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1

CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the carbon monoxide literature related to effects on man and his environment for the consideration of the Environmental Protection Agency in updating the information in the Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide. It emphasizes recent major advances in o...

2

Carbon monoxide  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), a by-product released during the degradation of heme by heme oxygenases (HOS EC 1.14.99.3) in animals, plays a major role as neurotransmitter, regulator of sinusoidal tone, inhibitor of platelet aggregation and suppressor of acute hypertensive response, and most of above effects are similar to or mediated by nitric oxide (NO), another signal molecule in both the animal and plant kingdoms. Previous result demonstrated that NO could act as a promoter of plant cell elongation, acting similarly to IAA, inducing morphogenetic responses leading to expansion in plant tissues. Recent observations revealed that CO is an inducer of cell expansion in wheat root segments, acting similarly to IAA and NO. Evidence also indicated that IAA could result in either the potent induction of HO-1 transcript or endogenous CO releasing in wheat root segments. Additionally, our results suggested that above CO signaling might be related to NO/cGMP, Ca2+ and even ROS-dependent pathways. In this addendum, combined with other previous results, we further proposed a possible hypothesis for CO signaling role in regulation of plant root development induced by auxin.

Xuan, Wei; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Xingxing

2008-01-01

3

Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask.

2010-01-01

4

Carbon monoxide production by algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide production has been demonstrated in Egregia menzies, several other algae and in the higher plants, Zostera marina and Medicago saliva. The ability to produce carbon monoxide is not destroyed by heating the tissues. Oxygen is required for carbon monoxide production by Egregia menzies. A carbon monoxide-producing compound can be extracted by refluxing the macerated algal tissues in 0.01

M. W. Loewus; C. C. Delwiche

1963-01-01

5

Carbon monoxide intoxication  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

1993-11-01

6

Carbon Monoxide and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... or falling, chest pain, sleepiness and loss of consciousness. Severe carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. Can ... mother are high enough to make her lose consciousness. What should I do if I’m pregnant ...

7

Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

Kirkpatrick, John N.

1987-01-01

8

Carbon Monoxide Episodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon Monoxide is commonly thought of as a local pollutant affecting relatively small geographic area. Since most CO emissions result from the operation of motor vehicles; high CO concentrations are associated with the congested areas of large urban cent...

M. Wolcott

1981-01-01

9

Analysis of carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

The degree of exposure to carbon monoxide is most often assessed by measuring the blood carboxyhaemoglobin saturation. This measurement is relevant to investigations of acute accidental or deliberate poisoning and of chronic exposure in a domestic or work place environment. Simple spectrophotometric methods based on differential protein precipitation or dithionite reduction are prone to interference from other haemoglobin pigments and are imprecise for low-level estimations. Automated spectrophotometric devices (CO-oximeters) that estimate simultaneously total haemoglobin, percentage oxyhaemoglobin and percentage carboxyhaemoglobin have acceptable accuracy for carboxyhaemoglobin saturation levels of > 5% and are recommended for most clinical purposes. For the investigation of low-level exposure and the detection of increased haemolysis in neonates, more sensitive methods involving the release of carbon monoxide and its measurement by gas chromatography are required. Gas chromatographic methods are also appropriate when examining post-mortem blood samples where putrefaction or heat stress has resulted in a significant change in haemoglobin composition. PMID:12117442

Widdop, Brian

2002-07-01

10

Carbon Monoxide Targeting Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria present two key roles on cellular functioning: (i) cell metabolism, being the main cellular source of energy and (ii) modulation of cell death, by mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gaseoustransmitter, which presents several biological functions and is involved in maintaining cell homeostasis and cytoprotection. Herein, mitochondrion is approached as the main cellular target of carbon monoxide (CO). In this paper, two main perspectives concerning CO modulation of mitochondrial functioning are evaluated. First, the role of CO on cellular metabolism, in particular oxidative phosphorylation, is discussed, namely, on: cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial respiration, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial biogenesis, and general cellular energetic status. Second, the mitochondrial pathways involved in cell death inhibition by CO are assessed, in particular the control of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization.

Queiroga, Claudia S. F.; Almeida, Ana S.; Vieira, Helena L. A.

2012-01-01

11

Carbon monoxide in foundry air.  

PubMed

The concentration of carbon monoxide in the air of 67 iron, steel, or copper alloy foundries using sand molding was measured. About 1,100 carbon monoxide determinations were made. High concentrations of carbon monoxide were found in the area around the cupolas and the casting sites in iron foundries. The blood carboxyhemoglobin levels of 145 workers from iron foundries were measured. The carboxyhemoglobin level of 6% was exceeded in 26% of the nonsmokers and in 71% of the smokers. PMID:968463

Virtamo, M; Tossavainen, A

1976-01-01

12

[Unusual carbon monoxide poisoning].  

PubMed

Despite of indicative death scenes or characteristic findings of the external examination, about 40% of the accidental fatal intoxications due to carbon monoxide are not recognized before the performance of the autopsy. Six cases are reported which illustrate possible reasons for the delayed establishment of the diagnosis: unusual circumstances of the intoxication or sources of carbon monoxide, only subtle degree or lack of external signs of the intoxication or a competing cause of death at autopsy.--Cases 1 and 2: 53, respectively 54-year-old couple, found dead in a caravan, extreme putrefaction of the bodies, spectrophotometric detection of the fatal carboxyhaemoglobin level in oedema fluid of the scalp.--Case 3: 23-year-old lorry driver, found dead in the tightly closed cab of his lorry, operation of a source of electricity with "environmentally friendly" fuel, carboxyhaemoglobin level 83%.--Case 4: 19-year-old man, found dead in the flat of friends, removal of the CO-source before alerting the police forces, lack of the bright pink coloration of livor mortis, haemopericardium due to atrial rupture at postmortem examination, carboxyhaemoglobin level 65%.--Case 5: 27-year-old man, found dead in his flat, advanced decomposition of the body, residues of a charcoal fire in a metal bucket in the sink, carboxyhaemoglobin level 80%.--Case 6: 42-year-old woman, lying dead in the garage beside her car, engine switched-off, ignition key next to the body on the floor under the car, carboxyhaemoglobin level 46%. PMID:11591055

Schmidt, P; Musshoff, F; Dettmeyer, R; Madea, B

13

40 CFR Table - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to Subpart Aaaa of Part 60 - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits] 40 PROTECTION...Subpart AAAA of Part 60--Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal...averaging times combustion units carbon monoxide limits...

2009-07-01

14

Catalytic activation of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide has direct applications to the industrial use of synthesis gas as a feedstock for manufacturing synfuels and other organic chemicals. Synthesis gas is comprised of hydrogen\\/carbon monoxide mixtures produced from coal and other carbonaceous materials. Its potential uses include production of oxygenated organic material such as methanol and ethylene glycol, conversion to

Ford

1981-01-01

15

[Carbon monoxide poisoning].  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete burning of coals and carbon compounds and is a gas without any typical taste, colour or smell. Defective radiators or gas pipes, open fireplaces, fires and explosions are sources of unintended CO production and inhalation. CO bonds with haemoglobin much more readily than oxygen does. CO toxicity causes impaired oxygen delivery and utilisation at cellular level. It affects different sites within the body, but has its most profound impact on the organs with the highest oxygen requirement. CO concentration and the intensity and duration of inhalation determine the extent of intoxication. Following basic life support, assisted or controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen is essential during emergency care. Hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) is the preferred therapeutic option for releasing CO from its binding to haemoglobin. It has been shown that CO may cause lipid peroxidation and leukocyte-mediated inflammatory changes in the brain, a process that may be inhibited by HBO. Patients with neurological symptoms including loss of consciousness and expectant mothers should undergo HBO treatment, no matter how high their CO levels are. Neonates and in-utero fetuses are more vulnerable due to the natural leftward shift of the dissociation curve of fetal haemoglobin, a lower baseline pO2 and carboxyhaemoglobin levels at equilibration that are 10-15% higher than maternal levels. Physicians need to be aware of the potential occurrence of this life threatening hazard so that appropriate emergency treatment can be administered and fatalities prevented. PMID:10920484

Jaeger, K; Ruschulte, H; Heine, J; Piepenbrock, S

2000-01-01

16

Carbon Monoxide (and Recreational Boats)  

MedlinePLUS

... carbon monoxide and recreational boating. RESOURCES Media and Marketing Materials Members of the press, boating safety specialists ... utilize any and all of the media and marketing materials in this section. Photo Library The U.S. ...

17

Carbon Monoxide and Bilirubin  

PubMed Central

Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, an inducible, low–molecular-weight stress protein, confers cellular and tissue protection in multiple models of injury and disease, including oxidative or inflammatory lung injury, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries, and vascular injury/disease. The tissue protection provided by HO-1 potentially relates to the endogenous production of the end products of its enzymatic activity: namely, biliverdin (BV)/bilirubin (BR), carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Of these, CO and BV/BR show promise as possible therapeutic agents when applied exogenously in models of lung or vascular injury. CO activates intracellular signaling pathways that involve soluble guanylate cyclase and/or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Although toxic at elevated concentrations, low concentrations of CO can confer antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative, and vasodilatory effects. BV and BR are natural antioxidants that can provide protection against oxidative stress in cell culture and in plasma. Application of BV or BR protects against I/R injury in several organ models. Recent evidence has also demonstrated antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties of these pigments. To date, evidence has accumulated for salutary effects of CO, BV, and/or BR in lung/vascular injury models, as well as in models of transplant-associated I/R injury. Thus, the exogenous application of HO end products may provide an alternative to pharmacologic or gene therapy approaches to harness the therapeutic potential of HO-1.

Ryter, Stefan W.; Morse, Danielle; Choi, Augustine M. K.

2007-01-01

18

Carbon monoxide in the home environment  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate carbon monoxide exposure in homes equipped with vented and unvented heating systems by monitoring air and resident expired breath in order to calculate of blood carbon monoxide levels. Carbon monoxide in air and expired breath data were evaluated utilizing existing exposure assessment models for blood carbon monoxide determinations. Results of the study indicated that carbon monoxide exposure and subsequent uptake by home residents are at levels exceeding that threshold of subjective and objective system response and may attribute to ill health. The mean carbon monoxide level in home air ranged from 3.0 to 105 ppm with calculated blood carbon monoxide values that range from 0.632 to 2.681%. 85% of the vented homes studied had an average daily carbon monoxide level at or below 7.0 ppm in comparison to 83% of the unvented homes with an average daily carbon monoxide level at or below 27.0 ppm.

Love, A.L.

1986-01-01

19

Carbon copy deaths: Carbon monoxide gas chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The news media can exert a powerful influence over suicidal behaviour. It has been observed that like-minded individuals are able to preplan a group suicide method using modern communication technology in the form of websites and online chatrooms and mobile phone texting.A case of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is presented to illustrate the recent phenomenon of cyber suicides by suffocation

F. Patel

2008-01-01

20

Carbon Monoxide and Population Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, then to use the data to investigate the carbon monoxide level at a fixed latitude. Using the LAS, students will download data, and then will use Excel to create maps of the carbon monoxide level for a particular latitude. They will then look for trends and explore the population density for selected points along the latitude (urban or rural). The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes.

2010-03-14

21

(Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

Not Available

1989-01-01

22

Carbon monoxide: the hidden threat  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide, resulting from natural and artificial processes, is responsible for more than 1000 fatal accidents in the U.S. and Canada every year. The potential human health hazards from excess exposure to CO are discussed. When exposed to high concentrations of CO, humans experience oxygen shortage, anemia, and heart strain. (1 drawing, 1 graph, 4 references)

Drummond, A.H.

1980-03-01

23

Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. (Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City (USA))

1990-12-01

24

Carbon copy deaths: carbon monoxide gas chamber.  

PubMed

The news media can exert a powerful influence over suicidal behaviour. It has been observed that like-minded individuals are able to preplan a group suicide method using modern communication technology in the form of websites and online chatrooms and mobile phone texting. A case of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is presented to illustrate the recent phenomenon of cyber suicides by suffocation from a burning barbecue (charcoal burner) in 'gas chamber' conversions. Although barbecues (BBQ) are very popular in Britain and widely available, there have been relatively few reported cases of copycat deaths from CO gas suffocation. PMID:18586213

Patel, F

2008-04-14

25

Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases  

DOEpatents

A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

Gerstein, Bernard C. (Ames, IA); Macaulay, David B. (Arlington Heights, IL)

1976-06-01

26

Carbon monoxide hazards in rural Alaskan homes.  

PubMed

Alaska has the highest age-adjusted death rate from unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in the nation. We conducted a study in five villages to determine carbon monoxide levels and sources. Nearly 10% (10/105) of the homes had elevated levels. Improperly vented propane Paloma water heaters were most commonly responsible and produced the highest levels of carbon monoxide. Other sources were leaking pipes from wood stoves and stoves that had been left on for several hours. We recommend that Paloma water heaters not be used where freezing temperatures create a risk for carbon monoxide poisoning, fires, and explosion. Safety education campaigns should note the risks of Paloma water heaters and defective stove pipes, and the need for increased kitchen ventilation during prolonged cooking. Medical workers need to be informed of the prevalence of carbon monoxide exposures. Homeowners can install carbon monoxide detectors, although expense and false alarms remain barriers to their use. PMID:9112790

Howell, J; Keiffer, M P; Berger, L R

27

Environmental Carbon Monoxide Related to Pregnancy Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide pollution frequently occurs due to auto exhaust, industrial emissions, and\\/or cigarette smoke. Exogenous and endogenous carbon monoxide affects blood pressure; however, the relation of carbon monoxide exposure to pregnancy hypertension has not been systematically examined. For the present study the authors recruited a total of 2,707 apparently healthy, non-obese, non-smoking mothers, aged between 15 and 40 years, who

Mohsen Vigeh; Masoud Yunesian; Mamak Shariat; Shireen Niroomanesh; Fateme Ramezanzadeh

2011-01-01

28

40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide...Department of Environmental Management submitted carbon monoxide...Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) submitted...

2013-07-01

29

40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52...Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide âmoderateâ nonattainment...

2013-07-01

30

40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52...York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalâThe November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation...

2013-07-01

31

21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 ...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device...

2013-04-01

32

40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1581 Section 52...Jersey § 52.1581 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalâThe September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state...

2013-07-01

33

21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312 Section...Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in...

2013-04-01

34

40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 90...Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in...

2013-07-01

35

40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 89...Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide as described in this...

2013-07-01

36

40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1528 Section 52...Hampshire § 52.1528 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalâOn...Nashua Inspection/Maintenance program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating...

2013-07-01

37

40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1185 Section 52...Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalâOn November...Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2013-07-01

38

40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 91...Test Equipment Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer described in this...

2013-07-01

39

40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52.1132 Section 52...Massachusetts § 52.1132 Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) ApprovalâOn November...Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2013-07-01

40

Pitfalls using metalloporphyrins in carbon monoxide research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal that endogenously produced carbon monoxide (CO) may act as a biological messenger has remained controversial. Carbon monoxide is generated by haem oxygenase isoenzymes in the degradation of haem-containing molecules. Certain metalloporphyrins, which are inhibitors of haem oxygenase, have been widely used as pharmacological tools in order to establish a messenger role for CO in the brain and periphery.

Lars Grundemar; Lars Ny

1997-01-01

41

CARBON MONOXIDE NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of Federal Regulations, Se...

42

CARBON MONOXIDE NONATTAINMENT AREAS FOR ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

Polygon Coverage of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide air pollution. These standards are part of the Clean Air Act. See Code of Federal Regulations, Se...

43

Carbon monoxide from biomass burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning perturbs the atmospheric composition on both regional and global scales. Amongst others, carbon monoxide (CO) is emitted by fires, which is detectable globally by satellites and therefore suited to investigate the impact of biomass burning on the atmospheric composition. We intend to estimate the magnitude, trend and variability of biomass burning CO using an inverse modeling framework, with measurements from both surface stations and satellite observations. Measurements from two satellite instruments will be used to optimize the CO sources: the MOPITT instrument, sensitive to CO in the middle troposphere, and SCIAMACHY, which is more sensitive close to the Earth's surface where the emissions take place. A first step is to simulate the CO concentrations with a global atmospheric chemistry transport model (TM5) forward in time, given an inventory of CO emissions. The concentration fields are compared to the observed fields from SCIAMACHY and MOPITT.

Hooghiemstra, P. B.; Krol, M. C.; Houweling, S.; de Laat, J.

2009-04-01

44

Does breath carbon monoxide measure nicotine dependence?  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was the examination of exhaled breath carbon monoxide levels as a predictor for heaviness of smoking. In this regard, nicotine dependence was assessed among a representative sample of 1,870 Austrian male military conscripts in a cross-sectional setting. Participants completed the Heaviness of Smoking Index (a brief questionnaire for assessment of nicotine dependence), and their expired breath carbon monoxide levels were measured. The performance of carbon monoxide as a predictor of dependence levels was examined by means of Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Curve Analysis. Area Under the Curve, as well as sensitivity and specificity, were reported for each carbon monoxide cut-off level. The authors demonstrate that exhaled carbon monoxide levels serve as a satisfactory means to discriminate between smokers and non-smokers, yielding optimal discrimination at a cut-off level ? 5.5 parts per million (ppm), with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 83%. However, the results indicate that carbon monoxide levels do not discriminate adequately between different levels of severity of nicotine dependence. The study demonstrates exhaled carbon monoxide as a useful marker of smoking status but not of nicotine dependence. PMID:20924886

Kapusta, Nestor D; Pietschnig, Jakob; Plener, Paul L; Blüml, Victor; Lesch, Otto M; Walter, Henriette

2010-10-01

45

Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup. PMID:23762709

Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Bahaloo, Maryam; Shokouh, Pedram

2013-05-15

46

Carbon monoxide poisoning in a diver.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisoning is a well recognized, but uncommon hazard of sport and inshore diving, which occurs either as a result of a faulty air compressor or from air contamination by the exhaust of nearby petrol engines. The incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning may be under-reported as it may mimic decompression sickness, and respond to the same treatment i.e. hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:1567533

Allen, H

1992-03-01

47

Carbon monoxide episodes. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Carbon Monoxide is commonly thought of as a local pollutant affecting relatively small geographic area. Since most CO emissions result from the operation of motor vehicles; high CO concentrations are associated with the congested areas of large urban central business districts. In the presence of moderate winds and in the absence of a continuing source of emissions, ambient CO concentrations diminish fairly quickly. High concentrations measured during evening rush hour traffic, for example, often diminish to background concentration levels between three and six a.m. Against this background, certain meteorological conditions could cause CO to accumulate over a large area. If such meteorological conditions persisted long enough, background levels might eventually become a significant proportion of the total CO budget. This would imply that CO is not only a 'hot spot' (localized) problem, but is sometimes an area wide problem as well. It would also imply that vehicle traffic on one day might contribute to high ambient CO concentrations on the next day.

Wolcott, M.

1981-11-01

48

40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 89.320 Section 89.320 Protection...89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon...b). (c) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its introduction...

2012-07-01

49

Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

Wayland, B.B.

1992-12-01

50

Carbon monoxide in acute lung injury.  

PubMed

Despite modern clinical practice in critical care medicine, acute lung injury still causes unacceptably high rates of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the challenge today is to identify new and effective strategies in order to improve the outcome of these patients. Carbon monoxide, endogenously produced by the heme oxygenase enzyme system, has emerged as promising gaseous therapeutic that exerts protective effects against inflammation, oxidative and mechanical stress, and apoptosis, thus potentially limiting acute lung injury. In this review we discuss the effects of inhaled carbon monoxide on acute lung injury that results from ischemia-reperfusion, transplantation, sepsis, hyperoxia, or mechanical ventilation, the latter referred to as ventilator-induced lung injury. Multiple investigations using in vivo and in vitro models have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative properties of carbon monoxide in the lung when applied at low dose prior to or during stressful stimuli. The molecular mechanisms that are modulated by carbon monoxide exposure are still not fully understood. Carbon monoxide mediated lung protection involves several signaling pathways including mitogen activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-?B, activator protein-1, Akt, peroxisome proliferating- activated receptor-?, early growth response-1, caveolin-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, caspases, Bcl-2-family members, heat shock proteins, or molecules of the fibrinolytic axis. At present, clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of CO investigate whether the promising laboratory findings might be translatable to humans. PMID:22201607

Faller, Simone; Hoetzel, Alexander

2012-05-01

51

40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section... Rhode Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval...Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to...

2013-07-01

52

Diurnal Variations in Carbon Monoxide Concentrations, Traffic Counts and Meteorology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although pollutant emission patterns play important roles, they cannot adequately explain the diurnal variations in carbon monoxide concentrations found in urban areas. In this study, hourly data from a large network of carbon monoxide monitoring stations...

G. A. Demarrais

1977-01-01

53

DIURNAL VARIATIONS IN CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS, TRAFFIC COUNTS AND METEOROLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Although pollutant emission patterns play important roles, they cannot adequately explain the diurnal variations in carbon monoxide concentrations found in urban areas. In this study, hourly data from a large network of carbon monoxide monitoring stations, with instrumentation co...

54

[Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

Not Available

1989-12-31

55

40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 ...86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial check. (1...2) Calibrate the analyzer with the calibration gas specified in §...

2013-07-01

56

40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.522-78 Section 86.522-78...522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial and periodic interference...taken.) (b) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its introduction...

2013-07-01

57

Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Carbon Monoxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides relevant data concerning the exposure of humans to carbon monoxide within the workplace. Recommendations for a carbon monoxide standard are provided based on analysis of data. The document covers the workplace environment (Air), medica...

1972-01-01

58

40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.376 Section 52.376...Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) ApprovalâOn January...Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation...

2013-07-01

59

40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1887 Section 52...Ohio § 52.1887 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part DâApproval...the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon monoxide portions of rules 01,...

2013-07-01

60

40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263 Section 60.263...Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after...basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon monoxide. Combustion of such gases...

2013-07-01

61

40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1322-84 Section 86.1322-84...1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer...receive the following initial and periodic calibration. (a) Initial and periodic...

2013-07-01

62

40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.122-78 Section 86.122-78...122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer...receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial and periodic...

2013-07-01

63

Carbon monoxide poisoning: case studies and review.  

PubMed

This article describes carbon monoxide poisoning. Using a case study approach, the article covers pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and complications. A nursing care plan is presented to guide the critical care nurse in the care of patients in this type of condition. PMID:21983502

Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Zulkosky, Kristen; Fetter, Mary E

64

Neurotoxicity of Prenatal Carbon Monoxide Exposure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study investigates the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) on the nervous system. Rats were exposed to 75, 150, and 300 ppm CO throughout gestation, and in some cases up to 10 days after birth. At these doses, the mothers were unaffected by CO as determin...

L. D. Fechter

1987-01-01

65

The clinical toxicology of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a dangerous exogenous poison and an essential endogenous neurotransmitter. This gas when inhaled has an anaesthetic effect, which is poorly understood, but which may be fatal if compensatory mechanisms are exhausted, if cardiac oxygen (O2) needs exceed myocardial oxygenation and\\/or if apnoea or asphyxia onsets. Although there is considerable evidence that hypoxia occurs late in CO

Des Gorman; Alison Drewry; Yi Lin Huang; Chris Sames

2003-01-01

66

Does Breath Carbon Monoxide Measure Nicotine Dependence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was the examination of exhaled breath carbon monoxide levels as a predictor for heaviness of smoking. In this regard, nicotine dependence was assessed among a representative sample of 1,870 Austrian male military conscripts in a cross-sectional setting. Participants completed the Heaviness of Smoking Index (a brief questionnaire for assessment of nicotine dependence), and their

Nestor D. Kapusta; Jakob Pietschnig; Paul L. Plener; Victor Blüml; Otto M. Lesch; Henriette Walter

2010-01-01

67

Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

Cooper, Anna Grossman

68

Formation of carbon monoxide in air compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-lubricated compressors are said to contaminate the air they compress with carbon monoxide from pyrolyzed and oxidized lubricants. Experiments were performed in an instrumented compressor to determine if synthetic oils as lubricants would result in less contamination. The results suggest that for all oils the contamination is actually not great. Published results from low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons support this estimate.

T. M. DISTLER

1979-01-01

69

DIRECT CARBON MONOXIDE PHOTOPRODUCTION FROM PLANT MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Initial studies to quantify direct carbon monoxide photoproduction from several plant species are reported. n addition to measuring CO emissions from live plant leaves, emission rates from dead leaf matter were also determined. enescent leaf matter photoproduced CO at rates that ...

70

Validation of MOPITT retrievals of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Validation of the MOPITT retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) has been performed with a varied set of correlative data. These include in situ observations from a regular program of aircraft observations at five sites. Additional in situ profiles are available from several short-term research campaigns. These in situ profiles are critical for the validation of the retrieved CO mixing ratio

L. Emmons; M. Deeter; D. Edwards; J. Gille; D. Ziskin; J.-L. Attie; J. Warner; J. R. Drummond; L. Yurganov; P. Novelli; N. Pougatchev; F. Murcray

2002-01-01

71

Carbon monoxide poisoning: a review for clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning continues to be a significant health problem both in the United States and in many other countries. CO poisoning is associated with a high incidence of severe morbidity and mortality. Epidemics of CO poisoning commonly occur during winter months and sources include: smoke from fires, fumes from heating systems burning fuels, and exhaust fumes from motor

Joseph Varon; Paul E. Marik; Robert E. Fromm Jr; Alfredo Gueler

1999-01-01

72

Carbon Monoxide. Chapter 3: Modeling the Uptake and Elimination of Carbon Monoxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) has received a considerable amount of attention because of its potentially lethal consequences in relatively small doses, coupled with the fact that human senses cannot detect CO. The dangers are exacerbated by the occurrence of sympt...

P. Tikuisis

1996-01-01

73

Concentration of carbon-monoxide in carbonized bodies – Forensic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to determine the correlation between carbonized fire victims’ carbon-monoxide (CO) blood concentration and the cause of death. We have reevaluated and analyzed the causes of death over a 10-year period regarding CO concentrations and atherosclerosis. We have considered the possible usefulness of low CO concentrations as a vital sign in smokers and non-smokers. The

V. M. Popovic; T. C. Atanasijevic; S. D. Nikolic; J. R. Micic

2009-01-01

74

Fermentative production of ethanol from carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

'Too much Carbon Monoxide for me to bear…' are the opening lyrics of the CAKE song Carbon Monoxide (from their 2004 album Pressure Chief), and while this may be the case for most living organisms, several species of bacteria both thrive on this otherwise toxic gas, and metabolize it for the production of fuels and chemicals. Indeed CO fermentation offers the opportunity to sustainably produce fuels and chemicals without impacting the availability of food resources or even farm land. Mounting commercial interest in the potential of this process has in turn triggered greater scrutiny of the molecular and genetic basis for CO metabolism, as well as the challenges associated with the implementation and operation of gas fermentation at scale. PMID:21353524

Köpke, Michael; Mihalcea, Christophe; Bromley, Jason C; Simpson, Séan D

2011-02-23

75

Carbon monoxide from engines in warehouse operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted by the Agricultural Engineering Staff at North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, during the\\u000a summer of 1970 to evaluate the production of carbon monoxide gas due to internal combustion engine operation in warehouses.\\u000a Tests compared gasoline engines and LP gas engines, equipped with regular and catalytic mufflers and with the fuel system\\u000a at normal and 10%

H. L. Kucera; J. R. Mewes; P. H. Orr

1972-01-01

76

Radiation Intensity Parameter Tables for Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation intensity parameters of six molecular band systems and one continuum of carbon monoxide are derived from the existing theoretical and experimental data. The intensity parameters are those needed in the computer code NEQAIR96. The bands accounted for are the Fourth Positive system, B-X, C-X, E-X, F-X, and G-X systems. The continuum covers the wavelength range from 600 to 1000 A.

Park, Chul

2005-05-01

77

Radiation Intensity Parameter Tables for Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation intensity parameters of six molecular band systems and one continuum of carbon monoxide are derived from the existing theoretical and experimental data. The intensity parameters are those needed in the computer code NEQAIR96. The bands accounted for are the Fourth Positive system, B-X, C-X, E-X, F-X, and G-X systems. The continuum covers the wavelength range from 600 to

Chul Park

2005-01-01

78

Carbon Nanotube Production in CO Laser Pumped Carbon Monoxide Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes will be presented. Carbon monoxide in a CO-Ar gas mixture is optically pumped using a continuous wave CO laser. The CO molecules absorb the laser radiation on the lowest 10 vibrational transitions and transfer energy to high vibrational states by vibration-vibration energy exchange collisions. This leads to a highly nonequilibrium energy distribution in the CO which provides enough energy for the CO disproportionation reaction to occur: CO + CO arrow C + CO_2. This experimental technique consequently produces the free carbon necessary for the growth of carbon nanotubes and other carbon clusters while maintaining near room temperature in the plasma. Our technique can produce substantial quantities of nanotubes at low pressure (50 Torr) due to the efficient carbon production and is scalable to higher pressures and therefore, to larger production quantities. We will present the effect of metal catalysts on production rates and nanotube quality for our experimental technique as well as effects of plasma temperature and gas pressures. Single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been observed in the deposited material with concentrations of better than 50 %. The plasma conditions are monitored using emission spectroscopy.

Ploenjes, Elke; Palm, Peter; Subramaniam, Vish; Adamovich, Igor; Rich, William; Viswanathan, Babu; Fraser, Hamish

2000-10-01

79

Observations of carbon monoxide in (2060) Chiron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to a search for carbon monoxide in (2060) Chiron through its well-known rotational band at 2.6 mm during 1995 June 10-12 UT at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory 12-m telescope at Kitt Peak Arizona. The CO J = 1-0 rotational transition was detected in both polarizations of each of two different resolution spectra. The simplest origin for the CO gas detected in Chiron's coma is from the direct sublimation of solid state CO on, or in thermal contact with, Chiron's surface.

Womack, M.; Stern, S. A.

1997-03-01

80

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23

81

Carbon monoxide prevents hepatic mitochondrial membrane permeabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) protect hepatocytes against apoptosis and confers cytoprotection in several models\\u000a of liver. Mitochondria are key organelles in cell death control via their membrane permeabilization and the release of pro-apoptotic factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Herein, we show that CO prevents mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) in liver isolated mitochondria. Direct and\\u000a indirect approaches were used to evaluate MMP inhibition

Cláudia SF Queiroga; Ana S Almeida; Paula M Alves; Catherine Brenner; Helena LA Vieira

2011-01-01

82

40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52... Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as...

2013-07-01

83

40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50...primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide are: (1) 9 parts...

2013-07-01

84

40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269...Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements...photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide in the San Francisco Bay...

2013-07-01

85

Acute carbon monoxide intoxication and hyperbaric oxygen in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modalities of oxygen therapy for pregnant women intoxicated with carbon monoxide (CO) are ill defined. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is presumed to be hazardous to the pregnancy. On the other hand CO entails anoxic injuries in the mother and fetus. We have entered 44 pregnant women who sustained an acute carbon monoxide poisoning at home, into a prospective study in order

D. Elkharrat; J. C. Raphael; J. M. Korach; M. C. Jars-Guincestre; C. Chastang; C. Harboun; P. Gajdos

1991-01-01

86

Development of a Technical Basis for Carbon Monoxide Detector Siting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work was to develop a technical basis for carbon monoxide detector siting for use in general occupancies in support of the continued development and potential expansion of the scope of NFPA 720, Standard for the Installation of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Warning Equipment in Dwelling Units (1). The project included a review of the scientific literature with

Craig L. Beyler; Daniel T. Gottuk

87

Carbon monoxide-driven electron transport in Clostridium thermoautotrophicum membranes.  

PubMed Central

Membrane vesicles of Clostridium thermoautotrophicum prepared by osmotic lysis after lysozyme treatment contained carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase with specific activities three- to fourfold higher than the specific activity of the cytoplasm. The membrane-associated carbon monoxide dehydrogenase mediated the reduction with CO or the oxidation with CO2 of b-type cytochromes and other electron carriers in the membrane.

Hugenholtz, J; Ivey, D M; Ljungdahl, L G

1987-01-01

88

Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

1983-01-01

89

Planetary Atmospheres: Probing Structures Through Millimeterwave Observations of Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millimeter interferometric spectroscopy of planetary bodies provides unique and important ways to study their atmospheres. Carbon monoxide provides significant spectral features on Titan, Mars, and Venus. Observations of carbon monoxide from the atmospheres of these bodies were obtained with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array in order to address specific questions about the state and structure of their atmospheres.

Mark Andrew Gurwell

1996-01-01

90

Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Colorado, 1986 through 1991.  

