well as personnel boarding ocean vessels are also important. PMID:18397907

  11. Estimation of the carbon monoxide emissions due to Sandia National Laboratories commuter and on-base traffic for conformity determination

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, Y. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Royer, R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the analysis and conclusion of an investigation of the carbon monoxide emissions resulting from Sandia National Laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) commuter and on-base traffic for the Clean Air Act (CAA) Conformity Determination. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County was classified as a nonattainment area by the Environmental Protection Agency. Nonattainment area is an area which is shown by monitored data or which is calculated by air quality modeling to exceed any National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for the pollutant. Albuquerque/Bernalillo County exceeds the NAAQS for carbon monoxide and ozone. The Conformity Determination was needed to complete the CAA Title V Permitting process for SNL and the DOE. The analysis used the EPA approved MOBILE5a Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions modeling program. This analysis will provide a baseline for mobile sources to allow Sandia to estimate any future activity and how that activity will impact CO emissions. The General Conformity Rule (AQCR 43) requires that operations which will increase CO emissions in nonattaimnent or maintenance areas such as Bernalillo County undergo conformity analyses to determine whether or not they will impact ambient air quality in the area.

  12. Effect of carbon monoxide on fermentation of fiber, starch, and amino acids by mixed rumen microorganisms in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J B; Jeraci, J L

    1984-01-01

    When 1 atm (101.3 kPa) of carbon monoxide was added to mixed rumen bacterial incubations containing timothy hay, methane production was inhibited by 88% without an increase in hydrogen. The molar ratio of propionate to acetate increased from 0.83 to 1.53, extracellular ammonia declined from 5.2 to 2.4 mM, and hemicellulose and cellulose digestions were inhibited by 40 and 27%, respectively. Even low levels of carbon monoxide (less than 0.1 atm [10.13 kPa]) significantly changed the products of fermentation. With starch, methane production was once again inhibited, but the magnitude of starch fermentation was unaffected. Decrease in acetate was accompanied by an equal molar increase in lactate. Ammonia production from the amino acid source, Trypticase, declined 20% as carbon monoxide was increased to 1.0 atm, and 93% of this decrease was explained by a selective inhibition of branched-chain amino acid fermentation. PMID:6089665

  13. Evaluation of brain function in acute carbon monoxide poisoning with multimodality evoked potentials

    SciTech Connect

    He, Fengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Yang, Shi; Zhang, Shoulin (Institute of Occupational Medicine, Beijing (China)); Xu, Guanghua; Fang, Guangchai; Pan, Xiaowen (Navy Hospital, Beijing (China))

    1993-02-01

    The median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEP), and brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were studied in 109 healthy adults and in 88 patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The upper limits for normal values of peak and interpeak latencies of multimodalities of evoked potentials in the reference group were established by a stepwise multiple regression analysis. SEP changes selectively affecting N32 and N60 were found in 78.8% of patients. There was prolonged PI00 latency of VEP in 58.2% of the cases examined. The prevalence of BAEP abnormalities in comatose patients (36%) was significantly higher than that (8.6%) in conscious patients. BAEP abnormalities were most frequently seen in comatose patients who had diminished brain stem reflexes (77.8%). It has been found that a consistent abnormality involving N2O and subsequent peaks in SEP, a remarkable prolongation of PI00 latency in VEP, or a prolongation of Ill-V interpeak latency in BAEP as well as the reoccurrence of evoked potential abnormalities after initial recovery all indicate unfavorable outcomes in patients with acute CO poisoning. The multimodality evoked potentials have proved to be sensitive indicators in the evaluation of brain dysfunction and in the prediction of prognosis of acute CO poisoning and the development of delayed encephalopathy. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Probing Electric Fields in Protein Cavities by Using the Vibrational Stark Effect of Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Lehle, Hartwig; Kriegl, Jan M.; Nienhaus, Karin; Deng, Pengchi; Fengler, Stephanus; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    To determine the magnitude and direction of the internal electric field in the Xe4 cavity of myoglobin mutant L29W-S108L, we have studied the vibrational Stark effect of carbon monoxide (CO) using infrared spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. CO was photodissociated from the heme iron and deposited selectively in Xe4. Its infrared spectrum exhibits Stark splitting into two bands associated with CO in opposite orientations. Two different photoproduct states can be distinguished, C? and C?, with markedly different properties. For C?, characteristic temperature-dependent changes of the area, shift, and width were analyzed, based on a dynamic model in which the CO performs fast librations within a double-well model potential. For the barrier between the wells, a height of ?1.8 kJ/mol was obtained, in which the CO performs oscillations at an angular frequency of ?25 cm?1. The magnitude of the electric field in the C? conformation was determined as 11.1 MV/cm; it is tilted by an angle of 29° to the symmetry axis of the potential. Above 140 K, a protein relaxation leads to a significantly altered photoproduct, C?, with a smaller Stark splitting and a more confining potential (barrier >4 kJ/mol) governing the CO librations. PMID:15596507

  15. Carbon monoxide–based therapy ameliorates acute pancreatitis via TLR4 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jing; Habtezion, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The protective role of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) in various inflammatory conditions is mediated in part by its products, carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin. Here we investigated a therapeutic role for CO and CO-primed cells in acute pancreatitis (AP). In a mouse model of AP, treatment with CO-releasing molecule–2 (CORM-2) decreased mortality, pancreatic damage, and lung injury. CORM-2 decreased systemic inflammatory cytokines, suppressed systemic and pancreatic macrophage TNF-? secretion, and inhibited macrophage TLR4 receptor complex expression. In both human and mouse cells, CORM-2 inhibited endogenous and exogenous ligand-dependent TLR4 activation, which indicates that CORM-2 could be therapeutic for both early and late stages of AP, which involve sterile- and endotoxin-mediated inflammation, respectively. Mice engrafted with TLR4-deficient hematopoietic cells were protected against caerulein-induced AP. In the absence of leukocyte TLR4 expression, CORM-2 did not confer additional protection, which indicates that CORM-2–dependent effects are mediated via suppression of macrophage TLR4 activation. We determined that CO was directly responsible for the protective effects of CORM-2 in AP, as inactive forms of CORM-2 were ineffective. Importantly, adoptive transfer of CORM-2–primed cells reduced AP. Such a therapeutic approach would translate the beneficial effects of CO-based therapies, avoiding CO- or CO-RM–mediated toxicities in AP and a wide range of diseases. PMID:24334457

  16. High-resolution fiber carbon monoxide sensing system and its data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wei, Yubin; Li, Yanfang; Zhao, Yanjie; Liu, Tongyu; Wang, Chang

    2013-09-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of the important gases need to be detected in coal mine safety. Detection technology based on signature gas is the primary means of spontaneous combustion forecasting of coal goaf area. Because of the high accuracy requirement of CO concentration in the coal mining applications, we had to introduce more data processig methods to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), finally to achieve the requirements of coal mining. Therefore, we used three data processing methods to eliminate noises of the CO sensing system which based on the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS): Fourier transform, least-squares fitting and Kalman filter. The results show that the combination of three data processing methods had a good inhibitory effect of random noise and interference fringes, etc. and significantly improved the system detection accuracy, the minimum detectable spectral absorption rate could be increased by an order of magnitude. So this high-resolution fiber CO sensing system can better meet the needs of coal mine safety.

