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1

[Health evaluation of carbon dioxide in indoor air].  

PubMed

For over 150 years, carbon dioxide has been an acknowledged indicator of indoor air quality. To estimate the air quality in mechanically ventilated buildings, DIN EN 13779 proposes four different levels of indoor carbon dioxide concentration. However, apart from the early guideline value of 1000 ppm carbon dioxide recommended by Pettenkofer in 1858, there is no actual guideline value for naturally ventilated buildings. Regarding recent intervention studies, the German Working Group on Indoor Guideline Values of the Federal Environmental Agency and the States' Health Authorities therefore recommends the following guide values, based on health and hygiene considerations: concentrations of indoor air carbon dioxide below 1000 ppm are regarded as harmless, those between 1000 and 2000 ppm as elevated and those above 2000 ppm as unacceptable. In addition to the recommendations for TVOC values, this further assists in the assessment of indoor air quality. PMID:19043767

2008-11-01

2

Moisture swing sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air.  

PubMed

An amine-based anion exchange resin dispersed in a flat sheet of polypropylene was prepared in alkaline forms so that it would capture carbon dioxide from air. The resin, with quaternary ammonium cations attached to the polymer structure and hydroxide or carbonate groups as mobile counterions, absorbs carbon dioxide when dry and releases it when wet. In ambient air, the moist resin dries spontaneously and subsequently absorbs carbon dioxide. This constitutes a moisture induced cycle, which stands in contrast to thermal pressure swing based cycles. This paper aims to determine the isothermal performance of the sorbent during such a moisture swing. Equilibrium experiments show that the absorption and desorption process can be described well by a Langmuir isothermal model. The equilibrium partial pressure of carbon dioxide over the resin at a given loading state can be increased by 2 orders of magnitude by wetting the resin. PMID:21688825

Wang, Tao; Lackner, Klaus S; Wright, Allen

2011-08-01

3

Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints  

E-print Network

Climate Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Policy Design: Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Urban Air Pollution Constraints by Marcus. The third case examines the benefits of increased policy coordination between air pollution constraints

de Weck, Olivier L.

4

Modeling of carbon dioxide based air-to-air air conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world-wide agreement to restrict the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) has prompted recent research exploring the possibilities of replacement refrigerants, particularly those occurring naturally in the environment. One such natural refrigerant, carbon dioxide, has been considered for certain refrigeration and air conditioning applications. In order to evaluate the potential performance of a refrigeration cycle based on carbon

Douglas MacArthur Robinson

2000-01-01

5

An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy  

E-print Network

An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy- ture,'' which refers to the direct removal of carbon dioxide from the ambient air. Air capture has to be changing (e.g., Jones, 2008). By contrast, the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from power plants has

Colorado at Boulder, University of

6

Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

2011-12-01

7

Carbon dioxide partial pressure and carbon fluxes of air-water interface in Taihu Lake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between water-air interface of Taihu lake, monthly water samplers at 14 sites and the local meteorological data of\\u000a the lake were collected and analyzed in 1998. Carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2) at air-water interface in the lake were calculated using alkalinity, pH, ionic strength, active coefficient, and water temperature.\\u000a The carbon fluxes at different

Chengxin Fan; Weiping Hu; Phillip W. Ford; Yuwei Chen; Wenchuan Qu; Lu Zhang

2005-01-01

8

Equipment for Measuring Air Flow, Air Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide in Schools. Technical Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on equipment and techniques that school facility personnel may use to evaluate IAQ conditions are discussed. Focus is placed on the IAQ parameters of air flow, air temperature, relative humidity, as well as carbon dioxide and the equipment used to measure these factors. Reasons for measurement and for when the measurement of these…

Jacobs, Bruce W.

9

REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. CARBON DIOXIDE EFFECTS ON RAMS (REGIONAL AIR MONITORING SYSTEM) SULFUR MONITORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) content of the air on the response of flame photometric sulfur gas analyzers of two types, the Tracor model 270 HA sulfur chromatograph and the Meloy model SA 185 total sulfur analyzer, were studied. These analyzers were used in the Regional Air Mo...

