Science.gov

Sample records for carbon carbon monoxide

  1. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    Test CO alarms at least once a month. Keep generators outdoors to prevent exhaust from entering the home. Carbon Monoxide Safety Carbon monoxide or CO is a colorless and odorless gas. CO poisoning ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  3. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the air that people breathe, and the person’s health condition.**** Each year, carbon monoxide poisoning claims approximately 480 lives and sends another 15,200 people to hospital ...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask. PMID:19445736

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask. PMID:21418677

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

  7. Carbon Monoxide Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents regional and national carbon monoxide (CO) emissions data for 1990, 1996 to 2002, and 2005. CO emissions (combined with atmospheric fate and transport processes) determine corresponding ambient CO concentration levels.

  8. Estimating carbon monoxide exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Method predicts effects of carbon monoxide on astronauts confined in spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Information on need for low toxicity level also applies to confined spaces. Benefits are applicable to industry and public health.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Carbon Monoxide Exposures Additional Resources Quick Links Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Air Quality Asthma Mold What's New ... Tiếng Việt [PDF - 89 KB] Quick Links Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Air Quality Asthma Mold What's New ...

  10. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. )

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  11. Solid State Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A means for detecting carbon monoxide which utilizes an un-heated catalytic material to oxidize carbon monoxide at ambient temperatures. Because this reaction is exothermic, a thermistor in contact with the catalytic material is used as a sensing element to detect the heat evolved as carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide at the catalyst surface, without any heaters or external heating elements for the ambient air or catalytic element material. Upon comparison to a reference thermistor, relative increases in the temperature of the sensing thermistor correspond positively with an increased concentration of carbon monoxide in the ambient medium and are thus used as an indicator of the presence of carbon monoxide.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas that has no odor or color. But it is very dangerous. It can cause sudden illness and death. CO is found ... those made by cars and trucks, lanterns, stoves, gas ranges and heating systems. CO from these fumes ...

  13. Carbon monoxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kealey, G Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation injury consists of a multitude of insults, the first of which is the toxic gases inhaled during the combustion of organic and inorganic substances. Significant morbidity and mortality in patients with burn injury occur due to the varying effects of these gases. This section of the compendium initially addresses two classically described inhaled gases: carbon monoxide and cyanide, followed by a discussion of a gas associated with illicit drug use: metamphetamine. Understanding the varying effects of the toxic gases at the scene of injury may facilitate the development of specific treatment regimens for inhalation injury. PMID:19060737

  14. Carbon monoxide safety shutoff

    SciTech Connect

    Dolnick, E.M.; Anderson, T.G.

    1988-11-01

    Recent years have brought about a heightened awareness of the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning from malfunctioning gas appliances. The American Gas Association Laboratories have recently established a requirement for CO-sensitive safety shutoff systems. Devices fulfilling this function must be highly reliable and must protect against both chronic low-level and acute high-level CO exposure. Current technologies accurate enough to perform this function are very expensive and difficult to use. Recent improvements in tin oxide based solid-state sensors coupled with improved methods of measurement hold the promise of meeting the requirements with practical low-cost devices.

  15. Ambient Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in ambient carbon monoxide concentrations across the U.S. from 1980 to 2009. By tracking ambient carbon monoxide (CO) a criteria pollutant with the potential to cause cardiovascular and neurological damage this dataset shows how a...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The fuel cell is a system which employs an electrochemical process to convert gases- J such as hydrogen and oxygen directly into electricity. Under NASA sponsorship, GE's Aircraft Equipment Division developed fuel cells to supply electrical power for the Gemini and Biosatellite spacecraft of the sixties and is currently working on advanced fuel cell development. This long-term effort has resulted in a series of spinoff applications using the same general technology for a variety of purposes, among them the recently marketed Dosimeter. The Dosimeter is designed to help users meet safety requirements for industrial atmospheres, as specified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and other regulatory agencies. The compact, pocket-sized sensor measures personnel exposure to carbon monoxide and provides both a visual and an audible alarm if the concentration of the gas exceeds present levels. The Dosimeter offers substantial improvement in measuring accuracy over earlier warning indicators.

  17. Carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritant gas that accounts for numerous cases of CO poisoning every year from a variety of sources of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. These include poorly functioning heating systems, indoor propane-powered forklifts, indoor burning of charcoal burning briquettes, riding in the back of pick-up trucks, ice skating rinks using propane-powered resurfacing machines, and gasoline-powered generators that are not in correct locations. Once CO is inhaled it binds with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) with an affinity 200 times greater than oxygen that leads to decreased oxygen-carrying capacity and decreased release of oxygen to tissues leading to tissue hypoxia. Ischemia occurs with CO poisoning when there is loss of consciousness that is accompanied by hypotension and ischemia in the arterial border zones of the brain. Besides binding to many heme-containing proteins, CO disrupts oxidative metabolism leading to the formation of free radicals. Once hypotension and unconsciousness occur with CO poisoning, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis follow. Because COHb has a short half-life, examination of other biomarkers of CO neurotoxicity that reflect inflammation or neuronal damage has not demonstrated consistent results. The initial symptoms with CO exposure when COHb is 15-30% are nonspecific, namely, headache, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, and impaired manual dexterity. However individuals with ischemic heart disease may experience chest pain and decreased exercise duration at COHb levels between 1% and 9%. COHb levels between 30% and 70% lead to loss of consciousness and eventually death. Following resolution of acute symptoms there may be a lucid interval of 2-40 days before the development of delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS), with diffuse demyelination in the brain accompanied by lethargy, behavior changes, forgetfulness, memory loss, and parkinsonian features. Seventy-five percent of patients with DNS recover within 1 year. Neuropsychologic abnormalities with chronic CO exposure are found even when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are normal. White-matter damage in the centrum semiovale and periventricular area and abnormalities in the globus pallidus are most commonly seen on MRI following CO exposure. Though not as common, toxic or ischemic peripheral neuropathies are associated with CO exposure in humans and animals. The cornerstone for treatment for CO poisoning is 100% oxygen using a tight-fitting mask for greater than 6 hours. The indications for treatment with hyperbaric oxygen to decrease the half-life of COHb remain controversial. PMID:26563790

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a chemical produced from the incomplete burning of natural gas or other products containing carbon. ... indoor and camp stoves) Water heaters that use natural gas Note: This list may not be all inclusive.

  19. Carbon monoxide in comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhate, Jason Boyce

    1999-08-01

    Observations of carbon monoxide in comets and the circumstellar disk of the star β Pictoris were performed using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and a sounding rocket. The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) and the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) were used for imaging and low resolution spectroscopic observations of several solar system comets. The GHRS was used for medium and high resolution spectroscopic studies of the β Pictoris circumstellar disk system. The sounding rocket was use to perform long-slit ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy of comet Hale-Bopp near perihelion. The first part of this thesis discusses the HST observations. The results of UV spectroscopy with the FOS of comet Hyakutake acquired in June of 1996 will be presented. Emission from both the CO Fourth Positive system (A1Π-X1Σ +) and the CO Cameron system (a3Π-X 1Σ+) are observed in the spectra of this comet. Formation mechanisms for CO in the a3Π state are discussed including electron impact excitation of CO and photodissociation Of CO2. Because these mechanisms produce Cameron emission characterized by different rotational temperatures they are used to derive both CO and CO 2 production rates. WFPC2 imaging and FOS and GHRS spectroscopy were performed on the periodic comet Schwassmann-Wachmann I (SW1) in March of 1996 while this comet was in outburst. From the images a dust outflow velocity of 0.16 km s-1 was derived and the implications of this for the dust size distribution in this comet are discussed. The lack of a detection of CO in the GHRS spectra of SW1 is reconciled with the fact that CO has previously been detected in the coma of this comet in the millimeter wavelength region. Finally, GHRS spectroscopy of the circumstellar disk of β Pictoris is presented. Particular attention is given to the presence of the CO Fourth Positive system and the C I λ1561 absorption features. We determine that the derived CO column density is consistent with evaporation from cometary bodies around the star and that the C column is consistent with its source being photodissociation of the observed CO by the interstellar radiation field. The second part of this thesis discusses the design and calibration of, and the results obtained from NASA-JHU sounding rocket 36.156 UG. The rocket was used to perform long-slit UV spectroscopy of comet Hale-Bopp on 6 April 1997 when the comet was near perihelion. The long slit allows spatial mapping of the emissions in the coma. Particular attention is given to the profiles of the CO Fourth Positive system emissions and C I λλ 1561 and 1657 emissions. It is found that photodissociation of the observed CO can account for the profiles of the observed C. The results and methods of the absolute UV calibration of the sounding rocket payload, including the flat fielding technique used for the spectrograph and detector, are presented. Also discussed is the design and some of the image characteristics of the detector used for this rocket, a double-microchannel-plate with CsI photocathode and a double-delay-line anode.

  20. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  1. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities. PMID:9456553

  2. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  3. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground-based spectroscopic measurements. Images courtesy David Edwards and John Gille, MOPITT Science Team, NCAR

  4. Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases

    DOEpatents

    Gerstein, Bernard C.; Macaulay, David B.

    1976-06-01

    A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

  6. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalThe September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  8. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalThe September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalThe September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalThe September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalThe September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  16. Polymer-Based Carbon Monoxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Kisor, A. K.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Ryan, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-based sensors have been used primarily to detect volatile organics and inorganics; they are not usually used for smaller, gas phase molecules. We report the development and use of two types of polymer-based sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide. Further understanding of the experimental results is also obtained by performing molecular modeling studies to investigate the polymer-carbon monoxide interactions. The first type is a carbon-black-polymer composite that is comprised of a non-conducting polymer base that has been impregnated with carbon black to make it conducting. These chemiresistor sensors show good response to carbon monoxide but do not have a long lifetime. The second type of sensor has a non-conducting polymer base but includes both a porphyrin-functionalized polypyrrole and carbon black. These sensors show good, repeatable and reversible response to carbon monoxide at room temperature.

  17. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Grger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  18. Mars - Microwave detection of carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakar, R. K.; Walters, J. W.; Wilson, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The 115-gigahertz microwave line of carbon monoxide has been detected in the spectrum of Mars. The measurement is sensitive to carbon monoxide between the surface and an altitude of approximately 50 kilometers in the Martian atmosphere. This extends the altitude region to well above that previously sensed.

  19. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  4. Miniaturized carbon monoxide sonde for atmospheric measurements.

    PubMed

    Bognar, J A; Birks, J W

    1998-09-15

    The design and test results of a simple carbon monoxide detector based on the reducing gas detector principle are presented. This instrument has several features which distinguish it from similar carbon monoxide analyzers, all of which contribute to its usefulness on small airborne platforms such as kites, balloons, and light aircraft. Compact size, battery operation, low cost, and light weight are among the most important improvements made over to earlier systems. The instrument fits a package 10 x 20 x 25 cm, has a mass of 2.0 kg, and consumes an average of 20 W of power. This instrument will, therefore, offer a means of incorporating carbon monoxide measurements in recoverable or disposable balloon sondes. The instrument makes an independent measurement of carbon monoxide every 8 s, with a sensitivity of 3 ppbv carbon monoxide (limit of detection for S/N = 3) and a precision of 4%. PMID:9751027

  5. [A group carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Pach, Dorota; Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Modła, Arkadiusz; Targosz, Dorota; Kłys, Małgorzata

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the group carbon monoxide poisoning in Kraków in December 2003. Despite the reanimation procedure one fatal case was stated on the spot (HbCO--60% according to post-mortem toxicological examination). CO threshold limit values were significantly exceeded in the whole building. The inhabitants (15 persons) were transported to the Department of Clinical Toxicology Jagiellonian University Medical College. Also 4 staff members of the ambulance and 2 policemen called to the incident, were diagnosed and observed. Totally, toxicology medical care was given to 21 CO exposed persons. In 8 of them acute CO poisoning of minor grade was stated. Any clinical symptoms of poisoning in the rest of CO exposed persons were noted. PMID:15521613

  6. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  7. Carbon monoxide and the burning earth

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.E.; Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Seiler, W.

    1989-10-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of many gases whose presence in the atmosphere is blamed largely on industrial activity in the Northern Hemisphere. Data collected by the authors show that the gas is also abundant in the Southern Hemisphere, where it comes mainly from the burning of tropical rain forests and savannas. The high levels of carbon monoxide confirm other evidence that the rain forests are being diminished rapidly, which may affect the climates of these regions as well as globally. Increases in carbon monoxide could also encourage the accumulation of pollutant gases such as ozone and methane. The first is highly toxic to plants and the second would add to the greenhouse effect.

  8. Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Nguyen, Trung V. (College Station, TX); Guante, Jr., Joseph (Denver, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

  9. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) ApprovalThe 1993 carbon monoxide...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide moderate nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide moderate nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide moderate nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  13. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) ApprovalThe 1993 carbon monoxide...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide moderate nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  15. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) ApprovalThe 1993 carbon monoxide...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) ApprovalThe 1993 carbon monoxide...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) ApprovalThe 1993 carbon monoxide...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide moderate nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.

    PubMed

    Allen, H

    1992-03-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:1567533

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, H

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:1567533

  1. A Fluorescent Source NDIR Carbon Monoxide Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, W. T.; McClatchie, E. A.; Watson, D. A.; Compher, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for measuring trace quantities of carbon monoxide by the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) methods. The technique uses the property of infrared fluorescence in a gas to generate a specific source of radiation which is an exact match of the absorption spectrum of the fundamental band of carbon monoxide. This results in an instrument with high sensitivity and specificity for CO. A novel method of referencing using an isotopic species of CO confers great stability on the instrument.

  2. Carbon-monoxide Indicators for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, S H J; Peterson, J B

    1936-01-01

    Several improvements that have been made on commercially available carbon-monoxide indicators to make them more suitable for aircraft use are described. These improvements include an automatic flow regulator, which permits the use of a simplified instrument on aircraft where a source of suction is available, and a more reliable alarm attachment. A field method for testing instruments on standard samples of carbon monoxide is described. Performance data and instructions in operation and maintenance are given.

  3. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  4. Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process

    DOEpatents

    Elek, Louis F. (Peekskill, NY); Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

  5. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Swartz, Scott L.; Holt, Christopher T.; Revur, Ramachandra Rao

    2006-01-10

    A sensor and method of use for detection of low levels of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures. The approach is based on the change in an electrical property (for example: resistance) that occurs when carbon monoxide is selectively absorbed by a film of copper chloride (or other metal halides). The electrical property change occurs rapidly with both increasing and decreasing CO contents, varies with the amount of CO from the gas stream, and is insensitive to the presence of hydrogen. To make a sensor using this approach, the metal halide film will deposited onto an alumina substrate with electrodes. The sensor may be maintained at the optimum temperature with a thick film platinum heater deposited onto the opposite face of the substrate. When the sensor is operating at an appropriate (and constant) temperature, the magnitude of the electrical property measured between the interdigital electrodes will provide a measure of the carbon monoxide content of the gas.

  6. Spontaneous electric fields in solid carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Lasne, Jrme; Rosu-Finsen, Alexander; Cassidy, Andrew; McCoustra, Martin R S; Field, David

    2015-11-28

    Reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) is shown to provide a means of observing the spontelectric phase of matter, the defining characteristic of which is the occurrence of a spontaneous and powerful static electric field within a film of material. The presence of such a field is demonstrated here through the study of longitudinal-transverse optical splitting in RAIR spectra in films of carbon monoxide, based upon the deposition temperature dependence of this splitting. Analysis of spectral data, in terms of the vibrational Stark effect, allows the measurement of the polarization of spontelectric films, showing for example that solid carbon monoxide at 20 K may maintain a spontelectric field of 3.78 10(7) V m(-1), representing a polarization of 3.34 10(-4) cm(-2). We comment on the astrophysical implications of polarized carbon monoxide ices, on the surface of cosmic grains in star-forming regions. PMID:26419192

  7. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  8. DIRECT CARBON MONOXIDE PHOTOPRODUCTION FROM PLANT MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initial studies to quantify direct carbon monoxide photoproduction from several plant species are reported. n addition to measuring CO emissions from live plant leaves, emission rates from dead leaf matter were also determined. enescent leaf matter photoproduced CO at rates that ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  10. Selective Oxidizer For Removal Of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trocciola, John C.; Schroll, Craig R.; Lesieur, Roger R.

    1996-01-01

    Catalytic apparatus selectively oxidizes most of carbon monoxide (without oxidizing hydrogen) in stream of reformed fuel gas fed to low-temperature fuel cell. Multiple catalytic stages at progressively lower temperatures operate without becoming poisoned. Catalysts used to oxidize CO selectively include platinum on alumina and commercial catalyst known as "Selectoxo."

  11. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group

  12. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868.1430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

    1996-08-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

  11. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  12. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Pillion, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed. PMID:22606528

  13. Detection of carbon monoxide in Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, R.

    1975-01-01

    New, ground-based, 5-micron spectra of Jupiter have revealed the presence of a trace quantity of carbon monoxide in the lower atmosphere of the planet. A preliminary analysis suggests a number mixing ratio in the neighborhood of 10 to the minus ninth power and a column abundance of roughly 5 times 10 to the 17th power molecules per sq cm to a depth of at least 2 atmospheres. It is suggested that the observation might be confirmed by microwave techniques.

  14. The carbon monoxide abundance in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The steady-state abundance of carbon monoxide in interstellar clouds is calculated as a function of optical depth, density, and temperature. The molecular reactions which lead to CO can be initiated by the following ion-molecule reactions: H(+) + O yields O(+) + H, C(+) + H2 yields CH2(+) + a photon, and H3(+) + C and O. As the ultraviolet radiation field is attenuated, C(+) is transformed primarily into CO and C I. There are characteristic column densities for the transition to CO corresponding to the optical depths for attenuating this field at different wavelengths. For thick, low-temperature clouds the attenuation of the fields which ionize carbon, sulfur, and heavy metals is important for CO production initiated by H3(+). Complete conversion to CO does not necessarily occur, and considerable neutral carbon may be expected even in optically thick clouds. Comparison of integrated column densities of CO with extinction are in reasonable agreement with observations.

  15. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon...

  16. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  17. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  19. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  20. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  1. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  3. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  4. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  5. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  6. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  7. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  8. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  11. Case of carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking shisha.

    PubMed

    Lim, Beng Leong; Lim, Ghee Hian; Seow, Eillyne

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning has been reported as a result of exposure to various sources of smoke, such as car exhaust fumes, home water heaters and tobacco smoke. We describe a case of symptomatic, moderately severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a young Mediterranean man after smoking a waterpipe, or shisha. This case highlights the importance of considering carbon monoxide exposure in patients presenting with non-specific neurological symptoms to the emergency department (ED). PMID:20157455

  12. Nonclassical activation of carbon monoxide by organoactinides

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, T.J.; Manriquez, J.M.; Fagan, P.J.; Day, V.W.; Day, C.S.; Vollmer, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews recent results on the carbonylation chemistry of bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) thorium and uranium hydrocarbyl and dialkylamide complexes. Facile migratory insertion of carbon monoxide into metal-carbon and metal-nitrogen bonds is observed. In several cases bihaptoacyl and bihaptocarbamoyl complexes were isolated and characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The great strength of the metal-oxygen bonding in these species is evident in metrical and spectral data, as well as in the reaction chemistry, which is decidedly alkoxycarbene-like. In the case of the bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) actinide dialkyls, the final carbonylation products are C-C coupled cis-1,2-enediolate complexes, while for the corresponding bis(dialkylamides), the products are bis(carbamoyl) species. Both types of compound have been characterized by x-ray diffraction. The carbon monoxide chemistry observed here may be of relevance to mechanistic discussions of catalytic CO reduction, especially that involving actinide oxide or actinide oxide supported catalysts.

  13. Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Carbon Composite Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed that can be incorporated into an existing sensing array architecture. The CO sensor is a low-power chemiresistor that operates at room temperature, and the sensor fabrication techniques are compatible with ceramic substrates. Sensors made from four different polymers were tested: poly (4-vinylpryridine), ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer, polyepichlorohydrin, and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The carbon black used for the composite films was Black Pearls 2000, a furnace black made by the Cabot Corporation. Polymers and carbon black were used as received. In fact, only two of these sensors showed a good response to CO. The poly (4-vinylpryridine) sensor is noisy, but it does respond to the CO above 200 ppm. The polyepichlorohydrin sensor is less noisy and shows good response down to 100 ppm.

  14. Carbon monoxide adsorption on beryllium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, A.

    2013-02-01

    Density functional calculations are here carried out to study the carbon monoxide molecule adsorption on pristine, hydrogenated and hydroxylated beryllium Be (0001) surfaces. The adsorption energies and structures, the activation barriers to molecular adsorption and dissociation are calculated. These reactions are described in terms of potential energy surfaces and electronic density of states. The quantum results are discussed along two directions: the beryllium surface reactivity in the domain of nuclear fusion devices and the possible usage of beryllium as a catalyst of Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis.

  15. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Gupta, Rahul; Paul, Barinder S.; Puri, Sandeep; Garg, Shuchita

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonirritating, but significantly toxic gas. It is a product of combustion of organic matter in presence of insufficient oxygen supply. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headaches, vertigo and flu like effects, whereas larger exposures can lead to significant toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and even death. We are reporting two cases that presented to us in the winter months of December to January with history, sign, symptoms, and radiological evidence of suspected CO poisoning. PMID:20040818

  16. Carbon Monoxide Production by a Bathypelagic Siphonophore.

    PubMed

    Pickwell, G V; Barham, E G; Wilton, J W

    1964-05-15

    A physonectid siphonophore, Nanomia bijuga, associated with a verticallymigrating deep scattering layer, has been observed with a gasfilled float at depths in excess of 300 meters in the sea. This implies that gas is secreted and maintained in the pneumatophore against a diffusion gradient of 30 atmospheres or more. Analysis of the enclosed gases revealed concentrations of carbon monoxide exceeding 90 percent. Necessary voiding of this gas during a vertical ascent of 300 meters could give rise to a transient population of bubbles which would act as sound-reflecting targets. PMID:17733619

  17. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  18. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analyzer specifications. 86.316-79 Section 86.316-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  19. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... analyzer specifications. 86.316-79 Section 86.316-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  20. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analyzer specifications. 86.316-79 Section 86.316-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  1. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  2. Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, P.W.; Roberts, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum, is capable of converting carbon monoxide to CO/sub 2/ and cellular material. Because carbon monoxide is a major industrial pollutant in this country and a product of the biological oxidation of CO is the product of H/sub 2/, a major industrial feedstock, this process has practical importance. The oxidation of carbon monoxide to CO/sub 2/ by microorganisms is a major component of the carbon monoxide cycle on earth. We have isolated the enzyme responsible for this process from Rhodospirillum rubrum. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase is an iron - sulfur, nickel- and zinc-containing enzyme. The enzyme is quite stable to heat and amendable to purification, however, it is very labile to oxygen, and all experiments must be conducted anaerobically. We are studying the activities of this enzyme, its regulation and its induction by its substrate carbon monoxide. The enzyme is absent in cells that have not been exposed to carbon monoxide, but cells produce the enzyme at a maximal rate upon exposure to carbon monoxide for as little as ten minutes. Oxygen, a potent and irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme, represses the synthesis of this enzyme. 1 tab.

  3. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjgren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented. PMID:23307861

  4. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  5. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... techniques such as infrared absorption or gas chromatography. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer....

  6. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... techniques such as infrared absorption or gas chromatography. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52.1682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalOn September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52.1887 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52.1887 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52.1887 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52.1887 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part...

  20. Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars has many resources that can be processed to produce things such as oxygen, fuel, buffer gas, and water for support of human exploration missions. Successful manipulation of these resources is crucial for safe, cost-effective, and self-sufficient long-term human exploration of Mars. In our research, we are developing enabling technologies that require fundamental knowledge of adsorptive gas storage and separation processes. In particular, we are designing and constructing an innovative, low mass, low power separation device to recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU (in-situ resource utilization). The technology has broad implications for gas storage and separations for gas-solid systems that are ideally suited for reduced gravitational environments. This paper describes our separation process design and experimental procedures and reports results for the separation of CO2 and CO by a four-step adsorption cycle.

  1. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  2. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. )

    1992-09-01

    The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning: systemic manifestations and complications.

    PubMed

    Choi, I S

    2001-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has the toxic effects of tissue hypoxia and produces various systemic and neurological complications. The main clinical manifestations of acute CO poisoning consist of symptoms caused by alterations of the cardiovascular system such as initial tachycardia and hypertension, and central nervous system symptoms such as headache, dizziness, paresis, convulsion and unconsciousness. CO poisoning also produces myocardial ischemia, atrial fibrillation, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, erythrocytosis, leucocytosis, hyperglycemia, muscle necrosis, acute renal failure, skin lesion, and changes in perception of the visual and auditory systems. Of considerable clinical interest, severe neurological manifestations may occur days or weeks after acute CO poisoning. Delayed sequelae of CO poisoning are not rare, usually occur in middle or older, and are clinically characterized by symptom triad of mental deterioration, urinary incontinence, and gait disturbance. Occasionally, movement disorders, particularly parkinsonism, are observed. In addition, peripheral neuropathy following CO poisoning usually occurs in young adults. PMID:11410684

  4. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Bonam, D.; Murrell, S.A.; Ludden, P.W.