PubMed Central

Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings were identified through death certificates, by hyperbaric chambers, and by laboratories required to report carboxyhemoglobin levels greater than 12%. From 1986 to 1991, 981 cases were reported, including 174 deaths. Deaths most often resulted from fire-related carbon monoxide intoxication (36.2%), followed by motor vehicle exhaust (34.5%), and furnaces (10.3%). Among nonfatal cases, furnaces were the leading source of carbon monoxide exposure (44.3%), followed by motor vehicle exhaust (22.8%). The importance of furnaces and other home heating devices in carbon monoxide intoxication may be underappreciated if only mortality data are examined. Surveillance of carbon monoxide-related morbidity is a useful adjunct to mortality surveillance in guiding prevention efforts.

Cook, M; Simon, P A; Hoffman, R E

1995-01-01

91

Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias  

SciTech Connect

The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States))

1992-09-01

92

Carbon monoxide binding to iron porphyrins.  

PubMed

The carbon monoxide affinities of iron complexes of meso-tetra (alpha, alpha, alpha, alpha-o-pivalamidophenyl)porphyrin (the "picket fence" porphyrin) and of a "picket fence" porphyrin derivative with an appended axial base have been measured in solution and compared with the CO affinities of various hemoproteins. The model complexes bind CO with much greater affinity than normal hemoproteins; the role of the steric bulk of distal residues in lowering the CO affinities of the hemoproteins is discussed. The significance of this lowered CO affinity is described with regard to endogenous CO. A discussion of mutant hemoglobins lacking distal residues that sterically inhibit the binding of CO is presented. The use of pressure units versus concentration units in equilibrium expressions is analyzed. PMID:293699

Collman, J P; Brauman, J I; Doxsee, K M

1979-12-01

93

Airborne intercomparisons of carbon monoxide measurement techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and included a laser differential absorption method and two grab sample/gas chromatograph methods. Measurements were obtained during approximately 90 flight hours, during which the CO mixing ratios ranged from about 60 to 140 ppbv. The level of agreement observed for the ensemble of measurements was well within the overall accuracy stated for each instrument. The correlation observed between the measurements from the respective pairs of instruments ranged from 0.85 to 0.98, with no evidence for the presence of either a constant or proportional bias between any of the instruments.

Hoell, James M., Jr.; Gregory, Gerald L.; McDougal, David S.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Condon, Estelle P.

1987-02-01

94

An intercomparison of carbon monoxide measurement techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from an intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was held at Wallops Island, VA, in July 1983. Instruments intercompared included a laser differential absorption method and three grab sample/gas chromatograph methods. The intercomparison consisted of simultaneous measurements of ambient levels of CO and controlled injections of CO from a common manifold. Results from the techniques exhibited a high degree of correlation among themselves and with changes in the CO mixing ratio. The results suggested a level of agreement among the techniques of about 15 percent. However, a day-to-day bias between the techniques was observed, which resulted in differences between techniques as large as 38 percent.

Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Gregory, G. L.; McDougal, D. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Hill, G. F.; Condon, E. P.; Rasmussen, R. A.

1985-12-01

95

Carbon monoxide binding to iron porphyrins.  

PubMed Central

The carbon monoxide affinities of iron complexes of meso-tetra (alpha, alpha, alpha, alpha-o-pivalamidophenyl)porphyrin (the "picket fence" porphyrin) and of a "picket fence" porphyrin derivative with an appended axial base have been measured in solution and compared with the CO affinities of various hemoproteins. The model complexes bind CO with much greater affinity than normal hemoproteins; the role of the steric bulk of distal residues in lowering the CO affinities of the hemoproteins is discussed. The significance of this lowered CO affinity is described with regard to endogenous CO. A discussion of mutant hemoglobins lacking distal residues that sterically inhibit the binding of CO is presented. The use of pressure units versus concentration units in equilibrium expressions is analyzed.

Collman, J P; Brauman, J I; Doxsee, K M

1979-01-01

96

Delayed neurologic sequelae in carbon monoxide intoxication.  

PubMed

Of 2,360 victims of acute carbon monoxide intoxication examined between 1976 and 1981, delayed neurologic sequelae were diagnosed in 65 (2.75% of the total group, 11.8% of those admitted). There were 25 men and 40 women. Ages ranged from 34 to 80 years (mean, 56.1 years), with the peak incidence in the sixth and seventh decades. The lucid interval before appearance of neurologic sequelae varied from two to 40 days (mean, 22.4 days). The most frequent symptoms were mental deterioration, urinary or fecal incontinence, gait disturbance, and mutism; the most frequent signs were masked face, glabella sign, grasp reflex, increased muscle tone, short-step gait, and retropulsion. There were no important contributory factors except age and the severity of anoxia. Previous associated disease did not hasten the development of sequelae. Of 36 patients followed up for two years, 27 (75%) recovered within one year. PMID:6860181

Choi, I S

1983-07-01

97

Metastable photoproducts from carbon monoxide myoglobin.  

PubMed Central

The photoproduct of carbon monoxide myoglobin generated at 4 K and lower has a resonance Raman spectrum characteristic of a high-spin heme but in which the high-frequency core size-sensitive lines are at lower frequency than those in the deoxy preparation. Such differences are not detected in the photoproduct generated at higher temperatures (50 K) or in that generated at room temperature with 10-nsec pulses. The data indicate that at the low temperature (4 K), the heme in the photoproduct is not fully relaxed, and from the data we conclude that the photoproduct has an expanded porphyrin core. We infer that the core size exceeds that in deoxymyoglobin because the rigid protein prevents the highspin iron atom from moving to its full out-of-plane displacement at the very low temperatures.

Rousseau, D L; Argade, P V

1986-01-01

98

Methane and carbon monoxide in snow  

SciTech Connect

Freshly fallen snow, gathered at Mt. Hood (Oregon), was found to contain a lot of carbon monoxide (CO) but no methane (CH/sub 4/). This result will be established in the paper and used to show that the atmospheric concentration of methane many hundreds of years ago was less than half what it is today.Rasmussen and Khalil have recently established that the concentration of CH/sub 4/ has been increasing in the earth's atmosphere, at least over the past several years, and that this increase is most likely caused by human activities. If CH/sub 4/ continues to increase, it may warm the earth's atmosphere and thereby disturb the natural environment on a global scale, as well as alter the global balance of ozone in the troposphere and the stratosphere. In terms of global warming, CH/sub 4/ acts similarly to the much publicized effects of increasing carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) on the earth's environment. It is, therefore, of considerable important to determine the amount of CH/sub 4/ which existed hundreds of years ago before human activities had any perceptible effect on its atmospheric concentration.

Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.; Hoyt, S.D.

1982-02-01

99

Sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide on graphene edges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The versatility of carbon nanostructures makes them attractive as possible catalytic materials, as they can be synthesized in various shapes and chemically modified by doping, functionalization, and the creation of defects in the nanostructure. In this work, we consider the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), an important problem in environmental chemistry and energy conversion. Using

Sujata Paul; Erik E. Santiso; Marco B. Nardelli

2008-01-01

100

Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide from gases at low temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A study was made of the low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide using both heavy catalysts (manganese oxide, manganese-palladium, manganese-silver, hopcalite), and catalysts deposited onto mordenite (manganese oxide, cobalt oxide, palladium). It was found that when carbon monoxide reacted with atmospheric oxygen at room temperature the cobalt oxide and palladium catalysts deposited on mordenite were considerably more active than hopcalite, even in the presence of water vapor. By introducing small quantities of ozone into the gaseous reaction mixture it was possible to intensify the carbon monoxide oxidation process with these catalysts.

Solov`ev, S.A.; Belokleitseva, G.M.; Vlasenko, V.M.

1993-02-20

101

Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-04

102

Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking  

PubMed Central

Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

Ozkan, Seda; Ozturk, Tayfun; Ozmen, Yavuz; Durukan, Polat

2013-01-01

103

Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization

C. A. Rohrmann; G. F. Schiefelbein; P. M. Molton; C. T. Li; D. C. Elliott; E. G. Baker

1977-01-01

104

40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide. 52.1164 Section 52...1164 Localized high concentrationsâcarbon monoxide. (a) Not later than...national ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized...

2013-07-01

105

An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

2005-07-01

106

40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy...monoxide. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, Carbon...Plan for Greeley, as adopted by the Colorado Air Quality Control...

2013-07-01

107

Treatment of Methylene Induced Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Hyperbaric Oxygenation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methylene chloride is an organic solvent with many industrial uses. Inhalation of methylene chloride fumes can result in toxicity, caused by hepatic biotransformation of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide. A case of acute methylene chloride poisoning i...

F. W. Rudge

1989-01-01

108

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING NETWORKS  

EPA Science Inventory

A methodology is presented for designing a carbon monoxide monitoring network based on the objective of identifying concentrations that exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). The basis for identifying concentrations in excess of the NAAQS is the Concentration ...

109

21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

110

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) German (Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer ( ... Disease Control and Prevention Return to top French (français) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning English Fiche d'information sur ...

111

Evaluation Program for Carbon Monoxide Meters Utvaerderingsprogram Foer Kolmonoxidmaetare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specifications are given for 25 devices, indicative of carbon monoxide meters and the three dosimeters available on the market. The indicating instruments belong to four types; electrochemical detection, semiconductor devices, detection by catalytic oxida...

E. Aakesson G. Stridh B. Lundgren

1979-01-01

112

“Reversible” left bundle branch block in acute carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

electrocardiographic findings hitherto associated with carbon monoxide poisoning are ST-segment changes, atrial and ventricular premature contractions, atrial and ventricular fibrillation, intraventricular conduction delays, and right bundle branch block2-6. To our knowledge, neither reversible nor persistent left bundle branch block has been previously reported in patients affected by carbon monoxide poisoning. Our patient, a 41-year-old woman, together with her husband and

Nicola Parenti; Nicola Binetti; Tiziano Lenzi

2006-01-01

113

Carbon monoxide control in a high highway tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1.6-mile-long, 2-mile-high vehicular tunnel is planned for construction at Straight Creek, in the Rocky Mountains west of Denver. Both elevation and carbon monoxide in the tunnel will tax the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood of tunnel employees and individuals traveling through the tunnel. Based on present information, it is recommended that: carbon monoxide concentration in the tunnel be maintained below

J. M. Miranda; V. J. Konopinski; R. I. Larsen

1967-01-01

114

Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre-versus postexposure exercise test at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease.

Allred, E.N.; Pagano, M. (Harvard Univ. School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)); Bleecker, E.R.; Walden, S.M. (John Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States)); Hackney, J.D.; Selvester, R.H. (Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA (United States)); Warren, J. (Health Effects Inst., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Gottlieb, S.O.

1991-02-01

115

Review: hemodynamic response to carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Historically, and at present, carbon monoxide is a major gaseous poison responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. From threshold to maximal nonlethal levels, a variety of cardiovascular changes occur, both immediately and in the long term, whose homeostatic function it is to renormalize tissue oxygen delivery. However, notwithstanding numerous studies over the past century, the literature remains equivocal regarding the hemodynamic responses in animals and humans, although CO hypoxia is clearly different in several respects from hypoxic hypoxia. Factors complicating interpretation of experimental findings include species, CO dose level and rate, route of CO delivery, duration, level of exertion, state of consciousness, and anesthetic agent used. Augmented cardiac output usually observed with moderate COHb may be compromised in more sever poisoning for the same reasons, such that regional or global ischemia result. The hypotension usually seen in most animal studies is thought to be a primary cause of CNS damage resulting from acute CO poisoning, yet the exact mechanism(s) remains unproven in both animals and humans, as does the way in which CO produces hypotension. This review briefly summarizes the literature relevant to the short- and long-term hemodynamic responses reported in animals and humans. It concludes by presenting an overview using data from a single species in which the most complete work has been done to date.

Penney, D.G.

1988-04-01

116

Effect of carbon monoxide on the cardiorespiratory system: carbon monoxide toxicity, physiology and biochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to carbon monoxide compromises function of the cardiovascular system primarily by decreasing oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood and decreasing venous and tissue oxygen tension. In normal individuals, with concentrations of approximately 18 to 20% COHb, there is a reduction in the oxygen consumption during high levels of exercise, a higher than predicted cardiac output, and abnormally high concentrations of lactic acid. However, in patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis, concentrations of COHb of 3 to 5% significantly curtailed exercise tolerance before the onset of angina. In addition, there is suggestive evidence in animals that the hypoxia induced by increased levels of COHb induces atherosclerosis.

Turino, G.M.

1981-01-01

117

Carbon monoxide sensors. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the measurement and sensing of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide sensors used to prevent asphyxiation, combustion, and explosion are discussed. Carbon monoxide sensors used to measure combustion efficiency and gas levels in the atmosphere are included. Designs for gas sensors that measure several gases or carbon monoxide alone are presented. Extraterrestrial applications of carbon monoxide sensors are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

118

Material Processing with Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide on MARS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydr...

A. F. Hepp G. A. Landis D. L. Linne

1991-01-01

119

Radical carboxylations of iodoalkanes and saturated alcohols using carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers two radical carboxylation methods using carbon monoxide, both of which were developed by our group. The first method, atom transfer carbonylation, converts alkyl iodides into carboxylic acid esters or amides and the second method, remote carboxylation, converts saturated alcohols into d-lactones. Both methods rely upon radical carbonylation chemistry to introduce carbon mon- oxide, but the key steps

Ilhyong Ryu

2001-01-01

120

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Deaths Associated with Camping — Georgia, March 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, nonirritating gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. CO exposure is responsible for more fatal unintentional poisonings in the United States than any other agent, with the high- est incidence occurring during the cold-weather months (1 ). Although most of these deaths occur in residences or motor vehicles (2 ), two

R Wheeler; MA Koponen; AB John; PJ Meehan; Newton County; KE Powell

1999-01-01

121

Personal carbon monoxide exposure in Helsinki, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal exposure concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured for the adult urban population of Helsinki, Finland, as part of the multi-centre European EXPOLIS study. The arithmetic mean of the 48 h average personal CO exposure concentration was 1.3 mg m -3 for participants not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and 1.6 mg m -3 for those exposed to ETS at any time and in any microenvironment. The maximum 8 and 1 h exposure values were 2.0 and 2.6 mg m -3, and 4.3 and 5.7 mg m -3, respectively. As tobacco smoke is one of the major sources of CO, therefore the personal mean exposures of ETS participants were higher than the non-ETS participants for all averaging times. The long- and short-term personal exposures were higher in winter than in summer for all participants. In order to analyse in more detail the correlation between the time-activity patterns and exposure levels, cluster analysis was performed using 24 h personal exposure profiles of 1 h moving averages. The results showed clearly that the major source of CO for non-ETS exposed participants are traffic emissions. The majority of the diurnal exposure profiles showed two notable exposure peaks corresponding to the morning and evening traffic rush hours. The time spent in street traffic was the most relevant factor for describing the short-term personal exposures. The more time was spent commuting by car the higher were the exposures. The long-term exposure levels were linked both to the time spent commuting and home location. People living in low-traffic suburban areas and working in downtown spent more time commuting and ended up experiencing similar long-term exposure levels than people who lived in heavy-traffic downtown areas, but spent little time commuting. For ETS exposed participants the personal exposure profiles were dominated by both tobacco smoke and traffic emissions.

Scotto di Marco, Greta; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Jantunen, Matti

122

Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Methanogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Different species of methanogenic bacteria growing on CO2 and H2 were shown to remove CO added to the gas phase. Rates up to 0.2 ?mol of CO depleted/min per 10 ml of culture containing approximately 7 mg of cells (wet weight) were observed. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was selected for further study based on its ability to grow rapidly on a completely mineral medium. This species used CO as the sole energy source by disproportionating CO to CO2 and CH4 according to the following equation: 4CO + 2H2O ? 1CH4 + 3CO2. However, growth was slight, and the growth rate on CO was only 1% of that observed on H2/CO2. Growth only occurred with CO concentrations in the gas phase of lower than 50%. Growth on CO agrees with the finding that cell-free extracts of M. thermoautotrophicum contained both an active factor 420 (F420)-dependent hydrogenase (7.7 ?mol/min per mg of protein at 35°C) and a CO-dehydrogenating enzyme (0.2 ?mol/min per mg of protein at 35°C) that catalyzed the reduction of F420 with CO. The properties of the CO-dehydrogenating enzyme are described. In addition to F420, viologen dyes were effective electron acceptors for the enzyme. The apparent Km for CO was higher than 1 mM. The reaction rate increased with increasing pH and displayed an inflection point at pH 6.7. The temperature dependence of the reaction rate followed the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy (?H‡) of 14.1 kcal/mol (59.0 kJ/mol). The CO dehydrogenase activity was reversibly inactivated by low concentrations of cyanide (2 ?M) and was very sensitive to inactivation by oxygen. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase of M. thermoautotrophicum exhibited several characteristic properties found for the enzyme of Clostridium pasteurianum but differed mainly in that the clostridial enzyme did not utilize F420 as the electron acceptor.

Daniels, L.; Fuchs, G.; Thauer, R. K.; Zeikus, J. G.

1977-01-01

123

Low-temperature liquid-phase methanation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Devising catalysts for the low-temperature reduction of carbon monoxide has potentially great importance, since, as even reserves of natural gas become exhausted, CO can become the starting material for the synthesis of various organic compounds, particularly hydrocarbons. This determines the ever-rising interest in homogeneous hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons which are catalyzed by complexes of transition metals (TMC), especially those of the platinum group. We have previously shown that in the case of TMC which are able to undergo electro-reduction and coordination with electro-inactive unsaturated substrates, reduction of these substrates becomes possible. Moreover, by selection of the solvent it is possible to change the extent of substrate reduction. In particular, in a protonic medium acetylene in the presence of Mo(III) complexes can be reduced only to ethane or ethylene, while transition to an aprotonic medium permits one to carry out this reduction to a deeper extent - with splitting of the carbon-carbon bond and formation of methane. The CO and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ molecules are isoelectronic, and this stimulated us to study the possibility of an electrocatalytic reductive splitting of carbon monoxide to form methane in the presence of nonplatinum TMC, in a medium of such aprotonic solvents as dimethylformamide or dimethylacetamide, using sodium amalgam as the reducing agent. The protons necessary for reduction of the carbon monoxide were introduced in the form of additions of proton-donor compounds of various acidities.

Strelets, V.V.; Tsarev, V.N.; Efimov, O.N.

1982-01-01

124

40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate...Provisions § 89.112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate...Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and...

2013-07-01

125

Control of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide via catalytic incineration  

SciTech Connect

Eight commercially available incineration catalysts were evaluated experimentally to assess their application to control hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions in the tail gases from a Lurgi substitute natural gas plant, which were simulated using bottled gas mixtures. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to the effects of temperature, space velocity, and the presence of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide on hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide conversion. Results indicate that within the scope of this study the most effective catalysts are a precious-metal-based catalyst on a monolithic substrate and a nonprecious metal oxide deposited on a solid substrate formed into 3.2-mm-diam spheres.

Brown, C.H. Jr.; Klein, J.A.

1981-09-01

126

An unusual case of suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

The authors present a case of suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning in a confined space with interesting elements related to the method and the circumstances in which it took place. Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental and suicidal cases, but the method used in this case, consisting of burning charcoal in a small office bathroom, presents some particularly interesting aspects. The circumstances, moreover, appear very interesting because the person who committed suicide was an employee of the Public Administration and he had received notification regarding his involvement in a legal prosecution. PMID:22021630

Rossi, Riccardo; Suadoni, Fabio; Cittadini, Francesca; Oliva, Antonio; Lancia, Massimo

2011-01-01

127

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01

128

Sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide on graphene edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The versatility of carbon nanostructures makes them attractive as possible catalytic materials, as they can be synthesized in various shapes and chemically modified by doping, functionalization, and the creation of defects in the nanostructure. In this work, we consider the carbon-mediated partial sequestration and selective oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), an important problem in environmental chemistry and energy conversion. Using first principle calculations we study the key reactions of CO with carbon nanostructures, where the active sites can be regenerated by the deposition of carbon decomposed from the reactant (CO) to make the reactions self sustained. Carbon-mediated CO sequestration produces half of the CO2 compared to the direct oxidation of CO, which is used in the cleaning of automobile gas. Furthermore, the carbon-mediated oxidation of CO to CO2 is selectively favored when hydrogen is present, and could be used to purify hydrogen for use in fuel cells.

Paul, Sujata; Santiso, Erik E.; Nardelli, Marco B.

2008-10-01

129

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide...

2013-07-01

130

40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ...Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and...

2013-07-01

131

Carbon monoxide reaction with liquid uranium-niobium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction kinetics of liquid uranium and uranium-niobium (U-Nb) alloys with carbon monoxide (CO) were determined as functions of niobium composition, exposure time, exposure temperature, CO pressure, and specific surface area of the liquid-vacuum interface. The experimental results indicate that this reaction is a major source of carbon contamination during foundry casting of uranium-2 wt % niobium alloys (Y-12 process

R. H. Reiner; C. E. Jr. Holcombe

1986-01-01

132

Photochemical production of carbon monoxide in authentic rainwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) was rapidly formed when rainwater samples were exposed to sunlight or light from a solar simulator. The initial photoformation rate of CO for rainwater samples collected in Miami, FL ranged from 22 nM\\/h to 200 nM\\/h at summer clear-day-noon time. The initial CO formation rate was also strongly correlated with the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in

Yuegang Zuo; Ronald D. Jones

1996-01-01

133

40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52.243 Section 52.243 ...approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for the Los Angeles-South Coast Air Basin is approved...

2013-07-01

134

Occupational Carbon Monoxide Violations in the State of Washington, 1994-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide continues to cause a number of injuries and deaths. This study reviewed the State of Washington OSHA inspection records for occupational safety or health violations related to carbon monoxide for the time period 1994-1999 to assess the agency's efforts and further identify and characterize causative factors. Inspection data were also compared with carbon monoxide claims

Don J. Lofgren

2002-01-01

135

A Case of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Thrombus in Right Atrium  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide is a nonirritant, odorless, colorless gas. Its effects are prominent in organs most sensitive to oxygen deprivation, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Although less frequently, an association between thromboembolic events and carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown in the literatures. In this case, we report a case of atrial thrombus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning.

Choi, Hyoin; Sun, Byung Joo; Kim, Joon-Seok; Yang, Jeeeun; Kim, Sun-Mok; Park, So Young; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan

2012-01-01

136

Minimal risk of carbon monoxide exposure with oil heat: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas that can be produced by all heating equipment used in homes that burn natural gas, propane, fueloil, wood, coal or other home heating fuels. Carbon monoxide is extremely hazardous even in very small concentrations and can produce injury or death when it reaches only a fraction

Batey

1995-01-01

137

Carbon monoxide poisoning in housing contributing factors and remedial measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of its mandate to improve housing quality, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) is pursuing a number of avenues of research into indoor air quality. This paper describes two phases of a project directed towards reducing carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in housing, that is caused by hazardous heating and ventilation conditions. The paper is in two sections. The

P. A. G. Russell; T. D. Robinson

1984-01-01

138

DIURNAL VARIATIONS IN TRAFFIC FLOW AND CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Traffic count and carbon monoxide (CO) data for January and July from three states are compared in order to reveal any diurnal variations in the two measurements. The diurnal patterns for the 18 traffic count stations indicate that there are average patterns of traffic flow that ...

139

Carbon Monoxide Levels in Bathrooms Using Hot Water Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to measure carbon monoxide (CO) levels during the operation of hot water boilers that use liquefied petroleum gas or natural gas, which are widely used in Turkey. In addition, it was intended to determine how much owners of these boil ers knew about their use and about CO poisoning. CO levels were measured

Ö. Faruk Tekba?; Songül Acar Vaizoglu; E. Didem Evci; Bekir Yüceer; Ça?atay Güler

2001-01-01

140

Carbon Monoxide Levels in Bathrooms Using Hot Water Boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to measure carbon monoxide (CO) levels during the operation of hot water boilers that use liquefied petroleum gas or natural gas, which are widely used in Turkey. In addition, it was intended to determine how much owners of these boilers knew about their use and about CO poisoning. CO levels were measured in

E. Didem Evci; Bekir Yüceer

2001-01-01

141

Removal of phosphine contaminant from carbon monoxide gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for removing small concentrations of phosphine contained in a carbon monoxide gas mixture by preferentially oxidizing the phosphine, in which the phosphine is oxidized with air at a temperature of from 500 to 800 to form phosphorus pentoxide, which is recovered from the gas mixture preferably as phosphoric acid.

Goldstein, D.; Munday, T.F.; Walden, J.

1980-01-22

142

Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from

J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; L. Heidt; W. Pollock

1984-01-01

143

Severe carbon monoxide poisoning complicated by hypothermia: a case report.  

PubMed

It is proposed that the significant elevation of interleukin-6 (>400 pg/mL) in cerebrospinal fluid during the early phase of carbon monoxide poisoning may be a predictive biomarker for the development of delayed encephalopathy. A 52-year-old man presented to the emergency department with severe carbon monoxide poisoning. On arrival, the patient was comatose with decorticate rigidity (Glasgow Coma Scale, E1V1M3). His core body temperature, measured in the urinary bladder, was 32.4°C. Laboratory blood analysis revealed elevated CO-Hb (36.0%) and metabolic acidosis with elevated lactate (pH 7.081; base excess [BE], -19.2 mmol/L; HCO3, -9.8 mmol/L; lactate, 168.8 mg/dL). After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen and several different rewarming techniques, he became alert and his core body temperature increased to normal. Interleukin-6 in cerebrospinal fluid at 5.5 hours after his last exposure to carbon monoxide was significantly elevated (752 pg/mL). However, he did not develop delayed encephalopathy. In this case, hypothermia in the range of therapeutic hypothermia (32°C to 34°C) may have suppressed formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent lipid peroxydation, preventing the development of delayed encephalopathy. Therapeutic hypothermia initiated soon after the last exposure to carbon monoxide may be an effective prophylactic method for preventing the development of delayed encephalopathy. PMID:20674229

Kamijo, Yoshito; Ide, Toshimitsu; Ide, Ayako; Soma, Kazui

2010-08-02

144

Carbon Monoxide-Sensitized Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon monoxide accelerates the decomposition of H2O2 because the propagation reaction (1) competes with the termination reaction (2): (1) OH + CO = CO2 + H; (2) OH + H2O2 = H2O + HO2. The accelerating effect of high concentrations of CO requires the intr...

R. R. Baldwin R. W. Walker S. J. Webster

1970-01-01

145

Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (Final Report)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This is EPAâ??s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO. The development of this docume...

146

Indoor Carbon Monoxide Dilution and Alarm System with Wireless Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a public health problem. Because CO is a colorless and odorless gas, with its affinity to hemoglobin 240 times more than oxygen's, poisoning accidents frequently result from incomplete indoor combustion. For example, an improperly vented natural gas heater in a small room can make the air unsafe to breathe within a few minutes. The aim

MING-FENG WU

2006-01-01

147

The pathogenesis of carbon monoxide poisoning and its combined treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHOD Experiments were conducted on 278 albino mice and 90 rats of both sexes. Carbon monoxide poisoning was caused by the static method of administration [7], in which various concentrations of the gas were given for different periods. In the respective series of experiments the mice received intramuscular injections of caffeine (30 rag\\/ kg), adrenalin (0.5 mg\\/kg), barbital sodium (150

V. A. Pukhov; S. M. Kirov; R. Petrov

1965-01-01

148

AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

149

CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

150

INTERPRETING URBAN CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS BY A COMPUTERIZED COHB MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

A practical, inexpensive computer model for estimating the level of blood carboxyhemoglobin (percent COHb) as a function of time for measured carbon monoxide concentrations (ppm CO) was developed from published studies on the assimilation of CO into the blood of human subjects. T...

151

Epidemic carbon monoxide poisoning following a winter storm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital emergency departments were surveyed to estimate the number of patients treated for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a severe winter storm disrupted electrical service in western Washington State. At least 81 persons were treated. The two main sources of CO were charcoal briquettes (54% of cases) and gasoline-powered electrical generators (40% of cases). Of the 44 persons affected by

Peter M. Houck; Neil B. Hampson

1997-01-01

152

Carbon monoxide … the silent killer with an audible solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for more poisoning fatalities each year than any other toxic agent. The often insidious nature of the symptom progression and its ability to imitate many common illnesses may result in the failure to diagnose a potentially fatal outcome. CO detectors equipped with an audible alarm can alert potential victims of CO poisoning before toxic sequelae

Edward P Krenzelok; Ronald Roth; Robert Full

1996-01-01

153

Heating Oil Company Responses to Inquiries Concerning Carbon Monoxide Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Carbon monoxide (CO) is the leading cause of poisoning fatalities in the United States. We conducted a survey to sample the quality of the information available to the public from Connecticut heating oil distributors regarding these risks. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional telephone survey of oil distributors in Connecticut was conducted, using a scripted set of questions regarding CO

Michael J Drescher; Marc J Bayer; Iris Barko; Lucinda Caros; Mary A McCormick

1999-01-01

154

Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Korea: Public Health Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recent years, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning dur ing the winter months was one of the most serious public health problems in Korea. Its prevalence is still among the highest in the world, mainly due to the unique heat ing and cooking system with anthracite coal briquettes used in most Korean houses. Prevention-oriented ap proaches have mostly failed to find

Sung-Ok Baek; Seung-Man Hwang; Young-Hun Moon

1999-01-01

155

Antimicrobial Action of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is endogenously produced in the human body, mainly from the oxidation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. The induction of HO and the consequent increase in CO production play important physiological roles in vasorelaxation and neurotransmission and in the immune system. The exogenous administration of CO gas and CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) has been shown to

L. S. Nobre; J. D. Seixas; C. C. Romao; L. M. Saraiva

2007-01-01

156

LACK OF EFFECTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON HUMAN VIGILANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous publications on the effects of low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) on human vigilance performance have found conflicting results. While several studies have found statistically reliable effects, none have gone unchallenged. This article presents a critical review of the l...

157

CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN FORMATION DUE TO CARBON MONOXIDE IN RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFKE) ia a well tested model for prediction of COHb formation due to carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in humans. here have been few and relatively poorly tested attempts to implement a CFKE for rats. uch an implementation is of interest because many...

158

Study on infrared carbon monoxide monitoring system used in mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide does enormously harm to people and safety production in coal mine and other industries. But because the situation in coal mine is complicated and the interference factors are diversified, at present carbon monoxide detection system has the general problems of low detecting precision, easily poisoning and aging, short service life, narrow measurement range and bed anti-jamming ability. Carbon monoxide concentration is detected by using the infrared absorption principle, and this detection is applied in many fields. A new optics structure was developed with a reference gas cell, dual light sources and dual detectors in this paper, it could compensate to power source anti-jamming, mismatch of the detectors, gas cell material's absorption, and dust's influence. In addition, an infrared carbon monoxide sensor's mathematical model was built by adopting radial basic function's (RBF) neural network model, so as to dispel the influence of temperature, pressure and humidity. A momentum factor's gradient descending method could be applied to adjust the parameters of RBF neural network. The experimental results show that whole system runs very well with a high precision, a strong capacity of anti-jamming, a wide measurement range, a good selectivity, and an online detecting ability.

He, Yukai; Wang, Rulin; Liu, Zhongqi; Wang, Shufang; Deng, Junmin; Guan, Zhonghui

2005-12-01

159

Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

Ford, P.C.

1992-06-04

160

Evaluation of the Effect of Water Vapor On the Performance of NASA's NMRO Catalysts for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Noble Metal Reducible Oxide (NMRO) catalysts for the low temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide were developed by NASA for the reoxidation of carbon monoxide which forms by the dissociation of carbon dioxide during the operation of sealed carbon dio...

A. Akyurtlu J. F. Akyurtlu V. Ammons T. Battle A. Gay K. Bray B. Washington

2002-01-01

161

THE OXIDATION PROPERTIES OF IRON - NICKEL ALLOYS IN CARBON DIOXIDE - CARBON MONOXIDE ATMOSPHERES AT 1000°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, the results of oxidation tests carried out on iron- nickel alloys in carbon dioxide - carbon monoxide atmospheres at 1000°C are presented. Linear oxidation kinetics were observed for the formation of wustite on alloys containing up to 50 weight % nickel. Spinel oxides appear on alloys containing greater than 50 % nickel. A subscale developed in all

Larry Arthur Morris

1965-01-01

162

Small Carbon Monoxide Formation in Absorbents Does Not Correlate with Small Carbon Dioxide Absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we sought to determine whether an absor- bent in which little carbon monoxide (CO) forms has a correspondingly small capacity to absorb carbon diox- ide (CO2). Completely dried samples (600 g) of Bara- lyme (A), Dragersorb 800 (B), Dragersorb 800 Plus (C), Intersorb (D), Spherasorb (E), LoFloSorb (F), Superia (G), and Amsorb (H) were exposed to a

Erich Knolle; Georg Heinze; Hermann Gilly

2002-01-01

163

Quasi-classical behaviour of carbon monoxide molecules as anharmonic oscillators in the carbon-monoxide gasdynamic laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the quasi-classical behaviour of CO molecules as anharmonic oscillators within the context of carbon monoxide gasdynamics lasers by considering the variation of the quantized total energy of a given molecule with respect to the values taken by the vibrational quantum number.

