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1

Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public  

E-print Network

Staets1979 through 1988. JAMA 1991;266:659-63 3. Ernst A, Zibrak JD. Carbon monoxide poisoning. N Engl J.graber@maine.gov #12;EPHT Branch Monthly Brown BagEPHT Branch Monthly Brown Bag ---- Carbon Monoxide PoisoningCarbon-based surveillance system for carbon monoxide poisoning Judith M. Graber, M.S. Andrew E. Smith, Sc.D. Maine

2

Carbon Monoxide (CO)  

MedlinePLUS

... Basic Information on Pollutants and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution Asbestos Biological Pollutants Carbon Monoxide (CO) Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood Products Lead (Pb) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ... Read "Care for Your Air: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality" Carbon monoxide ...

3

Carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

Dolan, Michael C.

1985-01-01

4

Carbon monoxide intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

1993-11-01

5

Estimating carbon monoxide exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method predicts effects of carbon monoxide on astronauts confined in spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Information on need for low toxicity level also applies to confined spaces. Benefits are applicable to industry and public health.

Edgerley, R. H.

1971-01-01

6

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved home insulation and increased use of space heaters have increased the potential for accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the home. CO is a major environmental pollutant in today's society and is also contained in cigarette smoke. The toxic effects, metabolic pathways, and treatment of CO poisoning are described.

D. L. Jackson; H. Menges

1980-01-01

7

Analysis of carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

The degree of exposure to carbon monoxide is most often assessed by measuring the blood carboxyhaemoglobin saturation. This measurement is relevant to investigations of acute accidental or deliberate poisoning and of chronic exposure in a domestic or work place environment. Simple spectrophotometric methods based on differential protein precipitation or dithionite reduction are prone to interference from other haemoglobin pigments and are imprecise for low-level estimations. Automated spectrophotometric devices (CO-oximeters) that estimate simultaneously total haemoglobin, percentage oxyhaemoglobin and percentage carboxyhaemoglobin have acceptable accuracy for carboxyhaemoglobin saturation levels of > 5% and are recommended for most clinical purposes. For the investigation of low-level exposure and the detection of increased haemolysis in neonates, more sensitive methods involving the release of carbon monoxide and its measurement by gas chromatography are required. Gas chromatographic methods are also appropriate when examining post-mortem blood samples where putrefaction or heat stress has resulted in a significant change in haemoglobin composition. PMID:12117442

Widdop, Brian

2002-07-01

8

Carbon Monoxide: The Silent Killer  

MedlinePLUS

... and stoves to keep warm or use portable generators without proper ventilation. “This colorless, odorless gas is ... all gas appliances (grills, camp stoves, power tools, generators, etc.) are properly vented so that carbon monoxide ...

9

Carbon Monoxide and Population Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to investigate the carbon monoxide level at a fixed latitude. Using the LAS, students will download data, and then will use Excel to create maps of the carbon monoxide level for a particular latitude. They will then look for trends and explore the population density for selected points along the latitude (urban or rural). The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes.

2010-03-14

10

(Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

Not Available

1989-01-01

11

Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by

J. P. Farber; P. J. Schwartz; E. Vanoli; M. Stramba-Badiale; G. M. De Ferrari

1990-01-01

12

MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

2002-01-01

13

Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. (Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City (USA))

1990-12-01

14

40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory... (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide periodic emission...submitted a revision to the Carbon Monoxide (CO) maintenance...CO. [59 FR 47807, Sept. 19, 1994, as amended at 62...

2010-07-01

15

Parkinsonism after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, parkinsonism was diagnosed in 23 (9.5%). There were 11 men and 12 women. The age at onset ranged from 16 to 69 (mean 45.8) years, with the peak incidence during the 6th decade. The latency before the appearance of parkinsonism varied from 2 to 26 (median 4)

Il Saing Choi

2002-01-01

16

Carbon monoxide hazards in rural Alaskan homes.  

PubMed

Alaska has the highest age-adjusted death rate from unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in the nation. We conducted a study in five villages to determine carbon monoxide levels and sources. Nearly 10% (10/105) of the homes had elevated levels. Improperly vented propane Paloma water heaters were most commonly responsible and produced the highest levels of carbon monoxide. Other sources were leaking pipes from wood stoves and stoves that had been left on for several hours. We recommend that Paloma water heaters not be used where freezing temperatures create a risk for carbon monoxide poisoning, fires, and explosion. Safety education campaigns should note the risks of Paloma water heaters and defective stove pipes, and the need for increased kitchen ventilation during prolonged cooking. Medical workers need to be informed of the prevalence of carbon monoxide exposures. Homeowners can install carbon monoxide detectors, although expense and false alarms remain barriers to their use. PMID:9112790

Howell, J; Keiffer, M P; Berger, L R

1997-01-01

17

Carbon monoxide intoxication in cigar smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  This report combines the known effects of carbon monoxide with a heretofore unreported source of exposure. The role of carbon\\u000a monoxide intoxication from smoking has been little emphasized in producing decreased arterial oxygen saturation particularly\\u000a as determined by the present laboratory methods and may well be more common than recognized in polycythemia.\\u000a \\u000a Carbon monoxide also appears to have a direct

W. Hamill; R. P. O'Neill

1923-01-01

18

Environmental Carbon Monoxide Related to Pregnancy Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide pollution frequently occurs due to auto exhaust, industrial emissions, and\\/or cigarette smoke. Exogenous and endogenous carbon monoxide affects blood pressure; however, the relation of carbon monoxide exposure to pregnancy hypertension has not been systematically examined. For the present study the authors recruited a total of 2,707 apparently healthy, non-obese, non-smoking mothers, aged between 15 and 40 years, who

Mohsen Vigeh; Masoud Yunesian; Mamak Shariat; Shireen Niroomanesh; Fateme Ramezanzadeh

2011-01-01

19

40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.729 Section...52.729 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. The following...Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state...excess air beginning January 19, 1996, and ending August...

2010-07-01

20

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2014-07-01

21

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2011-07-01

22

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2012-07-01

23

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2011-07-01

24

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2010-07-01

25

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2013-07-01

26

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2013-07-01

27

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2010-07-01

28

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall...

2012-07-01

29

40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...redesignate the City of Manchester carbon monoxide nonattainment...violation of the carbon monoxide NAAQS...New Hampshire's low emission vehicle...tons per day for carbon monoxide to be...redesignate the City of Nashua...

2010-07-01

30

Echocardiographic findings after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial lesions are frequently seen at necropsy after fatal carbon monoxide poisoning. Clinically, while there have been numerous reports of chest pain and electrocardiographic changes associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning, other evidence for left ventricular abnormality has not been reported. The echocardiographic findings in five cases of non-fatal poisoning are presented here. Abnormal left ventricular wall motion was shown

B C Corya; M J Black; P L McHenry

1976-01-01

31

Severe chorea after acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide, a 33-year-old woman exhibited severe chorea. CT scan revealed bilateral lucencies of the pallidum and anterior arm of the internal capsule. Chorea was successfully treated by chlorpromazine and did not relapse after treatment withdrawal. The mechanism of chorea in acute carbon monoxide poisoning is discussed.

P Davous; P Rondot; M H Marion; B Gueguen

1986-01-01

32

The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

2006-01-01

33

Carbon monoxide and the burning earth  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide is one of many gases whose presence in the atmosphere is blamed largely on industrial activity in the Northern Hemisphere. Data collected by the authors show that the gas is also abundant in the Southern Hemisphere, where it comes mainly from the burning of tropical rain forests and savannas. The high levels of carbon monoxide confirm other evidence that the rain forests are being diminished rapidly, which may affect the climates of these regions as well as globally. Increases in carbon monoxide could also encourage the accumulation of pollutant gases such as ozone and methane. The first is highly toxic to plants and the second would add to the greenhouse effect.

Newell, R.E.; Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Seiler, W.

1989-10-01

34

An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

1999-01-01

35

Global Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide in 2000 (WMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This visualization shows global carbon monoxide concentrations at the 500 millibar altitude in the atmosphere from March 1, 2000 through December 31, 2000. Areas in red have 200 parts per billion of carbon monoxide or more at that altitude (around 5,500 meters), while areas in blue are 50 parts per billion or less. Carbon monoxide is an atmospheric pollutant and the highest concentrations come from grassland and forest fires in Africa and South America, although there is evidence that industrial sources may also be a factor. Atmospheric circulation rapidly moves the carbon monoxide to other parts of the world once it has reached this altitude. This data was measured by the MOPITT instrument on the Terra satellite.

Eric Sokolowsky

2004-02-12

36

Neurological manifestation of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical signs and post-mortem findings in a case of carbon monoxide poisoning are described, and correlated with the computer tomographic (CT) scan appearances. The value of serial CT scanning as a diagnostic tool is highlighted.

I. K. Hart; P. G. Kennedy; J. H. Adams; N. E. Cunningham

1988-01-01

37

Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup. PMID:23762709

Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram

2013-01-01

38

Neurologic complications of carbon monoxide intoxication.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning remains a common neurologic problem as it causes more than one-half of fatal poisonings in many countries leading frequently to acute and delayed brain injury. Mild carbon monoxide intoxication is difficult to diagnose as symptoms can be nonspecific and therefore can be easily misdiagnosed. Common acute and delayed clinical presentations and their associated neuropathology and neuroimaging findings are discussed. Treatment remains limited and outcome is highly variable. PMID:24365364

Betterman, Kerstin; Patel, Surju

2014-01-01

39

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning commonly have cognitive sequelae. We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric-oxygen treatment on such cognitive sequelae. Methods We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic acute carbon monoxide poisoning in equal proportions to three chamber sessions within a 24-hour period, consisting of either three hyperbaric-oxygen treatments or one normobaric-oxygen treatment

Lindell K. Weaver; Ramona O. Hopkins; Karen J. Chan; Susan Churchill; C. Gregory Elliott; Terry P. Clemmer; James F. Orme; Frank O. Thomas; Alan H. Morris

2002-01-01

40

Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Monoxide  

PubMed Central

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laboratories have used sepsis, acute lung injury, and systemic inflammatory challenges to assess the ability of CO to rescue cells, organs, and organisms. Hopefully, the research supporting the protective effects of CO in animal models will translate into therapeutic benefits for patients. Preclinical studies of CO are now moving towards more complex damage models that reflect polymicrobial sepsis or two-step injuries, such as sepsis complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, co-treatment and post-treatment with CO are being explored in which the insult occurs before there is an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic implications of CO with a focus on lung injury and sepsis-related models. PMID:24648866

Knauert, Melissa; Vangala, Sandeep; Haslip, Maria; Lee, Patty J.

2013-01-01

41

CARBON MONOXIDE AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and there...

42

Carbon monoxide and the nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and thereby reducing oxygen (O2) delivery to the body's organs and tissues. High COHb concentrations are poisonous. Central nervous system (CNS)

J. A Raub; V. A Benignus

2002-01-01

43

Metabolic modulation of carbon monoxide toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) gas is a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels and substances. From a public health perspective, CO poisoning may be the cause of more than 50% of fatal poisonings in many industrial countries. The adverse effects of CO poisoning may be more widespread because of unreported situations and delayed neurologic effects, which may be linked

2002-01-01

44

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to

N. M. Senozan; J. A. Devore

1996-01-01

45

Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

Wayland, B.B.

1992-12-01

46

Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

Elek, Louis F. (Peekskill, NY); Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1984-01-01

47

Comparison of Three CarbonComparison of Three Carbon Monoxide Databases in ConnecticutMonoxide Databases in Connecticut  

E-print Network

Comparison of Three CarbonComparison of Three Carbon Monoxide Databases in ConnecticutMonoxide Monoxide ReportingCarbon Monoxide Reporting According to CPCC and DPHAccording to CPCC and DPH 0 50 100 150 the Connecticut Poison Control Centerthe Connecticut Poison Control Center MaryMary AdamcewiczAdamcewicz Summer

48

[Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

Not Available

1989-12-31

49

DIURNAL VARIATIONS IN CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS, TRAFFIC COUNTS AND METEOROLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Although pollutant emission patterns play important roles, they cannot adequately explain the diurnal variations in carbon monoxide concentrations found in urban areas. In this study, hourly data from a large network of carbon monoxide monitoring stations, with instrumentation co...

50

Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples  

E-print Network

Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice with extraterrestrial, carbon monoxide bearing ices. The chemical modifications were monitored on line and in situ via of carbon monoxide and on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial ice analog samples. 1

Kaiser, Ralf I.

51

Early carbon monoxide intoxication: happy to be poisoned?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide poisoning is the commonest cause of death by poisoning in the UK and chronic exposure is thought to be a frequently missed diagnosis. Early recognition of carbon monoxide poisoning is vital to institute prompt treatment and to prevent exposure to others. An incident of mass exposure to carbon monoxide is presented where euphoria, lasting several hours, was the

S F J Clarke; A Crosby; D Kumar

2005-01-01

52

Carbon monoxide poisoning — a public health perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries; fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or misdiagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxication is not known. The health effects associated with exposure to CO range from the more subtle cardiovascular and

James A. Raub; Monique Mathieu-Nolf; Neil B. Hampson; Stephen R. Thom

2000-01-01

53

DIRECT CARBON MONOXIDE PHOTOPRODUCTION FROM PLANT MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Initial studies to quantify direct carbon monoxide photoproduction from several plant species are reported. n addition to measuring CO emissions from live plant leaves, emission rates from dead leaf matter were also determined. enescent leaf matter photoproduced CO at rates that ...

54

Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

Cooper, Anna Grossman

55

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

1977-01-01

56

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed postanoxic encephalopathy causes deterioration and relapse of cognitive ability and behavioural movement a few weeks after complete recovery from initial hypoxic injury. A case is reported of delayed postanoxic encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning, which was diagnosed with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The literature is also reviewed.

O Y Kwon; S P Chung; Y R Ha; I S Yoo; S W Kim

2004-01-01

57

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

58

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

1996-08-01

59

Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide  

DOEpatents

There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

2000-01-01

60

ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide is formed as a result of combustion of any carbon compound and can lead to hypoxia in many organs including the brain and the heart. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States is the leading cause of the fatal poisonings. In this study we present a case with no-known accompanying disease in the light of literature where myocardial infarction was developed as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning.

Gonullu, Hayriye; Karadas, Sevdegul; Aydin, Irfan; Vuruskan, Ertan

2011-01-01

61

Delayed leukoencephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication  

PubMed Central

Delayed leukoencephalopathy is an uncommon complication of hypoxic-ischemic events of different etiologies, including carbon monoxide intoxication. We present a case of a 40-year-old male patient who was admitted with rapidly progressive neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. There was a history of accidental carbon monoxide intoxication one month before, presenting with loss of consciousness and short hospitalization, followed by a complete clinical recovery. The imaging studies in the delayed phase depicted confluent, symmetric supra-tentorial white matter lesions in keeping with diffuse demyelinization. Restricted diffusion and metabolite abnormalities in magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy were also seen. The diagnosis of CO-mediated delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy was assumed after exclusion of other mimickers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was tentatively performed and the patient had a favorable clinical and radiological evolution. PMID:25426224

Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Silva, Cristiana; Neutel, Dulce; Neto, Lia Lucas; Albuquerque, Luísa

2014-01-01

62

Delayed leukoencephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication.  

PubMed

Delayed leukoencephalopathy is an uncommon complication of hypoxic-ischemic events of different etiologies, including carbon monoxide intoxication. We present a case of a 40-year-old male patient who was admitted with rapidly progressive neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. There was a history of accidental carbon monoxide intoxication one month before, presenting with loss of consciousness and short hospitalization, followed by a complete clinical recovery. The imaging studies in the delayed phase depicted confluent, symmetric supra-tentorial white matter lesions in keeping with diffuse demyelinization. Restricted diffusion and metabolite abnormalities in magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy were also seen. The diagnosis of CO-mediated delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy was assumed after exclusion of other mimickers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was tentatively performed and the patient had a favorable clinical and radiological evolution. PMID:25426224

Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Silva, Cristiana; Neutel, Dulce; Neto, Lia Lucas; Albuquerque, Luísa

2014-05-01

63

Delayed Movement Disorders after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 242 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning examined between 1986 and 1996, delayed movement disorders were diagnosed in 32 (13.2%). There were 15 men and 17 women. Ages at insult ranged from 9 to 69 years (mean 45.3 years). Of the 32 patients with delayed movement disorders, 23 (71.9%) had parkinsonism, 5 dystonia, 3 chorea and 1 myoclonus. All

Il Saing Choi; Hwa Young Cheon

1999-01-01

64

Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Carbon Composite Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed that can be incorporated into an existing sensing array architecture. The CO sensor is a low-power chemiresistor that operates at room temperature, and the sensor fabrication techniques are compatible with ceramic substrates. Sensors made from four different polymers were tested: poly (4-vinylpryridine), ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer, polyepichlorohydrin, and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The carbon black used for the composite films was Black Pearls 2000, a furnace black made by the Cabot Corporation. Polymers and carbon black were used as received. In fact, only two of these sensors showed a good response to CO. The poly (4-vinylpryridine) sensor is noisy, but it does respond to the CO above 200 ppm. The polyepichlorohydrin sensor is less noisy and shows good response down to 100 ppm.

Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.

2011-01-01

65

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b  

E-print Network

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B7 Received 17 February 2001 Abstract Carbon monoxide was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a hot-®lament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system

Zheng, Yufeng

66

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23

67

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

68

Myocardial Rupture following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

We present the first case of severe cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide leading to myocardial rupture and fatal outcome. 83-year-old woman was hospitalized 4 hours after the fire in her house with no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. After two days, she has suffered sudden collapse leading to cardiac arrest. Postmortem examination revealed intramural haemorrhage with myocardial rupture at the apex of the left ventricle. Minimal stenosis was noted in the proximal coronary arteries with no evidence of distal occlusion or any other long-standing heart disease. This case supports recommendations for targeted cardiovascular investigations in cases of CO poisoning. PMID:25110594

Dragelyt?, Gabija; Plenta, J?ris; Chmieliauskas, Sigitas; Jasulaitis, Algimantas; Raudys, Romas; Jovaiša, Tomas; Badaras, Robertas

2014-01-01

69

40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section...oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements...oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide in the San Francisco...and title submitted on July 19, 1983 and approved by EPA...

2010-07-01

70

Electrochimica Acta 49 (2004) 23332341 Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer electrolyte  

E-print Network

Electrochimica Acta 49 (2004) 2333­2341 Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer reserved. Keywords: Fuel cell; Hydrogen; Carbon monoxide poisoning; Reformer; Automotive 1. Introduction containing diluted hydrogen and trace quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) was experimentally investigated

71

40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts...

2014-07-01

72

Global decrease in atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CARBON monoxide plays an important role in the oxidizing capacity of the Earth's atmosphere, and may thereby indirectly affect the concentrations of many man-made and natural trace gases, which in turn affect climate, atmospheric chemistry and the ozone layer1. CO is produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of methane and other hydrocarbons, and is released into the atmosphere from automobiles, agricultural waste and the burning of savanna1-4. Recent estimates1 show that human activities such as these are presently responsible for more than half the annual emissions of CO. During the 1980s there was evidence that atmospheric CO concentrations were increasing at ~1.2+/-0.6% per year, leading to feedbacks that could amplify global warming. Here we present a continuation of these measurements which show that from 1988 to 1992 global CO concentrations have started to decline rapidly at a rate of about -2.6+/-0.8% per year. A recent study5 has verified our findings with data from the past 3-4 years. The rate of decrease is particularly rapid in the Southern Hemisphere; we hypothesize that this may reflect a reduction in tropical biomass burning. The total amount of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is less now than a decade ago.

Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.

1994-08-01

73

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation. PMID:25109087

Weaver, Lindell K

2014-01-01

74

Carbon monoxide and exercise tolerance in chronic bronchitis and emphysema  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of carbon monoxide on exercise tolerance as assessed by the distance walked in 12 minutes were studied in 15 patients with severe chronic bronchitis and emphysema (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 0.56 1, mean forced vital capacity 1.54 1). Each subject walked breathing air and oxygen before and after exposure to sufficient carbon monoxide to raise

P M Calverley; R J Leggett; D C Flenley

1981-01-01

75

Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

1983-01-01

76

Carbon Monoxide: Its Role in Photochemical Smog Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photochemistry of trace amounts of isobutene and oxides of nitrogen in an atmosphere of air was studied both in the presence and in the absence of small amounts of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide accelerates the reaction as measured by nitric oxide oxidation or ozone formation. This finding has relevance to photochemical smog formation.

Karl Westberg; Norman Cohen; K. W. Wilson

1971-01-01

77

Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

1972-01-01

78

Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

1995-12-01

79

Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmosphere of Mars has many resources that can be processed to produce things such as oxygen, fuel, buffer gas, and water for support of human exploration missions. Successful manipulation of these resources is crucial for safe, cost-effective, and self-sufficient long-term human exploration of Mars. In our research, we are developing enabling technologies that require fundamental knowledge of adsorptive gas storage and separation processes. In particular, we are designing and constructing an innovative, low mass, low power separation device to recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU (in-situ resource utilization). The technology has broad implications for gas storage and separations for gas-solid systems that are ideally suited for reduced gravitational environments. This paper describes our separation process design and experimental procedures and reports results for the separation of CO2 and CO by a four-step adsorption cycle.

Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

2004-01-01

80

Carbon Monoxide Exposures After Hurricane Ike —  

E-print Network

During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly (1). On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity (2). Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power (2). To assess the impact of stormrelated CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13–26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the

unknown authors

2008-01-01

81

Metabolic modulation of carbon monoxide toxicity.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) gas is a product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels and substances. From a public health perspective, CO poisoning may be the cause of more than 50% of fatal poisonings in many industrial countries. The adverse effects of CO poisoning may be more widespread because of unreported situations and delayed neurologic effects, which may be linked to CO exposure. Chronic CO effects that are subtle, such as the adverse effects on vascular diseases, may increase the number of people at risk. The apparent role of CO as an important mediator of cell signaling is a paradox and may represent an example of hormesis, i.e. beneficial effects at low concentration but adverse effects at higher concentrations. Nevertheless, because CO can form ligands with iron (heme) and copper sites, the potential for metabolic intervention is likely. Furthermore, CO-induced oxidative stress opens the opportunity for modulating the adverse effects of CO with antioxidants (both water- and lipid-soluble compounds) and various factors involved with reducing oxidative stress. However, consideration must be given to the micro-environment in some situations that could potentially create more oxidation and subsequent metabolic damage if the combinations and concentrations of antioxidants are not correct, i.e. pro oxidant effects. Likewise, it is important that we take precautions in the development of antioxidant adjuvants to use with oxygen therapies in CO poisoning. PMID:12324190

Omaye, Stanley T

2002-11-15

82

Quantum molecular dynamic simulations of warm dense carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

Using quantum molecular dynamic simulations, we have studied the thermophysical properties of warm dense carbon monoxide under extreme conditions. The principal Hugoniot pressure up to 286 GPa, which is derived from the equation of state, is calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The chemical decomposition of carbon monoxide has been predicted at 8 GPa by means of pair correlation function and the charge density distribution. Based on Kubo-Greenwood formula, the dc electrical conductivity and the optical reflectivity are determined, and the nonmetal-metal transition for shock compressed carbon monoxide is observed around 40 GPa. PMID:21842937

Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Cong; Li, Dafang; Zhang, Ping

2011-08-14

83

Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-04

84

Modeling of exposure to carbon monoxide in fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is developed to predict carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in regions of the body for short exposures to carbon monoxide levels expected during escape from aircraft fires. The model includes the respiratory and circulatory dynamics of absorption and distribution of carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin. Predictions of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations are compared to experimental values obtained for human exposures to constant high carbon monoxide levels. Predictions are within 20% of experimental values. For short exposure times, transient concentration effects are predicted. The effect of stress is studied and found to increase carboxyhemoglobin levels substantially compared to a rest state.

Cagliostro, D. E.

1980-01-01

85

75 FR 4815 - Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...document title, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide...by preparing an Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) (formerly...appropriateness of possible alternative standards. The Clean Air Scientific...CASAC), an independent science advisory committee whose...

2010-01-29

86

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

87

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

88

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

89

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

90

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

91

40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

(a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, has been satisfied for the following areas: Duluth Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan...

2012-07-01

92

40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, has been satisfied for the following areas: Duluth Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan...

2013-07-01

93

40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(a) Approval—On August 15, 1996, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Marathon Oil Company in Robinson, Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified...

2011-07-01

94

40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

(a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, has been satisfied for the following areas: Duluth Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan...

2014-07-01

95

Porous Polymer Optical Fiber For Carbon Monoxide Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A carbon monoxide fiber optic probe has been developed with a porous polymer optical fiber. The carbon monoxide sensing reagent is palladious chloride which was dissolved in the monomer solution before forming the porous polymer fiber. Other than the high sensitivity, the porous polymer fiber, made by heterogeneous crosslinking polymerization, exhibits very high gas permeability and liquid impermeability. The trapped indicator is very stable to atmosphere and enables this optical fiber probe to be used as a "chemfuse" for a carbon monoxide warning system. The porous sensing segment can be attached to regular waveguides by fiber optic couplings, therefore, it can be easily replaced. A linear response of this probe was observed for 1% to 100% of carbon monoxide in air. The temperature effect and interference from other gases with this probe have been investigated.

Zhou, Quan; Sigel, George H.

1990-02-01

96

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING NETWORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is presented for designing a carbon monoxide monitoring network based on the objective of identifying concentrations that exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). The basis for identifying concentrations in excess of the NAAQS is the Concentration ...

97

40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cause to be discharged in to the atmosphere from any electric submerged arc furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon monoxide. Combustion of such gases under conditions acceptable to the...

2010-07-01

98

An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

2005-07-01

99

Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

1995-01-01

100

Carbon monoxide sensors. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the measurement and sensing of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide sensors used to prevent asphyxiation, combustion, and explosion are discussed. Carbon monoxide sensors used to measure combustion efficiency and gas levels in the atmosphere are included. Designs for gas sensors that measure several gases or carbon monoxide alone are presented. Extraterrestrial applications of carbon monoxide sensors are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

101

Carbon monoxide poisoning and nonoliguric acute renal failure.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide poisoning in a 37-year-old man was complicated by neurologic damage, skin changes, muscle necrosis and nonoliguric renal failure. The relation between nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Recognition of the acute renal failure in such cases is important, for this complication can be fatal; the prognosis is excellent, however, if proper medical management is provided. PMID:679099

Bessoudo, R.; Gray, J.

1978-01-01

102

Myocardial Infarction After Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 28-year-old man with acute myocardial infarction after carbon monoxide poisoning is reported. He had chest pain after the exposure to carbon monoxide. The electrocardiogram, serum enzymes, and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigrams showed anterior myocardial infarction. The coronary angiogram, which was performed one month after the onset, showed no visible atheroscler otic lesion. As to the cause of myocardial infarction, it

Shoji Ebisuno; Masao Yasuno; Yoshio Yamada; Yoshihide Nishino; Masatsugu Hori; Michitoshi Inoue; Takenobu Kamada

1986-01-01

103

Review: hemodynamic response to carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Historically, and at present, carbon monoxide is a major gaseous poison responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. From threshold to maximal nonlethal levels, a variety of cardiovascular changes occur, both immediately and in the long term, whose homeostatic function it is to renormalize tissue oxygen delivery. However, notwithstanding numerous studies over the past century, the literature remains equivocal regarding the hemodynamic responses in animals and humans, although CO hypoxia is clearly different in several respects from hypoxic hypoxia. Factors complicating interpretation of experimental findings include species, CO dose level and rate, route of CO delivery, duration, level of exertion, state of consciousness, and anesthetic agent used. Augmented cardiac output usually observed with moderate COHb may be compromised in more sever poisoning for the same reasons, such that regional or global ischemia result. The hypotension usually seen in most animal studies is thought to be a primary cause of CNS damage resulting from acute CO poisoning, yet the exact mechanism(s) remains unproven in both animals and humans, as does the way in which CO produces hypotension. This review briefly summarizes the literature relevant to the short- and long-term hemodynamic responses reported in animals and humans. It concludes by presenting an overview using data from a single species in which the most complete work has been done to date.

Penney, D.G.

1988-04-01

104

Management of the moribund carbon monoxide victim.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the commonest single cause of fatal poisoning in the U.K. (Broome & Pearson, 1988). The clinical features are numerous and include headache, fatigue, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, paraesthesia, chest pain, abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhoea as well as coma, convulsions and death. Without adequate treatment many patients develop neuropsychiatric sequelae including headaches, irritability, memory loss, confusion and personality changes. The diagnosis of CO poisoning is often suggested only by circumstances surrounding the victim, and remains a challenge to the A&E department. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is internationally accepted as the most powerful form of treatment in severe cases (Drug & Therapeutics Bulletin, 1988; Lowe-Ponsford & Henry, 1989). However, in the U.K. treatment with HBO is often not considered due to lack of hyperbaric facilities (Meredith & Vale, 1988; Anand et al., 1988), and due to inadequate awareness on the part of hospital staff. We report a case of a patient deeply unconscious as a result of CO poisoning, in which serial treatments with HBO over a period of 14 days, produced dramatic results. PMID:1388498

Thomson, L F; Mardel, S N; Jack, A; Shields, T G

1992-01-01

105

Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

Mann, Brian E.

106

Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The North Atlantic Ocean is bordered by continents which may each, under the influence of seasonal weather patterns, act as sources of natural and anthropogenic trace gas and particulate species. Photochemically active species such as carbon monoxide (CO) react to form ozone (O3), a species of critical importance in global climate change. CO is sparingly soluble in water, and the relatively long lifetime of CO in the troposphere makes this species an ideal tracer of air masses with origin over land. We have measured CO using a nondispersive infrared gas filter correlation analyzer at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland nearly continuously since August 9, 1991. Measurements of CO were acquired at 20-sec resolution and recorded as 60-sec averages. Daily, monthly, and diurnal variation data characteristics of CO mixing ratios observed at this site are reported. Depending on source regions of air parcels passing over this site, 60-min concentrations of CO range from clean air values of approximately 90 ppbv to values in excess of 300 ppbv. Data characterizing the correlation between 60-min CO and O3 mixing ratio data observed at this site are reported also.

Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Novelli, Paul C.