    1984-07-01

    The carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was purified over 600-fold by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, heat treatment, hydroxylapatite chromatography, and preparative scale gel electrophoresis. In vitro, this enzyme catalyzed a two-election oxidation of CO to form CO/sub 2/ as the product. The reaction was dependent on the addition of an electron acceptor. The enzyme was oxygen labile, heat stable, and resistant to tryptic and chymotryptic digestion. Optimum in vitro activity occurred at pH 10.0. A sensitive, hemoglobin-based assay for measuring dissolved CO levels is presented. The in vitro K/sub m/ for CO was determined to be ..mu..M. CO, through an unknown mechanism, stimulated hydrogen evolution in whole cells, suggesting the presence of a reversible hydrogenase in R. rubrum which is CO insensitive in vivo. 38 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  6. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Bonam, D; Murrell, S A; Ludden, P W

    1984-01-01

    The carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was purified over 600-fold by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, heat treatment, hydroxylapatite chromatography, and preparative scale gel electrophoresis. In vitro, this enzyme catalyzed a two-electron oxidation of CO to form CO2 as the product. The reaction was dependent on the addition of an electron acceptor. The enzyme was oxygen labile, heat stable, and resistant to tryptic and chymotryptic digestion. Optimum in vitro activity occurred at pH 10.0. A sensitive, hemoglobin-based assay for measuring dissolved CO levels is presented. The in vitro Km for CO was determined to be 110 microM. CO, through an unknown mechanism, stimulated hydrogen evolution in whole cells, suggesting the presence of a reversible hydrogenase in R. rubrum which is CO insensitive in vivo. PMID:6430875

  7. [Students knowledge on carbon monoxide toxicity].

    PubMed

    Pach, Janusz; Ogonowska, Dorota; Targosz, Dorota; Dziuban, Agata; Brzyski, Piotr; Pach, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    The results of questionnaire research on carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in students of State Higher Vocational School in Nowy Sacz (Institutes of Economy, Pedagogic, Technical and Health) are presented in the study. The mean age of the group examined, with a female predomination (77.6%) was 22.7 +/- 4.94 years. The questionnaire covered demographic data and knowledge on CO source, exposure, most frequent and most severe symptoms, most severe sequels, risky behavior and risk groups in CO poisoning. The results obtained indicate on inadequate knowledge on CO poisoning even in young students population. The proper education and prophylaxis activity is necessary to avoid accidental CO poisoning, especially that they also occur in spring-summer season. PMID:21387782

  8. Electron energy deposition in carbon monoxide gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Weihong; Victor, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive set of electron impact cross sections for carbon monoxide molecules is presented on the basis of the most recent experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. The processes by which energetic electrons lose energy in CO gas are analyzed with these input cross sections. The efficiencies are computed of vibrational and electronic excitation, dissociation, ionization, and heating for CO gas with fractional ionization ranging from 0% to 10%. The calculated mean energy per ion pair for neutral CO gas is 32.3 eV, which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 32.2 eV. It increases to 35.6 eV at a fractional ionization of 1%, typical of supernovae ejecta.

  9. Metastable photoproducts from carbon monoxide myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, D L; Argade, P V

    1986-01-01

    The photoproduct of carbon monoxide myoglobin generated at 4 K and lower has a resonance Raman spectrum characteristic of a high-spin heme but in which the high-frequency core size-sensitive lines are at lower frequency than those in the deoxy preparation. Such differences are not detected in the photoproduct generated at higher temperatures (50 K) or in that generated at room temperature with 10-nsec pulses. The data indicate that at the low temperature (4 K), the heme in the photoproduct is not fully relaxed, and from the data we conclude that the photoproduct has an expanded porphyrin core. We infer that the core size exceeds that in deoxymyoglobin because the rigid protein prevents the highspin iron atom from moving to its full out-of-plane displacement at the very low temperatures. PMID:3456590

  10. Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCammon, C S; Halperin, W F; Lemen, R A

    1981-01-01

    Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health observed deficiencies in maintenance of fueling trucks at an international airport. The exhaust system is vented under the front bumper, a standard design on fueling trucks which is intended to minimize the proximity of the exhaust system to the jet fuel in the vehicles. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the cabs of 17 fueling trucks with windows closed, heaters on, and in different positions relative to the wind. One truck had an average CO level of 300 ppm, two exceeded 100 ppm, five others exceeded 50 ppm, while levels in the other nine averaged less than or equal to 500 ppm. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and the vehicle's orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is required as the exhaust design is not fail-safe. PMID:6166254

  11. Encapsulation kinetics and dynamics of carbon monoxide in clathrate hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinlong; Du, Shiyu; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C.; Germann, Timothy C.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Izumi, Fujio; Momma, Koichi; Kawamura, Yukihiko; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide clathrate hydrate is a potentially important constituent in the solar system. In contrast to the well-established relation between the size of gaseous molecule and hydrate structure, previous work showed that carbon monoxide molecules preferentially form structure-I rather than structure-II gas hydrate. Resolving this discrepancy is fundamentally important to understanding clathrate formation, structure stabilization and the role the dipole moment/molecular polarizability plays in these processes. Here we report the synthesis of structure-II carbon monoxide hydrate under moderate high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. We demonstrate that the relative stability between structure-I and structure-II hydrates is primarily determined by kinetically controlled cage filling and associated binding energies. Within hexakaidecahedral cage, molecular dynamic simulations of density distributions reveal eight low-energy wells forming a cubic geometry in favour of the occupancy of carbon monoxide molecules, suggesting that the carbon monoxidewater and carbon monoxidecarbon monoxide interactions with adjacent cages provide a significant source of stability for the structure-II clathrate framework. PMID:24936712

  12. Modeling of exposure to carbon monoxide in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in regions of the body for short exposures to carbon monoxide levels expected during escape from aircraft fires. The model includes the respiratory and circulatory dynamics of absorption and distribution of carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin. Predictions of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations are compared to experimental values obtained for human exposures to constant high carbon monoxide levels. Predictions are within 20% of experimental values. For short exposure times, transient concentration effects are predicted. The effect of stress is studied and found to increase carboxyhemoglobin levels substantially compared to a rest state.

  13. Mars in situ propellants - Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Groth, Mary F.; Roncace, James

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  14. Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Roncace, James; Groth, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  15. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel; Anthony H. , Medlin; J. Will , Bastasz; Robert J.

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  16. Quantum molecular dynamic simulations of warm dense carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujuan; Wang, Cong; Li, Dafang; Zhang, Ping

    2011-08-14

    Using quantum molecular dynamic simulations, we have studied the thermophysical properties of warm dense carbon monoxide under extreme conditions. The principal Hugoniot pressure up to 286 GPa, which is derived from the equation of state, is calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The chemical decomposition of carbon monoxide has been predicted at 8 GPa by means of pair correlation function and the charge density distribution. Based on Kubo-Greenwood formula, the dc electrical conductivity and the optical reflectivity are determined, and the nonmetal-metal transition for shock compressed carbon monoxide is observed around 40 GPa. PMID:21842937

  17. Accumulation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in stored canola.

    PubMed

    Reuss; Pratt

    2000-01-15

    Production of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from canola was studied in the laboratory and in commercial storage. Canola rapidly produced amounts of CO and CO(2) far exceeding those reported for dry cereal grain and dried peas and at levels dangerous to human health. In the laboratory, canola (5.8% m.c.) was stored in sealed flasks at 25, 35 and 45 degrees C for 12 weeks. Levels of CO, CO(2) and oxygen (O(2)) were then measured by gas chromatography. Average levels of CO and CO(2) increased with storage temperature. Levels of CO peaked at 6 weeks, exceeding 10,000 ppm v/v (1%) at 45 degrees C. CO(2) levels peaked at 11.9% after 10 weeks storage at 45 degrees C. In field measurements, CO levels in a steel bin (7000 tonne capacity) filled with canola ranged from 1100 to 800 ppm in the grain bulk before sealing, 1050-370 ppm in the grain bulk after sealing, and 290-440 ppm in the head space of the sealed bin. CO(2) concentrations were >3% in the grain bulk and averaged 1.5% in the headspace. CO production rate was estimated at 200 ng g(-1) day(-1). Canola storage poses a greater potential safety hazard than storage of cereals. PMID:11124367

  18. The Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Saïd, Jessica; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Léger, Christophe; Fourmond, Vincent; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Ni-containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases (CODHs) catalyze the reversible conversion between CO and CO₂and are involved in energy conservation and carbon fixation. These homodimeric enzymes house two NiFeS active sites (C-clusters) and three accessory [4Fe-4S] clusters. The Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) genome contains a two-gene CODH operon coding for a CODH (cooS) and a maturation protein (cooC) involved in nickel insertion in the active site. According to the literature, the question of the precise function of CooC as a chaperone folding the C-cluster in a form which accommodates free nickel or as a mere nickel donor is not resolved. Here, we report the biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of two recombinant forms of the CODH, produced in the absence and in the presence of CooC, designated CooS and CooS(C), respectively. CooS contains no nickel and cannot be activated, supporting the idea that the role of CooC is to fold the C-cluster so that it can bind nickel. As expected, CooS(C) is Ni-loaded, reversibly converts CO and CO₂, displays the typical Cred1 and Cred2 EPR signatures of the C-cluster and activates in the presence of methyl viologen and CO in an autocatalytic process. However, Ni-loaded CooS(C) reaches maximum activity only upon reductive treatment in the presence of exogenous nickel, a phenomenon that had not been observed before. Surprisingly, the enzyme displays the Cred1 and Cred2 signatures whether it has been activated or not, showing that this activation process of the Ni-loaded Dv CODH is not associated with structural changes at the active site. PMID:26255854

  19. EVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS MONITORS FOR CARBON MONOXIDE IN STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance characteristics of five commercially available continuous carbon monoxide monitors were evaluated in a two part program consisting of laboratory and field phases. The laboratory phase involved testing each instrument for response characteristics, precision, noise,...

  20. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H.

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many people using gasoline-powered tools such as ... CO is a dangerous poison. Operating gasoline-powered engines and tools indoors is RISKY BUSINESS. Recommendations It ...

  2. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of... with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations between 10 and 90 percent...

  3. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of more...-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on each used operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration...

  4. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of... with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations between 10 and 90 percent...

  5. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations starting...

  6. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and... normally used operating range with carbon monoxide in N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations...

  7. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of... with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations between 10 and 90 percent...

  8. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations starting...

  9. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of... with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations between 10 and 90 percent...

  10. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations starting...

  11. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and... normally used operating range with carbon monoxide in N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations...

  12. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations starting...

  13. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and... normally used operating range with carbon monoxide in N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations...

  14. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and... normally used operating range with carbon monoxide in N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations...

  15. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of more...-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on each used operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration...

  16. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of more...-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on each used operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration...

  17. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of more...-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on each used operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration...

  18. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of more...-grade nitrogen. (3) Calibrate on each used operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration...

  19. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... operating range with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations starting...

  20. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and... normally used operating range with carbon monoxide in N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations...

  1. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of... with carbon monoxide-in-N2 calibration gases having nominal concentrations between 10 and 90 percent...

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology is presented for designing a carbon monoxide monitoring network based on the objective of identifying concentrations that exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). The basis for identifying concentrations in excess of the NAAQS is the Concentration ...

  3. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

  4. Channeling of carbon monoxide during anaerobic carbon dioxide fixation.

    PubMed

    Seravalli, J; Ragsdale, S W

    2000-02-15

    Carbon monoxide is an intermediate in carbon dioxide fixation by diverse microbes that inhabit anaerobic environments including the human colon. These organisms fix CO(2) by the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of acetyl-CoA biosynthesis. The bifunctional CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS) catalyzes several key steps in this pathway. CO(2) is reduced to CO at a nickel iron-sulfur cluster called cluster C located in the CODH subunit. Then, CO is condensed with a methyl group and coenzyme A at cluster A, another nickel iron-sulfur cluster in the ACS subunit. Spectroscopic studies indicate that clusters A and C are at least 10-15 A apart. To gain a better understanding of how CO production and utilization are coordinated, we have studied an isotopic exchange reaction between labeled CO(2) and the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA with the CODH/ACS from Clostridium thermoaceticum. When solution CO is provided at saturating levels, only CO(2)-derived CO is incorporated into the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, when high levels of hemoglobin or myoglobin are added to remove CO from solution, there is only partial inhibition of the incorporation of CO(2)-derived CO into acetyl-CoA. These results provide strong evidence for the existence of a CO channel between cluster C in the CODH subunit and cluster A in the ACS subunit. The existence of such a channel would tightly couple CO production and utilization and help explain why high levels of this toxic gas do not escape into the environment. Instead, microbes sequester this energy-rich carbon source for metabolic reactions. PMID:10684606

  5. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure. PMID:1482718

  6. Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, E.N.; Pagano, M. ); Bleecker, E.R.; Walden, S.M. ); Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E. ); Hackney, J.D.; Selvester, R.H. ); Warren, J. ); Gottlieb, S.O.

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre-versus postexposure exercise test at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease.

  7. Review: hemodynamic response to carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, D.G.

    1988-04-01

    Historically, and at present, carbon monoxide is a major gaseous poison responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. From threshold to maximal nonlethal levels, a variety of cardiovascular changes occur, both immediately and in the long term, whose homeostatic function it is to renormalize tissue oxygen delivery. However, notwithstanding numerous studies over the past century, the literature remains equivocal regarding the hemodynamic responses in animals and humans, although CO hypoxia is clearly different in several respects from hypoxic hypoxia. Factors complicating interpretation of experimental findings include species, CO dose level and rate, route of CO delivery, duration, level of exertion, state of consciousness, and anesthetic agent used. Augmented cardiac output usually observed with moderate COHb may be compromised in more sever poisoning for the same reasons, such that regional or global ischemia result. The hypotension usually seen in most animal studies is thought to be a primary cause of CNS damage resulting from acute CO poisoning, yet the exact mechanism(s) remains unproven in both animals and humans, as does the way in which CO produces hypotension. This review briefly summarizes the literature relevant to the short- and long-term hemodynamic responses reported in animals and humans. It concludes by presenting an overview using data from a single species in which the most complete work has been done to date.

  8. Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is bordered by continents which may each, under the influence of seasonal weather patterns, act as sources of natural and anthropogenic trace gas and particulate species. Photochemically active species such as carbon monoxide (CO) react to form ozone (O3), a species of critical importance in global climate change. CO is sparingly soluble in water, and the relatively long lifetime of CO in the troposphere makes this species an ideal tracer of air masses with origin over land. We have measured CO using a nondispersive infrared gas filter correlation analyzer at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland nearly continuously since August 9, 1991. Measurements of CO were acquired at 20-sec resolution and recorded as 60-sec averages. Daily, monthly, and diurnal variation data characteristics of CO mixing ratios observed at this site are reported. Depending on source regions of air parcels passing over this site, 60-min concentrations of CO range from clean air values of approximately 90 ppbv to values in excess of 300 ppbv. Data characterizing the correlation between 60-min CO and O3 mixing ratio data observed at this site are reported also.

  9. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  10. Carbon Monoxide Formation in SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gearhart, Rob A.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of carbon monoxide in the supernova SN 1987A at 200 days is investigated. Rather than the one-zone that have previous been employed, this work utilizes a radially dependent radiative transport model to compute the temperature and ionization structure and the destruction of CO and CO+ by ultraviolet radiation. The CO profile is computed assuming chemical equilibrium. Two models for the density and abundance profiles are examined: model 10H (unmixed) and model 10HMM (mixed) of Pinto & Woosley. Sensitivity to adopted rates and temperature as it might be affected by CO cooling is examined. The models give a total mass of 10-4 M_sun at 200 days for the unmixed model, which is comparable with the estimated observed abundance by Syromilio et al. but nearly 2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated observed and that computed in thermal-chemical models by Liu & Dalgarno. The effect of different model assumptions and results concerning ionization structure and radiative transfer are discussed. We confirm that CO+ is not expected to be produced in significant amounts and that the amount of CO is sensitive to the degree of the mixing of the composition of various elements present in the ejecta.

  11. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, H. M.; Deeter, M. N.; Frankenberg, C.; George, M.; Nichitiu, F.; Worden, J.; Aben, I.; Bowman, K. W.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.; de Laat, J.; Detweiler, R.; Drummond, J. R.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Hurtmans, D.; Luo, M.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Massie, S. T.; Pfister, G.; Warner, J. X.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend ~ -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Although decreasing trends in the United States and Europe have been observed from surface CO measurements, we also find a decrease in CO over E. China. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, but the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  12. Decadal record of satellite carbon monoxide observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, H. M.; Deeter, M. N.; Frankenberg, C.; George, M.; Nichitiu, F.; Worden, J.; Aben, I.; Bowman, K. W.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P. F.; de Laat, A. T. J.; Detweiler, R.; Drummond, J. R.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Hurtmans, D.; Luo, M.; Martínez-Alonso, S.; Massie, S.; Pfister, G.; Warner, J. X.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres along with regional trends for Eastern China, Eastern USA, Europe and India. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend ~ -1 % yr-1 in total column CO over the Northern Hemisphere for this time period and a less significant, but still decreasing trend in the Southern Hemisphere. Although decreasing trends in the United States and Europe have been observed from surface CO measurements, we also find a decrease in CO over E. China that, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, but the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  13. Decadal record of satellite carbon monoxide observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, H. M.; Deeter, M. N.; Frankenberg, C.; George, M.; Nichitiu, F.; Worden, J.; Aben, I.; Bowman, K. W.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P. F.; de Laat, A. T. J.; Detweiler, R.; Drummond, J. R.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Hurtmans, D.; Luo, M.; Martínez-Alonso, S.; Massie, S.; Pfister, G.; Warner, J. X.

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres along with regional trends for Eastern China, Eastern USA, Europe and India. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend ∼-1% yr-1 in total column CO over the Northern Hemisphere for this time period and a less significant, but still decreasing trend in the Southern Hemisphere. Although decreasing trends in the United States and Europe have been observed from surface CO measurements, we also find a decrease in CO over E. China that, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, but the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  14. Mapping carbon monoxide using GPS tracked sensors.

    PubMed

    Milton, Richard; Steed, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a pilot study where we have mapped urban air pollution using mobile carbon monoxide (CO) sensors. Our objective is to use inexpensive Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to track the sensors and explore CO variations at a fine geographic scale. The critical issue in data processing is the treatment of the imprecise logs from the GPS. By using knowledge about the route and the geometry of the buildings, we are able to increase the position accuracy significantly, while at the same time showing that certain events, such as CO profiles while crossing roads, can be detected with a high degree of accuracy. Comparisons between data from our own mobile sensors and a fixed sensor site show good agreement in the vicinity of the fixed sensor, while at the same time identifying significant CO peaks within 100 m of this location. Using the mobile sensors to collect data along two of the main roads in the area, we are able to show CO variations along an urban canyon for parallel and perpendicular wind directions. Finally, a number of significant sources of CO were discovered during the course of the study, which suggest possible locations for fixed sensor sites in the future. We conclude by discussing the results in the context of the push towards large sensor networks and mobile communications. The potential for ad hoc mobile sensor networks may be very large. PMID:17048088

  15. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning and nonoliguric acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Bessoudo, R.; Gray, J.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning in a 37-year-old man was complicated by neurologic damage, skin changes, muscle necrosis and nonoliguric renal failure. The relation between nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Recognition of the acute renal failure in such cases is important, for this complication can be fatal; the prognosis is excellent, however, if proper medical management is provided. PMID:679099

  17. Effect of carbon monoxide on the cardiorespiratory system: carbon monoxide toxicity, physiology and biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Turino, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide compromises function of the cardiovascular system primarily by decreasing oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood and decreasing venous and tissue oxygen tension. In normal individuals, with concentrations of approximately 18 to 20% COHb, there is a reduction in the oxygen consumption during high levels of exercise, a higher than predicted cardiac output, and abnormally high concentrations of lactic acid. However, in patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis, concentrations of COHb of 3 to 5% significantly curtailed exercise tolerance before the onset of angina. In addition, there is suggestive evidence in animals that the hypoxia induced by increased levels of COHb induces atherosclerosis.

  18. Demonstration of Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide Propellants for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, proposed planetary exploration missions must be small, with low costs and a short development time. Relatively high-risk technologies are being accepted for such missions if they meet these guidelines. For a Mars sample-return mission, one of the higher risk technologies is the use of return propellants produced from indigenous materials such as the Martian atmosphere. This consists of 96 percent carbon dioxide, which can be processed into oxygen and carbon monoxide. This year, the NASA Lewis Research Center completed the experimental evaluation and subscale technology development of an oxygen/carbon monoxide propellant combination. Previous research included ignition characterization, combustion performance, and heat transfer characterization with gaseous propellants at room temperature. In this year s tests, we studied the ignition characteristics and combustion of oxygen and carbon monoxide at near liquid temperatures. The mixture ratio boundaries for oxygen and carbon monoxide were determined as a function of propellant temperature in a spark torch igniter. With both propellants at room temperature, the ignition range was between 0.50 and 1.44; and with both propellants chilled to near-liquid temperatures, it was between 2.4 and 3.1. Statistical analysis of the mean value of the ignition boundaries provided models that describe the combination of oxygen temperature, carbon monoxide temperature, and mixture ratio that resulted in ignition. This range is the larger boxed area shown in the figure. The smaller boxed area indicates the range at which there is a 90-percent confidence that ignition will occur. The relatively small range at only 90-percent confidence indicates that using the oxygen/carbon monoxide combination as its own ignition source may not be the best design for a remote engine operating on Mars. Tests also were performed in a simulated small rocket engine that used oxygen/hydrogen combustion gases as the ignition source for oxygen/carbon monoxide. In these experiments, the oxygen/carbon monoxide was successfully ignited in eight of eight tests at a mixture ratio of 0.52. In addition, the oxygen/carbon monoxide maintained steady combustion after the oxygen/hydrogen ignition source was removed, verifying that the oxygen/carbon monoxide rocket engine should continue to be included in mission plans as return propulsion from Mars.

  19. Role of Carbon Monoxide in Kidney Function: Is a little Carbon Monoxide Good for the Kidney?

    PubMed Central

    Csongradi, Eva; Juncos, Luis A.; Drummond, Heather A.; Vera, Trinity; Stec, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas resulting from the degradation of heme by heme oxygense or from fatty acid oxidation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are constitutively expressed in the kidney (HO-2) and HO-1 is induced in the kidney in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. While the beneficial actions of HO in the kidney have been recognized for some time, the important role of CO in mediating these effects has not been fully examined. Recent studies using CO inhalation therapy and carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) are demonstrating that increases in CO alone can be beneficial to the kidney in several forms of acute renal injury by limiting oxidative injury, decreasing cell apoptosis, and promoting cell survival pathways. Renal CO is also emerging as a major regulator of renal vascular and tubular function acting to protect the renal vasculature against excessive vasoconstriction and to promote natriuresis by limiting sodium reabsorption in tubule cells. Within this review, recent studies on the physiological actions of CO in the kidney will be explored as well as the potential therapeutic avenues that are being developed targeting CO in the kidney which may be beneficial in diseases such as acute renal failure and hypertension. PMID:22201605

  20. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2σ significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  1. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  5. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.222-94 Carbon...

  6. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.222-94 Carbon...

  7. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.222-94 Carbon...

  8. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.222-94 Carbon...

  9. The oxidation of carbon monoxide using tin oxide based catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Christopher F.; Jorgensen, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The preparation conditions for precious metal/tin oxide catalysts were optimized for maximum carbon monoxide/oxygen recombination efficiency. This was achieved by controlling the tin digestion, the peptization to form the sol, the calcination process and the method of adding the precious metals. Extensive studies of the tin oxide structure were carried out over the temperature range 20 to 500 C in air or hydrogen environments using Raman scattering and X ray diffraction. Adsorbed species on tin oxide, generated in an environment containing carbon monoxide, gave rise to a Raman band at about 1600 cm(exp -1) which was assigned to carbonaceous groups, possible carbonate.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium formicoaceticum

    PubMed Central

    Diekert, Gabriele B.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of Clostridium formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum growing on fructose and glucose, respectively, were shown to rapidly oxidize CO to CO2. Rates up to 0.4 ?mol min?1 mg of wet cells?1 were observed. Carbon monoxide oxidation by cell suspensions was found (i) to be dependent on pyruvate, (ii) to be inhibited by alkyl halides and arsenate, and (iii) to stimulate CO2 reduction to acetate. Cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of carbon monoxide with methyl viologen at specific rates up to 10 ?mol min?1 mg of protein?1 (35C, pH 7.2). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ferredoxin from C. pasteurianum were ineffective as electron acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation was ping-pong, indicating that the enzyme catalyzing carbon monoxide oxidation can be present in an oxidized and a reduced form. The oxidized form was shown to react reversibly with cyanide, and the reduced form was shown to react reversibly with alkyl halides: cyanide inactivated the enzyme only in the absence of carbon monoxide, and alkyl halides inactivated it only in the presence of carbon monoxide. Extracts inactivated by alkyl halides were reactivated by photolysis. The findings are interpreted to indicate that carbon monoxide oxidation in the two bacteria is catalyzed by a corrinoid enzyme and that in vivo the reaction is coupled with the reduction of CO2 to acetate. Cultures of C. acidi-urici and C. cylindrosporum growing on hypoxanthine were found not to oxidize CO, indicating that clostridia mediating a corrinoid-independent total synthesis of acetate from CO2 do not possess a CO-oxidizing system. PMID:711675

  11. Determination of the atherogenic potential of inhaled carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, A. )

    1993-05-01

    he effects of chronic exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide upon the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development were investigated in a series of in vivo studies in the cockerel (young rooster). This animal model has been well characterized, especially regarding the role of environmental agents in exacerbating early stages of plaque development. Cockerels injected with subtumorigenic doses of carcinogens exhibit markedly accelerated development of aortic arteriosclerotic plaques. Inhalation of mainstream smoke from two packs of cigarettes (100 minutes/day for 16 weeks) causes small but statistically significant increases in plaque size. As is the case with many animal models of plaque development, raised fat-proliferative plaques also appear in these animals following cholesterol feeding. Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous pollutant in urban environments, where it is derived largely from mobile sources and cigarette smoke. Exposure to chronically elevated carbon monoxide levels has been implicated in a number of health-related problems. Whether such exposure plays a role in the development of arteriosclerosis has not been determined conclusively. In the present study, three questions were posed: 1. Will inhaled carbon monoxide at levels of 50 to 200 parts per million (ppm)* (two hours/day for 16 weeks) be sufficient to augment arteriosclerotic plaque development in cockerels, in the absence of other plaque-promoting agents 2. Will the inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 16 weeks), concomitant with the feeding of low levels (0.1%) of cholesterol, yield larger plaques than those obtained with either of these agents administered alone 3. Will inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 11 or 22 weeks), by cockerels in whom plaques have already appeared, further augment plaque development Cockerels were exposed to carefully regulated levels of carbon monoxide in stainless-steel and Plexiglas dynamic exposure chambers.