M. Grado-Caffaro

2004-01-01

164

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DECOMPOSITION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND FORMATION ROUTES TO CARBON DIOXIDE IN INTERSTELLAR ICES  

SciTech Connect

The formation of carbon dioxide from the processing of carbon monoxide (CO) and molecular oxygen ({sup 18}O{sub 2}) via radiolysis is studied within the context of its formation in interstellar ices in quiescent clouds. With the help of isotopic labeling, we were able to 'trace' the atoms and provide mechanistical information on how carbon monoxide is decomposed, and carbon dioxide is formed in interstellar ices. Here, we quantify the production of {sup 18}O{sub 3}, O{sup 18}O{sub 2}, {sup 18}OO{sup 18}O, C{sup 18}O, CO{sub 2}, {sup 18}OCO, and C{sup 18}O{sub 2}. In contrast to experiments using ultraviolet irradiation, we find that upon exposure to energetic electrons, isolated carbon monoxide molecules are able to undergo unimolecular decomposition to give suprathermal carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atoms. Molecular oxygen decomposes to two oxygen atoms. The free oxygen atoms can react with carbon monoxide via addition to form the carbon dioxide isotopomers as observed experimentally. This mechanism to form carbon dioxide is distinctly different to the one observed in pure carbon monoxide ices where electronically excited carbon monoxide reacts with a neighboring carbon monoxide molecule to form solely carbon dioxide and a carbon atom.

Bennett, Chris J.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)], E-mail: ralfk@hawaii.edu

2009-05-15

165

Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas  

DOEpatents

The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

1985-01-01

166

Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals.  

PubMed

The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction. PMID:11538653

Cabrera, A L; Maple, M B; Arrhenius, G

1990-01-01

167

Therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced during the catabolism of free haem, catalyzed by haem oxygenase (HO) enzymes, and its physiological roles include vasodilation, neurotransmission, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti-proliferative effects on smooth muscle. In vivo preclinical studies have shown that exogenously administered quantities of CO may represent an effective treatment for conditions characterized by a dysregulated immune response. The carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) represent a group of compounds capable of carrying and liberating controlled quantities of CO in the cellular systems. This review covers the physiological and anti-inflammatory properties of the HO/CO pathway in the central nervous system. It also discusses the effects of CORMs in preclinical models of inflammation. The accumulating data discussed herein support the possibility that CORMs may represent a novel class of drugs with disease-modifying properties in multiple sclerosis.

Fagone, P; Mangano, K; Coco, M; Perciavalle, V; Garotta, G; Romao, C C; Nicoletti, F

2012-01-01

168

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOEpatents

A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

1996-03-19

169

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOEpatents

A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

1996-01-01

170

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

SciTech Connect

An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

1989-10-01

171

Mechanism of efficient carbon monoxide oxidation at Ru(0001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed density-functional theory calculations using the generalized gradient approximation for the exhange-correlation functional to investigate the unusual catalytic behavior of Ru under elevated gas pressure conditions for the carbon monoxide oxidation reaction, which includes a particularly high CO_2 turnover. Our calculations indicate that a full monolayer of adsorbed oxygen actuates the high rate, enabling CO_2 formation via both scattering

C. Stampfl; M. Scheffler

1997-01-01

172

Mechanism of efficient carbon monoxide oxidation at Ru(0001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed density-functional theory calculations using the generalized\\u000agradient approximation for the exhange-correlation functional to investigate\\u000athe unusual catalytic behavior of Ru under elevated gas pressure conditions for\\u000athe carbon monoxide oxidation reaction, which includes a particularly high CO_2\\u000aturnover. Our calculations indicate that a full monolayer of adsorbed oxygen\\u000aactuates the high rate, enabling CO_2 formation via both scattering

C. Stampfl; M. Scheffler

1996-01-01

173

Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in African savannah air  

SciTech Connect

Recent measurements of tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and carbon monoxide (CO) from the Kenyan savannah are reported. NMHC mixing ratios are among the lowest reported for the continental boundary layer. CO mixing ratios are higher than marine measurements at these latitudes. Biomass burning may contribute significantly to mixing ratios of CO and NMHC's. Calculations based on the reactivity of the OH radical with NMHC's and CO indicate that NMHC's often initially consume more OH than CO.

Greenberg, J.P.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Chatfield, R.B.

1985-03-01

174

Color evaluation of carbon monoxide treated porcine blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of liquid porcine blood, treated with carbon monoxide (CO) at different pH values (7.40, 6.70, and 6.00) up to its complete saturation, was studied. Lowering the pH from 7.40 to 6.70 resulted in a decrease in the amount of CO necessary to obtain 100% carboxyhemoglobin. Further pH lowering to 6.00 did not result in additional reduction in the

P. R Fontes; L. A. M Gomide; E. M Ramos; P. C Stringheta; J. F. M Parreiras

2004-01-01

175

Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Nonmethane Hydrocarbons During POPCORN  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the field campaign POPCORN (Photo oxidant formation by plant emitted compounds and OH radicals in North-eastern Germany) in Pennewitt (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany) in August 1994, carbon monoxide and nonmethane hydrocarbons were measured over a large maize field by in-situ gas chromatography. Throughout the campaign CO and NMHC showed, even for a remote rural area, unexpectedly low mixing ratios. Except a

R. Koppmann; C. Plass-Dülmer; B. Ramacher; J. Rudolph; H. Kunz; D. Melzer; P. Speth

1998-01-01

176

Heme oxygenase and carbon monoxide initiate homeostatic signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous second messenger, arises in biological systems during the oxidative catabolism of heme by\\u000a the heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. Many biological functions of HO, such as regulation of vessel tone, smooth muscle cell proliferation,\\u000a neurotransmission, and platelet aggregation, and anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects have been attributed to its enzymatic\\u000a product, CO. How can such diverse actions

Martin Bilban; Arvand Haschemi; Barbara Wegiel; Beek Y. Chin; Oswald Wagner; Leo E. Otterbein

2008-01-01

177

Ultralow power carbon monoxide microsensor by micromachining techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultralow power tin oxide carbon monoxide microsensors were designed and fabricated using micromachining technology and thick film materials. A microsensor chip, 1.6mm×1.6mm in size contains 12 microsensors at most were designed with no heaters and functioned with a mechanism involving self-heating. The structure of the microsensor composed of suspended planar membrane (75?m×75?m×1?m) attached by bridging beams or double crossed bridging

Ping Ping Tsai; I-Cherng Chen; Chao-Jen Ho

2001-01-01

178

Prenatal exposure to carbon monoxide: learning and memory deficits. [Rats  

SciTech Connect

Exposing pregnant rats to carbon monoxide (150 parts per million) produced only minor reductions in the birth weights of the pups and gave no evidence of overt teratogenesis. However, behavioral evaluation of learning and memory processes in a two-way avoidance task suggested a functional deficit in the central nervous system of the exposed offspring. Multiple dependent measures and specific control groups confirmed that this deficit was independent of nonassociative or motivational alterations.

Mactutus, C.F.; Fechter, L.D.

1984-01-27

179

Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.  

PubMed

An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed. PMID:2677388

Severance, H W; Kolb, J C; Carlton, F B; Jorden, R C

1989-10-01

180

Numerical Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Near Highways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical models have been designed to compute carbon monoxide concentrations in the vicinity of a plane highway and a depressed highway in Toronto. The non-steady two-dimensional diffusion equation is integrated in time until steady conditions are attained. Diffusivities vary both horizontally and vertically. Near the highway, diffusivities are higher over the highway (20 m2 sec1) than to the sides. At

Maurice B. Danard

1972-01-01

181

Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Research activity has included continued mechanistic investigations of the nucleophilic activation of carbon monoxide such as homogeneous catalysis of the water gas shift and key steps in the relevant catalytic cycles. Other investigations of related processes included the application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate quantitatively reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and other functionalizations. 8 refs.

Ford, P.C.

1991-09-04

182

Heme Oxygenase1 and Carbon Monoxide in Vascular Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gaseous signaling molecules nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), which are generated endogenously by the heme oxygenase\\u000a (HO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) systems, respectively, play significant roles in the regulation of vascular function.\\u000a The HO enzymes exist in both constitutive (HO-2, HO-3) and inducible (HO-1) isoforms, the latter identified as a component\\u000a of the cellular stress response.

Stefan W. Ryter; Augustine M. K. Choi

183

NAST-I remote sensing and carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared radiance spectra from near nadir observations have provided information about tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO). The NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) aboard a high altitude aircraft with a spectral coverage of 650-2700 cm-1 and a spectral resolution of 0.25 cm-1 has been successfully collecting the data during many field campaigns. The spectral sensitivity of CO retrievals to uncertainties in atmospheric

Daniel K. Zhou; William L. Smith; Allen M. Larar; Melody A. Avery; Jun Li; Xu Liu; Jean-Luc Moncet; Nikita S. Pougatchev

2003-01-01

184

Some Physical Properties of Compressed Gases. II, Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writers have adjusted and extrapolated the compressibility data obtained by Bartlett and his collaborators on carbon monoxide, so that accurate p-v-T relations from -70° to 400° and up to 1200 atm. are available. The relatively low pressure isotherms of Scott at 25° and of Goig-Botella at 0°, 12.44°, and 20.22° are included. Derivatives are obtained by the graphical scheme

W. Edwards Deming; Lola E. Shupe

1931-01-01

185

Carbon monoxide sensors. January 1970-April 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1970-April 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the measurement and sensing of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide sensors used to prevent asphyxiation, combustion, and explosion are discussed. Carbon monoxide sensors used to measure combustion efficiency and gas levels in the atmosphere are included. Designs for gas sensors that measure several gases or carbon monoxide alone are presented. Extraterrestrial applications of carbon monoxide sensors are excluded. (Contains 140 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-04-01

186

A role for nickel-iron cofactors in biological carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide utilization  

PubMed Central

Ni-Fe containing enzymes are involved in the biological utilization of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Interest in these enzymes has increased in recent years due to hydrogen fuel initiatives and concerns over development of new methods for CO2 sequestration. One Ni-Fe enzyme called carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) is a key player in the global carbon cycle and carries out the interconversion of the environmental pollutant CO and the greenhouse gas CO2. The Ni-Fe center responsible for this important chemistry, the C-cluster, has been the source of much controversy, but several recent structural studies have helped to direct the field toward a unifying mechanism. Here we summarize the current state of understanding of this fascinating metallocluster.

Kung, Yan; Drennan, Catherine L.

2010-01-01

187

Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from in situ generated cobalt nanoparticles and carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized via a catalytic process of CO disproportionation over the in situ formed cobalt nanoparticles on an MgO support. For this purpose Co(CO)3NO was used as the source of both cobalt and carbon monoxide. Well-dispersed cobalt nanoparticles supported on MgO gave rise to a narrow size distribution for the generated nanotubes. The carbonaceous materials were separated

Rohit Kumar Rana; Yuri Koltypin; Aharon Gedanken

2001-01-01

188

Concurrent measurements of black carbon aerosol and carbon monoxide at Mace Head  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous measurements of white light attenuation (ATN) through a quartz fiber filter (related to aerosol black carbon content) and of carbon monoxide (CO) carried out over the period December 1991 through July 1992 at the Mace Head atmospheric field research station (53ø19'N, 9ø54'W) near Carna, County Galway on the west coast of Ireland are presented. Isentropic air flow back trajectories,

S. G. Jennings; T. G. Spain; B. G. Doddridge; H. Maring; B. P. Kelly; A. D. A. Hansen

1996-01-01

189

78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan...monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan for the Fairbanks Area, and associated revisions to sections of the Fairbanks Transportation Control Program,...

2013-08-09

190

Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

DOEpatents

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

1983-01-01

191

Carbon monoxide reaction with liquid uranium-niobium alloys  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics of liquid uranium and uranium-niobium (U-Nb) alloys with carbon monoxide (CO) were determined as functions of niobium composition, exposure time, exposure temperature, CO pressure, and specific surface area of the liquid-vacuum interface. The experimental results indicate that this reaction is a major source of carbon contamination during foundry casting of uranium-2 wt % niobium alloys (Y-12 process number 3036), being at least ten times as important as the yttria coating reaction with graphite. Uranium alloy reactions with CO decrease with increasing niobium concentration, indicating that most CO-produced carbon contamination in 3036 castings occurs from reaction with uranium feed. The reaction kinetics of CO with U-Nb alloys are consistent with CO diffusion at the liquid-vacuum interface as the rate-determining step. 5 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Reiner, R.H.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

1986-12-01

192

Carbon monoxide absorption through the oral and nasal mucosae of cynomolgus monkeys  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that blood levels of carbon monoxide increase during cigarette smoking. It has genrally been assumed that increases in blood levels of carbon monoxide could be interpreted as evidence that deep lung penetration of cigarette smoke had occurred. This study was designed to examine whether increased blood levels of carbon monoxide could result from absorption in the nasal and oral cavitites. The nasal and oral cavities of cynomolgus monkeys were exposed, independently of the lungs, to cigarette smoke under rigorous smoking conditions. Pre- and post-exposure blood levels of carbon monoxide were measured. As a positive control, similar volumes of cigarette smoke were passed directly into the lungs, thus bypassing the oral and nasal cavities, and blood levels of carbon monoxide were again measured. The results inidcate that absorption of carbon monoxide in the oral and nasal cavities is negligible under the heavy smoking regimen employed here, and hence, would be negligible under normal smoking conditions.

Schoenfisch, W.H. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee); Hoop, K.A.

1980-05-01

193

End-tidal carbon monoxide measurements in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to compare the end-tidal carbon monoxide breath levels in pregnant women with and without pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. Study Design: We prospectively performed end-tidal carbon monoxide measurements corrected for ambient carbon monoxide in nonsmoking women during late gestation (>31 weeks). The study group included 22 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension or symptoms of preeclampsia and a control group

Micha Baum; Eyal Schiff; Doron Kreiser; Phyllis A. Dennery; David K. Stevenson; Thelma Rosenthal; Daniel S. Seidman

2000-01-01

194

Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure  

SciTech Connect

At higher altitudes, ambient carbon monoxide levels are increasing with the number of residents and tourists and their use of motor vehicles and heating devices (such as fireplaces, furnaces, and stoves). Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide or high altitude causes pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as in animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Data from acute studies and theoretical considerations suggest that carbon monoxide inhaled at altitude may be more detrimental than carbon monoxide inhaled at sea level. It is not known, however, if the cardiovascular system adapts or deteriorates with continuous, concurrent exposure to carbon monoxide and high altitude. Male laboratory rats were exposed for six weeks in steel barometric chambers to altitudes ranging from 3,300 ft (ambient) to 18,000 ft and to concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 parts per million (ppm)2. Carbon monoxide had no effect on body weight at any altitude. There was a tendency for hematocrit to increase even at the lowest concentration of carbon monoxide (9 ppm), but the increase did not become significant until 100 ppm. At 10,000 ft, there was a tendency for total heart weight to increase in rats inhaling 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Although its effects on the heart at altitude are complex, carbon monoxide, in concentrations of 500 ppm or less, had little effect on the right ventricle; it did not exacerbate any effects due to altitude. There was a tendency for the left ventricle weight to increase with exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide at altitude, but the increase was not significant until 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance were unaffected by exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide or 10,000-ft altitude singly or in combination.

McGrath, J.J. (Texas Tech Univ. Health Sciences Center, Lubbock (USA))

1989-07-01

195

Gas chromatographic measurement of carbon monoxide in hydrocarbon matrices with a redox chemiluminescence detector.  

PubMed

The rapid measurement of trace levels of carbon monoxide in ethylene by gas chromatography with redox chemiluminescence detection is described. Linear response for carbon monoxide over three decades and a detection limit in the sub-parts per million by volume (ppmv) concentration range were observed without methanation or preconcentration of the sample. Samples containing 0.2 ppmv of carbon monoxide in ethylene were readily quantitated. PMID:3624368

Sievers, R E; Shearer, R L; Barkley, R M

1987-06-12

196

Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

1992-12-20

197

[Vibrational and rotational spectrum of carbon monoxide at high temperature].  

PubMed

The total partition function was calculated for carbon monoxide with approximation. Using the dipole moment function and the wave function with Morse approximation, we computed the matrix elements of vibrational-rotational transition and absorption coefficient at normal and high temperature. The computed results agreed with the HITRAN database and literature, which shows that the calculation of total partition function and matrix elements of vibrational-rotational transition is reliable. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient and radiant spectrum are also presented at higher temperature of 4 000 and 6 000 K. PMID:23697098

Qi, Xin-Hua; Su, Tie; Yang, Fu-Rong; Bao, Wei-Yi; Chen, Li

2013-02-01

198

Carbon Monoxide Triplet Rydberg Series in the f Complex Region.  

PubMed

Using a multistep state-selective excitation scheme, fluorescence-dip spectra of carbon monoxide have been recorded in the energy region between 106 100 and 112 200 cm(-1). Prominent groups of bands were tentatively identified as transitions into the 6f em leader10f (v=0) and 9psigma em leader11psigma (v=0) triplet Rydberg series. For the f complex states, molecular constants have been calculated. The triplet f levels show an unusually large rotational constant and are located at higher energies than their singlet counterparts. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11281691

Mellinger, Axel; Rohwer, Erich G.; Vidal, Carl Rudolf

2001-04-01

199

Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in African savannah air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements of tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and carbon monoxide (CO) from the Kenyan savannah are reported. NMHC mixing ratios are among the lowest reported for the continental boundary layer. CO mixing ratios are higher than marine measurements at these latitudes. Biomass burning may contribute significantly to mixing ratios of CO and NMHC’s. Calculations based on the reactivity of the OH radical with NMHC’s and CO indicate that NMHC’s often initially consume more OH than CO.

Greenberg, J. P.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Chatfield, R. B.

200

Quoth the Raven: carbon monoxide and nothing more  

PubMed Central

The articles contained in this review series exemplify the diverse applications and succinct biological relevance of this simple gas. Articles summarizing the important effects of carbon monoxide in preventing the rejection of an organ, in its neuroprotective properties in piglets, regulation of mycobacterial growth, in its anti-inflammatory effects in the gut and in its use in new and innovative modalities and avenues by which to harness adjuvant therapies are eloquently and precisely described and reviewed. Each of these reports offers but a glimpse of continued prudent and sound evidence that this simple diatomic gas offers astonishingly potent and extremely diverse biological and medicinal qualities.

2013-01-01

201

Freeze-out of carbon monoxide in calorimetry tests  

SciTech Connect

The amount of carbon monoxide recovered from calorimetry tests of high explosives is far larger than the amount predicted by equilibrium calculations. The present analysis shows that chemical reactions which produce CH{sub 4} are the most important ones to lead to equilibrium below 1000 K but are effectively blocked by a rapid cooling of the calorimetric bomb. Furthermore, reaction CO + H{sub 2}O -> H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}, which is the key reaction at T > 1000 K slows down at lower temperatures. The observed overabundance of CO is a direct consequence of both factors.

Ree, F.H.; Pitz, W.J.; Thiel, M. van [and others

1995-08-22

202

Preventing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Information for Older Adults and Their Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... of this fact sheet can be ordered at: http://www.epa.gov/aging/resources/ factsheets/order.htm ... aapcc.org U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Carbon Monoxide http://www.epa.gov/iaq/co.html CDC Carbon ...

203

Estimating Carbon Monoxide Air Quality Impacts from Woodstoves.  

SciTech Connect

This task report presents a methodology for the identification of suspected carbon monoxide (CO) air quality impacts from the use of woodstoves. A testing methodology was developed from reviewing wintertime CO, fine particulate, heating degree days and wood use data from Northwestern cities. The methodology was evaluated at residential sites in six Northwestern cities: Boise, Idaho; Eugene, Oregon; Libby and Missoula, Montana; Portland, Oregon; and Yakima, Washington. Upper-limit estimates of CO originating from residential wood combustion (RWC) were made at the six sites. In addition to developing and evaluating this primary testing methodology, the role of temporal patterns, chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling, and Carbon-14 in the identification of suspected CO air quality problems from the use of woodstoves was also investigated, and the results are presented in the report. 62 refs., 49 figs., 11 tabs.

Houck, James E.; Simons, Carl A.; Pritchett, Lyle C.

1988-09-01

204

Efficient stable catalysts for low temperature carbon monoxide oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Octahedral molecular sieves (OMS), doped with Ag{sup +}, Co{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+}, have been tested for their catalytic activity for carbon monoxide oxidation at low temperatures for long times on stream. Metal loaded OMS materials are highly active for this catalytic reaction and compare favorably with other catalysts such as Hopcalite-like CuMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalysts, supported Ag catalysts, and supported noble-metal catalysts, especially with respect to resistance to deactivation in a long run. Co-doped OMS-2 has been tested for selective oxidation in the presence of a large surplus of hydrogen in the feed gas. This catalyst shows nearly exclusive oxidation of CO versus hydrogen with oxygen present in stoichiometric amounts with carbon monoxide. It stability against reduction in CO or H{sub 2} containing gas is demonstrated from comparisons of X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectra before and after exposure to these gases. Average oxidation numbers and populations of Mn valence states were determined for these catalysts. Catalytic activity of doped OMS catalysts toward CO oxidation shows a correlation among average oxidation number of Mn and the position and nature of the doped cation. The structure of the active sites and the mechanism of the reaction are proposed.

Xia, G.G.; Yin, Y.G.; Willis, W.S.; Wang, J.Y.; Suib, S.L. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

1999-07-01

205

A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs  

SciTech Connect

In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

1991-11-01

206

Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide-dependent production of H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and CH/sub 4/ was detected in crude cell extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. This metabolic transformation was associated with an active methyl viologen-linked CO dehydrogenase activity (5 to 10 U/mg of protein). Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was inhibited 85% by 10 ..mu..M KCN and was rapidly inactivated by O/sub 2/. The enzyme was nearly homogenous after 20-fold purification, indicating that a significant proportion of soluble cell protein was CO dehydrogenase (ca. 5%). The native purified enzyme displayed a molecular weight of 232,000 and a two-subunit composition of 92,000 and 18,000 daltons. The enzyme was shown to contain nickel by isolation of radioactive CO dehydrogenase from cells grown in /sup 63/Ni. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed an apparent K/sub m/ of 5 mM for CO and a V/sub max/ of 1300 U/mg of protein. The spectral properties of the enzyme were similar to those published for CO dehydrogenase from acetogenic anaerobes. The physiological functions of the enzyme are discussed.

Krzycki, J.A.; Zeikus, J.G.

1984-04-01

207

Neuroprotective, neurotherapeutic, and neurometabolic effects of carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

Studies in animal models show that the primary mechanism by which heme-oxygenases impart beneficial effects is due to the gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO). Produced in humans mainly by the catabolism of heme by heme-oxygenase, CO is a neurotransmitter important for multiple neurologic functions and affects several intracellular pathways as a regulatory molecule. Exogenous administration of inhaled CO or carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORM's) impart similar neurophysiological responses as the endogenous gas. Its' involvement in important neuronal functions suggests that regulation of CO synthesis and biochemical properties may be clinically relevant to neuroprotection and the key may be a change in metabolic substrate from glucose to lactate. Currently, the drug is under development as a therapeutic agent and safety studies in humans evaluating the safety and tolerability of inhaled doses of CO show no clinically important abnormalities, effects, or changes over time in laboratory safety variables. As an important therapeutic option, inhaled CO has entered clinical trials and its clinical role as a neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic agent has been suggested. In this article, we review the neuroprotective effects of endogenous CO and discuss exogenous CO as a neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic agent. PMID:23270619

Mahan, Vicki L

2012-12-27

208

40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

209

40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330...Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330...monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

210

40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) C Appendix C to Part...Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) Measurement Principle...Measurements are based on the absorption of infrared radiation by carbon monoxide (CO)...

2010-07-01

211

40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) C Appendix C to Part...Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry) Measurement Principle...Measurements are based on the absorption of infrared radiation by carbon monoxide (CO)...

2009-07-01

212

Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. CASE PRESENTATION: A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found

Luke Bennetto; Louise Powter; Neil J Scolding

2008-01-01

213

CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN FOUR U.S. CITIES DURING THE WINTER OF 1981  

EPA Science Inventory

Portable monitors were used to measure time averaged personal exposures (10-30 min) to carbon monoxide. Data were collected from January through March 1981 in four cities where carbon monoxide ambient levels in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards have been reported: ...

214

Does public education reduce ice storm-related carbon monoxide exposure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public education to prevent carbon monoxide exposure during ice storms has been recommended; its effects remain unexamined. We compared patients seen for carbon monoxide inhalation at the area’s only academic Emergency Department during 1991 and 2003 ice storms; educational efforts were more intense in 2003. There were fewer patients during the second storm (45 vs. 55); all recovered fully. The

George Lin; Gregory P. Conners

2005-01-01

215

Background Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide: Observed Changes Over the Last Fifteen Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts have been underway during the last two decades to minimize emissions of carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide (CO) data from over eighty locations are analyzed to see if they give indications of a reduction in background CO levels. Many of these locations have records beginning in the late 1980's or early 1990's. The data show localized changes

P. C. Novelli; E. C. Weatherhead

2005-01-01

216

Analysis of Multiplatform CO (Carbon Monoxide) Measurements During Trace-P Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon monoxide is considered mission critical (TRACE-P NRA) because it is one of the gases involved in controlling the oxidizing power of the atmosphere and, as a tracer gas, is valuable in interpreting mission data sets. Carbon monoxide exhibits interan...

N. S. Pougatchev

2004-01-01

217

Unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States, 1979 through 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. To describe the epidemiology of recent unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning deaths in the United States. DESIGN. Descriptive analysis of carbon monoxide-related deaths in the United States from 1979 through 1988, based on death certificate reports compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics. POPULATION STUDIED. All US deaths, 1979 through 1988. RESULTS. We reviewed data from 56,133 death certificates

N. Cobb; R. A. Etzel

1991-01-01

218

[Morphofunctional interaction of adrenal zones in acute lethal carbon monoxide poisoning in people with alcoholic intoxication].  

PubMed

Morphological examination of human epinephroses at acute lethal poisoning with carbon monoxide against a background of alcoholic intoxication was done. Acute lethal poisoning with carbon monoxide decreases effect of alcoholic intoxication upon morphofunctional state of epinephroses and disorders characteristics of interzonal interaction. Interaction between zones of one epinephros recedes but interaction between both glands increases. PMID:18159751

Aliab'ev, F V; Paderov, Iu M; Novoselov, V P; Iaushev, T R

219

Photolysis of the Carbon Monoxide Complex of Myoglobin: Nanosecond Time Resolved Crystallography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological activity of macromolecules is accompanied by rapid structural changes. The photosensitivity of the carbon monoxide complex of myoglobin was used at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility to obtain pulsed, Laue x-ray diffraction data with nanosecond time resolution during the process of heme and protein relaxation after carbon monoxide photodissociation and during rebinding. These time-resolved experiments reveal the structures

Vukica Srajer; Tsu-Yi Teng; Thomas Ursby; Claude Pradervand; Zhong Ren; Shin-Ichi Adachi; Wilfried Schildkamp; Dominique Bourgeois; Michael Wulff; Keith Moffat

1996-01-01

220

METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) LEVELS IN ALASKAN CITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

High winter carbon monoxide levels in Anchorage, as in Fairbanks, are due to intense nocturnal (ground-based) inversions persisting through the periods of maximum emissions and at times throughout the day. The problem is exacerbated by the large amounts of carbon monoxide emitted...

221

Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

Kachulis, C.J.

1981-07-01

222

Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide permeation through glassy polymeric membranes for carbon dioxide separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor components present in polymeric membrane gas separation can have a significant influence on the separation performance. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide exist in post-combustion gas streams and can therefore influence CO2 transport through membranes designed for that application. Here, the permeability of nitric oxide (NO) through three glassy polymeric membranes (polysulfone, Matrimid 5218 and 6FDA-TMPDA) was determined and found

Colin A. Scholes; George Q. Chen; Geoff W. Stevens; Sandra E. Kentish

2011-01-01

223

40 CFR Appendix C to Part 50 - Measurement Principle and Calibration Procedure for the Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry...Measurement of Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere (Non-Dispersive Infrared Photometry...common with CO and normally exist in the atmosphere. Various instrumental techniques...

2013-07-01

224

A case of carbon monoxide poisoning with thrombus in the heart: a case report.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide is a nonirritant, odorless, colorless gas, and is lighter than air. It is an end product of the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Its effects are most prominent in organs sensitive to oxygen deprivation, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Carbon monoxide poisoning becomes more abundant in winter and at cold places. In Turkey, every year we see several deaths due to poisonous gas leaks from coal or wood stoves. Deaths particularly due to hypoxia-related central nervous system damage and ventricular dysrhythmias are observed. On the other hand, an association between thromboembolic accidents and carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown in literature. Thromboembolic accidents in the mesenteric, central nervous system, and extremities are reported. However, no atrial thrombus has been mentioned. In this study, a case of an atrial thrombus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning following a diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning and treatment in the emergency room is reported and the literature is revisited. PMID:16282157

Yildirim, Cuma; Günay, Nurullah; Büyükaslan, Hasan; Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Bozkurt, Selim

2005-12-15

225

Minimal risk of carbon monoxide exposure with oil heat: Part I  

SciTech Connect

What is carbon monoxide? Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas that can be produced by all heating equipment used in homes that burn natural gas, propane, fueloil, wood, coal or other home heating fuels. Carbon monoxide is extremely hazardous even in very small concentrations and can produce injury or death when it reaches only a fraction of one percent in the air. The recent reports of injury and death by exposure to carbon monoxide have alerted homeowners to the serious nature of exposure to this gaseous byproduct of fuel burning. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set 9 parts per million carbon monoxide are shown as its concentration in air increases. CO replaces the oxygen in blood and causes hypoxia (lack of oxygen) which can damage the body`s circulatory and central nervous systems leading to injury or death depending on the time of exposure and CO concentration.

Batey, J.E.

1995-04-01

226

Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 6. Carbon monoxide poisoning  

PubMed Central

CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IS AN ENIGMATIC ILLNESS. The symptoms are often nonspecific or masked by an exacerbation of an underlying illness, such as congestive heart failure, that has been triggered by carbon monoxide inhalation. The effects can range from mild, annoying symptoms relieved by removal of the source to severe morbidity with profound central nervous system dysfunction, acute complications and delayed sequelae. Estimates suggest that about one-third of nonfatal cases of carbon monoxide poisoning go undetected and undiagnosed. We present a case of residential carbon monoxide poisoning to illustrate these points and to demonstrate the usefulness of a simple tool based on the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) that physicians can use to obtain an environmental exposure history. We outline the clinical management of carbon monoxide poisoning and provide strategies and resources to prevent exposure.

Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Jessiman, Barry J.; Weir, Erica

2002-01-01

227

Growth of mycobacteria on carbon monoxide and methanol.  

PubMed

Several mycobacterial strains, such as Mycobacterium flavescens, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium neoaurum, Mycobacterium parafortuitum, Mycobacterium peregrinum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium vaccae, were found to grow on carbon monoxide (CO) as the sole source of carbon and energy. These bacteria, except for M. tuberculosis, also utilized methanol as the sole carbon and energy source. A CO dehydrogenase (CO-DH) assay, staining by activity of CO-DH, and Western blot analysis using an antibody raised against CO-DH of Mycobacterium sp. strain JC1 (formerly Acinetobacter sp. strain JC1 [J. W. Cho, H. S. Yim, and Y. M. Kim, Kor. J. Microbiol. 23:1-8, 1985]) revealed that CO-DH is present in extracts of the bacteria prepared from cells grown on CO. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activity was also detected in extracts prepared from all cells, except M. tuberculosis, grown on CO. The mycobacteria grown on methanol, except for M. gastri, which showed hexulose phosphate synthase activity, did not exhibit activities of classic methanol dehydrogenase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, or hexulose phosphate synthase but exhibited N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and RuBisCO activities. Cells grown on methanol were also found to have dihydroxyacetone synthase. Double immunodiffusion revealed that the antigenic sites of CO-DHs, RuBisCOs, and dihydroxyacetone synthases in all mycobacteria tested are identical with those of the Mycobacterium sp. strain JC1 enzymes. PMID:12486050

Park, Sae W; Hwang, Eun H; Park, Hyuck; Kim, Jeong A; Heo, Jinho; Lee, Key H; Song, Taeksun; Kim, Eungbin; Ro, Young T; Kim, Si W; Kim, Young M

2003-01-01

228

Growth of Mycobacteria on Carbon Monoxide and Methanol  

PubMed Central

Several mycobacterial strains, such as Mycobacterium flavescens, Mycobacterium gastri, Mycobacterium neoaurum, Mycobacterium parafortuitum, Mycobacterium peregrinum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium vaccae, were found to grow on carbon monoxide (CO) as the sole source of carbon and energy. These bacteria, except for M. tuberculosis, also utilized methanol as the sole carbon and energy source. A CO dehydrogenase (CO-DH) assay, staining by activity of CO-DH, and Western blot analysis using an antibody raised against CO-DH of Mycobacterium sp. strain JC1 (formerly Acinetobacter sp. strain JC1 [J. W. Cho, H. S. Yim, and Y. M. Kim, Kor. J. Microbiol. 23:1-8, 1985]) revealed that CO-DH is present in extracts of the bacteria prepared from cells grown on CO. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) activity was also detected in extracts prepared from all cells, except M. tuberculosis, grown on CO. The mycobacteria grown on methanol, except for M. gastri, which showed hexulose phosphate synthase activity, did not exhibit activities of classic methanol dehydrogenase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, or hexulose phosphate synthase but exhibited N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and RuBisCO activities. Cells grown on methanol were also found to have dihydroxyacetone synthase. Double immunodiffusion revealed that the antigenic sites of CO-DHs, RuBisCOs, and dihydroxyacetone synthases in all mycobacteria tested are identical with those of the Mycobacterium sp. strain JC1 enzymes.