  17. Ultra-High Sensitivity Zinc Oxide Nanocombs for On-Chip Room Temperature Carbon Monoxide Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaofang; Zhao, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report an on-chip gas sensor based on novel zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs for carbon monoxide (CO) sensing. With ZnO gas sensing nanocombs fully integrated on a single silicon chip, the concept of low cost complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) microsensor capable of on-chip gas sensing and processing is enabled. Compared with all previous implementations, the proposed ZnO nanocombs feature much larger effective sensing area and exhibit ultra-high sensitivity even at the room temperature. Specifically, at room temperature, we demonstrate peak sensitivities as high as 7.22 and 8.93 for CO concentrations of 250 ppm and 500 ppm, respectively. As a result, by operating the proposed ZnO-nanocomb-based gas sensor at the room temperature, the widely adopted power consuming heating components are completely removed. This leads to not only great power saving, but also full compatibility between the gas sensor and the on-chip circuitry in term of acceptable operating temperature. In addition, the reported fast response/recovery time of ~200 s/~50 s (250 ppm CO) makes it well suited to real-life applications. PMID:25894935

  18. Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b

    E-print Network

    Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Absorption lines from water, methane and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR8799b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between -3.09 and -3.91, CO between -3.30 and -3.72 and CH4 between -5.06 and -5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 10^6 to 10^8 cm^2 s^-1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupite...

  19. Personal carbon monoxide exposures of preschool children in Helsinki, Finland—comparison to ambient air concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alm, S.; Mukala, K.; Tiittanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.

    The associations of personal carbon monoxide (CO) exposures with ambient air CO concentrations measured at fixed monitoring sites, were studied among 194 children aged 3-6 yr in four downtown and four suburban day-care centers in Helsinki, Finland. Each child carried a personal CO exposure monitor between 1 and 4 times for a time period of between 20 and 24 h. CO concentrations at two fixed monitoring sites were measured simultaneously. The CO concentrations measured at the fixed monitoring sites were usually lower (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 0.9 and 2.6 mg m -3) than the personal CO exposure concentrations (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 3.3 mg m -3). The fixed site CO concentrations were poor predictors of the personal CO exposure concentrations. However, the correlations between the personal CO exposure and the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations increased (-0.03--0.12 to 0.13-0.16) with increasing averaging times from 1 to 8 h. Also, the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations explained the mean daily or weekly personal CO exposures of a group of simultaneously measured children better than individual exposure CO concentrations. This study suggests that the short-term CO personal exposure of children cannot be meaningfully assessed using fixed monitoring sites.

  20. CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) IN HYPOXIC SENSING BY THE CAROTID BODY

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

    2012-01-01

    Carotid bodies are sensory organs for monitoring arterial blood oxygen (O2) levels, and the ensuing reflexes maintain cardio-respiratory homeostasis during hypoxia. This article provides a brief update of the role of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in hypoxic sensing by the carotid body. Glomus cells, the primary site of O2 sensing in the carotid body express heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2), a CO catalyzing enzyme. HO-2 is a heme containing enzyme and has high affinity for O2. Hypoxia inhibits HO-2 activity and reduces CO generation. Pharmacological and genetic approaches suggest that CO inhibits carotid body sensory activity. Stimulation of carotid body activity by hypoxia may reflect reduced formation of CO. Glomus cells also express cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), an H2S generating enzyme. Exogenous application of H2S donors, like hypoxia, stimulate the carotid body activity and CSE knockout mice exhibit severely impaired sensory excitation by hypoxia, suggesting that CSE catalyzed H2S is an excitatory gas messenger. Hypoxia increases H2S generation in the carotid body, and this response was attenuated or absent in CSE knockout mice. HO inhibitor increased and CO donor inhibited H2S generation. It is proposed that carotid body response to hypoxia requires interactions between HO-2-CO and CSE-H2S systems. PMID:22664830

  1. Evidence of carbon monoxide-mediated phase advancement of the yeast metabolic cycle.

    PubMed

    Tu, Benjamin P; McKnight, Steven L

    2009-08-25

    Prototrophic strains of budding yeast exhibit robust metabolic cycles during continuous growth under nutrient-limiting conditions. Previous studies revealed periodic fluctuations of aminolevulinic acid, a precursor of heme, indicating that heme biosynthesis is temporally regulated during these metabolic cycles. The enzyme that catabolizes heme, heme oxygenase, was found to be expressed in a highly periodic manner at both the mRNA and protein level. Heme oxygenase generates the biological gas, carbon monoxide (CO), as a product of heme catabolism. It is shown that pulsed administration of CO induces a phase advancement into the oxidative, respiratory phase of the metabolic cycles. This CO-mediated phase advancement takes place only if the gas is administered during the temporal window when it is predicted to be generated. It is further shown that a yeast strain bearing a targeted deletion of the gene encoding heme oxygenase displays protracted metabolic cycles. These observations provide evidence that gaseous CO may function as a cellular signaling molecule that helps cue metabolic cycling. PMID:19706514

  2. Carbon monoxide yields of cigarettes and their relation to nicotine yield and type of filter.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Cole, P V; Idle, M S; Adams, L

    1975-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) yields of 11 popular brands of British cigarette, two types of cigarette containing tobacco-substitute, and one brand of cigar were measured under standardized conditions. Yields of the conventional cigarettes ranged from 5.0 to 20.2 mg per cigarette (1.3 to 4.7% by volume). The cigar yielded 81.7 mg (10.0%) CO and the two semi-synthetic cigarettes 17.2 (4.2%) and 28.2 mg (6.2%) CO. Puff-by-puff analysis showed an increase in CO concentration as a cigarette is smoked. In brands with nicotine yields over 1.0 mg no relationship was apparent between nicotine yield and CO yield, and the filters of cigarettes in this category did not appear to reduce the CO yield. In the low nicotine cigarettes with ventilated filters there appeared to be some correlation between nicotine yield and CO yield, and these filters were highly effective in reducing CO yield, owing mainly to the ventilation. We suggest that official publication of CO yields might motivate manufacturers to produce cigarettes with lower yields. PMID:1139234

  3. Effect of chronic carbon monoxide exposure on experimental alcoholic liver injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nanji, A.A. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Jui, L.T.; French, S.W. (Univ. of Ottawa (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    Two groups of experimental animals with pair-fed controls were studied to evaluate the effect of chronic carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on progression of experimental alcoholic liver injury. Eight pairs of male Wistar rats were continuously infused liquid diet and ethanol or isocaloric dextrose for four months. Four pairs were also exposed to CO. Liver damage was followed monthly by serum ALT and morphologic assessment of liver biopsy. Serum levels of ALT were significantly higher in the CO-ethanol group compared to other groups. Electron microscopy revealed a greater degree of cell necrosis in the CO exposed group which explained the significantly higher ALT activity in these animals. Both experimental groups had significantly greater liver damage than controls. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were not different in the ethanol-fed and control group. Our results show that chronic CO exposure enhances liver cell necrosis in ethanol-fed rats thereby lending support to the hypothesis that ethanol and hypoxia enhance cellular disruption in the liver which could be important in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease in rats.