  12. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  13. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  14. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  15. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  16. CRISM Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra returned by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, [1]) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) contain the clear spectral signature of several atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we describe the seasonal and spatial mapping of water vapor and carbon dioxide for one full Martian year using CRISM spectra.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Methanogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, L.; Fuchs, G.; Thauer, R. K.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Different species of methanogenic bacteria growing on CO2 and H2 were shown to remove CO added to the gas phase. Rates up to 0.2 ?mol of CO depleted/min per 10 ml of culture containing approximately 7 mg of cells (wet weight) were observed. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was selected for further study based on its ability to grow rapidly on a completely mineral medium. This species used CO as the sole energy source by disproportionating CO to CO2 and CH4 according to the following equation: 4CO + 2H2O ? 1CH4 + 3CO2. However, growth was slight, and the growth rate on CO was only 1% of that observed on H2/CO2. Growth only occurred with CO concentrations in the gas phase of lower than 50%. Growth on CO agrees with the finding that cell-free extracts of M. thermoautotrophicum contained both an active factor 420 (F420)-dependent hydrogenase (7.7 ?mol/min per mg of protein at 35C) and a CO-dehydrogenating enzyme (0.2 ?mol/min per mg of protein at 35C) that catalyzed the reduction of F420 with CO. The properties of the CO-dehydrogenating enzyme are described. In addition to F420, viologen dyes were effective electron acceptors for the enzyme. The apparent Km for CO was higher than 1 mM. The reaction rate increased with increasing pH and displayed an inflection point at pH 6.7. The temperature dependence of the reaction rate followed the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy (?H) of 14.1 kcal/mol (59.0 kJ/mol). The CO dehydrogenase activity was reversibly inactivated by low concentrations of cyanide (2 ?M) and was very sensitive to inactivation by oxygen. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase of M. thermoautotrophicum exhibited several characteristic properties found for the enzyme of Clostridium pasteurianum but differed mainly in that the clostridial enzyme did not utilize F420 as the electron acceptor. PMID:21159

  18. Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Allred, E N; Bleecker, E R; Chaitman, B R; Dahms, T E; Gottlieb, S O; Hackney, J D; Pagano, M; Selvester, R H; Walden, S M; Warren, J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. The exposures resulted in postexercise carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 0.6% +/- 0.3%, 2.0% +/- 0.1%, and 3.9% +/- 0.1%. The results obtained on the 2%-COHb day and 3.9%-COHb day were compared to those on the room air day. There were 5.1% (p = 0.01) and 12.1% (p less than or equal to 0.0001) decreases in the time to development of ischemic ST-segment changes after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. In addition, there were 4.2% (p = 0.027) and 7.1% (p = 0.002) decreases in time to the onset of angina after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre- versus postexposure exercise tests at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease. PMID:2040254

  19. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  20. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  1. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  2. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  3. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  4. Carbon monoxide in the earth's atmosphere - Increasing trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analysis of more than 60,000 atmospheric measurements of carbon monoxide taken over 3-1/2 years at Cape Meares, Oregon (45 deg N, 125 deg W), indicate that the background concentration of this gas is increasing. The rate of increase, although uncertain, is about 6 percent per year on average. Human activities are the likely cause of a substantial portion of this observed increase; however, because of the short atmospheric lifetime of carbon monoxide and the relatively few years of observations, fluctuations of sources and sinks related to the natural variability of climate may have affected the observed trend. Increased carbon monoxide may deplete tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, slowing down the removal of dozens of man-made and anthropogenic trace gases and thus indirectly affecting the earth's climate and possibly the stratospheric ozone layer.

  5. A mathematical model of ventilation response to inhaled carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Stuhmiller, James H; Stuhmiller, Louise M

    2005-06-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model, describing the respiration, circulation, oxygen metabolism, and ventilatory control, is assembled for the purpose of predicting acute ventilation changes from exposure to carbon monoxide in both humans and animals. This Dynamic Physiological Model is based on previously published work, reformulated, extended, and combined into a single model. Model parameters are determined from literature values, fitted to experimental data, or allometrically scaled between species. The model predictions are compared with ventilation-time history data collected in goats exposed to carbon monoxide, with quantitatively good agreement. The model reaffirms the role of brain hypoxia on hyperventilation during carbon monoxide exposures. Improvement in the estimation of total ventilation, through a more complete knowledge of ventilation control mechanisms and validated by animal data, will increase the accuracy of inhalation toxicology estimates. PMID:15691907

  6. [Unusual findings in carbon monoxide-related deaths].

    PubMed

    Hecht, Lars; Dittmann, Volker; Dussy, Franz; Gerlach, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    The authors present three cases of carbon monoxide poisoning (two suicides and one accident) from the autopsy material of the Institute of Legal Medicine at Basel, which are unusual with regard to the circumstances at the scene of death, the method of suicide and the post-mortem findings: Suicide of a 27-year-old male by burning charcoal in the bathroom, documentation of the suicide and previous attempted suicides on a tablet PC. Suicide of a 27-year-old male by carbon monoxide chemically, produced by dehydration of formic acid with sulphuric acid and inhalation of the gas through a breathing mask. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning of a 34-year-old male by car exhaust fumes in an open garage. Difficult establishment of the diagnosis in the post-mortem examination due to unspecific colour of livores and varnished fingernails. PMID:25004621

  7. Carbon monoxide on Jupiter and implications for atmospheric convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Barshay, S. S.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the equilibrium and disequilibrium thermochemistry of the recently discovered carbon monoxide on Jupiter suggests that the presence of this gas in the visible atmosphere is a direct result of very rapid upward mixing from levels in the deep atmosphere where the temperature is about 1100 K and where carbon monoxide is thermodynamically much more stable. As a consequence the observed carbon monoxide mixing ratio is a sensitive function of the vertical eddy mixing coefficient. We infer a value for this latter coefficient which is about three to four orders of magnitude greater than that in the earth's troposphere. This result directly supports existing structural and dynamical theories implying very rapid convection in the deep Jovian atmosphere, driven by an internal heat source.

  8. Effect of carbon monoxide addition to the anode of a molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-G.; Ahn, K.-S.; Lim, H.-C.; Oh, J.-M.

    This study attempts to characterize the gas-phase reactions at the anode of a molten carbonate fuel cell by the addition of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide addition causes a rapid negative voltage shift. A constant voltage is maintained during the addition at open-circuit state. This indicates that the water gas shift (wgs) reaction which accompanies the addition of carbon dioxide is a fast reaction. Addition of carbon monoxide results in slow shifts in negative and positive voltages and suggests that carbon monoxide gives rise to complex gas-phase reactions at the anode. The Boudouard reaction prevails at the anode on addition of carbon monoxide at low partial pressures of carbon dioxide, i.e. H 2:CO 2=90:10 to 80:20 mol%, while the wgs reaction is dominant at higher carbon dioxide ratios. In a polarized state, the wgs reaction appears to be dominant, as opposed to the Boudouard reaction, even at a low CO 2 partial pressure of H 2:CO 2=90:10 mol%. This is probably due to an increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide caused by the anodic reactions.

  9. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J.P.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Heidt, L.; Pollock, W.

    1984-02-20

    Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from these fires indicates that 6 x 10/sup 13/ g C of gas phase hydrocarbons and 8 x 10/sup 14/ g CO may be released annually from biomass burning. These emissions contribute significantly to the global budgets of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  10. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  11. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  12. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  13. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalu...

  14. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180 days after initial... discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

  15. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180 days after initial... discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

  16. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180 days after initial... discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any fluid catalytic cracking unit...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York 52.1682 Control strategy... plan for the New York portion of the New YorkNorthern New JerseyLong Island Carbon Monoxide... plan. The November 23, 1999, request to redesignate the New York portion of the New YorkNorthern...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York 52.1682 Control strategy... plan for the New York portion of the New YorkNorthern New JerseyLong Island Carbon Monoxide... plan. The November 23, 1999, request to redesignate the New York portion of the New YorkNorthern...

  19. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for <span class=Carbon Monoxide" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

  20. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  1. Study on infrared carbon monoxide monitoring system used in mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yukai; Wang, Rulin; Liu, Zhongqi; Wang, Shufang; Deng, Junmin; Guan, Zhonghui

    2005-12-01

    Carbon monoxide does enormously harm to people and safety production in coal mine and other industries. But because the situation in coal mine is complicated and the interference factors are diversified, at present carbon monoxide detection system has the general problems of low detecting precision, easily poisoning and aging, short service life, narrow measurement range and bed anti-jamming ability. Carbon monoxide concentration is detected by using the infrared absorption principle, and this detection is applied in many fields. A new optics structure was developed with a reference gas cell, dual light sources and dual detectors in this paper, it could compensate to power source anti-jamming, mismatch of the detectors, gas cell material's absorption, and dust's influence. In addition, an infrared carbon monoxide sensor's mathematical model was built by adopting radial basic function's (RBF) neural network model, so as to dispel the influence of temperature, pressure and humidity. A momentum factor's gradient descending method could be applied to adjust the parameters of RBF neural network. The experimental results show that whole system runs very well with a high precision, a strong capacity of anti-jamming, a wide measurement range, a good selectivity, and an online detecting ability.

  2. Carbon monoxide detector. [electrochemical gas detector for spacecraft use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Bradspies, J. L.; Brummer, S. B.; Nelsen, L. L.

    1973-01-01

    A sensitive carbon monoxide detector, developed specifically for spacecraft use, is described. An instrument range of 0 to 60 ppm CO in air was devised. The fuel cell type detector is used as a highly sensitive electrolysis cell for electrochemically detecting gases. The concept of an electrochemical CO detector is discussed and the CO oxidation behavior in phosphoric and sulfuric acid electrolytes is reported.

  3. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified conditions. This SIP revision limits the Marathon Oil Company's CO emissions from its fluid bed catalytic cracking unit CO boiler to be no more than 300 parts per million of CO corrected for 50 percent excess...

  4. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified conditions. This SIP revision limits the Marathon Oil Company's CO emissions from its fluid bed catalytic cracking unit CO boiler to be no more than 300 parts per million of CO corrected for 50 percent excess...

  5. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with specified conditions. This SIP revision limits the Marathon Oil Company's CO emissions from its fluid bed catalytic cracking unit CO boiler to be no more than 300 parts per million of CO corrected for 50 percent excess...

  6. CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN FORMATION DUE TO CARBON MONOXIDE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFKE) ia a well tested model for prediction of COHb formation due to carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in humans. here have been few and relatively poorly tested attempts to implement a CFKE for rats. uch an implementation is of interest because many...

  7. School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems

  8. Carbon Monoxide Isotopes: On the Trail of Galactic Chemical Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W.

    1995-01-01

    From the early days of the discovery of radio emission from carbon monoxide it was realized that it offered unusual potential for under- standing the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and external galaxies through measurements of molecular isotopes. These results bear on stellar nucleosynthesis, star formation, and gases in the interstellar medium. Progress in isotopic radio measurements will be reviewed.

  9. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York 52.1682 Control strategy... plan for the New York portion of the New YorkNorthern New JerseyLong Island Carbon Monoxide... plan. The November 23, 1999, request to redesignate the New York portion of the New YorkNorthern......

  11. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York 52.1682 Control strategy... plan for the New York portion of the New YorkNorthern New JerseyLong Island Carbon Monoxide... plan. The November 23, 1999, request to redesignate the New York portion of the New YorkNorthern......

  12. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration...) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Otto-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks, and...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines,...

  17. Tita: discovery of carbon monoxide in its atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, B. L.; Debergh, C.; Owen, T.

    1982-01-01

    The 3-D rotation-vibration band of carbon monoxide was identified in the near-infrared spectrum of Titan. A preliminary mixing ratio of CO/N2 = 0.00006 was determined. This result supports the probable detection of CO2 by Samuelson et al and strengthens possible analogies between the atmosphere of Titan and conditions on the primitive Earth.

  18. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long?QT induced syncope

    PubMed Central

    Onvlee?Dekker, Irene M; De Vries, Andrica C H; Harkel, A Derk Jan Ten

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation, uncommon causes also should be looked for. PMID:17337682

  20. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality... NAAQS (which must be confirmed by the State), Michigan will implement one or more...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality... NAAQS (which must be confirmed by the State), Michigan will implement one or more...

  2. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.122-78 Section 86.122-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1322-84 Section 86.1322-84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle...

  4. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.122-78 Section 86.122-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year...

  5. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado 52.349 Control strategy:...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart TConformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart BDetermining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  7. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado 52.349 Control strategy:...

  8. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado 52.349 Control strategy:...

  9. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado 52.349 Control strategy:...

  10. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado 52.349 Control strategy:...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart TConformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart BDetermining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart TConformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart BDetermining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  13. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalua...

  14. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri 52.1340 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. ApprovalA maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri, area was submitted by the Director of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources on June 13,...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri 52.1340 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. ApprovalA maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri, area was submitted by the Director of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources on June 13,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri 52.1340 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. ApprovalA maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri, area was submitted by the Director of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources on June 13,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri 52.1340 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. ApprovalA maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri, area was submitted by the Director of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources on June 13,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri 52.1340 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. ApprovalA maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri, area was submitted by the Director of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources on June 13,...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) German (Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer ( ... PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention French (français) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning English Fiche d'information sur ...

  1. LACK OF EFFECTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON HUMAN VIGILANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous publications on the effects of low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) on human vigilance performance have found conflicting results. While several studies have found statistically reliable effects, none have gone unchallenged. This article presents a critical review of the l...

  2. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for <span class=Carbon Monoxide" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  4. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Lite Nadir (TL2COLN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-16

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Lite Nadir (TL2COLN) News: TES News ... Level: L2 Instrument: TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide Spatial Coverage: 5.3 km nadir ... OPeNDAP Access: OPeNDAP Parameters: Carbon Monoxide Order Data: Reverb: Order Data ...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  9. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor.

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation of TLCO either a known inspired oxygen concentration should be used, or TLCO should be corrected to a standard inspired oxygen concentration. The range of gas mixtures used in practice and the implications for cost and accuracy have been investigated. METHODS--A questionnaire was sent to 185 respiratory units in the UK requesting information on (1) the method used to estimate TLCO, (2) the manufacturer of the equipment, (3) the mixture used, (4) whether "medical quality" gas was ordered, and (5) the level of satisfaction with supplier service. RESULTS--Replies were received from 106 units. Most used the single breath breath holding method for which 17 different test mixtures were ordered. One unit also used the single breath exhalation method. Inspired oxygen ranged from 17.94% to 25%, giving a wide variation in alveolar oxygen and hence TLCO. Forty seven units ordered a specific inspired oxygen, the rest ordering "air" as balance. The cost per litre of gas varied greatly, with the mixture 14% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (17.9% oxygen) and 10% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (18.8% oxygen) being cheapest to produce. Ordering a specific inspired oxygen concentration increased the cost. Large cylinders of gas were cheaper for the same mixture. The mixture for the exhalation method was the most expensive. Sixty seven units ordered "medical quality" gas and six assumed this was supplied. Twenty nine (27%) were dissatisfied with their supplier due to (1) poor service, (2) long delivery times, (3) costs, or (4) wrongly labelled cylinders. CONCLUSIONS--It is recommended that two mixtures be available: (a) 14% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air for a helium analyser reading up to 15%, and (b) 10% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air for lower reading helium analysers. The mixture should be produced under a medical product licence. The advantage of the single exhalation method for routine clinical use needs to be investigated in view of the higher cost of the mixture. PMID:8211878

  10. Rationalizing Burned Carbon with Carbon Monoxide Exported from South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, R.; Freitas, S. R.; SilvaDias, M. A.; SilvaDias, P. O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present several estimates cross-checking the fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere from burning, comparing models that are based on simple land-surface parameterizations and atmospheric transport dynamics. Both estimates made by NASA Ames and USP modeling techniques are quite high compared to some detailed satellite/land-use studies of emissions. The flux of carbon liberated to the atmosphere via biomass burning is important for several reasons. This flux is a fundamental statistic for the parameterization of the large-scale flux of gases controlling the reactive greenhouse gases methane and ozone. Similarly, it is central to the estimation of the translocation of nitrogen and pyrodenitrification in the tropics. Thirdly, CO2 emitted from rainforest clearing contributes directly to carbon lost from the rainforest system as it contributes to greenhouse gas forcing. While CO2 from pasturage, agriculture, etc, is considered to be reabsorbed seasonally, and so "off budget" for the carbon cycle, it must also be accounted. CO2 anomalies related to daily weather and interannual climatic variation are strong enough to perturb our scientific perception of long-term carbon storage trends. We compare fluxes deduced from land-use statistics (originally, W.M. Hao) and from satellite hot pixels (A. Setzer) with atmospheric fluxes determined by the mesoscale/continental scale models RAMS and MM5, and point to some new work with highly resolved global models (the NASA Data Assimilation Office's GEOS4). Our simulations are tied to events, so that measured tracers like CO tie the models directly to the burning and meteorology of a specific period. We point out a particular sensitivity in estimates based on CO, and indicate how analysis of CO2 along with other biomass-burning tracers may lead to an improved multi-species estimator of carbon burned.

  11. Gas chromatographic determination of carbon monoxide in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ruvinskii, L.Y.; Akchurin, F.G.; Cherezova, V.V.

    1984-07-01

    This article shows how a flame ionization detector can be used to monitor methane, which has been catalytically converted from carbon dioxide. Nichrome wire is used as the catalyst. The test sample is fed into a chromatographic column, packed with CaA zeolite, which is installed in a thermostat at 80/sup 0/C. The separated gas mixture then enters the reactor where, at a temperature of 300-325/sup 0/C, the carbon monoxide is converted to methane in a stream of hydrogen, which also acts as the carrier gas and is used for operation of the flame ionization detector. The described method can be used to determine the content of the carbon monoxide in atmospheric air, the air in manufacturing plants, and the discharges from process furnaces, catalytic process reactors, gas-powered compressors, and afterburning furnaces.

  12. Carbon monoxide metabolism by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, P.W.; Roberts, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    Research continued on carbon monoxide metabolism by Rhodospirillum rubrum. In the past year, progress was made in: (1) the identification and isolation of the physiological electron carrier from monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) to hydrogenase in R. rubrum; (2) the isolation, sequencing and mutagenesis of the genes encoding the components of the CO oxidation system in R. rubrum, (3) the purification and characterization of the CO-induced hydrogenase activity of R. rubrum; (4) the spectroscopic investigation of the cobalt-substituted form of the enzyme.

  13. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DECOMPOSITION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND FORMATION ROUTES TO CARBON DIOXIDE IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Chris J.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2009-05-15

    The formation of carbon dioxide from the processing of carbon monoxide (CO) and molecular oxygen ({sup 18}O{sub 2}) via radiolysis is studied within the context of its formation in interstellar ices in quiescent clouds. With the help of isotopic labeling, we were able to 'trace' the atoms and provide mechanistical information on how carbon monoxide is decomposed, and carbon dioxide is formed in interstellar ices. Here, we quantify the production of {sup 18}O{sub 3}, O{sup 18}O{sub 2}, {sup 18}OO{sup 18}O, C{sup 18}O, CO{sub 2}, {sup 18}OCO, and C{sup 18}O{sub 2}. In contrast to experiments using ultraviolet irradiation, we find that upon exposure to energetic electrons, isolated carbon monoxide molecules are able to undergo unimolecular decomposition to give suprathermal carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atoms. Molecular oxygen decomposes to two oxygen atoms. The free oxygen atoms can react with carbon monoxide via addition to form the carbon dioxide isotopomers as observed experimentally. This mechanism to form carbon dioxide is distinctly different to the one observed in pure carbon monoxide ices where electronically excited carbon monoxide reacts with a neighboring carbon monoxide molecule to form solely carbon dioxide and a carbon atom.

  14. Therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fagone, P; Mangano, K; Coco, M; Perciavalle, V; Garotta, G; Romao, C C; Nicoletti, F

    2012-01-01

    Summary Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced during the catabolism of free haem, catalyzed by haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes, and its physiological roles include vasodilation, neurotransmission, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti-proliferative effects on smooth muscle. In vivo preclinical studies have shown that exogenously administered quantities of CO may represent an effective treatment for conditions characterized by a dysregulated immune response. The carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) represent a group of compounds capable of carrying and liberating controlled quantities of CO in the cellular systems. This review covers the physiological and anti-inflammatory properties of the HO/CO pathway in the central nervous system. It also discusses the effects of CORMs in preclinical models of inflammation. The accumulating data discussed herein support the possibility that CORMs may represent a novel class of drugs with disease-modifying properties in multiple sclerosis. PMID:22235993

  15. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  16. Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July-August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, R.C.; Bartlett, K.B.; Talbot, R.W.; Sachse, G.W.; Collins, J.E. Jr.; Browell, E.V.; Hill, G.F.; Wade, L.; Barrie, L.A.; Burney, L.G.

    1994-01-20

    This article describes the results of a 1990 study of the concentrations of tropospheric methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere above central and eastern Canada. Gas concentrations were measured in the 0.15 to 6 kilometer range of the troposphere using a tunable diode laser instrument. Variable concentrations of both methane and carbon monoxide were documented at altitudes of 0.15 to 6 kilometers over relatively pristine areas. The variability of gas concentration is explained by meteorological factors and local emission sources. The sources are thought to include uncontrolled wildfires, American industrial and urban emissions, retreat of the polar fronts, and emissions from wetland sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  18. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOEpatents

    Kustes, William A.; Hausberger, Arthur L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  19. Calculating carbon monoxide emissions from vehicle traffic in Phoenix

    SciTech Connect

    Dudik, M.C.; Ireson, R.G. )

    1988-01-01

    Ambient carbon monoxide concentrations in the Phoenix area have exceeded the standard of 9 ppm for an 8-hour average. Like many urban areas in the United States, Phoenix did not meet the December 31, 1987 deadline for attainment of the carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) as mandated in the Clean Air Act. Elevated CO emissions are primarily produced by vehicles. To aid in preparing workable solutions to CO problems, Phoenix, as well as Denver, have recently applied more advanced air quality modeling techniques, such as the urban airshed model, to assist in evaluating alternative control strategies to reduce CO emissions. This paper describes the logic of the TRFCONV program as well as the adjustments to the spatial and temporal inputs to the traffic forecasting model that were needed to accurately characterize the CO emissions inventory for alternative control scenarios in Phoenix.

  20. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  1. Exergy parametric study of carbon monoxide oxidation in moist air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souidi, Ferhat; Benmalek, Toufik; Yesaad, Billel; Baik, Mouloud

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide in moist air from the second thermodynamic law aspect. A mathematical model of laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow has been achieved by numerical solution of the boundary layer equation using a self-made code. The chemical kinetic mechanism for flameless combustion of fuel, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water vapor, is modeled by 34 elementary reactions that incorporate (09) nine chemical species: CO, O, CO2, O2, H2O, H, H2, HO2, and OH. The salient point is that for all the parameters we considered, the exergy of the process is completely destroyed by irreversibilities. From the chemical viewpoint, the OH radical plays an essential role in CO oxidation. This latter point has already been mentioned by previous investigators.

  2. Diffusing capacity and anatomic dead space for carbon-18 monoxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.; Mazzone, R. W.; West, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is difficult to measure with a respiratory mass spectrometer because of the similar mass numbers of CO and nitrogen, but this is possible using carbon-18 monoxide. The mass resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, linearity, and background were all found to be adequate. The measurement of the single-breath diffusing capacity was examined. Unless the mean alveolar volume during breath holding is used in the calculation, the value for Dco obtained depends on which portion of the alveolar sample is analyzed. The anatomic dead space for CO was found to be almost the same as that for argon suggesting that the diffusion rate at the dead space-alveolar gas interface was not greatly affected by the alveolar concentration of the gas.

  3. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  4. The oxidation of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline rhodium under knudsen conditions. II. Reaction with nitrogen monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, Hans-Gnther; Weisker, Tilman

    1985-09-01

    The reaction between carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide on a polycrystalline rhodium ribbon under stationary conditions is followed by mass spectrometry. In the temperature range 300 to 1100 K the ratio of the partial pressures of the reactants varies between 0.1 < pNO/ pCO < 100 at values of the total pressure in the reactor from 10 -4 to 10 -5 Torr. The results can be interpreted qualitatively by a simple elementary reaction sequence. Simulation using literature values of the kinetic constants leads to semi-quantitative agreement with experimental results. No isothermal oscillations of the reaction rate could be observed under the stated conditions.