Park, Sae W.; Hwang, Eun H.; Park, Hyuck; Kim, Jeong A.; Heo, Jinho; Lee, Key H.; Song, Taeksun; Kim, Eungbin; Ro, Young T.; Kim, Si W.; Kim, Young M.

2003-01-01

229

Carbon monoxide poisoning in narghile (water pipe) tobacco smokers.  

PubMed

Narghile (water pipe, hookah, shisha, goza, hubble bubble, argeela) is a traditional method of tobacco use. In recent years, its use has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We present an acutely confused adolescent patient who had CO poisoning after narghile tobacco smoking. She presented with syncope and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 24% and was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Five additional cases of CO poisoning after narghile smoking were identified during a literature search, with carboxyhemoglobin levels of 20 to 30%. Each patient was treated with oxygen supplementation and did well clinically. In light of the increasing popularity of narghile smoking, young patients presenting with unexplained confusion or nonspecific neurologic symptoms should be asked specifically about this exposure, followed by carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:22417961

La Fauci, Giovanna; Weiser, Giora; Steiner, Ivan P; Shavit, Itai

2012-01-01

230

Neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of erythropoietin (EPO) for treating patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. We conducted a randomized, prospective study of 103 patients with CO poisoning in two groups: an EPO group (n = 54; patients received EPO) and a placebo group (n = 49; patients received normal saline). The study endpoints were the functional outcome at day 30 (the Barthel index and neurologic sequelae), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and the levels of S-100?. At 18 days, the NIHSS score improved significantly and S-100? levels significantly decreased in patients in the EPO group. At 30 days, patients in the EPO group had a superior Barthel index and fewer patients had delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS). This study demonstrated that early administration of EPO to patients with CO poisoning improved neurological outcomes and reduced the incidence of DNS. PMID:23554277

Pang, Li; Bian, Miao; Zang, Xiu-Xian; Wu, Yang; Xu, Da-Hai; Dong, Ning; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Yan, Bai-Ling; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhao, Hui-Jie; Zhang, Nan

2013-04-03

231

Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice  

SciTech Connect

A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

1981-04-01

232

Carbon Monoxide and the Brain: Time to Rethink the Dogma  

PubMed Central

Carbon Monoxide (CO), long thought to be a simple environmental pollutant is now known to have a critical role in cellular functions ranging from vasodilation to circadian rhythms. In this review, we will begin with a discussion of the enzyme responsible for CO production: heme oxygenase. Because this review will focus on the effects of CO in the brain, we will transition to CO toxicology and determine if this simple diatomic gas has really earned its nefarious reputation. An in depth analysis of the roles for CO in circadian rhythms and as a gasotransmitter will be provided in the neurological functional role section, followed by its vascular effects derived mainly from interactions with soluble guanylyl cyclase. We will then describe the evidence for CO’s protective roles through the MAPK pathway, and finally touch upon the potential therapeutic roles for CO in neurological diseases including ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, and neuropathic pain.

Hanafy, Khalid A.; Oh, Justin; Otterbein, Leo E.

2013-01-01

233

Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2010-04-04

234

Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery) via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed.

Choi, Yoon Kyung; Por, Elaine D.; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

2012-01-01

235

Epidemic carbon monoxide poisoning following a winter storm.  

PubMed

Hospital emergency departments were surveyed to estimate the number of patients treated for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a severe winter storm disrupted electrical service in western Washington State. At least 81 persons were treated. The two main sources of CO were charcoal briquettes (54% of cases) and gasoline-powered electrical generators (40% of cases). Of the 44 persons affected by CO from burning charcoal, 40 (91%) were members of ethnic minority groups; 27 did not speak English. All persons affected by CO from generators were non-Hispanic Whites. This was the largest epidemic of storm-related CO poisoning reported in the United States. This epidemic demonstrated the need to anticipate CO poisoning as a possible consequence of winter storms in cold climates and to make preventive messages understandable to the entire population at risk, including those persons who do not understand written or spoken English. PMID:9279697

Houck, P M; Hampson, N B

236

Status of EPA's air quality standards for carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish, and periodically review and revise national air quality standards. EPA established standards for carbon monoxide in 1971 and in August 1980 proposed updated revisions to those standards. Seven of the eight key studies EPA used to support the revisions were authored by a cardiologist employed by the Veterans Administration. In March 1983 EPA was about to issue its revised standards when it learned that the cardiologist had been under investigation by the Food and Drug Administration and the Veterans Administration since 1979 for, among other things, alleged falsification of research. As a result, EPA delayed issuing the standards, conducted an audit of the research data, and concluded that it could not rely on the cardiologist's research. Even without this research, EPA believes that there is a sufficient scientific basis to support revised standards but has not yet decided what those standards will be.

Not Available

1984-09-27

237

Carbon monoxide dependent guanylyl cyclase modifiers and methods of use  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed herein are methods and associated compositions and medicaments directed generally to the control of cellular and neural activity and for selectively and controllably inducing the in vivo genetic expression of one or more naturally occurring genetically encoded molecules in mammals. More particularly, the present invention selectively activates or derepresses genes encoding for specific naturally occurring molecules such as proteins or neurotrophic factors and induces the endogenous production of such naturally occurring compounds through the administration of carbon monoxide dependent guanylyl cyclase modulating purine derivatives. The methods of the present invention may be used to affect a variety of cellular and neurological functions and activities and to therapeutically or prophylactically treat a wide variety of neurodegenerative, neurological, cellular, and physiological disorders.

2002-02-26

238

Synthesis of novel solid materials from carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase of atmospheric CO2 has been identified as the primary cause for the observed global warming over the past century. The geological and oceanic sequestration of CO2 has issues, such as cost and leakage as well as effects on sea biota. The ideal solution should be the conversion of CO2 into useful materials. However, most processes require high energy input. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel processes with low energy demands to convert CO2 to useful solid materials. Amorphous carbon nitride and graphone received much attention due to their unusual structures and properties as well as their potential applications. However, to date there has been no attempt to synthesize those solid materials from CO2. Lithium nitride (Li3N) and lithium imide (Li2NH) are important hydrogen storage materials. However, their optical properties and reactivity has not yet studied. This dissertation research is aimed at the synthesis of carbon nitrides and graphone from CO2 and CO via their reaction with Li3N and Li2NH. The research was focused on (1) the evaluation of Li 3N and Li2NH properties, (2) thermodynamic analysis of conversion of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide into carbon nitride and other solid materials, (3) synthesis of carbon nitride from carbon dioxide, and (4) synthesis of graphone from carbon monoxide. First, the properties of Li3N, Li2NH, and LiNH 2 were investigated. The X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that heat-treatment at 500°C introduce a phase transformation of ?-Li3N to ?-Li3N. Furthermore, the UV-visible absorption evaluation showed that the energy gaps of ?-Li3N and ?-Li 3N are 1.81 and 2.14 eV, respectively. The UV-visible absorption measurements also revealed that energy gaps are 3.92 eV for Li2NH and 3.93 eV for LiNH2. This thermodynamic analysis was performed to predict the reactions. It was demonstrated that the reaction between carbon dioxide and lithium nitride is thermodynamically favorable and exothermic, which can generate carbon nitride and lithium cyanamide. Furthermore, the thermodynamic calculation indicated that the reaction between carbon monoxide and lithium imide can produce graphone and lithium cyanamide along with releasing heat. Based on the above thermodynamic analysis, the experiment of CO 2 and Li3N reaction and CO and Li2NH were carried out. It was found that the reaction between CO2 and Li3N is very fast and exothermic. The XRD and element analysis revealed that the products are crystal lithium cyanamide and amorphous carbon nitrides with Li2O and Li2CO3. Furthermore, TEM images showed that carbon nitrides possess layer-structure, namely, it is graphene-structured carbon nitride. It was found that the reaction between Li2NH and CO was also exothermic, which produced graphone instead of carbon nitride. The composition and structures of graphone were evaluated by XRD, element analysis, TEM observation, and Raman spectra.

Huo, Yan

239

The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low Levels of Carbon Monoxide on the Cardiovascular System of Dogs. II. Exposure to 50 and 150 PPM Carbon Monoxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the effects due to chronic exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems of dogs continued for the second year. In the previous report, the data were derived from animals exposed to 100 ppm carbon monox...

D. A. DeBias N. C. Birkhead C. M. Banerjee M. H. F. Friedman

1971-01-01

240

Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet both cultivation studies and emerging genome sequences of bacteria and archaea establish that CO is a widely utilized microbial growth substrate. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases ([Ni,Fe]-CODHs) in currently available genomic sequence databases. Currently, 185 out of 2887, or 6% of sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. Many genomes encode multiple copies of [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes whose functions and regulation are correlated with their associated gene clusters. The phylogenetic analysis of this extended protein family revealed six distinct clades; many clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that were encoded by microbes from disparate phylogenetic lineages, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. To more clearly define if the branching patterns observed in the [Ni,Fe]-CODH trees are due to functional conservation vs. evolutionary lineage, the genomic context of the [Ni,Fe]-CODH gene clusters was examined, and superimposed on the phylogenetic trees. On the whole, there was a correlation between genomic contexts and the tree topology, but several functionally similar [Ni,Fe]-CODHs were found in different clades. In addition, some distantly related organisms have similar [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes. Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used to observe horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of [Ni,Fe]-CODH gene clusters by applying Kullback-Leibler divergence analysis methods. Divergent tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage showed that the gene cluster of T. carboxydivorans that encodes a [Ni,Fe]-CODH and an energy-converting hydrogenase is dissimilar to its whole genome but is similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant Firmicute, Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results imply that T carboxydivorans acquired this gene cluster via HGT from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans. PMID:22529840

Techtmann, Stephen M; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Colman, Albert S; Sokolova, Tatyana G; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Robb, Frank T

2012-04-17

241

Dynamic changes of heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide production in acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase-1, a stress-responsive enzyme that catabolizes hemes into carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and iron, has been shown to play a pivotal role in many physiological and pathological situations. Here we investigated changes in HO-1 enzyme activity and protein expression, and its end product carbon monoxide concentrations in the liver of rats after CCl4 treatment. We found that CCl4 administration not

Tao Wen; Li Guan; Yan-Lin Zhang; Jin-Yuan Zhao

2006-01-01

242

Estimating Effects of Brazilian Forest Wildfires on the Carbon Monoxide Concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest wildfires have dramatically increased in recent years due to global warming and extreme dry conditions. Forest wildfires spew out a significant amount of atmospheric pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, due to incomplete burning of the biomass. According to United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a high increase of carbon monoxide leads to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin in blood which decreases the oxygen intake capacity of human body and at moderate concentration angina, impaired vision and reduced brain function may occur. As compared to Northern America where significant amount of carbon monoxide released is caused by combustion devices and furnace, the increase of carbon monoxide concentration in Brazilian regions is mainly attributed to the forest fires. In this study, carbon monoxide datasets from the Measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) have been analyzed to see the amount of increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest wildfires, ire, particularly in summer of 2003. The study reveals that there is a significant increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest fires.

Bhoi, S.; Qu, J.; Dasgupta, S.

2004-12-01

243

The combined effect of noise and carbon monoxide on hearing thresholds of exposed workers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal models have been used to demonstrate the potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) by carbon monoxide. It has been shown that the addition of carbon monoxide to otherwise safe noise exposure levels produces significant NIHL in rats. However, the effects of chronic exposure to low level of carbon monoxide in a noisy work environment are still unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the hearing thresholds of a group of workers exposed to noise and carbon monoxide (Group 1) to another group of workers where carbon monoxide exposure is absent or negligible (Group 2). The analysis was based on 9396 audiograms collected by the Quebec National Public Health Institute between 1983 and 1996. The results show significantly poorer hearing thresholds at high frequencies (3, 4, and 6 kHz) for the carbon monoxide exposed group (p<0.001). The potentiation effect also varied according to years of exposure in work place; a larger effect is observed for workers with between 15 to 20 years of exposure (p<0.001). This study provides the first demonstration of a potentiation effect of NIHL by carbon monoxide in humans.

Lacerda, Adriana; Leroux, Tony; Gagn, Jean-Pierre

2005-04-01

244

Regulation of Multiple Carbon Monoxide Consumption Pathways in Anaerobic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Carbon monoxide (CO), well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO-utilization, has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: one clade (CooA-1) is found in the majority of CooA-containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2) is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of concentrations.

Techtmann, Stephen M.; Colman, Albert S.; Murphy, Michael B.; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Robb, Frank T.

2011-01-01

245

EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON ORGANIC MATTER CYCLING: FORMATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND CARBONYL SULFIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide-are examined. oth of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or at...

246

[Methods of carbon monoxide determination in postmortem blood--advantages and disadvantages].  

PubMed

With respect to epidemiology of carbon monoxide poisonings, the diagnostic management of poisonings caused by this xenobiotic is among the fundamental objectives of forensic toxicology. In forensic practice, to determine carbon monoxide, colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods, as well as gas chromatography are used. Based on literature data and their own experience, the authors discuss analytical methods universally applied in determinations of carbon monoxide in postmortem blood. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the cause of errors resulting from the specificity of the examined material (postmortem blood) are indicated. PMID:22117494

Nowicka, Joanna; Grabowska, Teresa; Kulikowska, Joanna; Celi?ski, Rafa?; Korczy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Dro?dziok, Kornelia

247

Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nitride: Influence of Surface Hydroxyls on Low Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the synthesis of 2.5 nm gold clusters on the oxygen free and chemically labile support carbon nitride (C3N4). Despite having small particle sizes and high enough water partial pressure these Au/C3N4 catalysts are inactive for the gas phase and liquid phase oxidation of carbon monoxide. The reason for the lack of activity is attributed to the lack of surface OH groups on the C3N4. These OH groups are argued to be responsible for the activation of CO in the oxidation of CO. The importance of basic OH groups explains the well document dependence of support isoelectric point versus catalytic activity.

Singh, Joseph A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

2012-01-01

248

Water loss on Venus: the role of carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

The abundance of water on Venus is four to five orders of magnitude lower than on the Earth. This difference may reflect initial differences in the bulk volatile contents of the two planets, or may be the result of processes for massive water loss on Venus. A series of thermodynamic calculations are performed on the heterogeneous system C-O-H-N-S, varying C/H upward from its terrestrial value of 0.033 in order to evaluate the extent to which either of these two possibilities may account for the low water content on Venus. Relative abundances of 84 molecular gaseous species are computed as functions of temperature, total pressure, oxygen fugacity, and bulk C/H. As bulk C/H increases, the complement of atmospheric H2O decreases, but C/H would have to be raised to an improbably high value to account for the low water abundance on Venus by initial deficiency alone. Increasing C/H also results in a rapid increase in CO/H2O, however, and enhances water loss by the reaction CO + H2O = CO2 + H2 or by reaction of carbon monoxide with the free oxygen liberated by photodissociation of water. Other water loss mechanisms have relied on crustal FeO as an oxygen sink. Such mechanisms, however, should have operated on both Venus and the Earth and may be insufficient to account for the major differences in present H2O abundance between the two planets. Calculations performed in this study suggest that if the outgassed C/H on Venus was higher than on Earth by even less than a factor of 5, it would have been sufficient to make carbon monoxide competitive with FeO as a sink for oxygen. Together with the lower initial water abundance that follows from a higher C/H, water loss involving CO may have been a major factor in determining the present low abundance of water on Venus. PMID:11541980

Richardson, S M; Pollack, J B; Reynolds, R T

1984-01-01

249

The Interaction of Silicon with Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen during Reaction-Sintering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermogravimetric, roentgenographic and dilatometric analysis methods were used to investigate the process of interaction of silicon with a gaseous medium containing carbon monoxide and nitrogen. The chemistry of the processes which take place and the cha...

I. Y. Tusman E. I. Tumakova

1971-01-01

250

Comparison of Plasma Bilirubin Turnover and Carbon Monoxide Production in Man.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide production (COP) and plasma bilirubin turnover (BRT) were obtained in 37 individuals, whose rates of heme catabolism ranged from normal to approximately nine times normal. It is likely that an appreciable part ...

P. D. Berk F. L. Rodkey T. F. Blaschke H. A. Collison J. G. Waggoner

1973-01-01

251

APPLICATION OF THE MICROENVIRONMENT MONITORING APPROACH TO ASSESS HUMAN EXPOSURE TO CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure estimates based on monitoring carbon monoxide in microenvironments are compared to exposure estimates based on personal monitoring with individual, portable monitors. Methods of calculation are reviewed and discussed, and results of calculations are presented. These data...

252

Noninvasive Ambulatory Assessment of Cardiac Function and Myocardial Ischemia in Healthy Subjects Exposed to Carbon Monoxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon monoxide is of continuing interest to the military community. The transient nature of weapons firing, the spatial distribution of CO concentration, and differences in individual physiology will cause the CO dose to vary significantly among crewmemb...

P. N. Kizakevich M. L. McCartney M. J. Hazucha

1992-01-01

253

Carbon Monoxide as an Indicator for Monitoring Worker Exposures in Foundries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct, continuous monitoring for carbon monoxide may serve as an indicator for substances that cannot be readily analyzed in real time or are difficult or impossible to analyze at prevailing workplace concentrations. The fundamental premise of the indica...

M. L. Cohen

1982-01-01

254

The Effects of Chronic Exposure to Carbon Monoxide (100 PPM) on the Cardiovascular System of Monkeys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to obtain quantitative correlations between chronic exposure to 100 ppm carbon monoxide and physiologic parameters of the cardiovascule system and blood of normal monkeys, and monkeys with induced myocardial infarction. Pathol...

D. A. DeBias

1972-01-01

255

78 FR 48611 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance...Control Program, submitted by the State of Alaska (the State) as a revision to its State...for this action? III. Evaluation of Alaska's Submittal IV. Transportation...

2013-08-09

256

Emission Inventory Requirements for Post-1987 Carbon Monoxide State Implementation Plans,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document describes the final emission inventory requirements related to preparation and submission of post-1987 carbon monoxide State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for those States required to revise their plans after December 31, 1987. Discussed in the...

T. N. Braverman

1988-01-01

257

Estimating Carbon Monoxide Air Quality Impacts from Woodstoves: Task A: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This task report presents a methodology for the identification of suspected carbon monoxide (CO) air quality impacts from the use of woodstoves. A testing methodology was developed from reviewing wintertime CO, fine particulate, heating degree days and wo...

J. E. Houck C. A. Simons L. C. Pritchett

1988-01-01

258

Residential Carbon Monoxide Exposure due to Indoor Generator Operation: Effects of Source Location and Emission Rate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) and others are concerned about the hazard of acute residential carbon monoxide (CO) exposures from portable gasoline powered generators that can result in death or serious adverse health effects in expose...

A. K. Persily B. Polidoro S. J. Emmerich Y. Wang

2013-01-01

259

Irradiation Effects on the Reaction of Mixture of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen, 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whether or not a radiation chemical method is useful for obtaining chemical raw materials from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in future chemical industries has been studied. the experimental results of the radiation chemistry studies of the above gas mixtur...

S. Sugimoto M. Nishii T. Sugiura

1978-01-01

260

Development of Guidelines for Identification and Evaluation of Localized Violations of Carbon Monoxide Standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a series of guidelines for the identification and evaluation of localized violations of carbon monoxide air quality standards from motor vehicle traffic. Guidelines for first-stage analysis (screening) were based u...

A. H. Castaline T. P. Midurski R. M. Patterson A. J. Soolman

1976-01-01

261

LOW LEVELS OF NITRIC OXIDE AND CARBON MONOXIDE IN ALPHA 1- ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Quantitation of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide,(CO) has been proposed to noninvasivelymeasure,markers of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that exhaled carbon monoxide,(CO) is increased in individuals with alpha-1-antitrypsin (?1-AT) deficiency, who have lung inflammation and injury related to oxidative and proteolytic processes. Nineteen individuals with ?1-AT deficiency, 22 healthy controls, and 12 patients with non-?1-AT deficient COPD had

Roberto F. Machado; James K. Stoller; Daniel Laskowski; Shuo Zheng; Joseph A. Lupica; Raed A. Dweik; Serpil C. Erzurum

2002-01-01

262

Carbon monoxide sensors. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and evaluation of carbon monoxide sensors. Citations discuss chemical and electrochemical sensors, sensor response, sensor materials, and carbon monoxide measurements in flow and flame environments. Emission monitoring and identification systems, and portable emission analyzers are presented. Applications in automobile emission analysis and control, reactor control, and alarm systems are examined. (Contains a minimum of 191 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-05-01

263

Exhaled carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine as measures of smoking in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationships among self-reported cigarette consumption, exhaled carbon monoxide, and urinary cotinine\\/creatinine ratio in pregnant women. Information on these measures of smoking was collected at first and 36th week prenatal visits. Correlations between cigarette consumption and exhaled carbon monoxide were .65 at the first visit and .70 at the 36th-week visit. For urinary cotinine\\/creatinine ratio, the correlations were

Roger H. Secker-Walker; Pamela M. Vacek; Brian S. Flynn; Philip B. Mead

1997-01-01

264

Reactions of carbon monoxide with unsaturated fatty acids and derivatives: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important reactions of carbon monoxide with unsaturated fatty derivatives that are reviewed in this paper include hydroformylation\\u000a (the oxo reaction), Koch carboxylation and Reppe carbonylation. With oleic acid as a substrate, the products are C19 bifunctional compounds e.g., formyl- or carboxy-stearic acid. Double bond isomerization before carbon monoxide addition is\\u000a characteristic of these catalytic reactions; additionally, rearrangement to introduce

E. H. Pryde; E. N. Frankel; J. C. Cowan

1972-01-01

265

Carbon monoxide effects on calcium levels in vascular smooth muscle  

SciTech Connect

Previously the authors showed that carbon monoxide (CO) relaxes vascular smooth muscle in the working heart and thoracic aorta preparation perfused with hemoglobin-free, Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution. The CO-induced relaxation was not caused by hypoxia, nor was it mediated by adrenergic influences, adenosine, or prostaglandins. In these studies the effect of CO on calcium (Ca/sup + +/) concentrations in vascular smooth muscle was determined using /sup 45/Ca as a tracer. Isolated rat thoracic aorta segments were incubated with /sup 45/Ca and gassed with O/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, or CO for 60 min. Verapamil was used to verify the effectiveness of the test system. Ca/sup + +/ concentrations were 488 /+ -/ 35 and 515 /+ -/ 26 mM/g tissue (X /+ -/ SE) in aortic rings gassed with O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/, respectively. CO reduced Ca/sup + +/ concentrations significantly (P<0.01) by 29% to 369 /+ -/ 18 mM/g tissue. Verapamil treatment reduced Ca/sup + +/ concentrations by 40% to 314 /+ -/ 23 mM/g tissue. These results suggest that CO relaxes vascular smooth muscle and dilates blood vessels by decreasing Ca/sup + +/ concentrations in vascular smooth muscle.

Lin, H.; McGrath, J.J.

1988-01-01

266

Crystal structure of the carbon monoxide complex of human cytoglobin.  

PubMed

Cytoglobin (Cgb) is a vertebrate heme-containing globin-protein expressed in a broad range of mammalian tissues. Unlike myoglobin, Cgb displays a hexa-coordinated (bis-hystidyl) heme iron atom, having the heme distal His81(E7) residue as the endogenous sixth ligand. In the present study, we crystallized human Cgb in the presence of a reductant Na?S?O? under a carbon monoxide (CO) atmosphere, and determined the crystal structure at 2.6 A resolution. The CO ligand occupies the sixth axial position of the heme ferrous iron. Eventually, the imidazole group of His81(E7) is expelled from the sixth position and swings out of the distal heme pocket. The flipping motion of the His81 imidazole group accompanies structural readjustments of some residues (Gln62, Phe63, Gln72, and Ser75) in both the CD-corner and D-helix regions of Cgb. On the other hand, no significant structural changes were observed in other Cgb regions, for example, on the proximal side. These structural alterations that occurred as a result of exogenous ligand (CO) binding are clearly different from those observed in other vertebrate hexa-coordinated globins (mouse neuroglobin, Drosophila melanogaster hemoglobin) and penta-coordinated sperm whale myoglobin. The present study provides the structural basis for further discussion of the unique ligand-binding properties of Cgb. PMID:21254233

Makino, Masatomo; Sawai, Hitomi; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sugimoto, Hiroshi

2011-01-20

267

In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children's Hospital)

1993-01-23

268

Carbon monoxide over the Amazon basin during the wet season  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) were made over the Amazon Basin of Brazil during the 1987 wet season as part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). The distribution of CO over the altitude range sampled (0.15-4.5 km) was influenced by surface emissions from biological sources, long-range transport of pollutants from northern hemisphere sources, and by transport processes associated with local convective mixing. Surface sources are indicated by a qualitative interpretation of the typical pattern of decreasing concentrations with increasing altitude and increasing concentrations of CO at 0.15-km altitude during a transect from the Atlantic coast to the central basin. Atmospheric convective activity produced irregular patterns of variability at time scales of less than 1 hour over a localized area. The disruption of mixed layer growth and decay processes has a particularly important influence on CO concentrations in the daytime lower troposphere. Intrusions of northern hemisphere air into the central Amazon resulted in increased CO concentrations in the lower and midtroposphere. The correlation of CO with O{sub 3} was positive under conditions interpreted as being influenced by northern hemisphere air, and negative during all other meteorological conditions experienced in ABLE 2B.

Harriss, R.C. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (USA)); Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Gregory, G.L. (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA)); Wade, L.O. (Planning Research Corp., Hampton, VA (USA))

1990-09-20

269

Personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm. Information Circular/1989  

SciTech Connect

Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR) near the worksite that will supply breathing oxygen. In many situations, miners do not know when to do either rescuer since they do not know if there is a fire in the mine nor do they carry instrumentation necessary for the detection of the toxic, colorless, and odorless fire product CO. If each miner carried a personal CO alarm, which would respond to high concentrations of CO, the miner would then be alerted when to do either the FSR or SCSR and exit the mine. A prototype personal miner's CO alarm called PEMCOAL unit is small enough to be carried on a miner's belt, has a flash lamp visual alarm, requires no calibration for use, and uses a chemical sensor that changes color by reaction with trace quantities of CO. The chemical sensor was tested at concentrations of CO from 10 to 1,000 ppm, at temperatures from 5 to 40 C, and with several potential mine gas interferents. The PEMCOAL alarm times were sufficiently fast to warn miners before they are exposed to hazardous quantities of CO.

Chilton, J.E.; Carpenter, C.R.

1989-01-01

270

[Familial poisoning by carbon monoxide with different ECG changes].  

PubMed

The paper presents the poisoning of a family of three by carbon monoxide, caused by incomplete combustion of butane gas in a central heating system, with various disturbances in conduction and ishaemic changes in the ECG. The father, mother and son were poisoned. The father had increased amylase activity in urine (507 i.u./L) and, a COHb concentration of 4.8%. An ECG registered a temporary block of the left branch of the His bundle and a negative T wave in the III lead, which continued for about two weeks. The mother had a COHb concentration of 6% and an extended PQ interval, whereas the son had 8.5% of COHb in the blood and a transient incomplete block of the right branch of the His bundle. After treatment with pressurised pure oxygen, the symptoms of poisoning disappeared, COHb concentration fell to below 1% and the ECG registered an improvement. During treatment the patients also received an infusion of piracetam. PMID:2637658

Milosavljevi?, J; Joksovi?, D

1989-12-01

271

Causes of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide poisonings in California.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the annual number and incidence of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in California and to identify specific factors that caused or contributed to the deaths. Unintentional CO deaths in California over a ten-year period (1979 to 1988) were identified from the database of the California Master Mortality File and coroners' investigation reports. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths were determined based on the information from the investigation reports. The annual number of unintentional CO deaths varied from 27 to 58 over the ten years examined, with an average annual death incidence of 1.7 x 10(-6). Death rates were high among males and African-Americans. Alcohol appeared to be a factor in 31% of the cases. The types of combustion sources associated with unintentional CO deaths were: heating or cooking appliances; motor vehicles; charcoal grills and hibachis; small engines; and camping equipment. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths interact in a complex way. To reduce the rate of unintentional CO deaths effectively, joint efforts involving several prevention methods are suggested.

Girman, J R; Chang, Y L; Hayward, S B; Liu, K S

1998-01-01

272

Generation rate of carbon monoxide from burning charcoal.  

PubMed

Charcoal, often used as cooking fuel at some restaurants, generates a significant amount of carbon monoxide (CO) during its combustion. Every year in Japan, a number of cooks and waiters/waitresses are poisoned by CO emanating from burning charcoal. Although certain ventilation is necessary to prevent the accumulation of CO, it is difficult to estimate the proper ventilation requirement for CO because the generation rate of CO from burning charcoal has not been established. In this study, several charcoals were evaluated in terms of CO generation rate. Sample charcoals were burned in a cooking stove to generate exhaust gas. For each sample, four independent variables -- the mass of the sample, the flow rate of the exhaust gas, CO concentration in the exhaust gas and the combustion time of the sample -- were measured, and the CO generation rate was calculated. The generation rate of CO from the charcoal was shown to be 137-185 ml/min/kW. Theoretical ventilation requirements for charcoals to prevent CO poisoning are estimated to be 41.2-55.6 m(3)/h/kW. PMID:21372432

Ojima, Jun

2011-03-01

273

Pulling platinum atomic chains by carbon monoxide molecules.  

PubMed

The interaction of carbon monoxide molecules with atomic-scale platinum nanojunctions is investigated by low temperature mechanically controllable break junction experiments. Combining plateau length analysis, two-dimensional conductance-displacement histograms and conditional correlation analysis a comprehensive microscopic picture is proposed about the formation and evolution of Pt-CO-Pt single-molecule configurations. Our analysis implies that before pure Pt monoatomic chains are formed a CO molecule infiltrates the junction, first in a configuration that is perpendicular to the contact axis. This molecular junction is strong enough to pull a monoatomic platinum chain with the molecule being incorporated in the chain. Along the chain formation the molecule can either stay in the perpendicular configuration, or rotate to a parallel configuration. The evolution of the single-molecule configurations along the junction displacement shows quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions, justifying the interpretation in terms of perpendicular and parallel molecular alignment. Our analysis demonstrates that the combination of two-dimensional conductance-displacement histograms with conditional correlation analysis is a useful tool to analyze separately fundamentally different types of junction trajectories in single molecule break junction experiments. PMID:22751796

Makk, P; Balogh, Z; Csonka, Sz; Halbritter, A

2012-06-29

274

Microbial metabolism of carbon monoxide in culture and in soil.  

PubMed Central

Nocardia salmonicolor readily oxidized CO to CO2. Slight activity was found among species of Actinoplanes, Agromyces, Microbispora, Mycobacterium, and other nocardias, and no oxidation was detected in the algae, fungi, and other bacteria tested. Carbon monoxide was oxidized rapidly to CO2 in the dark in two soils incubated in air or under flooded conditions, but little of the 14C from 14CO was incorporated into the organic fraction of these soils. The reaction was microbial because appreciable CO was not converted to CO2 in autoclaved or gamma-irradiated soil. Heating the soil for 25 min at 70 degrees C destroyed its CO-oxidizing activity. The incorporation of 14CO2 into the cells of microorganisms in soil and soil suspension was not enhanced by incubating the samples in the presence of CO, suggesting that CO oxidation was not the result of autotrophic metabolism. The oxidation of 17 mu 1 of CO per liter in the head space was nearly complete in 6 h in soil incubated in air or anaerobically.

Bartholomew, G W; Alexander, M

1979-01-01

275

Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in Washington State, 2000-2005.  