1994-01-01

107

Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of poisoning and poisoning-related death in the United States. It manifests as broad spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild headache, nausea, and fatigue to dizziness, syncope, coma, seizures resulting in cardiovascular collapse, respiratory failure, and death. Cardiovascular complications of CO poisoning has been well reported and include myocardial stunning, left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary edema, and arrhythmias. Acute myocardial ischemia has also been reported from increased thrombogenicity due to CO poisoning. Myocardial toxicity from CO exposure is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels do not correlate well with the clinical severity of CO poisoning. Supplemental oxygen remains the cornerstone of therapy for CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases CO elimination and has been used with wide variability in patients with evidence of neurological and myocardial injury from CO poisoning, but its benefit in limiting or reversing cardiac injury is unknown. We present a comprehensive review of literature on cardiovascular manifestations of CO poisoning and propose a diagnostic algorithm for managing patients with CO poisoning. PMID:24518173

Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Khera, Sahil; Ahmad, Hasan; Jain, Diwakar; Aronow, Wilbert S; Frishman, William H

2014-02-10

108

Demonstration of Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide Propellants for Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, proposed planetary exploration missions must be small, with low costs and a short development time. Relatively high-risk technologies are being accepted for such missions if they meet these guidelines. For a Mars sample-return mission, one of the higher risk technologies is the use of return propellants produced from indigenous materials such as the Martian atmosphere. This consists of 96 percent carbon dioxide, which can be processed into oxygen and carbon monoxide. This year, the NASA Lewis Research Center completed the experimental evaluation and subscale technology development of an oxygen/carbon monoxide propellant combination. Previous research included ignition characterization, combustion performance, and heat transfer characterization with gaseous propellants at room temperature. In this year s tests, we studied the ignition characteristics and combustion of oxygen and carbon monoxide at near liquid temperatures. The mixture ratio boundaries for oxygen and carbon monoxide were determined as a function of propellant temperature in a spark torch igniter. With both propellants at room temperature, the ignition range was between 0.50 and 1.44; and with both propellants chilled to near-liquid temperatures, it was between 2.4 and 3.1. Statistical analysis of the mean value of the ignition boundaries provided models that describe the combination of oxygen temperature, carbon monoxide temperature, and mixture ratio that resulted in ignition. This range is the larger boxed area shown in the figure. The smaller boxed area indicates the range at which there is a 90-percent confidence that ignition will occur. The relatively small range at only 90-percent confidence indicates that using the oxygen/carbon monoxide combination as its own ignition source may not be the best design for a remote engine operating on Mars. Tests also were performed in a simulated small rocket engine that used oxygen/hydrogen combustion gases as the ignition source for oxygen/carbon monoxide. In these experiments, the oxygen/carbon monoxide was successfully ignited in eight of eight tests at a mixture ratio of 0.52. In addition, the oxygen/carbon monoxide maintained steady combustion after the oxygen/hydrogen ignition source was removed, verifying that the oxygen/carbon monoxide rocket engine should continue to be included in mission plans as return propulsion from Mars.

Linne, Diane L.

1997-01-01

109

Role of carbon monoxide in kidney function: is a little carbon monoxide good for the kidney?  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas resulting from the degradation of heme by heme oxygense or from fatty acid oxidation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are constitutively expressed in the kidney (HO-2) and HO-1 is induced in the kidney in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. While the beneficial actions of HO in the kidney have been recognized for some time, the important role of CO in mediating these effects has not been fully examined. Recent studies using CO inhalation therapy and carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) have demonstrated that increases in CO alone can be beneficial to the kidney in several forms of acute renal injury by limiting oxidative injury, decreasing cell apoptosis, and promoting cell survival pathways. Renal CO is also emerging as a major regulator of renal vascular and tubular function acting to protect the renal vasculature against excessive vasoconstriction and to promote natriuresis by limiting sodium reabsorption in tubule cells. Within this review, recent studies on the physiological actions of CO in the kidney will be explored as well as the potential therapeutic avenues that are being developed targeting CO in the kidney which may be beneficial in diseases such as acute renal failure and hypertension. PMID:22201605

Csongradi, Eva; Juncos, Luis A; Drummond, Heather A; Vera, Trinity; Stec, David E

2012-05-01

110

40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon...Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon...monoxide ambient air quality standard were to...Environmental Protection (CT DEP) submitted...maintenance plan request, CT DEP also requested...National Ambient Air Quality...

2010-07-01

111

The oxidation of carbon monoxide using tin oxide based catalysts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preparation conditions for precious metal/tin oxide catalysts were optimized for maximum carbon monoxide/oxygen recombination efficiency. This was achieved by controlling the tin digestion, the peptization to form the sol, the calcination process and the method of adding the precious metals. Extensive studies of the tin oxide structure were carried out over the temperature range 20 to 500 C in air or hydrogen environments using Raman scattering and X ray diffraction. Adsorbed species on tin oxide, generated in an environment containing carbon monoxide, gave rise to a Raman band at about 1600 cm(exp -1) which was assigned to carbonaceous groups, possible carbonate.

Sampson, Christopher F.; Jorgensen, Norman

1990-01-01

112

Personal carbon monoxide exposure in Helsinki, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal exposure concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured for the adult urban population of Helsinki, Finland, as part of the multi-centre European EXPOLIS study. The arithmetic mean of the 48 h average personal CO exposure concentration was 1.3 mg m -3 for participants not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and 1.6 mg m -3 for those exposed to ETS at any time and in any microenvironment. The maximum 8 and 1 h exposure values were 2.0 and 2.6 mg m -3, and 4.3 and 5.7 mg m -3, respectively. As tobacco smoke is one of the major sources of CO, therefore the personal mean exposures of ETS participants were higher than the non-ETS participants for all averaging times. The long- and short-term personal exposures were higher in winter than in summer for all participants. In order to analyse in more detail the correlation between the time-activity patterns and exposure levels, cluster analysis was performed using 24 h personal exposure profiles of 1 h moving averages. The results showed clearly that the major source of CO for non-ETS exposed participants are traffic emissions. The majority of the diurnal exposure profiles showed two notable exposure peaks corresponding to the morning and evening traffic rush hours. The time spent in street traffic was the most relevant factor for describing the short-term personal exposures. The more time was spent commuting by car the higher were the exposures. The long-term exposure levels were linked both to the time spent commuting and home location. People living in low-traffic suburban areas and working in downtown spent more time commuting and ended up experiencing similar long-term exposure levels than people who lived in heavy-traffic downtown areas, but spent little time commuting. For ETS exposed participants the personal exposure profiles were dominated by both tobacco smoke and traffic emissions.

Scotto di Marco, Greta; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Jantunen, Matti

113

Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Methanogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Different species of methanogenic bacteria growing on CO2 and H2 were shown to remove CO added to the gas phase. Rates up to 0.2 ?mol of CO depleted/min per 10 ml of culture containing approximately 7 mg of cells (wet weight) were observed. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was selected for further study based on its ability to grow rapidly on a completely mineral medium. This species used CO as the sole energy source by disproportionating CO to CO2 and CH4 according to the following equation: 4CO + 2H2O ? 1CH4 + 3CO2. However, growth was slight, and the growth rate on CO was only 1% of that observed on H2/CO2. Growth only occurred with CO concentrations in the gas phase of lower than 50%. Growth on CO agrees with the finding that cell-free extracts of M. thermoautotrophicum contained both an active factor 420 (F420)-dependent hydrogenase (7.7 ?mol/min per mg of protein at 35°C) and a CO-dehydrogenating enzyme (0.2 ?mol/min per mg of protein at 35°C) that catalyzed the reduction of F420 with CO. The properties of the CO-dehydrogenating enzyme are described. In addition to F420, viologen dyes were effective electron acceptors for the enzyme. The apparent Km for CO was higher than 1 mM. The reaction rate increased with increasing pH and displayed an inflection point at pH 6.7. The temperature dependence of the reaction rate followed the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy (?H‡) of 14.1 kcal/mol (59.0 kJ/mol). The CO dehydrogenase activity was reversibly inactivated by low concentrations of cyanide (2 ?M) and was very sensitive to inactivation by oxygen. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase of M. thermoautotrophicum exhibited several characteristic properties found for the enzyme of Clostridium pasteurianum but differed mainly in that the clostridial enzyme did not utilize F420 as the electron acceptor. PMID:21159

Daniels, L.; Fuchs, G.; Thauer, R. K.; Zeikus, J. G.

1977-01-01

114

COPSS: The Carbon Monoxide Power Spectrum Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present current results from work focused on measuring the abundance of carbon monoxide and molecular gas in the early Universe. Molecular gas is a vital component of galactic evolution and star formation. But its distribution among average galaxies at high redshift understood is so poorly that models of the mean abundance of CO for z?3 span orders of magnitude. Direct detection of molecular gas in galaxies at these redshifts has only achieved the most luminous of galaxies (Mgas ? 1011 M? SFR ? 100 M? yr-1), whereas the bulk of the molecular gas is expected to be in the unseen masses of smaller galaxies (Mgas ? 109 M? SFR ? 1 M? yr-1). Theory predicts these smaller galaxies are detectable as an integrated ensemble with the technique of “intensity mapping”, where measurements of different 3D Fourier modes to construct a power spectrum. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA) offers an opportunity to explore molecular gas at high redshift through this technique. The SZA, an 8-element closely packed array, is capable of observing CO (J=1?0) at z = 2.3-3.3.We present a power spectrum from of our current search for CO at z?3, utilizing a “wide and shallow” legacy dataset with 880 hours of integration time spread across 44 different fields. To 2? confidence, we find no evidence for CO down to a sensitivity of ?2N(k=1 h Mpc-1) ? 103 µK2 (with sensitivity over size-scales of k= 0.5?2 h Mpc-1). This limit resides a factor of a few below model predictions for CO based on the observed UV star formation rate at these redshifts, as described by Pullen et al., 2013. We also present results from a recent 400 hour “deep and narrow” observation of GOODS-North, a target rich in observational data and ripe with opportunities for cross-correlation, with sensitivity a factor of three better than what was capable with the SZA Legacy survey.

Keating, Garrett K.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Heiles, Carl E.; DeBoer, David R.

2015-01-01

115

Investigations of the efficient electrocatalytic interconversions of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide by nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODH) play an important role in utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) or carbon dioxide (CO2) in the metabolism of some microorganisms. Two distinctly different types of CODH are distinguished by the elements constituting the active site. A Mo-Cu containing CODH is found in some aerobic organisms, whereas a Ni-Fe containing CODH (henceforth simply Ni-CODH) is found in some anaerobes. Two members of the simplest class (IV) of Ni-CODH behave as efficient, reversible electrocatalysts of CO2/CO interconversion when adsorbed on a graphite electrode. Their intense electroactivity sets an important benchmark for the standard of performance at which synthetic molecular and material electrocatalysts comprised of suitably attired abundant first-row transition elements must be able to operate. Investigations of CODHs by protein film electrochemistry (PFE) reveal how the enzymes respond to the variable electrode potential that can drive CO2/CO interconversion in each direction, and identify the potential thresholds at which different small molecules, both substrates and inhibitors, enter or leave the catalytic cycle. Experiments carried out on a much larger (Class III) enzyme CODH/ACS, in which CODH is complexed tightly with acetyl-CoA synthase, show that some of these characteristics are retained, albeit with much slower rates of interfacial electron transfer, attributable to the difficulty in making good electronic contact at the electrode. The PFE results complement and clarify investigations made using spectroscopic investigations. PMID:25416391

Wang, Vincent C-C; Ragsdale, Stephen W; Armstrong, Fraser A

2014-01-01

116

77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Aspen PM[bdi1][bdi0] and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan Fort Collins Attainment/Maintenance Area.'' As...transconf/currsips.htm#aspen). Fort Collins (Carbon Monoxide): The State...

2012-05-25

117

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2013-07-01

118

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2012-07-01

119

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2010-07-01

120

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2011-07-01

121

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...Heavy-Duty Off-Road Diesel Cycle Engines. This procedure is...

2014-07-01

122

40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive...Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive...provides measurements of the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) in ambient...

2014-07-01

123

A mathematical model of ventilation response to inhaled carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

A comprehensive mathematical model, describing the respiration, circulation, oxygen metabolism, and ventilatory control, is assembled for the purpose of predicting acute ventilation changes from exposure to carbon monoxide in both humans and animals. This Dynamic Physiological Model is based on previously published work, reformulated, extended, and combined into a single model. Model parameters are determined from literature values, fitted to experimental data, or allometrically scaled between species. The model predictions are compared with ventilation-time history data collected in goats exposed to carbon monoxide, with quantitatively good agreement. The model reaffirms the role of brain hypoxia on hyperventilation during carbon monoxide exposures. Improvement in the estimation of total ventilation, through a more complete knowledge of ventilation control mechanisms and validated by animal data, will increase the accuracy of inhalation toxicology estimates. PMID:15691907

Stuhmiller, James H; Stuhmiller, Louise M

2005-06-01

124

The combined effect of noise and carbon monoxide on hearing thresholds of exposed workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models have been used to demonstrate the potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) by carbon monoxide. It has been shown that the addition of carbon monoxide to otherwise safe noise exposure levels produces significant NIHL in rats. However, the effects of chronic exposure to low level of carbon monoxide in a noisy work environment are still unknown. The aim

Adriana Lacerda; Tony Leroux; Jean-Pierre Gagn

2005-01-01

125

40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection...Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) For each AQCR or portion of...primary standard for carbon monoxide or ozone will not be attained by July 1,...

2014-07-01

126

40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection...Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) For each AQCR or portion of...primary standard for carbon monoxide or ozone will not be attained by July 1,...

2010-07-01

127

S100B protein in carbon monoxide poisoning: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common form of lethal poisoning. The aim of this prospective clinical study was to assess the possible role of S100B, the structural protein in the astroglia, as a biochemical marker of brain injury in carbon monoxide poisoning. Serum S100B determination was performed in 38 consecutive patients poisoned by carbon monoxide who were admitted

Miran Brvar; Hugon Možina; Josko Osredkar; Martin Možina; Marko No?; Andrej Bru?an; Matjaž Bunc

2004-01-01

128

Trends in the incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeRecent data demonstrate that the mortality rate from carbon monoxide poisoning has declined over the past 2 decades. It is not known whether this decrease in mortality is reflective of the total burden of carbon monoxide poisoning. This study sought to examine trends in other potential indicators of the incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning in the United States.

Neil B. Hampson

2005-01-01

129

Determination of the atherogenic potential of inhaled carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

he effects of chronic exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide upon the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development were investigated in a series of in vivo studies in the cockerel (young rooster). This animal model has been well characterized, especially regarding the role of environmental agents in exacerbating early stages of plaque development. Cockerels injected with subtumorigenic doses of carcinogens

Penn

1993-01-01

130

Effects of Work Place Carbon Monoxide Exposure on Blood Viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both blood viscosity and carbon monoxide (CO) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to investigate the effects of chronic low-level CO exposure on the determinants of blood viscosity (hematocrit, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and erythrocyte aggregation), 10 men exposed to CO at work for at least 6 months and 10 healthy controls were included in the study.

Dikmeno?lu Neslihan; Seringeç Nurten

2010-01-01

131

Real time carbon monoxide measurements from 270 UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a study carried out in Winter 2004\\/2005 where a large number of homes were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the main living room for a period of at least one week. The homes were all owner-occupied; all had at least one of the following gas appliances, cooker, water heater, or gas fire;

Hutchinson E; Leonardi GS; McKenna L; Nicholson L; Volans G; Wilkinson P

132

Transport of carbon monoxide from the tropics to the extratropics  

E-print Network

Transport of carbon monoxide from the tropics to the extratropics Kenneth P. Bowman Department the transport of air from the tropics to the extratropics. During southern hemisphere spring (September through the results from the trajectory analysis that transport from the tropics to the extratropics

133

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2010-07-01

134

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2012-07-01

135

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2014-07-01

136

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2013-07-01

137

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and New...Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer...

2011-07-01

138

40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of §...

2010-07-01

139

40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of §...

2012-07-01

140

40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of §...

2011-07-01

141

40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of §...

2013-07-01

142

Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from

J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock

1984-01-01

143

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

144

40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged in to the atmosphere from any electric submerged arc furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon monoxide. Combustion of...

2014-07-01

145

40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged in to the atmosphere from any electric submerged arc furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon monoxide. Combustion of...

2012-07-01

146

Carbon Monoxide in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the near-infrared detection of first overtone Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission from the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. The presence of CO emission implies conditions are conducive to dust formation long after the typically quoted 200--800 days from the explosion event. The CO in Cas A formed in an earlier stage of SNe explosion and has cooled, is now

Jeonghee Rho; T. H. Jarrett; W. T. Reach; H. Gomez; M. Andersen

2009-01-01

147

DIURNAL VARIATIONS IN TRAFFIC FLOW AND CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Traffic count and carbon monoxide (CO) data for January and July from three states are compared in order to reveal any diurnal variations in the two measurements. The diurnal patterns for the 18 traffic count stations indicate that there are average patterns of traffic flow that ...

148

Antimicrobial Action of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is endogenously produced in the human body, mainly from the oxidation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. The induction of HO and the consequent increase in CO production play important physiological roles in vasorelaxation and neurotransmission and in the immune system. The exogenous administration of CO gas and CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has been shown to

L. S. Nobre; J. D. Seixas; C. C. Romao; L. M. Saraiva

2007-01-01

149

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance degrades when carbon monoxide (CO) is present in the fuel gas; this is referred to as CO poisoning. This paper investigates CO poisoning of PEMFCs by reviewing work on the electrochemistry of CO and hydrogen, the experimental performance of PEMFCs exhibiting CO poisoning, methods to mitigate CO poisoning and theoretical models of

J. J. Baschuk; Xianguo Li

2001-01-01

150

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The platinum-alloy catalyst used in proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell anodes is highly susceptible to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. CO reduces the catalyst activity by blocking active catalyst sites normally available for hydrogen chemisorption and dissociation. The reaction kinetics at the anode catalyst surface can be used to estimate the decrease in cell voltage due to various levels of CO

Aida Rodrigues; John C. Amphlett; Ronald F. Mann; Brant A. Peppley; Pierre R. Roberge

1997-01-01

151

Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the

M. V. Balzan; G. Agius; A. Galea Debono

1996-01-01

152

Prognostic factors in unintentional mild carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify early predictors of recovery from mild carbon monoxide poisoning, and to search for qualitative interactions between subsets of patients and treatment effects. Design and setting: Inception cohort study from a 4-year, randomised, controlled trial, which compared normobaric oxygen therapy to the combination of normobaric plus hyperbaric oxygen therapy in 307 patients. Study was conducted at a hyperbaric

Djillali Annane; Sylvie Chevret; Marie Jars-Guincestre; Patrick Chillet; David Elkharrat; Philippe Gajdos; Jean Raphael

2001-01-01

153

Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

1977-01-01

154

Carbon monoxide detector. [electrochemical gas detector for spacecraft use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensitive carbon monoxide detector, developed specifically for spacecraft use, is described. An instrument range of 0 to 60 ppm CO in air was devised. The fuel cell type detector is used as a highly sensitive electrolysis cell for electrochemically detecting gases. The concept of an electrochemical CO detector is discussed and the CO oxidation behavior in phosphoric and sulfuric acid electrolytes is reported.

Holleck, G. L.; Bradspies, J. L.; Brummer, S. B.; Nelsen, L. L.

1973-01-01

155

Delayed neurological deterioration following carbon monoxide poisoning: MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two patients with delayed neurological deterioration following apparent recovery from carbon monoxide poisoning in whom magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormalities. In the first patient, cortical grey matter abnormalities were seen without white matter changes. Visual evoked potentials were, however, abnormal. In the second, diffuse white matter lesions were detected. In neither patient were basal ganglia lesions seen.

Alessandro S. Zagami; A. Keith Lethlean; Ross Mellick

1993-01-01

156

Pitfalls in diagnosis and management of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of one family suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning are described. Three were initially diagnosed as food poisoning cases at another hospital. A high level of suspicion is required to ensure early diagnosis. Indications for hyperbaric oxygen include: loss of consciousness, neurological signs and symptoms other than mild headache, cardiac complications, carboxyhaemoglobin > 40%, and pregnancy.

B Roy; R Crawford

1996-01-01

157

Study on infrared carbon monoxide monitoring system used in mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide does enormously harm to people and safety production in coal mine and other industries. But because the situation in coal mine is complicated and the interference factors are diversified, at present carbon monoxide detection system has the general problems of low detecting precision, easily poisoning and aging, short service life, narrow measurement range and bed anti-jamming ability. Carbon monoxide concentration is detected by using the infrared absorption principle, and this detection is applied in many fields. A new optics structure was developed with a reference gas cell, dual light sources and dual detectors in this paper, it could compensate to power source anti-jamming, mismatch of the detectors, gas cell material's absorption, and dust's influence. In addition, an infrared carbon monoxide sensor's mathematical model was built by adopting radial basic function's (RBF) neural network model, so as to dispel the influence of temperature, pressure and humidity. A momentum factor's gradient descending method could be applied to adjust the parameters of RBF neural network. The experimental results show that whole system runs very well with a high precision, a strong capacity of anti-jamming, a wide measurement range, a good selectivity, and an online detecting ability.

He, Yukai; Wang, Rulin; Liu, Zhongqi; Wang, Shufang; Deng, Junmin; Guan, Zhonghui

2005-12-01

158

Confirmation of the Pulse Oximetry Gap in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To demonstrate the degree to which pulse oximetry overestimates actual oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. This phenomenon has been reported in fewer than 20 humans in the English medical literature. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 191 patients evaluated for CO poisoning at a regional hyperbaric center identified 124 patients 10 years of

William P Bozeman; Roy AM Myers; Robert A Barish

1997-01-01

159

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

160

Epidemic carbon monoxide poisoning following a winter storm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital emergency departments were surveyed to estimate the number of patients treated for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a severe winter storm disrupted electrical service in western Washington State. At least 81 persons were treated. The two main sources of CO were charcoal briquettes (54% of cases) and gasoline-powered electrical generators (40% of cases). Of the 44 persons affected by

Peter M. Houck; Neil B. Hampson

1997-01-01

161

The Brain Lesion Responsible for Parkinsonism After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Parkinsonism is a common neurological sequela of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, but its pathophysiological mechanism has yet to be clarified. Objectives: To describe a married couple who were both affected by CO poisoning, but only 1 of whom devel- oped CO-induced parkinsonism, and to discuss the pos- sible underlying pathophysiological mechanism of CO- induced parkinsonism by comparing the neuroimaging

Young H. Sohn; Yong Jeong; Hyun S. Kim; Joo H. Im; Jin-Soo Kim

2000-01-01

162

Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT.

F. Illum

1980-01-01

163

MRI of the brain in chronic carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined 13 patients with chronic carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); all of them had been in an explosion in a coal mine 25 years previously. Symmetrical globus pallidus lesions were observed in 12, as was degeneration of the white matter, with focal cortical atrophy. The temporal parietal and occipital lobes were usually affected, the parietooccipital

A. Uchino; K. Hasuo; K. Shida; S. Matsumoto; K. Yasumori; K. Masuda

1994-01-01

164

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The

Y S Kim

1985-01-01

165

Characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Northwest Iran – Tabriz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the epidemiology and characteristics of unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Northwest Iran between 2007 and 2009 using multiple data sources including records of the main provider of emergency medical transportation, death certificate reports of the Legal Medicine Organization and through household surveys. A total of 1005 people were diagnosed with non-fatal CO poisoning. Ninety deaths were

Iman Dianat; Jalil Nazari

2011-01-01

166

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 ? Protection of Environment ? 19 ? 2013-07-01 ? 2013-07-01 ? false ? Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. ? 86.316-79 ? Section 86.316-79 ? Protection of Environment ? ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ? AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ? CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...

2013-07-01

167

Rationalizing Burned Carbon with Carbon Monoxide Exported from South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present several estimates cross-checking the fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere from burning, comparing models that are based on simple land-surface parameterizations and atmospheric transport dynamics. Both estimates made by NASA Ames and USP modeling techniques are quite high compared to some detailed satellite/land-use studies of emissions. The flux of carbon liberated to the atmosphere via biomass burning is important for several reasons. This flux is a fundamental statistic for the parameterization of the large-scale flux of gases controlling the reactive greenhouse gases methane and ozone. Similarly, it is central to the estimation of the translocation of nitrogen and pyrodenitrification in the tropics. Thirdly, CO2 emitted from rainforest clearing contributes directly to carbon lost from the rainforest system as it contributes to greenhouse gas forcing. While CO2 from pasturage, agriculture, etc, is considered to be reabsorbed seasonally, and so "off budget" for the carbon cycle, it must also be accounted. CO2 anomalies related to daily weather and interannual climatic variation are strong enough to perturb our scientific perception of long-term carbon storage trends. We compare fluxes deduced from land-use statistics (originally, W.M. Hao) and from satellite hot pixels (A. Setzer) with atmospheric fluxes determined by the mesoscale/continental scale models RAMS and MM5, and point to some new work with highly resolved global models (the NASA Data Assimilation Office's GEOS4). Our simulations are tied to events, so that measured tracers like CO tie the models directly to the burning and meteorology of a specific period. We point out a particular sensitivity in estimates based on CO, and indicate how analysis of CO2 along with other biomass-burning tracers may lead to an improved multi-species estimator of carbon burned.

Chatfield, R.; Freitas, S. R.; SilvaDias, M. A.; SilvaDias, P. O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

168

Epidemiological bases for the current ambient carbon monoxide standards.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide is widely distributed in the environment, and acute or chronic toxic effects may be of considerable public health significance. A review of the basis for current ambient standards is given. Mortality and morbidity studies have been negative or equivocal in relating carbon monoxide levels to health effects, but studies in human subjects with compromised coronary or peripheral circulation support an effect of acute exposure to CO at blood levels equivalent to about 20 ppm over several hours. It is possible that some of the cardiovascular effects of smoking may be related to the high levels of CO in cigarette smoke, but it has been difficult to isolate the contribution of CO independent of the effects of other smoke constituents. PMID:6418540

Kuller, L H; Radford, E P

1983-01-01

169

Synthesis of thiocarbamate salts from amines, sulfur, and carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur reacts with carbon monoxide and amines without a catalyst at 100-160{degrees}C and 10-100 atm for 1-4 h. The reaction products of primary amines are symmetric ureas. Under the same conditions, secondary amines form thiocarbamic acid salts, which are not converted to tetrasubstituted ureas. In the presence of primary amines at 100-160{degrees}C, they afford trisubstituted ureas, some of whose representatives are pesticides. The same products are formed directly in the carbonylation of a mixture of primary and secondary amines without isolation of intermediate thiocarbamic acid salts. In the presence of catalytic amounts of selenium, the reaction of sulfur with carbon monoxide and amines occurs at atmospheric pressure and affords N-substituted thiocarbamic acid salts from both secondary and primary amines. In the current work the authors present some of the characteristics of these processes. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Manov-Yuvenskii, V.I.; Kuznetsov, S.L.

1992-05-20

170

Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning?  

PubMed Central

This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

Shen, Qingyu; Rong, Xiaoming; Pan, Rui; Peng, Ying; Peng, Wei; Tang, Yamei

2012-01-01

171

Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals.  

PubMed

The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction. PMID:11538653

Cabrera, A L; Maple, M B; Arrhenius, G

1990-01-01

172

Therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced during the catabolism of free haem, catalyzed by haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes, and its physiological roles include vasodilation, neurotransmission, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti-proliferative effects on smooth muscle. In vivo preclinical studies have shown that exogenously administered quantities of CO may represent an effective treatment for conditions characterized by a dysregulated immune response. The carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) represent a group of compounds capable of carrying and liberating controlled quantities of CO in the cellular systems. This review covers the physiological and anti-inflammatory properties of the HO/CO pathway in the central nervous system. It also discusses the effects of CORMs in preclinical models of inflammation. The accumulating data discussed herein support the possibility that CORMs may represent a novel class of drugs with disease-modifying properties in multiple sclerosis. PMID:22235993

Fagone, P; Mangano, K; Coco, M; Perciavalle, V; Garotta, G; Romao, C C; Nicoletti, F

2012-02-01

173

Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas  

DOEpatents

The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

1985-01-01

174

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOEpatents

A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

1996-01-01

175

Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

1977-01-01

176

Clinics in diagnostic imaging (154). Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man with a history of major depression was found by his wife to be unconscious and foaming at the mouth. On arrival at the emergency department, the patient was noted to be unresponsive. Computed tomography of the brain showed symmetrical ill-defined areas of hypoattenuation involving the medial aspects of both lentiform nuclei, while magnetic resonance images of the brain showed symmetrical increased signal in the bilateral globi pallidi on diffusion weighted, T2-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. These findings were those of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Despite aggressive treatment, the patient's condition continued to deteriorate and he eventually passed away. The various imaging findings of carbon monoxide poisoning in the brain and the differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:25189300

Lim, Puay Joo; Shikhare, Sumer Nrupendra; Peh, Wilfred C G

2014-08-01

177

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOEpatents

A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

1996-03-19

178

Therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced during the catabolism of free haem, catalyzed by haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes, and its physiological roles include vasodilation, neurotransmission, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti-proliferative effects on smooth muscle. In vivo preclinical studies have shown that exogenously administered quantities of CO may represent an effective treatment for conditions characterized by a dysregulated immune response. The carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) represent a group of compounds capable of carrying and liberating controlled quantities of CO in the cellular systems. This review covers the physiological and anti-inflammatory properties of the HO/CO pathway in the central nervous system. It also discusses the effects of CORMs in preclinical models of inflammation. The accumulating data discussed herein support the possibility that CORMs may represent a novel class of drugs with disease-modifying properties in multiple sclerosis. PMID:22235993

Fagone, P; Mangano, K; Coco, M; Perciavalle, V; Garotta, G; Romao, C C; Nicoletti, F

2012-01-01

179

Carbon monoxide signalling reduces photocarcinogenesis in the hairless mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of the skin of mice to UVA (320–400 nm) radiation has been shown to provide protection against the immunosuppressive\\u000a effects of UVB (290–320 nm) radiation. The UVA protection was mediated via the UVA induction of the stress protein heme oxygenase-1,\\u000a and its enzymatic product carbon monoxide (CO). Because UVB-induced immunosuppression is an accompanying and prerequisite\\u000a feature of the promotion phase of

Munif Allanson; Vivienne E. Reeve

2007-01-01

180

Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Diffusion MR Imaging Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: During the acute stage of carbon monoxide poi- soning, diffusion MR images obtained at b 1000 s\\/mm2 revealed high signal intensity lesions in the white matter, consistent with restricted diffusion. Low apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.18 - 0.34 103 mm2\\/s) were noted in the affected white matter regions. Follow-up MR imaging performed 16 days later revealed disappearance of white

R. Nuri Sener

181

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

SciTech Connect

An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

1989-10-01

182

Intravascular Neutrophil Activation Due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: We hypothesized that platelet-neutrophil interactions occur as a result of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and subsequent neutrophil activation triggers events that cause neuro- logic sequelae. Objectives: To identify platelet-neutrophil interactions and neutro- phil activation in patients and in animal models, and to establish the association between these intravascular events and changes linked to CO-mediated neurologic sequelae in an

Stephen R. Thom; Veena M. Bhopale; Shih-Tsung Han; James M. Clark; Kevin R. Hardy

183

Carbon-monoxide poisoning presenting as an afebrile seizure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1-year-old male who experienced an afebrile seizure and loss of consciousness caused by carbon-monoxide poisoning is reported. His blood gas analysis revealed an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level (up to 25%) and metabolic acidosis. A cranial computed tomography depicted diffuse swelling of the brain. He was promptly treated with hyperbaric oxygen. He recovered fully 8 hours after the onset of the

Toshihiko Mori; Kazushige Nagai

2000-01-01

184

Continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide in a deep street canyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a 1-week continuous monitoring campaign of carbon monoxide in a deep street canyon in the city of Naples are reported. CO was selected as a passive pollutant emitted by vehicle exhausts. The geometry of the canyon is: width W=5.8m and height H=33m (aspect ratio AR=H\\/W=5.7). The monitoring campaign was carried out from 14 to 20 June 2006.