  4. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide modulate oscillations of olfactory interneurons in a terrestrial mollusk.

    PubMed

    Gelperin, A; Flores, J; Raccuia-Behling, F; Cooke, I R

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous or odor-induced oscillations in local field potential are a general feature of olfactory processing centers in a large number of vertebrate and invertebrate species. The ubiquity of such oscillations in the olfactory bulb of vertebrates and analogous structures in arthropods and mollusks suggests that oscillations are fundamental to the computations performed during processing of odor stimuli. Diffusible intercellular messengers such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) also are associated with central olfactory structures in a wide array of species. We use the procerebral (PC) lobe of the terrestrial mollusk Limax maximus to demonstrate a role for NO and CO in the oscillatory dynamics of the PC lobe: synthesizing enzymes for NO and CO are associated with the PC lobes of Limax, application of NO to the Limax PC lobe increases the local field potential oscillation frequency, whereas block of NO synthesis slows or stops the oscillation, the bursting cells of the PC lobe that drive the field potential oscillation are driven to higher burst frequency by application of NO, the nonbursting cells of the PC lobe receive trains of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, presumably from bursting cells, due to application of NO, and application of CO to the PC lobe by photolysis of caged CO results in an increase in oscillation frequency proportional to CO dosage. PMID:10634858

  5. Carbon monoxide and water vapor contamination of compressed breathing air for firefighters and divers.

    PubMed

    Austin, C C; Ecobichon, D J; Dussault, G; Tirado, C

    1997-12-12

    Compressed breathing air, used in self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) by firefighters and other categories of workers as well as by recreational and commercial divers, is prepared with the aid of high-pressure compressors operating in the range of 5000 psig. There have been reports of unexplained deaths of SCUBA divers and anecdotal accounts of decreased time to exhaustion in firefighters using SCBAs. Compressed breathing air has been found to contain elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor that are consistent with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) poisoning and freezing of the user's regulator on the breathing apparatus. The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFK equation) was used to estimate COHb levels at rest and at maximum exercise when exposed to different levels of CO in contaminated breathing air. The results demonstrated that, at maximum exercise, the COHb ranged from 6.0 to 17% with the use of 1 to 4 SCBA cylinders contaminated by 250 ppm CO. Standard operating procedures have been developed at the Montreal Fire Department to minimize the risk of compressed breathing air contamination. Results of the quality analysis/quality control program indicate that implementation of these procedures has improved the quality of the compressed breathing air. Recommendations are made for improvement of the air testing procedures mandated by the Canadian CAN3 180.1-M85 Standard on Compressed Breathing Air and Systems. PMID:9388533

  6. Design and implementation of differential mid-infrared carbon monoxide detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fang; Li, Guo-lin; Song, Nan; Zheng, Chuan-tao; Wang, Yi-ding

    2013-09-01

    Based on wide-band infrared (IR) light source and dual-channel pyroelectric detector with detection channel of 4.66 ?m and reference channel of 3.95 ?m, a differential mid-infrared (MIR) carbon monoxide (CO) detector is designed and implemented. In order to reduce the detection limit and improve the detection sensitivity, an open spherical mirror chamber is designed and fabricated according to the divergence angle of the light source. The CO detection system is established using the welded and debugged detection circuits, a series of CO gases with different concentrations are prepared, and gas concentration calibration experiment is carried out. Experimental results indicate that after the amplifying circuit, the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the two channels are 17.58 dB and 18.46 dB, respectively, and the detection error of this system is less than 9% in 0%-4% measuring range. The detection sensitivity in the low concentration range is approximately 0.05%. 6 h measurement on the 0 ppm sample gas shows that the fluctuation range is about ±0.02%, and the measurement standard deviation is about 0.89%.

  7. Carbon monoxide inhibits sprouting angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shakil; Hewett, Peter W; Fujisawa, Takeshi; Sissaoui, Samir; Cai, Meng; Gueron, Geraldine; Al-Ani, Bahjat; Cudmore, Melissa; Ahmed, S Faraz; Wong, Michael K K; Wegiel, Barbara; Otterbein, Leo E; Vítek, Libor; Ramma, Wenda; Wang, Keqing; Ahmed, Asif

    2015-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous autacoid known to positively regulate vascular tone; however, its role in angiogenesis is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CO on angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 phosphorylation. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on growth factor-reduced Matrigel and treated with a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2) or exposed to CO gas (250 ppm). Here, we report the surprising finding that exposure to CO inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell actin reorganisation, cell proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation. Similarly, CO suppressed VEGF-mediated phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 at tyrosine residue 1175 and 1214 and basic fibroblast growth factor- (FGF-2) and VEGF-mediated Akt phosphorylation. Consistent with these data, mice exposed to 250 ppm CO (1h/day for 14 days) exhibited a marked decrease in FGF-2-induced Matrigel plug angiogenesis (p<0.05). These data establish a new biological function for CO in angiogenesis and point to a potential therapeutic use for CO as an anti-angiogenic agent in tumour suppression. PMID:25354586

  8. A Review of Disaster-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Opportunities for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Hernandez, Sandra A.; Damon, Scott A.; Yip, Fuyuen Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a systematic literature review to better understand aspects of disaster-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning surveillance and determine potentially effective prevention strategies. Methods. This review included information from 28 journal articles on disaster-related CO poisoning cases occurring between 1991 and 2009 in the United States. Results. We identified 362 incidents and 1888 disaster-related CO poisoning cases, including 75 fatalities. Fatalities occurred primarily among persons who were aged 18 years or older (88%) and male (79%). Hispanics and Asians accounted for 20% and 14% of fatal cases and 21% and 7% of nonfatal cases, respectively. Generators were the primary exposure source for 83% of fatal and 54% of nonfatal cases; 67% of these fatal cases were caused by indoor generator placement. Charcoal grills were a major source of exposure during winter storms. Most fatalities (94%) occurred at home. Nearly 89% of fatal and 53% of nonfatal cases occurred within 3 days of disaster onset. Conclusions. Public health prevention efforts could benefit from emphasizing predisaster risk communication and tailoring interventions for racial, ethnic, and linguistic minorities. These findings highlight the need for surveillance and CO-related information as components of disaster preparedness, response, and prevention. PMID:22897556

  9. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Co-Adsorption on Ni-Catalysed Water Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenzadeh, Abas; Borjesson, Anders; Wang, Jeng-Han; Richards, Tobias; Bolton, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide (CO) co-adsorption on the dissociation of water on the Ni(111) surface has been studied using density functional theory. The structures of the adsorbed water molecule and of the transition state are changed by the presence of the CO molecule. The water O–H bond that is closest to the CO is lengthened compared to the structure in the absence of the CO, and the breaking O–H bond in the transition state structure has a larger imaginary frequency in the presence of CO. In addition, the distances between the Ni surface and H2O reactant and OH and H products decrease in the presence of the CO. The changes in structures and vibrational frequencies lead to a reaction energy that is 0.17 eV less exothermic in the presence of the CO, and an activation barrier that is 0.12 eV larger in the presence of the CO. At 463 K the water dissociation rate constant is an order of magnitude smaller in the presence of the CO. This reveals that far fewer water molecules will dissociate in the presence of CO under reaction conditions that are typical for the water-gas-shift reaction. PMID:24287907