10

Elevated air carbon dioxide concentrations increase dissolved carbon leaching from a cropland soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing leaching losses of carbon from soils due to accelerated weathering and increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon\\u000a as a result of intensified soil respiration are suspected to provide a negative feedback on rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We tested this hypothesis by studying concentrations of dissolved carbon and groundwater recharge at the\\u000a Braunschweig free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment under

Jan Siemens; Andreas Pacholski; Katia Heiduk; Anette Giesemann; Ulrike Schulte; René Dechow; Martin Kaupenjohann; Hans-Joachim Weigel

11

Simulations for thermodynamic analyses of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle and reheat dehumidification air conditioning cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is a natural refrigerant that has been considered for certain\\u000arefrigeration and air conditioning applications. The coefficient of performance (COP) of\\u000acarbon dioxide cycles is low compared to classical vapor compression cycles. The aim of\\u000athis portion of the thesis is to present a thermodynamic analysis of carbon dioxide cycles\\u000ain order to evaluate the potential performance of

Mark Brown

2006-01-01

12

REGARDLESS OF WHETHER RISING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS INCREASE AIR TEMPERATURE, FLOWERING PHENOLOGY WILL BE AFFECTED  

E-print Network

effects on the rate of enzyme-mediated reactions, has profound effects on the rate of development in temperature and also affect phenoREGARDLESS OF WHETHER RISING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS INCREASE AIR TEMPERATURE, FLOWERING

Reekie, Ed

13

Indoor Air Quality in Schools (IAQ): The Importance of Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article highlights indoor air quality and exposure to pollutants at school. Typical air pollutants within schools include environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, allergens, pathogens, radon, pesticides, lead, and dust. Inadequate ventilation, inefficient…

Sundersingh, David; Bearg, David W.

14

Temperature VS Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students examine the relationship between carbon dioxide levels and global temperature change by studying a graph of these two variables. They will discover that by using data from ice cores, scientists can determine temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the air as far back as a hundred thousand years in the past. The students try to predict which variable is the independent one and then make a graph of temperature change and carbon dioxide levels. After making their graph, students describe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to determine if their predictions were correct.

15

Infrared Carbon Dioxide Sensor and its Applications in Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the first carbon dioxide sensor designed for automotive applications. The sensor is based on the spectroscopic measurement principle. It includes a new robust micromachined infrared gas-detector and a corresponding, newly developed ASIC. First application studies show its suitability for automatic vehicle airmanagement systems and for leak detection in R744 air conditioning systems.

M. Arndt; M. Sauer

16

Carbon dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

Arie Melamed-Katz (None; )

2007-06-19

17

Carbon dioxide capture from atmospheric air using sodium hydroxide spray.  

PubMed

In contrast to conventional carbon capture systems for power plants and other large point sources, the system described in this paper captures CO2 directly from ambient air. This has the advantages that emissions from diffuse sources and past emissions may be captured. The objective of this research is to determine the feasibility of a NaOH spray-based contactor for use in an air capture system by estimating the cost and energy requirements per unit CO2 captured. A prototype system is constructed and tested to measure CO2 absorption, energy use, and evaporative water loss and compared with theoretical predictions. A numerical model of drop collision and coalescence is used to estimate operating parameters for a full-scale system, and the cost of operating the system per unit CO2 captured is estimated. The analysis indicates that CO2 capture from air for climate change mitigation is technically feasible using off-the-shelf technology. Drop coalescence significantly decreases the CO2 absorption efficiency; however, fan and pump energy requirements are manageable. Water loss is significant (20 mol H2O/mol CO2 at 15 degrees C and 65% RH) but can be lowered by appropriately designing and operating the system. The cost of CO2 capture using NaOH spray (excluding solution recovery and CO2 sequestration, which may be comparable) in the full-scale system is 96 $/ton-CO2 in the base case, and ranges from 53 to 127 $/ton-CO2 under alternate operating parameters and assumptions regarding capital costs and mass transfer rate. The low end of the cost range is reached by a spray with 50 microm mean drop diameter, which is achievable with commercially available spray nozzles. PMID:18497115

Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Keith, David W; Lowry, Gregory V

2008-04-15

18

Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

2010-01-01

19

Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 44 square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84?Å for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials.

Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Guillerm, Vincent; Cairns, Amy; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

2014-06-01

20

Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture  

PubMed Central

Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 44 square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84?Å for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials. PMID:24964404

Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Guillerm, Vincent; Cairns, Amy; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

2014-01-01

21

Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture.  

PubMed

Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 4(4) square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84 Å for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials. PMID:24964404

Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Chen, Zhijie; Guillerm, Vincent; Cairns, Amy; Adil, Karim; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

2014-01-01

22

Carbon dioxide partial pressure and carbon fluxes of air-water interface in Taihu Lake, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To obtain carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between water-air interface of Taihu lake, monthly water samplers at 14 sites and the local meteorological data of the lake were collected and analyzed in 1998. Carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2) at air-water interface in the lake were calculated using alkalinity, pH, ionic strength, active coefficient, and water temperature. The carbon fluxes at different sublakes and areas were estimated by concentration gradient between water and air in consideration of Schmidt numbers of 600 and daily mean windspeed at 10 m above water surface. The results indicated that the mean values of pCO2 in Wuli Lake, Meiliang Bay, hydrophyte area, west littoral zone, riverine mouths, and the open lake areas were 1 807.8±1 071.4 (mean±standard deviation) ?atm (1atm=1.013 25×105Pa), 416.3±217.0 ?atm, 576.5±758.8 ?atm, 304.2±243.5 ?atm, 1 933.6±1 144.7 ?atm, and 448.5±202.6 ?atm, respectively. Maximum and minimum pCO2 values were found in the hypertrophic (4 053.7 ?atm) and the eutrophic (3.2 ?atm) areas. The riverine mouth areas have the maximum fluxes (82.0±62.8 mmol/m2a). But there was no significant difference between eutrophic and mesotrophic areas in pCO2 and the flux of CO2. The hydrophyte area, however, has the minimum (-0.58±12.9 mmol/m2a). In respect to CO2 equilibrium, input of the rivers will obviously influence inorganic carbon distribution in the riverine estuary. For example, the annual mean CO2 flux in Zhihugang River estuary was 19 times of that in Meiliang Bay, although the former is only a part of the latter. The sites in the body of the lake show a clear seasonal cycle with pCO2 higher than atmospheric equilibrium in winter, and much lower than atmospheric in summer due to CO2 consumption by photosynthesis. The CO2 amount of the net annual evasion that enters the atmosphere is 28.42×104 t/a, of which those from the west littoral zone and the open lake account for 53.8% and 36.7%, respectively.

Fan, Chengxin; Hu, Weiping; Ford, Phillip W.; Chen, Yuwei; Qu, Wenchuan; Zhang, Lu

2005-03-01

23

The air pressure effect on the homogeneous nucleation of carbon dioxide by molecular simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vapour-liquid equilibria (VLE) and the influence of an inert carrier gas on homogeneous vapour to liquid nucleation are investigated by molecular simulation for quaternary mixtures of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Canonical ensemble molecular dynamics simulation using the Yasuoka-Matsumoto method is applied to nucleation in supersaturated vapours that contain more carbon dioxide than in the saturated state at the dew line. Established molecular models are employed that are known to accurately reproduce the VLE of the pure fluids as well as their binary and ternary mixtures. On the basis of these models, also the quaternary VLE properties of the bulk fluid are determined with the Grand Equilibrium method. Simulation results for the carrier gas influence on the nucleation rate are compared with the classical nucleation theory (CNT) considering the 'pressure effect' [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101: 125703 (2008)]. It is found that the presence of air as a carrier gas decreases the nucleation rate only slightly and, in particular, to a significantly lower extent than predicted by CNT. The nucleation rate of carbon dioxide is generally underestimated by CNT, leading to a deviation between one and two orders of magnitude for pure carbon dioxide in the vicinity of the spinodal line and up to three orders of magnitude in the presence of air as a carrier gas. Furthermore, CNT predicts a temperature dependence of the nucleation rate in the spinodal limit, which cannot be confirmed by molecular simulation.