Fabio Murena; Giuseppe Favale

2007-01-01

185

Molecular dynamics simulation of photodissociation of carbon monoxide from hemoglobin  

SciTech Connect

A molecular dynamics simulation of the photodissociation of carbon monoxide from the alpha subunit of hemoglobin is described. To initiate photodissociation, trajectories of the liganded molecule were interrupted, the iron-carbon monoxide bond was broken, and the parameters of the iron-nitrogen bonds were simultaneously altered to produce a deoxyheme conformation. Heme potential functions were used that reproduce the energies and forces for the iron out-of-plane motion obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. The effect of the protein on the rate and extent of the displacement of the iron from the porphyrin plane was assessed by comparing the results with those obtained for an isolated complex of heme with imidazole and carbon monoxide. The half-time for the displacement of the iron from the porphyrin plane was found to be 50-150 fs for both the protein and the isolated complex. These results support the interpretation of optical absorption studies using 250-fs laser pulses that the iron is displaced from the porphyrin plane within 350 fs in both hemoglobin and a free heme complex in solution.

Henry, E.R.; Levitt, M.; Eaton, W.A.

1985-04-01

186

[Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].  

PubMed

Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed. PMID:24860052

Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

2014-06-01

187

Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2006-03-15

188

Gas-phase catalytic growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes from carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been produced in a gas-phase catalytic process. Catalysts for SWNT growth form in situ by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in a heated flow of carbon monoxide at pressures of 1–10 atm and temperatures of 800–1200°C. The SWNT yield and diameter distribution can be varied by controlling the process parameters, and SWNTs as small as

Pavel Nikolaev; Michael J Bronikowski; R. Kelley Bradley; Frank Rohmund; Daniel T Colbert; K. A Smith; Richard E Smalley

1999-01-01

189

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane  

E-print Network

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange, Austria, Meeting of the Society, October 4­9, 2009. Carbon monoxide CO in hydrogen reformed from carbon by poisoning the anode active sites, as shown in Reaction 1 1-4 Pt + CO Pt­CO 1 To mitigate the detrimental

Weidner, John W.

190

Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1983-01-01

191

Growth Energetics of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Carbon Monoxide Kwanyong Seo, Changwook Kim, and Bongsoo Kim*  

E-print Network

Growth Energetics of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Carbon Monoxide Kwanyong Seo, Changwook Kim energetics of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with gas-phase CO molecules is investigated. Our density-6 Though single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have different electronic properties depending

Kim, Bongsoo

192

Acute Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Does Not Affect Plasma Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectives: To examine the effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide and hypoxia on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins. Design: Random-order assignment to blinded, inhaled exposures of carbon monoxide and hypoxia. Setting: Research laboratory of ambulatory subjects. Subjects: 10 elderly, male nonsmokers with chronic stable angina. Intervention: Random-order two-hour inhaled exposure to clean air at sea level, carbon monoxide

David Alexander Leaf; Michael T. Kleinman

1996-01-01

193

Gas chromatographic measurement of carbon monoxide in hydrocarbon matrices with a redox chemiluminescence detector.  

PubMed

The rapid measurement of trace levels of carbon monoxide in ethylene by gas chromatography with redox chemiluminescence detection is described. Linear response for carbon monoxide over three decades and a detection limit in the sub-parts per million by volume (ppmv) concentration range were observed without methanation or preconcentration of the sample. Samples containing 0.2 ppmv of carbon monoxide in ethylene were readily quantitated. PMID:3624368

Sievers, R E; Shearer, R L; Barkley, R M

1987-06-12

194

[Acute coronary syndrome with impaired left ventricular function in a carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Neuropsychological symptoms are most common. We report on a patient with acute coronary syndrome and transient left ventricular dysfunction in carbon monoxide poisoning. Patient improved under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Coronary angiography shows no significant lesion leading to myocardial stunning diagnose. Patients exposed to carbon monoxide must have systematic cardiac evaluation with electrocardiogram and dosage of biomarkers. PMID:25261170

Capilla, E; Pons, F; Poyet, R; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Louge, P; Cellarier, G-R

2014-09-01

195

Deaths caused by carbon monoxide poisoning in an open environment (outdoors)  

SciTech Connect

Three deaths as a result of inhalation of carbon monoxide from the exhaust fumes of automobiles are reported. All deaths occurred outside and not in a structure. The individuals were white males, ages 24 to 26 years. Blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations ranged from 58 (in a decomposing body) to 81%. The three cases illustrate the fact that even in the outdoors death from carbon monoxide inhalation can occur if an individual is in close proximity to a rich source of carbon monoxide.

DiMaio, V.J.; Dana, S.E.

1987-11-01

196

Ambient carbon monoxide and the risk of hospitalization due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Data from recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that lower concentrations of inhaled carbon monoxide might have beneficial antiinflammatory effects. Inhaled carbon monoxide has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). However, population-based epidemiologic studies of environmentally relevant carbon monoxide exposure have generated mixed findings. We conducted a time-series study in Hong Kong to estimate the association of short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide with emergency hospitalizations for COPD. We collected daily emergency hospital admission data and air pollution data from January 2001 to December 2007. We used log-linear Poisson models to estimate the associations between daily hospital admissions for COPD and the average daily concentrations of carbon monoxide while controlling for the traffic-related co-pollutants nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m. Results showed that ambient carbon monoxide was negatively associated with the risk of hospitalizations for COPD. After adjustment for levels nitrogen dioxide or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m, the negative associations of carbon monoxide with COPD hospitalizations became stronger. The risk estimates were similar for female and male subjects. In conclusion, short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization for COPD, which suggests that carbon monoxide exposure provides some acute protection of against exacerbation of COPD. PMID:25480818

Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Wang, Tong; Qiu, Hong; Pun, Vivian C; Chan, Chi Sing; Louie, Peter K K; Yu, Ignatius T S

2014-12-15

197

Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive health issues. The most indicative symptoms experienced were a severe headache, blurred vision, agitation, and confusion. Following contact with the Emergency Responses Services, she was promptly transferred to the hospital via ambulance and was treated with high-flow oxygen on the way. She was discharged from the emergency department on the same day, but carbon monoxide exposure had already had adverse effects on her fingernail beds. The fingernail tips were altered and appeared as if a bite had been taken out of their distal borders. The changes in the tips of her fingernails were significant, but they completely disappeared eight weeks later without any additional treatment. Conclusions Worldwide, carbon monoxide poisoning is a potentially lethal condition that is preventable with educational programs and installation of carbon monoxide detectors in the home setting. Exposure to carbon monoxide frequently goes unrecognized until it is too late and causes silent death. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of fingernail bed manifestations in a survivor of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:25073414

2014-01-01

198

Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats  

E-print Network

Carbon Monoxide Pollution Promotes Cardiac Remodeling and Ventricular Arrhythmia in Healthy Rats, France Rationale: Epidemiologic studies associate atmospheric carbon mon- oxide (CO) pollution with five peaks of 100 ppm per 24-h period), consistent with urban pollution. Myocardial function

Boyer, Edmond

199

Submillimeter heterodyne detection of interstellar carbon monoxide at 434 micrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser heterodyne observations of submillimeter emissions from carbon monoxide in the Orion molecular cloud are reported. High frequency and spatial resolution observations were made at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea by the use of an optically pumped laser local oscillator and quasi-optical Schottky diode mixer for heterodyne detection of the J = 6 - 5 rotational transition of CO at 434 microns. Spectral analysis of the 434-micron emission indicates that the emitting gas is optically thin and is at a temperature above 180 K. Results thus demonstrate the potential contributions of ground-based high-resolution submillimeter astronomy to the study of active regions in interstellar molecular clouds.

Fetterman, H. R.; Clifton, B. J.; Peck, D. D.; Tannenwald, P. E.; Koepf, G. A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Erickson, N. R.; Buhl, D.; Mcavoy, N.

1981-01-01

200

Carbon Monoxide and Soot Formation in Inverse Diffusion Flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to study carbon monoxide (CO) and soot formation in laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs). The IDF is used because it is a special case of underventilated combustion. The microgravity environment is crucial for this study because buoyancy-induced instabilities impede systematic variation of IDF operating conditions in normal gravity. The project described in this paper is just beginning, and no results are available. Hence, the goals of this paper are to establish the motivation for the research, to review the IDF literature, and to briefly introduce the experimental and computational plan for the research.

Blevins, L. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.

1999-01-01

201

Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule  

SciTech Connect

Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

Schwarz, A., E-mail: aschwarz@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Köhler, A.; Grenz, J.; Wiesendanger, R. [Physics Department, Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

2014-07-07

202

Carbon monoxide binding to a fish hemoglobin under photostationary conditions.  

PubMed

Determinations of carbon monoxide binding curves for hemoglobin from Brevoortia tyrannus under equilibrium and photostationary conditions show that in the light, the curve is shifted to the right and altered in shape. The Bohr effect is much less in the light. The kinetics of the transition between equilibrium and photostationary states has been examined. All of the results are satisfactorily described using the two-state model of Monod, J. Wyman, J., and Changeux, J.P. (1965) J. Mol. Biol. 12, 88-118 with the assumption that light produces an additive increase in the rate of dissociation of ligand from the R and T states. PMID:701255

Torkelson, S J; Gibson, Q H

1978-10-25

203

Laser detoxication of acute poisonings with carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of model experiments have been carried out. Those experiments have proved the fact of laser-induced photo dissociation of HbCO using Nd:YAG-laser with wavelength 533 nm at different conditions. Spontaneous reassociation of ligand to hemoproteid has been observed during the interpulse period. In order to prevent the reversibility of the reaction some oxidizing substances as well as trap-like functioning agents have been tested. The preliminary results allow us to propose the application of nonreversible laser- induced HbCO photodissotiation in the capacity of new physical method to treat acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

Provorov, Alexander S.; Salmin, Vladimir V.; Stavitskaya, Ekaterina Y.; Egorova, Alla B.

2002-05-01

204

Transient PrOx carbon monoxide measurement, control, and optimization  

SciTech Connect

Fuel processing systems for low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems require control of the carbon monoxide concentration to less than 100 ppm to 10 ppm in the anode feed. Conventional hydrocarbon fuel processors use a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to react CO with water to form H2 and reduce the CO concentration. The CO conversion is limited by equilibrium at the outlet temperature of the WGS reactor. The WGS outlet CO concentration can range from over 1% to 2000 ppm depending on the system and its operating parameters. At these concentrations, CO poisons low temperature PEM fuel cells and the concentrations needs to be reduced further.

Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

2002-01-01

205

Quoth the Raven: carbon monoxide and nothing more  

PubMed Central

The articles contained in this review series exemplify the diverse applications and succinct biological relevance of this simple gas. Articles summarizing the important effects of carbon monoxide in preventing the rejection of an organ, in its neuroprotective properties in piglets, regulation of mycobacterial growth, in its anti-inflammatory effects in the gut and in its use in new and innovative modalities and avenues by which to harness adjuvant therapies are eloquently and precisely described and reviewed. Each of these reports offers but a glimpse of continued prudent and sound evidence that this simple diatomic gas offers astonishingly potent and extremely diverse biological and medicinal qualities. PMID:23497398

2013-01-01

206

Adsorption of Nitrogen Monoxide and Carbon Monoxide on Copper-Exchanged ZSM-5: A Cluster and Embedded Cluster Study  

E-print Network

Adsorption of Nitrogen Monoxide and Carbon Monoxide on Copper-Exchanged ZSM-5: A Cluster symmetrically to two framework oxygen atoms, and the other bonds asymmetrically to three framework oxygen atoms, in which a Cu cation is in fixed- coordination with water ligands (Cu+[H2O]n),26-28 to more realistic ones

Truong, Thanh N.

207

Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans.  

PubMed Central

The enzyme carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase from CO autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans strain OM5, was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme was obtained in 26% yield and was purified 36-fold. The enzyme was stable for at least 6 days, had a molecular weight of 230,000, gave a single protein and activity band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was homogeneous by the criterion of sedimentation equilibrium. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis revealed a single band of molecular weight 107,000. Carbon monoxide:methylene blue oxidoreductase did not catalyze reduction of pyridine or flavin nucleotides but catalyzed the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, thionine, toluylene blue, dichlorophenolindophenol, or pyocyanine under strictly anaerobic conditions. The visible spectrum revealed maxima at 405 and 470 nm. The millimolar extinction coefficients were 43.9 (405 nm) and 395.5 (275 nm), respectively. Absorption at 470 nm decreased in the presence of dithionite, and the spectrum was not affected by the substrate CO. Maximum reaction rates were found at pH 7.0 and 63 degrees C; temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation, with an activation energy (delta H degree) of 36.8 kJ/mol (8.8 kcal/mol). The apparent Km was 53 microM for CO. The purified enzyme was incapable of oxidizing methane, methanol, or formaldehyde in the presence of methylene blue as electron acceptor. Images PMID:7354006

Meyer, O; Schlegel, H G

1980-01-01

208

A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs  

SciTech Connect

In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

1991-11-01

209

Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

1981-01-01

210

Neuroprotective, neurotherapeutic, and neurometabolic effects of carbon monoxide  

PubMed Central

Studies in animal models show that the primary mechanism by which heme-oxygenases impart beneficial effects is due to the gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO). Produced in humans mainly by the catabolism of heme by heme-oxygenase, CO is a neurotransmitter important for multiple neurologic functions and affects several intracellular pathways as a regulatory molecule. Exogenous administration of inhaled CO or carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORM’s) impart similar neurophysiological responses as the endogenous gas. Its’ involvement in important neuronal functions suggests that regulation of CO synthesis and biochemical properties may be clinically relevant to neuroprotection and the key may be a change in metabolic substrate from glucose to lactate. Currently, the drug is under development as a therapeutic agent and safety studies in humans evaluating the safety and tolerability of inhaled doses of CO show no clinically important abnormalities, effects, or changes over time in laboratory safety variables. As an important therapeutic option, inhaled CO has entered clinical trials and its clinical role as a neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic agent has been suggested. In this article, we review the neuroprotective effects of endogenous CO and discuss exogenous CO as a neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic agent. PMID:23270619

2012-01-01

211

Portable device for monitoring consistency of carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The necessity to nondestructively monitor concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), which is a colorless, tasteless and poisonous gas and is harmful to people, is disclosed. The portable device for monitoring concentration of CO plays an important role in health care and environment supervising for civil and industrial purposes. A basic circuit-based principle for the implementation of the device is presented with a detailed analysis for the key issues in designing. Specifically, the designing for the preamplifier is of great importance to the performance of the device. There is also introduced a method for getting standard voltage value from the micro-ampere current signal outputted from a carbon monoxide sensor and for restraining other gases to exert influence on the CO monitoring. Meanwhile, the paper teaches an anti-jamming technique for eliminating interference between analog and digital circuits within a very small system. In said device, a multi-function alarm circuit, which periodically performing its self-checking function, produces alarm with sound and light if the power of a battery is insufficient or the concentration of CO is detected to be over a set threshold. In addition, the major characteristics and applications for the device are also presented.

Zheng, Qingyu; Liang, Fuping; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xiaofei

2002-06-01

212

Determination of the atherogenic potential of inhaled carbon monoxide. Research report, October 1986May 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chronic exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide upon the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development were investigated in a series of in vivo studies in the cockerel (young rooster). Three questions were posed: (1) Will inhaled carbon monoxide at levels of 50 to 200 parts per million (ppm) (two hours\\/day for 16 weeks) be sufficient to augment

Penn

1993-01-01

213

Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

At higher altitudes, ambient carbon monoxide levels are increasing with the number of residents and tourists and their use of motor vehicles and heating devices (such as fireplaces, furnaces, and stoves). Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide or high altitude causes pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as in animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by

McGrath

1989-01-01

214

Determination of the atherogenic potential of inhaled carbon monoxide. Research report, October 1986December 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chronic exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide upon the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development were investigated in a series of in vivo studies in the cockerel (young rooster). Three questions were posed: (1) Will inhaled carbon monoxide at levels of 50 to 200 parts per million (ppm) (two hours\\/day for 16 weeks) be sufficient to augment

Penn

1993-01-01

215

Carbon Monoxide: Spectroscopic Characterization of the High–Pressure Polymerized Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid carbon monoxide transforms to the ?–phase at about 48 kbar at room temperature. In this pressure regime (50 kbar and greater), carbon monoxide undergoes a transformation at room temperature to a light–pink solid, which has not been studied in detail and may be different from the ?–phase. Exposure to moderate light intensities at these P–T conditions converts the system

M. Lipp; W. J. Evans; V. Garcia-Baonza; H. E. Lorenzana

1998-01-01

216

Association of the frequency of acute cardiorespiratory complaints with ambient levels of carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

Intial cardiorespiratory complaints in an emergency room were studied to determine their relationship to ambient levels of carbon monoxide recorded at a nearby permanent station. All 8,556 encounters with patients (daily mean, 93) were studied during Denver's peak season for carbon monoxide pollution (three-month winter period). The one-hour mean maximum level of carbon monoxide was above 17.8 ppm, averaging 27.2 +/- 4.3 ppm (vs 12.1 +/- 1.8 ppm on "low carbon monoxide days," P less than 0.0001); and when significantly higher frequencies of cardiorespiratory complaints occurred (7.9 +/- 0.7 percent vs 6.4 +/- 0.3 percent [+/- 1 SE]; P less than 0.04), the mean 24-hour level of carbon monoxide averaged 9.3 +/- 1.4 ppm (vs 5.9 +/- 0.8 ppm on "low carbon monoxide rays;" P less than 0.001). The frequency of cardiorespiratory complaints also was correlated with each measurement of the ambient level of carbon monoxide (one-hour mean maximum level, 24-hour mean level, and two-day moving averages of each) in six of eight comparisons. These observations strongly suggest that the frequency of thoracic complaints in an emergency room can be affected by the ambient level of carbon monoxide. PMID:668419

Kurt, T L; Mogielnicki, R P; Chandler, J E

1978-07-01

217

Carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes and its relation to cardiorespiratory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the carbon monoxide yield of their cigarettes have been obtained for 4910 smokers (68% of all smokers) in the Whitehall study of men aged 40 to 64. In the 10 years after examination 635 men died. When men smoking cigarettes with high carbon monoxide yield were compared with those smoking cigarettes with a low yield, and after adjusting

C Borland; A Chamberlain; T Higenbottam; M Shipley; G Rose

1983-01-01

218

75 FR 54805 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO) Limited Maintenance Plan for the Twin...Implementation Plan (SIP) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The...submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued attainment of the CO...

2010-09-09

219

Vibrational population relaxation of carbon monoxide in the heme pocket of photolyzed carbonmonoxy  

E-print Network

Vibrational population relaxation of carbon monoxide in the heme pocket of photolyzed carbonmonoxy 20, 1999) The vibrational energy relaxation of carbon monoxide in the heme pocket of sperm whale His-64. Vibrational population relaxation times of 335 115 ps for the -tautomer and 640 185 ps

Straub, John E.

220

Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

Alfani, F.; Greco, G., Jr.; Iroio, G.

1982-01-01

221

Successful cardiac transplantation with methanol or carbon monoxide-poisoned donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Patients succumbing to methanol or carbon monoxide poisoning are usually rejected for heart donation. Increasing demand for donors has lead to the expansion of acceptance criteria and increased use of the marginal donor.Methods. We transplanted hearts from donors who had had methanol intoxication in three cases and carbon monoxide exposure in two cases. Standard donor evaluation criteria and transplantation

Michael J Bentley; John C Mullen; Steven R Lopushinsky; Dennis L Modry

2001-01-01

222

Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of recent unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States. DESIGN. Descriptive analysis of carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States from 1979 through 1988, based on death certificate reports compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. POPULATION STUDIED. All US deaths, 1979 through 1988. RESULTS. We reviewed data from 56,133 death certificates

N. Cobb; R. A. Etzel

1991-01-01

223

Carbon monoxide poisoning: Bilateral lesions in the thalamus on MR imaging of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging of the brain in a child with carbon monoxide poisoning revealed bilateral diffuse high signal in the centrum semiovale and the previously unreported finding of bilateral high intensity lesions in the anterior thalami. This case illustrates a previously unrecognized effect of carbon monoxide poisoning and demonstrates the superiority of MR imaging over computed tomography in cases

R. F. Tuchman; F. G. Moser; S. L. Moshé

1990-01-01

224

Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected.

N. B. Hampson; D. M. Norkool

1992-01-01

225

Pallidoreticular Damage in Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We describe a case of carbon monoxide poison- ing that led to pallidoreticular damage and delayed leu- koencephalopathy. Serial diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed. A restricted water diffusion pattern was demonstrated in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra in the early stage. Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful for early identification of the effects of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

Toshibumi Kinoshita; Shuji Sugihara; Eiji Matsusue; Shinya Fujii; Motoki Ametani; Toshihide Ogawa

226

Electron microscopic studies on the cerebral lesions of rats in experimental carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experimental carbon monoxide poisoning, more marked and widespread pathological changes in the brain were seen in the white matter as compared with the gray matter. No essential difference, in the appearance of cerebral alterations, was detected between acute and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning. It was confirmed that the changes resulting from chronic poisoning showed a higher degree of severity

TSUTOMU MIYAGISHI; Nozomi Suwa

1969-01-01

227

Improved outcome with organs from carbon monoxide poisoned donors for intrathoracic transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The success of intrathoracic organ transplantation has lead to a growing imbalance between the demand and supply of donor organs. Accordingly, there has been an expansion in the use of organs from nonconventional donors such as those who died from carbon monoxide poisoning. We describe our experience with 7 patients who were transplanted using organs after fatal carbon monoxide

Heyman Luckraz; Steven S Tsui; Jayan Parameshwar; John Wallwork; Stephen R Large

2001-01-01

228

Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on space shuttle and aircraft measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide measurements made from the space shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be

R. E. Newell; S. T. Shipley; V. S. Connors; H. G. Reichle

1988-01-01

229

METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) LEVELS IN ALASKAN CITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

High winter carbon monoxide levels in Anchorage, as in Fairbanks, are due to intense nocturnal (ground-based) inversions persisting through the periods of maximum emissions and at times throughout the day. The problem is exacerbated by the large amounts of carbon monoxide emitted...

230

A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY  

EPA Science Inventory

An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

231

Study on reaction rates for methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction rates for methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen over a copper-zinc-based catalyst were measured under the following conditions: temperature, 210-300°C; pressure, 4-10 MPa, feed gas composition Hâ\\/CO 2.7-720, Hâ\\/COâ, 4.3-120, COâ\\/CO, 0.05-180 (in moles). It was concluded that direct methanol production from COâ takes place under the above conditions in addition to the two well-known

M. Takagawa; M. Ohsugi

1987-01-01

232

Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 6. Carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IS AN ENIGMATIC ILLNESS. The symptoms are often nonspecific or masked by an exacerbation of an underlying illness, such as congestive heart failure, that has been triggered by carbon monoxide inhalation. The effects can range from mild, annoying symptoms relieved by removal of the source to severe morbidity with profound central nervous system dysfunction, acute complications and delayed sequelae. Estimates suggest that about one-third of nonfatal cases of carbon monoxide poisoning go undetected and undiagnosed. We present a case of residential carbon monoxide poisoning to illustrate these points and to demonstrate the usefulness of a simple tool based on the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) that physicians can use to obtain an environmental exposure history. We outline the clinical management of carbon monoxide poisoning and provide strategies and resources to prevent exposure. PMID:12126326

Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Jessiman, Barry J.; Weir, Erica

2002-01-01

233

Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

1982-01-01

234

Vibrational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide at the Active Sites of Mutant Heme Proteins Jeffrey R. Hill and Dana D. Dlott*  

E-print Network

and increasing the relative affinity for oxygen versus poisonous carbon monoxide.1 Many studies have been madeVibrational Dynamics of Carbon Monoxide at the Active Sites of Mutant Heme Proteins Jeffrey R. Hill suggest that the mechanism of carbon monoxide VR in heme proteins such as Mb occurs by through

Boxer, Steven G.

235

Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by Voyager 2, and only now confirmed in this study from Earth, plays an important role as well. "Climate and atmospheric models of Triton have to be revisited now, now that we have found carbon monoxide and re-measured the methane," says co-author Catherine de Bergh. Of Neptune's 13 moons, Triton is by far the largest, and, at 2700 kilometres in diameter (or three quarters the Earth's Moon), is the seventh largest moon in the whole Solar System. Since its discovery in 1846, Triton has fascinated astronomers thanks to its geologic activity, the many different types of surface ices, such as frozen nitrogen as well as water and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), and its unique retrograde motion [1]. Observing the atmosphere of Triton, which is roughly 30 times further from the Sun than Earth, is not easy. In the 1980s, astronomers theorised that the atmosphere on Neptune's moon might be as thick as that of Mars (7 millibars). It wasn't until Voyager 2 passed the planet in 1989 that the atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, at an actual pressure of 14 microbars, 70 000 times less dense than the atmosphere on Earth, was measured. Since then, ground-based observations have been limited. Observations of stellar occultations (a phenomenon that occurs when a Solar System body passes in front of a star and blocks its light) indicated that Triton's surface pressure was increasing in the 1990's. It took the development of the Cryogenic High-Resolution Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to provide the team the chance to perform a far more detailed study of Triton's atmosphere. "We needed the sensitivity and capability of CRIRES to take very detailed spectra to look at the very tenuous atmosphere," says co-author Ulli Käufl. The observations are part of a campaign that also includes a study of Pluto [eso0908]. Pluto, often considered a cousin of Triton and with similar conditions, is receiving renewed interest in the light of the carbon monoxide discovery, and astronomers are racing to find this chemical o

2010-04-01

236

Carbon monoxide: a role in carotid body chemoreception.  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), produced endogenously by heme oxygenase, has been implicated as a neuronal messenger. Carotid bodies are sensory organs that regulate ventilation by responding to alterations of blood oxygen, CO2, and pH. Changes in blood gases are sensed by glomus cells in the carotid body that synapse on afferent terminals of the carotid sinus nerve that projects to respiratory-related neurons in the brainstem. Using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate that heme oxygenase 2 is localized to glomus cells in the cat and rat carotid bodies. Physiological studies show that zinc protoporphyrin IX, a potent heme oxygenase inhibitor, markedly increases carotid body sensory activity, while copper protoporphyrin IX, which does not inhibit the enzyme, is inactive. Exogenous CO reverses the stimulatory effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX. These results suggest that glomus cells are capable of synthesizing CO and endogenous CO appears to be a physiologic regulator of carotid body sensory activity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7892214

Prabhakar, N R; Dinerman, J L; Agani, F H; Snyder, S H

1995-01-01

237

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04

238

The Social Network of Carbon Monoxide in Medicine  

PubMed Central

Networking between cells is critical for proper functioning of the cellular milieu and is mediated by cascades of highly regulated and overlapping signaling molecules. The enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) generates three separate signaling molecules through the catalysis of heme – carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron – each of which acts via distinct molecular targets to influence cell function, both proximally and distally. This review focuses on state-of-the art developments and insights into the impact of HO-1 and CO on the innate immune response, the effects of which are responsible for an ensemble of functions that help regulate complex immunologic responses to bacterial sepsis and ischemia/reperfusion injury. HO-1 exemplifies an evolutionarily conserved system necessary for the cellular milieu to adapt appropriately, function properly, and ensure survival of the organism. PMID:23140858

Wegiel, Barbara; Hanto, Douglas W.; Otterbein, Leo E.

2012-01-01

239

Carbon Monoxide and the Brain: Time to Rethink the Dogma  

PubMed Central

Carbon Monoxide (CO), long thought to be a simple environmental pollutant is now known to have a critical role in cellular functions ranging from vasodilation to circadian rhythms. In this review, we will begin with a discussion of the enzyme responsible for CO production: heme oxygenase. Because this review will focus on the effects of CO in the brain, we will transition to CO toxicology and determine if this simple diatomic gas has really earned its nefarious reputation. An in depth analysis of the roles for CO in circadian rhythms and as a gasotransmitter will be provided in the neurological functional role section, followed by its vascular effects derived mainly from interactions with soluble guanylyl cyclase. We will then describe the evidence for CO’s protective roles through the MAPK pathway, and finally touch upon the potential therapeutic roles for CO in neurological diseases including ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23092321

Hanafy, Khalid A.; Oh, Justin; Otterbein, Leo E.

2013-01-01

240

The oxidation of carbon monoxide using a tin oxide catalyst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines some of the steps involved in the development by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) of a catalytic device for the recombination of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a CO2 laser system. It contrasts the differences between CO oxidation for air purification and for laser environmental control, but indicates that there are similarities between the physical specifications. The principal features of catalytic devices are outlined and some experimental work described. This includes measurements concerning the structure and mechanical properties of the artifact, the preparation of the catalyst coating and its interaction with the gaseous environment. The paper concludes with some speculation about the method by which the reaction actually occurs.

Sampson, Christopher F.; Gudde, Nicholas J.