  10. Effect of fuel utilization on the carbon monoxide poisoning dynamics of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Luis C.; Koski, Pauli; Ihonen, Jari; Sousa, José M.; Mendes, Adélio

    2014-07-01

    The effect of fuel utilization on the poisoning dynamics by carbon monoxide (CO) is studied for future automotive conditions of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). Three fuel utilizations are used, 70%, 40% and 25%. CO is fed in a constant concentration mode of 1 ppm and in a constant molar flow rate mode (CO concentrations between 0.18 and 0.57 ppm). The concentrations are estimated on a dry gas basis. The CO concentration of the anode exhaust gas is analyzed using gas chromatography. CO is detected in the anode exhaust gas almost immediately after it is added to the inlet gas. Moreover, the CO concentration of the anode exhaust gas increases with the fuel utilization for both CO feed modes. It is demonstrated that the lower the fuel utilization, the higher the molar flow rate of CO at the anode outlet at early stages of the CO poisoning. These results suggest that the effect of CO in PEMFC systems with anode gas recirculation is determined by the dynamics of its accumulation in the recirculation loop. Consequently, accurate quantification of impurities limits in current fuel specification (ISO 14687-2:2012) should be determined using anode gas recirculation.

  11. Questionnaire results of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kusuba, Yoko; Taki, Kenji; Ohta, Akihide

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning results in not only severe psychoneurological disorders, but can also cause secondary delayed psychoneurological disorders. Therefore, timely and appropriate treatment in the acute stage is crucial to prevent such direct neurological damage and secondary disorders. However, various conflicting results have been reported in studies of CO poisoning treatment, and the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2T) for CO poisoning has not been established. This retrospective multi-institutional study was performed by the questionnaire in 1667 cases of acute CO poisoning in Japan. The effectiveness of HBO2T for CO poisoning was evaluated based on prognoses in cases and various classes of hospital based on the grade of their positive stance regarding HBO2T. The results showed that the prognosis in the group treated with HBOT was significantly better than that in the group treated with normobaric oxygen therapy (NBO2T) (P < 0.01), thus confirming the effectiveness of HBO2T for CO poisoning. Furthermore, while hospitals were separated into three groups according to their indication criteria for HBO2T, the ineffective ratio of NBO2T was dependent on the indication criteria, even though the effective ratio of HBO2T was the same in all three groups. In conclusion, a retrospective multi-institutional study showed that HBO2T is an effective form of therapy for CO poisoning. PMID:22530447

  12. Carbon monoxide gradients in the marine boundary layer of the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer-Young, Margie; Erickson, David J.; Carsey, Thomas P.

    1996-02-01

    We present an observational data set that suggests that the ocean source of carbon monoxide (CO) may influence the atmospheric CO concentration in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Atmospheric CO concentration gradient data obtained during the 1992 Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (ASTEX/MAGE) show significantly (range of 2-47 ppbv, average of 15 ppbv) more CO at altitudes of 0.05 to 0.5 m above sea level as compared to 10 m above sea level. The seawater CO concentrations needed to support the fluxes obtained from an atmospheric gradient calculation are much higher than generally reported in the literature. However, studies of CO production by Jones and Amador (1993) and data from Seiler (1978) suggest the possibility that CO production and the resultant flux to the MBL could be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than currently estimated using seawater pumped from depths of 4-10 m below the sea-air interface. We infer that the surface ocean production and sea-air exchange of photochemically produced trace gases such as CO may participate in physical, chemical and biological processes on vastly different spatial and temporal scales than those inherent to more stable species such as CO2.

  13. Study of physiological responses to acute carbon monoxide exposure with a human patient simulator.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Whitney A; Caruso, Dominique M; Zyka, Enela L; Schroff, Stuart T; Evans, Charles H; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K

    2006-12-01

    Human patient simulators are widely used to train health professionals and students in a clinical setting, but they also can be used to enhance physiology education in a laboratory setting. Our course incorporates the human patient simulator for experiential learning in which undergraduate university juniors and seniors are instructed to design, conduct, and present (orally and in written form) their project testing physiological adaptation to an extreme environment. This article is a student report on the physiological response to acute carbon monoxide exposure in a simulated healthy adult male and a coal miner and represents how 1) human patient simulators can be used in a nonclinical way for experiential hypothesis testing; 2) students can transition from traditional textbook learning to practical application of their knowledge; and 3) student-initiated group investigation drives critical thought. While the course instructors remain available for consultation throughout the project, the relatively unstructured framework of the assignment drives the students to create an experiment independently, troubleshoot problems, and interpret the results. The only stipulation of the project is that the students must generate an experiment that is physiologically realistic and that requires them to search out and incorporate appropriate data from primary scientific literature. In this context, the human patient simulator is a viable educational tool for teaching integrative physiology in a laboratory environment by bridging textual information with experiential investigation. PMID:17108253

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen reduces delayed immune-mediated neuropathology in experimental carbon monoxide toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Stephen R. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6068 (United States) and Institute for Environmental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 1 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6068 (United States)]. E-mail: sthom@mail.med.upenn.edu; Bhopale, Veena M. [Institute for Environmental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 1 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6068 (United States); Fisher, Donald [Institute for Environmental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 1 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6068 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The goal of this investigation was to determine whether exposure to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO{sub 2}) would ameliorate biochemical and functional brain abnormalities in an animal model of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. In this model, CO-mediated oxidative stress causes chemical alterations in myelin basic protein (MBP), which initiates an adaptive immunological response that leads to a functional deficit. CO-exposed rats do not show improvements in task performance in a radial maze. We found that HBO{sub 2} given after CO poisoning will prevent this deficit, but not eliminate all of the CO-mediated biochemical alterations in MBP. MBP from HBO{sub 2} treated CO-exposed rats is recognized normally by a battery of antibodies, but exhibits an abnormal charge pattern. Lymphocytes from HBO{sub 2}-treated and control rats do not become activated when incubated with MBP, immunohistological evidence of microglial activation is not apparent, and functional deficits did not occur, unlike untreated CO-exposed rats. The results indicate that HBO{sub 2} prevents immune-mediated delayed neurological dysfunction following CO poisoning.