Horsch, M.; Lin, Z.; Windmann, T.; Hasse, H.; Vrabec, J.

2011-08-01

24

Design and Development of an air-cooled Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no wearing parts. This paper discusses the design features of a TSAC hardware that uses air as the cooling medium and has Space Station application.

Mulloth, Lila M.

2003-01-01

25

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OXYGEN-NITROGEN RATIOS AS FACTORS AFFECTING SALMON SURVIVAL IN AIR-SUPERSATURATED WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were exposed to lethal levels of air-supersaturated water (120 percent, 125 percent, 130 percent total gas saturation) containing different oxygen-nitrogen ratios and different carbon dioxide concentrations. Fish mortality was not sign...

26

High-Performance Sorbents for Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air  

SciTech Connect

This project has focused on capture of CO{sub 2} from ambient airair capture”). If this process is technically and economically feasible, it could potentially contribute to net reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in ways that are complementary to better developed techniques for CO{sub 2} from concentrated point sources. We focused on cyclic adsorption processes for CO{sub 2} capture from air in which the entire cycle is performed at moderate temperatures. The project involved both experimental studies of sorbent materials and process level modeling of cyclic air capture processes. In our experimental work, a series of amine-functionalized silica adsorbents were prepared and characterized to determine the impact of molecular architecture on CO{sub 2} capture. Some key findings were: • Amine functionalized silicas can be prepared with high enough CO{sub 2} capacities under ambient conditions to merit consideration for use in air capture processes. • Primary amines are better candidates for CO{sub 2} capture than secondary or tertiary amines, both in terms of amine efficiency for CO{sub 2} adsorption and enhanced water affinity. • Mechanistic understanding of degradation of these materials can enable control of molecular architecture to significantly improve material stability. Our process modeling work provided the first publically available cost and energy estimates for cyclic adsorption processes for air capture of CO{sub 2}. Some key findings were: • Cycles based on diurnal ambient heating and cooling cannot yield useful purities or amounts of captured CO{sub 2}. • Cycles based on steam desorption at 110 oC can yield CO{sub 2} purities of ~88%. • The energy requirements for cycles using steam desorption are dominated by needs for thermal input, which results in lower costs than energy input in the form of electricity. Cyclic processes with operational costs of less than $100 tCO{sub 2}-net were described, and these results point to process and material improvements that could substantially reduce these costs. The most critical conclusions from our work are that (i) CO{sub 2} capture from ambient air using moderate temperature cyclic adsorption processes is technically feasible and (ii) the operational costs of realistic versions of these processes are moderate enough to encourage future development of this technology. Because of the very modest net investment that has been made in R&D associated with this approach from all sources worldwide (relative to the massive public and private investment that has been made in technologies for CO{sub 2} from concentrated point sources), our results strongly suggest that continued development of air capture is justified.