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning--Weld County, Colorado, 1993.

    PubMed

    1994-10-28

    In March 1993, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) was notified that six family members residing in a home in Weld County had suffered carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning; five of the persons died. An investigation indicated that the source of CO had been a van parked in the garage of the home; the van had been left running, and the exhaust fumes leaked into the home. This report summarizes the investigation of this incident. PMID:7935310

  6. Prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide: learning and memory deficits. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mactutus, C.F.; Fechter, L.D.

    1984-01-27

    Exposing pregnant rats to carbon monoxide (150 parts per million) produced only minor reductions in the birth weights of the pups and gave no evidence of overt teratogenesis. However, behavioral evaluation of learning and memory processes in a two-way avoidance task suggested a functional deficit in the central nervous system of the exposed offspring. Multiple dependent measures and specific control groups confirmed that this deficit was independent of nonassociative or motivational alterations.

  7. [Evaluation of carbon monoxide cardiotoxicity in group poisonings].

    PubMed

    Pach, J; Pach, D; Hubalewska-Hoła, A; Kroch, S; Targosz, D

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the usefulness of rest 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scintigraphy to evaluate carbon monoxide cardiotoxicity in acute group poisonings. There were 7 study patients (5 men and 2 women) aged from 14 to 35 years treated at the Department of Clinical Toxicology intoxicated with CO at three different sites: three persons were intoxicated at one, two persons at the second and the next two persons at another site of exposure. As derived from interview the circumstances, source and duration of exposure were similar within the separate group. This enables a comparison of clinical course of carbon monoxide poisoning, particularly the circulatory system of people who were simultaneously exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide. Measurement of COHb, blood lactate level, duration of exposure and ECG examination were performed on admission to the Clinic. The enzymes activity (ALT, AST, CPK) were evaluated after 24 hours. The rest 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scintigraphy was performed in all patients two to five days after intoxication. The changes in myocardial scans were graded according to the arbitrarily accepted point scale. Considering the results of ECG and enzymes activity only, no objective were found to diagnose the cardiac dysfunction. However the perfusion scintigraphy scans indicated regions of myocardium that have decreased blood flow in all the study patients. PMID:10224861

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of photodissociation of carbon monoxide from hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, E.R.; Levitt, M.; Eaton, W.A.

    1985-04-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of the photodissociation of carbon monoxide from the alpha subunit of hemoglobin is described. To initiate photodissociation, trajectories of the liganded molecule were interrupted, the iron-carbon monoxide bond was broken, and the parameters of the iron-nitrogen bonds were simultaneously altered to produce a deoxyheme conformation. Heme potential functions were used that reproduce the energies and forces for the iron out-of-plane motion obtained from quantum mechanical calculations. The effect of the protein on the rate and extent of the displacement of the iron from the porphyrin plane was assessed by comparing the results with those obtained for an isolated complex of heme with imidazole and carbon monoxide. The half-time for the displacement of the iron from the porphyrin plane was found to be 50-150 fs for both the protein and the isolated complex. These results support the interpretation of optical absorption studies using 250-fs laser pulses that the iron is displaced from the porphyrin plane within 350 fs in both hemoglobin and a free heme complex in solution.

  9. [Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed. PMID:24860052

  10. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, L.D.

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  12. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  13. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrationscarbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  14. 78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon.... SUMMARY: The EPA is proposing to approve a carbon monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan for the Fairbanks Area... demonstrates that the Fairbanks Area will maintain the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrationscarbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrationscarbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrationscarbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrationscarbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  19. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jing; Kortlever, Ruud; Kas, Recep; Birdja, Yuvraj Y.; Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Kwon, Youngkook; Ledezma-Yanez, Isis; Schouten, Klaas Jan P.; Mul, Guido; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2015-09-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low overpotential (0.5 V), with an efficiency and selectivity comparable to the best porphyrin-based electrocatalyst in the literature. While carbon monoxide is the main reduction product, we also observe methane as by-product. The results of our detailed pH-dependent studies are explained consistently by a mechanism in which carbon dioxide is activated by the cobalt protoporphyrin through the stabilization of a radical intermediate, which acts as Brønsted base. The basic character of this intermediate explains how the carbon dioxide reduction circumvents a concerted proton-electron transfer mechanism, in contrast to hydrogen evolution. Our results and their mechanistic interpretations suggest strategies for designing improved catalysts.

  20. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Kortlever, Ruud; Kas, Recep; Birdja, Yuvraj Y; Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Kwon, Youngkook; Ledezma-Yanez, Isis; Schouten, Klaas Jan P; Mul, Guido; Koper, Marc T M

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low overpotential (0.5?V), with an efficiency and selectivity comparable to the best porphyrin-based electrocatalyst in the literature. While carbon monoxide is the main reduction product, we also observe methane as by-product. The results of our detailed pH-dependent studies are explained consistently by a mechanism in which carbon dioxide is activated by the cobalt protoporphyrin through the stabilization of a radical intermediate, which acts as Brnsted base. The basic character of this intermediate explains how the carbon dioxide reduction circumvents a concerted proton-electron transfer mechanism, in contrast to hydrogen evolution. Our results and their mechanistic interpretations suggest strategies for designing improved catalysts. PMID:26324108

  1. FORMATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE FROM THE PHOTODEGRADATION OF TERRESTRIAL DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON IN NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photochemical formation of carbon monoxide (CO) in water samples obtained from wetlands, lakes, and near-coastal/shelf areas and in aqueous solutions of soil organic matter was investigated. ll of these samples contained dissolved organic matter that was largely derived from ...

  2. Carbon monoxide absorption through the oral and nasal mucosae of cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfisch, W.H.; Hoop, K.A.

    1980-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood levels of carbon monoxide increase during cigarette smoking. It has genrally been assumed that increases in blood levels of carbon monoxide could be interpreted as evidence that deep lung penetration of cigarette smoke had occurred. This study was designed to examine whether increased blood levels of carbon monoxide could result from absorption in the nasal and oral cavitites. The nasal and oral cavities of cynomolgus monkeys were exposed, independently of the lungs, to cigarette smoke under rigorous smoking conditions. Pre- and post-exposure blood levels of carbon monoxide were measured. As a positive control, similar volumes of cigarette smoke were passed directly into the lungs, thus bypassing the oral and nasal cavities, and blood levels of carbon monoxide were again measured. The results inidcate that absorption of carbon monoxide in the oral and nasal cavities is negligible under the heavy smoking regimen employed here, and hence, would be negligible under normal smoking conditions.

  3. Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

  4. Gas geyser--a cause of fatal domestic carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, T S; Kanchan, Tanuj; Pinakini, K S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Singh, Manisha; Sirohi, Parmendra; Anwar, Naureen

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide is responsible for a large number of accidental domestic poisoning and deaths throughout the world. Domestic carbon monoxide poisoning is rarely reported in India and remains an under recognized problem. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is usually based on autopsy findings, circumstantial evidence and estimation of carboxy-haemoglobin in blood. We report a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a bathroom where an LPG gas water heater was installed recently. Cherry pink discolouration of the body and organs on autopsy suggested carbon monoxide poisoning. Laboratory analysis of blood by UV visible spectrophotometry revealed presence of dangerous levels of carboxy-haemoglobin. Effective preventive measures can help in bringing down the mortality and morbidity associated with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23084315

  5. Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow, we will relate observed CO fluxes to concurrently measured CO2, CH4 and N2O exchange rates in terms of CO2-equivalents and - where applicable - carbon.

  6. Deaths caused by carbon monoxide poisoning in an open environment (outdoors).

    PubMed

    DiMaio, V J; Dana, S E

    1987-11-01

    Three deaths as a result of inhalation of carbon monoxide from the exhaust fumes of automobiles are reported. All deaths occurred outside and not in a structure. The individuals were white males, ages 24 to 26 years. Blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations ranged from 58 (in a decomposing body) to 81%. The three cases illustrate the fact that even in the outdoors death from carbon monoxide inhalation can occur if an individual is in close proximity to a rich source of carbon monoxide. PMID:2448415

  7. Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, J.J. )

    1989-07-01

    At higher altitudes, ambient carbon monoxide levels are increasing with the number of residents and tourists and their use of motor vehicles and heating devices (such as fireplaces, furnaces, and stoves). Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide or high altitude causes pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as in animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Data from acute studies and theoretical considerations suggest that carbon monoxide inhaled at altitude may be more detrimental than carbon monoxide inhaled at sea level. It is not known, however, if the cardiovascular system adapts or deteriorates with continuous, concurrent exposure to carbon monoxide and high altitude. Male laboratory rats were exposed for six weeks in steel barometric chambers to altitudes ranging from 3,300 ft (ambient) to 18,000 ft and to concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 parts per million (ppm)2. Carbon monoxide had no effect on body weight at any altitude. There was a tendency for hematocrit to increase even at the lowest concentration of carbon monoxide (9 ppm), but the increase did not become significant until 100 ppm. At 10,000 ft, there was a tendency for total heart weight to increase in rats inhaling 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Although its effects on the heart at altitude are complex, carbon monoxide, in concentrations of 500 ppm or less, had little effect on the right ventricle; it did not exacerbate any effects due to altitude. There was a tendency for the left ventricle weight to increase with exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide at altitude, but the increase was not significant until 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance were unaffected by exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide or 10,000-ft altitude singly or in combination.

  8. Deaths caused by carbon monoxide poisoning in an open environment (outdoors)

    SciTech Connect

    DiMaio, V.J.; Dana, S.E.

    1987-11-01

    Three deaths as a result of inhalation of carbon monoxide from the exhaust fumes of automobiles are reported. All deaths occurred outside and not in a structure. The individuals were white males, ages 24 to 26 years. Blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations ranged from 58 (in a decomposing body) to 81%. The three cases illustrate the fact that even in the outdoors death from carbon monoxide inhalation can occur if an individual is in close proximity to a rich source of carbon monoxide.

  9. [Acute coronary syndrome with impaired left ventricular function in a carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Capilla, E; Pons, F; Poyet, R; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Louge, P; Cellarier, G-R

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Neuropsychological symptoms are most common. We report on a patient with acute coronary syndrome and transient left ventricular dysfunction in carbon monoxide poisoning. Patient improved under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Coronary angiography shows no significant lesion leading to myocardial stunning diagnose. Patients exposed to carbon monoxide must have systematic cardiac evaluation with electrocardiogram and dosage of biomarkers. PMID:25261170

  10. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Linne, Diane L.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquid. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  11. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  12. Ambient carbon monoxide and the risk of hospitalization due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Wang, Tong; Qiu, Hong; Pun, Vivian C; Chan, Chi Sing; Louie, Peter K K; Yu, Ignatius T S

    2014-12-15

    Data from recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that lower concentrations of inhaled carbon monoxide might have beneficial antiinflammatory effects. Inhaled carbon monoxide has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). However, population-based epidemiologic studies of environmentally relevant carbon monoxide exposure have generated mixed findings. We conducted a time-series study in Hong Kong to estimate the association of short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide with emergency hospitalizations for COPD. We collected daily emergency hospital admission data and air pollution data from January 2001 to December 2007. We used log-linear Poisson models to estimate the associations between daily hospital admissions for COPD and the average daily concentrations of carbon monoxide while controlling for the traffic-related co-pollutants nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m. Results showed that ambient carbon monoxide was negatively associated with the risk of hospitalizations for COPD. After adjustment for levels nitrogen dioxide or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m, the negative associations of carbon monoxide with COPD hospitalizations became stronger. The risk estimates were similar for female and male subjects. In conclusion, short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization for COPD, which suggests that carbon monoxide exposure provides some acute protection of against exacerbation of COPD. PMID:25480818

  13. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. ); Tans, P.P. )

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise.

    PubMed Central

    Balzan, M. V.; Agius, G.; Galea Debono, A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the patient, and other members of the household who could subsequently become intoxicated. Guidance on the correct diagnosis of this condition is provided in the light of a number of studies screening emergency room populations. Guidelines for treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy are also reviewed. PMID:8796209

  15. Carbon monoxide-induced dynamic metal-surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Carenco, Sophie

    2014-08-18

    Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous molecule in surface science, materials chemistry, catalysis and nanotechnology. Its interaction with a number of metal surfaces is at the heart of major processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or fuel-cell optimization. Recent works, coupling structural and nanoscale in situ analytic tools have highlighted the ability of metal surfaces and nanoparticles to undergo restructuring after exposure to CO under fairly mild conditions, generating nanostructures. This Minireview proposes a brief overview of recent examples of such nanostructuring, which leads to a discussion about the driving force in reversible and non-reversible situations. PMID:25044189

  16. Carbon Monoxide in the Cassiopeia a Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Reach, W. T.; Gomez, H.; Andersen, M.

    2009-03-01

    We report the likely detection of near-infrared 2.29 μm first overtone carbon monoxide (CO) emission from the young supernova (SN) remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A). The continuum-subtracted CO filter map reveals CO knots within the ejecta-rich reverse shock. We compare the first overtone CO emission with that found in the well studied supernova SN 1987A and find ~30 times less CO in Cas A. The presence of CO suggests that molecule mixing is small in the SN ejecta and that astrochemical processes and molecule formation may continue at least ~300 yr after the initial explosion.

  17. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sousa, Diana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved. PMID:26635746

  18. Laser detoxication of acute poisonings with carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provorov, Alexander S.; Salmin, Vladimir V.; Stavitskaya, Ekaterina Y.; Egorova, Alla B.

    2002-05-01

    A series of model experiments have been carried out. Those experiments have proved the fact of laser-induced photo dissociation of HbCO using Nd:YAG-laser with wavelength 533 nm at different conditions. Spontaneous reassociation of ligand to hemoproteid has been observed during the interpulse period. In order to prevent the reversibility of the reaction some oxidizing substances as well as trap-like functioning agents have been tested. The preliminary results allow us to propose the application of nonreversible laser- induced HbCO photodissotiation in the capacity of new physical method to treat acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  19. Comparison between carbon monoxide measurements from spaceborne and airborne platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, V. S.; Cahoon, D. R.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Scheel, H. E.

    1991-01-01

    The measurements of air pollution from satellites (MAPS) experiment measured the distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from the Space Shuttle during October 1984. A critical area of the experiment is the assessment of experimental error of the MAPS data. This error is determined by the comparison between the space-based CO data and concurrent, direct CO measurements taken aboard aircraft. Because of the variability in the CO measurements near land sources, a strategy for comparing the tropospheric CO measurements over the remote oceans is presented.

  20. Carbon Monoxide and Soot Formation in Inverse Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, L. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study carbon monoxide (CO) and soot formation in laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs). The IDF is used because it is a special case of underventilated combustion. The microgravity environment is crucial for this study because buoyancy-induced instabilities impede systematic variation of IDF operating conditions in normal gravity. The project described in this paper is just beginning, and no results are available. Hence, the goals of this paper are to establish the motivation for the research, to review the IDF literature, and to briefly introduce the experimental and computational plan for the research.

  1. Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, A. Khler, A.; Grenz, J.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2014-07-07

    Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

  2. Compact carbon monoxide sensor utilizing a confocal optical cavity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, B.; Magyar, J.; Weyant, R.; Hall, J.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon monoxide sensor discussed in this paper utilizes a unique confocal cavity which allows the complete system to be packaged in a small volume suitable for hand-held use. The optical system is the heart of the instrument with equal emphasis placed on the electronics support circuitry, consisting essentially of a thermal infrared pyroelectric detector and lock-in amplifier. The pyroelectric detector offers a major advantage over other thermal detectors, providing a signal-to-noise ratio and detectivity that remain nearly constant over the frequency range from dc to 2000 Hz. Since bias voltage is not required, low frequency noise is not generated in the detector.

  3. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site.

    PubMed

    Buss, Joshua A; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for converting carbon monoxide to chemical fuels, and should prove useful in the broader context of performing complex multi-electron transformations at a single metal site. PMID:26689364

  4. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Hot Spot Guidelines mobile model. Software

    SciTech Connect

    Schewe, G.; Sieurin, E.

    1980-01-01

    A modified version of the ISMAP model has been developed for the analysis of carbon monoxide hot spot locations. The original version of ISMAP (Indirect Source Model for Air Pollution) was developed by Stanford Research Institute to be used in the evaluation of indirect source impact upon ambient carbon monoxide concentrations. Due to the size and complexity of the original version of the model, the modifications were made without changing the basic structure of the program. Since the analysis of parking lot traffic and emissions was an integral part of the original model structure, it was left in the modified version, but the code was modified to negate their effect upon traffic flow and air quality. In the modified ISMAP, internal zones traffic network. This modified version of the model sets parking lot emissions equal to zero and provides a near infinite parking lot capacity so that vehicle routing between internal zones will not occur because of parking lot overcrowding. Other modifications made to ISMAP include the incorporation of a street canyon submodel. Version 2 of modified ISMAP utilized the most recent (1978) motor vehicle emission correction factors and modal analysis model coefficients and deterioration. In other aspects, it is unchanged from Version 1.

  6. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  7. Portable device for monitoring consistency of carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qingyu; Liang, Fuping; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xiaofei

    2002-06-01

    The necessity to nondestructively monitor concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), which is a colorless, tasteless and poisonous gas and is harmful to people, is disclosed. The portable device for monitoring concentration of CO plays an important role in health care and environment supervising for civil and industrial purposes. A basic circuit-based principle for the implementation of the device is presented with a detailed analysis for the key issues in designing. Specifically, the designing for the preamplifier is of great importance to the performance of the device. There is also introduced a method for getting standard voltage value from the micro-ampere current signal outputted from a carbon monoxide sensor and for restraining other gases to exert influence on the CO monitoring. Meanwhile, the paper teaches an anti-jamming technique for eliminating interference between analog and digital circuits within a very small system. In said device, a multi-function alarm circuit, which periodically performing its self-checking function, produces alarm with sound and light if the power of a battery is insufficient or the concentration of CO is detected to be over a set threshold. In addition, the major characteristics and applications for the device are also presented.

  8. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comets at large heliocentric distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1992-01-01

    Using a simple model for outgassing from a small flat surface area, the sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two species more volatile than water ice that are known to be present in comets, are calculated for a suddenly activated discrete source on the rotating nucleus. The instantaneous sublimation rate depends upon the comet's heliocentric distance and the Sun's zenith angle at the location of the source. The values are derived for the constants of CO and CO2 in an expression that yields the local rotation-averaged sublimation rate as a function of the comet's spin parameters and the source's cometocentric latitude.

  9. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfani, F.; Greco, G., Jr.; Iroio, G.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

  10. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Alfani, F.; Greco, G. Jr.; Iroio, G.

    1982-07-01

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

  11. [Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning in an automobile with the engine switched off].

    PubMed

    Schneider, V; Bschor, F

    1986-01-01

    Report is made on a suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning through entrance of exhaust fumes into the interior of the vehicle. The situation of discovery (switched-off engine) occasioned experimental examinations. The result showed that fatal carbon monoxide concentrations can obviously remain in the interior of a vehicle over a long period of time. PMID:3718150

  12. METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) LEVELS IN ALASKAN CITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    High winter carbon monoxide levels in Anchorage, as in Fairbanks, are due to intense nocturnal (ground-based) inversions persisting through the periods of maximum emissions and at times throughout the day. The problem is exacerbated by the large amounts of carbon monoxide emitted...

  13. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  14. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone....

  15. A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

  16. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates.

    PubMed

    Newton, Mark A; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction-oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated. PMID:26489669

  17. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Mark A.; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction-oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated.

  18. Unusual presentation of death due to carbon monoxide poisoning. A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ruszkiewicz, A; de Boer, B; Robertson, S

    1997-06-01

    Two cases are reported representing opposite ends of the spectrum of death as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning from car exhaust fumes. In one case, a women was reported to be found dead in bed early in the morning by her husband. The cause of her death, established by autopsy, was carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicology examination indicated a car engine as the possible source of carbon monoxide. The mode of administration was never established. In the second case, a women was found in a car located in her garage with a hose leading from the exhaust pipe to the interior of the sealed vehicle. Autopsy revealed negligible carboxyhemoglobin saturation of the blood, bilateral infarction of the globus pallidus, and extensive bronchopneumonia. It was concluded that inhalation of carbon monoxide resulted in sublethal hypoxia with subsequent exhalation of carbon monoxide and a delayed death. PMID:9185938

  19. Minimal risk of carbon monoxide exposure with oil heat: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Batey, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas that can be produced by all heating equipment used in homes that burn natural gas, propane, fueloil, wood, coal or other home heating fuels. Carbon monoxide is extremely hazardous even in very small concentrations and can produce injury or death when it reaches only a fraction of one percent in the air. The recent reports of injury and death by exposure to carbon monoxide have alerted homeowners to the serious nature of exposure to this gaseous byproduct of fuel burning. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set 9 parts per million carbon monoxide are shown as its concentration in air increases. CO replaces the oxygen in blood and causes hypoxia (lack of oxygen) which can damage the body`s circulatory and central nervous systems leading to injury or death depending on the time of exposure and CO concentration.

  20. Iron Catalyst Chemistry in High Pressure Carbon Monoxide Nanotube Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is analyzed using a chemical reaction model coupled with properties calculated along streamlines. Streamline properties for mixing jets are calculated by the FLUENT code using the k-e turbulent model for pure carbon monixide. The HiPco process introduces cold iron pentacarbonyl diluted in CO, or alternatively nitrogen, at high pressure, ca. 30 atmospheres into a conical mixing zone. Hot CO is also introduced via three jets at angles with respect to the axis of the reactor. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Cluster reaction rates are from Krestinin, et aI., based on shock tube measurements. Another model is from classical cluster theory given by Girshick's team. The calculations are performed on streamlines that assume that a cold mixture of Fe(CO)5 in CO is introduced along the reactor axis. Then iron forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs from the Boudouard reaction on Fe-containing clusters by reaction with CO. To simulate the chemical process along streamlines that were calculated by the fluid dynamics code FLUENT, a time history of temperature and dilution are determined along streamlines. Alternative catalyst injection schemes are also evaluated.

  1. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY); Yang, Chang-lee (Spring Valley, NY)

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  2. Carbon monoxide-related deaths from 1984 to 1993 in Vienna, Austria.

    PubMed

    Risser, D; Schneider, B

    1995-05-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs frequently in industrialized countries. Between 1970 and 1978 in Vienna, the capital of Austria, carbon-monoxide-rich coal gas was replaced with natural gas. Despite this fact, people still die of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. The main purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths, and further to describe the epidemiology of these fetal poisonings in Vienna between 1984 and 1993. A secondary purpose was to investigate whether intentional carbon monoxide poisoning still plays a role among suicides as was the case up to the 1970s. For this purpose we analyzed carbon monoxide-related deaths in Vienna from 1984 to 1993, based on actual autopsy reports of postmortems performed at the Viennese Institute of Forensic Medicine. Deaths due to fire were excluded. The main reason for unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in Vienna between 1984 and 1993 was flueless gas-fueled water heating appliances, overused especially by old people during the cold period of the year. The frequency of unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in 1993 was almost as high as in 1984. A total of 53% of deceased persons were over age 60. Most fatal carbon monoxide poisoning occurred during the cold period of the year. Suicides decreased significantly during the investigation period. In 76% of these deaths car exhaust fumes were inhaled, especially by men. In conclusion, we recommend programs to prevent unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths. These programs should especially target the elderly. Flueless gas boilers should not be overused. Furthermore, apartments should be aired sufficiently, even during the cold period of the year.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7782741

  3. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias. Research report, August 1987-July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.

    1992-09-01

    The authors studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. Subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study; the carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. Total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were measured for four specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide exposure; (3) six hours after carbon monoxide exposure; and (4) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity. During steady-state conditions at rest, the number of ventricular ectopic beats per hour was 115 + or - 153 (SD) for room air exposure (0.7% carboxyhemoglobin), 121 + or - 171 for the lower carbon monoxide exposure (3.2% carboxyhemoglobin), and 94 + or - 129 for the higher carbon monoxide exposure (5.1% carboxyhemoglobin). The frequency of complex ventricular ectopy was not altered at the levels of carbon monoxide studied. Secondary analysis of the impact of carbon monoxide on ventricular ectopic beat frequency stratified by baseline ejection fraction, baseline ventricular ectopic beat frequency, and exercise-induced ST-segment changes did not indicate an effect of carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias. However, patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and symptomatic myocardial ischemia were excluded from the present study.

  4. Anion-Receptor Mediated Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide to Carbonate by Peroxide Dianion.

    PubMed

    Nava, Matthew; Lopez, Nazario; Mller, Peter; Wu, Gang; Nocera, Daniel G; Cummins, Christopher C

    2015-11-25

    The reactivity of peroxide dianion O2(2-) has been scarcely explored in organic media due to the lack of soluble sources of this reduced oxygen species. We now report the finding that the encapsulated peroxide cryptate, [O2?mBDCA-5t-H6](2-) (1), reacts with carbon monoxide in organic solvents at 40 C to cleanly form an encapsulated carbonate. Characterization of the resulting hexacarboxamide carbonate cryptate by single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that carbonate dianion forms nine complementary hydrogen bonds with the hexacarboxamide cryptand, [CO3?mBDCA-5t-H6](2-) (2), a conclusion that is supported by spectroscopic data. Labeling studies and (17)O solid-state NMR data confirm that two-thirds of the oxygen atoms in the encapsulated carbonate derive from peroxide dianion, while the carbon is derived from CO. Further evidence for the formation of a carbonate cryptate was obtained by three methods of independent synthesis: treatment of (i) free cryptand with K2CO3; (ii) monodeprotonated cryptand with PPN[HCO3]; and (iii) free cryptand with TBA[OH] and atmospheric CO2. This work demonstrates CO oxidation mediated by a hydrogen-bonding anion receptor, constituting an alternative to transition-metal catalysis. PMID:26465825

  5. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer–Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon–oxygen bonds and generate carbon–carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl–diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon–oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon–carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl–diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for converting carbon monoxide to chemical fuels, and should prove useful in the broader context of performing complex multi-electron transformations at a single metal site.