1987-01-01

241

Effect of carbon monoxide on Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

The intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is exposed to multiple host antimicrobial pathways, including toxic gases such as superoxide, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide (CO). To survive, mycobacteria evolved mechanisms to resist the toxic environment, and in this review we focus on a relatively new field, namely, the role of macrophage heme oxygenase and its enzymatic product CO in Mtb pathogenesis. In particular, we focus on (i) the induction of heme oxygenase during Mtb infection and its relevance to Mtb pathogenesis, (ii) the ability of mycobacteria to catabolize CO, (iii) the transcriptional reprogramming of Mtb by exposure to CO, (iv) the general antimicrobial properties of CO and (v) new genetic evidence characterizing the ability of Mtb to resist CO toxicity. Developing a complete molecular and genetic understanding of the pathogenesis of Mtb is essential to its eventual eradication. PMID:23244630

2012-01-01

242

Carbon monoxide--physiology, detection and controlled release.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on recent developments in the area of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) and materials for controlled CO application. Novel triggers for CO release, metal carbonyls and degradation mechanisms of CORMs are highlighted. In addition, potential formulations of CORMs for targeted CO release are discussed. PMID:24556640

Heinemann, Stefan H; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias; Schiller, Alexander

2014-04-11

243

Carbon Monoxide: To Boldly Go Where NO Has Gone Before  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The discovery that nitric oxide (NO) gas acts as a physiological regulator of blood vessel tone represented a milestone in modern biological research. Carbon monoxide (CO), a similar gas, is produced by living cells as an endogenous by-product of heme degradation. Long thought to represent a metabolic waste, endogenous CO, like NO, has attracted much recent attention as a potential physiological regulator. The processes affected by CO include neurotransmission, vasorelaxation, and the regulation of cell growth or death. The mechanisms by which CO affects such biological processes include the production of cyclic nucleotide second messengers and the modulation of protein kinase–dependent signal transduction cascades. Low concentrations of exogenous CO have been shown to confer potent protection to cells and tissues in a number of disease models, offering the promise of future therapeutic applications for CO.

Stefan W. Ryter (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; Department of Medicine REV)

2004-04-27

244

Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice  

SciTech Connect

A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

1981-04-01

245

Carbon Monoxide Expedites Metabolic Exhaustion to Inhibit Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion. PMID:24121491

Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M.; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

2013-01-01

246

Mean platelet volume in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is frequent and can lead to high morbidity and mortality. Some studies have indicated increased platelet activation and aggregation in CO poisoning. Thus, we investigated mean platelet volume (MPV), an indicator of platelet activation, in patients with CO poisoning. We included 193 (117 women) patients who presented with a diagnosis of CO poisoning between June 2011 and March 2013. Control group was composed of 39 (15 women) patients. Troponin and creatine kinase MB levels were significantly higher in the CO poisoning group. Platelet counts were significantly higher in patients with CO poisoning (281 ± 76 vs 248 ± 65 × 10(9), respectively; P = .01). Similarly, MPV was significantly higher in the CO poisoning group (8.9 ± 0.8 vs 7.9 ± 0.9 fL, respectively; P < .001). Elevated MPV values may indicate that patients with CO poisoning have a higher risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications due to platelet activation. PMID:23901146

Karabacak, Mustafa; Varol, Ercan; Türkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Duman, Ali; Akpinar, Orhan; Karabacak, Pinar

2014-03-01

247

Can carbon monoxide-poisoned victims be organ donors?  

PubMed Central

The increasing demand for organ allografts to treat end-stage organ failure has driven changes in traditional donor criteria. Patients who have succumbed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a common cause of toxicological mortality, are usually rejected as organ donors. To fulfill the increasing demand, selection criteria must be expanded to include CO-poisoned donors. However, the use of allografts exposed to high CO concentrations is still under debate. Basic research and literature review data suggest that patients with brain death caused by CO poisoning should be considered appropriate organ donors. Accepting organs from CO-poisoned victims could increase the number of potential donors and lower the death rate of patients on the waiting lists. This review and reported cases may increase awareness among emergency department physicians, as well as transplant teams, that patients dying of CO exposure may be acceptable organ donors. PMID:25097755

2014-01-01

248

Delayed leukoencephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning presenting as subacute dementia.  

PubMed

We herein report the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with the subacute onset of dementia and subsequently developed abnormal behavior and a gait disturbance. Her condition transiently improved; however, within one month, she became drowsy and poorly responsive, with limb chorea and urinary incontinence. Her history of frequently using charcoal led us to diagnose her with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The findings of this case and a literature review suggest that subacute dementia due to CO poisoning recovers late, after a year or more, in patients above sixty years of age, and both hyperbaric oxygen and corticosteroid pulse therapy should be considered in such cases, even after one month. PMID:24990337

Mizuno, Yu; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Sugimoto, Izumi; Ichinose, Keiko; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Sanjo, Nobuo; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Mannen, Toru

2014-01-01

249

Neuropsychological performance in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

This study investigated changes in cognitive function in acute and delayed carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning groups with comprehensive neuropsychological tests at 1 month and 6 months after therapy. For this study, 11 patients with acute and 14 with delayed CO poisoning were recruited. The neuropsychological tests included psychomotor speed, visual-spatial ability, language, logical memory, working memory, and executive function. The results showed that patients with delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome (DNS) had poorer performance on neuropsychological tasks than did those with acute CO poisoning at the 1st month and reached almost the same level as the acute group on the neuropsychological tasks at the 6-month follow-up assessment. The DNS group had more significant progress on general cognitive function, psychomotor speed, and visual-spatial ability than did the acute group after continuous hyperbaric-oxygen therapy. PMID:25265309

Yeh, Zai-Ting; Tsai, Chung-Fen; Yip, Ping-Keung; Lo, Chiao-Yu; Peng, Su-Min; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Kung, Lan-Yu

2014-01-01

250

Concentration of carbon monoxide in the upper stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concentration of telluric carbon monoxide has been determined in the upper stratosphere from infrared solar spectra recorded by balloon in October 1978 and September 1979, over Texas. The average mixing ratios were found to be (2.1 plus or minus 3) x 10 to the -8th ppv and (3.7 plus or minus 0.4) x 10 the the -8th ppv above the float altitudes of 30.6 and 36.8 km, respectively. The concentration profile deduced from all the measurements indicates that the CO mixing ratio increases in the upper stratosphere, from (1 plus or minus 0.3) x 10 to the -8th ppv at 30.6 km, to about 4 x 10 to the -8th ppv above 41 km.

Zander, R.; Leclercq, H.; Kaplan, L. D.

1981-01-01

251

Carbon monoxide measurement in the global atmospheric sampling program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The carbon monoxide measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available infrared absorption analyzer. The modifications increased the sensitivity of the analyzer to 1 ppmv full scale, with a limit of detectability of 0.02 ppmv. Packaging was modified for automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. The GASP system is described along with analyzer operation, calibration procedures, and measurement errors. Uncertainty of the CO measurement over a 2-year period ranged from + or - 3 to + or - 13 percent of reading, plus an error due to random fluctuation of the output signal + or - 3 to + or - 15 ppbv.

Dudzinski, T. J.

1979-01-01

252

Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis and Secondary Necrosis in Syncytiotrophoblast  

PubMed Central

Pre-eclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, affects 5 to 7% of pregnancies. Oxidative stress-induced placental injury and subsequent release of placental debris into the maternal circulation are key pathogenic events in the progression of pre-eclampsia. Women who smoke cigarettes throughout pregnancy are 33% less likely to develop this disorder than nonsmoking women. We postulated that elevated carbon monoxide concentrations in serum of smoking women inhibits apoptosis and debris shedding of trophoblast cells exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury because carbon monoxide has cytoprotective effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture. This may be responsible for the reduced risk of pre-eclampsia in smoking women. To assess the cytoprotective properties of carbon monoxide within placental tissue, carbon monoxide treatments were administered to in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation-insulted villous explants cultured from term human placenta. Induction of apoptosis was assessed using molecular and morphological approaches. Placental villous explants treated with carbon monoxide demonstrated 60% less hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in the differentiated syncytiotrophoblast layer compared with untreated explants undergoing a similar insult. In addition, retention of intact syncytial membranes was observed in carbon monoxide-treated explants. These observations indicate that carbon monoxide has potent antiapoptotic properties within human placenta and may hold therapeutic potential in the treatment of pre-eclampsia. PMID:16936254

Bainbridge, Shannon A.; Belkacemi, Louiza; Dickinson, Michelle; Graham, Charles H.; Smith, Graeme N.

2006-01-01

253

The combined effect of noise and carbon monoxide on hearing thresholds of exposed workers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal models have been used to demonstrate the potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) by carbon monoxide. It has been shown that the addition of carbon monoxide to otherwise safe noise exposure levels produces significant NIHL in rats. However, the effects of chronic exposure to low level of carbon monoxide in a noisy work environment are still unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the hearing thresholds of a group of workers exposed to noise and carbon monoxide (Group 1) to another group of workers where carbon monoxide exposure is absent or negligible (Group 2). The analysis was based on 9396 audiograms collected by the Quebec National Public Health Institute between 1983 and 1996. The results show significantly poorer hearing thresholds at high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz) for the carbon monoxide exposed group (p<0.001). The potentiation effect also varied according to years of exposure in work place; a larger effect is observed for workers with between 15 to 20 years of exposure (p<0.001). This study provides the first demonstration of a potentiation effect of NIHL by carbon monoxide in humans.

Lacerda, Adriana; Leroux, Tony; Gagn, Jean-Pierre

2005-04-01

254

Carbon monoxide-induced reduction and healing of graphene oxide Badri Narayanana)  

E-print Network

#12;LETTERS Carbon monoxide-induced reduction and healing of graphene oxide Badri Narayanana 2013) Graphene oxide holds promise as a carbon-based nanomaterial that can be produced inexpensively the main functional groups present on graphene oxide sheets is removed by the reducing action of carbon

Ciobanu, Cristian

255

EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON ORGANIC MATTER CYCLING: FORMATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND CARBONYL SULFIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide-are examined. oth of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or at...

256

COSMIC: Carbon Monoxide and Soot in Microgravity Inverse Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Almost seventy percent of deaths in accidental fires are caused by inhalation of toxins such as carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke (soot) that form during underventilated burning. The COSMIC project examines the formation mechanisms of CO and soot during underventilated combustion, achieved presently using laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) formed between an air jet and surrounding fuel. A major hypothesis of the project is that the IDF mimics underventilated combustion because carbon-containing species that form on the fuel side of the flame (such as CO and soot) can escape without passing through an oxidizing flame tip. An IDF literature review was presented at the last microgravity workshop, and a few additional IDF papers have appeared since that meeting. The COSMIC project is entering the third year of its four-year funding cycle. The first two years have been devoted to designing and constructing a rig for use in the NASA 2.2-second drop tower. A few computations and laboratory experiments have been performed. The goals of this paper are to discuss the use of numerical simulation during burner design, to present computational and experimental results that support the hypothesis that IDFs are similar to underventilated flames, and to delineate future plans.

Blevins, L. G.; Fernandez, M. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.; Moore, E. F.; Steel, E. B.; Scott, J. H. J.

2001-01-01

257

Influence of carbon monoxide on metabolite formation in Methanosarcina acetivorans.  

PubMed

Methanogenic archaea conserve energy for growth by reducing some one- and two-carbon compounds to methane and concomitantly generating an ion motive force. Growth of Methanosarcina acetivorans on carbon monoxide (CO) is peculiar as it involves formation of, besides methane, formate, acetate and methylated thiols. It has been argued that methane formation is partially inhibited under carboxidotrophic conditions and that the other products result from either detoxification of CO or from bypassing methanogenesis with other pathways for energy conservation. To gain a deeper understanding of the CO-dependent physiology of M. acetivorans we analyzed metabolite formation in resting cells. The initial rates of methane, acetate, formate, and dimethylsulfide formation increased differentially with increasing CO concentrations but were maximal already at the same moderate CO partial pressure. Strikingly, further increase of the amount of CO was not inhibitory. The maximal rate of methane formation from CO was approximately fivefold lower than that from methanol, consistent with the previously observed significant downregulation of the energy converting sodium-dependent methyltransferase. The rate of dimethylsulfide formation from CO was only 1-2% of that of methane formation under any conditions tested. Implications of the data presented for previously proposed pathways of CO utilization are discussed. PMID:19191870

Oelgeschläger, Ellen; Rother, Michael

2009-03-01

258

Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

2013-01-01

259

Regulation of Multiple Carbon Monoxide Consumption Pathways in Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO-utilization, has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: one clade (CooA-1) is found in the majority of CooA-containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2) is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of concentrations. PMID:21808633

Techtmann, Stephen M.; Colman, Albert S.; Murphy, Michael B.; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Robb, Frank T.

2011-01-01

260

Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on Space Shuttle and aircraft measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide measurements made from the space shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be consistent with this view. In the tropics the three regions of long-term mean rising motion, which form part of the Walker circulation, are associated with elevated carbon monoxide.

Newell, R. E.; Shipley, S. T.; Connors, V. S.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

1988-01-01

261

Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on Space Shuttle and aircraft measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide measurements made from the Space Shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be consistent with this view. In the tropics the three regions of long-term mean rising motion, which form part of the Walker circulation, are associated with elevated carbon monoxide.

Newell, R. E.; Shipley, S. T.; Connors, V. S.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

1988-01-01

262

Autumn photoproduction of carbon monoxide in Jiaozhou Bay, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Global oceans are net natural sources of atmospheric CO. CO at surface ocean is primarily produced from the photochemical degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In this study, the effects of photobleaching, temperature and the origin (terrestrial or marine) of CDOM on the apparent quantum yields (AQY) of CO were studied for seawater samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay. Our results demonstrat that photobleaching, temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The concentration, absorbance and fluorescence of CDOM exponentially decreased with increasing light dose. Terrestrial riverine organic matter could be more prone to photodegradation than the marine algae-derived one. The relationships between CO AQY and the dissolved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm for the photobleaching study were nonlinear, whereas those of the original samples were strongly linear. This suggests that: 1) terrestrial riverine CDOM was more efficient than marine algae-derived CDOM for CO photoproduction; 2) aromatic and olefinic moieties of the CDOM pool were affected more strongly by degradation processes than by aliphatic ones. Water temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The photoproduction rate of CO in autumn was estimated to be 31.98 ?mol m-2 d-1 and the total DOC photomineralization was equivalent to 3.25%-6.35% of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Our results indicate that CO photochemistry in coastal areas is important for oceanic carbon cycle.

Ren, Chunyan; Yang, Guipeng; Lu, Xiaolan

2014-06-01

263

Empirical correlations between black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide in the lower and middle troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-particle measurements of black carbon (BC) aerosol and simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were acquired aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS). Observed average BC mass loadings, estimated to account for ~90% of the ambient BC mass, decreased by more than 2 orders of magnitude from the polluted boundary layer to the clean middle troposphere (6 km). A strong positive, but non-linear, correlation was observed between simultaneous measurements of BC and CO. Based on an analysis of all the data below 1 km, we report a compact relationship between BC and CO with a slope of 5.8 +/- 1.0 ng BC (kg dry air)-1 (ppb CO)-1 that is representative of regional urban and industrial emissions from Houston and Dallas. The BC/CO emission ratio for a fresh biomass-burning plume was estimated at 9 +/- 2 ng kg-1 ppb-1.

Spackman, J. R.; Schwarz, J. P.; Gao, R. S.; Watts, L. A.; Thomson, D. S.; Fahey, D. W.; Holloway, J. S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Trainer, M.; Ryerson, T. B.

2008-10-01

264

Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nitride: Influence of Surface Hydroxyls on Low Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the synthesis of 2.5 nm gold clusters on the oxygen free and chemically labile support carbon nitride (C3N4). Despite having small particle sizes and high enough water partial pressure these Au/C3N4 catalysts are inactive for the gas phase and liquid phase oxidation of carbon monoxide. The reason for the lack of activity is attributed to the lack of surface OH groups on the C3N4. These OH groups are argued to be responsible for the activation of CO in the oxidation of CO. The importance of basic OH groups explains the well document dependence of support isoelectric point versus catalytic activity.

Singh, Joseph A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2012-01-01

265

Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01

266

Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

267

Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-10-01

268

Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-08-01

269

FIELD SURVEYS OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN COMMERCIAL SETTINGS USING PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study employed miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording ...

270

APPLICATION OF THE MICROENVIRONMENT MONITORING APPROACH TO ASSESS HUMAN EXPOSURE TO CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure estimates based on monitoring carbon monoxide in microenvironments are compared to exposure estimates based on personal monitoring with individual, portable monitors. Methods of calculation are reviewed and discussed, and results of calculations are presented. These data...

271

Investigation of low temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts. [for Spacelab atmosphere control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide generation rates related to the use of commerical equipment in Spacelab, added to the normal metabolic and subsystem loads, will produce carbon monoxide levels in excess of the maximum allowable concentration. In connection with the sensitivity of carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts to poisoning at room temperature, catalysts for an oxidation of carbon monoxide at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that platinum and palladium are the only effective room temperature catalysts which are effective at 333 K. Hopcalite was ineffective at ambient temperatures, but converted CO with 100 percent efficiency at 333 K. Poisoning tests showed the noble metal catalysts to be very sensitive, and Hopcalite to be very resistant to poisoning.

Jagow, R. B.; Katan, T.; Ray, C. D.; Lamparter, R. A.

1977-01-01

272

Myocardial findings in fatal carbon monoxide poisoning: a human and experimental morphometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to define the status of the myocardium in selected human cases of acute, fatal carbon monoxide\\u000a intoxication and the myocardial changes in rats exposed to carbon monoxide in relation to the type of cardiac arrest and the\\u000a effects of reoxygenation following pre-fatal CO intoxication. The human study consisted of 26 cases (17 accidental and

Vittorio Fineschi; Eustachio Agricola; Giorgio Baroldi; Giancarlo Bruni; Daniela Cerretani; Sergio Mondillo; Marina Parolini; Emanuela Turillazzi

2000-01-01

273

First principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper  

E-print Network

-supported copper is signi®cantly stronger than CO adsorption on clean c-ZrO2 or clean Cu(1 0 0). � 2001 ElsevierFirst principles study of carbon monoxide adsorption on zirconia-supported copper Eric J. Walter a of carbon monoxide on a monolayer of copper adsorbed on the (1 1 1) face of cubic zirconia. For the bulk

Rappe, Andrew M.

274

Resonantly enhanced vacuum-ultraviolet generation and multiphoton ionization in carbon monoxide gas  

SciTech Connect

Competition between three-photon resonantly enhanced vacuum ultraviolet third-harmonic generation and six-photon multiphoton ionization using the A state in gaseous carbon monoxide is observed. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission exhibit increasing blue shifts and broadening with increasing pressure due to the phase matching requirements. Estimates for the efficiency and tunability show that third-harmonic generation in carbon monoxide molecules is a promising source for coherent vacuum ultraviolet light.

Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.

1982-01-01

275

The epidemiology and characteristics of carbon monoxide poisoning among recreational boaters.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been reported in the setting of recreational boating however, previous research addressing the epidemiology of carbon monoxide-related injury and death in recreational boaters has been limited. Materials and methods. The United States Coast Guard (USCG) Recreational Boating Statistics annual reports for the 10-year period 2002 - 2011 were analyzed to determine the epidemiology and characteristics of carbon monoxide poisoning among recreational boaters in the United States. Regression analysis was performed to determine statistical significance for trend. Results. The mean number of accidents, injuries and deaths per year due to CO exposure on recreational watercrafts was 14.5 (95% CI 12.1-16.9), 30.9 (95% CI 22.4-39.4) and 6.7 (95% CI 4.5-9.0) respectively. Cabin motorboats accounted for 49 accidents, 123 injuries and 29 deaths. California had 24 carbon monoxide- related accidents over the 10-year study period. Regression analysis showed no overall linear trend in the number of carbon monoxide-related boating accidents, injuries, or deaths as an absolute number or as a percent of all boating accidents, injuries or deaths over the study period. Discussion. The majority of carbon monoxide-related boating accidents, injuries and deaths occurred with cabin motorboats. The state with the largest number of carbon monoxide-related accidents over the 10-year study period was California. Conclusions. Carbon monoxide-related accidents involving recreational boating constitute an important and under recognized cause of injury and death in the United States. PMID:25567686

LaSala, G; McKeever, R; Okaneku, J; Jacobs, D; Vearrier, D

2015-02-01

276

The Magnetic Resonance Imaging Appearances of the Brain in Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning, the commonest cause of accidental poisoning in Europe and the U.S.A. To attempt to correlate the imaging findings with patient outcome as an aid to prognosis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brain MRI was performed on 19 consecutive patients, who had sustained acute carbon monoxide poisoning,

P. O'DONNELL; P. J. BUXTON; A. PITKIN; L. J. JARVIS

2000-01-01

277

Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July - August 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) were measured in the 0.15- to 6-km portion of the troposphere over subarctic and boreal landscapes of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July - August 1990. In the mid-continent region, Arctic air entering the region was characterized by relatively uniform CO concentrations (86-108 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)) and CH4 concentrations (1729-1764 ppbv). Local biomass burning and long-range transport of CO into the area from industrial/urban sources and distant fires did frequently produce enhanced and variable concentrations. Emissions of CH4 from the Hudson Bay lowlands was the primary source for enhanced and variable concentrations, especially at altitudes of 0.15-1 km. In eastern Canada, most of the observed variability in CO and CH4 was similar in origin to the phenomena described for the midcontinent region. However, unexpectedly low concentrations of CO (51 ppbv) and CH4 (1688 ppbv) were measured in the midtroposphere on several flights. Combined meteorological and chemical data indicated that the low CO-CH4 events were the result of long-range transport of tropical Pacific marine air to subarctic latitudes.

Harriss, R. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K. B.; Talbot, R. W.; Browell, E. V.; Barrie, L. A.; Hill, G. F.; Burney, L. G.

1994-01-01

278

Inhaled carbon monoxide provides cerebral cytoprotection in pigs.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) at low concentrations imparts protective effects in numerous preclinical small animal models of brain injury. Evidence of protection in large animal models of cerebral injury, however, has not been tested. Neurologic deficits following open heart surgery are likely related in part to ischemia reperfusion injury that occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Using a model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in piglets, we evaluated the effects of CO to reduce cerebral injury. DHCA and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induced significant alterations in metabolic demands, including a decrease in the oxygen/glucose index (OGI), an increase in lactate/glucose index (LGI) and a rise in cerebral blood pressure that ultimately resulted in increased cell death in the neocortex and hippocampus that was completely abrogated in piglets preconditioned with a low, safe dose of CO. Moreover CO-treated animals maintained normal, pre-CPB OGI and LGI and corresponding cerebral sinus pressures with no change in systemic hemodynamics or metabolic intermediates. Collectively, our data demonstrate that inhaled CO may be beneficial in preventing cerebral injury resulting from DHCA and offer important therapeutic options in newborns undergoing DHCA for open heart surgery. PMID:22879904

Mahan, Vicki L; Zurakowski, David; Otterbein, Leo E; Pigula, Frank A

2012-01-01

279

Carboxyhemoglobin formation due to carbon monoxide exposure in rats.  

PubMed

The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFKE) is a well-tested model for prediction of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) formation due to carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in humans. There have been few and relatively poorly tested attempts to implement a CFKE for rats. Such an implementation is of interest because many experiments on the effects of CO in rats were done without measuring COHb. To extrapolate from rats to humans requires a rat version of the CFKE. Rats were exposed to 150, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm CO for up to 240 min. Blood gases and COHb were measured. A CFKE was implemented for rats by using parameters found in the literature and estimating them from the data. It was deduced from the blood-gas data that rats hyperventilate slightly as COHb increases. The blood-gas data were used to estimate ventilation and alveolar capillary oxygen partial pressure. The hyperventilation required an iterative solution to the CFKE. The iterative CFKE predictions were found to differ statistically from observations, but in explainable ways and/or in small amounts. PMID:8079348

Benignus, V A; Annau, Z

1994-09-01

280

Effects of work place carbon monoxide exposure on blood viscosity.  

PubMed

Both blood viscosity and carbon monoxide (CO) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In order to investigate the effects of chronic low-level CO exposure on the determinants of blood viscosity (hematocrit, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and erythrocyte aggregation), 10 men exposed to CO at work for at least 6 months and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. Plasma viscosity was determined by a cone-plate viscometer, erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte aggregation by laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyzer. Mean plasma viscosity of the group exposed to CO (1.4 +/- 0.1 mPa.sn) was significantly higher than that of the controls (1.2 +/- 0.06 mPa.sn) (p < .05). Plasma fibrinogen level of the CO group (275 +/- 11 mg/dL) was slightly higher than that of the controls (263 +/- 14 mg/dL). The rise in plasma viscosity by chronic low-level CO exposure may be the mechanism of CO-induced increase in the risk for CVDs. PMID:20147004

Neslihan, Dikmeno?lu; Nurten, Seringeç

2010-01-01

281

Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

2013-03-01

282

The Abundance of Carbon Monoxide in Neptune's Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unexpected discovery of carbon monoxide in the stratosphere of Neptune in 1991 and its absence in Uranus have important implications for the origin of the planet. The two potential sources of CO in Neptune are infalling material from the interplanetary medium, and convection due to Neptune's stronger internal heat source. The tropospheric CO abundance would be a key discriminator between these two possibilities. The CO J=3-2 absorption line is strongly pressure-broadened and ideally suited for measurement using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), which offers moderate spectral resolution over a wide spectral range. Observations in 1993 using the University of Lethbridge FTS at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) resulted in a marginal detection of the CO absorption line (Naylor et al., 1994, A & A 291, L51-L53). The accuracy of the abundance was limited by channel fringing, which is the result of multiple reflections from parallel surfaces within the detector optics and produces a high-frequency modulation in the data. To improve upon this measurement, the instrumentation was upgraded including a completely new FTS in the Mach-Zehnder configuration, a new detector system with better optical design to minimize the effect of channel fringing, and an enhanced data processing pipeline. Analysis of the data obtained during an observing run in September 2002 has confirmed the existence of tropospheric CO in Neptune. These results will be presented. This research is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.

Hesman, B. E.; Davis, G. R.; Naylor, D. A.

2003-05-01

283

Carbon monoxide poisoning in the 21st century  

PubMed Central

The world has experienced some very large shifts in the epidemiology of carbon monoxide poisoning, but it remains one of the most important toxicological global causes of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis can be quickly confirmed with blood gases (pulse oximeters lack both sensitivity and specificity). Several strong predictors for serious neurological sequelae (prolonged loss of consciousness and elevated S100B) and reduced life expectancy (elevated troponin) are now reasonably well established. Despite this clearly defined high-risk group and extensive research into the pathophysiology, there has been little translation into better treatment. Much of the pathophysiological research has focused on hyperbaric oxygen. Yet it is apparent that clinical trials show little evidence for benefit from hyperbaric oxygen, and the most recent even raises the possibility of harm for repeated courses. More logical and promising potential antidotes have been under-researched, although recently both animal and small human studies suggest that erythropoietin may reduce S100B and prevent neurological sequelae. Major breakthroughs are likely to require further research on this and other treatments that may inhibit post-hypoxic inflammatory responses and apoptosis.

2014-01-01

284

Exhaled carbon monoxide in adolescents with diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine if cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with changed concentration of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A total of 46 T1D patients and 25 healthy controls (15-19 years) were enrolled. The parameters eCO and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) were established using a MICRO-4 Smokerlyser. CAN was examined by standard cardiovascular tests. Adolescents with T1D did not significantly differ in eCO compared to healthy subjects. eCO and HbCO were significantly lower in CAN-positive subjects (n=19) (1.36 ± 1.65 ppm vs. 3.09 ± 2.31, p=0.01 and 0.58 ± 0.49% vs. 1.04 ± 0.44, p<0.01, respectively) compared to CAN-negative subjects (n=27), whereas no significant difference was found in other measured parameters. By multivariate logistic regression, eCO and HbCO were associated with higher risk of CAN (OR=1.824, p<0.05 and OR=10.989, p<0.01). Our results indicate that eCO is decreased in CAN-positive diabetic subjects. Further studies are necessary to investigate the possible role of eCO as a marker for CAN. PMID:24756048

Vojtková, Jarmila; ?urdík, Peter; Michnová, Zuzana; Tur?an, Tomáš; ?iljaková, Miriam

2014-07-01

285

Carbon monoxide over the Amazon basin during the wet season  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made over the Amazon Basin of Brazil during the 1987 wet season as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). The distribution of CO over the altitude range sampled (0.15-4.5 km) was influenced by surface emissions from biological sources, long-range transport of pollutants from northern hemisphere sources, and by transport processes associated with local convective mixing. Surface sources are indicated by a qualitative interpretation of the typical pattern of decreasing concentrations with increasing altitude and increasing concentrations of CO at 0.15-km altitude during a transect from the Atlantic coast to the central basin. Atmospheric convective activity produced irregular patterns of variability at time scales of less than 1 hour over a localized area. The disruption of mixed layer growth and decay processes has a particularly important influence on CO concentrations in the daytime lower troposphere. Intrusions of northern hemisphere air into the central Amazon resulted in increased CO concentrations in the lower and midtroposphere. The correlation of CO with O{sub 3} was positive under conditions interpreted as being influenced by northern hemisphere air, and negative during all other meteorological conditions experienced in ABLE 2B.

Harriss, R.C. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA)); Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Gregory, G.L. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA)); Wade, L.O. (Planning Research Corp., Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-09-20

286

Carbon monoxide: present and future indications for a medical gas  

PubMed Central

Gaseous molecules continue to hold new promise in molecular medicine as experimental and clinical therapeutics. The low molecular weight gas carbon monoxide (CO), and similar gaseous molecules (e.g., H2S, nitric oxide) have been implicated as potential inhalation therapies in inflammatory diseases. At high concentration, CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard, and is a common component of air pollution. CO is also produced endogenously as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase enzymes. CO binds avidly to hemoglobin, causing hypoxemia and decreased oxygen delivery to tissues at high concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a signal transduction molecule in the regulation of neural and vascular function and cellular homeostasis. CO has been demonstrated to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammation, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and organ transplantation. Additional experimental indications for this gas include pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, metabolic diseases, and preeclampsia. The development of chemical CO releasing compounds constitutes a novel pharmaceutical approach to CO delivery with demonstrated effectiveness in sepsis models. Current and pending clinical evaluation will determine the usefulness of this gas as a therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23525151

Choi, Augustine M. K.