  15. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  16. Generalized chorea due to delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Ming-Hua; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Lee, Jiunn-Tay

    2015-01-01

    Movement disorder due to delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is uncommon. Generalized chorea, presenting as an initial symptom of delayed encephalopathy, is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman, who had completely recovered from acute CO poisoning, developed mental and behavioral changes, urinary incontinence and generalized chorea 2 weeks thereafter. T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive hyperintensity of the bilateral periventricular and subcortical white matter and the globus pallidus. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99 ethylene cysteine dimer showed inhomogeneous perfusion in the cerebral cortex, with decreased uptake in bilateral frontal regions. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication was diagnosed, and the symptoms gradually improved after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). This case report demonstrates that generalized chorea may be one of the initial presenting symptoms of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication. We hypothesize that the generalized chorea in our patient may have been caused by the subcortical white matter lesions, which most likely interrupted the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and that HBOT may be the treatment of choice for such patients. PMID:25745326

  17. Macrophages sense and kill bacteria through carbon monoxide–dependent inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Wegiel, Barbara; Larsen, Rasmus; Gallo, David; Chin, Beek Yoke; Harris, Clair; Mannam, Praveen; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Lee, Patty J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Flavell, Richard; Soares, Miguel P.; Otterbein, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial clearance by eukaryotes relies on complex and coordinated processes that remain poorly understood. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO) is generated by the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1), which is highly induced in macrophages in response to bacterial infection. HO-1 deficiency results in inadequate pathogen clearance, exaggerated tissue damage, and increased mortality. Here, we determined that macrophage-generated CO promotes ATP production and release by bacteria, which then activates the Nacht, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome, intensifying bacterial killing. Bacterial killing defects in HO-1–deficient murine macrophages were restored by administration of CO. Moreover, increased CO levels enhanced the bacterial clearance capacity of human macrophages and WT murine macrophages. CO-dependent bacterial clearance required the NALP3 inflammasome, as CO did not increase bacterial killing in macrophages isolated from NALP3-deficient or caspase-1–deficient mice. IL-1? cleavage and secretion were impaired in HO-1–deficient macrophages, and CO-dependent processing of IL-1? required the presence of bacteria-derived ATP. We found that bacteria remained viable to generate and release ATP in response to CO. The ATP then bound to macrophage nucleotide P2 receptors, resulting in activation of the NALP3/IL-1? inflammasome to amplify bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that macrophage-derived CO permits efficient and coordinated regulation of the host innate response to invading microbes. PMID:25295542

  18. Nonfatal, unintentional, non--fire-related carbon monoxide exposures--United States, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    2008-08-22

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating gas that is produced through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Sources of CO include combustion devices (e.g., boilers and furnaces), motor-vehicle exhaust, generators and other gasoline or diesel-powered engines, gas space heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and various occupational sources. CO poisoning is a leading cause of unintentional poisoning deaths in the United States; it was responsible for approximately 450 deaths each year during 1999-2004 and an estimated 15,200 emergency department (ED) visits each year during 2001-2003. Health effects of CO exposure can range from viral-like symptoms (e.g., fatigue, dizziness, headache, confusion, and nausea) to more severe conditions (e.g., disorientation, unconsciousness, long-term neurologic disabilities, coma, cardiorespiratory failure, and death). CO poisoning often is misdiagnosed and underdetected because of the nonspecific nature of symptoms. To update a previously published report and provide national estimates of CO-related ED visits during 2004-2006, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database. During 2004-2006, an estimated average of 20,636 ED visits for nonfatal, unintentional, non-fire-related CO exposures occurred each year. Approximately 73% of these exposures occurred in homes, and 41% occurred during winter months (December-February). Prevention efforts targeting residential and seasonal CO exposures can substantially reduce CO-related morbidity. PMID:18716581

  19. Ventilation requirements in buildings—II. particulate matter and carbon monoxide from cigarette smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaderer, Brian P.; Cain, William S.; Isseroff, Ruth; Berglund, Larry G.

    Current efforts to reduce ventilation rates in buildings may conserve energy, but may also possibly empair human health and welfare through increased levels of indoor contaminants. Combustion of tobacco is one important source of indoor pollution. We measured both steady state levels and decays of total suspended Particulate mass between 0.01 and 10?m (TSP) and carbon monoxide (CO) generated during various rates of cigarette smoking and at various rates of ventilation. The measurements took place in an aluminum-lined environmental test chamber. Ninety-eight per cent of the particulate mass fell between 0.05 and 1.0 ?m, with a volume median diameter of 0.225 ?m. For many combinations of smoking rate and ventilation rate, including ventilation rates above normal, TSP exceeded levels considered acceptable outdoors. This rarely occurred, however, with CO. Although ventilation above governed the removal of CO from the chamber, adsorption on surfaces (e.g. ductwork, walls) provided an additional mechanism for the removal of TSP. Even with the additional clearance offered by adsorption, however, particulate levels will exceed commonly accepted background levels unless ventilation during smoking equals the high value of about 35cfm (17.5/ -1) per occupant. An electrostatic precipitator, on the other hand, will drive TSP levels down to very low values in very short periods of time.

  20. On-road emission rates of carbon monoxide, nitrogen, oxides, and gaseous hyrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gorse, R.A. Jr.

    1984-07-01

    On-road emission rate measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/), and gaseous hydrocarbons (HC) from light-duty gasoline (spark-ignition) vehicles and from heavy-duty diesel vehicles operating at constant speed highway conditions are described. The measurements were made at the Allegheny Mountain Tunnel on the Pennsylvania Turnpike during July of 1981. Over 98,000 highway vehicle km were monitored during the study. The on-road results are compared with predictions from the EPA computer model MOBILE 2 and to other vehicle emissions studies. An effective vehicle speed was determined to account for the actual power requirements of vehicles going through the tunnel. The effective speed was then used in MOBILE 2 to predict the on-road results. CO and HC emission rates calculated by MOBILE 2 for low altitude compare within the standard deviations of the on-road measurements at the Allegheny elevation of 707 m, while predicted diesel NO/sub x/ is 2.3sigma above the on-road result and gasoline NO/sub x/ is 100% above the on-road upper limit. If the Allegheny elevation is sufficient to affect on-road emission rates, then MOBILE 2 also overpredicts CO emission rates by as much as 33%.

  1. Portable 4.6 Micrometers Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Carbon Monoxide Monitoring and Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    The air quality aboard manned spacecraft must be continuously monitored to ensure crew safety and identify equipment malfunctions. In particular, accurate real-time monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) levels helps to prevent chronic exposure and can also provide early detection of combustion-related hazards. For long-duration missions, environmental monitoring grows in importance, but the mass and volume of monitoring instruments must be minimized. Furthermore, environmental analysis beyond low-Earth orbit must be performed in-situ, as sample return becomes impractical. Due to their small size, low power draw, and performance reliability, semiconductor-laser-based absorption spectrometers are viable candidates for this purpose. To reduce instrument form factor and complexity, the emission wavelength of the laser source should coincide with strong fundamental absorption lines of the target gases, which occur in the 3 to 5 micrometers wavelength range for most combustion products of interest, thereby reducing the absorption path length required for low-level concentration measurements. To address the needs of current and future NASA missions, we have developed a prototype absorption spectrometer using a semiconductor quantum cascade laser source operating near 4.6 micrometers that can be used to detect low concentrations of CO with a compact single-pass absorption cell. In this study, we present the design of the prototype instrument and report on measurements of CO emissions from the combustion of a variety of aerospace plastics.