PubMed

Washington State workers' compensation data can be used to guide prevention efforts focused on occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Between 2000 and 2005, a total of 345 individual claims comprising 221 different exposure incidents were identified for the 6-year time period. The construction industry had 43 (20%) CO incidents, followed by wholesale trade with 32 (15%), and agriculture with 27 (12%) incidents. Fuel-powered forklifts caused 29% of all incidents, while autos/trucks/buses were responsible for 26%. The number of forklift incidents in fruit packing and cold storage companies declined significantly from 1994 through 2007 (Spearman's rho = 0.6659, p < 0.01). While this study used multiple medical records from workers' compensation claims to identify CO poisoning, a surveillance system that lacks extensive medical records may rely principally on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) tests. This study demonstrated that 71% of the identified workers' compensation claims had associated COHb tests. The recurrence and timing of CO poisoning as well as control of the CO-generating source were determined. Approximately 8% of all work sites had recurring CO poisoning incidents. Two percent experienced a recurrent incident within 16 days of the initial incident, and 6% experienced a recurrent incident between 16 days and 3 years after the initial incident. Sixty-seven percent of claimants exposed to CO were not in direct control of the CO-generating source; this has implications for CO prevention and underscores the need for all employees to be trained on CO hazards. PMID:20635297

Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K; Whittaker, Stephen G; Adams, Darrin

2010-10-01

276

Carbon Monoxide, Reactive Oxygen Signaling, and Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitous gas, carbon monoxide (CO), is of substantial biological importance, but apart from its affinity for reduced transition metals, particularly heme-iron, it is surprisingly non-reactive—as is the ferrous-carbonyl—in living systems. CO does form strong complexes with heme proteins for which molecular O2 is the preferred ligand and to which are attributed diverse physiological, adaptive, and toxic effects. Lately, it has become apparent that both exogenous and endogenous CO produced by heme oxygenase engender a pro-oxidant milieu in aerobic mammalian cells which initiates signaling related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. ROS signaling contingent on CO can be segregated by CO concentration-time effects on cellular function, by the location of heme proteins, e.g. mitochondrial or non-mitochondrial sites, or by specific oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. The fundamental responses to CO involve overt physiological regulatory events, such as activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors or stress-activated kinases, which institute compensatory expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and other adaptations to oxidative stress. In contrast, responses originating from highly elevated or protracted CO exposures tend to be non-specific, produce untoward biological oxidations, and interfere with homeostasis. This brief overview provides a conceptual framework for understanding CO biology in terms of this physiological-pathological hierarchy.

Piantadosi, Claude A.

2008-01-01

277

40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon...a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative...control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation Plan, Carbon...

2013-07-01

278

Survey of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide and ventilation in residences of patients with Ischemic heart disease  

SciTech Connect

This research is designed to characterize indoor exposure and address factors influencing indoor exposure to carbon monoxide for a high risk population. Background exposure to carbon monoxide is relatively high in many urban areas due primarily to the high density of automobiles. Added to this ambient background is carbon monoxide produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels inside residential or other structures. These sources of carbon monoxide can include gas stoves, water and space heaters, improper use of portable kerosene heaters, gas dryers and cigarettes. The group considered most sensitive to carbon monoxide and at the greatest risk of serious health effects are persons with ischemic heart disease. Therefore, a field investigation was conducted of the indoor concentrations, and factors affecting those concentrations, in a sample of 50 persons with ischemic heart disease. Such a survey is the most direct and efficient method for determining if the combination of source, ventilation, and behavioral factors is sufficient to produce problematic concentrations of carbon monoxide inside residences of high risk persons.

Colome, S.D.; Lambert, W.E.; Castenada, N.

1985-01-01

279

Enzymes and coenzymes of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway for autotrophic CO 2 fixation in Archaeoglobus lithotrophicus and the lack of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the heterotrophic A. profundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeoglobus lithotrophicus is a hyperthermophilic Archaeon that grows on H2 and sulfate as energy sources and CO2 as sole carbon source. The autotrophic sulfate reducer was shown to contain all the enzyme activities and coenzymes of the reductive carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway for autotrophic CO2 fixation as operative in methanogenic Archaea. With the exception of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase these enzymes

Julia Vornolt; Jasper Kunow; Karl O. Stetter; Rudolf K. Thauer

1995-01-01

280

Enzymes and coenzymes of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway for autotrophic CO2 fixation in Archaeoglobus lithotrophicus and the lack of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in the heterotrophic A. profundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeoglobus lithotrophicus is a hyperthermophilic Archaeon that grows on H 2 and sulfate as energy sources and CO 2 as sole carbon source. The autotrophic sulfate reducer was shown to contain all the enzyme activities and coenzymes of the reductive carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway for autotrophic CO 2 fixation as operative in methanogenic Archaea. With the exception of carbon monoxide

Julia Vorholt; Jasper Kunow; Karl O. Stetter; R. K. Thauer

1995-01-01

281

Removal of carbon monoxide from hydrogen-rich fuels by selective oxidation over platinum catalyst supported on zeolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special catalysts — Pt supported zeolites — for the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in reformed fuels from methanol or natural gas were proposed. They can be applied for the application to polymer electrolyte fuel membrane cells of which anode Pt catalysts suffer serious poisoning by the presence of trace carbon monoxide. The proposed Pt-supported zeolite catalysts can oxidize carbon

Hiroshi Igarashi; Hiroyuki Uchida; Miki Suzuki; Yuko Sasaki; Masahiro Watanabe

1997-01-01

282

High Temperature Line Lists For Carbon Monoxide From Microwave Discharge Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In gas giant exoplanets that orbit close to their parent stars, known as hot Jupiters, carbon is thought to be sequestered primarily in carbon monoxide and methane. The relative CO and CH4 abundances inform us about temperature and pressure conditions and also about mixing by global winds driven by intense but asymmetric heating for these tidally-locked bodies. Emission spectra collected

Farnood Rezaie; P. Figueiredo; J. Arnold; R. Peale

2011-01-01

283

A carbon monoxide transport model of the human respiratory system applied to urban atmosphere exposure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to analyze the carbon monoxide (CO) transport in the human body submitted to several physical activity levels. A complete mathematical model of the human respiratory system was developed, considering the exchanges of CO, oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the lung, blood and tissues. The human body was divided in the following compartments:

Cyro Albuquerque Neto; Jurandir Itizo Yanagihara; Fábio Turri

2008-01-01

284

Process for reducing carbon monoxide emissions from regenerators of catalytic cracking units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic cracking processes are improved by employing cracking catalyst particles containing rare earth components spray impregnated thereon. In comparison to other rare earth-promoted cracking catalysts, the cracking catalysts of the invention exhibit greater activity for oxidizing carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide during the regeneration step of the cracking process wherein coke-containing catalyst particles are reactivated for cracking hydrocarbons by combustion

Baron

1981-01-01

285

Method for combusting carbon monoxide in a fluid catalytic cracking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minor portion of the regeneration gas used to regenerate spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst is passed into a distribution means located at the interface between the dense phase catalyst bed and the dilute catalyst phase in the regeneration zone of a fluid catalytic cracking process to combust, at said interface, the carbon monoxide formed in said bed to carbon

Luckenbach

1979-01-01

286

Evaluation of a personal data logging monitor for carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Personal data logging monitors provide real-time measurement of pollutants and have the ability to store data over an extended period of time. As such, they can be used to provide warning to workers that high concentrations are present, as well as allowing the assessment of long-term worker exposure. The performance characteristics of these monitors are fundamental to the determination of the accuracy of the warning and exposure measurement data. In this study, the performance characteristics of one type of personal carbon monoxide (CO) data logger (Draeger 190) were evaluated. The monitor displayed linear response over the concentration range 0 to 950 ppm. The 12-hour zero drift for the monitor was less than 1 ppm, and the 12-hour span drift was less than 2 percent at 100 ppm. The monitor showed less than 3 percent variation in response for CO concentrations of 10 ppm to 100 ppm when exposed to CO concentrations in a repeated cycle. The long-term response stability showed a coefficient of variation of 9 percent at 57 ppm for response data taken over a 3-month period, where the monitor was calibrated at a 30-day interval. The monitor was found to reach 90 percent of final response within 20 seconds. Changes in humidity did not affect monitor response, while response did increase with temperature over the range of 0{degrees}C to 40{degrees}C. The temperature response varied between monitors and for different concentration ranges. Some interferences (nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide) were completely removed by the CO-specific filters on the monitors, while other interferences (acetylene, ethylene, and hydrogen) were not. Also, the response to acetylene was affected by the condition of the CO-specific filter. The monitor also responded to hair spray when it was sprayed near the monitor. The hair spray produced a full scale response if it was sprayed directly on the monitor. 7 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Smith, J.P.; Shulman, S.A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1994-06-01

287

Carbon monoxide, ozone, and hydrocarbons in the Baltimore metropolitan area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone is one of the worst air pollution problems faced by the Baltimore area. Aircraft measurements of trace gases and meteorological variables showed that downwind ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were higher than those observed upwind of the urban area. Overall, CO mixing ratios were the highest at the surface and decreased with altitude. Ozone, in contrast, exhibited its maximum concentration in the layer immediately above the surface (950 mb), as dry deposition and the reaction with nitrogen oxide (NO) are its main removal mechanisms at the surface. Interannual variability of trace gas distributions was substantial; 1993 showed unusually high CO and O3 mixing ratios. This reflects the reduced rate of dispersion of CO and O3, and the increase in oxidation rates of O3 precursors due to the regional effects of a stagnant high-pressure system. The hydrocarbon analysis for the years 1993 (at Essex) and 1995 (at Lake Clifton) suggested that alkanes were the most abundant species by mass during summer and fall. In contrast, reactivity calculations showed alkenes and aromatic compounds as the most significant species in producing tropospheric ozone. The natural hydrocarbon isoprene was the most important (by reactivity) of all measured hydrocarbon species. Its concentration increased with increasing ambient temperature during ozone episodes in 1993. Ozone episodes in 1995, however, showed a decrease in isoprene mixing ratios at highest ambient temperatures due to drought and increased ventilation. The suitability of the target transformation factor analysis (TTFA) technique for apportioning major hydrocarbon emission sources is evaluated. Overall, the summer of 1993 showed gasoline vapor and petrochemical emissions as the most important hydrocarbon emissions by mass. In 1995, tailpipe and refinery emissions were the most prominent by mass. Source apportionment by reactivity showed that biogenic and tailpipe emissions were the most significant sources at both receptor sites, together accounting for 75% of the total reactivity of the measured hydrocarbons.

Morales-Morales, Raymond

288

Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer observations of water vapor and carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

2009-06-01

289

Carbon monoxide stimulates global protein methylation via its inhibitory action on cystathionine ?-synthase  

PubMed Central

Although carbon monoxide derived from heme oxygenase has been reported to exert diverse biological actions in mammals, macromolecules responsible for its direct reception and functional outcomes of the gas binding remain largely unknown. Based on our previous results in vivo suggesting carbon monoxide serves as an inhibitor of cystathionine ?-synthase that rate-limits transsulfuration pathway for generation of hydrogen sulfide, we have herein hypothesized that the gas might serve as a regulator of protein methylation through accelerating turnover of remethylation cycle residing at the upstream of the enzyme. Metabolomic analysis in human monoblastic leukemia U937 cells in culture revealed that application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules caused increases in methionine and S-adenosylmethionine and a decrease in cystathionine in the cells, suggesting the cystathionine ?-synthase inhibition by carbon monoxide. Under these circumstances, the cells exhibited global protein arginine methylation: this event was also reproduced by the cell treatment with hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 inducer. The protein arginine methylation elicited by carbon monoxide was attenuated by knocking down cystathionine ?-synthase with its small interfering RNA or by blocking S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase with adenosine dialdehyde, suggesting remethylation cycling is necessary to trigger the methylation processing. Furthermore, proteins undergoing the carbon monoxide-induced arginine methylation involved histone H3 proteins, suggesting chromatin modification by the gas. Collectively with our studies in vivo showing its inhibitory action on endogenous hydrogen sulfide production, the current results suggest that not only inhibition of transsulfuration pathway for H2S generation but also activation of protein methylation accounts for notable biological actions of carbon monoxide via the cystathionine ?-synthase inhibition.

Yamamoto, Takehiro; Takano, Naoharu; Ishiwata, Kyoko; Suematsu, Makoto

2011-01-01

290

Carbon monoxide stimulates global protein methylation via its inhibitory action on cystathionine ?-synthase.  

PubMed

Although carbon monoxide derived from heme oxygenase has been reported to exert diverse biological actions in mammals, macromolecules responsible for its direct reception and functional outcomes of the gas binding remain largely unknown. Based on our previous results in vivo suggesting carbon monoxide serves as an inhibitor of cystathionine ?-synthase that rate-limits transsulfuration pathway for generation of hydrogen sulfide, we have herein hypothesized that the gas might serve as a regulator of protein methylation through accelerating turnover of remethylation cycle residing at the upstream of the enzyme. Metabolomic analysis in human monoblastic leukemia U937 cells in culture revealed that application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules caused increases in methionine and S-adenosylmethionine and a decrease in cystathionine in the cells, suggesting the cystathionine ?-synthase inhibition by carbon monoxide. Under these circumstances, the cells exhibited global protein arginine methylation: this event was also reproduced by the cell treatment with hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 inducer. The protein arginine methylation elicited by carbon monoxide was attenuated by knocking down cystathionine ?-synthase with its small interfering RNA or by blocking S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase with adenosine dialdehyde, suggesting remethylation cycling is necessary to trigger the methylation processing. Furthermore, proteins undergoing the carbon monoxide-induced arginine methylation involved histone H3 proteins, suggesting chromatin modification by the gas. Collectively with our studies in vivo showing its inhibitory action on endogenous hydrogen sulfide production, the current results suggest that not only inhibition of transsulfuration pathway for H(2)S generation but also activation of protein methylation accounts for notable biological actions of carbon monoxide via the cystathionine ?-synthase inhibition. PMID:21297920

Yamamoto, Takehiro; Takano, Naoharu; Ishiwata, Kyoko; Suematsu, Makoto

2010-12-28

291

Interactions between phenol and carbon monoxide under cryogenic conditions: evidence for a phenol-CO complex  

SciTech Connect

Phenol has been matrix-isolated in argon, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide. The magnitude of the shifts of key OH bands from gas-phase values indicates that phenol-matrix interactions increase in the series Ar < N/sub 2/ < CO. Phenol forms a 1:1 complex with CO in argon-doped matrices. On the basis of the downward shift of nu/OH/ (the OH stretch) and the shift of nu/sub c identical with o/ to higher frequency, it is concluded that phenol is hydrogen bonded to the carbon terminal of carbon monoxide. Phenol in solid carbon monoxide behaves as if there is an equilibrium between free and complexed forms. The observation of a 1:1 complex between phenol and CO in argon offers the novel prospect of assessing substituent effects under cryogenic conditions. 35 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

Gebicki, J.; Krantz, A.

1984-12-26

292

A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

Apte, M.G.

1997-09-01

293

Theoretical study of the interactions of carbon monoxide with Rh-decorated (8,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent laboratory studies have shown that metal nanoparticles-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be used to detect carbon monoxide (CO) gases at room temperature, which is known not able to be adsorbed on pure SWCNTs. In this paper, we investigated the Rh-decorated (8,0) SWCNT and its interaction with CO gases by using density functional theory (DFT) methods. Upon Rh atom

Jing-Xiang Zhao; Yi-Hong Ding

2008-01-01

294

Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.31±0.12 Tg yr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

Antony Chen, L.-W.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

295

Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.31+/-0.12Tgyr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

Chen, L.-W. Antony; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

2001-05-01

296

Relative and kinetic properties of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide on a graphite surface  

SciTech Connect

Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) results after chemisorption of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) on polycrystalline graphite are presented. CO adsorbs onto graphite with a very low sticking coefficient. After CO chemisorption CO (mass 28 amu) desorbs in two temperature regions, between 400 and 700 K and between 1000 and 1300 K, and CO/sub 2/ (mass 44 amu) desorbs below 950 K. The intensity of the CO/sub 2/ signal is less than 1 order of magnitude lower than the CO intensity. After CO/sub 2/ adsorption the major desorption product is CO at high temperatures (1000 < T (K) < 1300), whereas a small amount of CO/sub 2/ desorbs around 450 K. The adsorption of C/sup 16/O/sub 2/ and C/sup 18/O/sub 2/ mixture leads to a nearly total oxygen scrambling of the CO/sub 2/ desorbed. A mechanism for CO and CO/sub 2/ interconversion on the graphite surface is presented in terms of surface oxide species, mainly lactones and semiquinones, and their relative stability. Assignments of the TPD features are proposed accordingly. Reaction studies on the CO/sub 2/ gasification of clean graphite and the CO disproportionation (Boudouard reaction) have been performed. A good agreement is found between the activation energies obtained and the desorption energies calculated from the analysis of the TPD results.

Marchon, B.; Tysoe, W.T.; Carrazza, J.; Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

1988-10-06

297

Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias. Research report, Jul 85-Jan 89  

SciTech Connect

The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction. The combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation in 60 percent of the animals. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as susceptible; dogs that survive the test without fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk and are defined as 'resistant.' The effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, the reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. The worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, the observation that carbon monoxide exposure increases heart rate at rest and during moderate exercise may have clinical implications relevant to patients with coronary artery disease.

Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.

1990-01-01

298

Risk and Protective Factors for Fires, Burns, and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in U.S. Households  

PubMed Central

Background More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households. Methods A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population. Results Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device. Conclusions Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed.

Runyan, Carol W.; Johnson, Renee M.; Yang, Jingzhen; Waller, Anna E.; Perkis, David; Marshall, Stephen W.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; McGee, Kara S.

2011-01-01

299

Carbon monoxide in the environs of the star WR 16  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We analyze the carbon monoxide emission around the star WR 16 aiming to study the physical characteristics of the molecular gas linked to the star and to achieve a better understanding of the interaction between massive stars with their surroundings. Methods: We study the molecular gas in a region in size using CO J = 1 ? 0 and 13CO J = 1 ? 0 line data obtained with the 4-m NANTEN telescope. Radio continuum archival data at 4.85 GHz, obtained from the Parkes-MIT-NRAO Southern Radio Survey, are also analyzed to account for the ionized gas. Available IRAS (HIRES) 60 ?m and 100 ?m images are used to study the characteristics of the dust around the star. Results: Our new CO and 13CO data allow the low/intermediate density molecular gas surrounding the WR nebula to be completely mapped. We report two molecular features at -5 km s-1 and -8.5 km s-1 (components 1 and 2, respectively) having a good morphological resemblance with the H? emission of the ring nebula. Component 2 seems to be associated with the external ring, while component 1 is placed at the interface between component 2 and the H? emission. We also report a third molecular feature ~10' in size (component 3) at a velocity of -9.5 km s-1 having a good morphological correspondence with the inner optical and IR emission, although high resolution observations are recommended to confirm its existence. The stratified morphology and kinematics of the molecular gas could be associated to shock fronts and high mass-loss events related to different evolutive phases of the WR star, which have acted upon the surrounding circumstellar molecular gas. An analysis of the mass of component 1 suggests that this feature is composed of swept-up interstellar gas and is probably enriched by molecular ejecta. The direction of the proper motion of WR 16 suggests that the morphology observed at infrared, optical, radio continuum, and probably molecular emission of the inner ring nebula is induced by the stellar motion.

Duronea, N. U.; Arnal, E. M.; Bronfman, L.

2013-03-01

300

Mechanisms of carbon monoxide attenuation of tubuloglomerular feedback.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a physiological messenger with diverse functions in the kidney, including controlling afferent arteriole tone both directly and via tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). We have reported that CO attenuates TGF, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unknown. We hypothesized that CO, acting via cGMP, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase 2, reduces cAMP in the macula densa, leading to TGF attenuation. In vitro, microdissected rabbit afferent arterioles and their attached macula densa were simultaneously perfused. TGF was measured as the decrease in afferent arteriole diameter elicited by switching macula densa NaCl from 10 to 80 mmol/L. Adding a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3, 5 × 10(-5) mol/L) to the macula densa blunted TGF from 3.3 ± 0.3 to 2.0 ± 0.3 ?m (P<0.001). The guanylate cyclase inhibitor LY-83583 (10(-6) mol/L) enhanced TGF (5.8 ± 0.6 ?m; P<0.001 versus control) and prevented the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (LY-83583+CORM-3, 5.5 ± 0.3 ?m). Similarly, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KT-5823 (2 × 10(-6) mol/L) enhanced TGF and prevented the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (KT-5823, 6.0 ± 0.7 ?m; KT-5823+CORM-3, 5.9 ± 0.8 ?m). However, the phosphodiesterase 2 inhibitor BAY-60-7550 (10(-6) mol/L) did not prevent the effect of CORM-3 on TGF (BAY-60-7550, 4.07 ± 0.31 ?m; BAY-60-7550+CORM-3, 1.84 ± 0.31 ?m; P<0.001). Finally, the degradation-resistant cAMP analog dibutyryl-cAMP (10(-3) mol/L) prevented the attenuation of TGF by CORM-3 (dibutyryl-cAMP, 4.6 ± 0.5 ?m; dibutyryl-cAMP+CORM-3, 5.0 ± 0.6 ?m). We conclude that CO attenuates TGF by reducing cAMP via a cGMP-dependent pathway mediated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase rather than phosphodiesterase 2. Our results will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that control the renal microcirculation. PMID:22508834

Ren, Yilin; D'Ambrosio, Martin A; Wang, Hong; Falck, John R; Peterson, Edward L; Garvin, Jeffrey L; Carretero, Oscar A

2012-04-16

301

Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides  

SciTech Connect

The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

1991-11-01

302

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

DOEpatents

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

1996-01-01

303

Preparation and evaluation of self-regenerative carbon monoxide detection gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued development of an especially impregnated silica gel capable of reversible chemical detection of carbon monoxide was reported. The effects of changes in mine related ambient conditions on the detection catalyst's response were explored. Temperature, humidity, and several interfering gases were found to affect the detection catalyst. The interferents include hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, acetylene (and methylacetylene), and ammonia. High humnidity decreased the detection catalyst's sensitivity to carbon monoxide for some formulations. Increasing temperature generally decreased the reaction time of the detection catalyst with carbon monoxide. A limited physical, chemical, and mechanistic characterization of the detection catalyst and the materials used to prepare it has been carried out. Metal component ratio studies, spectral, analytical, pH, and rate measurements were done.

Palmer, J. G.; Cecil, M.; Schrauzer, G. N.; Shuler, K. E.

1982-09-01

304

Effects of carbon monoxide on isolated heart muscle cells. Research report, March 1989-February 1992  

SciTech Connect

By sequestering intracellular myoglobin of cardiac muscle cells in the nonfunctioning carboxymyoglobin form, carbon monoxide blocks myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen, as well as myoglobin-mediated oxidative phosphorylation. The authors explored the hypothesis that the carbon monoxide blockade of myoglobin function may be responsible at the cellular level for a component of the cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide observed during exercise. At physiological oxygen pressures no greater than 5 torr, after sequestration of approximately 50% of the myoglobin, steady-state oxygen uptake decreased significantly less than the respiration of cell groups for which the fraction of carboxymyoglobin was 0% to 40%. When respiration is diminished, the rate of oxidative phosphorylation also decreases. Thus, they concluded that sequestering intracellular myoglobin as carboxymyoglobin significantly decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation of isolated cardiac myocytes. They estimate that intracellular myoglobin-dependent oxidative phosphorylation will be inhibited when approximately 20% to 40% of the arterial hemoglobin in the whole animal is carboxyhemoglobin.

Wittenberg, B.A.; Wittenberg, J.B.

1993-01-01

305

40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1340 Control strategy: Carbon...redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri, area was submitted by the Director of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources...

2013-07-01

306

Microorganisms responsible for the oxidation of carbon monoxide in soil  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of CO by Williamson silt loam does not result in increases in numbers of CO oxidizers, enhancement of CO/sub 2/ fixation, microbial assimilation of carbon from CO, or enhancement of the oxidation of subsequent increments of CO. The likeliest explanation for these findings is that CO oxidation in this soil is a cometabolic process and not one effected by autotrophs or heterotrophs using CO as a carbon source.

Bartholomew, G.W.; Alexander, M.

1982-05-01

307

Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide poisonings continue to be significant and preventable for a number of work operations. This study assesses occupational carbon monoxide morbidity and mortality for the state of Washington based on a review of workers' compensation records for the years 1994-1999. The study characterizes sources, industries, and causative factors, and further attempts to identify work operations most at risk. Records were identified by both injury source and diagnostic codes. The study limits itself to non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisonings and primarily those from acute exposure. A decline in the number of claims was not evident, but the number of incidents per year showed a slight decline. Carbon monoxide poisonings were found to occur throughout all types of industries. The greatest number of claims was found in agriculture, followed by construction and wholesale trade, with these three accounting for more than half the claims and nearly half of the incidents. The more severe poisonings did not necessarily occur in industries with the greatest number of incidents. The major source for carbon monoxide poisoning was forklift trucks, followed by auto/truck/bus, portable saws, and more than 20 other sources. Fruit packing and storage had the highest number of incidents mostly due to fuel-powered forklift activity, with nearly half of the incidents occurring in cold rooms. Adverse health effects as measured by carboxyhemoglobin, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, unconsciousness, and number and cost of claims were indexed by source. Though several specific work operations were identified, the episodic nature of carbon monoxide poisonings, as well as the diverse industries and sources, and the opportunity for a severe poisoning in any number of operations, poses challenges for effective intervention. PMID:11942672

Lofgren, Don J

2002-04-01

308

Magnetic field and electromagnetic wave properties of carbon monoxide with high-pressure disproportionation single-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A double-fluid theory is used to find the electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco)-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with HiPco SWNTs is obtained and is studied numerically. The absorption is then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, cyclotron frequency, and angle of propagation is studied. The double-fluid theory predicts that there is an electromagnetic frequency dependency on the energy absorption properties of the system under investigation. The calculation results show that effects of magnetic field strength and the angle of microwave propagation on the absorption coefficient as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant.

Tooski, S. B.

2009-10-01

309

Magnetic field and electromagnetic wave properties of carbon monoxide with high-pressure disproportionation single-walled carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

A double-fluid theory is used to find the electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with iron-catalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco)-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The electromagnetic wave absorption of carbon monoxide with HiPco SWNTs is obtained and is studied numerically. The absorption is then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, cyclotron frequency, and angle of propagation is studied. The double-fluid theory predicts that there is an electromagnetic frequency dependency on the energy absorption properties of the system under investigation. The calculation results show that effects of magnetic field strength and the angle of microwave propagation on the absorption coefficient as well as the frequency band of resonant absorption are very significant.

Tooski, S. B. [Department of Physics, Laboratory of Materials and Nanotechnology and Laboratory of Applied Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran P.O. Box 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-10-15

310

Measurements of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Other Related Tracers at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to quantify the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide on the urban scale is essential for understanding the atmospheric drivers to global climate change. In the 'top-down' approach, overall carbon fluxes are determined by combining remote measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with complex atmospheric transport models, and these emissions measurements are compared to "bottoms-up" predictions based on detailed inventories of the sources and sinks of carbon, both anthropogenic and biogenic in nature. This approach, which has been proven to be effective at continental scales, becomes challenging to implement at the urban scale, due to poorly understood micrometeorological atmospheric transport models and high variability of the emissions sources in space (e.g., factories, highways, residences) and time (rush hours, factory shifts and shutdowns, residential energy usage variability during the day and over the year). New measurement and analysis techniques are required to make sense of the carbon dioxide signal in cities. Here we present detailed, high spatial- and temporal-resolution greenhouse gas measurements in Silicon Valley in California. The synthesis of two experimental campaigns is presented: real-time measurements from two ten-meter urban 'towers,' and ground-based mobile mapping measurements. Real-time carbon dioxide data from a nine-month period are combined with real-time carbon monoxide, methane, acetylene, and carbon 13 measurements to partition the observed CO2 concentrations between different anthropogenic sectors (e.g., transport, residential) and biogenic sources. The carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide ratio is shown to vary over more than a factor of two from season to season or even from day to night, indicating rapid and frequent shifts in the balance between different carbon dioxide sources. Clear differences are seen between the two urban sites, which are separated by 7 km. Further information is given by the carbon 13 signature and by acetylene, another tracer that provides complementary information to carbon monoxide as an indicator of combustion. In spring and summer, the combined signal of the urban center and the surrounding biosphere and urban green space is explored. These methods show great promise for quantifying and partitioning carbon dioxide emissions in an urban and mixed urban / ecological setting.

Rella, C.; Jacobson, G.

2012-04-01

311

The oxidation of carbon monoxide on platinum-supported binary oxide catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the carbon monoxide oxidation on Pt-supported MeSb2O6 (Me=Ni, Co and Cu) have been investigated in a recycle reactor at 80°C. The catalysts contain 1% Pt (weight)-supported on NiSb2O6, CoSb2O6 and CuSb2O6. The reaction rates were measured at different carbon monoxide contents in air from 0 to 1% (vol.). The results were compared with that of Pt\\/SnO2\\/Al2O3 catalyst

Gülten Gürda?; Thomas Hahn

2000-01-01

312

Occupational carbon monoxide violations in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide continues to cause a number of injuries and deaths. This study reviewed the State of Washington OSHA inspection records for occupational safety or health violations related to carbon monoxide for the time period 1994-1999 to assess the agency's efforts and further identify and characterize causative factors. Inspection data were also compared with carbon monoxide claims data from a companion study to determine if the agency was visiting the most at risk work operations. Inspections were identified by searching computerized violation texts for "carbon monoxide" or "CO." The study found 142 inspections with one or more carbon monoxide violations. Inspections were spread over 84 different 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes. Most inspections were initiated as a result of a complaint or other informant. Inspections were predominantly in construction and manufacturing, whereas carbon monoxide claims were mores evenly distributed between the major industries. Inspections also may have failed to find violations for some types of equipment responsible for carbon monoxide claims. Forklifts were the source of carbon monoxide most often associated with a violation, followed by compressors for respirators, auto/truck/bus, and temporary heating devices. Inspections in response to poisonings found common factors associated with lack of recognition and failure to use or maintain equipment and ventilation. Some work sites with one or more poisonings were not being inspected. Only 10 of the 51 incidents with industrial insurance claim reports of carboxyhemoglobin at or above 20 percent were inspected. Further, it was found more preventive efforts should be targeted at cold storage operations and certain warehouse and construction activities. It is proposed that more specific standards, both consensus and regulatory, would provide additional risk reduction. Reliance upon safe work practices as a primary method of control in the use of fuel-powered equipment in cold storage or other enclosed and unventilated environments needs to be prohibited. The study further demonstrates how inspection and industrial insurance records can assist with preventive efforts and better focus an agency's efforts. PMID:12083171

Lofgren, Don J

2002-07-01

313

Variability of the magnetic moment of carbon monoxide hemoglobin from carp.  

PubMed Central

Deionized carp carbon monoxide hemoglobin in distilled water or in bis(2-hydroxyethyl)imino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane or Tris buffer exhibits a slight but significant paramagnetism. This is most clearly demonstrated by the decrease in this paramagnetism that is caused by the addition of inositol hexaphosphate to this protein in the former buffer at pH 6.3-6.4. No such effect is seen when inositol hexaphosphate is added to carp cyanomethemoglobin, demonstrating that the change observed with carbon monoxide derivative is not due to a modification in the diamagnetic properties of the protein.

Cerdonio, M; Morante, S; Vitale, S; De Young, A; Noble, R W

1980-01-01

314

The Secretion of Oxygen into the Swim-bladder of Fish: II. The simultaneous transport of carbon monoxide and oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRAOT Toadfish, Opsanus tau, L., were maintained in sea water equili- brated with gas mixtures containing a fixed proportion of oxygen and varying proportions of carbon monoxide. The swim-bladder was emptied by puncture, and, after an interval of 24 or 48 hours, the newly secreted gases were with- drawn and analyzed. Both carbon monoxide and oxygen are accumulated in the

JONATHAN B. WITTENBERG; BEATRICE A. WITTENBERG

1961-01-01

315

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion...Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60âCarbon Monoxide Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste...

2010-07-01

316

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion...Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62âCarbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste...

2009-07-01

317

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

SciTech Connect

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms was decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.

Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M. [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

318

Catalyst Effects in Modeling a High Pressure Carbon Monoxide Nanotube Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-pressure carbon monoxide technique for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is analyzed using a chemical reaction model coupled with flow properties calculated along streamlines. The streamlines are found from solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence model. The HiPco process introduces cold iron pentacarbonyl that mixes with hot CO and decomposes to release atomic Fe. Iron nucleates and

Carl Scott; Christopher Dateo; Tahir Gökçen; Alex Povitsky; Peter Willis; Richard Smalley

2002-01-01

319

Carbon monoxide-dependent energy metabolism in anaerobic bacteria and archaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its toxicity for the majority of living matter on our planet, numerous microorganisms, both aerobic and anaerobic,\\u000a can use carbon monoxide (CO) as a source of carbon and\\/or energy for growth. The capacity to employ carboxidotrophic energy\\u000a metabolism anaerobically is found in phylogenetically diverse members of the Bacteria and the Archaea. The oxidation of CO\\u000a is coupled to numerous

Ellen Oelgeschläger; Michael Rother

2008-01-01

320

75 FR 4815 - Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...The ``Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon...Assessment's home page under the Recent Additions and Publications...CASAC), an independent science advisory committee whose...requesting the submission of recent scientific information...discuss policy-relevant science to inform EPA's...