  6. A review on engineering of cellulosic cigarette paper to reduce carbon monoxide delivery of cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Li, Jinsong; Qian, Xueren; Ren, Wanshan; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-01-30

    In cigarette production, the cellulosic paper essentially derived from flax fibers or other fiber materials is used as the wrapping material. During smoking of cigarettes, the highly toxic carbon monoxide is produced. To decrease the amount of carbon monoxide emission in the mainstream smoke, the engineering of all cigarette components including cellulosic cigarette paper and tobacco column is critical. This review summarizes the concepts related to engineering of cigarette paper. These mainly include permeability control, increased use of burn additives, optimization of fiber basis weight, engineering of calcium carbonate fillers, and incorporation of catalysts/oxidants. In particular, catalytic and/or oxidative conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide has been very widely reported. The control of permeability/diffusivity of cigarette paper is also of critical importance for enhanced diffusion of carbon monoxide out of the cigarette. The development of new concepts and combination of various concepts may lead to breakthroughs in this area. PMID:24299837

  7. Implications of model bias in carbon monoxide for methane lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strode, S. A.; Duncan, B. N.; Yegorova, E. A.; Kouatchou, J.; Ziemke, J. R.; Douglass, A. R.

    2015-07-01

    A low bias in carbon monoxide (CO) at high northern latitudes is a common feature of chemistry climate models (CCMs) that may indicate or contribute to a high bias in simulated OH and corresponding low bias in methane lifetime. We use simulations with CO tagged by source type to investigate the sensitivity of the CO bias to CO emissions, global mean OH, and the hemispheric asymmetry of OH. Our results show that reducing the hemispheric asymmetry of OH improves the agreement of simulated CO with observations. We use simulations with parameterized OH to quantify the impact of known model biases on simulated OH. Removing biases in ozone and water vapor as well as reducing Northern Hemisphere NOx does not remove the hemispheric asymmetry in OH, but brings the simulated methyl chloroform lifetime into agreement with observation-based estimates.

  8. Size-dependent dissociation of carbon monoxide on cobalt nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tuxen, Anders; Carenco, Sophie; Chintapalli, Mahati; Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Escudero, Carlos; Pach, Elzbieta; Jiang, Peng; Borondics, Ferenc; Beberwyck, Brandon; Alivisatos, A Paul; Thornton, Geoff; Pong, Way-Faung; Guo, Jinghua; Perez, Ruben; Besenbacher, Flemming; Salmeron, Miquel

    2013-02-13

    In situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was employed to study the adsorption and dissociation of carbon monoxide molecules on cobalt nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 4 to 15 nm. The majority of CO molecules adsorb molecularly on the surface of the nanoparticles, but some undergo dissociative adsorption, leading to oxide species on the surface of the nanoparticles. We found that the tendency of CO to undergo dissociation depends critically on the size of the Co nanoparticles. Indeed, CO molecules dissociate much more efficiently on the larger nanoparticles (15 nm) than on the smaller particles (4 nm). We further observed a strong increase in the dissociation rate of adsorbed CO upon exposure to hydrogen, clearly demonstrating that the CO dissociation on cobalt nanoparticles is assisted by hydrogen. Our results suggest that the ability of cobalt nanoparticles to dissociate hydrogen is the main parameter determining the reactivity of cobalt nanoparticles in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. PMID:23339635

  9. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning alters hemorheological parameters in human.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Baris; Arihan, Okan; Coskun, Figen; Dikmenoglu-Falkmarken, Neslihan H

    2016-01-14

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning seriously hinders oxygen delivery to tissues. This harmful effect of CO may be aggravated by accompanying changes in the viscosity of blood. We had previously reported increased plasma viscosity in people chronically exposed to CO. This study was planned to test our hypothesis that acute CO poisoning increases blood viscosity. For this purpose four main parameters contributing to blood viscosity - hematocrit, erythrocyte deformability, erythrocyte aggregation and plasma viscosity - were determined in patients with acute CO poisoning and compared with healthy controls. Plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation tendency were lower in the CO group (p?< ?0.05). Erythrocyte deformability was also lower in CO group (p?< ?0.05). Our results indicate that acute CO poisoning has diverse effects on hemorheological parameters such as attenuating hematocrit value, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and erythrocyte deformability. PMID:25536918

  10. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Por, Elaine D.; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery) via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed. PMID:22928087

  11. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  12. Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

    2015-04-01

    Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 0.003 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

  13. Carbon monoxide – physiology, detection and controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on recent developments in the area of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) and materials for controlled CO application. Novel triggers for CO release, metal carbonyls and degradation mechanisms of CORMs, are highlighted. In addition, potential formulations of CORMs for targeted CO release are discussed. PMID:24556640

  14. Carbon monoxide mixing ratio inference from gas filter radiometer data.

    PubMed

    Wallio, H A; Casas, J C; Gormsen, B B; Reichle, H G; Saylor, M S

    1983-03-01

    A new algorithm has been developed which permits, for the first time, real-time data reduction of nadir measurements taken with a gas-filter correlation radiometer to determine tropospheric carbon-monoxide concentrations. The algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of the equations to be solved while providing accuracy comparable to line-by-line calculations. The method is based on a regression analysis technique using a truncated power series representation of the primary instrument output signals to infer directly a weighted average of trace gas concentration. The results produced by a microcomputer-based implementation of this technique are compared with those produced by the more rigorous line-by-line methods. This algorithm has been used in the reduction of MAPS Shuttle and aircraft data. PMID:18195866

  15. Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation.

    PubMed

    Zelnick, Sanford D; Lischak, Michael W; Young, David G; Massa, Thomas V

    2002-08-01

    Carbon monoxide exposure is an important public health issue that poses a significant, albeit uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cockpits may improve secondary prevention. Modern studies should be performed of occupation-specific abilities to support the 50 ppm FAA CO exposure standard and 50-70 ppm FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) for CO monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into their cockpits. PMID:12182223

  16. The Distribution of Carbon Monoxide in the GOCART Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Xiaobiao; Chin, Mian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important trace gas because it is a significant source of tropospheric Ozone (O3) as well as a major sink for atmospheric hydroxyl radical (OH). The distribution of CO is set by a balance between the emissions, transport, and chemical processes in the atmosphere. The Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the atmospheric distribution of CO. The GOCART model is driven by the assimilated meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) in an off-line mode. We study the distribution of CO on three time scales: (1) day to day fluctuation produced by the synoptic waves; (2) seasonal changes due to the annual cycle of CO sources and sinks; and (3) interannual variability induced by dynamics. Comparison of model results with ground based and remote sensing measurements will also be presented.

  17. Detection of the J = 6. -->. 5 transition of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, P.F.; Erickson, N.R.; Fetterman, H.R.; Clifton, B.J.; Peck, D.D.; Tannenwald, P.E.; Koepf, G.A.; Buhl, D.; McAvoy, N.

    1981-01-15

    The J = 6..-->..5 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected in emission from the KL ''plateau source'' in the Orion molecular cloud. The corrected peak antenna temperature is 100 K, and the FWHM line width is 26 km s/sup -1/. These observations were carried out using the 3 m telescope of the NASA IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and constitute the first astronomical data obtained at submillimeter wavelengths with a heterodyne system using a laser local oscillator. Our data support the idea that the high-velocity dispersion CO in Orion is optically thin and set a lower limit to its temperature of approx.180 K.

  18. Carbon monoxide measurement in the global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The carbon monoxide measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available infrared absorption analyzer. The modifications increased the sensitivity of the analyzer to 1 ppmv full scale, with a limit of detectability of 0.02 ppmv. Packaging was modified for automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. The GASP system is described along with analyzer operation, calibration procedures, and measurement errors. Uncertainty of the CO measurement over a 2-year period ranged from + or - 3 to + or - 13 percent of reading, plus an error due to random fluctuation of the output signal + or - 3 to + or - 15 ppbv.

  19. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning in narghile (water pipe) tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    La Fauci, Giovanna; Weiser, Giora; Steiner, Ivan P; Shavit, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Narghile (water pipe, hookah, shisha, goza, hubble bubble, argeela) is a traditional method of tobacco use. In recent years, its use has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We present an acutely confused adolescent patient who had CO poisoning after narghile tobacco smoking. She presented with syncope and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 24% and was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Five additional cases of CO poisoning after narghile smoking were identified during a literature search, with carboxyhemoglobin levels of 20 to 30%. Each patient was treated with oxygen supplementation and did well clinically. In light of the increasing popularity of narghile smoking, young patients presenting with unexplained confusion or nonspecific neurologic symptoms should be asked specifically about this exposure, followed by carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:22417961

  1. Carbon monoxide mixing ratio inference from gas filter radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallio, H. A.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Casas, J. C.; Saylor, M. S.; Gormsen, B. B.

    1983-01-01

    A new algorithm has been developed which permits, for the first time, real time data reduction of nadir measurements taken with a gas filter correlation radiometer to determine tropospheric carbon monoxide concentrations. The algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of the equations to be solved while providing accuracy comparable to line-by-line calculations. The method is based on a regression analysis technique using a truncated power series representation of the primary instrument output signals to infer directly a weighted average of trace gas concentration. The results produced by a microcomputer-based implementation of this technique are compared with those produced by the more rigorous line-by-line methods. This algorithm has been used in the reduction of Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites, Shuttle, and aircraft data.

  2. The oxidation of carbon monoxide using a tin oxide catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Christopher F.; Gudde, Nicholas J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the steps involved in the development by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) of a catalytic device for the recombination of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a CO2 laser system. It contrasts the differences between CO oxidation for air purification and for laser environmental control, but indicates that there are similarities between the physical specifications. The principal features of catalytic devices are outlined and some experimental work described. This includes measurements concerning the structure and mechanical properties of the artifact, the preparation of the catalyst coating and its interaction with the gaseous environment. The paper concludes with some speculation about the method by which the reaction actually occurs.

  3. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  4. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  5. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  8. Exhaled nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Antus, Balzs; Horvth, Ildik

    2007-12-01

    Breath tests have gained increasing interest in recent years mainly driven by the unmet clinical need to monitor airway diseases and to obtain information on unravelled aspects of respiratory disorders. A prototype of such measurement reaching clinical significance besides its use as a research tool is the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO). It took hardly more than a decade after the discovery that exhaled breath contains NO for this measurement to be approved for clinical practice to monitor anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma. Recent studies demonstrate that using exhaled NO measurement to guide anti-inflammatory treatment in asthma may help clinical decision making. A similarly small molecule present in exhaled breath is carbon monoxide, which is not only a biomarker of cigarette smoking but has also been suggested to reflect ongoing oxidative stress/antioxidant defense. The scope of this review is the exciting field of exhaled monoxides. Since several other biomarkers have also been studied in the exhaled breath this review will provide a brief introduction to them. PMID:21383433

  9. Synthesis of novel solid materials from carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yan

    The increase of atmospheric CO2 has been identified as the primary cause for the observed global warming over the past century. The geological and oceanic sequestration of CO2 has issues, such as cost and leakage as well as effects on sea biota. The ideal solution should be the conversion of CO2 into useful materials. However, most processes require high energy input. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel processes with low energy demands to convert CO2 to useful solid materials. Amorphous carbon nitride and graphone received much attention due to their unusual structures and properties as well as their potential applications. However, to date there has been no attempt to synthesize those solid materials from CO2. Lithium nitride (Li3N) and lithium imide (Li2NH) are important hydrogen storage materials. However, their optical properties and reactivity has not yet studied. This dissertation research is aimed at the synthesis of carbon nitrides and graphone from CO2 and CO via their reaction with Li3N and Li2NH. The research was focused on (1) the evaluation of Li 3N and Li2NH properties, (2) thermodynamic analysis of conversion of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide into carbon nitride and other solid materials, (3) synthesis of carbon nitride from carbon dioxide, and (4) synthesis of graphone from carbon monoxide. First, the properties of Li3N, Li2NH, and LiNH 2 were investigated. The X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that heat-treatment at 500C introduce a phase transformation of ?-Li3N to ?-Li3N. Furthermore, the UV-visible absorption evaluation showed that the energy gaps of ?-Li3N and ?-Li 3N are 1.81 and 2.14 eV, respectively. The UV-visible absorption measurements also revealed that energy gaps are 3.92 eV for Li2NH and 3.93 eV for LiNH2. This thermodynamic analysis was performed to predict the reactions. It was demonstrated that the reaction between carbon dioxide and lithium nitride is thermodynamically favorable and exothermic, which can generate carbon nitride and lithium cyanamide. Furthermore, the thermodynamic calculation indicated that the reaction between carbon monoxide and lithium imide can produce graphone and lithium cyanamide along with releasing heat. Based on the above thermodynamic analysis, the experiment of CO 2 and Li3N reaction and CO and Li2NH were carried out. It was found that the reaction between CO2 and Li3N is very fast and exothermic. The XRD and element analysis revealed that the products are crystal lithium cyanamide and amorphous carbon nitrides with Li2O and Li2CO3. Furthermore, TEM images showed that carbon nitrides possess layer-structure, namely, it is graphene-structured carbon nitride. It was found that the reaction between Li2NH and CO was also exothermic, which produced graphone instead of carbon nitride. The composition and structures of graphone were evaluated by XRD, element analysis, TEM observation, and Raman spectra.

  10. British Hyperbaric Association carbon monoxide database, 1993-96.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Farrell, M R

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the referral pattern of patients, poisoned with carbon monoxide and subsequently transferred to British hyperbaric oxygen facilities, from April 1993 until March 1996 inclusive. METHODS: A standard dataset was used by hyperbaric facilities within the British Hyperbaric Association. The data on each patient were sent in confidence to the Hyperbaric Unit at Whipps Cross Hospital for analysis. The epidemiology of poisoning and the population studied were analysed. Times of removal from exposure, referral to a hyperbaric facility, arrival at the hyperbaric facility, and start of treatment were recorded. Data on the outcome of the episode were documented in one of the contributing facilities. RESULTS: 575 patients exposed to carbon monoxide were reported as being referred to British hyperbaric facilities in the three years, the busiest facilities being in London and Peterborough. The proportions of accidental and non-accidental exposures were 1:1.05. Of the accidental exposures, central heating faults were responsible in 71.5% of cases (n = 206). Smoke inhalation from fires was responsible for a further 13.5% (n = 39). The mean delay to arrival in a hyperbaric oxygen facility was 9 hours and 15 minutes after removal from exposure. Recovery after treatment was sometimes incomplete. CONCLUSIONS: The reported pattern of referral was regionally weighted towards the south east of England. Smoke inhalation victims were often not referred for hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The delay to treatment was multifactorial; and the mean delay was well in excess of six hours. There is room for improvement in the consistency and speed of referral. Treatment schedules require standardisation. A central advice and referral service would be helpful. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10191441

  11. Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Lebedinsky, Alexander V.; Colman, Albert S.; Sokolova, Tatyana G.; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Robb, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet both cultivation studies and emerging genome sequences of bacteria and archaea establish that CO is a widely utilized microbial growth substrate. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases ([Ni,Fe]-CODHs) in currently available genomic sequence databases. Currently, 185 out of 2887, or 6% of sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. Many genomes encode multiple copies of [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes whose functions and regulation are correlated with their associated gene clusters. The phylogenetic analysis of this extended protein family revealed six distinct clades; many clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that were encoded by microbes from disparate phylogenetic lineages, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. To more clearly define if the branching patterns observed in the [Ni,Fe]-CODH trees are due to functional conservation vs. evolutionary lineage, the genomic context of the [Ni,Fe]-CODH gene clusters was examined, and superimposed on the phylogenetic trees. On the whole, there was a correlation between genomic contexts and the tree topology, but several functionally similar [Ni,Fe]-CODHs were found in different clades. In addition, some distantly related organisms have similar [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes. Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used to observe horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of [Ni,Fe]-CODH gene clusters by applying KullbackLeibler divergence analysis methods. Divergent tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage showed that the gene cluster of T. carboxydivorans that encodes a [Ni,Fe]-CODH and an energy-converting hydrogenase is dissimilar to its whole genome but is similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant Firmicute, Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results imply that T carboxydivorans acquired this gene cluster via HGT from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans. PMID:22529840

  12. High temperature sulfidation of iron in the presence of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The sulfidation and mixed oxidant corrosion (oxidation/sulfidation) of iron in environments characteristic of gas turbines and coal gasifiers was studied. The procedures employed include continuous recording gravimetry (specimen weight gain versus time), X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy microprobe chemical analysis of the scales formed, SEM surface topography of scales, development of theoretical equations for corrosion based on mechanistic models, testing of the derived equations versus the generated corrosion data, and analysis of the corrosion parameters with respect to the environment and defect structure of the scale. For iron at 900/sup 0/C with a partial pressure of sulfur of 10/sup -6.88/ atm with or without an oxygen partial pressure in the range from 10/sup -18.68/ atm to 10/sup -15.13/ atm, the following conclusion can be made: 1) The initial stage of the corrosion reaction, which demonstrates an increasing rate, can be modeled by a nucleation and growth equation. 2) In the presence of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, the effect of the carbon dioxide on the earlier kinetics was found to be a kinetic one, increasing the nucleation rate of iron sulfide. 3) The carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide gas mixture exerted a thermodynamic effect on the parabolic kinetics of the intermediate region. The parabolic constant was found to be proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen to the power -3. This indicates the presence of neutral and singly charged cation vacancies. 4) At the lower flow rate used, the early stage of the reaction without the oxides of carbon was found to be gas flow rate controlled.

  13. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jing; Kortlever, Ruud; Kas, Recep; Birdja, Yuvraj Y.; Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Kwon, Youngkook; Ledezma-Yanez, Isis; Schouten, Klaas Jan P.; Mul, Guido; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low overpotential (0.5 V), with an efficiency and selectivity comparable to the best porphyrin-based electrocatalyst in the literature. While carbon monoxide is the main reduction product, we also observe methane as by-product. The results of our detailed pH-dependent studies are explained consistently by a mechanism in which carbon dioxide is activated by the cobalt protoporphyrin through the stabilization of a radical intermediate, which acts as Brønsted base. The basic character of this intermediate explains how the carbon dioxide reduction circumvents a concerted proton–electron transfer mechanism, in contrast to hydrogen evolution. Our results and their mechanistic interpretations suggest strategies for designing improved catalysts. PMID:26324108

  14. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  15. Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) is present in ground water produced from a variety of aquifer systems at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 nanomoles per liter (0.0056 to 0.56 ??g/L). In two shallow aquifers, one an unconsolidated coastal plain aquifer in Kings Bay, Georgia, and the other a fractured-bedrock aquifer in West Trenton, New Jersey, long-term monitoring showed that CO concentrations varied over time by as much as a factor of 10. Field and laboratory evidence suggests that the delivery of dissolved oxygen to the soil zone and underlying aquifers by periodic recharge events stimulates oxic metabolism and produces transiently high CO concentrations. In between recharge events, the aquifers become anoxic and more substrate limited, CO is consumed as a carbon source, and CO concentrations decrease. According to this model, CO concentrations provide a transient record of oxic metabolism affecting ground water systems after dissolved oxygen has been fully consumed. Because the delivery of oxygen affects the fate and transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in ground water, CO concentration changes may be useful for identifying predominantly anoxic ground water systems subject to periodic oxic or microaerophilic conditions. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  16. COSMIC: Carbon Monoxide and Soot in Microgravity Inverse Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, L. G.; Fernandez, M. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.; Moore, E. F.; Steel, E. B.; Scott, J. H. J.

    2001-01-01

    Almost seventy percent of deaths in accidental fires are caused by inhalation of toxins such as carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke (soot) that form during underventilated burning. The COSMIC project examines the formation mechanisms of CO and soot during underventilated combustion, achieved presently using laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) formed between an air jet and surrounding fuel. A major hypothesis of the project is that the IDF mimics underventilated combustion because carbon-containing species that form on the fuel side of the flame (such as CO and soot) can escape without passing through an oxidizing flame tip. An IDF literature review was presented at the last microgravity workshop, and a few additional IDF papers have appeared since that meeting. The COSMIC project is entering the third year of its four-year funding cycle. The first two years have been devoted to designing and constructing a rig for use in the NASA 2.2-second drop tower. A few computations and laboratory experiments have been performed. The goals of this paper are to discuss the use of numerical simulation during burner design, to present computational and experimental results that support the hypothesis that IDFs are similar to underventilated flames, and to delineate future plans.

  17. Determination of the atherogenic potential of inhaled carbon monoxide. Research report, October 1986-December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of chronic exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide upon the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development were investigated in a series of in vivo studies in the cockerel (young rooster). Three questions were posed: (1) Will inhaled carbon monoxide at levels of 50 to 200 parts per million (ppm) (two hours/day for 16 weeks) be sufficient to augment arteriosclerotic plaque-promoting agent. (2) Will the inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 16 weeks), concomitant with the feeding of low levels (0.1%) of cholesterol, yield larger plaques than those obtained with either of these agents administered alone. (3) Will inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 11 or 22 weeks), by cockerels in whom plaques have already appeared, further augment plaque development. Chronic inhalation of carbon monoxide at levels as high as 200 ppm did not affect augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development. When administered at the same time that plaque development was being promoted by cholesterol feeding, carbon monoxide had no further effect upon plaque development. When administered after either carcinogen-associated or diet-augmented increases in plaque size, carbon monoxide did not elicit further increases in plaque size.

  18. The combined effect of noise and carbon monoxide on hearing thresholds of exposed workers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, Adriana; Leroux, Tony; Gagn, Jean-Pierre

    2005-04-01

    Animal models have been used to demonstrate the potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) by carbon monoxide. It has been shown that the addition of carbon monoxide to otherwise safe noise exposure levels produces significant NIHL in rats. However, the effects of chronic exposure to low level of carbon monoxide in a noisy work environment are still unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the hearing thresholds of a group of workers exposed to noise and carbon monoxide (Group 1) to another group of workers where carbon monoxide exposure is absent or negligible (Group 2). The analysis was based on 9396 audiograms collected by the Quebec National Public Health Institute between 1983 and 1996. The results show significantly poorer hearing thresholds at high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz) for the carbon monoxide exposed group (p<0.001). The potentiation effect also varied according to years of exposure in work place; a larger effect is observed for workers with between 15 to 20 years of exposure (p<0.001). This study provides the first demonstration of a potentiation effect of NIHL by carbon monoxide in humans.

  19. Determination of the atherogenic potential of inhaled carbon monoxide. Research report, October 1986-May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of chronic exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide upon the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development were investigated in a series of in vivo studies in the cockerel (young rooster). Three questions were posed: (1) Will inhaled carbon monoxide at levels of 50 to 200 parts per million (ppm) (two hours/day for 16 weeks) be sufficient to augment arteriosclerotic plaque development. (2) Will the inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 16 weeks), concomitant with the feeding of low levels (0.1%) of cholesterol, yield larger plaques than those obtained with either of these agents administered alone. (3) Will inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 11 or 22 weeks), by cockerels in whom plaques have already appeared, further augment plaque development. Chronic inhalation of carbon monoxide at levels as high as 200 ppm did not affect the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development. When administered at the same time that plaque development was being promoted by cholesterol feeding, carbon monoxide had no further effect upon plaque development. When administered after either carcinogen-associated or diet-augmented increases in plaque size, carbon monoxide did not elicit further increases in plaque development.

  20. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  1. Autumn photoproduction of carbon monoxide in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chunyan; Yang, Guipeng; Lu, Xiaolan

    2014-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Global oceans are net natural sources of atmospheric CO. CO at surface ocean is primarily produced from the photochemical degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In this study, the effects of photobleaching, temperature and the origin (terrestrial or marine) of CDOM on the apparent quantum yields (AQY) of CO were studied for seawater samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay. Our results demonstrat that photobleaching, temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The concentration, absorbance and fluorescence of CDOM exponentially decreased with increasing light dose. Terrestrial riverine organic matter could be more prone to photodegradation than the marine algae-derived one. The relationships between CO AQY and the dissolved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm for the photobleaching study were nonlinear, whereas those of the original samples were strongly linear. This suggests that: 1) terrestrial riverine CDOM was more efficient than marine algae-derived CDOM for CO photoproduction; 2) aromatic and olefinic moieties of the CDOM pool were affected more strongly by degradation processes than by aliphatic ones. Water temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The photoproduction rate of CO in autumn was estimated to be 31.98 μmol m-2 d-1 and the total DOC photomineralization was equivalent to 3.25%-6.35% of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Our results indicate that CO photochemistry in coastal areas is important for oceanic carbon cycle.

  2. Observation of black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide in the Kali Gandaki Valley Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Kathayat, B.