  2. Relation of Whole Blood Carboxyhemoglobin Concentration to Ambient Carbon Monoxide Exposure Estimated Using Regression

    PubMed Central

    Rudra, Carole B.; Williams, Michelle A.; Sheppard, Lianne; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schiff, Melissa A.; Frederick, Ihunnaya O.; Dills, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and other ambient air pollutants is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While there are several methods of estimating CO exposure, few have been evaluated against exposure biomarkers. The authors examined the relation between estimated CO exposure and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 708 pregnant western Washington State women (1996–2004). Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in whole blood drawn around 13 weeks’ gestation. CO exposure during the month of blood draw was estimated using a regression model containing predictor terms for year, month, street and population densities, and distance to the nearest major road. Year and month were the strongest predictors. Carboxyhemoglobin level was correlated with estimated CO exposure (? = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 0.29). After adjustment for covariates, each 10% increase in estimated exposure was associated with a 1.12% increase in median carboxyhemoglobin level (95% CI: 0.54, 1.69). This association remained after exclusion of 286 women who reported smoking or being exposed to secondhand smoke (? = 0.24). In this subgroup, the median carboxyhemoglobin concentration increased 1.29% (95% CI: 0.67, 1.91) for each 10% increase in CO exposure. Monthly estimated CO exposure was moderately correlated with an exposure biomarker. These results support the validity of this regression model for estimating ambient CO exposures in this population and geographic setting. PMID:20308199

  3. Assessing smoking behaviour among medical students by the measurement of expired carbon monoxide (CO).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula; Böhm, Gabriela; Ferstl, Florian; Groman, Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Smoking behaviour and prevalence rates among medical students and medical professionals are important public health issues, as physicians' attitudes and interventions are decisive for the patients' success in quitting smoking. Studies dealing with prevalence rates of smoking usually use only face-to-face interviews or self-administered questionnaires, which may induce vague findings. Additional measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide is an objective, easy, immediate, non-invasive and inexpensive mode of indicating smoking behaviour and will complement and at some stage replace the usual question regarding the number of cigarettes consumed. CO-measurement of 260 medical students was taken during compulsory public health training at the Medical University Vienna. Definite indication of active smoking was found in 12% of the students, 9.5% showed CO-levels between 6 and 10 ppm and 78% were definitely non-smokers with a CO level between 0 and 5 ppm. The students had the opportunity to get to know an important diagnostic technique and additionally learned about their own smoking habits. PMID:19225730

  4. Retrieval of Boundary Layer Carbon Monoxide with the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. C.; Warner, J. X.; Yurganov, L.; Wei, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a major industrial pollutant in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). CO also is a precursor for ozone production. An accurate measurement of lower Tropospheric CO is important to understand current pollution problems, ozone production, and tracer transport. In an attempt to measure lower Tropospheric CO we developed a physical retrieval algorithm that incorporates spectra from the up looking ground based hyperspectral interferometer known as AERI. The physical retrieval varies the CO profile from the surface up to approximately 3 kilometers. A model atmosphere containing the retrieved CO profile was used to create spectra from a forward model called kCARTA (kCompressed Radiative Transfer Algortihm). The CO profile is updated by linearizing the radiative transfer equation and utilizing a constrained inversion technique. Data for the AERI instrument was made available by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's (ARM) publicly available online archive. 57 atmospheric CO profiles from 2007 and 2008 are constructed from surface, tower, aircraft, and AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) measurements. A comparison of these atmospheric CO profiles to the AERI retrievals will be presented to illustrate AERI’s ability to measure lower Tropospheric CO values. Furthermore, an AERI plus AIRS retrieval system that utilizes the lower Tropospheric CO retrieval of AERI plus AIRS’ ability to retrieve values of CO in the free troposphere will be presented.

  5. Investigations of Two Bidirectional Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases from Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans by Protein Film Electrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Vincent C.-C.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH) catalyze the reversible conversion between CO and CO2. Several small molecules or ions are inhibitors and probes for different oxidation states of the unusual [Ni-4Fe-4S] cluster that forms the active site. The actions of these small probes on two enzymes, CODH ICh and CODH IICh, produced by Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans have been studied by protein film voltammetry to compare their behavior and establish general characteristics. Whereas CODH ICh is, so far, the best studied of the two isozymes in terms of its electrocatalytic properties, it is CODH IICh which has been characterized by x-ray crystallography. The two isozymes, which share 58.3% sequence identity and 73.9% sequence similarity, show similar patterns of behavior with regard to selective inhibition of CO2 reduction by CO (product) and cyanate, potent and selective inhibition of CO oxidation by cyanide, and with regard to the action of sulfide, which promotes oxidative inactivation of the enzyme. For both isozymes, rates of binding of substrate analogues CN? (for CO) and NCO? (for CO2) are orders of magnitude lower than turnover, a feature that is clearly revealed through hysteresis of cyclic voltammetry. Inhibition by CN? and CO is much stronger for CODH IICh compared to CODH ICh, a property that has relevance for applying these enzymes as model catalysts in solar-driven CO2 reduction. PMID:24002936

  6. Carbon monoxide exposure improves immune function in lupus-prone mice

    PubMed Central

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan P; Llanos, Carolina; Carreño, Leandro J; Riquelme, Sebastián A; Jacobelli, Sergio H; Anegon, Ignacio; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple alterations affecting the normal function of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes. Although the understanding of autoimmunity has significantly increased, the breakthrough in effective therapies has been modest, making necessary the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here we propose that a new potential target for therapy is haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an enzyme that catalyses the degradation of the haem group into biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO) and Fe2+. These products exhibit immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects, which can contribute to improving tolerance during organ transplantation. Because HO-1 is highly expressed by immune cells involved in SLE pathogenesis, such as monocytes and DCs, we evaluated whether induction of HO-1 expression or the administration of CO could ameliorate disease in the Fc?RIIb knockout (KO) mouse model for SLE. We found that CO administration decreased the expansion of CD11b+ cells, prevented the decline of regulatory T cells and reduced anti-histone antibodies observed in untreated Fc?RIIb KO mice. Furthermore, CO-treated animals and HO-1 induction showed less kidney damage compared with untreated mice. These data suggest that HO-1 modulation and CO administration can ameliorate autoimmunity and prevent the lupus symptoms shown by Fc?RIIb KO mice, highlighting HO-1 as a potential new target for autoimmune therapy. PMID:23691924

  7. Carbon monoxide in clouds at low metallicity in the dwarf irregular galaxy WLM.

    PubMed

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Rubio, Monica; Hunter, Deidre A; Verdugo, Celia; Brinks, Elias; Schruba, Andreas

    2013-03-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the primary tracer for interstellar clouds where stars form, but it has never been detected in galaxies in which the oxygen abundance relative to hydrogen is less than 20 per cent of that of the Sun, even though such 'low-metallicity' galaxies often form stars. This raises the question of whether stars can form in dense gas without molecules, cooling to the required near-zero temperatures by atomic transitions and dust radiation rather than by molecular line emission; and it highlights uncertainties about star formation in the early Universe, when the metallicity was generally low. Here we report the detection of CO in two regions of a local dwarf irregular galaxy, WLM, where the metallicity is 13 per cent of the solar value. We use new submillimetre observations and archival far-infrared observations to estimate the cloud masses, which are both slightly greater than 100,000 solar masses. The clouds have produced stars at a rate per molecule equal to 10 per cent of that in the local Orion nebula cloud. The CO fraction of the molecular gas is also low, about 3 per cent of the Milky Way value. These results suggest that in small galaxies both star-forming cores and CO molecules become increasingly rare in molecular hydrogen clouds as the metallicity decreases. PMID:23538829

  8. Kinetics and mechanisms of iron sulfide reductions in hydrogen and in carbon monoxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiltowski, T.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, G.V.; Nishizawa, T.; Saporoschenko, M.; Shiley, R.H.; Webster, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The reduction of iron sulfides by hydrogen and by carbon monoxide has been studied using plug flow and thermogravimetric methods. The reactions were studied in the 523-723??K temperature range and were found to be first-order processes. Plug flow studies were used to correlate reaction rates between pyrite and the gases as a function of the surface area of the pyrite. The rate of H2S formation increases with the surface area of the pyrite sample. The results of thermogravimetric experiments indicate that the reactions consist of several steps. Rate constants for the pyrite reduction by H2 and by CO were obtained. The activation energies increased with degree of reduction. Values of Ea were 113.2 (step I) and 122.5 kJ/mole (step II) for pyrite reduction with CO and 99.4 (step I), 122.4 (step II), 125.2 (step III), and 142.6 kJ/mole (step IV) for pyrite reduction with hydrogen. ?? 1987.