2010-01-29

321

40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small...Part 60âModel RuleâCarbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal...You must meet the following carbon monoxide limits a Using...

2010-07-01

322

Simulation of electron swarm motion in hydrogen and carbon monoxide for high E\\/N  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron swarm motion has been simulated by using a Monte Carlo technique, and swarm parameters have been evaluated for electrons in both hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases for a wide range of E\\/N varying from 30 to 3000 Td. Comparison has been made with the experimental results for the ionization coefficient, the drift velocity, and both the radial and longitudinal

H. T. Saelee; J. Lucas

1977-01-01

323

Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon monoxide (CO) in natural waters: evidence of a coupled production pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms for the photoproduction of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon monoxide (CO) in natural waters were studied by evaluating experimental results from different aqueous systems. A coupled photoproduction mechanism was observed operating on CO and OCS. For CO photoproduction, the presence of a carbonyl group is necessary, while for OCS, a source of reduced sulfur in addition to the

Willer H. Pos; Daniel D. Riemer; Rod G. Zika

1998-01-01

324

Combined dewatering and liquid phase hydrogenolysis of raw peat using carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

There is provided a process for the hydrogenolysis of raw humid peat by treating untreated peat as obtained from the bog with carbon monoxide at a temperature of from 350 degree to 373 degree C and under a pressure up to 35 mpa and recovering bitumen-like compounds from the non-aqueous phase.

Cavalier, J.; Chornet, E.

1982-05-04

325

Smoke Inhalation Injury and the Effect of Carbon Monoxide in the Sheep Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role of carbon monoxide (CO) in causing the physiologic and anatomic changes characteristic of smoke inhalation injury was evaluated in 34 sheep. The smoke-exposed group received a dose of smoke known to produce mild inhalation injury. The CO group re...

T. Shimazu H. Ikeuchi G. B. Hubbard P. C. Langlinais A. D. Mason

1990-01-01

326

Focus on carbon monoxide: a modulator of neutrophil oxidants and elastase spatial localization?  

Microsoft Academic Search

GASEOUS SIGNAL MEDIATORS include nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide, and carbon monoxide (CO) (3, 20, 35). Both NO and hydrogen sulfide play important roles in inflammation, with the existing evidence supporting them as components of the nor- mal biochemical milieu that stabilize the vasculature against leukocyte adhesion, extravasation, and vascular permeability (25, 35). Unlike G protein-coupled receptors, gasotransmitters are membrane-permeant

V. C. Ganta; J. S. Alexander

2009-01-01

327

Effect of chronic carbon monoxide exposure on experimental alcoholic liver injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of experimental animals with pair-fed controls were studied to evaluate the effect of chronic carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on progression of experimental alcoholic liver injury. Eight pairs of male Wistar rats were continuously infused liquid diet and ethanol or isocaloric dextrose for four months. Four pairs were also exposed to CO. Liver damage was followed monthly by serum

A. A. Nanji; L. T. Jui; S. W. French

1989-01-01

328

Study of hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorption on modified Zn/Cr catalysts by adsorption calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

Differential heat of adsorption (q) of hydrogen (a) and carbon monoxide (b) as a function of the adsorbed amount (a) on Zn/Cr catalysts at 463/sup 0/K; 1) unpromoted catalyst, 2) catalyst promoted with 2.5% of K/sub 2/O.

Yoshin, S.V.; Klyacho, A.L.; Kondrat'ev, L.T.; Leonov, V.E.; Skripchenko, G.B.; Sushchaya, L.E.

1986-08-01

329

Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific Ocean by voluntary observing ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruising routes: from Japan to Oceania, from Japan to the United States,

H. Nara; H. Tanimoto; Y. Nojiri; H. Mukai; T. Machida; Y. Tohjima

2011-01-01

330

The Role of Carbon Monoxide in the Regulation of Neuroendocrine Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the current evidence supporting the notion that endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is a modulator of neuroendocrine function. CO is normally formed in the body during the enzymatic catabolism of heme moieties by heme oxygenase (HO). Three HO isoforms have been described to date: HO-1, HO-2 and HO-3. In the brain, CO is principally generated by HO-2 but,

Cesare Mancuso; Paolo Preziosi; Ashley B. Grossman; Pierluigi Navarra

1997-01-01

331

Ability of Fixed Monitoring Stations to Represent Personal Carbon Monoxide Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the ability of fixed location ambient air quality monitoring stations to represent personal environmental exposures to carbon monoxide (CO) accurately. The relationship between residential location, commuting transportation mode, employment location, and time-weighted average human exposure to CO in the metropolitan area was also explored. Personal exposure was measured by equipping 66 nonsmoking volunteers in the Boston area

Anthony D. Cortese; John D. Spengler

1976-01-01

332

A carbon monoxide sensor in polymer electrolyte fuel cells based on symbolic dynamic filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) dramatically reduces the performance of a fuel cell stack if not remediated. Reme- diation generally requires parasitic bleeding of a small fraction (<5%) of air into the fuel stream to promote oxidation of the CO and use of a platinum-ruthenium or other noble metal based catalyst. For enhance- ment of system efficiency, air bleed should be controlled

K. S. Bhambare; S. Guptab; M. M. Mench; A. Rayb

333

Theoretical Characterization of Carbon Monoxide Vibrational Spectrum in Sperm Whale Myoglobin Distal Pocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we use the perturbed matrix method and an extended molecular dynamics sampling of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the myoglobin distal pocket to characterize the CO vibrational spectrum and hence to relate its spectroscopic features with the atomic-molecular behavior. Results show the accuracy of the method employed and confirm the assignment of the spectroscopic B1 and B2

Massimiliano Anselmi; Massimiliano Aschi; Alfredo Di Nola; Andrea Amadei

2007-01-01

334

CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

335

Carbon Monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen Exposure during Offloading of Car Carrier Vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted from April to October 1994 to evaluate worker exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during offloading of vehicles from car carrier vessels. Personal and area samples for CO and NOx were taken during offloading operations aboard ten ships dedicated to vehicle cargo. Personal exposure results can be summarized as follows: 20

Aaron C. Davenport; William C. Hinds

1996-01-01

336

New analytical reagents for the determination of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four solid reagent methods were developed for the determination of sulfur dioxide in air, and one method was developed to measure carbon monoxide. When applied to filter paper with acetamide as the humectant and 4-phenylcyclohexanone as a bisulfite absorbent, oxohydroxybis(8-hydroxyquinolinyl-) vanadium (V) changes from yellow to black in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The three other methods, also on a

Trump

1987-01-01

337

CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH REVIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC CRITERIA FOR CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires periodic review of existing criteria that form the basis for carbon monoxide (CO) air quality standards. These air quality criteria are to reflect the latest scientific information useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effec...

338

Mitochondrial oxidative stress in female and male rat brain after ex vivo carbon monoxide treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most common cause of fatal poisoning all over the world. At the cellular level, a combination of tissue hypoxia and direct cellular damage underlie the pathophysiology of CO toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CO treatment on oxidative stress parameters in mitochondria isolated from male and female rat brains.

D. Taskiran; T. Nesil; K. Alkan

2007-01-01

339

Tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen measurements over Kalimantan in Indonesia and northern Australia during October, 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the PACE-5 campaign over Australia and Indonesia in October 1997, we used an aircraft to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). Latitudinal distributions of CO and H2 clearly showed a large increase from northern Australia to Kalimantan in Indonesia. Elevated CO levels over northern Australia were observed only in the smoke plumes of savanna fires. A thick smoke

Yousuke Sawa; Hidekazu Matsueda; Yukitomo Tsutsumi; Jørgen B. Jensen; Hisayuki Y. Inoue; Yukio Makino

1999-01-01

340

Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg

N. L. Benowitz; P. Jacob; L. Yu; R. Talcott; S. Hall; R. T. Jones

1986-01-01

341

Protective Effect of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Compounds in Ischemia-Induced Acute Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase (HO) induction has been demonstrated to be beneficial in limiting the extent of cellular damage after ischemia-induced acute renal failure (ARF). Because increased HO activity is associated with the production of carbon monoxide (CO) as well as the potent antioxidant bilirubin, it is unclear which of the two is of greater importance in the protective effects of HO

Jeffery R. Henegar; Heather A. Drummond; John M. Rimoldi; David E. Stec

342

Spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide and methane. 2: Seasonal variations and long-term trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectroscopic technique for measuring CO and CH4 contents is described and the latitudinal distributions of these gases are presented. Carbon monoxide abundance decreases southward, having two local maxima: in midlatitudes and in the tropics. The slope of latitude dependence varies according to the season of the year. The difference in CH4 content does not exceed the accuracy of the

V. I. Dianov-Klokov; L. N. Yurganov

1989-01-01

343

Carbon Monoxide Reversibly Alters Iron Homeostasis and Respiratory Epithelial Cell Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissociation of iron from heme is a major factor in iron metab- olism and the cellular concentrations of the metal correlate with heme degradation. We tested the hypotheses that (1) exposure to a product of heme catabolism, carbon monoxide (CO), alters iron homeostasis in the lung and in cultured respiratory epithelial cells; (2) this response includes both decreased uptake

Andrew J. Ghio; Jacqueline G. Stonehuerner; Lisa A. Dailey; Judy H. Richards; Michael D. Madden; Zhongping Deng; N.-B. Nguyen; Kimberly D. Callaghan; Funmei Yang; Claude A. Piantadosi

2008-01-01

344

Computer Simulations of Carbon Monoxide Photodissociation in Myoglobin: Structural Interpretation of the B States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early diffusion processes of a photodissociated ligand (carbon monoxide) in sperm whale myoglobin and its Phe29 mutant are studied computationally. An explicit solvent model is employed in which the protein is embedded in a box of at least 2300 water molecules. Electrostatic interactions are accounted for by using the particle mesh Ewald. Two hundred seventy molecular dynamics trajectories are

Jaroslaw Meller; Ron Elber

1998-01-01

345

Airborne intercomparison of vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence and tunable diode laser absorption measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the fall 1997 North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE 97), two separate intercomparisons of aircraft-based carbon monoxide measurement instrumentation were conducted. On September 2, CO measurements were simultaneously made aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3 by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) fluorescence and by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). On September 18, an intercomparison flight was conducted between

John S. Holloway; Roger O. Jakoubek; David D. Parrish; Christoph Gerbig; Andreas Volz-Thomas; Sandra Schmitgen; Alan Fried; Brian Wert; Bruce Henry; James R. Drummond

2000-01-01

346

In-vehicle Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Vehicular Exhaust: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-induced emissions constitute a major source of air pollutants, particularly in urban areas, where heavy traffic is common occurrence. Contaminated air can flow into enclosed micro-environments, including vehicle compartments. Among various exhaust emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) was the first indicator examined in passenger compartments. This paper presents a critical review of worldwide research work conducted to characterize CO exposure inside

M. El-Fadel; L. Abi-Esber

2009-01-01

347

STUDY OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURES OF RESIDENTS OF WASHINGTON, D.C.  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper will describe a study conducted in the Washington, D.C., area during the winter of 1982-83 for the purpose of measuring the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of a representative population of the area. The population distributions were determined by direct ...

348

Chemisorption of carbon monoxide and ammonia on nickel and iridium surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of chemisorption of small molecules on transition metal surfaces was investigated from the point of view of two prototype adsorption systems, carbon monoxide on iridium 100 and 111 and ammonia on nickel 111. Microscopic details such as the nature of interactions between adsorbed species were addressed experimentally. Angle resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) with synchrotron radiation was used

C. W. Seabury

1980-01-01

349

[Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning in an electric car. An unusual case report].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of a man who committed suicide by poisoning with carbon monoxide in his electric vehicle. He applied a small motor generator with no exhaust normally used for charging the vehicle's batteries at home, that was found on the loading space behind the seat. This demonstrates the value of a thorough scene investigation. PMID:7832611

Bohnert, M; Zollinger, U

350

Effect of iron manganese oxide solid solutions on selectivity for lower hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide hydrogenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists considerable current interest in the study of catalysts that demonstrate high selectivities for Câ-Câ hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide hydrogenation. In this respect iron manganese matrix catalysts have been well studied by a number of authors since Koelbel initially disclosed that these catalysts could give high yields of Câ-Câ hydrocarbons with a corresponding very low methane selectivity. The mechanism

G. J. Hutchings; J. C. A. Boeyens

1986-01-01

351

Paradoxical rescue from ischemic lung injury by inhaled carbon monoxide driven by derepression of fibrinolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) can arrest cellular respiration, but paradoxically, it is synthesized endogenously by heme oxygenase type 1 (Ho-1) in response to ischemic stress. Ho-1–deficient (Hmox1?\\/?) mice exhibited lethal ischemic lung injury, but were rescued from death by inhaled CO. CO drove ischemic protection by activating soluble guanylate cyclase and thereby suppressed hypoxic induction of the gene encoding plasminogen activator

Tomoyuki Fujita; Koichi Toda; Ann Karimova; Shi-Fang Yan; Yoshifumi Naka; Shaw-Fang Yet; David J. Pinsky

2001-01-01

352

A low temperature sensor for the detection of carbon monoxide in hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensor to detect the carbon monoxide in a reformate stream that fuels a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is presented. This electrochemical sensor consists of a Nafion® electrolyte and Pt- or Ru-based electrodes and works on the principle of differential CO poisoning of the various precious metal electrodes. Varying the composition and loading of the precious metal in

Rangachary Mukundan; Eric L. Brosha; Fernando H. Garzon

2004-01-01

353

Evaluation of Length-of-Stain Gas Indicator Tubes for Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Air.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Techniques for detection and measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in air are of interest and utility in many aspects of automotive safety. CO concentrations may range from less than 100 parts per million (ppm), or 0.01 percent, to about 10 percent by volume. Gas indicator tubes have been used for many years primarily as detectors of hazardous…

Klaubert, Earl C.; And Others

354

Distributions and recent changes of carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1988, the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) in the lower troposphere has been determined using a globally distributed air sampling network. Site locations range from 82 oN to 90 ø S, with wide longitudinal coverage, and represent the marine boundary layer, regionally polluted atmospheres, and the free troposphere. These measurements present a unique, intercalibrated, and internally consistent data set

P. C. Novelli; K. A. Masarie; P. M. Lang

1998-01-01

355

Distributions and recent changes of carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1988, the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) in the lower troposphere has been determined using a globally distributed air sampling network. Site locations range from 82°N to 90°S, with wide longitudinal coverage, and represent the marine boundary layer, regionally polluted atmospheres, and the free troposphere. These measurements present a unique, intercalibrated, and internally consistent data set that are used

P. C. Novelli; K. A. Masarie; P. M. Lang

1998-01-01

356

Selection criteria utilized for hyperbaric oxygen treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical directors of North American hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) facilities were surveyed to assess selection criteria applied for treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning within the hyperbaric medicine community. Responses were received from 85% of the 208 facilities in the United States and Canada. Among responders, 89 monoplace and 58 multiplace chamber facilities treat acute CO poisoning, managing a total

Neil B. Hampson; Richard G. Dunford; Christine C. Kramer; Diane M. Norkool

1995-01-01

357

Reaction engineering for materials processing in space: Reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen and carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen is a consumable material which needs to be produced continuously in most space missions. Its use for propulsion as well as life support makes oxygen one of the largest volume chemicals to be produced in space. Production of oxygen from lunar materials is of particular interest and is very attractive possibility. The kinetics and mechanism of reduction of ilmenite by carbon monoxide and hydrogen at 800 to 1100 C were investigated. The temporal profiles of conversion for carbon monoxide have a sigmoidal shape and indicate the presence of three different stages (induction, acceleration, and deceleration) during the reduction reaction. The apparent activation energy decreases from 18 kcal/mole at 10 percent conversion to 10 kcal/mole at 50 percent conversion. The reaction is first order with respect to carbon monoxide under the experimental conditions studied. Both SEM and EDX analysis show that the diffusion of Fe product away from the reaction front and through the TiO2 phase, followed by the nucleation and growth of a separate Fe phase are important steps affecting the process kinetics. The results from hydrogen reduction show that the mechanism of ilmenite reduction by hydrogen is similar to that by carbon monoxide. However, the titanium dioxide can be further reduced by hydrogen at 800 to 1000 C. The detailed comparison and theoretical modeling of both reduction processes is presented.

Zhao, Y.; Shadman, F.

358

Carbon monoxide poisoning during ice storms: A tale of two cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a retrospective case series conducted at two university hospital emergency departments of 68 patients with a discharge diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning presenting during two different ice storms (March 1991 and February 1994) in two cities (Rochester, NY, and Nashville, TN). Fifty-five patients were seen over 10 d in Rochester and 13 patients over 4 d in

Keith Wrenn; Gregory P. Conners

1997-01-01

359

Treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen and therapeutic hypothermia.  

PubMed

We present a preliminary case report series of severe, acute carbon monoxide poisoning in which both hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) and therapeutic hypothermia (TH) were used to ameliorate neurological sequelae. Carbon monoxide poisoning is a standard indication for HBO2. While typically used postcardiac arrest, TH has been used for other types of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Four patients were found comatose from carbon monoxide exposure. They were intubated and treated with high-flow oxygen before transfer to our hospital for HBO2. All received three HBO2 treatments and 24 hours of TH with a goal temperature of 33 degrees C utilizing the CoolGard 3000 Intravascular Temperature Management System. While in the HBO2 chamber, cooling was maintained with ice bags in the groin, axillae and under the head. Three of the four cases were discharged home with normal neurological exams. One patient sustained severe, diffuse brain injury yet made a dramatic neurological recovery with only minor limitations in higher order memory and attention. No patient left the hospital with other end organ damage including cardiac dysfunction. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of the use of both HBO2 and TH to treat severe, acute carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23397870

Feldman, Joanne; Renda, Natasha; Markovitz, Gerald H; Chin, Walter; Sprau, Susan E

360

Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

2012-01-01

361

Carbon monoxide ameliorates chronic murine colitis through a heme oxygenase 1- dependent pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and its metabolic product carbon monoxide (CO) play regulatory roles in acute inflammatory states. In this study, we demonstrate that CO administration is effective as a therapeutic modality in mice with established chronic colitis. CO administration ameliorates chronic intestinal inflammation in a T helper (Th)1-mediated model of murine colitis, interleukin (IL)-10-deficient ( IL-10 ? \\/ ? )

Refaat A. F. Hegazi; Kavitha N. Rao; Aqila Mayle; Antonia R. Sepulveda; Leo E. Otterbein; Scott E. Plevy

2005-01-01

362

Sequential combination of self-report, breath carbon monoxide, and saliva cotinine to assess smoking status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis was to develop an algorithm for the cost effective and accurate assessment of smoking during the previous few days by combining self-report, breath carbon monoxide (BCO), and saliva cotinine (sCOT). These measurements are convenient, quantitative, and do not require invasive procedures. The data used to devise the algorithm were gathered during a treatment trial of

M. A. Javors; J. P. Hatch; R. J. Lamb

2011-01-01

363

CCAAT\\/enhancer-binding Protein Mediates Carbon Monoxide-induced Suppression of Cyclooxygenase2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme involved in the inflam- matory process that is rapidly induced in macrophages in response to LPS. Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme oxygnease-1, can suppress proinflammatory response in various in vitro and in vivo modelsof inflammation. This study was undertaken to exam- ine whether CO can regulate (and if so, to delineate the

Gee Young Suh; Yang Jin; Ae-Kyung Yi; Xiao Mei Wang; Augustine MK Choi

2006-01-01

364

Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student report on the physiological response to acute carbon monoxide exposure in a simulated healthy adult male and a coal miner and represents how 1) human patient simulators can be used in a nonclinical way for experiential hypothesis testing; 2) students can transition from traditional textbook learning to practical application of their knowledge; and 3) student-initiated group investigation drives critical thought

Whitney A. Cesari (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Dominique M. Caruso (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Enela L. Zyka (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Stuart T. Schroff (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies); Charles H. Evans, Jr. (Georgetown University Department of Human Science,School of Nursing and Health Studies); PhD Jon-Philippe K. Hyatt (Georgetown University Department of Human Science, School of Nursing and Health Studies)

2006-12-01

365

Unintentional Carbon Monoxide-Related Deaths between 1979 and 1993. Topical Report, October 1994-December 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon monoxide-related deaths for the years 1979-1993 were extracted from National Center for Health Statistics data tapes and analyzed to determine temporal trends for all CO-related deaths and the subset of unintentional CO deaths. The relative contrib...

M. D. Koontz L. L. Niang

1997-01-01

366

FINAL SAMPLING REPORT FOR THE STUDY OF PERSONAL CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the sample selection procedures used for a study funded by the EPA and conducted by the Research Triangle Institute in 1982 and 1983 to evaluate methodology for collecting data on personal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO). These data were collected in the me...

367

EFFECT ON CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS IN MOBILE HOMES USING UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS FOR RESIDENTIAL HEATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon monoxide (Co) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old . These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. espondents were asked to operate their heater...

368

Reducing the Risk of Accidental Death Due to Vehicle-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) from motor vehicles cause several hundred accidental fatal poisonings annually in the United States. The circumstances that could lead to fatal poisonings in residential settings with motor vehicles as the source of CO were explored. The risk of death in a garage (volume = 90 m) and a single-family dwelling (400 m) was evaluated using

Linsey C. Marr; Glenn C. Morrison; William W. Nazaroff; Robert A. Harley

1998-01-01

369

Methodology for designing air quality monitoring networks: II. Application to Las Vegas, Nevada, for carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objective methodology presented in a companion paper (Liu et al., 1986) for determining the optimum number and disposition of ambient air quality stations in a monitoring network for carbon monoxide is applied to the Las Vegas, Nevada, area. The methodology utilizes an air quality simulation model to produce temporally-varying air quality patterns for each of a limited number of

J. L. McElroy; J. V. Behar; T. C. Meyers; M. K. Liu

1986-01-01

370

Exposure to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and volatile organic compounds while commuting by bicycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable air sampling system has been used to assess exposures to various substances while commuting by bicycle in an urban area. The major source of pollutants in this situation is motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Carbon monoxide, measured by electrochemical detection, was found at peak concentrations in excess of 62 ppm, with mean values over 16 individual 35-mm journeys being

Michael A. J. Bevan; Christopher J. Proctor; Joanna Baker-Rogers; Nigel D. Warren

1991-01-01

371

Increased carbon monoxide in exhaled air of patients with cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDInflammation, oxidative stress, and recurrent pulmonary infections are major aggravating factors in cystic fibrosis. Nitric oxide (NO), a marker of inflammation, is not increased, however, probably because it is metabolised to peroxynitrite. Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), a product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) which is induced by inflammatory cytokines and oxidants, was therefore tested as a non-invasive

P Paredi; P L Shah; P Montuschi; P Sullivan; M E Hodson; S A Kharitonov; P J Barnes

1999-01-01

372

METHODOLOGY FOR DESIGNING AIR QUALITY MONITORING NETWORKS: 2. APPLICATION TO LAS VEGAS, NEVADA, FOR CARBON MONOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

An objective methodology presented in a companion paper (Liu et al., 1986) for determining the optimum number and disposition of ambient air quality stations in a monitoring network for carbon monoxide is applied to the Las Vegas, Nevada, area. The methodology utilizes an air qua...

373

Temporal and spatial variations of carbon monoxide over the western part of the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) have been carried out in the western part of the Pacific Ocean since February 1990. The average CO concentration showed a latitudinal gradient, with higher values in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere. A clear seasonal CO cycle was found nearly at all sampling locations, showing maximum and minimum concentrations in

Hisashi Yashiro; Satoshi Sugawara; Kengo Sudo; Shuji Aoki; Takakiyo Nakazawa

2009-01-01

374

Spectroscopic study of the seasonal variation of carbon monoxide vertical distribution above Kitt Peak  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to retrieve elements of the carbon monoxide (CO) vertical distribution from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra has been developed. The method is based on the fact that the total column amount retrieved by nonlinear least squares spectral fitting techniques depends on the shape of the assumed a priori profile and this dependence is a function of the absorption

N. S. Pougatchev; C. P. Rinsland

1995-01-01

375

Spectroscopic study of the seasonal variation of carbon monoxide vertical distribution above Kitt Peak  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to retrieve elements of the carbon monoxide (CO) vertical distribution from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra has been developed. The method is based on the fact that the total column amount retrieved by nonlinear least squares spectral fitting techniques depends on the shape of the assumed a priori and this dependence is a function of the absorption line

N. S. Pougatchev; C. P. Rinsland

1995-01-01

376

Retrievals of carbon monoxide profiles from MOPITT observations using lognormal a priori statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal estimation methods, such as the “maximum a posteriori” solution, are commonly employed for retrieving profiles of atmospheric trace gases from satellite observations. To complement the information actually contained in the measured radiances, such methods exploit a priori information describing the gases’ variability characteristics. We show that in situ surface-based data sets for carbon monoxide (CO) volume mixing ratio (VMR)

M. N. Deeter; D. P. Edwards; J. C. Gille

2007-01-01

377

MODELING AMBIENT CARBON MONOXIDE TRENDS TO EVALUATE MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regression models have been used with poor success to detect the effect of emission control programs in ambient concentration measurements of carbon monoxide. n advanced CO regression model is developed based on an understanding of the physical processes of dispersion. ts perform...

378

Modeling and control of carbon monoxide concentration using a neuro-fuzzy technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and control of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration using a neuro-fuzzy technique are discussed. A self-organizing fuzzy identification algorithm (SOFIA) for identifying complex systems such as CO concentration is proposed. The main purpose of SOFIA is to reduce the computational requirement for identifying a fuzzy model. In particular, the authors simplify a procedure for finding the optimal structure of fuzzy

Kazuo Tanaka; Manabu Sano; Hiroyuki Watanabe

1995-01-01

379

Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of ethylene and propylene by butyl nitrite and carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

In the oxidative carbonylation of ethylene by carbon monoxide and butyl nitrite catalyzed by PdCl{sub 2}(PhCN){sub 2} in the presence of triphenylphosphine, the pentacoordinated tetravalent palladium complex PdCl{sub 2}(COOBu)NO(PPh{sub 3}) has been isolated and has proved to be an intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

Brechot, P.; Chauvin, Y.; Commereuc, D.; Saussine, L. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

1990-01-01

380

Synthesis and magnetic properties of Fe 5 C 2 by reaction of iron oxide and carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation behaviour and magnetic properties of Fe5C2 were investigated. Iron oxides, as starting material, were carburetted with carbon monoxide gas by heat treatment. Fe5C2 was formed as a single phase in the reaction temperature range 350 to 375° C. The amount of carbon monoxide gas was controlled by mixing with nitrogen gas to prevent free carbon deposition by the

S.-I. Hirano; S. Tajima

1990-01-01

381

Carbonates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are approximately 150 carbonate minerals that occur in nature; however, most of these carbonates are relatively rare. The most common rock-forming carbonates are calcite (CaC03) and dolomite (CaMg(C03)2), which account for over 90 % of natural carbo...

D. W. Ming

2001-01-01

382

Association of hydrogen metabolism with unitrophic or mixotrophic growth of Methanosarcina barkeri on carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Methanosarcina barkeri was adapted to grow on carbon monoxide by sequential transfer of the culture in medium that contained CO (100% of culture headspace). These experiments document the ability of the organism to grow slowly (65-h doubling time) and to produce methane and CO/sub 2/ either on CO as the sole carbon and energy source or by the simultaneous consumption of methanol and CO. During growth on CO as carbon and energy source, net hydrogen formation occurred when the CO partial pressure in the culture headspace was greater than 20% CO, but hydrogen was consumed when the CO concentration was below this value.

O'Brien, J.M.; Wolkin, R.H.; Moench, T.T.; Morgan, J.B.; Zeikus, J.G.

1984-04-01

383

Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991  

SciTech Connect

Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

Ford, P.C.

1992-06-04

384

Electrodeposition of platinum–nickel alloy nanocomposites on polyaniline-multiwalled carbon nanotubes for carbon monoxide redox  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical method was developed to deposit platinum (Pt)–nickel (Ni) alloy nanocomposites on polyaniline-multiwalled\\u000a carbon nanotubes (Pt–Ni\\/PAN\\/MWCNTs). The material was characterized by various methods including field emission scanning electron\\u000a microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques. An appreciably improved catalysis\\u000a toward oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) was observed at the Pt–Ni\\/PAN\\/MWCNTs nanocomposites (real ratio of Pt–Ni of 17:1),

Guan-Ping Jin; Xia Peng; Yan-Feng Ding; Wan-Qing Liu; Jian-Ming Ye

2009-01-01

385

Particulate, carbon monoxide, and acid emission factors for residential wood burn stoves  

SciTech Connect

Emissions from residential wood burning stoves are of increasing concern in many areas. This concern is due to the magnitude of the emissions and the toxic and chemical characteristics of the pollutants. Recent testing of standard and new technology woodstoves has provided data for developing a family of particulate and carbon monoxide emission factor curves. This testing has also provided data illustrating the acidity of woodstove emissions. The particulate and carbon monoxide curves relate the actual stove emissions to the stove size and operating parameters of burn rate, fuel loading, and fuel moisture. Curves relating stove types to the acidity of emissions have also been constructed. Test data show actual emissions vary from 3 to 50 grams per kilogram for particles and from 50 to 300 grams per kilogram for carbon monoxide. Since woodstove emissions are the largest single category of particulate emissions in many area, it is essential that these emissions be quantified specifically for geographic regions, allowing meaningful impact analysis modeling to be accomplished. Emission factors for particles and carbon monoxide are presented from several stove sizes and burn rates. The acidic nature of woodstove emissions has been clearly demonstrated. Tests indicate woodstove flue gas condensate solutions to be predominantly in the 2.8 to 4.2 pH range. Condensate solutions from conventional woodstoves exhibited the characteristic buffering capacity of carboxylic acids when titrations were performed with a strong base. The environmental impact of buffered acidic woodstove emissions is not currently well understood; however, it is possible with the data presented here to make semi-quantitative estimates of acid emission from particulate and carbon monoxide emission factors and wood use inventories.

Burnet, P.G.; Edmisten, N.G.; Tiegs, P.E.; Houck, J.E.; Yoder, R.A.

1986-09-01

386

Life in Hot Carbon Monoxide: The Complete Genome Sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901  

PubMed Central

We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a “minimal” model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

2005-01-01

387

A report of dangerously high carbon monoxide levels within the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to determine how quickly carbon monoxide would accumulate in the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle. Methods A 1992 sedan was buried in snow to the level of the undercarriage, the ignition was then engaged and carbon monoxide levels recorded at 2.5-minute intervals. The primary outcome was the time at which a lethal carbon monoxide level was detected. Six trials were conducted: windows closed; windows open one inch; windows open 6 inches; windows closed and tailpipe swept clear of snow; windows closed and one cubic foot of snow removed around tailpipe; windows closed and tailpipe completely cleared of snow to ground level in a path 12 inches wide. Results Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within 2.5 minutes in the vehicle when the windows were closed, within 5 minutes when the widows were opened one inch, and within 7.5 minutes when the widows were opened six inches. Dangerously high levels of carbon monoxide were detected within the vehicle when the tailpipe had been swept clear of snow and when a one cubic foot area had been cleared around the tailpipe. When the tailpipe was completely unobstructed the carbon monoxide level was zero. Conclusions Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within minutes in this snow-obstructed vehicle.

Griffin, Jill A; Playe, Stephen J; Osborne, Benjamin; Smithline, Howard A

2004-01-01

388

Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6 V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors.

Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

2013-10-01

389

Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application.  

PubMed

A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6?V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors. PMID:24113335

Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

2013-10-11

390

Cobalt monoxide-doped porous graphitic carbon microspheres for supercapacitor application  

PubMed Central

A novel design and facile synthesis process for carbon based hybrid materials, i.e., cobalt monoxide (CoO)-doped graphitic porous carbon microspheres (Co-GPCMs), have been developed. With the synthesis strategy, the mixture of cobalt gluconate, ?-cyclodextrin and poly (ethylene oxide)106-poly (propylene oxide)70-poly (ethylene oxide)106 is treated hydrothermally, followed by pyrolysis in argon. The resultant Co-GPCMs exhibits a porous carbon matrix with localized graphitic structure while CoO nanodots are embedded in the carbon frame. Thus, the Co-GPCMs effectively combine the electric double-layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance when used as the electrode in supercapacitor, which lead to a higher operation voltage (1.6?V) and give rise to a significantly higher energy density. This study provides a new research strategy for electrode materials in high energy density supercapacitors.