Sholl, David; Jones, Christopher

2013-03-13

27

KEY COMPARISON: International comparison CCQM-K52: Carbon dioxide in synthetic air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first key comparison on carbon dioxide in nitrogen dates from 1993-1994 (CCQM-K1.b). Since then, numerous national metrology institutes (NMIs) have been setting up facilities for gas analysis, and have developed claims for their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for these type mixtures. In the April 2005 meeting of the CCQM Gas Analysis Working Group, a policy was proposed to repeat key comparisons for stable mixtures every 10 years. Consequently in 2007 the key comparison CCQM-K52 'Carbon dioxide in synthetic air' was carried out. This comparison is consistent with the proposed policy and enables NMIs that could not participate in the previous comparison to take part. This report describes the results of a key comparison for carbon dioxide in synthetic air. The amount-of-substance fraction level of carbon dioxide chosen for this key comparison (360 µmol/mol) represents the ambient level of this component in air. In total 18 NMIs and one WMO laboratory participated in the comparison. The agreement of the results in this key comparison is very good. With a few exceptions, the results agree within 0.3% (or better) with the key comparison reference value. Most of the participants that did not participate in CCQM-K1.b do very well. In some cases, the uncertainties claimed are quite large in comparison with the NMIs for which this comparison is a true 'repeat', but the observed differences with the KCRV usually reflect that these claims are realistic. All participants in CCQM-K1.b that participated in this key comparison show improved results. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Wessel, Rob M.; van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.; Ziel, Paul R.; Steele, Paul; Langenfelds, Ray; van der Schoot, Marcel; Smeulders, Damian; Besley, Laurie; Smarçao da Cunha, Valnei; Zhou, Zeyi; Qiao, Han; Heine, Hans Joachim; Martin, Belén; Macé, Tatiana; Gupta, Prabhat K.; Amico di Meane, Elena; Sega, Michela; Rolle, Francesca; Maruyama, Masaaki; Kato, K.; Matsumoto, N.; Seog Kim, Jin; Moon, Dong Min; Bok Lee, Jin; Rangel Murillo, Francisco; Ramírez Nambo, Carlos; Serrano Caballero, Víctor M.; de Jesús Avila Salas, Manuel; Pérez Castorena, Alejandro; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Kolobova, A. V.; Pankratov, V. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Musil, Stanislav; Chromek, Frantisek; Valkova, Miroslava; Milton, Martin J. T.; Vargha, Gergely; Guenther, F.; Miller, Walter R.; Botha, Angelique; Tshilongo, James; Mokgoro, Ipeleng S.; Leshabane, Nompumelelo

2008-01-01

28

Spatial and seasonal variability of the air-sea equilibration timescale of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exchange of carbon dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere tends to bring waters within the mixed layer toward equilibrium by reducing the partial pressure gradient across the air-water interface. However, the equilibration process is not instantaneous; in general, there is a lag between forcing and response. The timescale of air-sea equilibration depends on several factors involving the depth of the mixed layer, wind speed, and carbonate chemistry. We use a suite of observational data sets to generate climatological and seasonal composite maps of the air-sea equilibration timescale. The relaxation timescale exhibits considerable spatial and seasonal variations that are largely set by changes in mixed layer depth and wind speed. The net effect is dominated by the mixed layer depth; the gas exchange velocity and carbonate chemistry parameters only provide partial compensation. Broadly speaking, the adjustment timescale tends to increase with latitude. We compare the observationally derived air-sea gas exchange timescale with a model-derived surface residence time and a data-derived horizontal transport timescale, which allows us to define two nondimensional metrics of equilibration efficiency. These parameters highlight the tropics, subtropics, and northern North Atlantic as regions of inefficient air-sea equilibration where carbon anomalies are relatively likely to persist. The efficiency parameters presented here can serve as simple tools for understanding the large-scale persistence of air-sea disequilibrium of CO2 in both observations and models.

Jones, Daniel C.; Ito, Takamitsu; Takano, Yohei; Hsu, Wei-Ching

2014-11-01

29

Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO 2) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO 2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO 2 concentration from c. 380 ?mol mol -1 to 510 ?mol mol -1. All CO 2 fluxes were measured by the static chamber methodology. Although the FACE technique enriches the atmosphere with CO 2 to a fixed level, the above ground CO 2 concentrations may nevertheless locally vary strongly (from about ambient to ˜1000 ?mol mol -1). Deployment of static chambers to FACE experiments should therefore be performed with great care in order to ensure reproducible conditions with respect to chamber headspace CO 2 concentration. We demonstrate that that the fluxes measured by closed chambers relate linearly to the initial headspace CO 2 concentration. When changing the initial headspace CO 2 concentration from 380 to 510 ?mol mol -1 the net CO 2 assimilation expressed by NEE increased instantaneously 1.51 times in control plots and 1.71 times in FACE plots. By contrast, ER in control plots decreased, being 0.87 times that measured at the low CO 2 concentration, and the flux also decreased in FACE plots, to 0.79 times that at low concentration. Similar SR in control plots was decreased 0.94 times in control plots and 0.88 times in FACE plots. We found that a useful method to achieve stable and reproducible chamber headspace and soil CO 2 concentration prior to commencement of flux measurements was to turn off the FACE system at least 10 min in advance. Within 10 min a new equilibrium was established between the soil and atmosphere, apparently due to CO 2 degassing from the top soil. The observed increase in SR in response to increased CO 2 persisted for up to 18 h during which measurements should be performed. Soil CO 2 concentrations were increased by up to 500 ?mol mol -1 by the FACE treatment, substantially more than the 130 ?mol mol -1 enrichment achieved in the atmosphere suggesting that the increased SR flux was caused by increased belowground respiration.