  9. Disruption of cochlear potentials by chemical asphyxiants. Cyanide and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Tawackoli, W; Chen, G D; Fechter, L D

    2001-01-01

    While ischemia, hypoxic hypoxia, and carbon monoxide (CO) have received extensive study designed to characterize mechanisms by which they disrupt cochlear function, little data are available concerning cyanide's potential to disrupt auditory function. In this study, disruption of the compound action potential (CAP) and endocochlear potential (EP) by cyanide and CO was compared in rats treated with potassium cyanide (KCN) (7 mg/kg ip), saline, CO (35 ml/kg ip), and air. Acute KCN administration significantly suppressed CAP and EP transiently. The effect was seen initially on EP with CAP impairment occurring a few minutes later. Acute CO injection also suppressed the CAP significantly, but the effect was far smaller, occurred later in time, and lasted longer than the effect of KCN. The effect of CO on EP was equivocal. There was a good correspondence between blood cyanide levels and impairment of cochlear function; carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) levels were elevated during the period when cochlear function was impaired, but recovery of cochlear function preceded the return of normal oxyhemoglobin. Both KCN and CO had somewhat preferential effects on high-frequency tones. Repeated cyanide administration caused a persistent CAP threshold elevation despite the rapid recovery of EP and CAP observed following acute KCN administration. The data suggest that acute KCN administration has a prominent disruptive effect at the stria vascularis presumably by disrupting the electron transport chain in this metabolically active structure. The principal target for acute CO ototoxicity in the cochlea is probably not the stria vascularis. PMID:11348833

  10. Fossil-fueled power plants as a source of atmospheric carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Nicks, D K; Holloway, J S; Ryerson, T B; Dissly, R W; Parrish, D D; Frost, G J; Trainer, M; Donnelly, S G; Schauffler, S; Atlas, E L; Hübler, G; Sueper, D T; Fehsenfeld, F C

    2003-02-01

    Elevated carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in excess of those derived from emissions inventories have been observed in plumes from one gas- and coal-fired power plant and three of four lignite coal-fired electric utility power plants observed in east and central Texas. Observations of elevated CO on days characterized by differing wind directions show that CO emissions from the lignite plants were relatively constant over time and cannot be ascribed to separate sources adjacent to the power plants. These three plants were found to be emitting CO at rates 22 to 34 times those tabulated in State and Federal emissions inventories. Elevated CO emissions from the gas- and coal-fired plant were highly variable on time scales of hours to days, in one case changing by a factor of 8 within an hour. Three other fossil-fueled power plants, including one lignite-fired plant observed during this study, did not emit substantial amounts of CO, suggesting that a combination of plant operating conditions and the use of lignite coal may contribute to the enhanced emissions. Observed elevated CO emissions from the three lignite plants, if representative of average operating conditions, represent an additional 30% of the annual total CO emissions from point sources for the state of Texas. PMID:12619754

  11. Waterpipe cafes in Baltimore, Maryland: Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Torrey, Christine M; Moon, Katherine A; Williams, D' Ann L; Green, Tim; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-07-01

    Waterpipe smoking has been growing in popularity in the United States and worldwide. Most tobacco control regulations remain limited to cigarettes. Few studies have investigated waterpipe tobacco smoke exposures in a real world setting. We measured carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM)2.5, and airborne nicotine concentrations in seven waterpipe cafes in the greater Baltimore area. Area air samples were collected between two and five hours, with an average sampling duration of three hours. Waterpipe smoking behaviors were observed at each venue. Indoor air samplers for CO, PM2.5, and airborne nicotine were placed in the main seating area 1-2?m above the floor. Indoor airborne concentrations of PM2.5 and CO were markedly elevated in waterpipe cafes and exceeded concentrations that were observed in cigarette smoking bars. Air nicotine concentrations, although not as high as in venues that allow cigarette smoking, were markedly higher than in smoke-free bars and restaurants. Concentrations of PM approached occupational exposure limits and CO exceeded occupational exposure guidelines suggesting that worker protection measures need to be considered. This study adds to the literature indicating that both employees and patrons of waterpipe venues are at increased risk from complex exposures to secondhand waterpipe smoke. PMID:24736103

  12. Carbon monoxide: A new player in the redox regulation of connexin hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Mauricio A; León-Paravic, Carmen G; Ezquer, Marcelo; Ezquer, Fernando; Rio, Rodrigo Del; Pupo, Amaury; Martínez, Agustín D; González, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous transmitter that is known to be involved in several physiological processes, but surprisingly it is also becoming a promising molecule to treat several pathologies including stroke and cancer. CO can cross the plasma membrane and activate guanylate cyclase, increasing the cGMP concentration and activating some kinases, including PKG. The other mechanism of action involves induction of protein carbonylation. CO is known to directly and indirectly modulate the function of ion channels at the plasma membrane, which in turn have important repercussions in the cellular behavior. One group of these channels is hemichannels, which are formed by proteins known as connexins (Cxs). Hemichannel allows not only the flow of ions through their pore but also the release of molecules such as ATP and glutamate. Therefore, their modulation not only impacts cellular function but also cellular communication, having the capability to affect tissular behavior. Here, we review the most recent results regarding the effect of CO on Cx hemichannels and their possible repercussions on pathologies. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 67(6):428-437, 2015. PMID:26031630

  13. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, G G [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  14. Factors affecting exhaled carbon monoxide levels in coffeehouses in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bahcebasi, Talat; Kandis, Hayati; Baltaci, Davut; Kara, Ismail Hamdi

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate indoor air quality and factors affecting expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels in a coffeehouse environment. This cross-sectional study was conducted at 16 randomly selected coffeehouses in Duzce, Turkey, during November 2007 to March 2008. A total of 547 people, average age 46.72 ± 17.03 (19-82) years, participated. The selected coffeehouses were divided into four groups: (1) smoking, (2) nonsmoking, (3) old-style and (iv) new-style coffeehouses. Prior to entering the coffeehouse, exhaled CO levels in smokers (mean 21.17 ± 6.73 parts per million [ppm]) were significantly higher than those for nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). Measurements taken after 2 hours in the coffeehouse also showed significantly higher CO concentrations for smokers (22.72 ± 5.31 ppm), compared to nonsmokers (6.51 ± 4.56 ppm; p < 0.001). It was determined that CO levels inside coffee shops were above the WHO guidelines. Exhaled CO levels in nonsmokers are influenced by the ambient CO levels as a result of the use of cigarettes in coffeehouses in addition to the structure of coffeehouses. PMID:20858650