    2014-12-01

    The increased melting of snow and ice in the arctic and the Himalaya is a growing concern for all of the earth's population. Deposition of black carbon (BC) on the snow and ice surface accelerates melting by absorbing the radiative energy and directly transferring all that energy onto the underlying surface. During pre-monsoon season, satellite images show a thick layer of haze covering the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills. Sub-micron particles are transported to the Himalaya from the IGP predominantly driven by the thermal valley wind system. The Himalayas consist of some of the tallest mountain ranges in the world, over 8000m tall that reach the stratosphere. The Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal is one of the deepest gorges in the world, and has some of the highest up-valley winds in the world. It is also one of the most open connecting points for air from IGP to reach the Tibetan Plateau. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.) half-way along the Kali Gandaki valley. The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we present our observations of black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide at Jomsom to show the diurnal and seasonal variability of the pollutants. The results show diurnal patterns in the concentration of these pollutants and also episodes of high pollutant transport along the valley. These transport episodes are more common during the pre-monsoon season which indicates that deep mountain valleys like the Kali Gandaki valley facilitate the transport of pollutants and thus promote snow and glacial melting.

  3. Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on Space Shuttle and aircraft measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, R. E.; Shipley, S. T.; Connors, V. S.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon monoxide measurements made from the space shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be consistent with this view. In the tropics the three regions of long-term mean rising motion, which form part of the Walker circulation, are associated with elevated carbon monoxide.

  4. Regional studies of potential carbon monoxide sources based on Space Shuttle and aircraft measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, R. E.; Shipley, S. T.; Connors, V. S.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon monoxide measurements made from the Space Shuttle show maxima over South America, central Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, and China. The maxima appear to be associated with either concomitant or prior convection in the air masses which carries boundary layer air into the upper troposphere. Previous aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone over South America are shown to be consistent with this view. In the tropics the three regions of long-term mean rising motion, which form part of the Walker circulation, are associated with elevated carbon monoxide.

  5. Calculations on the role of carbon monoxide in tungsten-halogen bulbs containing dibromomethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, J. A.

    1983-11-01

    Previously, Maier at Osram made tungsten-halogen bulbs with a fill gas mixture of dibromomethane in argon and various levels of carbon monoxide. He found that after the bulbs were burned the walls blackened in the bulbs with less than 267 ppm of carbon monoxide, but stayed clear at higher carbon monoxide levels. This report describes a chemical equilibrium calculation which explains these results, and identifies WO2Br2 as the compound that forms near the bulb walls and keeps them clear.

  6. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by Voyager 2, and only now confirmed in this study from Earth, plays an important role as well. "Climate and atmospheric models of Triton have to be revisited now, now that we have found carbon monoxide and re-measured the methane," says co-author Catherine de Bergh. Of Neptune's 13 moons, Triton is by far the largest, and, at 2700 kilometres in diameter (or three quarters the Earth's Moon), is the seventh largest moon in the whole Solar System. Since its discovery in 1846, Triton has fascinated astronomers thanks to its geologic activity, the many different types of surface ices, such as frozen nitrogen as well as water and dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), and its unique retrograde motion [1]. Observing the atmosphere of Triton, which is roughly 30 times further from the Sun than Earth, is not easy. In the 1980s, astronomers theorised that the atmosphere on Neptune's moon might be as thick as that of Mars (7 millibars). It wasn't until Voyager 2 passed the planet in 1989 that the atmosphere of nitrogen and methane, at an actual pressure of 14 microbars, 70 000 times less dense than the atmosphere on Earth, was measured. Since then, ground-based observations have been limited. Observations of stellar occultations (a phenomenon that occurs when a Solar System body passes in front of a star and blocks its light) indicated that Triton's surface pressure was increasing in the 1990's. It took the development of the Cryogenic High-Resolution Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to provide the team the chance to perform a far more detailed study of Triton's atmosphere. "We needed the sensitivity and capability of CRIRES to take very detailed spectra to look at the very tenuous atmosphere," says co-author Ulli Käufl. The observations are part of a campaign that also includes a study of Pluto [eso0908]. Pluto, often considered a cousin of Triton and with similar conditions, is receiving renewed interest in the light of the carbon monoxide discovery, and astronomers are racing to find this chemical on the even more distant dwarf planet. This is just the first step for astronomers using CRIRES to understand the physics of distant bodies in the Solar System. "We can now start monitoring the atmosphere and learn a lot about the seasonal evolution of Triton over decades," Lellouch says. Notes [1] Triton is the only large moon in the Solar System with a retrograde motion, which is a motion in the opposite direction to its planet's rotation. This is one of the reasons why Triton is thought to have been captured from the Kuiper Belt, and thus shares many features with the dwarf planets, such as Pluto. More information This research was presented in a paper to appear in Astronomy & Astrophysics ("Detection of CO in Triton's atmosphere and the nature of surface-atmosphere interactions", by E. Lellouch et al.), reference DOI : 10.1051/0004-6361/201014339. The team is composed of E. Lellouch, C. de Bergh, B. Sicardy (LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, France), S. Ferron (ACRI-ST, Sophia-Antipolis, France), and H.-U. Käufl (ESO). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  7. Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nitride: Influence of Surface Hydroxyls on Low Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Joseph A; Dudney, Nancy J; Li, Meijun; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H; Veith, Gabriel M

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of 2.5 nm gold clusters on the oxygen free and chemically labile support carbon nitride (C3N4). Despite having small particle sizes and high enough water partial pressure these Au/C3N4 catalysts are inactive for the gas phase and liquid phase oxidation of carbon monoxide. The reason for the lack of activity is attributed to the lack of surface OH groups on the C3N4. These OH groups are argued to be responsible for the activation of CO in the oxidation of CO. The importance of basic OH groups explains the well document dependence of support isoelectric point versus catalytic activity.

  8. Rocket ultraviolet spectroscopy of comet Halley and abundance of carbon monoxide and carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, T. N.; Feldman, P. D.; Dymond, K. F.; Sahnow, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Two far ultraviolet observations of comet Halley made on 26 February, 1986 and 13 March, 1986 with a sounding rocket experiment are reported. The observed CO spatial profiles can be modelled by a radial outflow model for a parent molecule and suggest that the CO is produced directly from the nucleus of the comet. Using the observed O I emission profile to deduce the H2O production rate, the abundance of CO relative to H2O is found to be 20 percent + or - 5 percent for the first flight and 17 percent + or - 4 percent for the second flight, making CO the second most abundant parent molecule in the coma. The derived production rate of atomic carbon is consistent with that expected from the photodissociation of carbon monoxide.

  9. A carbon monoxide gas sensor using oxygen plasma modified carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiyun; Fam, Derrick Wen Hui; Yin, Zongyou; Sun, Ting; Tan, Hui Teng; Liu, Weiling; Iing Yoong Tok, Alfred; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy; Zhang, Hua; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2012-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that can be commonly found in many places. However, it is not easily detected by human olfaction due to its colorless and odorless nature. Therefore, highly sensitive sensors need to be developed for this purpose. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an immense potential in gas sensing. However, CNT-based gas sensors for sensing CO are seldom reported due to the lack of reactivity between CO and CNTs. In this work, O2 plasma modified CNT was used to fabricate a CNT gas sensor. The plasma treated CNTs showed selectively towards CO, with the capability of sensing low concentrations of CO (5 ppm) at room temperature, while the pristine CNTs showed no response. UV spectra and oxygen reduction reaction provided evidence that the difference in sensing property was due to the elimination of metallic CNTs and enhancement of the oxygen reduction property.

  10. A carbon monoxide gas sensor using oxygen plasma modified carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiyun; Fam, Derrick Wen Hui; Yin, Zongyou; Sun, Ting; Tan, Hui Teng; Liu, Weiling; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy; Zhang, Hua; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2012-10-26

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that can be commonly found in many places. However, it is not easily detected by human olfaction due to its colorless and odorless nature. Therefore, highly sensitive sensors need to be developed for this purpose. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an immense potential in gas sensing. However, CNT-based gas sensors for sensing CO are seldom reported due to the lack of reactivity between CO and CNTs. In this work, O(2) plasma modified CNT was used to fabricate a CNT gas sensor. The plasma treated CNTs showed selectively towards CO, with the capability of sensing low concentrations of CO (5 ppm) at room temperature, while the pristine CNTs showed no response. UV spectra and oxygen reduction reaction provided evidence that the difference in sensing property was due to the elimination of metallic CNTs and enhancement of the oxygen reduction property. PMID:23037508

  11. Solar carbon monoxide: poster child for 3D effects .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Lyons, J. R.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Caffau, E.; Wedemeyer-Bhm, S.

    Photospheric infrared (2-6 mu m) rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) provide a tough test for 3D convection models such as those calculated using CO5BOLD. The molecular formation is highly temperature-sensitive, and thus responds in an exaggerated way to thermal fluctuations in the dynamic atmosphere. CO, itself, is an important tracer of the oxygen abundance, a still controversial issue in solar physics; as well as the heavy isotopes of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O, 17O), which, relative to terrestrial values, are fingerprints of fractionation processes that operated in the primitive solar nebula. We show how 3D models impact the CO line formation, and add in a second constraint involving the near-UV Ca RIPTSIZE II line wings, which also are highly temperature sensitive, but in the opposite sense to the molecules. We find that our reference CO5BOLD snapshots appear to be slightly too cool on average in the outer layers of the photosphere where the CO absorptions and Ca RIPTSIZE II wing emissions arise. We show, further, that previous 1D modeling was systematically biased toward higher oxygen abundances and lower isotopic ratios (e.g., R23equiv 12C/13C), suggesting an isotopically ``heavy'' Sun contrary to direct capture measurements of solar wind light ions by the Genesis Discovery Mission. New 3D ratios for the oxygen isotopes are much closer to those reported by Genesis, and the associated oxygen abundance from CO now is consistent with the recent Caffau et al. study of atomic oxygen. Some lingering discrepancies perhaps can be explained by magnetic bright points. Solar CO demonstrates graphically the wide gulf that can occur between a 3D analysis and 1D.

  12. Investigation of low temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts. [for Spacelab atmosphere control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B.; Katan, T.; Ray, C. D.; Lamparter, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon monoxide generation rates related to the use of commerical equipment in Spacelab, added to the normal metabolic and subsystem loads, will produce carbon monoxide levels in excess of the maximum allowable concentration. In connection with the sensitivity of carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts to poisoning at room temperature, catalysts for an oxidation of carbon monoxide at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that platinum and palladium are the only effective room temperature catalysts which are effective at 333 K. Hopcalite was ineffective at ambient temperatures, but converted CO with 100 percent efficiency at 333 K. Poisoning tests showed the noble metal catalysts to be very sensitive, and Hopcalite to be very resistant to poisoning.

  13. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Farris, Thomas Stephen

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  14. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  19. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. . Queen Fabiola Children's Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Epidemic Among Immigrant Populations: King County, Washington, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Kwan-Gett, Tao; Hampson, Neil B.; Baer, Atar; Shusterman, Dennis; Shandro, Jamie R.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated an outbreak of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a power outage to determine its extent, identify risk factors, and develop prevention measures. Methods. We reviewed medical records and medical examiner reports of patients with CO poisoning or related symptoms during December 15 to 24, 2006. We grouped patients into households exposed concurrently to a single source of CO. Results. Among 259 patients with CO poisoning, 204 cases were laboratory confirmed, 37 were probable, 10 were suspected, and 8 were fatal. Of 86 households studied, 58% (n = 50) were immigrant households from Africa (n = 21), Asia (n = 15), Latin America (n = 10), and the Middle East (n = 4); 34% (n = 29) were US-born households. One percent of households was European (n = 1), and the origin for 7% (n = 6) was unknown. Charcoal was the most common fuel source used among immigrant households (82%), whereas liquid fuel was predominant among US-born households (34%). Conclusions. Educational campaigns to prevent CO poisoning should consider immigrants cultural practices and languages and specifically warn against burning charcoal indoors and incorrect ventilation of gasoline- or propane-powered electric generators. PMID:19608962

  1. Carbon Monoxide in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Jeonghee; Jarrett, T.; Reach, W.; Gomez, H.; Andersen, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the near-infrared detection of first overtone Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission from the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. The presence of CO emission implies conditions are conducive to dust formation long after the typically quoted 200--800 days from the explosion event. The CO in Cas A formed in an earlier stage of SNe explosion and has cooled, is now visible in the infrared due to heating from the reverse shock. We present the first map of the CO distribution in the ejecta of a supernova remnant by subtracting the continuum emission from the CO filter map. We compare the first overtone CO emission with SN1987A and find 30 times less CO. The mass of CO in Cas A is at least 1E-6 Msun. Our CO detection suggests that molecule mixing is small in the SN ejecta and during the development of reverse shock. Detection of the CO overtone band in Cas A demonstrates that astrochemical processes and molecule formation continue more than 300 years after the initial explosion.

  2. Carbon monoxide over the Amazon basin during the wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, R.C. ); Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Gregory, G.L. ); Wade, L.O. )

    1990-09-20

    Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made over the Amazon Basin of Brazil during the 1987 wet season as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). The distribution of CO over the altitude range sampled (0.15-4.5 km) was influenced by surface emissions from biological sources, long-range transport of pollutants from northern hemisphere sources, and by transport processes associated with local convective mixing. Surface sources are indicated by a qualitative interpretation of the typical pattern of decreasing concentrations with increasing altitude and increasing concentrations of CO at 0.15-km altitude during a transect from the Atlantic coast to the central basin. Atmospheric convective activity produced irregular patterns of variability at time scales of less than 1 hour over a localized area. The disruption of mixed layer growth and decay processes has a particularly important influence on CO concentrations in the daytime lower troposphere. Intrusions of northern hemisphere air into the central Amazon resulted in increased CO concentrations in the lower and midtroposphere. The correlation of CO with O{sub 3} was positive under conditions interpreted as being influenced by northern hemisphere air, and negative during all other meteorological conditions experienced in ABLE 2B.

  3. [Improvement of carbon monoxide analysis in fish meat].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yoko; Kubota, Hiroki; Namiki, Tatsuya; Iizuka, Tayoshi; Shionoya, Noriko; Yoshii, Nobuhiko; Ohara, Reiko; Tanaka, Makiko; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Sato, Kyoko; Kawamura, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) treatment of fish meat of tuna, yellowtail, tilapia etc. is not allowed in Japan, since it can maintain the red color for a longer period than the microbiological shelf life of fish meat. The official method for quantification of CO has a problem, in that a part of the CO is lost during the preparation of the fish sample. To solve this problem, we modified the official method in this study. We also applied this modified method to survey the contents of CO in tuna, yellowtail, young yellowtail, and tilapia. As a result, the modified method was found to be more suitable for CO quantification than the official method. An inter-laboratory study by 4 laboratories confirmed that the CO content of many samples of tilapia exceeded the regulation value, apparently due to the higher recovery of CO, compared to the official method. Therefore, it was suggested that the regulation value in the case of tilapia should be changed if this method is introduced as an official method. PMID:21515968

  4. Molybdopterin in carbon monoxide oxidase from carboxydotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, O; Rajagopalan, K V

    1984-01-01

    The carbon monoxide oxidases (COXs) purified from the carboxydotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena and Pseudomonas carboxydoflava were found to be molybdenum hydroxylases, identical in cofactor composition and spectral properties to the recently characterized enzyme from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans (O. Meyer, J. Biol. Chem. 257:1333-1341, 1982). All three enzymes exhibited a cofactor composition of two flavin adenine dinucleotides, two molybdenums, eight irons and eight labile sulfides per dimeric molecule, typical for molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur flavoproteins. The millimolar extinction coefficient of the COXs at 450 nm was 72 (per two flavin adenine dinucleotides), a value similar to that of milk xanthine oxidase and chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase at 450 nm. That molybdopterin, the novel prosthetic group of the molybdenum cofactor of a variety of molybdoenzymes (J. Johnson and K. V. Rajagopalan, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:6856-6860, 1982) is also a constituent of COXs from carboxydotrophic bacteria is indicated by the formation of identical fluorescent cofactor derivatives, by complementation of the nitrate reductase activity in extracts of Neurospora crassa nit-l, and by the presence of organic phosphate additional to flavin adenine dinucleotides. Molybdopterin is tightly but noncovalently bound to the protein. COX, sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and xanthine dehydrogenase each contains 2 mol of molybdopterin per mol of enzyme. The presence of a trichloroacetic acid-releasable, so-far-unidentified, phosphorous-containing moiety in COX is suggested by the results of phosphate analysis. PMID:6582059

  5. Microbial metabolism of carbon monoxide in culture and in soil.

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, G W; Alexander, M

    1979-01-01

    Nocardia salmonicolor readily oxidized CO to CO2. Slight activity was found among species of Actinoplanes, Agromyces, Microbispora, Mycobacterium, and other nocardias, and no oxidation was detected in the algae, fungi, and other bacteria tested. Carbon monoxide was oxidized rapidly to CO2 in the dark in two soils incubated in air or under flooded conditions, but little of the 14C from 14CO was incorporated into the organic fraction of these soils. The reaction was microbial because appreciable CO was not converted to CO2 in autoclaved or gamma-irradiated soil. Heating the soil for 25 min at 70 degrees C destroyed its CO-oxidizing activity. The incorporation of 14CO2 into the cells of microorganisms in soil and soil suspension was not enhanced by incubating the samples in the presence of CO, suggesting that CO oxidation was not the result of autotrophic metabolism. The oxidation of 17 mu 1 of CO per liter in the head space was nearly complete in 6 h in soil incubated in air or anaerobically. PMID:485139

  6. Carbon monoxide: present and future indications for a medical gas

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous molecules continue to hold new promise in molecular medicine as experimental and clinical therapeutics. The low molecular weight gas carbon monoxide (CO), and similar gaseous molecules (e.g., H2S, nitric oxide) have been implicated as potential inhalation therapies in inflammatory diseases. At high concentration, CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard, and is a common component of air pollution. CO is also produced endogenously as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase enzymes. CO binds avidly to hemoglobin, causing hypoxemia and decreased oxygen delivery to tissues at high concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a signal transduction molecule in the regulation of neural and vascular function and cellular homeostasis. CO has been demonstrated to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammation, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and organ transplantation. Additional experimental indications for this gas include pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, metabolic diseases, and preeclampsia. The development of chemical CO releasing compounds constitutes a novel pharmaceutical approach to CO delivery with demonstrated effectiveness in sepsis models. Current and pending clinical evaluation will determine the usefulness of this gas as a therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23525151

  7. Carbon monoxide and the CNS: challenges and achievements

    PubMed Central

    Queiroga, Cláudia S F; Vercelli, Alessandro; Vieira, Helena L A

    2015-01-01

    Haem oxygenase (HO) and its product carbon monoxide (CO) are associated with cytoprotection and maintenance of homeostasis in several different organs and tissues. This review focuses upon the role of exogenous and endogenous CO (via HO activity and expression) in various CNS pathologies, based upon data from experimental models, as well as from some clinical data on human patients. The pathophysiological conditions reviewed are cerebral ischaemia, chronic neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), multiple sclerosis and pain. Among these pathophysiological conditions, a variety of cellular mechanisms and processes are considered, namely cytoprotection, cell death, inflammation, cell metabolism, cellular redox responses and vasomodulation, as well as the different targeted neural cells. Finally, novel potential methods and strategies for delivering exogenous CO as a drug are discussed, particularly approaches based upon CO-releasing molecules, their limitations and challenges. The diagnostic and prognostic value of HO expression in clinical use for brain pathologies is also addressed. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-6 PMID:24758548

  8. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

    2015-02-01

    Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

  9. Source analysis of carbon monoxide pollution during INDOEX 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, A. T. J.; Lelieveld, J.; Roelofs, G. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Lobert, J. M.

    2001-11-01

    A source analysis of carbon monoxide (CO) over the Indian Ocean is presented using marked tracers in a chemistry general circulation model. The model includes a nonmethane hydrocarbon chemistry scheme and has been used at two different resolutions (3.753.75 and 1.91.9). European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts meteorological analyses have been assimilated into the model to represent actual meteorology during February and March of 1999. A comparison with measurements indicates that the model simulates realistic CO distributions. In general, the model performance is more realistic at higher resolution. Discrepancies exist close to the Indian coasts, possibly related to a sea breeze circulation at the Indian west coast, not resolved by the model. Discrepancies are also found in the vicinity of convection at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The marked tracer study suggests that biofuel use and agricultural waste burning in India are major CO sources for the Indian Ocean north of the ITCZ, with minor contributions from Middle East, China, and Southeast Asia. In the much cleaner boundary layer over the southern Indian Ocean, CO from hydrocarbon oxidation is a dominant source. There are no other regions around the globe where biofuel use and biomass burning contribute so much to the CO mixing ratios. In general, most of the Asian CO over the Indian Ocean remains north of the ITCZ, although some of the CO is transported to the southern hemisphere in the free troposphere near the African east coast.

  10. Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July - August 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K. B.; Talbot, R. W.; Browell, E. V.; Barrie, L. A.; Hill, G. F.; Burney, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) were measured in the 0.15- to 6-km portion of the troposphere over subarctic and boreal landscapes of midcontinent and eastern Canada during July - August 1990. In the mid-continent region, Arctic air entering the region was characterized by relatively uniform CO concentrations (86-108 parts per billion by volume (ppbv)) and CH4 concentrations (1729-1764 ppbv). Local biomass burning and long-range transport of CO into the area from industrial/urban sources and distant fires did frequently produce enhanced and variable concentrations. Emissions of CH4 from the Hudson Bay lowlands was the primary source for enhanced and variable concentrations, especially at altitudes of 0.15-1 km. In eastern Canada, most of the observed variability in CO and CH4 was similar in origin to the phenomena described for the midcontinent region. However, unexpectedly low concentrations of CO (51 ppbv) and CH4 (1688 ppbv) were measured in the midtroposphere on several flights. Combined meteorological and chemical data indicated that the low CO-CH4 events were the result of long-range transport of tropical Pacific marine air to subarctic latitudes.

  11. Causes of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide poisonings in California.

    PubMed Central

    Girman, J R; Chang, Y L; Hayward, S B; Liu, K S

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the annual number and incidence of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in California and to identify specific factors that caused or contributed to the deaths. Unintentional CO deaths in California over a ten-year period (1979 to 1988) were identified from the database of the California Master Mortality File and coroners' investigation reports. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths were determined based on the information from the investigation reports. The annual number of unintentional CO deaths varied from 27 to 58 over the ten years examined, with an average annual death incidence of 1.7 x 10(-6). Death rates were high among males and African-Americans. Alcohol appeared to be a factor in 31% of the cases. The types of combustion sources associated with unintentional CO deaths were: heating or cooking appliances; motor vehicles; charcoal grills and hibachis; small engines; and camping equipment. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths interact in a complex way. To reduce the rate of unintentional CO deaths effectively, joint efforts involving several prevention methods are suggested. PMID:9549414

  12. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly ( N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

  13. Molybdopterin in carbon monoxide oxidase from carboxydotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Meyer, O; Rajagopalan, K V

    1984-02-01

    The carbon monoxide oxidases (COXs) purified from the carboxydotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena and Pseudomonas carboxydoflava were found to be molybdenum hydroxylases, identical in cofactor composition and spectral properties to the recently characterized enzyme from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans (O. Meyer, J. Biol. Chem. 257:1333-1341, 1982). All three enzymes exhibited a cofactor composition of two flavin adenine dinucleotides, two molybdenums, eight irons and eight labile sulfides per dimeric molecule, typical for molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur flavoproteins. The millimolar extinction coefficient of the COXs at 450 nm was 72 (per two flavin adenine dinucleotides), a value similar to that of milk xanthine oxidase and chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase at 450 nm. That molybdopterin, the novel prosthetic group of the molybdenum cofactor of a variety of molybdoenzymes (J. Johnson and K. V. Rajagopalan, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79:6856-6860, 1982) is also a constituent of COXs from carboxydotrophic bacteria is indicated by the formation of identical fluorescent cofactor derivatives, by complementation of the nitrate reductase activity in extracts of Neurospora crassa nit-l, and by the presence of organic phosphate additional to flavin adenine dinucleotides. Molybdopterin is tightly but noncovalently bound to the protein. COX, sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and xanthine dehydrogenase each contains 2 mol of molybdopterin per mol of enzyme. The presence of a trichloroacetic acid-releasable, so-far-unidentified, phosphorous-containing moiety in COX is suggested by the results of phosphate analysis. PMID:6582059

  14. Carbon monoxide and the eye: Implications for glaucoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Bucolo, Claudio; Drago, Filippo

    2011-05-01

    In the late 1990s, the scientific community witnessed a very peculiar phenomenon: the transformation of nitric oxide (NO) from a noxious gas into a key chemical messenger. The importance of NO in biology and medicine was highlighted in 1998 when the Nobel Prize was awarded in Physiology and Medicine to Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro and Ferid Murad for their pioneering work on the role of NO in the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems. In this same time period, carbon monoxide (CO), another gas usually associated with environmental pollution, air poisoning and suicidal behavior, was also undergoing a similar change in image, although not as closely followed. It had been known for several decades that the human body generated CO upon the decomposition of hemoglobin, which was determined by the discovery that heme oxygenase (HO) is the enzymatic source of CO. However, CO's role as an endogenous neurotransmitter was established only in the early 1990s. Since then, many biological activities of CO have been demonstrated in studies using different tools, such as the pharmacological induction of HO by hemin, the direct administration of CO or the use of pro-drugs that generate CO. This review focuses on CO as a fine modulator of intraocular pressure and on its potential implications in glaucoma. PMID:21295073

  15. Molybdopterin in carbon monoxide oxidase from carboxydotrophic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, O.; Rajagopalan, K.V.