Selsted, Merete Bang; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders; van der Linden, Leon; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Pilegaard, Kim; Mikkelsen, Teis N.; Beier, Claus

2011-01-01

30

Brookhaven National Laboratory free-air carbon dioxide enrichment forest prototype -- Interim report  

SciTech Connect

A variety of approaches have been used in fumigation experiments to quantify the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]{sub atm}) on plants. Mot of these approaches, reviewed elsewhere (Allen 1992), entail some type of enclosure or chamber. Chambers provide containment of the CO{sub 2}-enriched air and in this way reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} required for the experiment. At the same time, chambers alter microclimate conditions in a variety of ways so that there is a significant chamber effect on the plants within. Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) is an alternative experimental strategy in which CO{sub 2}-enriched air is released into the ambient environment in such a way as to provide effective experimental control over [CO{sub 2}]{sub atm} without causing any change in other environmental variables. Early types of free-air exposure systems were built in the Netherlands and England for exposing vegetation to elevated concentrations of atmospheric trace gases. The FACE Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) considered these original ideas in designing the BNL FACE systems. The purpose of the current BNL project in the Duke Forest is to develop a FACE system that can provide adequate control over [CO{sub 2}]{sub atm} in a tall forest setting. This report is a preliminary overview of the data and much remains to be done in the analysis.

Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.F.; Nagy, J.

1994-08-01

31

Fluoropolymer-based capacitive carbon dioxide sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a thin film sensor of carbon dioxide which relies on the change in capacitance of a fluoropolymer thin film caused by the difference in dielectric constants between air and carbon dioxide and by the preferred adsorption by the polymer of carbon dioxide compared to that of air. The fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 2400™, selectively adsorbs large quantities of CO2

Paul L. Kebabian; Andrew Freedman

2006-01-01

32

Spatial and seasonal variability of the air-sea equilibration timescale of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exchange of carbon dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere tends to bring near-surface waters toward equilibrium by reducing the partial pressure gradient across the air-water interface. However, the equilibration process is not instantaneous; in general there is a lag between forcing and response. The timescale of air-sea equilibration depends on several factors involving the depth of the mixed layer, temperature, salinity, wind speed, and carbonate chemistry. In this work, we use a suite of observational datasets to generate climatological and seasonal composite maps of the air-sea equilibration timescale. The relaxation timescale exhibits considerable spatial and seasonal variations, which are largely set by changes in mixed layer depth and wind speed. The net effect is dominated by the mixed layer depth; the gas exchange velocity and carbonate chemistry parameters only provide partial compensation. Broadly speaking, the adjustment timescale tends to increase with latitude. We compare the observationally-derived air-sea gas exchange timescale with a model-derived surface residence time and a data-derived horizontal transport timescale, which allows us to define two non-dimensional metrics of gas exchange efficiency. These parameters highlight the Southern Ocean, equatorial Pacific, and North Atlantic as regions of inefficient air-sea equilibration where carbon anomalies are likely to form and persist. The efficiency parameters presented here can serve as simple tools for understanding regional air-sea disequilibrium in both observations and models. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.