  15. Efficient photosynthesis of carbon monoxide from CO2 using perovskite photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Marcel; Curvat, Laura; Giordano, Fabrizio; Steier, Ludmilla; Abate, Antonio; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Luo, Jingshan; Mayer, Matthew T; Grätzel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, mimicking nature in its efforts to store solar energy, has received considerable attention from the research community. Most of these attempts target the production of H2 as a fuel and our group recently demonstrated solar-to-hydrogen conversion at 12.3% efficiency. Here, in an effort to take this approach closer to real photosynthesis, which is based on the conversion of CO2, we demonstrate the efficient reduction of CO2 to carbon monoxide driven solely by simulated sunlight using water as the electron source. Employing series-connected perovskite photovoltaics and high-performance catalyst electrodes, we reach a solar-to-CO efficiency exceeding 6.5%, which represents a new benchmark in sunlight-driven CO2 conversion. Considering hydrogen as a secondary product, an efficiency exceeding 7% is observed. Furthermore, this study represents one of the first demonstrations of extended, stable operation of perovskite photovoltaics, whose large open-circuit voltage is shown to be particularly suited for this process. PMID:26065697

  16. Generalized chorea due to delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Ming-Hua; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Lee, Jiunn-Tay

    2015-01-01

    Movement disorder due to delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is uncommon. Generalized chorea, presenting as an initial symptom of delayed encephalopathy, is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman, who had completely recovered from acute CO poisoning, developed mental and behavioral changes, urinary incontinence and generalized chorea 2 weeks thereafter. T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive hyperintensity of the bilateral periventricular and subcortical white matter and the globus pallidus. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99 ethylene cysteine dimer showed inhomogeneous perfusion in the cerebral cortex, with decreased uptake in bilateral frontal regions. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication was diagnosed, and the symptoms gradually improved after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). This case report demonstrates that generalized chorea may be one of the initial presenting symptoms of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication. We hypothesize that the generalized chorea in our patient may have been caused by the subcortical white matter lesions, which most likely interrupted the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and that HBOT may be the treatment of choice for such patients. PMID:25745326

  17. Indoor Carbon Monoxide: A Case Study in England for Detection and Interventions to Reduce Population Exposure

    PubMed Central

    McCann, L. J.; Close, R.; Staines, L.; Weaver, M.; Cutter, G.; Leonardi, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Potential exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) in private homes is largely unquantified. Aim. To estimate prevalence of potential exposure to CO in residential dwellings and describe associated interventions in an inner-city community. Methods. A housing association in London, Hackney Homes, began fitting CO alarms in the 22,831 local authority homes it is responsible for in January 2010. A gas engineer investigated each alarm activation and recorded the information on a standard form. We undertook a cross-sectional study of all 22,831 homes, using data from these forms. Descriptive analysis was performed, including incidence, monthly variation, cause of alarm activation, and actions taken. Results. Between November 2011 and April 2012, 106 incidents were reported. Of these, 34.6% identified an issue with a gas appliance, and 10.6% identified misuse of cooking methods as the cause of activation. Relevant interventions were put in place, including disconnection of the gas appliance and education around cooking methods. Discussion. Little is known about the burden of CO poisoning in residential dwellings. This study provides important information on the path to quantifying population exposure to CO as well as establishing a possible approach to access this key information and realistic interventions to reduce potential exposure. PMID:23690806

  18. Search for Carbon Monoxide in the atmosphere of the Transiting Exoplanet HD189733b

    E-print Network

    Desert, Jean-Michel; Hebrard, Guillaume; Sing, David K; Ehrenreich, David; Ferlet, Roger; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Water, methane and carbon-monoxide are expected to be among the most abundant molecules besides molecular hydrogen in the hot atmosphere of close-in EGPs. Transit observations in the mid-IR allow the atmospheric content of transiting planets to be determined. We present new primary transit observations of the hot-jupiter HD189733b, obtained simultaneously at 4.5 and 8 micron with IRAC instrument onboard Spitzer. Together with a new refined analysis of previous observations at 3.6 and 5.8 micron using the same instrument, we are able to derive the system parameters, including planet-to-star radius ratio, impact parameter, scale of the system, and central time of the transit from fits of the transit light curves at these four wavelengths. We measure the four planet-to-star radius ratios, to be (R_p/R_*)= 0.1545 +/- 0.0003, 0.1557 +/- 0.0003, 0.1547 +/- 0.0005, 0.1544 +/- 0.0004 at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 micron respectively. The high accuracy of the measurement allows the search for atmospheric molecular absorbers...

  19. Dark adaptation of the eye during carbon monoxide exposure in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    von Restorff, W; Hebisch, S

    1988-10-01

    Smoking and engine exhaust fumes are the most common sources of unnoticed carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. In the military environment, incomplete burning of gun powder or flying at altitude may be additional hazards, especially at night, since the eye is very sensitive to any lack of oxygen supply. Dark adaptation time and light sensitivity of the dark adapted eye was measured in five young healthy smokers and nonsmokers during CO exposure. Breathing 70 and 100 ppm CO in the inspired air after a prime dose of 5,000 ppm for 5 or 8 min resulted in an almost linear increase of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) saturation up to 19.1 +/- 1.0% HbCO in smokers as compared to 17.5 +/- 1.9% in nonsmokers. Dark adaptation time was longer and light sensitivity of the dark adapted eye was reduced in smokers as compared to nonsmokers at comparable levels of both inspired CO and HbCO. The cause for this may be the chronic poisoning with CO, stemming from cigarette smoking. PMID:3190619

  20. Suppression of inflammatory cell trafficking and alveolar simplification by the heme oxygenase-1 product carbon monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Anuli C.; Bentley, J. Kelley; Popova, Antonia P.; Malas, Omar; Alghanem, Husam; Goldsmith, Adam M.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a lung disease of prematurely born infants, is characterized in part by arrested development of pulmonary alveolae. We hypothesized that heme oxygenase (HO-1) and its byproduct carbon monoxide (CO), which are thought to be cytoprotective against redox stress, mitigate lung injury and alveolar simplification in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice, a model of BPD. Three-day-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to air or hyperoxia (FiO2, 75%) in the presence or absence of inhaled CO (250 ppm for 1 h twice daily) for 21 days. Hyperoxic exposure increased mean linear intercept, a measure of alveolar simplification, whereas CO treatment attenuated hypoalveolarization, yielding a normal-appearing lung. Conversely, HO-1-null mice showed exaggerated hyperoxia-induced hypoalveolarization. CO also inhibited hyperoxia-induced pulmonary accumulation of F4/80+, CD11c+, and CD11b+ monocytes and Gr-1+ neutrophils. Furthermore, CO attenuated lung mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including the monocyte chemoattractant CCL2 in vivo, and decreased hyperoxia-induced type I alveolar epithelial cell CCL2 production in vitro. Hyperoxia-exposed CCL2-null mice, like CO-treated mice, showed attenuated alveolar simplification and lung infiltration of CD11b+ monocytes, consistent with the notion that CO blocks lung epithelial cell cytokine production. We conclude that, in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice, inhalation of CO suppresses inflammation and alveolar simplification. PMID:24532288