2013-01-01

287

Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

2013-01-01

288

The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation  

PubMed Central

The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO) had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field. PMID:23295066

2013-01-01

289

Carbon Monoxide Epidemic Among Immigrant Populations: King County, Washington, 2006  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated an outbreak of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a power outage to determine its extent, identify risk factors, and develop prevention measures. Methods. We reviewed medical records and medical examiner reports of patients with CO poisoning or related symptoms during December 15 to 24, 2006. We grouped patients into households exposed concurrently to a single source of CO. Results. Among 259 patients with CO poisoning, 204 cases were laboratory confirmed, 37 were probable, 10 were suspected, and 8 were fatal. Of 86 households studied, 58% (n = 50) were immigrant households from Africa (n = 21), Asia (n = 15), Latin America (n = 10), and the Middle East (n = 4); 34% (n = 29) were US-born households. One percent of households was European (n = 1), and the origin for 7% (n = 6) was unknown. Charcoal was the most common fuel source used among immigrant households (82%), whereas liquid fuel was predominant among US-born households (34%). Conclusions. Educational campaigns to prevent CO poisoning should consider immigrants’ cultural practices and languages and specifically warn against burning charcoal indoors and incorrect ventilation of gasoline- or propane-powered electric generators. PMID:19608962

Kwan-Gett, Tao; Hampson, Neil B.; Baer, Atar; Shusterman, Dennis; Shandro, Jamie R.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

2009-01-01

290

Carbon monoxide in gastrointestinal physiology and its potential in therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Background While carbon monoxide (CO) is a known toxin, it is now recognized that CO is also an important signaling molecule involved in physiology and pathophysiology. Aims To summarize our current understanding of the role of endogenous CO in the regulation of gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology and potential therapeutic applications of modulating CO. Methods This review is based on a comprehensive search of the Ovid Medline comprehensive database and supplemented by our ongoing studies evaluating the role of CO in gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology. Results CO derived from heme oxygenase-2 is predominantly involved in neuromodulation and in setting the smooth muscle membrane potential while CO derived from heme oxygenase-1 has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties which protect gastrointestinal smooth muscle from damage caused by injury or inflammation. Exogenous CO is being explored as a therapeutic agent in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders including diabetic gastroparesis, postoperative ileus, organ transplantation, inflammatory bowel disease and sepsis. However, identifying the appropriate mechanism for safely delivering CO in humans is a major challenge. Conclusions CO is an important regulator of gastrointestinal function and protects the gastrointestinal tract against noxious injury. CO is a promising therapeutic target in conditions associated with gastrointestinal injury and inflammation. Elucidating the mechanisms by which CO works and developing safe CO delivery mechanisms are necessary to refine therapeutic strategies. PMID:23992228

Gibbons, Simon J.; Verhulst, Pieter-Jan; Bharucha, Adil; Farrugia, Gianrico

2013-01-01

291

In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children's Hospital)

1993-01-23

292

Carbon monoxide poisoning of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

The platinum-alloy catalyst used in proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell anodes is highly susceptible to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. CO reduces the catalyst activity by blocking active catalyst sites normally available for hydrogen chemisorption and dissociation. The reaction kinetics at the anode catalyst surface can be used to estimate the decrease in cell voltage due to various levels of CO contamination in the inlet fuel streams on PEM fuel cell performance have been reviewed and analyzed in an attempt to further understand the electrochemical properties of the CO adsorption process. A fuel cell performance model of bipolar, Nafion 117 PEM fuel cell stack has been developed which predicts equilibrium cell output voltage as a function of current density and partial pressure of CO. The model contains both empirical and mechanistic parameters and evolved from a steady-state electrochemical model for a PEM fuel cell fed with a CO-free anode gas. Reaction kinetics and equilibrium surface coverage have been incorporated into the electrochemical model to predict the decrease in fuel cell performance at equilibrium. The effects of CO were studied at various concentrations of CO in hydrogen as the anode feed gas. Literature data were used to develop the model parameters and the resulting model is used to compare the model-predicted voltages, with and without CO, to data found in the literature.

Rodrigues, A.; Amphlett, J.C.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

1997-12-31

293

Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. PMID:24090814

Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

2013-12-01

294

Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. PMID:24090814

Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

2014-01-01

295

Carbon monoxide and the eye: Implications for glaucoma therapy.  

PubMed

In the late 1990s, the scientific community witnessed a very peculiar phenomenon: the transformation of nitric oxide (NO) from a noxious gas into a key chemical messenger. The importance of NO in biology and medicine was highlighted in 1998 when the Nobel Prize was awarded in Physiology and Medicine to Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro and Ferid Murad for their pioneering work on the role of NO in the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems. In this same time period, carbon monoxide (CO), another gas usually associated with environmental pollution, air poisoning and suicidal behavior, was also undergoing a similar change in image, although not as closely followed. It had been known for several decades that the human body generated CO upon the decomposition of hemoglobin, which was determined by the discovery that heme oxygenase (HO) is the enzymatic source of CO. However, CO's role as an endogenous neurotransmitter was established only in the early 1990s. Since then, many biological activities of CO have been demonstrated in studies using different tools, such as the pharmacological induction of HO by hemin, the direct administration of CO or the use of pro-drugs that generate CO. This review focuses on CO as a fine modulator of intraocular pressure and on its potential implications in glaucoma. PMID:21295073

Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo

2011-05-01

296

Carbon Monoxide Modulates Apoptosis by Reinforcing Oxidative Metabolism in Astrocytes  

PubMed Central

Modulation of cerebral cell metabolism for improving the outcome of hypoxia-ischemia and reperfusion is a strategy yet to be explored. Because carbon monoxide (CO) is known to prevent cerebral cell death; herein the role of CO in the modulation of astrocytic metabolism, in particular, at the level of mitochondria was investigated. Low concentrations of CO partially inhibited oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in astrocytes, by preventing caspase-3 activation, mitochondrial potential depolarization, and plasmatic membrane permeability. CO exposure enhanced intracellular ATP generation, which was accompanied by an increase on specific oxygen consumption, a decrease on lactate production, and a reduction of glucose use, indicating an improvement of oxidative phosphorylation. Accordingly, CO increased cytochrome c oxidase (COX) enzymatic specific activity and stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis. In astrocytes, COX interacts with Bcl-2, which was verified by immunoprecipitation; this interaction is superior after 24 h of CO treatment. Furthermore, CO enhanced Bcl-2 expression in astrocytes. By silencing Bcl-2 expression with siRNA transfection, CO effects in astrocytes were prevented, namely: (i) inhibition of apoptosis, (ii) increase on ATP generation, (iii) stimulation of COX activity, and (iv) mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, Bcl-2 expression is crucial for CO modulation of oxidative metabolism and for conferring cytoprotection. In conclusion, CO protects astrocytes against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by improving metabolism functioning, particularly mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:22334654

Almeida, Ana S.; Queiroga, Cláudia S. F.; Sousa, Marcos F. Q.; Alves, Paula M.; Vieira, Helena L. A.

2012-01-01

297

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon...a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative...control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation Plan, Carbon...

2014-07-01

298

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon...a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative...control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation Plan, Carbon...

2011-07-01

299

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon...a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative...control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation Plan, Carbon...

2013-07-01

300

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon...a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative...control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation Plan, Carbon...

2010-07-01

301

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon...a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative...control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation Plan, Carbon...

2012-07-01

302

REVISED EVALUATION OF HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE: AN ADDENDUM TO THE 1979 U.S. EPA AIR QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The addendum re-evaluates the scientific data base concerning health effects associated with exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) at ambient or near ambient levels by providing: (1) a concise summary of key health effects information pertaining to relatively low-level CO exposure; an...

303

A fire department community health intervention to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning following a hurricane.  

PubMed

Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

2014-01-01

304

Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction  

SciTech Connect

We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

2013-12-01

305

Carbon Monoxide (CO) Is a Novel Inhibitor of Connexin Hemichannels.  

PubMed

Hemichannels (HCs) are hexamers of connexins that can form gap-junction channels at points of cell contacts or "free HCs" at non-contacting regions. HCs are involved in paracrine and autocrine cell signaling, and under pathological conditions may induce and/or accelerate cell death. Therefore, studies of HC regulation are of great significance. Nitric oxide affects the activity of Cx43 and Cx46 HCs, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), another gaseous transmitter, modulates the activity of several ion channels, but its effect on HCs has not been explored. We studied the effect of CO donors (CORMs) on Cx46 HCs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp and on Cx43 and Cx46 expressed in HeLa cells using a dye-uptake technique. CORM-2 inhibited Cx46 HC currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The C-terminal domain and intracellular Cys were not necessary for the inhibition. The effect of CORM-2 was not prevented by guanylyl-cyclase, protein kinase G, or thioredoxin inhibitors, and was not due to endocytosis of HCs. However, the effect of CORM-2 was reversed by reducing agents that act extracellularly. Additionally, CO inhibited dye uptake of HeLa cells expressing Cx43 or Cx46, and MCF-7 cells, which endogenously express Cx43 and Cx46. Because CORM-2 carbonylates Cx46 in vitro and induces conformational changes, a direct effect of that CO on Cx46 is possible. The inhibition of HCs could help to understand some of the biological actions of CO in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25384983

León-Paravic, Carmen G; Figueroa, Vania A; Guzmán, Diego J; Valderrama, Carlos F; Vallejos, Antonio A; Fiori, Mariana C; Altenberg, Guillermo A; Reuss, Luis; Retamal, Mauricio A

2014-12-26

306

Carbon monoxide over Indian region as observed by MOPITT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive study has been carried out on tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) over the Indian land mass and surrounding oceanic region using the CO retrievals from MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) for a period of ?14 years (2000-2014). The lower-tropospheric CO maximises during winter and shows a broad minimum during summer-monsoon over most of the regions, but with regionally varying seasonal amplitudes. Tropospheric column CO also exhibits a seasonal pattern similar to lower-tropospheric CO. But the upper-tropospheric CO shows an opposite seasonal pattern which peaks during summer monsoon. Columnar CO showed strong positive correlation with fire counts over west, east and north-east India, indicating the dominant role of biomass burning in controlling the seasonal variation of CO. The lower-tropospheric and columnar CO showed decreasing trend of 2.0-3.4 ppb year-1 (1.1-2.0% year-1) and 6.0-13.6 × 1015 molecules cm-2 year-1 (0.3-0.6% year-1) respectively over most of the regions. However, over many land regions trend in columnar CO is not significant. Most strikingly, the upper tropospheric CO showed increasing trend of 1.4-2.4 ppb year-1 (1.8-3.2% year-1). The analysis of biases in the estimated trends due to temporal changes in the MOPITT averaging kernels shows that magnitude of the realistic trend may change depending upon the bias but the sign (positive or negative) of trend remains the same. The decreasing trend in lower tropospheric and columnar CO could be attributed partly to increase in lower tropospheric water vapour and/or tropospheric ozone. The strengthening of convective activity, uplifting the CO to higher altitudes, could be a reason for increasing trend in the upper-tropospheric CO.

Girach, I. A.; Nair, Prabha R.

2014-12-01

307

Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias. Research report, Jul 85-Jan 89  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction. The combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation in 60 percent of the animals. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as susceptible; dogs that survive the test without fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk and are defined as 'resistant.' The effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, the reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. The worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, the observation that carbon monoxide exposure increases heart rate at rest and during moderate exercise may have clinical implications relevant to patients with coronary artery disease.

Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.

1990-01-01

308

Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1980-01-01

309

Mechanisms of carbon monoxide attenuation of tubuloglomerular feedback.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a physiological messenger with diverse functions in the kidney, including controlling afferent arteriole tone both directly and via tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). We have reported that CO attenuates TGF, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We hypothesized that CO, acting via cGMP, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase 2, reduces cAMP in the macula densa, leading to TGF attenuation. In vitro, microdissected rabbit afferent arterioles and their attached macula densa were simultaneously perfused. TGF was measured as the decrease in afferent arteriole diameter elicited by switching macula densa NaCl from 10 to 80 mmol/L. Adding a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3, 5 × 10(-5) mol/L) to the macula densa blunted TGF from 3.3 ± 0.3 to 2.0 ± 0.3 ?m (P<0.001). The guanylate cyclase inhibitor LY-83583 (10(-6) mol/L) enhanced TGF (5.8 ± 0.6 ?m; P<0.001 versus control) and prevented the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (LY-83583+CORM-3, 5.5 ± 0.3 ?m). Similarly, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KT-5823 (2 × 10(-6) mol/L) enhanced TGF and prevented the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (KT-5823, 6.0 ± 0.7 ?m; KT-5823+CORM-3, 5.9 ± 0.8 ?m). However, the phosphodiesterase 2 inhibitor BAY-60-7550 (10(-6) mol/L) did not prevent the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (BAY-60-7550, 4.07 ± 0.31 ?m; BAY-60-7550+CORM-3, 1.84 ± 0.31 ?m; P<0.001). Finally, the degradation-resistant cAMP analog dibutyryl-cAMP (10(-3) mol/L) prevented the attenuation of TGF by CORM-3 (dibutyryl-cAMP, 4.6 ± 0.5 ?m; dibutyryl-cAMP+CORM-3, 5.0 ± 0.6 ?m). We conclude that CO attenuates TGF by reducing cAMP via a cGMP-dependent pathway mediated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase rather than phosphodiesterase 2. Our results will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that control the renal microcirculation. PMID:22508834

Ren, Yilin; D'Ambrosio, Martin A; Wang, Hong; Falck, John R; Peterson, Edward L; Garvin, Jeffrey L; Carretero, Oscar A

2012-06-01

310

MECHANISMS OF CARBON MONOXIDE ATTENUATION OF TUBULOGLOMERULAR FEEDBACK (TGF)  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a physiological messenger with diverse functions in the kidney, including controlling afferent arteriole (Af-Art) tone both directly and via tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). We have reported that CO attenuates TGF, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We hypothesized that CO, acting via cGMP, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), and cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase-2 (PDE2), reduces cAMP in the macula densa, leading to TGF attenuation. In vitro, microdissected rabbit Af-Arts and their attached macula densa were simultaneously perfused. TGF was measured as the decrease in Af-Art diameter elicited by switching macula densa NaCl from 10 to 80 mM. Adding a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3, 5×10?5mol/L) to the macula densa blunted TGF from 3.3±0.3 to 2.0±0.3 µm (P<0.001). The guanylate cyclase inhibitor LY-83583 (10?6mol/L) enhanced TGF (5.8±0.6 µm; P<0.001 vs. control) and prevented the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (LY-83583 + CORM-3, 5.5±0.3 µm). Similarly, the PKG inhibitor KT-5823 (2×10?6mol/L) enhanced TGF and prevented the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (KT-5823, 6.0±0.7 µm; KT-5823 + CORM-3, 5.9±0.8 µm). However, the PDE2 inhibitor BAY-60-7550 (10?6mol/L) did not prevent the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (BAY-60-7550, 4.07±0.31 µm; BAY-60-7550 + CORM-3, 1.84±0.31 µm, P<0.001). Finally, the degradation-resistant cAMP analog dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP, 10?3mol/L) prevented the attenuation of TGF by CORM-3 (db-cAMP, 4.6±0.5 µm; db-cAMP + CORM-3, 5.0±0.6 µm). We conclude that CO attenuates TGF by reducing cAMP via a cGMP-dependent pathway mediated by PKG, rather than PDE2. Our results will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that control the renal microcirculation. PMID:22508834

Ren, YiLin; D’Ambrosio, Martin A.; Wang, Hong; Falck, John R.; Peterson, Edward L.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.; Carretero, Oscar A.

2012-01-01

311

Effects of carbon monoxide on isolated heart muscle cells. Research report, March 1989-February 1992  

SciTech Connect

By sequestering intracellular myoglobin of cardiac muscle cells in the nonfunctioning carboxymyoglobin form, carbon monoxide blocks myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen, as well as myoglobin-mediated oxidative phosphorylation. The authors explored the hypothesis that the carbon monoxide blockade of myoglobin function may be responsible at the cellular level for a component of the cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide observed during exercise. At physiological oxygen pressures no greater than 5 torr, after sequestration of approximately 50% of the myoglobin, steady-state oxygen uptake decreased significantly less than the respiration of cell groups for which the fraction of carboxymyoglobin was 0% to 40%. When respiration is diminished, the rate of oxidative phosphorylation also decreases. Thus, they concluded that sequestering intracellular myoglobin as carboxymyoglobin significantly decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation of isolated cardiac myocytes. They estimate that intracellular myoglobin-dependent oxidative phosphorylation will be inhibited when approximately 20% to 40% of the arterial hemoglobin in the whole animal is carboxyhemoglobin.

Wittenberg, B.A.; Wittenberg, J.B.

1993-01-01

312

Absorption of nicotine and carbon monoxide from passive smoking under natural conditions of exposure.  

PubMed Central

Seven non-smokers were exposed to tobacco smoke under natural conditions for two hours in a public house. Measures of nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva, and urine and expired air carbon monoxide all showed reliable increases. The concentrations of carbon monoxide and nicotine after exposure averaged 15.7% and 7.5% respectively of the values found in heavy smokers. Although the increase in expired air carbon monoxide of 5.9 ppm was similar to increases in smokers after a single cigarette, the amount of nicotine absorbed was between a tenth and a third of the amount taken in from one cigarette. Since this represented a relatively extreme acute natural exposure, any health risks of passive smoking probably depend less on quantitative factors than on qualitative differences between sidestream and mainstream smoke. PMID:6648864

Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C

1983-01-01

313

Pneumomediastinum following hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning: case report.  

PubMed

A 5-year-old boy trapped in a house fire was transported to the emergency department, unconscious with suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. The patient underwent a difficult intubation, but did not initially demonstrate any radiographic abnormalities. The patient remained intubated and underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy using the carbon monoxide treatment protocol. Immediate post-therapy chest radiograph revealed the development of occult pneumomediastinum. The patient remained stable on positive-pressure ventilation and the pneumomediastinum resolved spontaneously. The patient was extubated on post-injury Day #2 and was discharged post-injury Day #4 with no residual clinical sequelae. The development of pneumomediastinum associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning appears to be a rare phenomenon. However, clinicians should be aware of the risk factors that predispose patients to developing pneumomediastinum and have a low threshold for obtaining routine pre- and post-procedure screening chest radiographs in intubated and critically ill patients, particularly in children. PMID:24377195

Jaeger, Nolan J; Brosious, John P; Gustavson, Richard B; McFarlin, Chad A; Gearhart, William; Zamboni, William A; Baynosa, Richard C

2013-01-01

314

Magnetic field and electromagnetic wave properties of carbon monoxide with high-pressure disproportionation single-walled carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

A double-fluid theory is used to find the electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco)-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with HiPco SWNTs is obtained and is studied numerically. The absorption is then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, cyclotron frequency, and angle of propagation is studied. The double-fluid theory predicts that there is an electromagnetic frequency dependency on the energy absorption properties of the system under investigation. The calculation results show that effects of magnetic field strength and the angle of microwave propagation on the absorption coefficient as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant.

Tooski, S. B. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Materials and Nanotechnology and Laboratory of Applied Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran P.O. Box 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-10-15

315

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...Approval—On November 29, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...

2010-07-01

316

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...Approval—On November 29, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...

2012-07-01

317

40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...which must be confirmed by the State), Michigan will implement one or more...

2012-07-01

318

40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...which must be confirmed by the State), Michigan will implement one or more...

2014-07-01

319

40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...which must be confirmed by the State), Michigan will implement one or more...

2011-07-01

320

40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...which must be confirmed by the State), Michigan will implement one or more...

2010-07-01

321

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...Approval—On November 29, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...

2014-07-01

322

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...Approval—On November 29, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...

2013-07-01

323

40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...which must be confirmed by the State), Michigan will implement one or more...

2013-07-01

324

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon...Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...Approval—On November 29, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources...

2011-07-01

325

Cerebral infarction due to carotid occlusion and carbon monoxide exposure III. Influence of neck vein occlusion.  

PubMed Central

Unilateral cerebral infarcts were produced in the rat by ligation of one common carotid artery and a subsequent exposure to carbon monoxide. In animals which had undergone an additional ligation of the external jugular veins leading to a moderate increase of the cephalic venous pressure the outcome of the procedure was ameliorated significantly. Venous pressure elevation was thought to reduce the venous vascular resistance effectively by preventing the leptomeningeal veins from collapsing. Collapse of the leptomeningeal veins probably occurred during the severe carbon monoxide-induced hypotension causing a steep increase of cerebral vascular resistance. Images PMID:6886722

Laas, R; Igloffstein, J

1983-01-01

326

Dissipation of phonons by subsystem of disordered molecules - Case of thermal conductivity of carbon monoxide crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Order or disorder in subsystem of dipolar constituents of a solid often significantly influences its physical properties. The results of investigation of the effect of glassy state in subsystem of carbon monoxide molecules on thermal conductivity of CO crystal in its equilibrium vapor pressure are reported. The thermal conductivity of a high quality carbon monoxide crystal was specified over the temperature range 1.2-45 K. The results of these measurements were analyzed within the frame of relaxation time approximation. It was shown that at low temperatures phonon scattering by subsystem of disordered CO molecules is the most significant dissipative mechanism of heat transfer in the investigated crystal.

Romanova, Tetiana; Stachowiak, Piotr; Je?owski, Andrzej

2014-11-01

327

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the

Ayusman Sen; Zhaozhong Jiang

1996-01-01

328

A Study of Vibrational Relaxation of B-State Carbon Monoxide in the Heme Pocket of Photolyzed Carboxymyoglobin  

E-print Network

A Study of Vibrational Relaxation of B-State Carbon Monoxide in the Heme Pocket of Photolyzed, Massachusetts 02215 ABSTRACT The vibrational energy relaxation of dissociated carbon monoxide in the heme pocket the - and -tautomers of the distal histidine, His64 . Vibrational population relaxation times were estimated using

Straub, John E.

329

Chronic Exposure to Carbon Monoxide and Nicotine: Endothelin ET A Receptor Antagonism Attenuates Carbon Monoxide-Induced Myocardial Hypertrophy in Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to determine the effects of endothelin ETA receptor antagonism on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression and to compare myocardial effects of chronic nicotine with CO exposure. Female Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 84) were randomized to three groups exposed 20 h\\/day to CO (200 ppm), nicotine (500 ?g\\/m3), or air

Jan P. Loennechen; Odd G. Nilsen; Ingerid Arbo; Petter Aadahl; Turid Nilsen; Helge L. Waldum; Arne K. Sandvik; Øyvind Ellingsen

2002-01-01

330

Black carbon and carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal during W_ICARB: Source characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ship borne measurements of near-surface black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were carried out over Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the winter period of 2009 under W_ICARB, the second phase of ‘Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)'. The CO mixing ratio and BC mass concentration varied in the ranges of 80-480 ppbv and 75-10,000 ng m-3, respectively over this marine region. The BC and CO showed similar variations over northern BoB where airmass from Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region prevailed during the observations period leading to a very strong positive correlation. The association of BC and CO was poor over the eastern and southern part of BoB could be due to the removal of BC aerosols by rain and/or processes of dilution and mixing while transported over to BoB. The highest value of CO observed over eastern BoB was partially due to biomass burning over East Asia. The BC/CO ratio for IGP airmass found to be 20.3 ng m-3 ppb-1 and ?16 ng m-3 ppb-1 during winter and pre-monsoon, respectively which indicate the role of biomass burning as the source of BC over the region. Based on the emission flux of CO from various inventories and observed BC/CO ratios during pre-monsoon and winter, the BC emission for India is estimated to be in the range of 0.78-1.23 Tg year-1. The analysis of scavenging of BC revealed the loss rate of BC due to relative humidity 0.39 ± 0.08 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over northern BoB and 0.53 ± 0.04 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over the southern-BoB during winter.

Girach, I. A.; Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Prabha R.

2014-09-01

331

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

SciTech Connect

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M. [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); and others

1994-09-01

332

Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the Sgr A complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the +50 km s-1 cloud (M-0.02-0.07), the circumnuclear disk (CND) and the +20 km s-1 (M-0.13-0.08) cloud in the Sgr A complex with the VLA, Odin and SEST. Strong OH absorption, H2O emission and absorption lines were seen at all three positions. Strong C18O emissions were seen towards the +50 and +20 km s-1 clouds. The CND is rich in H2O and OH, and these abundances are considerably higher than in the surrounding clouds, indicating that shocks, star formation and clump collisions prevail in those objects. A comparison with the literature reveals that it is likely that PDR chemistry including grain surface reactions, and perhaps also the influences of shocks has led to the observed abundances of the observed molecular species studied here. In the redward high-velocity line wings of both the +50 and +20 km s-1 clouds and the CND, the very high H2O abundances are suggested to be caused by the combined action of shock desorption from icy grain mantles and high-temperature, gas-phase shock chemistry. Only three of the molecules are briefly discussed here. For OH and H2O three of the nine observed positions are shown, while a map of the C18O emission is provided. An extensive paper was recently published with Open Access (Karlsson et al. 2013, A&A 554, A141).

Karlsson, R.; Sandqvist, Aa.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Winnberg, A.; Fathi, K.; Frisk, U.; Olberg, M.

2014-05-01

333

The origin of carbon monoxide in Neptunes's atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CO abundance in the observable atmosphere of Neptune can be plausibly explained by rapid vertical mixing from the deeper atmosphere if Neptune has a greater complement of water than Uranus. Thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations reveal that Neptune must and Uranus may have about 10 times more oxygen than carbon, whereas for Jupiter and Saturn equal enrichments of carbon and oxygen are satifactory to explain the observed CO abundances by deep vertical mixing. Relative to hydrogen and solar composition, the respective enrichment factors for carbon and oxygen are 41, 440 (Neptune); 32, less than or equal 260 (Uranus); 6.6, 6.6 (Saturn); and 2.8, 2.8 (Jupiter). Because water ice is the most refractory ice among the ices assumed to be present in the outer solar nebula, the most massive H2O enrichment is expected for the outermost planet of this group. Thus, Neptune can indeed be regarded as the 'god of the seas.'

Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

1994-01-01

334

An Urban Diffusion Simulation Model for Carbon Monoxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A relatively simple Gaussian-type diffusion simulation model for calculating urban carbon (CO) concentrations as a function of local meteorology and the distribution of traffic is described. The model can be used in two ways: in the synoptic mode and in the climatological mode. (Author/BL)

Johnson, W. B.; And Others

1973-01-01

335

EFFECT ON CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS IN MOBILE HOMES USING UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS FOR RESIDENTIAL HEATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (Co) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old . These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. espondents were asked to operate their heater...

336

The effect of carbon monoxide on oxygen metabolism in the brains of awake sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight conscious chronically instrumented sheep were exposed to 1% inspired carbon monoxide (CO) for 35 min. In all sheep, carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels at the end of the exposure were approximately 65%. Mean arterial blood pressure was unchanged with the exception of 2 sheep in which administration was stopped at 25 min following the sudden onset of hypotension. Oxygen delivery to

Peter Langston; Des Gorman; William Runciman; Richard Upton

1996-01-01

337

Subcellular Trace Metal Alterations in Rats Exposed to 50?PPM of Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The currently accepted “no effect” Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for carbon monoxide is 50?ppm. Rats were chronically exposed to this level for 5 hours per day, 5 days per week. Approximately 9 exposed and 6 control rats were sacrificed every 3 weeks until the 12 week exposure period was terminated. The concentrations of zinc, copper, cobalt, iron, and magnesium were

RONALD L. COLEMAN; ROBERT C. DUNCAN; CARL A. NAU

1970-01-01

338

Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in bilateral cataracts and a cystic globus pallidus lesion.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of a 43-year-old lady who developed bilateral cataracts, seizures and a unilateral cystic lesion of the basal ganglia following low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) exposure over 7 years. Cataract formation may result from sustained oxidative stress as a result of chronic environmental CO exposure. PMID:22689549

Kasbekar, Shivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Jose Argelio

2011-01-01

339

Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in bilateral cataracts and a cystic globus pallidus lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a case of a 43-year-old lady who developed bilateral cataracts, seizures and a unilateral cystic lesion of the basal ganglia following low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) exposure over 7 years. Cataract formation may result from sustained oxidative stress as a result of chronic environmental CO exposure.

Shivani Kasbekar; Jose Argelio Gonzalez-Martin

2011-01-01

340

Reevaluation of the role of carbon monoxide in production or aggravation of cardiovascular disease processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an environmental pollutant carbon monoxide (CO) is without equal with regard to ubiquity. Data suggesting adverse effects on the human cardiovascular system associated with CO exposure have engendered concern. In contrast to previous reviewers, our evaluation of the available studies suggests that this concern is largely unwarranted. We found no convincing evidence to support the conclusion that chronic CO

F. W. Weir; V. L. Fabiano

1982-01-01

341

Carbon monoxide exposure assessment among toll operators in Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to determine tollbooth carbon monoxide (CO) levels and carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels among the tollbooth operators and office workers in the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur. All tollbooths were equipped with well functioning air-conditioning. The total number of respondents was 180: 90 toll operators and 90 office workers aged between 19 and 52 years. The highest

S. Niza; H. H. Jamal

2007-01-01

342

A positron emission tomography study of patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning treated by hyperbaric oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven patients with an acute and severe carbon monoxide intoxication were treated with hyperbaric oxygen and underwent a positron emission tomographic examination 2–5 days after the acute event. Although the final clinical outcome was good in all patients, ischaemic changes were observed. Three patients with temporary sequelae after hyperbaric oxygen treatment showed the most severe changes, mainly in striatum and

J. De Reuck; D. Decoo; I. Lemahieu; K. Strijckmans; P. Boon; G. Maele; W. Buylaert; D. Leys; H. Petit

1993-01-01

343

Carbon monoxide suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions associated with chronic graft rejection and with balloon injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of heme oxygenase action on heme, prevents arteriosclerotic lesions that occur following aorta transplantation; pre-exposure to 250 parts per million of CO for 1 hour before injury suppresses stenosis after carotid balloon injury in rats as well as in mice. The protective effect of CO is associated with a profound inhibition of graft

Leo E. Otterbein; Brian S. Zuckerbraun; Manabu Haga; Fang Liu; Ruiping Song; Anny Usheva; Christina Stachulak; Natalya Bodyak; R. Neal Smith; Eva Csizmadia; Shivraj Tyagi; Yorihiro Akamatsu; Richard J. Flavell; Timothy R. Billiar; Edith Tzeng; Miguel P. Soares; Fritz H. Bach; Augustine M. K. Choi

2003-01-01

344

Body and organ weights of rats exposed to carbon monoxide at high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) or high altitude produces pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Theoretical considerations, as well as data from acute studies, suggest that CO inhaled at high altitude may be more detrimental than CO inhaled at low altitude. The purpose

James J. McGrath

1988-01-01

345

Exposure of motor vehicle examiners to carbon monoxide: a historical prospective mortality study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) investigated the health effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide by conducting a historical prospective cohort study of mortality patterns among 1558 white male motor vehicle examiners who were employed in New Jersey for a minimum of 6 months between 1944 and 1973. Industrial hygiene surveys indicated that

F. B. Stern; R. A. Lemen; R. A. Curtis

1981-01-01

346

The hematological effects of chronic, low level exposures to carbon monoxide in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions Chronic, intermittent exposures to low levels of carbon monoxide (23% COHb) produce statistically significant elevations in red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin content, and reticulocyte percentage in rats. However, during ten postexposure days the elevations show significant reversibility. Because no significant change in plasma volumes appears to occur, the mild polycythemia is evidently due to increased erythropoiesis. The degree

J. M. Ramsey

1975-01-01

347

Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardium. Ultrastructural changes in rabbits after moderate, chronic exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure chamber experiments were conducted with 16 male albino rabbits to investigate the effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ultrastructure. Half of the animals were exposed to 180 ppM of CO, while the other half were exposed to atmospheric air for 2 weeks. Local areas of partial or total necrosis of the myofibrils and degenerative changes of the mitochondria were

K. Kjeldsen; H. K. Thomsen; P. Astrup

1974-01-01

348

Biologic synergisms in rats produced by carbon monoxide and positive ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sprague-Dawley weanling rats were chronically exposed to 200 ppm of carbon monoxide alone and later in combination with an atmosphere containing a high ratio of positive ions generated by a tritium source. The period of exposure approximated two months. Although food and water intake of the exposed rats was not statistically different from the control animals inhaling the ambient laboratory

R. S. Pogrund

1969-01-01

349

Effect of chronic carbon monoxide exposure on experimental alcoholic liver injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of experimental animals with pair-fed controls were studied to evaluate the effect of chronic carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on progression of experimental alcoholic liver injury. Eight pairs of male Wistar rats were continuously infused liquid diet and ethanol or isocaloric dextrose for four months. Four pairs were also exposed to CO. Liver damage was followed monthly by serum

A. A. Nanji; L. T. Jui; S. W. French

1989-01-01

350

Carbon monoxide ameliorates chronic murine colitis through a heme oxygenase 1- dependent pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and its metabolic product carbon monoxide (CO) play regulatory roles in acute inflammatory states. In this study, we demonstrate that CO administration is effective as a therapeutic modality in mice with established chronic colitis. CO administration ameliorates chronic intestinal inflammation in a T helper (Th)1-mediated model of murine colitis, interleukin (IL)-10-deficient ( IL-10 ? \\/ ? )

Refaat A. F. Hegazi; Kavitha N. Rao; Aqila Mayle; Antonia R. Sepulveda; Leo E. Otterbein; Scott E. Plevy

2005-01-01

351

Development of porphyrins based sensors to measure the biological damage of carbon monoxide exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen transport in blood is threatened by the presence of carbon monoxide. CO indeed permanently replaces the oxygen molecule in the hemoglobin making this last no more effective as oxygen carrier. This mechanism is ruled by the properties of a particular metalloporphyrin (heme) for which the binding energy with CO is about 250 times higher than that towards O2.