Jones, Daniel; Ito, Takamitsu; Takano, Yohei; Hsu, Wei-Ching

2014-05-01

33

Moisture-swing sorption for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air: a thermodynamic analysis.  

PubMed

An ideal chemical sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air (air capture) must have a number of favourable properties, such as environmentally benign behaviour, a high affinity for CO(2) at very low concentration (400 ppm), and a low energy cost for regeneration. The last two properties seem contradictory, especially for sorbents employing thermal swing adsorption. On the other hand, thermodynamic analysis shows that the energy cost of an air capture device need only be slightly larger than that of a flue gas scrubber. The moisture swing separation process studied in this paper provides a novel approach to low cost CO(2) capture from air. The anionic exchange resin sorbent binds CO(2) when dry and releases it when wet. A thermodynamic model with coupled phase and chemical equilibria is developed to study the complex H(2)O-CO(2)-resin system. The moisture swing behaviour is compatible with hydration energies changing with the activity of water on the resin surfaces. This activity is in turn set by the humidity. The rearrangement of hydration water on the resin upon the sorption of a CO(2) molecule is predicted as a function of the humidity and temperature. Using water as fuel to drive the moisture swing enables an economical, large-scale implementation of air capture. By generating CO(2) with low partial pressures, the present technology has implications for in situ CO(2) utilizations which require low pressure CO(2) gas rather than liquid CO(2). PMID:23172123

Wang, Tao; Lackner, Klaus S; Wright, Allen B

2013-01-14

34

Screen for Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a set of laboratory experiments that can assist students in the detection of carbon dioxide. Offers a variation of the supported drop method of carbon dioxide detection that provides readily visible positive results. Includes background information on carbon dioxide. (ML)

Foster, John; And Others

1986-01-01

35

Lubricity effect of carbon dioxide used as an environmentally friendly refrigerant in air-conditioning and refrigeration compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concerns have increased the interest in alternative natural refrigerants for air-conditioning and refrigeration compressors. Carbon dioxide (CO2) or R744 is an attractive candidate to replace harmful hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants, which will need to be replaced in the near future due to their high global warming potential. In this paper the tribological behavior of gray cast iron in the presence of

Emerson Escobar Nunez; Kyriaki Polychronopoulou; Andreas A. Polycarpou

2010-01-01

36

Is the Earth Warming? A Test of the Effect of Increased Carbon Dioxide on the Thermal Properties of Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, air with increased concentrations of carbon dioxide is produced and the rate of heat loss of that air is compared to today's normal air. This is used to help demonstrate the environmental and economic effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) content in the atmosphere. It tests the claim that the Earth's climate is warming due to changes in the relative concentration of gases in the atmosphere. The activity involves students heating and cooling the air in a large glass vessel as a model of the atmosphere. Temperature readings are taken and plotted. This will show the rate of heat loss from "normal" air. Then, the CO2 concentration of the air will be increased and the experiment repeated. The results will demonstrate the effects of increased CO2 on the rate of heat loss from air. Students will then evaluate claims that increasing carbon dioxide will significantly increase the temperature of the atmosphere, and thus lead to climate change, in their lifetime.

David Davies

37

Errors in measurements of 222Rn in methane and carbon dioxide using scintillation cells calibrated for 222Rn in air.  

PubMed

Scintillation cells are used typically for measuring the concentration of (222)Rn in air and are calibrated for that purpose. However, scintillation cells are sometimes used for measuring (222)Rn in natural gas or carbon dioxide. The counting efficiencies of scintillation cells for measurements of (222)Rn in these gases should be different from those for measuring (222)Rn in air because the ranges of alpha particles emitted by (222)Rn and its progeny are greater in methane and smaller in carbon dioxide than in air. If these effects are not taken into consideration, measurements of (222)Rn in natural gas will be biased high and in carbon dioxide will be biased low. The authors previously investigated the effects of barometric pressure on measurements of (222)Rn in air using scintillation cells. A modeling technique was used in a previous study to calculate theoretical errors that would result if atmospheric pressure were not considered. In the current study, the same modeling technique was used to calculate theoretical errors that would be made for measurements of (222)Rn in methane and carbon dioxide if the calibration for (222)Rn in air were used. Results are presented for four types of scintillation cells of varying geometries and for barometric pressures representative of four elevations ranging from sea level to 1,963 m (6,440 feet). These results indicate that the errors introduced by the ranges of the alpha particles in gases different from air can be significant. Depending on the type of cell and the local pressure, a measurement of (222)Rn in methane may be biased high by 2-7%, while a measurement of (222)Rn in CO2 may be biased low by 15-20% if the calibration for (222)Rn in air is used. PMID:25208015