    1984-02-01

    The carbon monoxide oxidases (COXs) purified from the carboxydotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena and Pseudomonas carboxydoflava were found to be molybdenum hydroxylases, identical in cofactor composition and spectral properties to the recently characterized enzyme from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans. All three enzymes exhibited a cofactor composition of two flavin adenine dinucleotides, two molybdenums, eight irons and eight labile sulfides per dimeric molecule, typical for molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur flavoproteins. The millimolar extinction coefficient of the COXs at 450 nm was 72 (per two flavin adenine dinucleotides), a value similar to that of milk xanthine oxidase and chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase at 450 nm. That molybdopterin, the novel prosthetic group of the molybdenum cofactor of a variety of molybdoenzymes is also a constituent of COXs from carboxydotrophic bacteria is indicated by the formation of identical fluorescent cofactor derivatives, by complementation of the nitrate reductase activity in extracts of Neurospora crassa nit-1, and by the presence of organic phosphate additional to flavin adenine dinucleotides. Molybdopterin is tightly but noncovalently bound to the protein. COX, sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and xanthine dehydrogenase each contains 2 mol of molybdopterin per mol of enzyme. The presence of a trichloroacetic acid-releasable, so-far-unidentified, phosphorous-containing moiety in COX is suggested by the results of phosphate analysis.

  16. Carbon monoxide: A novel and pivotal signal molecule in plants?

    PubMed

    Xuan, Wei; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Xingxing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2008-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a by-product released during the degradation of heme by heme oxygenases (HOS EC 1.14.99.3) in animals, plays a major role as neurotransmitter, regulator of sinusoidal tone, inhibitor of platelet aggregation and suppressor of acute hypertensive response, and most of above effects are similar to or mediated by nitric oxide (NO), another signal molecule in both the animal and plant kingdoms. Previous result demonstrated that NO could act as a promoter of plant cell elongation, acting similarly to IAA, inducing morphogenetic responses leading to expansion in plant tissues. Recent observations revealed that CO is an inducer of cell expansion in wheat root segments, acting similarly to IAA and NO. Evidence also indicated that IAA could result in either the potent induction of HO-1 transcript or endogenous CO releasing in wheat root segments. Additionally, our results suggested that above CO signaling might be related to NO/cGMP, Ca(2+) and even ROS-dependent pathways. In this addendum, combined with other previous results, we further proposed a possible hypothesis for CO signaling role in regulation of plant root development induced by auxin. PMID:19704571

  17. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  18. Dexamethasone therapy for preventing delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Song, J J; Zhang, H Y; Fu, K; Lan, H B; Deng, Y

    2015-12-01

    We investigated dexamethasone therapy for preventing delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Eighty healthy male rats were exposed to CO and randomly divided into four groups: hyperbaric oxygen treatment (H), treatment (D), combined hyperbaric and dexamethasone treatment (C), and a control (M) group in which the rats inhaled CO to coma in the hyperbaric oxygen chamber, then were removed without further treatment. Twelve rats were put into the hyperbaric oxygen chamber and treated with air for 60 min (N) group. An eight arm maze was used to evaluate cognitive and memory abilities of these mice. Serum myelin basic protein (MBP) levels were evaluated using ELISA, and magnetic resonance imaging was used to observe brain demyelination and morbidity associated with delayed encephalopathy. A sample of the hippocampus from each group was examined by light microscopy. Cognitive and memory functions decreased in the control group M. Three days after CO poisoning, the serum MBP level of each group increased significantly. On Day 10 after CO poisoning, the MBP levels in groups C and D decreased significantly, but returned to normal on Day 18. MBP levels in the M and H groups were elevated at all time points. Brain MRIs showed significant differences among C, D, H and control M groups. Hematoxylin & eosin staining of the hippocampus showed greater damage in the control M and H groups. Early dexamethasone treatment may be useful for preventing delayed encephalopathy after CO poisoning and may reduce serum MBP levels. PMID:26052629

  19. Persistence factors for mobile source (roadway) carbon monoxide modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, C.D. )

    1989-05-01

    A critical step in the modeling of the carbon monoxide (CO) impacts of mobile sources is predicting an 8-hour CO concentration given a modeled worst-case 1-hour concentration. Often, this is done by a multiplicative persistence factor. A meteorological persistence factor (MPF) accounts for the variability over 8 hours of wind speed, wind direction, stability class, and temperature. A vehicular persistence factor (VPF) reflects the lower traffic volumes during the off-peak hours. Hourly meteorological data for ten years for four cities in Florida were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The CALINE3 model was used to obtain hourly CO concentrations, which were combined to derive MPFs for each city. The mean VPF multiplied by the second highest MPF was defined as the worst-case total persistence factor (TPF). These worst-case TPFs increased significantly as more of nighttime were included in the 8-hour averaging time, but were fairly consistent from city to city. In general, the results suggest worst-case TPFs in the range of 0.4 to 0.5, lower than has been recommended by EPA in the past.

  20. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  1. Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  2. [Familial poisoning by carbon monoxide with different ECG changes].

    PubMed

    Milosavljevi?, J; Joksovi?, D

    1989-12-01

    The paper presents the poisoning of a family of three by carbon monoxide, caused by incomplete combustion of butane gas in a central heating system, with various disturbances in conduction and ishaemic changes in the ECG. The father, mother and son were poisoned. The father had increased amylase activity in urine (507 i.u./L) and, a COHb concentration of 4.8%. An ECG registered a temporary block of the left branch of the His bundle and a negative T wave in the III lead, which continued for about two weeks. The mother had a COHb concentration of 6% and an extended PQ interval, whereas the son had 8.5% of COHb in the blood and a transient incomplete block of the right branch of the His bundle. After treatment with pressurised pure oxygen, the symptoms of poisoning disappeared, COHb concentration fell to below 1% and the ECG registered an improvement. During treatment the patients also received an infusion of piracetam. PMID:2637658

  3. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in Washington State, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K; Whittaker, Stephen G; Adams, Darrin

    2010-10-01

    Washington State workers' compensation data can be used to guide prevention efforts focused on occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Between 2000 and 2005, a total of 345 individual claims comprising 221 different exposure incidents were identified for the 6-year time period. The construction industry had 43 (20%) CO incidents, followed by wholesale trade with 32 (15%), and agriculture with 27 (12%) incidents. Fuel-powered forklifts caused 29% of all incidents, while autos/trucks/buses were responsible for 26%. The number of forklift incidents in fruit packing and cold storage companies declined significantly from 1994 through 2007 (Spearman's rho = 0.6659, p < 0.01). While this study used multiple medical records from workers' compensation claims to identify CO poisoning, a surveillance system that lacks extensive medical records may rely principally on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) tests. This study demonstrated that 71% of the identified workers' compensation claims had associated COHb tests. The recurrence and timing of CO poisoning as well as control of the CO-generating source were determined. Approximately 8% of all work sites had recurring CO poisoning incidents. Two percent experienced a recurrent incident within 16 days of the initial incident, and 6% experienced a recurrent incident between 16 days and 3 years after the initial incident. Sixty-seven percent of claimants exposed to CO were not in direct control of the CO-generating source; this has implications for CO prevention and underscores the need for all employees to be trained on CO hazards. PMID:20635297

  4. Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  5. Simulation of carbon monoxide transport during April 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faluvegi, G. S.; Alapaty, K.; Reichle, H. G.; Mathur, R.; Raman, S.; Connors, V. S.

    1999-09-01

    The Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP) is used to simulate transport of carbon monoxide (CO) as a passive tracer over North America, Europe, and the North Atlantic during the April 1994 Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) mission. MAQSIP is driven by meteorological fields generated by the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research fifth-generation mesoscale model. Model CO surface emissions from biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, nonmethane hydrocarbon oxidation, oceans, and soils are based on inventories from the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy and the Global Emissions Inventory Activity. Predicted CO mixing ratios are vertically weighted for comparison with MAPS observations. The spread in the mission-averaged vertically weighted simulated CO mixing ratios (˜38 ppbv, compared to 60 ppbv in the MAPS data) suggests that CO surface emissions significantly affect MAPS observations on a weekly timescale. Good qualitative agreement is found between MAPS observations and model predictions on several temporal and spatial scales. Possible reasons for discrepancies are examined. A simulation without cumulus convection increases CO mixing ratios in the lower model layers and depletes CO above, resulting in a complex pattern of increases and decreases upon vertical weighted integration. Another simulation, which included a diurnal emissions variation, produced significant changes in instantaneous local CO mixing ratios, but had a minimal effect on the mission-averaged MAPS comparisons.

  6. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms. PMID:26844181

  7. A study of carbon monoxide distribution determinations for a global transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Leonard K.

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of this grant was to further the development of a global transport/chemistry model that simulates the physico-chemical behavior of methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere. The computer simulation model is designed to analyze the processes that occur as methane and carbon monoxide are transported from their respective sources to their ultimate fate, e.g., final conversion to CO2, transport to the stratosphere, deposition at ground level, etc.

  8. [Research on carbon monoxide multi-parameter detection based on ultra-narrow-linewidth laser].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Sui, Qing-Mei; Miao, Fei; Jia, Lei; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Ming-Shun

    2011-10-01

    Through measuring and analyzing the infrared absorption spectrum of carbon monoxide, a kind of carbon monoxide multi-parameter detection system was designed based on the characteristics of ultra-narrow-linewidth laser and the spectrum scanning technology. A ultra-narrow-linewidth tunable semiconductor laser was utilized as light source and carbon monoxide temperature detection was achieved by measuring direct absorption spectra at different temperatures. According to temperature data and the principle of differential absorption concentration detection, carbon monoxide concentration and temperature were obtained simultaneously. With the spectrum scanning technology of ultra-narrow-linewidth laser, the spectra of carbon monoxide near the region of 6 354.179 and 6 383.09 cm(-1) at different temperatures were measured, and also analyzed and fitted by Voigt profile. Finally the experiments indicate that the temperature measurement relative error is less than 4% and relative temperature fluctuation is less than 3.5%; the concentration measurement relative error is less than 5%, and the minimum detectable carbon monoxide is 0.05%. The multi-parameter detecting system has advantages of high accuracy and good stability, and can be used in power transformer fault gases on-line monitoring in real time. PMID:22250565

  9. Survey of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ventilation in residences of patients with Ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Colome, S.D.; Lambert, W.E.; Castenada, N.

    1985-01-01

    This research is designed to characterize indoor exposure and address factors influencing indoor exposure to carbon monoxide for a high risk population. Background exposure to carbon monoxide is relatively high in many urban areas due primarily to the high density of automobiles. Added to this ambient background is carbon monoxide produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels inside residential or other structures. These sources of carbon monoxide can include gas stoves, water and space heaters, improper use of portable kerosene heaters, gas dryers and cigarettes. The group considered most sensitive to carbon monoxide and at the greatest risk of serious health effects are persons with ischemic heart disease. Therefore, a field investigation was conducted of the indoor concentrations, and factors affecting those concentrations, in a sample of 50 persons with ischemic heart disease. Such a survey is the most direct and efficient method for determining if the combination of source, ventilation, and behavioral factors is sufficient to produce problematic concentrations of carbon monoxide inside residences of high risk persons.

  10. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water in Hot, Hydrogen-dominated Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Kevin; Lyons, James R.

    2016-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres in hot, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. We construct novel analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature–pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios, we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if the metallicity is greatly enhanced, but this property is negated by temperatures above 1000 K. For hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, our generic result has the implication that retrieval studies may wish to set the subdominance of carbon dioxide as a prior of the calculation and not let its abundance completely roam free as a fitting parameter, because it directly affects the inferred value of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio and may produce unphysical conclusions. We discuss the relevance of these implications for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b and suggest that some of the previous results are chemically impossible. The relative abundance of carbon dioxide to acetylene is potentially a sensitive diagnostic of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio.

  11. Conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide using non-thermal radio-frequency microplasmas at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedrick, James; Comerford, James; Abd-Allah, Zaenab; Niemi, Kari; O'Connell, Deborah; North, Michael; Gans, Timo

    2014-10-01

    The conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide using non-thermal plasmas offers the potential to provide a sustainable and efficient source of carbon monoxide that is widely used in industry. To maximise conversion efficiency, a non-thermal microplasma source is developed to operate at 40.68 MHz in helium while minimising the potential for arcing. Operation in argon is also achieved and this offers the possibility for the future upscaling of production. Measurements of the concentration of carbon monoxide in the effluent are undertaken using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and combined with electrical measurements to estimate the efficiency of conversion with respect to variations in the applied voltage and inlet gas composition. The production of carbon monoxide concentrations greater than 1000 ppm (using a 1% carbon dioxide admixture in helium) facilitates the use of this method for simple chemical reactions including the generation of carbonyl functionalised molecules. JD acknowledges the support of an Endeavour Research Fellowship from the Australian Government.

  12. Revised Evaluation of Health Effects Associated with Carbon Monoxide Exposure: An Addendum to the 1979 U.S. EPA Air Quality Criteria Document for Carbon Monoxide (1984)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addendum re-evaluates the scientific data base concerning health effects associated with exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) at ambient or near ambient levels by providing: (1) a concise summary of key health effects information pertaining to relatively low-level CO exposure; an...

  13. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a novel inhibitor of connexin hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Len-Paravic, Carmen G; Figueroa, Vania A; Guzmn, Diego J; Valderrama, Carlos F; Vallejos, Antonio A; Fiori, Mariana C; Altenberg, Guillermo A; Reuss, Luis; Retamal, Mauricio A

    2014-12-26

    Hemichannels (HCs) are hexamers of connexins that can form gap-junction channels at points of cell contacts or "free HCs" at non-contacting regions. HCs are involved in paracrine and autocrine cell signaling, and under pathological conditions may induce and/or accelerate cell death. Therefore, studies of HC regulation are of great significance. Nitric oxide affects the activity of Cx43 and Cx46 HCs, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), another gaseous transmitter, modulates the activity of several ion channels, but its effect on HCs has not been explored. We studied the effect of CO donors (CORMs) on Cx46 HCs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp and on Cx43 and Cx46 expressed in HeLa cells using a dye-uptake technique. CORM-2 inhibited Cx46 HC currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The C-terminal domain and intracellular Cys were not necessary for the inhibition. The effect of CORM-2 was not prevented by guanylyl-cyclase, protein kinase G, or thioredoxin inhibitors, and was not due to endocytosis of HCs. However, the effect of CORM-2 was reversed by reducing agents that act extracellularly. Additionally, CO inhibited dye uptake of HeLa cells expressing Cx43 or Cx46, and MCF-7 cells, which endogenously express Cx43 and Cx46. Because CORM-2 carbonylates Cx46 in vitro and induces conformational changes, a direct effect of that CO on Cx46 is possible. The inhibition of HCs could help to understand some of the biological actions of CO in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25384983

  14. Carbon monoxide binding properties of domain-swapped dimeric myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Haruto; Yamada, Takuya; Mizutani, Yasuhisa; Hirota, Shun

    2015-04-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is a monomeric oxygen storage hemoprotein, and has been shown to form a domain-swapped dimer. In this study, monomeric and dimeric carbon monoxide (CO)-bound Mb (MbCO) exhibited similar absorption spectra. The CO stretching frequencies of MbCO were observed at 1,932 and 1,944 cm(-1) for both monomeric and dimeric MbCO. The resonance Raman (RR) bands for the stretching between the heme iron and axial ligands were observed at the same frequencies for the monomer and dimer of deoxygenated Mb (deoxyMb) and MbCO, respectively (? Fe-His, 220 cm(-1); ? Fe-C, 507 cm(-1)), showing that the Fe-His bond strength of deoxyMb and the Fe-CO bond strength of MbCO did not change by the dimerization. Time-resolved RR measurements showed that the dynamics of the structural changes at the heme active site after CO photo-dissociation of MbCO was similar between monomeric and dimeric Mb [monomer, (5.2 1.8) 10(6) s(-1); dimer, (6.2 1.1) 10(6) s(-1) at room temperature]. These results show that the heme coordination structure, the protein environment around the bound CO, and the protein relaxation character are similar between monomeric and dimeric MbCO. Although the active site structure was similar between the monomer and dimer, the CO binding rate constant of dimeric Mb [(1.01 0.03) 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at 20 C] was about twice larger than that of the monomer [(0.52 0.02) 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at 20 C], presumably due to the expansion of the channel between the Xe3 cavity and the solvent by the dimerization. PMID:25578811

  15. Antimicrobial Action of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Compounds?

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Lgia S.; Seixas, Joo D.; Romo, Carlos C.; Saraiva, Lgia M.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is endogenously produced in the human body, mainly from the oxidation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. The induction of HO and the consequent increase in CO production play important physiological roles in vasorelaxation and neurotransmission and in the immune system. The exogenous administration of CO gas and CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has been shown to induce vascular effects and to alleviate hypoxia-reoxygenation injury of mammalian cells. In particular, due to its anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antiproliferative properties, CO inhibits ischemic-reperfusion injury and provides potent cytoprotective effects during organ and cell transplantation. In spite of these findings regarding the physiology and biology of mammals, nothing is known about the action of CO on bacteria. In the present work, we examined the effect of CO on bacterial cell proliferation. Cell growth experiments showed that CO caused the rapid death of the two pathogenic bacteria tested, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, particularly when delivered through organometallic CO-RMs. Of importance is the observation that the effectiveness of the CO-RMs was greater in near-anaerobic environments, as many pathogens are anaerobic organisms and pathogen colonization occurs in environments with low oxygen concentrations. Our results constitute the first evidence that CO can be utilized as an antimicrobial agent. We anticipate our results to be the starting point for the development of novel types of therapeutic drugs designed to combat antibiotic-resistant pathogens, which are widespread and presently a major public health concern. PMID:17923486

  16. Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Cell Extracts of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Ortwin; Schlegel, Hans G.

    1979-01-01

    Extracts of aerobically, CO-autotrophically grown cells of Pseudomonas carboxydovorans were shown to catalyze the oxidation of CO to CO2 in the presence of methylene blue, pyocyanine, thionine, phenazine methosulfate, or toluylene blue under strictly anaerobic conditions. Viologen dyes and NAD(P)+ were ineffective as electron acceptors. The same extracts catalyzed the oxidation of formate and of hydrogen gas; the spectrum of electron acceptors was identical for the three substrates, CO, formate, and H2. The CO- and the formate-oxidizing activities were found to be soluble enzymes, whereas hydrogenase was membrane bound exclusively. The rates of oxidation of CO, formate, and H2 were measured spectrophotometrically following the reduction of methylene blue. The rate of carbon monoxide oxidation followed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent Km for CO was 45 ?M. The reaction rate was maximal at pH 7.0, and the temperature dependence followed the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy (?H0) of 35.9 kJ/mol (8.6 kcal/mol). Neither free formate nor hydrogen gas is an intermediate of the CO oxidation reaction. This conclusion is based on the differential sensitivity of the activities of formate dehydrogenase, hydrogenase, and CO dehydrogenase to heat, hypophosphite, chlorate, cyanide, azide, and fluoride as well as on the failure to trap free formate or hydrogen gas in coupled optical assays. These results support the following equation for CO oxidation in P. carboxydovorans: CO + H2O ? CO2 + 2 H+ + 2e? The CO-oxidizing activity of P. carboxydovorans differed from that of Clostridium pasteurianum by not reducing viologen dyes and by a pH optimum curve that did not show an inflection point. PMID:33964

  17. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  18. Evaluation of a personal data logging monitor for carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.P.; Shulman, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    Personal data logging monitors provide real-time measurement of pollutants and have the ability to store data over an extended period of time. As such, they can be used to provide warning to workers that high concentrations are present, as well as allowing the assessment of long-term worker exposure. The performance characteristics of these monitors are fundamental to the determination of the accuracy of the warning and exposure measurement data. In this study, the performance characteristics of one type of personal carbon monoxide (CO) data logger (Draeger 190) were evaluated. The monitor displayed linear response over the concentration range 0 to 950 ppm. The 12-hour zero drift for the monitor was less than 1 ppm, and the 12-hour span drift was less than 2 percent at 100 ppm. The monitor showed less than 3 percent variation in response for CO concentrations of 10 ppm to 100 ppm when exposed to CO concentrations in a repeated cycle. The long-term response stability showed a coefficient of variation of 9 percent at 57 ppm for response data taken over a 3-month period, where the monitor was calibrated at a 30-day interval. The monitor was found to reach 90 percent of final response within 20 seconds. Changes in humidity did not affect monitor response, while response did increase with temperature over the range of 0{degrees}C to 40{degrees}C. The temperature response varied between monitors and for different concentration ranges. Some interferences (nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide) were completely removed by the CO-specific filters on the monitors, while other interferences (acetylene, ethylene, and hydrogen) were not. Also, the response to acetylene was affected by the condition of the CO-specific filter. The monitor also responded to hair spray when it was sprayed near the monitor. The hair spray produced a full scale response if it was sprayed directly on the monitor. 7 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. CROSS-CORRELATIONS AS A COSMOLOGICAL CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Pullen, Anthony R.; Dore, Olivier; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Lidz, Adam

    2013-05-01

    We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of large-scale structure (LSS), the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other LSS tracers offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. We propose a novel use of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data set. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 6 and 7, respectively. We are unable to detect a cross-correlation signal with either CO(1-0) or CO(2-1) lines, mainly due to the instrumental noise in the WMAP data. However, we are able to rule out models more than three times greater than our more optimistic model. We discuss the cross-correlation signal from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and dust as potential contaminants, and quantify their impact for our CO measurements. We discuss forecasts for current CMB experiments and a hypothetical future CO-focused experiment, and propose to cross-correlate CO temperature data with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Ly{alpha}-emitter sample, for which a signal-to-noise ratio of 58 is possible.

  20. Carbon monoxide exposures--United States, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of unintentional poisoning deaths in the United States. CO is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposure results in injury or death. CO poisoning is preventable; nonetheless, unintentional, non--fire-related CO poisoning is responsible for approximately 15,000 emergency department visits and nearly 500 deaths annually in the United States. National estimates of CO exposures have been based on secondary data sources, such as hospital administrative records, and are limited to exposures treated within the health-care system. To describe more completely the national burden of CO exposure and risk factors associated with vulnerable populations, CDC used data from the National Poison Data System (NPDS) to characterize reported unintentional, non--fire-related CO exposures, including those that were managed at the site of exposure and were not treated at a health-care facility. Among 68,316 CO exposures reported to poison centers during 2000--2009, a total of 30,798 (45.1%) were managed at the site of exposure with instructions from the poison center by telephone, 36,691 (53.7%) were treated at a health-care facility, and the management site for the remainder was unknown. Although symptoms varied slightly between persons managed on-site and those treated at a health-care facility, most CO exposures occurred at home and most often involved females, children aged ?17 years, and adults aged 18--44 years. Surveillance and analysis of data from NPDS and secondary sources might provide a more comprehensive description of the burden of CO exposure in the United States and assist in the development of interventions better targeted to high-risk populations. PMID:21814164

  1. Carbon monoxide negatively regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Soo; Moon, Jong-Seok; Xu, Jin-Fu; Ifedigbo, Emeka; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K; Nakahira, Kiichi

    2015-05-15

    Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that promote the cleavage of caspase-1, which leads to the maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18. Among the known inflammasomes, the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3)-dependent inflammasome is critically involved in the pathogenesis of various acute or chronic inflammatory diseases. Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous molecule physiologically produced in cells and tissues during heme catabolism, can act as an anti-inflammatory molecule and a potent negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. To date, the role of CO in inflammasome-mediated immune responses has not been fully investigated. Here, we demonstrated that CO inhibited caspase-1 activation and the secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP treatment in bone marrow-derived macrophages. CO also inhibited IL-18 secretion in response to LPS and nigericin treatment, another NLRP3 inflammasome activation model. In contrast, CO did not suppress IL-18 secretion in response to LPS and poly(dA:dT), an absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-mediated inflammasome model. LPS and ATP stimulation induced the formation of complexes between NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, or NLRP3 and caspase-1. CO treatment inhibited these molecular interactions that were induced by LPS and ATP. Furthermore, CO inhibited mitochondrial ROS generation and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by LPS and ATP in macrophages. We also observed that the inhibitory effect of CO on the translocation of mitochondrial DNA into the cytosol was associated with suppression of cytokine secretion. Our results suggest that CO negatively regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:25770182

  2. Risk and protective behaviours for residential carbon monoxide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Damon, Scott A; Williams, Peyton N

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintentional, non-fire-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning death and injury in the USA. Residential poisonings caused by faulty furnaces are the most common type of CO exposure. However, these poisonings are largely preventable with annual furnace inspections and CO alarm installation. Objective This study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that might lead consumers to adopt these protective behaviours. Methods In August 2009, four focus groups (n=29) were conducted with homeowners in Chicago, Illinois, USA, to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviours. Discussions were transcribed and the findings were analysed using an ordered meta-matrix. Results Focus group participants were aware of CO poisoning and supported the idea of regular furnace inspections. However, few participants consistently scheduled professional inspections for fear of costly repairs and unscrupulous contractors. Participants often owned CO alarms, but many did not locate them properly, nor maintain them. Some participants confused CO and natural gas and were unsure how to react if a CO alarm sounds. Participants stated that incentives, such as discounts and inspector selection tips, would make them more likely to schedule furnace inspections. Participants also identified trustworthy sources for CO education, including realtors, fire departments, home insurance agents and local media outlets. Conclusions Participants residential CO risk behaviours are not random but driven by underlying knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Correcting misperceptions, providing incentives and partnering with trustworthy sources might encourage greater consumer adoption of protective behaviours. PMID:22653781

  3. Erythropoietin in the treatment of carbon monoxide neurotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Moallem, Seyed Adel; Mohamadpour, Amir Hooshang; Abnous, Khalil; Sankian, Mojtaba; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2015-12-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) plays a critical role in the development of the nervous system. In this study, the effects of EPO in carbon monoxide (CO) neurotoxicity were examined. Rats were exposed to 3000 ppm CO for 1 h and then different doses of EPO were administrated intraperitoneally. After 24 h, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the serum were determined and water content of brain and the extravasation of a tracer (Evans blue) were measured. Brain lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity Myelin basic protein (MBP) and BAX/BcL2 protein relative expressions were determined. Cation exchange chromatography was used to evaluate MBP alterations. Seven days after exposure, pathological assessment was performed after Klüver-Barrera staining. EPO reduced malondialdehyde levels at all doses (2500, 5000 and 10,000 u/kg). Lower doses of EPO (625, 1250, 2500 u/kg) significantly decreased the elevated serum levels of GFAP. EPO could not reduce the water content of the edematous poisoned brains. However, at 5000 and 10,000 u/kg it protected the blood brain barrier against integrity loss as a result of CO. EPO could significantly decrease the MPO activity. CO-mediated oxidative stress caused chemical alterations in MBP and EPO could partially prevent these biochemical changes. Fewer vacuoles and demyelinated fibers were found in the EPO-treated animals. EPO (5000 u/kg) could restore the MBP density. CO increased brain BAX/Bcl-2 ratio 38.78%. EPO reduced it 38.86%. These results reveal that EPO could relatively prevent different pathways of neurotoxicity by CO poisoning and thus has the potential to be used as a novel approach to manage this poisoning. PMID:26416356

  4. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20–2.54), and those aged <=49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38–4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96–3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545

  5. A fire department community health intervention to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning following a hurricane.