C. Di Natale; R. Paolesse; A. Alimelli; A. Macagnano; G. Pennazza; A. D'Amico

2003-01-01

352

Chronic low level maternal carbon monoxide exposure and fetal growth and development. [Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects on fetal growth and development of continuous exposure of pregnant rats to low level carbon monoxide (30 or 90 ppM CO) and a low oxygen atmosphere (13% Oâ). While neither CO concentration induced a hematologic response in the pregnant animals, 13% Oâ exposure elicited an increase in hematocrit, the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin concentration. Fetal

D. J. Garvey; L. D. Longo

1978-01-01

353

Carbon monoxide induces murine thymocyte apoptosis by a free radical-mediated mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) induces acute or chronic toxicity, according to the level and duration of the exposure. Since chronic CO exposure was shown to have immunosuppressive effects (as it decreases the frequency of rat splenic immunocompetent cells and immunoglobulin production), we investigated the effect of CO on thymocytes, since these are the most sensitive cells to oxidative damage from the

V. Turcanu; M. Dhouib; J.-L. Gendrault; P. Poindron

1998-01-01

354

Neurodevelopmental Consequences of SubClinical Carbon Monoxide Exposure in Newborn Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure at high concentrations results in overt neurotoxicity. Exposure to low CO concentrations occurs commonly yet is usually sub-clinical. Infants are uniquely vulnerable to a variety of toxins, however, the effects of postnatal sub-clinical CO exposure on the developing brain are unknown. Apoptosis occurs normally within the brain during development and is critical for synaptogenesis. Here we

Ying Cheng; Adia Thomas; Feras Mardini; Shannon L. Bianchi; Junxia X. Tang; Jun Peng; Huafeng Wei; Maryellen F. Eckenhoff; Roderic G. Eckenhoff; Richard J. Levy

2012-01-01

355

Elevated levels of carbon monoxide in the patient compartment of ambulances.  

PubMed Central

Six hundred and ninety New Jersey ambulances were monitored for carbon monoxide (CO); 27 per cent had CO levels of 10 ppm or more greater than ambient air in the breathing zone of the patient. Twenty-nine of these ambulances had levels of at least 35 ppm greater than ambient air. Results indicate that a CO exposure problem exists in ambulances. PMID:6711734

Iglewicz, R; Rosenman, K D; Iglewicz, B; O'Leary, K; Hockemeier, R

1984-01-01

356

[Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning in an electric car. An unusual case report].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of a man who committed suicide by poisoning with carbon monoxide in his electric vehicle. He applied a small motor generator with no exhaust normally used for charging the vehicle's batteries at home, that was found on the loading space behind the seat. This demonstrates the value of a thorough scene investigation. PMID:7832611

Bohnert, M; Zollinger, U

1994-01-01

357

EFFECTS OF LOW LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE. BLOOD LIPIDS AND COAGULATION PARAMETERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study examined the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in 50 and 100 ppm doses on response to treadmill exercise, blood coagulation and blood lipids in normal men. Twenty-three men were exposed to CO or to air in a double-blind protocol. After exposure, each underwent a graded ex...

358

Daily global maps of carbon monoxide from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. AIRS daily coverage of ~70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite trace gas remote sensing. Tropospheric CO abundances are retrieved from AIRS 4.55 mum spectral region using the full AIRS retrieval algorithm run in a research

W. W. McMillan; C. Barnet; L. Strow; M. T. Chahine; M. L. McCourt; J. X. Warner; P. C. Novelli; S. Korontzi; E. S. Maddy; S. Datta

2005-01-01

359

PREDICTION OF CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN FORMATION DUE TO TRANSIENT EXPOSURE TO CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Prediction of carboxyhemoglobin formation due to transient xposure to carbon monoxide. . Appl. Physiol. 76(4):1739-1745, 1994.-Fifteen men were exposed to 6,683 ppm C18O for 3.09-6.65 min. rterial and antecubital vein blood samples were drawn at 1-min intervals beginning at the s...

360

Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) was intended to establish global baseline values of selected atmospheric constituents that could be used for studies of the dynamics of the sampled region as well as for modeling purposes. Instrument packages were carried on four Boeing 747 aircraft in routine commercial service. Carbon monoxide and ozone data were collected

R. E. Newell; M.-F. Wu

1985-01-01

361

Daily global maps of carbon monoxide from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. AIRS daily coverage of ?70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite trace gas remote sensing. Tropospheric CO abundances are retrieved from AIRS 4.55 ?m spectral region using the full AIRS retrieval algorithm run in a research

W. W. McMillan; C. Barnet; L. Strow; M. T. Chahine; M. L. McCourt; J. X. Warner; P. C. Novelli; S. Korontzi; E. S. Maddy; S. Datta

2005-01-01

362

Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student report on the physiological response to acute carbon monoxide exposure in a simulated healthy adult male and a coal miner and represents how 1) human patient simulators can be used in a nonclinical way for experiential hypothesis testing; 2) students can transition from traditional textbook learning to practical application of their knowledge; and 3) student-initiated group investigation drives critical thought

Whitney A. Cesari (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Dominique M. Caruso (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Enela L. Zyka (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Stuart T. Schroff (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Charles H. Evans, Jr. (Georgetown University Department of Human Science,School of Nursing and Health Studies); PhD Jon-Philippe K. Hyatt (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies)

2006-12-01

363

CARBON MONOXIDE COMMUTER EXPOSURE DATA BASE: A 5-DAY STUDY IN LOS ANGELES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent concern about carbon monoxide exposure to the commuter population prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a five-day field project to assess the CO exposure to Los Angeles commuters. The purpose of this report is to document the field project and to pr...

364

A carbon monoxide sensor in polymer electrolyte fuel cells based on symbolic dynamic filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) dramatically reduces the performance of a fuel cell stack if not remediated. Reme- diation generally requires parasitic bleeding of a small fraction (<5%) of air into the fuel stream to promote oxidation of the CO and use of a platinum-ruthenium or other noble metal based catalyst. For enhance- ment of system efficiency, air bleed should be controlled

K. S. Bhambare; S. Guptab; M. M. Mench; A. Rayb

365

78 FR 48611 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

The EPA is taking direct final action to approve a carbon monoxide (CO) Limited Maintenance Plan (LMP) for the Fairbanks Area, and associated revisions to sections of the Fairbanks Transportation Control Program, submitted by the State of Alaska (the State) as a revision to its State Implementation Plan (SIP) dated April 22, 2013. In accordance with the requirements of the Federal Clean Air Act......

2013-08-09

366

Carbon monoxide in controlling the surface formation of Group VIII metal nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Group VIII metal nanoparticles with variant morphologies were synthesized under a carbon monoxide atmosphere. The important roles of CO in determining the surface formation of growing particles were studied both by experiment and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which suggest different growth mechanisms for these metals. PMID:25266416

Hwang, Sang Youp; Zhang, Mingzhen; Zhang, Changlin; Ma, Buyong; Zheng, Jie; Peng, Zhenmeng

2014-11-21

367

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE (1999) (SECOND EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This revised criteria document consolidates and updates the current scientific basis for another reevaluation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide (CO), currently set at 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) for 8 h and 35 ppm (40 mg/m3) for 1 h. Although emphasis is plac...

368

EDUCATION LEVEL IS GREATEST RISK-FACTOR IN CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels. In confined spaces, inefficient combustion sources, such as furnaces, stoves, kerosene heaters and automobiles can generate levels of CO that interrupt oxygen transport throughout the body, potentially ...

369

Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications  

E-print Network

Carbon monoxide annealed TiO2 nanotube array electrodes for efficient biosensor applications for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and thionine chloride (Th) for biosensor application-Vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and amperometry. The results indicated that the biosensor based

Cao, Guozhong

370

Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

2012-01-01

371

FINAL SAMPLING REPORT FOR THE STUDY OF PERSONAL CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the sample selection procedures used for a study funded by the EPA and conducted by the Research Triangle Institute in 1982 and 1983 to evaluate methodology for collecting data on personal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO). These data were collected in the me...

372

CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES INSIDE AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING ON AN URBAN ARTERIAL HIGHWAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. n each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the...

373

Room-temperature cold-welding of gold nanoparticles for enhancing the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

A cold-welding strategy is proposed to rapidly join together Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) into two-dimensional continuous structures for enhancing the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide by injecting a mixture of ethanol and tolulene into the bottom of a AuNP solution. PMID:21399832

Liu, Cai; Li, Yong-Jun; Sun, Shi-Gang; Yeung, Edward S

2011-04-21

374

Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 increases the velocity of thrombus growth and strength in human plasma.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide derived from degradation of heme by heme oxygenase or carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) has been demonstrated to decrease thrombosis in vivo and to weakly inhibit platelet aggregation. We tested the hypothesis that carbon monoxide released from tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) would diminish the velocity of formation and strength of plasma thrombi as determined by thrombelastography. Normal plasma was exposed to 0 or 100 micromol/l CORM-2 or inactivated CORM-2 (iCORM-2), with coagulation initiated with tissue factor or celite (n = 8 per condition). Additional experiments utilized factor XIII (FXIII) deficient plasma activated with celite. Coagulation kinetics was monitored with thrombelastography for 15 min. CORM-2, and to a lesser extent, iCORM-2, significantly (P < 0.05) increased the velocity of formation (122 and 56%, respectively) and strength (66 and 57%, respectively) of plasma clots initiated with either tissue factor or celite compared with thrombi not exposed to CORM-2 or iCORM. In FXIII deficient plasma CORM-2 significantly increased the velocity of clot formation (264%) and strength (240%). Carbon monoxide and iCORM-2 derived from CORM-2 markedly enhance the velocity of clot growth and strength. These findings serve as the rationale for further investigations to determine if CORMs could be utilized as hemostatic agents. PMID:19417630

Nielsen, Vance G; Kirklin, James K; George, James F

2009-07-01

375

Methyl Sulfide Production by a Novel Carbon Monoxide Metabolism in Methanosarcina acetivorans?  

PubMed Central

We observed dimethyl sulfide and methanthiol production in pure incubations of the methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans when carbon monoxide (CO) served as the only electron donor. Energy conservation likely uses sodium ion gradients for ATP synthesis. This novel metabolism permits utilization of CO by the methanogen, resulting in quantitative sulfide methylation. PMID:18024677

Moran, James J.; House, Christopher H.; Vrentas, Jennifer M.; Freeman, Katherine H.

2008-01-01

376

a Monte Carlo Study of Carbon Monoxide Layers Adsorbed on Ionic Substrates:. Structures and Phase Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the order-disorder phase transitions of carbon monoxide layers adsorbed on sodium chloride and lithium flouride substrates using the Metropolis Monte Carlo method. The simulations have been performed in the temperature range from 5 K to 60 K. At low temperature and monolayer coverage, both of these systems form ordered phases which disorder as the temperature is increased.

Ngoc-Thanh Vu; David B. Jack

1999-01-01

377

40 CFR Appendix A - Protocol for Using an Electrochemical Analyzer to Determine Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...oxygen (O2 ). Analyte CAS No. Sensitivity Carbon monoxide (CO) 630-08-0...subpart ZZZZ. Because of inherent cross sensitivities of EC cells, you must not apply this...twice the permitted CO level. 1.5 Sensitivity. What minimum detectable limit...

2014-07-01

378

Approval and promulgation of Michigan State Implementation Plan (SIP). carbon monoxide and ozone  

SciTech Connect

These two US Environmental Protection Agency notices approve the revised Michigan SIP for ozone control strategy for the Flint, Lansing, Grand Rapids, and other rural nonattainment areas; ozone, carbon monoxide control, and vehicle inspection/maintenance programs fr the Detroit urban areas; and transportation control plans for all these areas. These final rules are effective as of 5/23/80.

Not Available

1980-06-02

379

Structural and vibrational properties of carbon monoxide adlayers on the copper ,,001... surface  

E-print Network

--carbon monoxide on the copper 001 surface--have been calculated from first principles within local density coverage is greater than 0.5, in agreement with experiment. The vibrational analysis reveals that resonant situations. As a result, they are instrumental in a wide variety of physical and chemical processes

Rappe, Andrew M.

380

Particulate, Carbon Monoxide, and Acid Emission Factors for Residential Wood Burning Stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions from residential wood burning stoves are of Increasing concern in many areas. This concern is due to the magnitude of the emissions and the toxic and chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Recent testing of standard and new technology woodstoves has provided data for developing a family of particulate and carbon monoxide emission factor curves. This testing has also provided

Paul G. Burnet; Norman G. Edmisten; Paul E. Tiegs; James E. Houck; Rachel A. Yoder

1986-01-01

381

CARBON MONOXIDE REVERSIBLY DISRUPTS IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Iron dissociation from heme is a major factor in iron metabolism and cellular concentrations of the metal correlate inversely with the expression of heme oxygenase (HO). We tested the hypothesis that 1) exposure to a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), disturbs iron homeostas...

382

STUDY OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES OF RESIDENTS OF WASHINGTON, D.C.  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper will describe a study conducted in the Washington, D.C., area during the winter of 1982-83 for the purpose of measuring the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of a representative population of the area. The population distributions were determined by direct ...

383

Extended Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Carbon Monoxide Migration in Sperm Whale Myoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of an extended molecular dynamics simulation on the migration of photodissociated carbon monoxide in wild-type sperm whale myoglobin. Our results allow following one possible ligand migration dynamics from the distal pocket to the Xe1 cavity via a path involving the other xenon binding cavities and momentarily two additional packing defects along the pathway. Comparison with recent

Cecilia Bossa; Massimiliano Anselmi; Danilo Roccatano; Andrea Amadei; Beatrice Vallone; Maurizio Brunori; Alfredo Di Nola

2004-01-01

384

Pits confined in ultrathin cerium(IV) oxide for studying catalytic centers in carbon monoxide oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding ideal material models for studying the role of catalytic active sites remains a great challenge. Here we propose pits confined in an atomically thin sheet as a platform to evaluate carbon monoxide catalytic oxidation at various sites. The artificial three-atomic-layer thin cerium(IV) oxide sheet with approximately 20% pits occupancy possesses abundant pit-surrounding cerium sites having average coordination numbers of 4.6 as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Density-functional calculations disclose that the four- and five-fold coordinated pit-surrounding cerium sites assume their respective role in carbon monoxide adsorption and oxygen activation, which lowers the activation barrier and avoids catalytic poisoning. Moreover, the presence of coordination-unsaturated cerium sites increases the carrier density and facilitates carbon monoxide diffusion along the two-dimensional conducting channels of surface pits. The atomically thin sheet with surface-confined pits exhibits lower apparent activation energy than the bulk material (61.7 versus 122.9?kJ?mol-1), leading to reduced conversion temperature and enhanced carbon monoxide catalytic ability.

Sun, Yongfu; Liu, Qinghua; Gao, Shan; Cheng, Hao; Lei, Fengcai; Sun, Zhihu; Jiang, Yong; Su, Haibin; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

2013-11-01

385

An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a defined population, identifying those at greatest risk from acute poisoning resulting in admission to hospital or death. METHODS: A retrospective study with routinely collected information, set in the former West Midlands Regional Health Authority; population of 5.2 million. The data comprised 939 deaths and 701 hospital admissions due

R. C. Wilson; P. J. Saunders; G. Smith

1998-01-01

386

Carbon monoxide poisoning and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen in the subacute phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of normobaric versus hyperbaric (>2 atm) oxygen in the treatment of carbon monoxide intoxication continues to be a matter of debate despite reports of increased efficacy with hyperbaric oxygen. When hyperbaric oxygen is used, immediate treatment is preferred for best results. The therapeutic window of time, however, is unknown. A patient presented with acute confusion and partial retrograde

Vladimir Coric; Dan A Oren; Frank A Wolkenberg; Richard E Kravitz

1998-01-01

387

Emergency department visits for carbon monoxide poisoning in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the annual number of emergency department (ED) visits and rate of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Washington, Idaho, and Montana. All hospital emergency departments and hyperbaric treatment facilities in the region were surveyed by mail and telephone regarding their patient treatment experience for calendar year 1994. Results demonstrated that

Neil B Hampson

1998-01-01

388

Myelin basic protein in cerebrospinal fluid: a predictive marker of delayed encephalopathy from carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate whether myelin basic protein (MBP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be a predictive marker of delayed encephalopathy from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Five patients with CO poisoning were included in the study. The CSF was serially sampled to determine the MBP concentration. All patients were classified into group DE or group non-DE according to

Toshimitsu Ide; Yoshito Kamijo

2008-01-01

389

Serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a patient with the interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies were performed from immediately after the appearance of sequelae in a patient with the interval form of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The volume of interest was set over the frontal lobe white matter. In the early period a persistent increase in choline was found, which was thought to reflect the course of progressive

T Murata; S Itoh; Y Koshino; M Omori; I Murata; K Sakamoto; K Isaki; H Kimura; Y Ishii

1995-01-01

390

Computerized tomographies of 34 patients at the chronic stage of acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brains of 34 patients at the chronic stage of acute carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning) were examined using computerized tomography (CT). Ventricular and sulcal dilatations were measured quantitatively, with picture analysis of CT for the measurement of ventricular dilatation. Significant ventricular and sulcal dilatations were found in all cases of the CO group compared with age-matched controls, and bilateral

Eisuke Kono; Ryosuke Kono; Kenshiro Shida

1983-01-01

391

Carbon monoxide poisoning during ice storms: A tale of two cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a retrospective case series conducted at two university hospital emergency departments of 68 patients with a discharge diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning presenting during two different ice storms (March 1991 and February 1994) in two cities (Rochester, NY, and Nashville, TN). Fifty-five patients were seen over 10 d in Rochester and 13 patients over 4 d in

Keith Wrenn; Gregory P. Conners

1997-01-01

392

Electronic and chemical interactions between boron and carbon monoxide on Rb(0001)  

E-print Network

Electronic and chemical interactions between boron and carbon monoxide on Rb(0001) Jo& A. Rodriguez poison CO chemisorption approximately on a one-to-one basis. No reaction or direct bonding between B in which adsorption sites that are within - 1 bond length of the surface impurity are poisoned.6

Goodman, Wayne

393

Carboxyhemoglobin measurement by hospitals: Implications for the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most case definitions for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning include demonstration of an elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentration. Further, it is generally believed that treatment of CO poisoning is more effective when performed as soon as possible after the exposure. This suggests that a hospital’s inability to measure blood COHb could lead to delayed or missed diagnosis or treatment. This study

Neil B. Hampson; Karen L. Scott; Jennette L. Zmaeff

2006-01-01

394

CT Findings of the Interval Form of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Compared with Neuropathological Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral computed tomography findings were described in 2 clinical cases of the interval form of carbon monoxide poisoning and comparison with postmortem CT finding of an autopsy case was made. There was low density in the bilateral frontal region, centrum semiovale and pallidal parts. In the course of the disease, the degree of low density in the white matter showed

Katsuji Kobayashi; Kiminori Isaki; Yuken Fukutani; Masayoshi Kurachi; Akira Eboshida; Rokuro Matsubara; Nariyoshi Yamaguchi

1984-01-01

395

Outcome of patients experiencing cardiac arrest with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: We sought to examine the outcome of a subgroup of patients with extreme carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, specifically those discovered in cardiac arrest, resuscitated, and subsequently treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2). Opinions of hyperbaric medicine physicians regarding the treatment of such patients were also sought. Methods: Records of patients treated with HBO2 for acute CO poisoning at Virginia

Neil B. Hampson; Jennette L. Zmaeff

2001-01-01

396

Selection criteria utilized for hyperbaric oxygen treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical directors of North American hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) facilities were surveyed to assess selection criteria applied for treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning within the hyperbaric medicine community. Responses were received from 85% of the 208 facilities in the United States and Canada. Among responders, 89 monoplace and 58 multiplace chamber facilities treat acute CO poisoning, managing a total

Neil B. Hampson; Richard G. Dunford; Christine C. Kramer; Diane M. Norkool

1995-01-01

397

Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988  

SciTech Connect

OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of recent unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States. DESIGN. Descriptive analysis of carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States from 1979 through 1988, based on death certificate reports compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. POPULATION STUDIED. All US deaths, 1979 through 1988. RESULTS. We reviewed data from 56,133 death certificates that contained codes implicating carbon monoxide as a contributing cause of death. Of these, 25,889 were suicides, 210 were homicides, 15,523 were associated with severe burns or house fires, and 11,547 were classified as unintentional. The number of unintentional deaths decreased steadily by about 63 deaths per year, from 1513 in 1979 to 878 in 1988. The highest death rates occurred in winter and among males, blacks, the elderly, and residents of northern states. Motor vehicle exhaust gas caused 6552 (57%) of the unintentional deaths; 5432 (83%) of these were associated with stationary automobiles. CONCLUSIONS. The rate of unintentional death from carbon monoxide poisoning is decreasing. This may be attributable to improvements in automobile pollution control systems and improved safety of cooking and heating appliances. Prevention programs should target young drivers, males, and the elderly.

Cobb, N.; Etzel, R.A. (Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

1991-08-07

398

Neuropsychologic and Functional Recovery From Severe Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Without Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To test the hypothesis that neuropsychologic test results and functional outcome will be abnormal if hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is not used in patients with severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Methods: For a 1-year interval, we retrospectively identified all CO-poisoned patients who were comatose on presentation at a large, urban tertiary hospital and did not receive HBO therapy. Prospectively,

Lindell K Weaver; Ramona O Hopkins; Valerie Larson-Lohr

1996-01-01

399

METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS: 2. APPLICATION TO LAS VEGAS, NEVADA, FOR CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

An objective methodology presented in a companion paper (Liu et al., 1986) for determining the optimum number and disposition of ambient air quality stations in a monitoring network for carbon monoxide is applied to the Las Vegas, Nevada, area. The methodology utilizes an air qua...

400

CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH REVIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires periodic review of existing criteria that form the basis for carbon monoxide (CO) air quality standards. These air quality criteria are to reflect the latest scientific information useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effec...

401

EFFECT OF LOW LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE ON COMPENSATORY TRACKING AND EVENT MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments by Putz et al. concerning the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on compensatory tracking and monitoring in healthy young men were replicated. Task and procedural variables were reproduced as closely as practical. Subjects were exposed to either room air or 100 p...

402

Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comet nuclei at large distances from the Sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the more attractive among the plausible scenarios for the major emission event recently observed on Comet Halley at a heliocentric distance of 14.3 AU is activation of a source of ejecta driven by an icy substance much more volatile than water. As prerequisite for the forthcoming detailed analysis of the imaging observations of this event, a simple model is proposed that yields the sublimation rate versus time at any location on the surface of a rotating cometary nucleus for two candidate ices: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model's variable parameters are the comet's heliocentric distance r and the Sun's instantaneous zenith angle z.

Sekanina, Zdenek

1991-01-01

403

Particulate, carbon monoxide, and acid emission factors for residential wood burn stoves  

SciTech Connect

Emissions from residential wood burning stoves are of increasing concern in many areas. This concern is due to the magnitude of the emissions and the toxic and chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Recent testing of standard and new technology woodstoves has provided data for developing a family of particulate and carbon monoxide emission factor curves. This testing has also provided data illustrating the acidity of woodstove emissions. The particulate and carbon monoxide curves relate the actual stove emissions to the stove size and operating parameters of burn rate, fuel loading, and fuel moisture. Curves relating stove types to the acidity of emissions have also been constructed. Test data show actual emissions vary from 3 to 50 grams per kilogram for particles and from 50 to 300 grams per kilogram for carbon monoxide. Since woodstove emissions are the largest single category of particulate emissions in many area, it is essential that these emissions be quantified specifically for geographic regions, allowing meaningful impact analysis modeling to be accomplished. Emission factors for particles and carbon monoxide are presented from several stove sizes and burn rates. The acidic nature of woodstove emissions has been clearly demonstrated. Tests indicate woodstove flue gas condensate solutions to be predominantly in the 2.8 to 4.2 pH range. Condensate solutions from conventional woodstoves exhibited the characteristic buffering capacity of carboxylic acids when titrations were performed with a strong base. The environmental impact of buffered acidic woodstove emissions is not currently well understood; however, it is possible with the data presented here to make semi-quantitative estimates of acid emission from particulate and carbon monoxide emission factors and wood use inventories.

Burnet, P.G.; Edmisten, N.G.; Tiegs, P.E.; Houck, J.E.; Yoder, R.A.

1986-09-01

404

The remote measurement of trace atmospheric species by correlation interferometry. I - Carbon monoxide and methane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A correlation interferometer has been developed for the measurement of carbon monoxide and methane at 2.35 micrometers in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. This instrument has been tested in laboratory tests, solar-looking outdoor tests, and downward-looking airplane-based tests. The aircraft tests were flown on a Falcon fanjet provided by The Canada Centre for Remote Sensing over both polluted and unpolluted regions of North America. The results of these various tests are discussed. Based on the results obtained for carbon monoxide and methane, a study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of measuring other atmospheric trace species by correlation interferometry. Results of the feasibility study for carbon dioxide, water vapor, ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and several hydrocarbons are presented.

Goldstein, H. W.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Karger, A. M.; Dick, R.; David, F.; Lebel, P. J.

1973-01-01

405

Hydrogen oxidation on gas diffusion electrodes for phosphoric acid fuel cells in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide present in the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80 to 150 C. It was found that throughout the temperature range, the potential loss due to the CO poisoning can be reduced to a great extent by the injection of small amounts of gaseous oxygen into the hydrogen gas containing carbon monoxide. By adding 5 volume percent (v/o) oxygen, an almost CO-free performance can be obtained for carbon monoxide concentrations up to 0.5 v/o CO at 130 C, 0.2 v/o CO at 100 C, and 0.1 v/o CO at 80 C, respectively.

Gang, X.; Qingfeng, L.; Hjuler, H.A.; Bjerrum, N.J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

1995-09-01

406

Carbon Monoxide Liberated from Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule Exerts an Anti-inflammatory Effect on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the three products of heme degradation by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and exerts novel\\u000a anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects as a gaseous second messenger. The purpose of this investigation was to determine\\u000a whether exogenous CO could modulate intestinal inflammation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Acute colitis was induced with 2% DSS in male C57BL\\/6 mice. CO-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2; tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II)\\u000a dimer)

Tomohisa TakagiYuji; Yuji Naito; Kazuhiko Uchiyama; Takahiro Suzuki; Ikuhiro Hirata; Katsura Mizushima; Hisato Tsuboi; Natsuko Hayashi; Osamu Handa; Takeshi Ishikawa; Nobuaki Yagi; Satoshi Kokura; Hiroshi Ichikawa; Toshikazu Yoshikawa

2011-01-01

407

Characterization of reduced natural garnierite and its catalytic activity for carbon monoxide hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of 3:1 hydrogen/carbon monoxide at 500/sup 0/-573/sup 0/K and 0.101 Mnewton/sq m pressure over reduced natural garnierite from New Caledonia yielded only methane in a reaction that was 1.8 order in hydrogen, approx. -0.45 order in carbon monoxide, had an activation energy of approx. 100 kj/mole, and had a turnover number lower than the ones reported by Vannice for other supports at 548/sup 0/K At a hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratio of 1.5:1 and higher pressures (1.5-2.13 Mnewton/sq m) higher hydrocarbons were obtained in concentrations which were correctly predicted by the Schulz-Flory equation, even for the products of low carbon number. The catalyst, which consisted of a nickel-containing mixture of talc-like and serpentine-like phases, and its reduction behavior, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses, electron microscopy and microprobe analyses, and adsorption studies. An optimum catalyst reduction temperature existed which was associated with the redispersion nickel in the serpentine fiber phase.

Jacobs, P.A; Nijs, H.H.; Poncelet, G.

1980-08-01

408

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-print Network

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

409

Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application  

PubMed Central

A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6?V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors. PMID:24113335

Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

2013-01-01

410

Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-01

411

Carbon monoxide and oxygen combustion experiments - A demonstration of Mars in situ propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using carbon monoxide and oxygen as rocket propellants was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The steady-state combustion of carbon monoxide and oxygen was demonstrated for the first time in a subscale rocket engine. Measurements of experimental characteristic velocity, vacuum specific impulse, and thrust coefficient efficiency were obtained over a mixture ratio range of 0.30 to 2.0 and a chamber pressures of 1070 and 530 kPa. The theoretical performance of the propellant combination was studied parametrically over the same mixture ratio range. In addition to one dimensional ideal performance predictions, various performance reduction mechanisms were also modeled, including finite-rate kinetic reactions, two-dimensional divergence effects and viscous boundary layer effects.