Yang, Zheng-Chun; Tang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Hao; Li, Xu; Wang, John

2013-01-01

391

Comparison of Plasma Bilirubin Turnover in Man with Carbon Monoxide Production Estimated Simultaneously by Blood and Gas Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon monoxide production in man was measured by both gas phase and by blood analysis. Both measurements correlated well with the simultaneous measurement of plasma bilirubin turnover, but the blood phase measurement is preferred since it is subject to l...

F. L. Rodkey P. D. Berk

1977-01-01

392

77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regional Transportation Plan (RTP) and Transportation...satisfy the emissions budget test requirement, and no regional...Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan Fort Collins Attainment...satisfy the emissions budget test requirement with respect to such revised plan. However, prior...

2012-05-25

393

Hydrogen component fugacity in binary mixtures with carbon monoxide: Temperature dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fugacity coefficients of hydrogen in binary mixtures with carbon monoxide were measured using a physical equilibrium technique. This technique involves the use of an experimental chamber which is divided into two regions by a semipermeable membrane through which hydrogen, but not carbon monoxide, can penetrate. Measurement of the gas pressures inside and outside of the membrane allows a direct measurement of the hydrogen component fugacity at a given temperature and binary mixture mole fraction. In this paper, results are reported at 130, 160, and 190°C. In each case, the total pressure of the mixture was maintained at a nominal value of 3.39 MPa. The general qualitative features of the data are discussed, and comparisons are made with predictions obtained from the Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson-Soave, and extended corresponding-state models.

Bruno, T. J.; Schroeder, J. A.

1988-07-01

394

Carbon monoxide-prostaglandin E2 interaction in the hypothalamic circulation.  

PubMed

The heme oxygenase (HO)-carbon monoxide pathway was earlier shown to increase hypothalamic blood flow after inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in rats. We hypothesized that this effect is mediated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Inhibition of constitutive HO activity decreased cerebral PGE2 production and simultaneously increased hypothalamic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity without changing hypothalamic blood flow. Furthermore, HO blockade induced cyclooxygenase-dependent decrease and NOS-mediated increase of the hypothalamic blood flow after inhibition of NOS and cyclooxygenase, respectively. Therefore, constitutive carbon monoxide release seems to have two indirect effects on the hypothalamic circulation: vasodilation mediated by PGE2 and vasoconstriction as a result of NOS inhibition. PMID:18815586

Horváth, Béla; Hortobágyi, László; Lenzsér, Gábor; Schweer, Horst; Hrabák, András; Sándor, Péter; Benyó, Zoltán

2008-10-29

395

Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.  

PubMed

Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas. PMID:21400198

Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

2011-03-13

396

Carbon monoxide and cyanide toxicity: etiology, pathophysiology and treatment in inhalation injury.  

PubMed

Inhalation injury is most commonly associated with damage to the mucosal surfaces of the small and large airways after exposure to smoke and other products of incomplete combustion. Yet, there are far deadlier things lurking within the smoke than just the heat and particulate matter: carbon monoxide and cyanide. These two toxic substances are found in varying concentrations within the fire room and are associated with early on-scene death and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from carbon monoxide and/or cyanide poisoning present with vague symptoms requiring an astute physician to make the diagnosis. Fortunately, the toxic effects related to exposure to these agents can be reversed with readily available antidotes. PMID:23547992

Huzar, Todd F; George, Tonya; Cross, James M

2013-04-01

397

[Ten practical issues concerning acute poisoning with carbon monoxide in pregnant women.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The poisoning of carbon monoxide (CO) is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Its consequences are potentially serious to the fetus. Literature is ancient and little known. PURPOSE AND METHOD: Make an inventory of knowledge about carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy. RESULT: The CO causes maternal then fetal tissue hypoxia primarily by binding to hemoglobin with which it has a high affinity. Its transplacental passage may cause fetal harm, predominantly in the brain. Severity seems correlated with maternal symptoms during exposure. In the absence of maternal symptoms, however, the available data are reassuring. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may reduce the risk to the fetus. DISCUSSION: Oxygen therapy should be offered in all cases of CO poisoning, especially if there are maternal symptoms during exposure. In addition, a fetal echography directed on the cephalic pole - even a fetal magnetic resonance imaging three weeks after exposure - should also be proposed. PMID:23562321

Bothuyne-Queste, E; Joriot, S; Mathieu, D; Mathieu-Nolf, M; Favory, R; Houfflin-Debarge, V; Vaast, P; Closset, E; Subtil, D

2013-04-01

398

Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall  

SciTech Connect

The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine.

Allen, D.R.; Browse, N.L.; Rutt, D.L.; Butler, L.; Fletcher, C.

1988-01-01

399

Infrared spectroscopic study of the interaction between carbon monoxide and hydrogen on supported palladium  

SciTech Connect

Preadsorbed carbon monoxide on alumina-supported palladium can be used as an indicator to examine the rearrangement of the metallic surface upon the action of hydrogen. The changes of the ir spectra from CO and Pd/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ when the sample is brought into contact with hydrogen show that the Pd(111) plane is formed on disordered palladium crystallites even at room temperature, probably as a result of the formation of palladium hydride. Depending on the experimental conditions a number of ir bands are observed when a mixture of CO and H/sub 2/ is passed over the catalyst. These bands are believed to belong to intermediates of carbon monoxide hydrogenation. It is suggested that the surface species is formed on palladium and after that is strongly adsorbed on alumina due to the spillover phenomenon. An attempt is made to explain the difference between the reaction pathways of methanation and methanol formation.

Palazov, A.; Kadinov, G.; Bonev, C.; Shopov, D.

1982-01-01

400

Cytoprotection by inhaled carbon monoxide before cardiopulmonary bypass in preclinical models.  

PubMed

Although a potentially toxic gaseous molecule, carbon monoxide recently gains rising scientifically and clinical interest as its beneficial effects and mechanisms of action are defined substantially in various in vitro and in vivo experiments. Its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties but its increasing impact concerning numerous disease models in means of protection, well describe this gas as a new and challenging therapeutic alternative. In this review, we focus on the extensively analyzed advantageous value of pre- and postconditioning with inhaled carbon monoxide in the context of lung and kidney injury, induced by the low perfusion during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Mechanisms like the heat shock response as well as an expanded view regarding toxicity and side effects are described broadly. PMID:22201608

Loop, Torsten; Schlensak, Christian; Goebel, Ulrich

2012-05-01

401

Discharge driven precious metal catalyst with application to carbon monoxide lasers  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improved carbon monoxide laser apparatus. It includes a closed envelope made of a material capable of maintaining a partial vacuum, the envelope containing a cavity filled with a laser gas mixture which includes carbon monoxide. The laser also having electrically powered electrode means for establishing an electric field and a discharge through the laser gas mixture in the cavity, and optical means for directing a laser beam through the discharge and means for extracting at least a portion of the laser beam from the cavity producing an output laser beam. The improved feature comprising: the cavity having at least one wall surface of the cavity consisting of a solid substrate material coated with a precious metal chosen from the group consisting of gold, silver, platinum, palladium, rhodium and iridium; wherein the precious metal provides a catalytic action in the gas mixture which improves the power of the output laser beam.

Macken, J.

1990-01-01

402

The promoting effect of adsorbed carbon monoxide on the oxidation of alcohols on a gold catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, adsorbed carbon monoxide typically acts as a poison or poisoning intermediate in the oxidation of alcohols. However, gold as an (electro)catalyst often exhibits unexpected properties. Here we show that carbon monoxide irreversibly adsorbed on a Au(111) surface in aqueous alkaline media can act as a promoter for the electrocatalytic oxidation of certain alcohols, in particular methanol. In comparison with bare Au(111), the onset potential for methanol oxidation is significantly lower in the presence of adsorbed CO, and formation of the main methanol oxidation products—formaldehyde and formic acid—is enhanced. By studying the effect of adsorbed CO on the oxidation of other alcohols on gold, we conclude that the presence of adsorbed CO promotes beta-hydrogen elimination, that is, C-H bond breaking. Apart from its importance to gold catalysis, this is an unanticipated example of promotion effects by co-adsorbed small molecules in electrocatalysis.

Rodriguez, Paramaconi; Kwon, Youngkook; Koper, Marc T. M.

2012-03-01

403

Exposure to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and volatile organic compounds while commuting by bicycle  

SciTech Connect

A portable air sampling system has been used to assess exposures to various substances while commuting by bicycle in an urban area. The major source of pollutants in this situation is motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Carbon monoxide, measured by electrochemical detection, was found at peak concentrations in excess of 62 ppm, with mean values over 16 individual 35-mm journeys being 10.5 ppm. Respirable suspended particulates, averaged over each journey period, were found at higher concentrations (mean 130 {mu}g m{sup {minus}3}) than would be expected in indoor situations. Mean exposure to benzene (at 56 {mu}g m{sup {minus}3}) and other aromatic volatile organic compounds was also relatively high. The influence of wind conditions on exposure was found to be significant. Commuting exposures to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and aromatic VOCs were found to be higher than exposures in a busy high street and on common parkland.

Bevan, M.A.J.; Proctor, C.J.; Baker-Rogers, J.; Warren, N.D. (British-American Tobacco Co. Ltd., Southampton (England))

1991-04-01

404

Hydrogen component fugacity in binary mixtures with carbon monoxide: temperature dependence  

SciTech Connect

The fugacity coefficients of hydrogen in binary mixtures with carbon monoxide were measured using a physical equilibrium technique. This technique involves the use of an experimental chamber which is divided into two regions by a semipermeable membrane through which hydrogen, but not carbon monoxide, can penetrate. Measurement of the gas pressures inside and outside of the membrane allows a direct measurement of the hydrogen component fugacity at a given temperature and binary mixture mole fraction. In this paper, results are reported at 130, 160, and 190/sup 0/C. In each case, the total pressure of the mixture was maintained at a nominal value of 3.39 MPa. The general qualitative features of the data are discussed, and comparisons are made with predictions obtained from the Redlich-Kwong, Peng-Robinson-Soave, and extended corresponding-state models.

Bruno, T.J.; Schroeder, J.A.

1988-07-01

405

Catalytic preparation of carbon monoxide/ethylene/secondary ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon terpolymer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process of producing a linear alternating terpolymer of carbon monoxide, ethylene and a secondary ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon under polymerization conditions in the presence of a catalyst formed from a palladium compound, an anion of a non-hydrohalogenic acid having a pKa less than about 4 and a bidentate ligand, the improvement being that the bidentate ligand is a bidentate ligand.

Drent, E.

1989-02-14

406

MRI and Neuropsychological Correlates of Carbon Monoxide Exposure: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 45-year-old woman experienced long-term, chronic exposure to carbon monoxide in the restau- rant kitchen where she was employed as a cook. After returning to the restaurant after 5 days off work, she noticed that her symptoms returned immediately; she then aired out the room and called the gas company. Approximately 6 hr after a leak was detected, the patient

Sherral A. Devine; Shalene M. Kirkley; Carole L. Palumbo; Roberta F. White

2002-01-01

407

The time series of carbon monoxide at Zugspitze (2962 m) from 1990 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of carbon monoxide have been performed at the alpine site Zugspitze (47 Ë? N, 11 Ë? E) since 1990. Over the years, different types of instrumentation have been employed, comprising gas chromatography with HgO reduction detector (Trace Analytical RGD2) and non-dispersive infrared absorption instruments with and without gas filter correlation technique (TEI 48S and Horiba APMA-360, respectively). For most

H.-E. Scheel

2009-01-01

408

Fatal unintended carbon monoxide poisoning in West Virginia from nonvehicular sources.  

PubMed Central

Based on medical examiner reports and state vital records, 1978-84, nonvehicular carbon monoxide (CO) caused 62 unintended deaths, representing 42 percent of all unintended fatal CO poisonings in West Virginia. Sources were almost always heating or cooking appliances associated with incomplete combustion of fuels (methane, butane, or propane) not commonly recognized for their potential to produce CO. Hazards included failure to provide recommended venting, neglected maintenance, or use in small areas without natural ventilation.

Baron, R C; Backer, R C; Sopher, I M

1989-01-01

409

CARBON MONOXIDE AND BILIRUBIN: Potential therapies for pulmonary\\/vascular injury and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme oxygenase(HO)-1,an inducible, low-molecular-weightstress protein, confers cellular and tissue protection in multiple models of injury and disease, including oxidative or inflammatory lung injury, ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) injuries, and vascular injury\\/dis- ease. The tissue protection provided by HO-1 potentially relates to the endogenous production of the end products of its enzymatic activity: namely, biliverdin (BV)\\/bilirubin (BR), carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Of

Stefan W. Ryter; Danielle Morse; Augustine M. K. Choi

410

Treatment of methylene-induced carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygenation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Methylene chloride is an organic solvent with many industrial uses. Inhalation of methylene chloride fumes can result in toxicity, caused by hepatic biotransformation of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide. A case of acute methylene chloride poisoning is presented, including successful treatment of this patient with the use of hyperbaric oxygenation. The rationale for the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of methylene chloride poisoning is discussed. (aw)

Rudge, F.W.

1989-01-01

411

Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the\\u000a ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application\\u000a for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production\\u000a from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas

Abid Hussain; Serge R. Guiot; Punita Mehta; Vijaya Raghavan; Boris Tartakovsky

2011-01-01

412

Carbon monoxide exposure enhances arrhythmia after cardiac stress: involvement of oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrhythmias following cardiac stress are a key predictor of death in healthy population. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous\\u000a pollutant promoting oxidative stress and associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease and cardiac mortality.\\u000a We investigated the effect of chronic CO exposure on the occurrence of arrhythmic events after a cardiac stress test and the\\u000a possible involvement of related oxidative stress.

Lucas André; Fares Gouzi; Jérôme Thireau; Gregory Meyer; Julien Boissiere; Martine Delage; Aldja Abdellaoui; Christine Feillet-Coudray; Gilles Fouret; Jean-Paul Cristol; Alain Lacampagne; Philippe Obert; Cyril Reboul; Jérémy Fauconnier; Maurice Hayot; Sylvain Richard; Olivier Cazorla

413

Transformation of carbon monoxide dimer surface structures on yttrium oxide modified by silver  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.It has been established that introducing Ions of silver(II) in yttrium (III) oxide leads to the formation of a significant concentration of a paramagnetic dimer species (CO)2- in the course of the adsorption of carbon monoxide, and that these dimers exhibit high thermal stability and reactivity.2.Kinetic dependences have been obtained for the transformation of the paramagnetic species O2-, CO2-, (CO)2-,

S. N. Vydrin; A. V. Bobolev; A. Yu. Loginov

1987-01-01

414

Carbon monoxide removal from hydrogen-rich fuel cell feedstreams by selective catalytic oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect methanol fuel cells currently being investigated at General Motors for transportation applications require removal of carbon monoxide from the hydrogen-rich gas stream produced by the fuel processing section. A variety of catalytic materials, including noble metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, and Ru) and base metals (Co\\/Cu, Ni\\/Co\\/Fe, Ag, Cr, Fe, and Mn), were evaluated in a laboratory reactor feedstream containing

Se. H. Oh; R. M. Sinkevitch

1993-01-01

415

A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide and temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mid-infrared (mid-IR) absorption sensor based on quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology has been developed and demonstrated for high-temperature thermometry and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in combustion environments. The sensor probes the high-intensity fundamental CO ro-vibrational band at 4.6 mum enabling sensitive measurement of CO and temperature at kHz acquisition rates. Because the sensor operates in the mid-IR CO fundamental

Jeremy Vanderover; Matthew A. Oehlschlaeger

2010-01-01

416

Catalytic and electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on a Fe electrode in a solid electrolyte cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on Fe catalyst was studied at 300–500°C and atmospheric total pressure. The reaction was studied under both open- and closed-circuit operation in an yttria-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte cell. The technique of Solid Electrolyte Potentiometry (SEP) was used to monitor the thermodynamic activity of oxygen adsorbed on the Fe electrode under open circuit. Kinetic and

G. E Marnellos; S. T Zisekas; A. G Kungolos

2003-01-01

417

A new carbon monoxide occupational dosimeter: results from a worker exposure assessment survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LBNL\\/QGI occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), a new, inexpensive CO passive sampler, was field-validated in an occupational exposure assessment study in the Moscone Convention Center (MCC) in San Francisco, CA in January, 1997. The LOCD measures time-weighed-average (TWA) CO exposures from 10 to 800 parts per million hours (ppm h; accuracy ±20%; precision 10 ppm h). This device

MICHAEL G APTE; DANIEL D COX; S KATHARINE HAMMOND; LARA A GUNDEL

1999-01-01

418

On-road carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon remote sensing in the Chicago area. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbon monoxide (C) and hydrocarbon (HC) infra-red remote sensor was utilized for measuring Chicago-area motor vehicle emissions. This on-road measuring system also recorded vehicle speed, an estimate of acceleration and a freeze-frame video of each vehicle's license plate. Exhaust %CO and %HC are calculated and are equivalent to tailpipe probe measurements. Grams of CO or HC per gallon of

D. H. Stedman; G. A. Bishop; J. E. Peterson; P. L. Guenther; I. F. McVey

1991-01-01

419

Targeted Gene Deletion of Heme Oxygenase 2 Reveals Neural Role for Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) generates NO in neurons, and heme-oxygenase-2 (HO-2) synthesizes carbon monoxide (CO). We have evaluated the roles of NO and CO in intestinal neurotransmission using mice with targeted deletions of nNOS or HO-2. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated colocalization of nNOS and HO-2 in myenteric ganglia. Nonadrenergic noncholinergic relaxation and cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate elevations evoked by electrical

Randa Zakhary; Kenneth D. Poss; Samie R. Jaffrey; Christopher D. Ferris; Susumu Tonegawa; Solomon H. Snyder

1997-01-01

420

Probing Electric Fields in Protein Cavities by Using the Vibrational Stark Effect of Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the magnitude and direction of the internal electric field in the Xe4 cavity of myoglobin mutant L29W-S108L, we have studied the vibrational Stark effect of carbon monoxide (CO) using infrared spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. CO was photodissociated from the heme iron and deposited selectively in Xe4. Its infrared spectrum exhibits Stark splitting into two bands associated with CO

Hartwig Lehle; Jan M. Kriegl; Karin Nienhaus; Pengchi Deng; Stephanus Fengler; G. Ulrich Nienhaus

2005-01-01

421

Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. The study took place in a private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age were studies. All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% {plus minus} 2.4% (mean {plus minus} SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided.

Hampson, N.B.; Norkool, D.M. (Department of Medicine, Virginia Mason Clinic, Seattle, WA (United States))

1992-01-22

422

Alleviation of Copper-Induced Oxidative Damage in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Carbon Monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous gaseous molecule in plants and animals. Recent studies have shown that it is one of\\u000a the most essential cellular components regulating many aspects of plant growth and development. However, whether CO regulates\\u000a the green algae adaptive response to heavy metal toxicity is unknown. The present study investigated the role of CO in regulating\\u000a Cu-induced

Qi Zheng; Qian Meng; Yuan Yuan Wei; Zhi Min Yang

2011-01-01

423

The measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide in healthy smokers and non-smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) level may provide an immediate, non-invasive method of assessing smoking status. The aims of this study were to use a portable CO monitor to compare the exhaled CO levels in established smokers and non-smokers.The exhaled CO levels were measured in 322 subjects (243 healthy smokers, 55 healthy non-smokers, 24 passive smokers) who applied

S. Erhan Deveci; Figen Deveci; Yasemin Açik; A. Tevfik Ozan

2004-01-01

424

Validation of measurements of carbon monoxide from the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide abundances in the middle atmosphere are retrieved from infrared measurements of the emission of this molecule at 4.6 mum taken by the improved stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (ISAMS) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In addition to a limited signal-to-noise ratio, the measured radiances include significant contamination by other compounds in the stratosphere and show clear non-local

M. A. López-Valverde; M. López-Puertas; J. J. Remedios; C. D. Rodgers; F. W. Taylor; E. C. Zipf; P. W. Erdman

1996-01-01

425

Validation of Self-Reported Smoking Status by Simultaneous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide and Salivary Thiocyanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of tobacco questionnaires when using as gold standard either a single biomarker or a combination of two biomarkers.Methods. The methods were self-reported smoking compared with salivary thiocyanate and expired carbon monoxide in a 1996, population-based, Swiss survey of 552 men and 565 women.Results. Sensitivity of self-reported smoking relative to

Alfredo Morabia; Martine S. Bernstein; François Curtin; Michèle Berode

2001-01-01

426

Compressed air sample technology for isotopic analysis of atmospheric carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for the collection of large (1000 L) air samples for isotopic analysis of atmospheric carbon monoxide is presented. A low-background, high-pressure, high-flow sampling system with a residual background of less than 2 ppbv CO has been built and employed for collection of samples both from the ground and from an aircraft platform. The time required for obtaining a

John E. Mak; Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer

1994-01-01

427

Simulation of carbon monoxide level in enclosed car parks using an air flow network program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indoor carbon monoxide concentration in 10 car parks with volumes varying from 1,000 m3 to 35,000 m3 and ceiling height of 3 m was simulated using the multi-zone network model CONTAM93\\/94 developed at the Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST) in the U.S.A. Use of the model in designing the ventilation

W. K. Chow

1996-01-01

428

Infrared spectroscopic study of the interaction between carbon monoxide and hydrogen on supported palladium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preadsorbed carbon monoxide on alumina-supported palladium can be used as an indicator to examine the rearrangement of the metallic surface upon the action of hydrogen. The changes of the ir spectra from CO and Pd\\/AlâOâ when the sample is brought into contact with hydrogen show that the Pd(111) plane is formed on disordered palladium crystallites even at room temperature, probably

A. Palazov; G. Kadinov; C. Bonev; D. Shopov

1982-01-01

429

Preparation of silicon carbide fiber from activated carbon fiber and gaseous silicon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) fiber was produced by a new, simple procedure. Activated carbon fiber (ACF) was reacted with gaseous silicon monoxide and was converted to SiC fiber at elevated temperatures as low as 1,473 K. The reacted fiber consisted of submicrometer particles which were not observed in the original ACF. The SiC crystal size in the reacted fiber was

Kaoru Okada; Hitoshi Kato; Keihachiro Nakajima

1994-01-01

430

Inhibition of stomatal opening in sunflower leaves by carbon monoxide, and reversal of inhibition by light  

Microsoft Academic Search

When leaves of Helianthus annuus, whose stomates had been opened in the dark in the absence of CO2, were exposed to 25% carbon monoxide (CO), stomatal conductivity for water vapor decreased from about 0.4 to 0.2 cm·s-1. The CO effect on stomatal aperture required a CO\\/O2 ratio of about 25. As this ratio was decreased the stomata opened, indicating that

M. Pollok; U. Heber; M. S. Naik

1989-01-01

431

Effects of Dynorphin A (1-13) on Carbon Monoxide-Induced Delayed Amnesia in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dynorphin A (1-13) on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced amnesia in mice were investigated. Memory deficiency was apparent during Y-maze testing 5 days after CO exposure (delayed amnesia). Percent alternation in the CO-exposed group was significantly lower than that in the control group. Administration of dynorphin A (1-13) (1.5 nmol, i.c.v.) 15 min before the Y-maze test session reversed

M. Hiramatsu; M. Sasaki; T. Nabeshima; T. Kameyama

1997-01-01

432

Acute effects of cigarette smoking and inhalation of carbon monoxide during maximal exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The acute effect of inhaling the smoke of three cigarettes was compared to the effect of inhalation of an amount of carbon\\u000a monoxide (CO), giving the same CO-saturation of the arterial blood as smoking during rest and during maximal exercise on a\\u000a Krogh cycle ergometer. Sixteen male subjects were tested in the morning (1) after about 8 h without smoking

K. Klausen; C. Andersen; S. Nandrup

1983-01-01

433

A water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM3) lowers intraocular pressure in rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are a novel group of substances that are capable of modulating physiological functions via the liberation of CO.Aims:This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of CORM-3, a water-soluble CO-releasing agent, on two rabbit models of ocular hypertension.Methods:Ocular hypertension was induced by injecting ?-chymotrypsin in the rabbit eye. The dose–response effect of CORM-3 on IOP was

E Stagni; M G Privitera; C Bucolo; G M Leggio; R Motterlini; F Drago

2009-01-01

434

Identification of two sources of carbon monoxide in comet Hale-Bopp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of ices in comets may reflect that of the molecular cloud in which the Sun formed, or it may show evidence of chemical processing in the pre-planetary accretion disk around the proto-Sun. As carbon monoxide (CO) is ubiquitous in molecular clouds,, its abundance with respect to water could help to determine the degree to which pre-cometary material was

Michael A. Disanti; Michael J. Mumma; Neil Dello Russo; Karen Magee-Sauer; Robert Novak; Terrence W. Rettig

1999-01-01

435

Master-oscilltor-amplifier electroionization carbon monoxide laser system and propagation of its radiation through atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion Thus, we have created an EI carbon monoxide laser systems, operating by the scheme “master-oscillator-amplifier”. We have experimentally studied the amplification and absorption of IR (?~5-6 µm) by multilevel active medium of EI CO laser. Conditions of saturated amplification of EI CO laser radiation have been found. By using various methods we have performed the formation of the EI

V. Yu. Ananiev; V. A. Danilychev; A. A. Ionin; A. A. Kotkov; A. P. Lytkin; D. V. Sinitsyn

1987-01-01

436

Effectiveness of mandated oxygenated fuel usage to reduce carbon monoxide exhaust levels in Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of Colorado Automobile Inspection and Readjustment (A.I.R.) two-speed exhaust emissions testing results was undertaken to evaluate changes in carbon monoxide exhaust levels due to the use of oxygenated fuels. Vehicles utilized within the study were separated according to their various emission control technologies: precatalyst (1938 to 1974), catalyst (1975 to 1980), and closed-loop (1981 to 1988). It was

Cagle

1989-01-01

437

Simultaneous detection of atmospheric nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide using a quantum cascade laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a non-intrusive, open-path, fast-response compact sensor for simultaneous measurements of nitrous-oxide (N2O) and carbon-monoxide (CO) primarily designed for UAV applications. N2O is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, but the spatial and temporal distributions of N2O emissions are poorly quantified. On the other hand, CO is an important tracer to distinguish between fossil fuel and biogenic sources.

Amir Khan; Kang Sun; David J. Miller; Mark A. Zondlo

2011-01-01

438

Dumbbell-Diffusion Screening for Carbon Monoxide, Volatile Alcohols, and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid screening tests for the detection of carbon monoxide, ethanol and other volatile alcohols, and chlorinated hydrocarbons in blood are presented. The dumbbell-diffu- sion cell used was found to be versatile in allowing reactions to be carried out at either room temperature or 1000 and in acting as a support for pretreated paper discs. 1THE DUMBELL-DIFFUSION CELL described by Nobel

Sidney Nobel; Alyne Ricker

439

Synthesis of platinum nanoparticles in microemulsions and their catalytic activity for the oxidation of carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platinum nanoparticles have been prepared by the reduction of metal ions with hydrazine in oil–water microemulsions consisting of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate (AOT)+cyclohexane+water of varying composition. The catalytic efficiency of the synthesized metal nanoclusters has been tested for oxidation of carbon monoxide. Effects of the nature of the platinum salt, [H2O]\\/[surfactant] ratio in the microemulsions and the addition of polymers on the

O. P. Yadav; A. Palmqvist; N. Cruise; K. Holmberg

2003-01-01

440

Fabrication of temperature and carbon monoxide micro-sensors in a micro-reformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The several challenges associated with micro- reformers that have not yet been resolved include reducing their size, reducing the quantity of carbon monoxide (CO) they emit, and their integration in fuel cells. In this work, temperature and CO micro-sensors are applied in a micro-reformer to measure temperature and CO concentration. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are fabricated with temperature and CO micro-

Chi-Yuan Lee; Yu-Ming Chang; Chi-Chung Chang

2011-01-01

441

Nootropic effect of nicotine on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced delayed amnesia in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of nicotine on carbon monoxide (CO)-induced amnesia in mice were investigated using a step-down type passive avoidance task. Mice were exposed to CO 3 times at 1-h intervals, 7 days before the first training and retention test and 24 h after the first training session. Memory deficiency occurred in mice when training commenced more than 3 days after

Masayuki Hiramatsu; Hisae Satoh; Tsutomu Kameyama; Toshitaka Nabeshima

1994-01-01

442

Zvenigorod carbon monoxide total column time series: 27 yr of measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of total column spectroscopic CO (carbon monoxide) observations over Russia between 1970 and 1996 revealed an upward trend, with a rate of 0.96 ppb\\/yr or 0.9%\\/yr. A similar trend has been reported over Switzerland between 1950 and 1987. This rate of CO growth is almost three times higher than the rate between 1920 and 1950, obtained from ice

L. N. Yurganov; E. I. Grechko; A. V. Dzhola

1999-01-01

443

Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics carbon monoxide measurements in historical context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) over the southern Pacific during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics (PEM-T) (August-October 1996) has been analyzed in comparison to other CO measurements. The following data sets have been used in the study: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory surface level sampling; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial

N. S. Pougatchev

1999-01-01

444

Effect of dietary protein, zinc, and carbon monoxide on fetal zinc concentration in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary protein and zinc deficiencies known to be detrimental to the developing fetus are common in pregnant women in developing\\u000a countries. Everyone in modern society is at risk of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO). This study was conducted to observe\\u000a the effect of dietary protein, zinc, and exposure to CO on the fetal zinc concentrations by factorial experimentation. Pregnant\\u000a mice

Yasmin H. Neggers; Jarnail Singh

2004-01-01

445

The cobalt-catalyzed alternating copolymerization of epoxides and carbon monoxide: a novel approach to polyesters.  

PubMed

The metal-catalyzed synthesis of polyolefins, polyketones, and polycarbonates is well-known in academia and is already successfully applied in industrial processes. Still missing, however, is the metal-catalyzed synthesis of aliphatic polyesters, as one of the most important biodegradeable polymer families. We report here on the cobalt-catalyzed alternating copolymerization of propylene oxide and carbon monoxide, affording atactic and isotactic polyhydroxybutyrates (PHB). The postulated mechanism is supported by online ATR-IR analytics. PMID:12010031

Allmendinger, Markus; Eberhardt, Robert; Luinstra, Gerrit; Rieger, Bernhard

2002-05-22

446

Role of the locus coeruleus carbon monoxide pathway in endotoxin fever in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) has been identified as a diffusible signaling messenger in the brain, capable of altering body temperature\\u000a by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). However, its site of action remains unclear. Locus coeruleus (LC) is rich\\u000a not only in sGC but also in heme oxygenase (HO; the enzyme that catalyses the metabolism of heme to CO, along with biliverdin

Maria Ida Bonini Ravanelli; Maria C. Almeida; Luiz G. S. Branco

2007-01-01

447

Anaerobic transformation of carbon monoxide by microbial communities of Kamchatka hot springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the common gaseous compounds found in hot volcanic environments. It is known to serve as the\\u000a growth substrate for a number of thermophilic prokaryotes, both aerobic and anaerobic. The goal of this work was to study\\u000a the process of anaerobic transformation of CO by microbial communities inhabiting natural thermal environments: hot springs\\u000a of Uzon

Tatiana V. Kochetkova; Igor I. Rusanov; Nikolay V. Pimenov; Tatyana V. Kolganova; Alexander V. Lebedinsky; Elizaveta A. Bonch-Osmolovskaya; Tatyana G. Sokolova

2011-01-01

448

Palladium-catalyzed carbon-monoxide-free aminocarbonylation of aryl halides using N-substituted formamides as an amide source.  

PubMed

A carbon-monoxide-free aminocarbonylation of various N-substituted formamides with aryl iodides and aryl bromides using palladium acetate and Xantphos is described. The developed methodology is applicable for a wide range of formamides and aryl halides containing different functional groups furnishing good to excellent yield of the corresponding products. N-substituted formamides are used as an amide source wherein a Vilsmeier-type intermediate plays a major role, thus eliminating the need of toxic carbon monoxide gas. PMID:21618964

Sawant, Dinesh N; Wagh, Yogesh S; Bhatte, Kushal D; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

2011-06-09

449

Mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation. VIII. Carbon monoxide as an inhibitor for nitrogen fixation by red clover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from experiments in which total nitrogen was estimated, as well as others in which the rate of fixation was measured, shows that the uptake of free nitrogen by inoculated red clover plants is inhibited by as little as 0.01% carbon monoxide. The fixation process is practically stopped by 0.05% carbon monoxide. In this range of pCO, no effect on

Charles J. Lind; P. W. Wilson

1941-01-01

450

A survey of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in indoor ice arenas in Vermont  

SciTech Connect

Because of the history of health problems traceable to the exhaust of ice resurfacing machines, state sanitarians used detector tubes to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) levels in enclosed ice arenas in Vermont during high school hockey games. Five of eight arenas had average game CO measurements of 30 ppm carbon monoxide or more. Two of the three periods of play had average CO readings in excess of 100 ppm in one arena. Only six arenas had the complete series of nitrogen dioxide measurements. One had an average game NO[sub 2] level of 1.2 ppm. Two had one or more periods of play that averaged in excess of 0.5 ppm. Despite the ample documentation of the hazards of operating combustion-powered resurfacing machines inside enclosed ice arenas, a significant portion of the arenas had undesirable levels of carbon monoxide or nitrogen dioxide. Ice arenas should be routinely monitored for air contaminants. Considerations should be given to the purchase of electric ice resurfacing machines for new arenas and arenas that have air contamination that cannot be resolved with ventilation.