    PubMed

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  6. A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  7. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  8. Life on carbon monoxide: X-ray structure of Rhodospirillum rubrum Ni-Fe-S carbon monoxide dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Drennan, Catherine L.; Heo, Jongyun; Sintchak, Michael D.; Schreiter, Eric; Ludden, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    A crystal structure of the anaerobic Ni-Fe-S carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been determined to 2.8-? resolution. The CODH family, for which the R. rubrum enzyme is the prototype, catalyzes the biological oxidation of CO at an unusual Ni-Fe-S cluster called the C-cluster. The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster contains a mononuclear site and a four-metal cubane. Surprisingly, anomalous dispersion data suggest that the mononuclear site contains Fe and not Ni, and the four-metal cubane has the form [NiFe3S4] and not [Fe4S4]. The mononuclear site and the four-metal cluster are bridged by means of Cys531 and one of the sulfides of the cube. CODH is organized as a dimer with a previously unidentified [Fe4S4] cluster bridging the two subunits. Each monomer is comprised of three domains: a helical domain at the N terminus, an ?/? (Rossmann-like) domain in the middle, and an ?/? (Rossmann-like) domain at the C terminus. The helical domain contributes ligands to the bridging [Fe4S4] cluster and another [Fe4S4] cluster, the B-cluster, which is involved in electron transfer. The two Rossmann domains contribute ligands to the active site C-cluster. This x-ray structure provides insight into the mechanism of biological CO oxidation and has broader significance for the roles of Ni and Fe in biological systems. PMID:11593006

  9. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  10. Carbon monoxide tolerant platinum electrocatalysts on niobium doped titania and carbon nanotube composite supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigdon, William A.; Huang, Xinyu

    2014-12-01

    In the anode of electrochemical cells operating at low temperature, the hydrogen oxidation reaction is susceptible to poisoning from carbon monoxide (CO) which strongly adsorbs on platinum (Pt) catalysts and increases activation overpotential. Adsorbed CO is removed by oxidative processes such as electrochemical stripping, though cleaning can also cause corrosion. One approach to improve the tolerance of Pt is through alloying with less-noble metals, but the durability of alloyed electrocatalysts is a critical concern. Without sacrificing stability, tolerance can be improved by careful design of the support composition using metal oxides. The bifunctional mechanism is promoted at junctions of the catalyst and metal oxides used in the support. Stable metal oxides can also form strong interactions with catalysts, as is the case for platinum on titania (TiOx). In this study, niobium (Nb) serves as an electron donor dopant in titania. The transition metal oxides are joined to functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) supports in order to synthesize composite supports. Pt is then deposited to form electrocatalysts which are characterized before fabrication into anodes for tests as an electrochemical hydrogen pump. Comparisons are made between the control from Pt-CNT to Pt-TiOx-CNT and Pt-Ti0.9Nb0.1Ox-CNT in order to demonstrate advantages.

  11. Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias. Research report, Jul 85-Jan 89

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction. The combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation in 60 percent of the animals. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as susceptible; dogs that survive the test without fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk and are defined as 'resistant.' The effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, the reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. The worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, the observation that carbon monoxide exposure increases heart rate at rest and during moderate exercise may have clinical implications relevant to patients with coronary artery disease.

  12. Risk and Protective Factors for Fires, Burns, and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in U.S. Households

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, Carol W.; Johnson, Renee M.; Yang, Jingzhen; Waller, Anna E.; Perkis, David; Marshall, Stephen W.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; McGee, Kara S.

    2011-01-01

    Background More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households. Methods A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population. Results Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device. Conclusions Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed. PMID:15626564

  13. MECHANISMS OF CARBON MONOXIDE ATTENUATION OF TUBULOGLOMERULAR FEEDBACK (TGF)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, YiLin; DAmbrosio, Martin A.; Wang, Hong; Falck, John R.; Peterson, Edward L.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a physiological messenger with diverse functions in the kidney, including controlling afferent arteriole (Af-Art) tone both directly and via tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). We have reported that CO attenuates TGF, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We hypothesized that CO, acting via cGMP, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), and cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase-2 (PDE2), reduces cAMP in the macula densa, leading to TGF attenuation. In vitro, microdissected rabbit Af-Arts and their attached macula densa were simultaneously perfused. TGF was measured as the decrease in Af-Art diameter elicited by switching macula densa NaCl from 10 to 80 mM. Adding a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3, 510?5mol/L) to the macula densa blunted TGF from 3.30.3 to 2.00.3 m (P<0.001). The guanylate cyclase inhibitor LY-83583 (10?6mol/L) enhanced TGF (5.80.6 m; P<0.001 vs. control) and prevented the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (LY-83583 + CORM-3, 5.50.3 m). Similarly, the PKG inhibitor KT-5823 (210?6mol/L) enhanced TGF and prevented the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (KT-5823, 6.00.7 m; KT-5823 + CORM-3, 5.90.8 m). However, the PDE2 inhibitor BAY-60-7550 (10?6mol/L) did not prevent the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (BAY-60-7550, 4.070.31 m; BAY-60-7550 + CORM-3, 1.840.31 m, P<0.001). Finally, the degradation-resistant cAMP analog dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP, 10?3mol/L) prevented the attenuation of TGF by CORM-3 (db-cAMP, 4.60.5 m; db-cAMP + CORM-3, 5.00.6 m). We conclude that CO attenuates TGF by reducing cAMP via a cGMP-dependent pathway mediated by PKG, rather than PDE2. Our results will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that control the renal microcirculation. PMID:22508834

  14. The open-ocean source of atmospheric carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbins, Aron; Uher, Günther; Kitidis, Vassilis; Law, Cliff S.; Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.

    2006-07-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) atmospheric mixing ratios and surface-water concentrations were determined during Atlantic Meridional Transect cruise number 10, April-May 2000. Atmospheric CO increased from south (mean=74±9 ppbv) to north (mean=151±19 ppbv) with a steep increase around the intertropical convergence zone. Surface-water CO (0.2-2.6 nmol L -1) showed pronounced diurnal variations with afternoon maxima exceeding pre-dawn minima 5-7 fold. Modest regional variations, as indicated by maximum daily CO concentrations, were also observed. Highest CO maxima occurred at ˜11.5°N, where high solar irradiance was combined with elevated coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) levels and modest winds, while lowest CO maxima occurred during periods of high winds and lowest solar irradiance near the western European margin at 45°N. Atlantic Ocean CO emissions were estimated to be 1.5±1.1 Tg CO-C yr -1 based on near-instantaneous atmospheric CO, sea-surface CO and windspeeds from the cruise. However, as spatial and temporal variability in both terms was considered to be unique to the timing and path of the cruise, the mean Atlantic diel cycle of sea-surface CO concentration was estimated by pooling all cruise data into 1-h sections, yielding a mean of 0.94 nmol L -1; and diurnal variations from 0.4 to 1.6 nmol L -1. Using the mean diurnal cycle, the Atlantic and global open-ocean sources of CO to the atmosphere were estimated to be 0.9±0.6 and 3.7±2.6 Tg CO-C yr -1, respectively. Therefore it is our contention that IPCC-2001 (Prather, M., Ehhalt, D., Dentener, F., Derwent, R., Dlugokencky, E., Holland, E., Isaksen, I., Katima, J., Kirchhoff, V., Matson, P., Midgley, P., Wang, M., 2001. Chapter 4: Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases. In: Houghton, J.T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., van der Linden, P.J., Dai, X., Maskell, K., Johnson, C.A. (Eds.), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of working group 1 to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 239-287; 21 Tg CO-C yr -1) overestimates the source of atmospheric CO from the global ocean by around 5 fold.

  15. Anatase titanium dioxide thin film based carbon monoxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Homoudi, Ibrahim Abdullah

    2005-11-01

    Gas sensors are finding increasing number of applications in home, industrial and automotive areas. Incomplete combustion in gas and coal fired electricity plants can generate harmful gases and pollutants. The purpose of the proposed research was to develop titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film based materials for carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing to detect a very low concentration (20--100 ppm) of CO gas. Anatase TiO2 thin films (100--1000 nm) have been developed using pulsed DC magnetron reactive sputtering technique on glass, Si(100) and sapphire substrates. Optimum deposition parameters were determined by studying the crystalline quality of the films using X-ray diffraction. The x-ray photo-emission (XPS) studies indicated a good stoichiometric TiO 2 surface with O to Ti ratio of 1.95 +/- 0.05. Film residual stress was measured using curvature measurements of the substrates before and after deposition of the films. The anatase TiO2 thin films on sapphire showed lower stress compared to glass and Si substrates. Raman spectroscopy measurements were further used to study the correlation between the residual stress and Raman shifts of characteristic peaks to obtain a calibration factor. Anatase TiO2 thin films showed n-type electrical conductivity indicating the presence of shallow electron donors caused by oxygen vacancies. The response of films was tested for 100 ppm of CO in 100 sccm of N2 gas flow as a function of temperature, film thickness, and the substrate. The films show the highest response at 200C. The films grown on sapphire substrates show the highest response. The response is higher for a film with 1000 nm thickness than the 250 nm thickness film. The CO sensor was tested as a function of CO concentration and as well as under different environs: The films respond to very low concentration, 20--100 ppm, of CO gas, with good reversibility. The response and recovery time were from 2 min to 1 min as the concentration increased from 20 to 100 ppm. It can be completely regenerated by turn off the CO gas without exposing it to oxygen or air. The sensor showed sensitivity for CO with as high as 2000 PPM of O2 concentration. It has the same response in dry and in humid environments. Furthermore, the anatase TiO2 thin film with no doping showed to have higher response than the doped films with Cu or La at 300C.

  16. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO suggests that most of the rebreathed CO stays bound to hemoglobin and myoglobin and; therefore, pCO only increased to 0.002 millimeters Hg in the EMU. Hemoglobin saturation after 8 hours was an insignificant 0.4 percent compared to about 4 percent for cigarette smokers in the general population. This preliminary modeling result supplements 11 pre-post index finger SpCO measurements from EMU ground training (mean 0.5 percent versus 1 percent, probability equal to 0.41 from paired t-test) and 10 on-orbit pre-post EVAs (mean 1.5 percent versus 1.1 percent, probability equal to 0.17 from paired t-test) that showed no consistent increase, at least no increase outside the accuracy of the oximeter (1 percent display resolution with plus or minus 3 percent Standard Deviation). Discussion: Simulations continue, but a preliminary conclusion is that rebreathing endogenous CO accumulating in the EMU is not a serious medical issue during EVA. The absence of CO poisoning signs or symptoms following hundreds of EVAs is also good empirical evidence that corroborates the limited SpCO measurements and preliminary modeling results.

  18. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  19. Airborne Observations of Enhanced Marine Boundary Layer Carbon Monoxide over Remote Tropical Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, T. L.; Stell, M. H.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hills, A. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Kaser, L.; Aquino, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent airborne observations of tropical marine boundary layer carbon monoxide included several instances of elevated MBL CO with a notable absence of corresponding enhancements in ozone. Instances were observed during the recent CONTRAST exploration of tropical Pacific marine dynamics and composition. The lack of correlation between sampled carbon monoxide and ozone is consistent with an oceanic source of CO. Carbon monoxide vertical flux will be estimated for all CONTRAST boundary layer transects, with particular focus on these events. Complementary correlative observations of trace organics lend insight into processes defining this composition. The frequency of occurrence will be presented along with comparison to similar observations within other data sets, including TORERO (2012), and HIPPO (2009-2012).

  20. Cerebral infarction due to carotid occlusion and carbon monoxide exposure. I. Pathophysiological and neuropathological investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Laas, R; Igloffstein, J; Meyerhoff, S

    1983-01-01

    Ligation of one common carotid artery and exposure to carbon monoxide has proved to be a reliable method of producing unilateral cerebral infarcts in the rat, allowing controlled experiments in any given sample size. Pathophysiological measurements in awake and narcotized rats has shown that, in contrast to hypoxic hypoxia, the carbon monoxide-induced functional anaemia (3000 ppm in room air) did not stimulate chemoreceptors, thus causing a severe systemic hypotension owing to peripheral vascular dilatation. This hypotension is likely to represent the main pathogenetic factor in this model. An inhibition of ferro-enzymes by carbon monoxide did not seem to be involved. The only cause of death was shown to be diffuse ipsilateral brain oedema with or without extra-vasation of serum proteins. The EEG, the systemic arterial pressure, rotational behaviour, and carotidal stump pressure proved to be reliable predictors of outcome. Images PMID:6886720

  1. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-12-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu]. PMID:26744146

  2. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  3. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOEpatents

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  4. Highly Efficient Elimination of Carbon Monoxide with Binary Copper-Manganese Oxide Contained Ordered Nanoporous Silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Hwayoun; Lee, Hyesun; Jang, Seojun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Ordered nanoporous silicas containing various binary copper-manganese oxides were prepared as catalytic systems for effective carbon monoxide elimination. The carbon monoxide elimination efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the [Mn]/[Cu] ratio and reaction time. The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) for structural analysis. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the binary metal oxides within the nanoporous silica was achieved by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The binary metal oxide-loaded nanoporous silica showed high room temperature catalytic efficiency with over 98 % elimination of carbon monoxide at higher concentration ratio of [Mn]/[Cu].

  5. Detection of carbon monoxide poisoning that occurred before a house fire in three cases.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Toru; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Sasao, Ako; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

    2015-09-01

    In our institutes, we perform a quantitative evaluation of volatile hydrocarbons in post-mortem blood in all fatal fire-related cases using headspace gas chromatography mass spectrometry. We previously reported that benzene concentrations in the blood were positively correlated with carbon monoxide-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentrations in fire-related deaths. Here, we present 3 cases in which benzene concentrations in the blood were not correlated with CO-Hb concentrations. A high CO-Hb concentration without a hydrocarbon component, such as benzene, indicates that the deceased inhaled carbon monoxide that was not related to the smoke from the fire. Comparing volatile hydrocarbons with CO-Hb concentrations can provide more information about the circumstances surrounding fire-related deaths. We are currently convinced that this is the best method to detect if carbon monoxide poisoning occurred before a house fire started. PMID:26004303

  6. Effects of carbon monoxide on isolated heart muscle cells. Research report, March 1989-February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, B.A.; Wittenberg, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    By sequestering intracellular myoglobin of cardiac muscle cells in the nonfunctioning carboxymyoglobin form, carbon monoxide blocks myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen, as well as myoglobin-mediated oxidative phosphorylation. The authors explored the hypothesis that the carbon monoxide blockade of myoglobin function may be responsible at the cellular level for a component of the cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide observed during exercise. At physiological oxygen pressures no greater than 5 torr, after sequestration of approximately 50% of the myoglobin, steady-state oxygen uptake decreased significantly less than the respiration of cell groups for which the fraction of carboxymyoglobin was 0% to 40%. When respiration is diminished, the rate of oxidative phosphorylation also decreases. Thus, they concluded that sequestering intracellular myoglobin as carboxymyoglobin significantly decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation of isolated cardiac myocytes. They estimate that intracellular myoglobin-dependent oxidative phosphorylation will be inhibited when approximately 20% to 40% of the arterial hemoglobin in the whole animal is carboxyhemoglobin.

  7. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-04-01

    Carbon monoxide poisonings continue to be significant and preventable for a number of work operations. This study assesses occupational carbon monoxide morbidity and mortality for the state of Washington based on a review of workers' compensation records for the years 1994-1999. The study characterizes sources, industries, and causative factors, and further attempts to identify work operations most at risk. Records were identified by both injury source and diagnostic codes. The study limits itself to non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisonings and primarily those from acute exposure. A decline in the number of claims was not evident, but the number of incidents per year showed a slight decline. Carbon monoxide poisonings were found to occur throughout all types of industries. The greatest number of claims was found in agriculture, followed by construction and wholesale trade, with these three accounting for more than half the claims and nearly half of the incidents. The more severe poisonings did not necessarily occur in industries with the greatest number of incidents. The major source for carbon monoxide poisoning was forklift trucks, followed by auto/truck/bus, portable saws, and more than 20 other sources. Fruit packing and storage had the highest number of incidents mostly due to fuel-powered forklift activity, with nearly half of the incidents occurring in cold rooms. Adverse health effects as measured by carboxyhemoglobin, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, unconsciousness, and number and cost of claims were indexed by source. Though several specific work operations were identified, the episodic nature of carbon monoxide poisonings, as well as the diverse industries and sources, and the opportunity for a severe poisoning in any number of operations, poses challenges for effective intervention. PMID:11942672

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Pregnancy: Presentation of a Rare Severe Case with Fetal Bladder Complications

    PubMed Central

    Delomenie, Myriam; Schneider, Floriane; Beaudet, Jolle; Gabriel, Ren; Bednarek, Nathalie; Graesslin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy is a rare and potentially serious condition. Fetal complications are uncommon, related to anoxic lesions. The severity of these complications does not depend on the level of maternal COHb. We report the case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman who at 30 weeks of gestation had carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to a fire in her home, complicated by cardiac arrest and severe fetal damage. The child had not brain damage, but presented bladder lesions not previously described, with urinary ascites complicating megacystis. PMID:25834750

  9. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Pregnancy: Presentation of a Rare Severe Case with Fetal Bladder Complications.

    PubMed

    Delomenie, Myriam; Schneider, Floriane; Beaudet, Jolle; Gabriel, Ren; Bednarek, Nathalie; Graesslin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy is a rare and potentially serious condition. Fetal complications are uncommon, related to anoxic lesions. The severity of these complications does not depend on the level of maternal COHb. We report the case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman who at 30 weeks of gestation had carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to a fire in her home, complicated by cardiac arrest and severe fetal damage. The child had not brain damage, but presented bladder lesions not previously described, with urinary ascites complicating megacystis. PMID:25834750

  10. Toward Carbon Monoxide-Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E; Wang, Binghe

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacologic studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO-releasing molecules. The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses the existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues. PMID:26869408

  11. Occupational carbon monoxide violations in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-07-01

    Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide continues to cause a number of injuries and deaths. This study reviewed the State of Washington OSHA inspection records for occupational safety or health violations related to carbon monoxide for the time period 1994-1999 to assess the agency's efforts and further identify and characterize causative factors. Inspection data were also compared with carbon monoxide claims data from a companion study to determine if the agency was visiting the most at risk work operations. Inspections were identified by searching computerized violation texts for "carbon monoxide" or "CO." The study found 142 inspections with one or more carbon monoxide violations. Inspections were spread over 84 different 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes. Most inspections were initiated as a result of a complaint or other informant. Inspections were predominantly in construction and manufacturing, whereas carbon monoxide claims were mores evenly distributed between the major industries. Inspections also may have failed to find violations for some types of equipment responsible for carbon monoxide claims. Forklifts were the source of carbon monoxide most often associated with a violation, followed by compressors for respirators, auto/truck/bus, and temporary heating devices. Inspections in response to poisonings found common factors associated with lack of recognition and failure to use or maintain equipment and ventilation. Some work sites with one or more poisonings were not being inspected. Only 10 of the 51 incidents with industrial insurance claim reports of carboxyhemoglobin at or above 20 percent were inspected. Further, it was found more preventive efforts should be targeted at cold storage operations and certain warehouse and construction activities. It is proposed that more specific standards, both consensus and regulatory, would provide additional risk reduction. Reliance upon safe work practices as a primary method of control in the use of fuel-powered equipment in cold storage or other enclosed and unventilated environments needs to be prohibited. The study further demonstrates how inspection and industrial insurance records can assist with preventive efforts and better focus an agency's efforts. PMID:12083171

  12. Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Black carbon and carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal during W_ICARB: Source characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girach, I. A.; Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Prabha R.

    2014-09-01

    The ship borne measurements of near-surface black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were carried out over Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the winter period of 2009 under W_ICARB, the second phase of Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)'. The CO mixing ratio and BC mass concentration varied in the ranges of 80-480 ppbv and 75-10,000 ng m-3, respectively over this marine region. The BC and CO showed similar variations over northern BoB where airmass from Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region prevailed during the observations period leading to a very strong positive correlation. The association of BC and CO was poor over the eastern and southern part of BoB could be due to the removal of BC aerosols by rain and/or processes of dilution and mixing while transported over to BoB. The highest value of CO observed over eastern BoB was partially due to biomass burning over East Asia. The BC/CO ratio for IGP airmass found to be 20.3 ng m-3 ppb-1 and ?16 ng m-3 ppb-1 during winter and pre-monsoon, respectively which indicate the role of biomass burning as the source of BC over the region. Based on the emission flux of CO from various inventories and observed BC/CO ratios during pre-monsoon and winter, the BC emission for India is estimated to be in the range of 0.78-1.23 Tg year-1. The analysis of scavenging of BC revealed the loss rate of BC due to relative humidity 0.39 0.08 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over northern BoB and 0.53 0.04 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over the southern-BoB during winter.

  14. On the effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene/air coflow diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Thomson, Kevin A.; Smallwood, Gregory J.

    2009-06-15

    The effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in an ethylene/air diffusion flame is investigated by experiment and detailed numerical simulation. The paper focuses on the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition by comparing the results of carbon monoxide and nitrogen diluted flames. Both experiment and simulation show that although overall the addition of carbon monoxide monotonically reduces the formation of soot, the chemical effect promotes the formation of soot in an ethylene/air diffusion flame. The further analysis of the details of the numerical result suggests that the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition may be caused by the modifications to the flame temperature, soot surface growth and oxidation reactions. Flame temperature increases relative to a nitrogen diluted flame, which results in a higher surface growth rate, when carbon monoxide is added. Furthermore, the addition of carbon monoxide increases the concentration of H radical owing to the intensified forward rate of the reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H and therefore increases the surface growth reaction rates. The addition of carbon monoxide also slows the oxidation rate of soot because the same reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H results in a lower concentration of OH. (author)

  15. A Convenient Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylative Suzuki Coupling of Aryl Halides with Formic Acid as the Carbon Monoxide Source.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xinxin; Jiang, Li-Bing; Li, Hao-Peng; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-12-01

    A practical palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Suzuki coupling of aryl halides under carbon monoxide gas-free conditions has been developed. Here, formic acid was utilized as the carbon monoxide source for the first time with acetic anhydride as the additive. A variety of diarylketones were produced in moderate to excellent yields from the corresponding aryl halides and arylboronic acids. PMID:26486227

  16. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... 93.118(e)(4), which was promulgated August 15, 1997 (62 FR 43780). We described our process for... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) C...—Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non... atmosphere. Various instrumental techniques can be used to effectively minimize these interferences....

  18. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) C...—Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non... atmosphere. Various instrumental techniques can be used to effectively minimize these interferences....

  19. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) C...—Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non... atmosphere. Various instrumental techniques can be used to effectively minimize these interferences....

  20. The origin of carbon monoxide in Neptunes's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The CO abundance in the observable atmosphere of Neptune can be plausibly explained by rapid vertical mixing from the deeper atmosphere if Neptune has a greater complement of water than Uranus. Thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations reveal that Neptune must and Uranus may have about 10 times more oxygen than carbon, whereas for Jupiter and Saturn equal enrichments of carbon and oxygen are satifactory to explain the observed CO abundances by deep vertical mixing. Relative to hydrogen and solar composition, the respective enrichment factors for carbon and oxygen are 41, 440 (Neptune); 32, less than or equal 260 (Uranus); 6.6, 6.6 (Saturn); and 2.8, 2.8 (Jupiter). Because water ice is the most refractory ice among the ices assumed to be present in the outer solar nebula, the most massive H2O enrichment is expected for the outermost planet of this group. Thus, Neptune can indeed be regarded as the 'god of the seas.'