Linne, Diane L.

1991-01-01

412

Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall  

SciTech Connect

The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine.

Allen, D.R.; Browse, N.L.; Rutt, D.L.; Butler, L.; Fletcher, C.

1988-01-01

413

Evaluation of airborne carbon monoxide exposure monitoring program in produce cooler operations (Palm Beach County, Florida)  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of a carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring program was evaluated by measuring changes in employee exposure levels annually over a three-year period following various reduction strategies. Workers in produce coolers were monitored for exposure to CO from the exhaust of propane lift trucks used to load and unload produce during the spring corn season in western Palm Beach County. Personal monitoring, using dosimeter tubes attached to the employees` breathing zones, was performed over 8-hour workshifts to determine the time weighted average (TWA) airborne exposures to CO in parts per million (ppm). Intervention strategies used at the operations found to have elevated employee CO exposure levels were: (1) source elimination; (2) source reduction; and (3) administrative control. The interventions were found to reduce significantly CO exposure levels. The greatest decrease in carbon monoxide resulted from source elimination.

Garsik, D.A. [Palm Beach County Public Health Unit, West Palm Beach, FL (United States). Div. of Environmental Health

1995-05-01

414

Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride  

SciTech Connect

The selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride has been studied over platinum- and palladium-containing zeolites as well as palladium-on-silica (Pd/SiO[sub 2]) catalysts. The results show that although a zeolite support is needed in many systems to effect a kinetic control to improve selectivity, thermodynamic control using Pd([approximately]2-4 ppm)/SiO[sub 2] is sufficient to give the desired selectivities in this system. In addition, a palladium-containing vanadium-phosphate catalyst was prepared that showed complete oxidation of carbon monoxide, conversion of butane to maleic anhydride, and no observable decomposition of the maleic anhydride. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

Corbin, D.R.; Bonifaz, C. (DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE (United States))

1994-03-01

415

Nano-crystalline porous tin oxide film for carbon monoxide sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tin oxide sol is deposited on platinum electrodes (12) of a sensor (10). The sol is calcined at a temperature of 500 to 800.degree. C. to produce a thin film of tin oxide with a thickness of about 150 nm to 2 .mu. and having a nano-crystalline structure with good stability. The sensor rapidly detects reducing gases, such as carbon monoxide, or hydrocarbons and organic vapors. Sensors using films calcined at around 700.degree. C. have high carbon monoxide selectivity with a response time of around 4 minutes and a recovery time of 1 minute, and therefore provide good detection systems for detection of trace amounts of pollutants such as toxic and flammable gases in homes, industrial settings, and hospitals.

Liu, Chung-Chiun (Inventor); Savinell, Robert F. (Inventor); Jin, Zhihong (Inventor)

2000-01-01

416

The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide measure by the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument carried aboard the space shuttle is reported. The data represent average mixing ratios in the middle troposphere and are presented in the form of maps that show the carbon monoxide mixing ratios averaged for 6 days of the mission. Comparisons with concurrent, direct measurements taken aboard aircraft show that the inferred concentrations are systematically low by from 20 to 40 percent depending upon which direct measurement calibration standard is used. The data show that there are very large CO sources resulting from biomass burning over South America and southern Africa. Measured mixing ratios were high over northeast Asia and were highly variable over Europe.

Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Connors, V.S.; Wallio, H.A.; Holland, J.A.; Sherrill, R.T.; Casas, J.C.; Gormsen, B.B.

1989-01-01

417

Identical linkage and cooperativity of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding to Octopus dofleini hemocyanin  

SciTech Connect

Employment of high-precision thin-layer methods has enabled detailed functional characterization of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding for (1) the fully assembled form with 70 binding sites and (2) the isolated chains with 7 binding sites of octopus dofleini hemocyanin. The striking difference in the cooperativities of the two ligands for the assembled decamer is revealed through an examination of the binding capacities and the partition coefficient, determined as functions of the activities of both ligands. A global analysis of the data sets supported by a two-state allosteric model assuming an allosteric unit of 7. Higher level allosteric interactions were not indicated. This contrasts to results obtained for arthropod hemocyanins. Oxygen and carbon monoxide experiments performed on the isolated subunit chain confirmed the presence of functional heterogeneity reported previously. The analysis shows two types of binding sites in the ratio of 4:3.

Connelly, P.R.; Gill, S.J.; Miller, K.I.; Zhou, G.; van Holde, K.E. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (USA))

1989-02-21

418

Carbon monoxide and oxygen combustion experiments: A demonstration of Mars in situ propellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using carbon monoxide and oxygen as rocket propellants was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The steady-state combustion of carbon monoxide and oxygen was demonstrated for the first time in a subscale rocket engine. Measurements of experimental characteristic velocity, vacuum specific impulse, and thrust coefficient efficiency were obtained over a mixture ratio range of 0.30 to 2.0 and a chamber pressures of 1070 and 530 kPa. The theoretical performance of the propellant combination was studied parametrically over the same mixture ratio range. In addition to one dimensional ideal performance predictions, various performance reduction mechanisms were also modeled, including finite-rate kinetic reactions, two-dimensional divergence effects and viscous boundary layer effects.

Linne, Diane L.

1991-01-01

419

The promoting effect of adsorbed carbon monoxide on the oxidation of alcohols on a gold catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, adsorbed carbon monoxide typically acts as a poison or poisoning intermediate in the oxidation of alcohols. However, gold as an (electro)catalyst often exhibits unexpected properties. Here we show that carbon monoxide irreversibly adsorbed on a Au(111) surface in aqueous alkaline media can act as a promoter for the electrocatalytic oxidation of certain alcohols, in particular methanol. In comparison with bare Au(111), the onset potential for methanol oxidation is significantly lower in the presence of adsorbed CO, and formation of the main methanol oxidation products—formaldehyde and formic acid—is enhanced. By studying the effect of adsorbed CO on the oxidation of other alcohols on gold, we conclude that the presence of adsorbed CO promotes beta-hydrogen elimination, that is, C-H bond breaking. Apart from its importance to gold catalysis, this is an unanticipated example of promotion effects by co-adsorbed small molecules in electrocatalysis.

Rodriguez, Paramaconi; Kwon, Youngkook; Koper, Marc T. M.

2012-03-01

420

1 H MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication leads to acute and chronic neurological deficits, but little is known about the specific\\u000a noxious mechanisms. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may allow insight into the pathophysiology of CO poisoning by monitoring neurochemical\\u000a disturbances, yet only limited information is available to date on the use of this protocol in determining the neurological\\u000a effects of CO poisoning.

Daniel Kondziella; Else R. Danielsen; Klaus Hansen; Carsten Thomsen; Erik C. Jansen; Peter Arlien-Soeborg

2009-01-01

421

Carbon monoxide: A vital signalling molecule and potent toxin in the myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is generated through the heme oxygenase-catalysed degradation of heme and is now established as an important, biologically active molecule capable of modulating a number of signalling pathways. Such pathways include those involving nitric oxide\\/guanylate cyclase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MAP kinases. In the heart, up-regulation of the inducible form of heme oxygenase (HO-1) following stresses

Chris Peers; Derek S. Steele

422

Carbon monoxide inhibits Fas activating antibody-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The extrinsic apoptotic pathway initiates when a death ligand, such as the Fas ligand, interacts with its cell surface receptor\\u000a (ie., Fas\\/CD95), forming a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). The Fas-dependent apoptotic pathway has been implicated in\\u000a several models of lung or vascular injury. Carbon monoxide, an enzymatic product of heme oxygenase-1, exerts antiapoptotic\\u000a effects at low concentration in vitro and

Xue Wang; Yong Wang; Seon-Jin Lee; Hong Pyo Kim; Augustine MK Choi; Stefan W Ryter

2011-01-01

423

Irreversible impairment of active avoidance behavior in rats prenatally exposed to mild concentrations of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wistar female rats were exposed to relatively mild concentrations of carbon monoxide (75 and 150 ppm) from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy. The results show that prenatal exposure to CO (150 ppm) significantly impairs the acquisition of a two-way active avoidance task in 3-month-old male rats as well as the acquisition and reacquisition of this schedule in 18-month-old

M. A. Salvia; R. Cagiano; M. R. Carratù; V. Giovanni; L. Trabace; V. Cuomo

1995-01-01

424

Carbon monoxide exposure enhances arrhythmia after cardiac stress: involvement of oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrhythmias following cardiac stress are a key predictor of death in healthy population. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous\\u000a pollutant promoting oxidative stress and associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease and cardiac mortality.\\u000a We investigated the effect of chronic CO exposure on the occurrence of arrhythmic events after a cardiac stress test and the\\u000a possible involvement of related oxidative stress.

Lucas André; Fares Gouzi; Jérôme Thireau; Gregory Meyer; Julien Boissiere; Martine Delage; Aldja Abdellaoui; Christine Feillet-Coudray; Gilles Fouret; Jean-Paul Cristol; Alain Lacampagne; Philippe Obert; Cyril Reboul; Jérémy Fauconnier; Maurice Hayot; Sylvain Richard; Olivier Cazorla

425

Nootropic effect of nicotine on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced delayed amnesia in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nicotine on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced amnesia in mice were investigated using a step-down type passive avoidance task. Mice were exposed to CO 3 times at 1-h intervals, 7 days before the first training and retention test and 24 h after the first training session. Memory deficiency occurred in mice when training commenced more than 3 days after

Masayuki Hiramatsu; Hisae Satoh; Tsutomu Kameyama; Toshitaka Nabeshima

1994-01-01

426

MRI and Neuropsychological Correlates of Carbon Monoxide Exposure: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 45-year-old woman experienced long-term, chronic exposure to carbon monoxide in the restau- rant kitchen where she was employed as a cook. After returning to the restaurant after 5 days off work, she noticed that her symptoms returned immediately; she then aired out the room and called the gas company. Approximately 6 hr after a leak was detected, the patient

Sherral A. Devine; Shalene M. Kirkley; Carole L. Palumbo; Roberta F. White

2002-01-01

427

Morphometry and estimated bulk oxygen diffusion in larvae of Xenopus laevis under chronic carbon monoxide exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the mechanisms that allow tadpoles of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis to develop under conditions of impaired convective transport (hemoglobin poisoning with carbon monoxide), whole animal surface area and volume were measured and bulk oxygen diffusion was modeled at four developmental stages (from initiation of heartbeat to pre-metamorphic climax). Surface area [8.5 mm2 at stages Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF)

P. R. Territo; J. Altimiras

2001-01-01

428

Chronic exposure to carbon monoxide at high altitude: Effects on mean electrical axis  

Microsoft Academic Search

COOPER, R., J. J. McGRATH, S. DOOLEY AND M. T. KOPETZKY. Chronic exposure to carbon monoxide at high altitude: Effects on mean electrical axis. PHYSIOL BEHAV 46(1) 75-79, 1989. --The effects of breathing CO continuously at high altitude on the mean electrical axis of the heart, hematocrit ratio and body weight were studied in laboratory rats. Laboratory rats were exposed

R. COOPER; J MCGRATH; S DOOLEY; M KOPETZKY

1989-01-01

429

Chronic altitude plus carbon monoxide exposure causes left ventricular hypertrophy but an attenuation of coronary capillarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the nature of the cardiomegaly and coronary capillarity changes that occur with chronic hypoxia plus carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, F-344 rats (64-69 days old) were exposed to simulated altitude (18,000 ft) and four doses of CO (0, 50, 100, and 500 ppm) for six weeks. Left (LVT) and right (RVT) ventricular thickness and total coronary capillary density (LV

P. F. McDonagh; J. M. Reynolds; J. J. McGrath

1986-01-01

430

Carbon Monoxide Generated by Heme Oxygenase 1 Suppresses Endothelial Cell Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inhibits apoptosis by regulating cellular prooxidant iron. We now show that there is an additional mechanism by which HO-1 inhibits apoptosis, namely by gen- erating the gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO). Overexpression of HO-1, or induction of HO-1 expression by heme, protects endothelial cells (ECs) from apoptosis. When HO-1 en- zymatic activity is blocked by tin

Sophie Brouard; Leo E. Otterbein; Josef Anrather; Edda Tobiasch; Fritz H. Bach; Augustine M. K. Choi; Miguel P. Soares

431

Does carbon monoxide treatment alter cytokine levels after endotoxin infusion in pigs? A randomized controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) has recently been suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties, but data seem to be contradictory and species-specific. Thus, in studies on macrophages and mice, pretreatment with CO attenuated the inflammatory response after endotoxin exposure. On the other hand, human studies showed no effect of CO on the inflammatory response. Anti-inflammatory efficacy of CO has been shown at

Anna-Maja Åberg; Pernilla Abrahamsson; Göran Johansson; Michael Haney; Ola Winsö; Jan-Erik Larsson

2008-01-01

432

Ambient carbon monoxide levels and acute cardiorespiratory complaints: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a 92-day seasonally excessive period of ambient carbon monoxide (CO), chief cardiorespiratory complaints (CRC) of a nontraumatic origin were identified from each of 8,556 patient encounters at the Emergency Room of Colorado General Hospital. Excessive numbers of CRC were seen above a CO level of 5 ppM for the 24-hour mean and 11 ppM for the one hour mean

T. L. Kurt; R. P. Mogielnicki; J. E. Chandler; K. Hirst

1979-01-01

433

Inhibition of stomatal opening in sunflower leaves by carbon monoxide, and reversal of inhibition by light  

Microsoft Academic Search

When leaves of Helianthus annuus, whose stomates had been opened in the dark in the absence of CO2, were exposed to 25% carbon monoxide (CO), stomatal conductivity for water vapor decreased from about 0.4 to 0.2 cm·s-1. The CO effect on stomatal aperture required a CO\\/O2 ratio of about 25. As this ratio was decreased the stomata opened, indicating that

M. Pollok; U. Heber; M. S. Naik

1989-01-01

434

Growth-Dependent Changes in the Contribution of Carbon Monoxide to Arteriolar Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Endothelium-dependent dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles is mediated by unknown factors in very young rats. We assessed the possible contribution of carbon monoxide (CO) to this dilation and to dilation in older animals. Methods: The effects of de-endothelialization or various pharmacological inhibitors on responses to CO or endothelium-dependent dilators were studied in gracilis muscle arterioles from rats at 3–4

Julie Balch Samora; Adam G. Goodwill; Jefferson C. Frisbee; Matthew A. Boegehold

2010-01-01

435

Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke in the development of cardiorespiratory disease in smokers  

E-print Network

-NITRIC OXIDE AND CARBON MONOXIDE IN CIGARETTE SMOKE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIORESPIRATORY DISEASE IN SMOKERS A Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine Colin David Ross Dorland EA HE B Chir (Selwyn) 1988 Hinchingbrooke Hospital... for smoking 24 iii) Health risks of smoking 24 iv) Ways of reducing cigarette smoking related disease 29 v) Manufacturing methods and formation of CO and NO 36 vi) Health effects of CO 41 vii) Health effects of NO 46 3) GENERAL METHODS i) Use...

Borland, Colin David Ross

1988-10-18

436

Metal crystallite size effects and low-temperature deactivation in carbon monoxide oxidation over platinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of particle size on the activity of platinum for carbon monoxide oxidation was examined. Checks were made on McCarthy et al data. The catalysts used were a selection of Pt-SiOâ series; and characterized with respect to particle size by hydrogen absorption, x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The activity of 100 to 200 mg. of each was tested under

N CANT

1980-01-01

437

Probing Electric Fields in Protein Cavities by Using the Vibrational Stark Effect of Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the magnitude and direction of the internal electric field in the Xe4 cavity of myoglobin mutant L29W-S108L, we have studied the vibrational Stark effect of carbon monoxide (CO) using infrared spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. CO was photodissociated from the heme iron and deposited selectively in Xe4. Its infrared spectrum exhibits Stark splitting into two bands associated with CO

Hartwig Lehle; Jan M. Kriegl; Karin Nienhaus; Pengchi Deng; Stephanus Fengler; G. Ulrich Nienhaus

2005-01-01

438

Carbon monoxide levels in popular passenger commuting modes traversing major commuting routes in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle exhaust is a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities. Commuters are exposed to high traffic-related pollutant concentrations. Public transportation is the most popular commuting mode in Hong Kong and there are about 10.8 million passenger trips every day. Two-thirds of them are road commuters. An extensive survey was conducted to measure carbon monoxide in three popular passenger

L. Y. Chan; Y. M. Liu

2001-01-01

439

Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Carbon Monoxide during Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPulmonary inflammation is a major contributor to morbidity in a variety of respiratory disorders, but treatment options are limited. Here we investigate the efficacy, safety and mechanism of action of low dose inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation.MethodologyMice were exposed to 0–500 ppm inhaled CO for periods of up to 24 hours prior

Michael R. Wilson; Kieran P. O'Dea; Anthony D. Dorr; Hirotoshi Yamamoto; Michael E. Goddard; Masao Takata; Rory Edward Morty

2010-01-01

440

Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

1935-01-01

441

Evaluation of nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, and expired carbon monoxide as biochemical tobacco smoke uptake parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cross-sectional study on 236 individuals in Japan (174 males, 62 females; 149 smokers, 87 non-smokers) plasma nicotine (pnic), cotinine (pcot) and thiocyanate (pSCN), urinary creatinine ratios of nicotine (unic), cotinine (ucot) and thiocyanate (uSCN) as well as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and expired carbon monoxide (COex) were determined. All tobacco smoke uptake parameters (TSUP) were significantly elevated in smokers as

Hideo Muranakalt; Eigo Higashi; Shunro Itani; Yoshiharu Shimizu

1988-01-01

442

Transport-induced interannual variability of carbon monoxide determined using a chemistry and transport model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport-induced interannual variability of carbon monoxide (CO) is studied during 1989-1993 using the Goddard chemistry and transport model (GCTM) driven by assimilated data. Seasonal changes in the latitudinal distribution of CO near the surface and at 500 hPa are captured by the model. The annual cycle of CO is reasonably well simulated at sites of widely varying character. Day to

Dale J. Allen; Prasad Kasibhatla; Anne M. Thompson; Richard B. Rood; Bruce G. Doddridge; Kenneth E. Pickering; Robert D. Hudson; Shian-Jiann Lin

1996-01-01

443

Carbon monoxide concentrations in Santiago City at street levels and their vertical gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide concentrations were measured at ground level (1 m) near heavy traffic streets in downtown Santiago de Chile\\u000a in periods of low (November and December), intermediate (April) and high (May) ambient concentrations. Also, measurements\\u000a were carried out at several heights (from 1 to 127 m) in Santiago’s main street during winter time. Measurements carried out\\u000a at ground level show maximum values

María A. Rubio; Eduardo Lissi; Hector Jorquera; Elizabeth Salinas; Julio Castro; Marcela Cádiz

2008-01-01

444

Transient carbon monoxide poisoning of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell operating on diluted hydrogen feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient behavior of a 50cm2 PEM fuel cell fed on simulated reformate containing diluted hydrogen and trace quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) was experimentally investigated. It was found that the overall cell performance throughout the CO poisoning process can be described with a lumped model of hydrogen and CO adsorption, desorption, and electro-oxidation coupled with a current–voltage relationship for

Krishan Kumar Bhatia; Chao-Yang Wang

2004-01-01

445

Morbidity from Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning at Three-year Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-four survivors of acute carbon monoxide poisoning were followed up for an average of three years. In eight patients gross neuropsychiatric damage was directly attributable to the poisoning. Three patients had committed suicide and eight had died from other causes. Morbidity and mortality in those deliberately and accidentally poisoned was approximately equal.Of 63 patients alive at follow-up eight showed an

J. Sidney Smith; S. Brandon

1973-01-01

446

Treatment of methylene-induced carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygenation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Methylene chloride is an organic solvent with many industrial uses. Inhalation of methylene chloride fumes can result in toxicity, caused by hepatic biotransformation of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide. A case of acute methylene chloride poisoning is presented, including successful treatment of this patient with the use of hyperbaric oxygenation. The rationale for the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of methylene chloride poisoning is discussed. (aw)

Rudge, F.W.

1989-01-01

447

Carbon monoxide poisoning: clinical, neurophysiological, and brain imaging observations in acute disease and follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five patients (aged 19–52 years) were treated for a midbrain syndrome due to acute carbon monoxide poisoning and had clinical follow-up investigations for up to 18 months. Three patients recovered with minor neurological and neuropsychological deficits and resumed their premorbid life-style. One patient had normal findings, while the fifth remained in a permanent vegetative state. Initial CT of the brain

P. Vieregge; W. Klostermann; R. G. Blümm; K. J. Borgis

1989-01-01

448

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning—3 years experience in a defined population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 1967, 206 episodes of carbon monoxide poisoning were known to the coroner or the city hospitals in Newcastle upon Tyne.The mortality rates were: suicidal exposure 38·2%; accidental exposure 39·7%.In 21·3% of suicidal and 18·9% of accidental exposures recovery was complicated by prolonged delirium suggesting that all degrees of functional or structural neurological damage

J. Sydney Smith; S. Brandon

1970-01-01

449

Relationship Between Venous and Arterial Carboxyhemoglobin Levels in Patients With Suspected Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To test the hypothesis that venous carboxyhemoglobin (V-COHb) levels accurately predict arterial (A-COHb) levels.Design: Prospective comparison of A-COHb and V-COHb levels in patients with suspected carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Setting: Municipal hospital emergency department with contiguous multiplace hyperbaric chamber staffed 24 hours a day. Participants: Unselected convenience sample of 61 adults with suspected CO toxicity. Intervention: Simultaneous sampling

Michael Touger; E. John Gallagher; Jim Tyrell

1995-01-01

450

Inverting for emissions of carbon monoxide from Asia using aircraft observations over the western Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We use aircraft observations of continental outflo w over the western Pacific from the TRACE-P mission (March-April, 2001), in combination with an optimal estimation inverse model, to improve emission estimates of carbon monoxide (CO) from Asia. A priori emissions and their errors are from a customised bottom-up Asian emission inventory for the TRACE-P period. The global 3-D GEOS-CHEM chemical

Paul I. Palmer; Daniel J. Jacob; Dylan B. A. Jones; Colette L. Heald; Robert M. Yantosca; Jennifer A. Logan; Glen W. Sachse; David G. Streets

2003-01-01

451

Carbon Monoxide Protects Against Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation-Induced Microcirculatory Injury and Tissue Injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Microcirculatory activation and injury from hemorrhage contributes to organ injury. Many adaptive responses occur within the microcirculatory beds to limit injury including up regulation of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes, the rate limiting enzymes in the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin. Here we tested the hypothesis that CO abrogates trauma induced injury and inflammation protecting the microcirculatory beds. PMID:25243427

Nassour, Ibrahim; Kautza, Benjamin; Rubin, Mark; Escobar, Daniel; Luciano, Jason; Loughran, Patricia; Gomez, Hernando; Scott, Jeffrey; Gallo, David; Brumfield, John; Otterbein, Leo E; Zuckerbraun, Brian S

2014-09-18

452

A Comprehensive Reaction Mechanism For Carbon Monoxide\\/Hydrogen\\/Oxygen Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive reaction mechanism for the oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen is described. Model predictions are compared with experimental data over wide ranges of physical conditions. The data, obtained from shock tube experiments and various types of reactor experiments, encompassed a combined temperature range of 823-2870 K, fuel-oxidizer equivalence ratios between 0.0005 and 6.0, C\\/H ratios between

R. A. YETTER; F. L. DRYER; H. RABITZ

1991-01-01

453

Heart disease mortality among bridge and tunnel officers exposed to carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated the effect of occupational exposure to carbon monoxide on mortality from heart disease in a retrospective study of 5,529 New York City bridge and tunnel officers employed between January 1, 1952 and February 10, 1981, at any one of nine major water crossings operated by the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority of New York City. Among former tunnel officers, 61 deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease were observed, as compared with 45 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 1.35, 90% confidence interval 1.09-1.68); expected rates were based on the New York City population. Using a proportional hazards model, the authors compared the risk of mortality from arteriosclerotic heart disease among tunnel officers with that of the less-exposed bridge officers. No association of arteriosclerotic heart disease with length of exposure was observed, but there was significant interaction of exposure with age. The elevated risk of arteriosclerotic heart disease among tunnel officers, as compared with that of bridge officers, declined after cessation of exposure, with much of the risk dissipating within as little as five years. The parallel findings of this study of occupational exposure to carbon monoxide and those studies showing the relation of cigarette smoking to cardiovascular mortality suggest that carbon monoxide may play an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular mortality associated with cigarette smoking.

Stern, F.B.; Halperin, W.E.; Hornung, R.W.; Ringenburg, V.L.; McCammon, C.S.

1988-12-01

454

Nicotine, Carbon Monoxide, and Carcinogen Exposure after a Single Use of a Waterpipe  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a waterpipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world, including the US, where it is especially popular among young people. Many perceive waterpipe smoking to be less hazardous than cigarette smoking. We studied systemic absorption of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carcinogens from one waterpipe smoking session. Methods Sixteen subjects smoked a waterpipe on a clinical research ward. Expired carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin were measured, plasma samples were analyzed for nicotine concentrations, and urine samples were analyzed for the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolite biomarker concentrations. Results We found substantial increases in plasma nicotine concentrations, comparable to cigarette smoking, and increases in carbon monoxide levels that are much higher than is typically observed from cigarette smoking, as previously published. Urinary excretion of NNAL and PAH biomarkers increased significantly following waterpipe smoking. Conclusions Absorption of nicotine in amounts comparable to cigarette smoking indicates a potential for addiction, and absorption of significant amounts of carcinogens raises concerns of cancer risk in people who smoke tobacco products in waterpipes. Impact Our data contributes to an understanding of the health impact of waterpipe use. PMID:21908725

Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

2011-01-01

455

Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 decreases fibrinolysis in vitro and in vivo in the rabbit.  

PubMed

Administration of carbon monoxide derived from carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been demonstrated to enhance coagulation and diminish fibrinolysis in vitro at small concentrations (100-200 ?mol/l) in human and rabbit plasma, whereas in vivo administration of large concentrations (>1400 ?mol/l) of carbon monoxide has mildly increased bleeding time in vivo in rats. We sought to determine whether CORM-2 [tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer] would improve coagulation and attenuate tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated fibrinolysis in rabbit whole blood as determined in vitro by thrombelastography and in an in vivo preclinical rabbit model of ear bleeding time administered intravenous tPA (1 mg/kg). Addition of 200, 400 and 600 ?mol/l CORM-2 to whole blood significantly improved coagulation and attenuated fibrinolysis compared with blood without CORM-2. Rabbits administered CORM-2 (10 mg/kg, 279 ?mol/l) had a small but significant decrease in bleeding time before tPA administration. Administration of tPA resulted in bleeding times more than six-fold greater than baseline in animals not exposed to CORM-2, whereas rabbits administered CORM-2 had significantly smaller (more than five-fold less) bleeding time values after tPA administration. CORM-2 administration significantly decreases fibrinolytic bleeding in the rabbit in vivo. Additional preclinical investigation of the effects of CORM-2 on coagulopathy (e.g. heparin-mediated or clopidogrel-mediated) utilizing this rabbit model are planned. PMID:22143252

Nielsen, Vance G; Arkebauer, Matthew R; Wasko, Kimberly A; Malayaman, Saninuj N; Vosseller, Keith

2012-01-01

456

Global Chemical Transport of Radon and Carbon Monoxide using the Colorado State University Multiscale Modeling Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications of treating cloud convective physical processes at the sub-grid scale of a conventional global circulation model are investigated by analyzing the transport and mixing of atmospheric passive tracers. The analysis contrasts the tracer distributions produced by a conventional mass-flux convective parameterization with that from a super-parameterized cloud-system-resolving treatment of convective processes. The Community Atmosphere Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and its Colorado State University Multiscale Modeling Framework version are used to simulate global concentrations of radon and carbon monoxide. The simulations are conducted in chemical transport mode so that the lateral large-scale wind fields are identical and dynamical differences are confined to the sub-grid vertical velocities. The concentration profiles of the short lived radon are sensitive to convective processes in both the boundary layer and the free troposphere. The upper troposphere concentration map of the long lived carbon monoxide is sensitive to deep convective processes over strong emission sources like burning biomass and polluted areas. The results from the numerical simulations are contrasted and compared in a climatological mean sense to the observations from field campaigns for radon and from satellite data for carbon monoxide.

Rosa, Daniele; Collins, William

2010-05-01

457

Transient control of carbon monoxide with staged PrOx reactors  

SciTech Connect

Fuel Processor systems generate hydrogen for fuel cell systems from hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline for automotive fuel cell systems and natural gas for stationary fuel cell systems. These fuel processor systems must remove any contaminants to levels that won't poison the fuel cell before the outlet hydrogen-rich gas stream can be used by the fuel cell to generate electricity. Carbon monoxide is a contaminant that must be removed to levels of < 100 ppm or < 10 ppm depending on the CO tolerance of the fuel cell. Typically, the last unit operation in a fuel processor is a preferential oxidation reactor or a selective oxidation reactor, which removes CO by oxidizing it to form C02. These are catalytic reactors where the catalyst and operating conditions are selected so that the oxidation rate of the carbon monoxide is higher than the oxidation rate of hydrogen, even though the hydrogen is present at much higher concentrations (> 30%) than carbon monoxide which is present at trace concentrations (< 1%).

Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

2002-01-01

458

Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning by combining formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space.  

PubMed

Suicide by inhalation of carbon monoxide produced by mixing formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space is a rare method of suicide. This method is similar to the so-called "detergent suicide" method where an acid-based detergent is mixed with a sulfur source to produce hydrogen sulfide. Both methods produce a toxic gas that poses significant hazards for death investigators, first responders and bystanders. Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas, while hydrogen sulfide has a characteristic rotten eggs odor, so the risks associated with carbon monoxide are potentially greater due to lack of an important warning signal. While detergent suicides have become increasingly common in the USA, suicide with formic acid and sulfuric acid is rare with only three prior cases being reported. Greater awareness of this method among death investigators is warranted because of the special risks of accidental intoxication by toxic gas and the possibility that this method of suicide will become more common in the future. PMID:24328850

Lin, Peter T; Dunn, William A

2014-01-01

459

Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an 8-h period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their threshold limit values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NH/sub 3/), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) in air. For each gas detection system, the sampler depends on the transfer of the gas by diffusion into a glass tube containing a colorimetric length of stain indicator. The stain length developed in a given period of time is compared to a calibration chart to determine, on the spot, the average gas concentration to which the dosimeter has been exposed. These dosimeters are known by the trade name Vapor Gard.