Paulozzi, L.J. (Vermont Health Dept., Burlington, VT (United States)); Spengler, R.F.; Vogt, R.L.; Carney, J.K.

1993-12-01

451

New analytical reagents for the determination of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Four solid reagent methods were developed for the determination of sulfur dioxide in air, and one method was developed to measure carbon monoxide. When applied to filter paper with acetamide as the humectant and 4-phenylcyclohexanone as a bisulfite absorbent, oxohydroxybis(8-hydroxyquinolinyl-) vanadium (V) changes from yellow to black in the presence of sulfur dioxide. The three other methods, also on a filter paper support, utilized the reduction of bromate to bromine which then changed 3-,3'-, 5-,5'-tetramethylbenzidine from yellow to blue, phenothiazine from white to green, and 4-dimethylamino-4'-,4/double prime/-dimethoxytriphenylmethanol from colorless to red-purple. Quantitative measurements were made by reflectance spectroscopy. The method for carbon monoxide involved the use of tetrakis (acetamide-) Pd(II) ditetrafluoroborate, sodium iodate, and leuco crystal violet all together on a filter paper support. Carbon monoxide reduced the Pd(II)-acetamide complex to metallic palladium. The metallic palladium then reduced iodate to hypoiodous acid, HOI, which, in turn, oxidized leuco crystal violet to crystal violet. The crystal violet color was then measured by reflectance.

Trump, E.L.

1987-01-01

452

Effect of iron manganese oxide solid solutions on selectivity for lower hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

There exists considerable current interest in the study of catalysts that demonstrate high selectivities for C/sub 2/-C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide hydrogenation. In this respect iron manganese matrix catalysts have been well studied by a number of authors since Koelbel initially disclosed that these catalysts could give high yields of C/sub 2/-C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons with a corresponding very low methane selectivity. The mechanism by which the manganese component causes these product distributions is at present poorly understood. Recently Jensen and Massoth have proposed that small iron particles are supported on and electronically promoted by MnO. Although these oxide solid solutions have been identified there have been no reported studies that have investigated the effect of these catalyst components on catalyst selectivity. Oxide solid solutions are known to be important as catalysts of a number of reactions involving carbon monoxide. In this note the authors present their initial findings for the effect of iron manganese oxide solid solutions on catalyst selectivity in carbon monoxide hydrogenation. 24 references.

Hutchings, G.J.; Boeyens, J.C.A.

1986-08-01

453

The indigenous Sea Gypsy divers of Thailand's west coast: measurement of carbon monoxide in the breathing air.  

PubMed

Approximately 400 indigenous divers live and work on Thailand's west coast. They dive with surface supplied air from primitive compressor units mounted on open boats which measure from seven to 11 meters in length. It was suspected that carbon monoxide was present in the breathing air of at least the gasoline-driven compressor units. To determine the presence of carbon monoxide gas in the breathing air, compressed air from the compressor was pumped through the diver air supply hose through a plenum (monitoring) chamber established on the boat. After a compressor warm-up of 15 minutes, the diving air was measured with the boat at eight different bearings to the wind, each 45 degrees apart at intervals of five minutes. Three of the four gasoline-driven compressor units tested showed presence of carbon monoxide in the breathing air. One diesel-driven unit showed a very low concentration of carbon monoxide (3-4 ppm) and six diesel-driven units showed no detectable carbon monoxide. Although not tested, diesel exhaust emissions could also enter the breathing air by the same route. A locally made modification to the compressor air intake was designed and successfully tested on one gasoline-driven compressor unit. An information sheet on the hazards of carbon monoxide as well as on the modification has been developed for distribution among the villages. PMID:10461405

Gold, D; Geater, A; Aiyarak, S; Juengpraert, W

1999-07-01

454

Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an 8-h period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their threshold limit values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NH/sub 3/), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) in air. For each gas detection system, the sampler depends on the transfer of the gas by diffusion into a glass tube containing a colorimetric length of stain indicator. The stain length developed in a given period of time is compared to a calibration chart to determine, on the spot, the average gas concentration to which the dosimeter has been exposed. These dosimeters are known by the trade name Vapor Gard.

McKee, E.S.; Pritts, I.M.

1981-08-01

455

Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an eight-hour period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their Threshold Limit Values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NH/sub 3/), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) in air. For each gas detection system, the sampler depends on the transfer of the gas by diffusion into a glass tube containing a colorimetric length of stain indicator. The stain length developed in a given period of time is compared to a calibration chart to determine, on the spot, the average gas concentration to which the dosimeter has been exposed. These dosimeters are known by the trade name Vapor Gard.

McConnaughey, P.W.; McKee, E.S.; Pritts, I.M.

1985-07-01

456

Characterization of the Ni-Fe-C complex formed by reaction of carbon monoxide with the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum by Q-band ENDOR  

SciTech Connect

Q-Band ENDOR studies on carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from the acetogenic bacterium Clostridium thermoaceticum provided unambiguous evidence that the reaction of CO with CODH produces a novel metal center that includes at least one nickel, at least three iron sites, and the carbon of one CO. The {sup 57}Fe hyperfine couplings determined by ENDOR are similar to the values used in simulation of the Mossbauer spectra. EPR simulation using these A{sup Fe} values is equally good for a 4Fe or a 3Fe center. The {sup 13}C ENDOR data are consistent with the binding of a carbon atom to either the Ni or the Fe component of the spin-coupled cluster. The {sup 13}C hyperfine couplings are similar to those determined earlier for the CO-bound form of the H cluster of the Clostridium pasteurianum hydrogenase, proposed to be the active site of hydrogen activation. The {sup 61} Ni ENDOR data are the first nickel ENDOR recorded for an enzyme. The EPR simulation using the ENDOR-derived hyperfine values for {sup 61}Ni is consistent with a single nickel site in the Ni-Fe-C complex. On the basis of our results and the Mossbauer data the authors propose the stoichiometry of the components of the Ni-Fe-C complex to be Ni{sub 1}Fe{sub 3-4}S{sub {ge}}4C{sub 1}, with four acid-labile sulfides.

Fan, Chaoliang; Hoffman, B.M. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA)); Gorst, C.M.; Ragsdale, S.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

1991-01-01

457

Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of COâ, CHâ, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled

Dale W. Funk; E. R. Pullmann; Kim M. Peterson; Patrick M. Crill; W. D. Billings

1994-01-01

458

Solar thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide for the production of catalytic filamentous carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated solar radiation is used as the clean source of process heat for the production of catalytic filamentous carbon (CFC) by thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons (CH4 and C4H10) and by CO disproportionation in the presence of small metal catalyst particles. Depending on the catalyst, two different types of CFC, namely nanotubes and nanofibers, are obtained in solar experiments. Nanotubes

A. Meier; V. A. Kirillov; G. G. Kuvshinov; Yu. I. Mogilnykh; A. Reller; A. Steinfeld; A. Weidenkaff

1999-01-01

459

Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

Kuch, Ph. L.

1984-12-18

460

Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

Quick, E.E.

1980-03-01

461

Silacarboxylic acids as efficient carbon monoxide releasing molecules: synthesis and application in palladium-catalyzed carbonylation reactions.  

PubMed

Silacarboxylic acids have been demonstrated to be easy to handle, air-stable carbon monoxide precursors. Different silacarboxylic acids were synthesized from the corresponding chlorosilanes and carbon dioxide, and their decarbonylation, upon treatment with an array of activators, was evaluated. The release of CO from crystalline MePh(2)SiCO(2)H proved to be highly efficient, and it was successfully applied in a selection of palladium-catalyzed carbonylative couplings using near-stoichiometric quantities of carbon monoxide precursor. Finally, the synthesis of MePh(2)Si(13)CO(2)H and its application in carbonyl labeling of two bioactive compounds was demonstrated. PMID:22014278

Friis, Stig D; Taaning, Rolf H; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

2011-10-24

462

Short-term effects of carbon monoxide exposure on the exercise performance of subjects with coronary artery disease  

SciTech Connect

Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease may be adversely affected by the presence of carboxyhemoglobin, even at low concentrations. We investigated the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on myocardial ischemia during exercise in 63 men with documented coronary artery disease. On each test day, subjects performed two symptom-limited incremental exercise tests on a treadmill; the tests were separated by a recovery period and 50 to 70 minutes of exposure to either room air or air containing one of two concentrations of carbon monoxide (117 +/- 4.4 ppm or 253 +/- 6.1 ppm). The order of exposure was assigned randomly. On each occasion, neither the subjects nor the study personnel knew whether the subjects had been exposed to room air or to one of the concentrations of carbon monoxide. Exposure to room air resulted in a mean carboxyhemoglobin level of 0.6 percent, exposure to the lower level of carbon monoxide resulted in a carboxyhemoglobin level of 2.0 percent, and exposure to the higher level of carbon monoxide resulted in a level of 3.9 percent. An effect of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia was demonstrated objectively by electrocardiographic changes during exercise. We observed a decrease of 5.1 percent (90 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 8.7 percent; P = 0.02) and a decrease of 12.1 percent (90 percent confidence interval, 9.0 to 15.3 percent; P less than or equal to 0.0001) in the length of time to a threshold ischemic ST-segment change (ST end point) after carbon monoxide exposures that produced carboxyhemoglobin levels of 2.0 percent and 3.9 percent, respectively. The length of time to the onset of angina decreased by 4.2 percent at the 2.0 percent carboxyhemoglobin level and by 7.1 percent at the 3.9 percent carboxyhemoglobin level.

Allred, E.N.; Bleecker, E.R.; Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Gottlieb, S.O.; Hackney, J.D.; Pagano, M.; Selvester, R.H.; Walden, S.M.; Warren, J. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-11-23

463

Carbon Deposition on Iron–Nickel during Interaction with Carbon Monoxide–Hydrogen Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that the composition of Fe–Ni catalysts can have a profound effect on the activity for the decomposition of CO\\/H2mixtures at 600°C. As the fraction of nickel in the bimetallic is increased above 70% there is a significant decline in the percentage conversion of CO. The amount of solid carbon deposited on a given bimetallic catalyst was shown

N. M. Rodriguez; R. T. K. Baker

1997-01-01

464

The redox combustion of carbon monoxide for recovering pure carbon dioxide by using molten (Na+,K+)2(CO32-,SO42-) mixtures.  

PubMed

Large-scale combustion systems, such as thermal power plants, emit large amounts of carbon dioxide, which can increase global warming. A molten salt redox combustion system was proposed to recover pure carbon dioxide exhausted from the combustion of fossil fuels. This system is composed of two successive processes by using reactions occurring in a molten salt. The molten salt is the mixture of the molten alkali metal sulfates and carbonates. The sulfate ions oxidize the fuels in first processes, being changed to reductive species such as sulfide ions. In this process, carbon dioxide and water are exclusively exhausted. The reductive species of sulfur compounds are oxidized to regenerate the sulfate ions by air in the second process. In this study, these above two processes were tried by using molten [(Na(+))(0.5),(K(+))(0.5)](2)[(CO(3)(2-))(0.9),(SO(4)(2-))(0.1)] alternatively. The oxidation of carbon monoxide as fuel by sulfate ions and the regeneration of sulfate ions by air were investigated in the temperature range of 700-950 degrees C, respectively. These reactions were exothermic. The rate of the regeneration of the sulfate ions was extremely high. During the oxidation of carbon monoxide, the reaction was first order in carbon monoxide with an activation energy of 101 kJ mol(-1). The optimum condition to recover pure carbon dioxide on practical operation was discussed. PMID:16337672

Shimano, Satoshi; Asakura, Shukuji

2005-12-07

465

Carbon monoxide poisoning: correlation of neurological findings between accident and emergency departments and a hyperbaric unit  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To investigate and quantify the differences in neurological examination findings in patients acutely poisoned with carbon monoxide, between initial assessment at accident and emergency (A&E) departments and subsequently at a hyperbaric unit. Methods—Retrospective case note review of all patients referred to the Hull Hyperbaric Unit for treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning between August 1998 and August 1999. Patients who were ventilated or less than 16 years old were excluded because of difficulty in assessing their neurological status. Results—Thirty patients were included for analysis. The mean duration from exposure to assessment in A&E was four hours while patients were reviewed on average three hours later at the hyperbaric unit. Referrals came from 14 different hospitals. A history of loss of consciousness accounted for 70% of referrals. A mean of 3.2 neurological signs per patient was documented in A&E compared with 9.2 at the hyperbaric unit. Seventy nine per cent of abnormal neurological signs were not detected at A&E departments compared with 3% at the hyperbaric unit. The major source of discrepancy was in sharpened Rhomberg's test and heel-toe gait, in 13% of patients examined in A&E departments these signs were recorded as abnormal compared with 90% at the hyperbaric unit. Conclusion—There is a large discrepancy in neurological findings between assessment in A&E departments and the Hull Hyperbaric Unit. A number of factors may account for this including interobserver variation, patient deterioration during transfer, poor documentation, lack of understanding of the sequelae of carbon monoxide poisoning and inadequate examinations. Further research is required to quantify the impact of the various factors that may contribute to the differences in neurological findings.

Lynch, R; Laden, G; Grout, P

2001-01-01

466

Crystal field theory analysis of rovibrational spectra of carbon monoxide monomers isolated in solid parahydrogen.  

PubMed

We report the first rotationally resolved and completely assigned rovibrational spectrum for a nonhydride molecule rotating in the solid phase: carbon monoxide (CO) monomers isolated in cryogenic solid parahydrogen (p-H(2)). We employ a modified crystal field theory model, in which the CO molecular spectroscopic constants are taken as adjustable parameters, to make good spectroscopic assignments for all the observed features. We discuss the limitations of this approach and highlight the need for improved theoretical models of molecular rotation dynamics in quantum solids. PMID:19566167

Fajardo, Mario E; Lindsay, C Michael; Momose, Takamasa

2009-06-28

467

Nd:YGG crystal laser at 1110 nm: a potential source for detecting carbon monoxide poisoning.  

PubMed

We demonstrated a laser-diode pumped Nd-doped yttrium gallium garnet crystal laser at 1110 nm for the first time to our knowledge. By suppressing the oscillation at about 1.06 ?m, continuous-wave output power of 2.1 W at 1110 nm was achieved. With a Cr:YAG as the saturable absorber, the passive Q-switching performance at this wavelength was obtained. The shortest pulse width and largest pulse energy were 31.5 ns and 22.7 ?J, respectively. Laser radiation at this wavelength is an important source for detecting carbon monoxide poisoning by simple frequency doubling with a nonlinear crystal. PMID:21479058

Yu, Haohai; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Jiang, Minhua

2011-04-01

468

Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

Baron, R.C.; Backer, R.C.; Sopher, I.M.

1989-03-01

469

Unsuccessful Suicide by Carbon Monoxide: A Secondary Benefit of Emissions Control  

PubMed Central

Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus, emissions control has produced a secondary benefit in reducing the number of suicides by CO poisoning from automobile exhaust fumes.

Landers, Dennis

1981-01-01

470

Formation of Carbon Monoxide and Bile Pigment in Red and Blue-Green Algae 1  

PubMed Central

Five blue-green and one red algal species produced carbon monoxide during photosynthetic growth. The blue-green algae synthesized CO and phycocyanobilin in equimolar quantities at identical rates. The red alga, Porphyridium cruentum, incorporated ?-aminolevulinic acid-5-14C into phycoerythrobilin and CO. The ratio of the specific radioactivity of phycoerythrobilin to that of CO, and the kinetics and stoichiometry of phycocyanobilin and CO formation suggest that linear tetrapyrroles in plants are derived by the porphyrin pathway via the intermediate formation of heme. The similarity between bile pigment production in algae and in mammalian systems is discussed.

Troxler, Robert F.; Dokos, Joy M.

1973-01-01

471

Pd-catalyzed asymmetric alternating co-polymerization of propene with carbon monoxide using ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for Pd-catalyzed stereoselective co-polymerization of propene and carbon monoxide using chiral ligands, such as (2S,3S)-DIOP and (R)-P-Phos in [C4mim][PF6]\\/[C6mim][PF6] as an ionic liquid medium was developed. With (2S,3S)-DIOP as chiral ligand and [C4mim][PF6] as medium, the Pd-catalyzed co-polymerization of propene and CO gave almost completely regioregular polyketones, and the product polymer showed moderate stereoregularity (61% of ?-diads). The

Hai-Jun Wang; Lai-Lai Wang; Wing-Sze Lam; Wing-Yiu Yu; Albert S. C. Chan

2006-01-01

472

Palladium-catalyzed N-acylation of monosubstituted ureas using near-stoichiometric carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

The palladium-catalyzed carbonylation of urea derivatives with aryl iodides and bromides afforded N-benzoyl ureas (20 examples) in yields attaining quantitative via the application of near-stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide generated from the decarbonylation of the CO precursor, 9-methylfluorene-9-carbonyl chloride. The synthetic protocol displayed good functional group tolerance. The methodology is also highly suitable for (13)C isotope labeling, which was demonstrated through the synthesis of three benzoyl ureas, including the insecticide triflumuron, whereby (13)CO was incorporated into the core structure. PMID:22458554

Bjerglund, Klaus; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

2012-04-10

473

Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations.

Baron, R C; Backer, R C; Sopher, I M

1989-01-01

474

The Reactions of Methanimine and Cyanogen with Carbon Monoxide in Prebiotic Molecular Evolution on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primeval atmosphere is proposed containing simple molecules such as formaldehyde, ammonia, carbon monoxide, cyanogen and hydrogen cyanide, which have been detected in space. Chemical reactions are described for the formation of aziridine-2-one and di-azirine-3-one derivatives as potential precursors for the original synthesesis of amino-acids, proteins, pyrimidines, purines, nicotinamide and flavin. The reactions have been shown to be kinetically feasible from the overall enthalpy changes in the ZKE approximation at the MP2/6-31G^* level.

Aylward, Nigel; Bofinger, Neville

2001-12-01

475

Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to take inventory of critical greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane and quantify their sources and sinks is essential for understanding the atmospheric drivers to global climate change. "Top down" inversion measurements and models are used to quantify net carbon fluxes into the atmosphere. The overall carbon fluxes are determined by combining remote measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with complex atmospheric transport models, and these emissions measurements are compared to "bottoms-up" predictions based on detailed inventories of the sources and sinks of carbon, both anthropogenic and biogenic in nature. At smaller distance scales, such as that of a city or even smaller, the basic framework underpinning the inversion modeling technique begins to break down: atmospheric transport models, which are well understood at a length scale of 100 km, work poorly or not at all at a 100m distance scale. Furthermore, the variability of the emissions sources in space (e.g., factories, highways, residences) and time (rush hours, factory shifts and shutdowns, residential energy usage variability during the day and over the year) complicate the interpretation of the measured signals. In this paper we present detailed, high spatial- and temporal-resolution greenhouse gas measurements in Silicon Valley, CA. The results of two experimental campaigns are presented: a 10m urban 'tower' and ground-based mobile mapping measurements. In both campaigns, real-time carbon dioxide data are combined with real-time carbon monoxide measurements to partition the observed CO2 concentrations between anthropogenic and biogenic sources . The urban tower measurements are made continuously over a period of many weeks. The mobile maps of the vicinity of the urban tower are taken repeatedly over a period of several days, and at different times of the day and under different atmospheric conditions, to assess the robustness and repeatability of the maps. Initial interpretation of the data is provided, using simple atmospheric models. These methods show great promise for quantifying and partitioning emissions in an urban setting with unprecedented detail.

Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Crosson, E.

2011-12-01

476

Hydrogen and carbon monoxide generation from laser-induced graphitized nanodiamonds in water.  

PubMed

Nanodiamonds (ND) were found to generate hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from water at a remarkable rate under pulsed laser (532 nm) irradiation. The transformation of diamond structure into graphitic layers takes place to form an onion-like carbon structure. The CO generation suggests the oxidative degradation reaction of graphitic layers, C + H2O ? CO + 2H(+) + 2e(-), which produced a unique laser-induced reaction: C + H2O ? CO + H2. Au, Pt, Pd, Ag, and Cu nanoparticles on the ND enhance both gas evolution rates (~2 times for Au) and graphitization and, specifically, Au was found to be the most efficient amongst other nanoparticles. The enhancement effect was ascribed to effective charge separation between the metal nanoparticles and ND. The Au-ND hybrid on the reduced graphene oxide produced consistently a greater photocurrent than the ND upon visible light irradiation. PMID:23552502

Jang, Dong Myung; Im, Hyung Soon; Myung, Yoon; Cho, Yong Jae; Kim, Han Sung; Back, Seung Hyuk; Park, Jeunghee; Cha, Eun Hee; Lee, Minyung

2013-05-21

477

Smoke-inhalation injury and the effect of carbon monoxide in the sheep model  

SciTech Connect

The role of carbon monoxide (CO) in causing the physiologic and anatomic changes characteristic of smoke inhalation injury was evaluated in 34 sheep. The smoke-exposed group received a dose of smoke known to produce mild inhalation injury. The CO group received a pure gas mixture that contained concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and CO similar to those in the smoke. Cardiopulmonary function was measured immediately after exposure, and 24 and 72 hours after exposure. The CO group showed a transient increase in cardiac output, but the smoke group showed no such response. The CO group maintained normal PaO2 levels during the 72-hour study period; the smoke group gradually developed hypoxemia. The lungs of the CO exposed animals had no discernible histologic changes. These results indicate that CO per se is not the primary etiologic agent of smoke inhalation injury.

Shimazu, T.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hubbard, G.B.; Langlinais, P.C.; Mason, A.D.

1990-01-01

478

Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.

Atherton, C.S.

1995-11-01

479

Use of silicone membranes to enhance gas transfer during microbial fuel cell operation on carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

Electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using carbon monoxide (CO) or synthesis gas (syngas) as a carbon source has been demonstrated recently. A major challenge associated with CO or syngas utilization is the mass transfer limitation of these sparingly soluble gases in the aqueous phase. This study evaluated the applicability of a dense polymer silicone membrane and thin wall silicone tubing for CO mass transfer in MFCs. Replacing the sparger used in our previous study with the membrane systems for CO delivery resulted in improved MFC performance and CO transformation efficiency. A power output and CO transformation efficiency of up to 18 mW LR(-1) (normalized to anode compartment volume) and 98%, respectively, was obtained. The use of membrane systems offers the advantage of improved mass transfer and reduced reactor volume, thus increasing the volumetric power output of MFCs operating on a gaseous substrate such as CO. PMID:21983405

Hussain, A; Tartakovsky, B; Guiot, S R; Raghavan, V

2011-09-21

480

Adsorption Equilibrium for Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall goal of this part of our research is to determine experimentally the adsorption equilibrium data that will enable efficient design of a separation process to remove carbon dioxide from a CO/CO2 mixture. An effective separation process will depend on the adsorbent capacity for both the strongly and weakly adsorbed components at the desired operating temperature and pressure ranges, as well as regeneration requirements. Pure component and binary adsorption isotherms are used to determine the most CO2- selective adsorbent. A quick uptake of pure CO2 on a given adsorbent at low pressures compared to the uptake of pure CO on the same adsorbent indicates that CO2 molecules have a much stronger interaction with the adsorbent surface than CO. This is a necessary property for successful separation by adsorption. Adsorption isotherms are widely available in the literature for many pure components on various adsorbents. Pure component isotherms can be found in various publications and data handbooks for CO and CO2 on activated carbon and many zeolites. However, the pressure range seldom extends beyond 300 kPa, and the temperature is usually limited as well. Binary adsorption data are much less abundant and are more difficult to measure experimentally. There are models that can predict binary adsorption from the pure component isotherms, but such models rarely provide the desired accuracy. Hence it is necessary to determine both pure component and binary adsorption isotherms to accurately design the separation system.

Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

2002-11-01

481

Investigation of the reduction of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and methanol  

SciTech Connect

The current energy shortage has resulted in renewed interest in the synthesis of liquid fuel from coal-derived carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Two important heterogeneous catalytic reactions which can convert carbon monoxide to liquid fuel are the Fischer-Tropsch reaction and the methanol synthesis. This study investigated the mechanism of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, i.e., the conversion of CO and H/sub 2/ to hydrocarbons in the presence of heterogeneous transition-metal catalysts. The possible synergistic effect of anchoring a homogeneous catalyst onto a heterogeneous methanol catalyst was also examined. The reaction of diazomethane and hydrogen, diluted with an inert gas, on supported transition-metal surfaces such as Co, Ru, Fe, Ni, and Pd was found to produce mainly linear alkanes and alkenes ranging from C/sub 1/ through C/sub 18/ and higher, similar to those found in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The distribution of isotopically labelled propene molecules following the reaction of hydrogen and different ratios of /sup 13/CO and /sup 12/CH/sub 2/N/sub 2/ on a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst was determined. These experimentally observed distributions were consistent with those predicted by Fischer and Tropsch themselves. These results are consistent with a mechanism for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction which involves the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via polymerization of methylene groups. A homogeneous hydrogenation catalyst was covalently anchored to a heterogeneous methanol catalyst in an attempt to generate methanol under milder conditions than are normally required. These attempts were unsuccessful.

Brady, R.C. III

1981-01-01

482

Variability of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide apparent quantum yield spectra in three coastal estuaries of the South Atlantic Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photochemical oxidation of oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) has been estimated to be a significant process with global photoproduction transforming petagrams of DOC to inorganic carbon annually. To further quantify the importance of these two photoproducts in coastal DOC cycling, 38 paired apparent quantum yield (AQY) spectra for CO and CO2 were determined at three locations along the coast of Georgia, USA over the course of one year. The AQY spectra for CO2 were considerably more varied than CO. CO AQY spectra exhibited a seasonal shift in spectrally integrated (260 nm-490 nm) AQY from higher efficiencies in the fall to less efficient photoproduction in the summer. While full-spectrum photoproduction rates for both products showed positive correlation with pre-irradiation UV-B sample absorption (i.e. chromophoric dissolved organic matter, CDOM) as expected, we found no correlation between AQY and CDOM for either product at any site. Molecular size, approximated with pre-irradiation spectral slope coefficients, and aromatic content, approximated by the specific ultraviolet absorption of the pre-irradiated samples, were also not correlated with AQY in either data set. The ratios of CO2 to CO photoproduction determined using both an AQY model and direct production comparisons were 23.2 ± 12.5 and 22.5 ± 9.0, respectively. Combined, both products represent a loss of 2.2 to 2.6 % of the DOC delivered to the estuaries and inner shelf of the South Atlantic Bight yearly, and 5 to 6 % of the total annual degassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. This result suggests that direct photochemical production of CO and CO2 is a small, yet significant contributor to both DOC cycling and CO2 gas exchange in this coastal system.

Reader, H. E.; Miller, W. L.

2012-06-01

483

Ligand Fluorination to Optimize Preferential Oxidation (PROX) of Carbon Monoxide by Water-Soluble Rhodium Porphyrins  

PubMed Central

Catalytic, low temperature preferential oxidation (PROX) of carbon monoxide by aqueous [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoroporphyrinato]rhodium(III) tetrasodium salt, (1[Rh(III)]) and [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-sulfonato-2,6-difluorophenyl)-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoroporphyrinato]rhodium(III) tetrasodium salt, (2[Rh(III)]) is reported. The PROX reaction occurs at ambient temperature in buffered (4 ? pH ? 13) aqueous solutions. Fluorination on the porphyrin periphery is shown to increase the CO PROX reaction rate, shift the metal centered redox potentials, and acidify ligated water molecules. Most importantly, ?-fluorination increases the acidity of the rhodium hydride complex (pKa = 2.2 ± 0.2 for 2[Rh-D]); the dramatically increased acidity of the Rh(III) hydride complex precludes proton reduction and hydrogen activation near neutral pH, thereby permitting oxidation of CO to be unaffected by the presence of H2. This new fluorinated water-soluble rhodium porphyrin-based homogenous catalyst system permits preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen gas streams at 308 °K using dioxygen or a sacrificial electron acceptor (indigo carmine) as the terminal oxidant.

Biffinger, Justin C.; Uppaluri, ShriHarsha; Sun, Haoran

2011-01-01

484

The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of three main tobacco types (flue-cured FC, air-cured AC and sun-cured SC) and two tobacco-based materials (reconstituted tobacco - recon RT and expanded stem) on the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke. AC and SC tobaccos had the most evident impact. The amount of tobacco in mixtures M1, M2 and M3 as well as the addition of expanded stems had an impact on the amount of CO formed in the cigarette smoke. There is weak correlation between CO content in the smoke and the chemical composition of the tobacco. Draw resistance had an impact on CO production. The research results are of great importance, since tobacco selection is the first step in the production of cigarettes with reduced emission of harmful elements contained in the smoke. PMID:23612614

Djulan?i?, Nermina; Radoji?i?, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

2013-03-01

485

a New Gas Correlation Radiometer for Remote Sounding of Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is extremely important component of the Earth's atmosphere since it is an indicator of air quality and plays a great role in tropospheric chemistry. Experimental data about CO mixing ratio distribution are necessary to study long range transport of pollutions and are being used along with models in understanding the CO budget. Remote sounding techniques from space are very advantageous in terms of global monitoring of CO. The gas correlation radiometry method has been successfully employed on a number of satellite based instruments for remote sounding of atmospheric gases for several decades. In this report a new concept of gas correlation radiometer for remote sounding of carbon monoxide from space is described. A length modulated cell, used for the first time with the MOPITT instrument, coupled with a static dual detector per channel architecture underlies the optical design of the new sounder. The main goal of the design is to produce an extremely simple and compact system which will in turn lead to a small space instrument. A laboratory prototype of the radiometer has been built in Dalhousie University. Its characteristics are investigated to verify the new concept. The sources of optical imbalance will be discussed as well as the methods for optical imbalance characterization and minimization. The results of the radiometer calibration and laboratory measurements of CO are presented. This work is supported by the Canadian Space Agency, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the Atlantic Innovation Fund/Nova Scotia Research Innovation Trust and Dalhousie University.

Tikhomirov, Alexey; Drummond, James

486

Study of instrument measurement of carbon monoxide concentration by absorption spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the measurement of the carbon monoxide concentration in industry field by scanning absorption spectrum. In the measurement, the frequency of DFB laser is stabilized in the central frequency point of absorption peak in 1.57?m absorption band of carbon monoxide by a control system with a standard CO gas chamber, fiber loop, TEC controlled by MCU and its temperature stability is 0.01°C at long time to stabilize the central frequency. In the process of measurement, at first, the CO absorption spectrum will be determined by a standard gas camber to choose a maximum CO absorption peak in its frequency band and its frequency point will be stabilized. The parameters of the operation frequency and environment will be stored in the NV memory in MCU as next operation condition. The concentration can be calculated in a composite algebra operation by first and second harmonic intensity passed through test gas chamber. It has very high measurement precision and real time. The experiment result is consistent with actual gas concentration. It shows that the measurement scheme is valuable for fast, real-time and efficiency measurement.

Guo, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Li; Wang, Zeyong; Li, Jinglong

2010-08-01

487

Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking arterial gas embolism in a commercial diver.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old male commercial diver was working at 7,000 feet of altitude in a municipal water tank, at a depth of 27 feet for two hours. While surfacing from a compressed-air surface-supplied dive, he exhibited loss of consciousness and neurological symptoms. He was presumptively diagnosed with arterial gas embolism, flown by pressurized aircraft to a regional medical center and treated with hyperbaric oxygen. During the U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6, new information suggested the patient's air supply had been contaminated by a continuously running engine and compressor. His admission blood was then assayed for carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), which measured 8.8% six hours after surfacing, including four hours of normobaric oxygen inhalation. His estimated COHb based on rough reported half-life calculations at the conclusion of the dive was approximately 45%. The patient's diagnosis was changed to carbon monoxide poisoning from contaminated breathing gas. Upon hospital discharge, he exhibited problems with balance and gait, nystagmus, word-finding limitations and slurred speech. Also, he had cardiac injury treated with carvedilol. When evaluating diving-related casualties, including in commercial divers, clinicians should consider carbon monoxide poisoning as a differential diagnosis. PMID:22530451

Holt, Julie; Weaver, Lindell K

488