McKee, E.S.; Pritts, I.M.

1981-08-01

460

Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an eight-hour period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their Threshold Limit Values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NH/sub 3/), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) in air. For each gas detection system, the sampler depends on the transfer of the gas by diffusion into a glass tube containing a colorimetric length of stain indicator. The stain length developed in a given period of time is compared to a calibration chart to determine, on the spot, the average gas concentration to which the dosimeter has been exposed. These dosimeters are known by the trade name Vapor Gard.

McConnaughey, P.W.; McKee, E.S.; Pritts, I.M.

1985-07-01

461

Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in fuel processor gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trace amount of CO present in the hydrogen-rich stream coming from fuel reformers poisons the platinum anode electrode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and reduces the power output. Removal of low levels of CO present in the reformed gas must take place before the gas enters the fuel cell. The tolerable level of CO is around 10 ppm. We investigated the performance of single step sol-gel prepared Pt/alumina catalyst and Pt supported on sol gel made alumina. The effect of water vapor, carbon dioxide, CO and oxygen concentrations, temperature, and Pt loading on the activity and selectivity are presented. Our results showed that a 2%Pt/alumina sol-gel catalyst can selectively oxide CO down to a few ppm with constant selectivity and high space velocity. Water vapor in the feed increases the activity of catalysts dramatically and in the absence of water vapor, CO2 in the feed stream decreases the activity of the catalysts significantly. We also found that the presence of potassium as an electron donor did not improve the performance of Pt/alumina catalyst to the selective CO oxidation. For Pt supported on sol gel made alumina, we found that the combination of CO2 and H2O in the gas feed has a strong effect on selective CO oxidation over Pt/Al2O3. It could be a positive or negative effect depending upon Pt loading in the catalyst. With high Pt loading, the CO2 effect tends to dominate the H2O effect resulting in the decrease in CO conversion. Moreover, the presence of CeO2 as an oxygen storage compound promotes the performance of Pt supported on alumina at low temperature ˜90°C when Pt loading was 5%. Amongst the examined catalysts, the 5%Pt/15%CeO2/Al 2O3 catalyst showed the highest selectivity, with high CO conversion at a low temperature ˜90°C. The beneficial effect of the addition of CeO2 is most likely due to spillover of O2 from CeO2 to Pt at the Pt sites at the interface of Pt and CeO 2.

Manasilp, Akkarat

462

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of COâ, CHâ, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; E. R. Pullmann; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

463

Carbon Monoxide I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Ve r m o n t  

E-print Network

;Prevention is the Key to Avoiding Carbon Monoxide Poisoning DO properly equip your home with CO alarmsCarbon Monoxide I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Ve r m o n t A g r A b i l i t y P r o j e c-656-5420 or 1-800-571-0668, Fax:802-656-5422 Carbon monoxide (CO) is highly toxic; it is the leading cause

Hayden, Nancy J.

464

The redox combustion of carbon monoxide for recovering pure carbon dioxide by using molten (Na+,K+)2(CO32-,SO42-) mixtures.  

PubMed

Large-scale combustion systems, such as thermal power plants, emit large amounts of carbon dioxide, which can increase global warming. A molten salt redox combustion system was proposed to recover pure carbon dioxide exhausted from the combustion of fossil fuels. This system is composed of two successive processes by using reactions occurring in a molten salt. The molten salt is the mixture of the molten alkali metal sulfates and carbonates. The sulfate ions oxidize the fuels in first processes, being changed to reductive species such as sulfide ions. In this process, carbon dioxide and water are exclusively exhausted. The reductive species of sulfur compounds are oxidized to regenerate the sulfate ions by air in the second process. In this study, these above two processes were tried by using molten [(Na(+))(0.5),(K(+))(0.5)](2)[(CO(3)(2-))(0.9),(SO(4)(2-))(0.1)] alternatively. The oxidation of carbon monoxide as fuel by sulfate ions and the regeneration of sulfate ions by air were investigated in the temperature range of 700-950 degrees C, respectively. These reactions were exothermic. The rate of the regeneration of the sulfate ions was extremely high. During the oxidation of carbon monoxide, the reaction was first order in carbon monoxide with an activation energy of 101 kJ mol(-1). The optimum condition to recover pure carbon dioxide on practical operation was discussed. PMID:16337672

Shimano, Satoshi; Asakura, Shukuji

2006-06-01

465

An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

1997-09-01

466

AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe: Time Series from 8/1/2005 to 9/30/2005  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe

Forest fires and agricultural burning create large amounts of carbon monoxide. AIRS provides daily global maps of carbon monoxide from space, allowing scientists to follow the global transport of this gas day-to-day. In this image sequence, carbon monoxide pollution from agricultural burning blooms repeatedly over the Amazonian basin. The gas is then transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Carbon monoxide pollution from fires in sub-Saharan Africa is also apparent.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2007-01-01

467

Reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide on the Rh(100) single-crystal surface  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide has been investigated on the Rh(100) single-crystal surface. Steady-state kinetic measurements, at 688 K and in the pressure range 1.0 to 1800 Pa, indicate that this process proceeds via a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism and is selective toward the production of N/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied continuously from +1 to -1 as the partial pressure of CO was increased from 1 to 250 Pa, at a constant NO partial pressure of 57.5 Pa. In a similar manner, the nitric oxide kinetic order varied continuously from +3/2 to -1 as the partial pressure of NO was increased from 1 to 1800 Pa, at a constant CO partial pressure of 44.0 Pa. The catalyst surface was characterized with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Initial Auger analysis revealed surface contamination by sulfur, phosphorus, and boron. These contaminants were removed via cycles of argon ion bombardment, reactive ion bombardment, and high-temperature annealing. Nitric oxide adsorbed with a high sticking coefficient and formed a c(2 x 2) ordered overlayer at saturation. The nitric oxide adsorbate dissociated upon slow stepwise heating as indicated by the production of a surface oxide and disappearance of surface nitrogen. Thermal desorption experiments at a faster heating rate indicated, however, that most of the adsorbed nitric oxide desorbed molecularly in a first-order process with a peak at 401 K during the temperature flash. Carbon monoxide adsorbs molecularly in two distinct sites with desorption from both following first-order kinetics with TDS peaks at 373 and 425 K. A kinetic model was developed which is consistent with both the steady-state kinetic and surface characterization results.

Hendershot, R.E.; Hansen, R.S.

1986-03-01

468

A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

2013-12-01

469

Carbon monoxide in the solar atmosphere. II. Radiative cooling by CO lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The role of carbon monoxide as a cooling agent for the thermal structure of the mid-photospheric to low-chromospheric layers of the solar atmosphere in internetwork regions is investigated. Methods: The treatment of radiative cooling via spectral lines of carbon monoxide (CO) has been added to the radiation chemo-hydrodynamics code CO5BOLD. The radiation transport has now been solved in a continuum band with Rosseland mean opacity and an additional band with CO opacity. The latter is calculated as a Planck mean over the CO band between 4.4 and 6.2 ?m. The time-dependent CO number density is derived from the solution of a chemical reaction network. Results: The CO opacity indeed causes additional cooling at the fronts of propagating shock waves in the chromosphere. There, the time-dependent approach results in a higher CO number density compared to the equilibrium case and hence in a larger net radiative cooling rate. The average gas temperature stratification of the model atmosphere, however, is only reduced by roughly 100 K. Also the temperature fluctuations and the CO number density are only affected to small extent. A numerical experiment without dynamics shows that the CO cooling process works in principle and drives the atmosphere to a cool radiative equilibrium state. At chromospheric heights, the radiative relaxation of the atmosphere to a cool state takes several 1000 s. The CO cooling process thus would seem to be too slow compared to atmospheric dynamics to be responsible for the very cool temperature regions observed in the solar atmosphere. Conclusions: . The hydrodynamical timescales in our solar atmosphere model are much too short to allow for the radiative relaxation to a cool state, thus suppressing the potential thermal instability due to carbon monoxide as a cooling agent. Apparently, the thermal structure and dynamics of the outer model atmosphere are instead determined primarily by shock waves.

Wedemeyer-Böhm, S.; Steffen, M.

2007-02-01

470

Unsuccessful suicide by carbon monoxide: a secondary benefit of emissions control  

SciTech Connect

Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus, emissions control has produced a secondary benefit in reducing the number of suicides by CO poisoning from automobile exhaust fumes.

Landers, D.

1981-11-01

471

Decreased single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in cocaine freebase smokers.  

PubMed

The authors performed pulmonary function tests on 10 chronic cocaine freebase smokers. Testing occurred at least 2 weeks after stopping cocaine use. Mean single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCOSB) was significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) in the cocaine smokers when compared with a control group of non-smokers and non-drug users. All other parameters of lung function were normal. Since most of the cocaine smokers also smoked tobacco, the observed abnormality may have been due to an additive effect of the 2 substances. The authors conclude that smoking cocaine may damage the gas exchange surface of the lung. PMID:3595450

Weiss, R D; Tilles, D S; Goldenheim, P D; Mirin, S M

1987-05-01

472

Research and development of a luminol-carbon monoxide flow system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adaption of the luminol-carbon monoxide injection system to a flowing type system is reported. Analysis of actual wastewater samples was carried out and revealed that bacteria can be associated with particles greater than 10 microns in size in samples such as mixed liquor. Research into the luminol reactive oxidation state indicates that oxidized iron porphyrins, cytochrome-c in particular, produce more luminol chemiluminescence than the reduced form. Correlation exists between the extent of porphyrin oxidation and relative chemiluminescence. In addition, the porphyrin nucleus is apparently destroyed under the current chemiluminescent reaction conditions.

Thomas, R. R.

1977-01-01

473

Nitrogen atom transfer from a dinitrogen-derived vanadium nitride complex to carbon monoxide and isocyanide.  

PubMed

Reduction of [(ONO)V(THF)] with KH under an N2 atmosphere cleaves the N?N bond to afford a bis(?-nitride) V(IV) dimer. This complex is oxidized to generate a V(V) nitride. The reactions of the V(V) nitride with carbon monoxide and isocyanide led to formation of cyanate and carbodiimide complexes. Following treatment of the cyanate complex with alkyne produces an alkyne adduct along with the release of potassium cyanate. Dissolution of the alkyne adduct in THF regenerates the starting complex [(ONO)V(THF)], thereby closing a synthetic cycle for conversion of N2 and CO into [NCO](-). PMID:25412360

Ishida, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki

2014-12-10

474

Detection of the J = 6 - 5 transition of carbon monoxide. [in Orion molecular cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J = 6 - 5 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected in emission from the KL 'plateau source' in the Orion molecular cloud. The corrected peak antenna temperature is 100 K, and the FWHM line width is 26 km/sec. These observations were carried out using the 3 m telescope of the NASA IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and constitute the first astronomical data obtained at submillimeter wavelengths with a heterodyne system using a laser local oscillator. The data support the idea that the high-velocity dispersion CO in Orion is optically thin and set a lower limit to its temperature of approximately 180 K.

Goldsmith, P. F.; Erickson, N. R.; Fetterman, H. R.; Clifton, B. J.; Peck, D. D.; Tannenwald, P. E.; Koepf, G. A.; Buhl, D.; Mcavoy, N.

1981-01-01

475

Metal cluster cation reactions: Carbon monoxide association to Cu + n ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper cluster cations (Cu+n,n=1-14) were produced in a laser vaporization/flow tube apparatus and equilibrated to room temperature. The association rate constants of carbon monoxide onto these ions were measured; low-pressure, termolecular behavior was observed for the smaller species while for clusters greater than Cu+7, the longer lifetimes due to the increased number of degrees of freedom leads to pressure independence (>0.3 Torr) of the effective bimolecular rates. Unimolecular decay theory (RRKM) is used to explain the overall trend and when intrinsic surface site reactivity is taken into account, excellent agreement with measured reactivity is obtained.

Leuchtner, R. E.; Harms, A. C.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

1990-06-01

476

Carbon monoxide levels during indoor sporting events--Cincinnati, 1992-1993.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by internal combustion engines is an indoor health hazard. High CO levels can occur during indoor sporting events--such as tractor pulls--that involve vehicles modified to achieve high horsepower. In January and March 1992 and January 1993, the Cincinnati Health Department evaluated CO levels during tractor pulls, monster-truck jumps, and a mud race event held in an indoor arena with a seating capacity of approximately 16,000 persons. This report summarizes findings from the evaluations. PMID:7506348

1994-01-21

477

A case of first degree AV block in carbon monoxide poisoning patient.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is one of the most common types of poisoning. Cardiac manifestations of CO poisoning are limited to case reports of Electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, myocardial dysfunction and myocardial ischemia. A 22 year old Saudi male was admitted to the emergency department with decreased level of consciousness after being involved in a fire at home. ECG showed first degree AV block. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first CO poisoning case in the literature presented with first degree AV block. PMID:24198450

Salih, Salih Bin; Alenezi, Helal; Alghamdi, Ahmad

2013-10-01

478

Effect of carbon monoxide on the electrooxidation of hydrogen by tungsten carbide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on the anodic oxidation of hydrogen by tungsten carbide (WC) electrocatalysts is described. CO poisoning of these base electrocatalysts is small, with reductions of ?6% of the hydrogen current. Tests of the anodic oxidation of CO alone on these catalysts show the reaction to be very slow. The low degree of poisoning is quite reversible and ascribed to weak adsorption of CO on WC surfaces. The experiments have been conducted on a variety of WCs synthesised from several different routes, all showing similar results.

McIntyre, D. R.; Burstein, G. T.; Vossen, A.

479

Smoke-inhalation injury and the effect of carbon monoxide in the sheep model  

SciTech Connect

The role of carbon monoxide (CO) in causing the physiologic and anatomic changes characteristic of smoke inhalation injury was evaluated in 34 sheep. The smoke-exposed group received a dose of smoke known to produce mild inhalation injury. The CO group received a pure gas mixture that contained concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and CO similar to those in the smoke. Cardiopulmonary function was measured immediately after exposure, and 24 and 72 hours after exposure. The CO group showed a transient increase in cardiac output, but the smoke group showed no such response. The CO group maintained normal PaO2 levels during the 72-hour study period; the smoke group gradually developed hypoxemia. The lungs of the CO exposed animals had no discernible histologic changes. These results indicate that CO per se is not the primary etiologic agent of smoke inhalation injury.

Shimazu, T.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hubbard, G.B.; Langlinais, P.C.; Mason, A.D.

1990-01-01

480

Influence of ground-state geometry on carbon monoxide x-ray emission spectral profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon excitation x-ray spectator emission dynamics of the core excited carbon monoxide molecule has been studied using ab initio multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations and a modified two-step absorption-followed-by-emission approach. The core excitations of the CO molecule and the core ionizations of the 0953-4075/31/16/006/img1 species have been considered as the precursor steps for producing the same decaying electronic states of CO. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the influence of the absorption process, using target species with different ground electronic state geometries, on the de-excitation spectra. Nuclear dynamical effects of the decaying processes of carbon and oxygen core excited states of CO to the singlet low-lying excited (final) states of 0953-4075/31/16/006/img2 and 0953-4075/31/16/006/img3 have been studied. Vibrational envelopes of the decay spectra of CO are simulated.

Wang, Feng; Larkins, Frank P.

1998-08-01

481

Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.

Atherton, C.S.

1995-11-01

482

Adsorption Equilibrium for Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goal of this part of our research is to determine experimentally the adsorption equilibrium data that will enable efficient design of a separation process to remove carbon dioxide from a CO/CO2 mixture. An effective separation process will depend on the adsorbent capacity for both the strongly and weakly adsorbed components at the desired operating temperature and pressure ranges, as well as regeneration requirements. Pure component and binary adsorption isotherms are used to determine the most CO2- selective adsorbent. A quick uptake of pure CO2 on a given adsorbent at low pressures compared to the uptake of pure CO on the same adsorbent indicates that CO2 molecules have a much stronger interaction with the adsorbent surface than CO. This is a necessary property for successful separation by adsorption. Adsorption isotherms are widely available in the literature for many pure components on various adsorbents. Pure component isotherms can be found in various publications and data handbooks for CO and CO2 on activated carbon and many zeolites. However, the pressure range seldom extends beyond 300 kPa, and the temperature is usually limited as well. Binary adsorption data are much less abundant and are more difficult to measure experimentally. There are models that can predict binary adsorption from the pure component isotherms, but such models rarely provide the desired accuracy. Hence it is necessary to determine both pure component and binary adsorption isotherms to accurately design the separation system.

Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

2002-11-01

483

Multiphoton-induced fluorescence and ionization of B/sup 1/. sigma. /sup +/ carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

The B/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ state of carbon monoxide was created by a two-photon absorption of 230-nm laser radiation. The B/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ state was identified by the positions of the 0-0 absorption band Q-branch and the vibrational bands of B/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ ..-->.. A/sup 1/PI fluorescence occurring in the 525-nm region. Collision-induced b/sup 3/..sigma../sup +/ ..-->.. a/sup 3/PI emission in the 350-nm region was also observed. The lifetimes of both the B/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ state and the b/sup 3/..sigma../sup +/ state were measured as well as the self-quenching rate constants and the B/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ quenching rate by N/sub 2/. In addition to the two-photon-induced fluorescence of B/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ carbon monoxide, a three-photon ionization was observed. Laser power-dependence studies indicated that ionization of the B/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ state is readily saturated, implying that most B/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/ state CO is ionized rather than fluorescing. Measurement of the polarization ratio for circularly and linearly polarized excitation of fluorescence and ionization suggests that another three-photon process is occurring and occurs more efficiently for linear polarization.

Loge, G.W.; Tiee, J.J.; Wampler, F.B.

1983-01-01

484

Field surveys of carbon monoxide in commercial settings using personal exposure monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) were employed to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording the instantaneous instrument reading at 1-minute intervals as the investigators walked along sidewalks and into buildings. For 11 of 15 survey dates, two investigators walked side-by-side, permitting two adjacent PEMs to be compared. Quality assurance tests for 1706 pairs of values showed a very high degree of agreement. CO levels for indoor commercial settings were similar to those measured outdoors on sidewalks, apparently because the pollutant seeps into the structures from traffic outside. Although indoor levels usually were above 0 ppm, they seldom were above 9 ppm (the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for an 8-hour exposure), unless some indoor source could be identified. Carbon monoxide levels on outdoor streets did not vary greatly on different sides of the street, on corners and faces of blocks, and intersections.

Flachsbart, P. G.; Ott, W. R.

1984-02-01

485

New heme-dioxygen and carbon monoxide adducts using pyridyl or imidazolyl tailed porphyrins  

PubMed Central

Inspired by the chemistry relevant to dioxygen storage, transport and activation by metalloproteins, in particular for heme/copper oxidases, and carbon monoxide binding to metal-containing active sites as a probe or surrogate for dioxygen binding, a series of heme derived dioxygen and CO complexes have been designed, synthesized, and characterized with respect to their physical properties and reactivity. The focus of this study is in the description and comparison of three types heme-superoxo and heme-CO adducts. The starting point is in the characterization of the reduced heme complexes, [(F8)FeII], [(PPy)FeII] and [(PIm)FeII], where F8, PPy and PIm are iron(II)-porphyrinates and where PPy and PIm possess a covalently tethered axial base pyridyl or imidazolyl group, respectively. The spin-state properties of these complexes vary with solvent. The low temperature reaction between O2 and these reduced porphyrin FeII complex yield distinctive low spin heme-superoxo adducts. The dioxygen binding properties for all three complexes are shown to be reversible, via alternate argon or O2 bubbling. Carbon monoxide binds to the reduced heme-FeII precursors to form low spin heme-CO adducts. The implications for future investigations of these heme O2 and CO adducts are discussed. PMID:24223452

Li, Yuqi; Sharma, Savita K.

2012-01-01

486

Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury during kidney transplantation.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) can provide beneficial antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects in the context of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Here we tested the ability of pretreating the kidney donor with carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORM) to prevent IRI in a transplant model. Isogeneic Brown Norway donor rats were pretreated with CORM-2 18?h before kidney retrieval. The kidneys were then cold-preserved for 26?h and transplanted into Lewis rat recipients that had undergone bilateral nephrectomy. Allografts from Brown Norway to Lewis rats were also performed after 6?h of cold ischemic time with low-dose tacrolimus treatment. All recipients receiving CORM-2-treated isografts survived the transplant process and had near-normal serum creatinine levels, whereas all control animals died of uremia by the third post-operative day. This beneficial effect was also seen in isografted Lewis recipients receiving kidneys perfused with CORM-3, indicating that CORMs have direct effects on the kidney. Pretreatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture with CORM-2 for 1?h significantly reduced cytokine-induced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent production of superoxide, activation of the inflammation-relevant transcription factor nuclear factor-?B, upregulated expression of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 adhesion proteins, and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial cells. Thus, CORM-2-derived CO protects renal transplants from IRI by modulating inflammation. PMID:21270767

Caumartin, Yves; Stephen, Jancy; Deng, Jian P; Lian, Dameng; Lan, Zhu; Liu, Weihua; Garcia, Bertha; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Wang, Hao; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Luke, Patrick P W

2011-05-01

487

cor, a Novel Carbon Monoxide Resistance Gene, Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. PMID:24255121

Zacharia, Vineetha M.; Manzanillo, Paolo S.; Nair, Vidhya R.; Marciano, Denise K.; Kinch, Lisa N.; Grishin, Nick V.; Cox, Jeffery S.; Shiloh, Michael U.

2013-01-01

488

Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking arterial gas embolism in a commercial diver.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old male commercial diver was working at 7,000 feet of altitude in a municipal water tank, at a depth of 27 feet for two hours. While surfacing from a compressed-air surface-supplied dive, he exhibited loss of consciousness and neurological symptoms. He was presumptively diagnosed with arterial gas embolism, flown by pressurized aircraft to a regional medical center and treated with hyperbaric oxygen. During the U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6, new information suggested the patient's air supply had been contaminated by a continuously running engine and compressor. His admission blood was then assayed for carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), which measured 8.8% six hours after surfacing, including four hours of normobaric oxygen inhalation. His estimated COHb based on rough reported half-life calculations at the conclusion of the dive was approximately 45%. The patient's diagnosis was changed to carbon monoxide poisoning from contaminated breathing gas. Upon hospital discharge, he exhibited problems with balance and gait, nystagmus, word-finding limitations and slurred speech. Also, he had cardiac injury treated with carvedilol. When evaluating diving-related casualties, including in commercial divers, clinicians should consider carbon monoxide poisoning as a differential diagnosis. PMID:22530451

Holt, Julie; Weaver, Lindell K

2012-01-01

489

A positive Babinski reflex predicts delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae in Chinese patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS) of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1-79.6), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7-92.1), positive predictive value (PPV) = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1-37.5), and negative predictive value (NPV) = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0-98.9). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544-0.880). A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP. PMID:24959589

Zou, Jian-Fang; Guo, Qiming; Shao, Hua; Li, Bin; Du, Yuxiu; Liu, Maofeng; Liu, Fengling; Dai, Lixin; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin

2014-01-01

490

Ligand Fluorination to Optimize Preferential Oxidation (PROX) of Carbon Monoxide by Water-Soluble Rhodium Porphyrins  

PubMed Central

Catalytic, low temperature preferential oxidation (PROX) of carbon monoxide by aqueous [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoroporphyrinato]rhodium(III) tetrasodium salt, (1[Rh(III)]) and [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-sulfonato-2,6-difluorophenyl)-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoroporphyrinato]rhodium(III) tetrasodium salt, (2[Rh(III)]) is reported. The PROX reaction occurs at ambient temperature in buffered (4 ? pH ? 13) aqueous solutions. Fluorination on the porphyrin periphery is shown to increase the CO PROX reaction rate, shift the metal centered redox potentials, and acidify ligated water molecules. Most importantly, ?-fluorination increases the acidity of the rhodium hydride complex (pKa = 2.2 ± 0.2 for 2[Rh-D]); the dramatically increased acidity of the Rh(III) hydride complex precludes proton reduction and hydrogen activation near neutral pH, thereby permitting oxidation of CO to be unaffected by the presence of H2. This new fluorinated water-soluble rhodium porphyrin-based homogenous catalyst system permits preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen gas streams at 308 °K using dioxygen or a sacrificial electron acceptor (indigo carmine) as the terminal oxidant. PMID:21949596

Biffinger, Justin C.; Uppaluri, ShriHarsha; Sun, Haoran

2011-01-01

491

Measurements of carbon monoxide, condensation nuclei, and ozone on a B 747SP aircraft flight around the world  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of carbon monoxide, condensation nuclei, and ozone concentrations were obtained during a 54 hour polar flight around the world by an automated instrument package carried by a B-747SP commercial aircraft. These and other data were obtained as part of the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program. All data exhibited longitudinal and hemispheric differences. Analysis of the data indicate increased concentrations of carbon monoxide and condensation nuclei at flight levels in the troposphere over tropical land masses. A background concentration for condensation nuclei was found to be 200 per cu cm for tropical tropospheric maritime air.

Gauntner, D. J.; Nyland, T.; Tiefermann, M.; Dudzinski, T.

1979-01-01

492

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission...Subpart BBBB of Part 60—Model Rule—Carbon Monoxide Emission...4-hour. 2. Fluidized bed, mixed fuel, (wood/refuse-derived...dry volume 4-hour. 6. Mixed fuel-fired,...

2013-07-01

493

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission...Subpart BBBB of Part 60—Model Rule—Carbon Monoxide Emission...4-hour. 2. Fluidized bed, mixed fuel, (wood/refuse-derived...dry volume 4-hour. 6. Mixed fuel-fired,...

2012-07-01

494

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission...Subpart BBBB of Part 60—Model Rule—Carbon Monoxide Emission...4-hour. 2. Fluidized bed, mixed fuel, (wood/refuse-derived...dry volume 4-hour. 6. Mixed fuel-fired,...

2014-07-01

495

GASP - THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF HELIUM, METHANE, NEON, NITROGEN, CARBON MONOXIDE, CARBON DIOXIDE, OXYGEN, AND ARGON  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program, GASP, has been written to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, methane, neon, nitrogen, and oxygen. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature, or density as input. In addition, entropy and enthalpy are possible inputs. Outputs are temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, expansion coefficient, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. A special technique is provided to estimate the thermal conductivity near the thermodynamic critical point. GASP is a group of FORTRAN subroutines. The user typically would write a main program that invoked GASP to provide only the described outputs. Subroutines are structured so that the user may call only those subroutines needed for his particular calculations. Allowable pressures range from 0.l atmosphere to 100 to l,000 atmospheres, depending on the fluid. Similarly, allowable pressures range from the triple point of each substance to 300 degrees K to 2000 degrees K, depending on the substance. The GASP package was developed to be used with heat transfer and fluid flow applications. It is particularly useful in applications of cryogenic fluids. Some problems associated with the liquefication, storage, and gasification of liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas can also be studied using GASP. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and is available for implementation on IBM 7000 series computers. GASP was developed in 1971.

Hendricks, R. C.

1994-01-01

496

The ebullition of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide and total gaseous mercury from the Cornwall Area of Concern.  

PubMed

This paper reports the first ebullitive fluxes of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and total gaseous mercury (TGM) from the Cornwall Area of Concern (CAC). Although sediments were contaminated with mercury, bubbling was a negligible source of mercury for the global atmosphere. Indeed, the average emission of TGM through ebullition was 0.04 pg m(-2) h(-1). Measurements of H2, CO, CH4 and CO2 trapped gas concentrations and fluxes were used as indicators of diagenesis processes. The CAC represented a significant regional source of CH4 since the estimated ebullitive fluxes (3.5 mg m(-2) h(-1)) were similar to the CH4 emissions measured above typical flooded freshwater wetlands. As molecular diffusion is known as the main pathway of CO2 transport from water to the atmosphere, CO2 ebullitive fluxes were weak (0.39 mg m(-2) h(-1)). Bubbling of CO (1.6 microg m(-2) h(-1)) was 10 folds less important than CO fluxes measured over flooded freshwater wetlands. Finally, H2 emissions (0.001 microg m(-2) h(-1)) were negligible since the level of this trace gas is tightly regulated by microorganisms in anaerobic environments. PMID:17499842

Poissant, Laurier; Constant, Philippe; Pilote, Martin; Canário, João; O'Driscoll, Nelson; Ridal, Jeff; Lean, David

2007-08-01

497

Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few metres). The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2) allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions surrounding the Danish Straits.

Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.; Brink, A.; Kalli, J.; Stipa, T.

2011-08-01

498

Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few tens of metres). The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO). The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2) allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. We have also compared the annually averaged emission values with those of the corresponding EMEP inventory, As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions of the Baltic Sea surrounding the Danish Straits.

Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Kukkonen, J.; Brink, A.; Kalli, J.; Stipa, T.

2012-03-01

499

The Effect of Carbon Monoxide on the Hydrogen Permeability of a Palladium Membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plating thin Palladium (Pd) film on the outer surface of a porous stainless steel tube enables very rapid hydrogen permeation with an absolute selectivity. Methane steam reforming for hydrogen production is performed in a Pd membrane reactor. In this reaction, carbon monoxide (CO) synthesized is known to affect hydrogen permeability. The effect on hydrogen permeability and the membrane stability were investigated. After hydrogen was flowed through Pd membrane for 1 hour, CO (1%, 10%, 100% diluted by helium) was flowed on the membrane for 1 hour, and hydrogen was re-permeated through the membrane. Under the all experiment, the temperature, the differential pressure and the flow rate of non-permeation side were 823K, 0.1 MPa and 10 ml·min-1, respectively. After the re-permeating hydrogen, the hydrogen permeation rate increased gradually. Finally the rate arrived at the constant value before CO was flowed. But the necessary time was depend on the concentration of CO. The necessary time for three concentration of CO 1%, 10%, and 100% were 30min, 60min, and 180min, respectively. The reason was that depositing carbon from CO affected to hydrogen permeability. The carbon was changed to methane by hydrogen flow and the membrane was recycled.

Katoh, Masahiro; Nishihara, Katsunori; Kinouchi, Koji; Chohama, Koichi; Horikawa, Toshihide; Tomida, Tahei; Sotowa, Ken-Ichiro

500

Simulations of exercise and brain effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide in normal and vascular-diseased persons.  

EPA Science Inventory

At some level, carboxyhemoglobin (RbCO) due to inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) reduces maximum exercise duration in normal and ischemic heart patients. At high RbCO levels in normal subjects, brain function is also affected and behavioral performance is impaired. These are fin...