Jenkins, Phillip H; Burkhart, James F; Camley, Robert E

2014-03-01

38

Fine root responses of mature deciduous forest trees to free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations have often been reported to increase carbon allocation below-ground, particularly to fine root production. However, for trees these responses have primarily been studied in young expanding systems while the evidence for late successional systems that have reached steady state above- and below-ground is very limited. 2. At the Swiss Canopy

Martin Bader; Erika Hiltbrunner; Christian Körner

2009-01-01

39

The carbon dioxide cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

2005-01-01

40

Hydrogen oxidation mechanism with applications to (1) the chaperon efficiency of carbon dioxide and (2) vitiated air testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ignition delay times for the hydrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide/argon system were obtained behind reflected shock waves. A detailed kinetic mechanism modeled the experimental hydrogen/oxygen data, Skinner and Ringrose's high-pressure data, and Slack and Grillo's hydrogen/air data. A carbon dioxide chaperon efficiency of 7.0 +/- 0.2 was determined. The reaction pathway H2O yields H2O2 yields OH yields H was required to model the high-pressure data. It is suggested that some of the lowest temperature data points (1.0 and 0.5 atm) for Slack and Grillo's hydrogen/air experiments are in error. It was found that the technique of simplifying a detailed kinetic mechanism for a limited range of experimental data may render the model useless for other test conditions.

Brabbs, Theodore A.; Lezberg, Erwin A.; Bittker, David A.; Robertson, Thomas F.

1987-01-01

41

Role of activated carbon pellets in carbon dioxide removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of carbon dioxide from gas\\/air streams is more often becoming necessary in many industries for different purposes. In cryogenic air separation plant, air has to be free from carbon dioxide before its liquefaction otherwise blockage due to freezing of heat exchange equipment would result. Enrichment of methane in biogas to have fuel of higher calorific value can be

S. C Sarkar; A Bose

1997-01-01

42

Background component of carbon dioxide concentration in the near-surface air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data on measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations in the near-surface air in the territory of the European part of Russia using Fourier transform spectroscopy are presented. Analysis of these data showed that temporal variations in CO2 concentrations included ˜18% of relatively high, short-lived concentrations that appear during temperature inversions and fires. The measurement results are separated into the regional natural background CO2 concentration and the anthropogenic admixture. The seasonal component is distinguished in the background CO2 concentration. The maxima and minima of seasonal CO2 variations fall most often within February and July, respectively, at an average amplitude of 20.2 ± 3.8 ppm. The coefficient of pair correlation between seasonal CO2 concentrations and temperature is -0.85. Spectral analysis revealed a large number of composite oscillations of the background CO2 concentration, from 2 to 126 months in period. A simple model using the parameters of these oscillations describes the temporal variations in background CO2 concentration with an error of less than 1%. The anthropogenic admixture of CO2 into the atmosphere consists of a random component and a long-term trend. For 13 years of observations, the anthropogenic admixture was ˜33 ppm at an average growth rate of ˜2.04 ppm/yr.

Aref'ev, V. N.; Kamenogradsky, N. Ye.; Kashin, F. V.; Shilkin, A. V.

2014-11-01

43

Soil air carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide concentrations in profiles under tallgrass prairie and cultivation  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the dynamics of gaseous production in soils is of interest because they are important sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. Changes in soil air carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) concentrations were studied in a Reading silt loam under prairie and cultivation. Concentrations were measured in situ over a 17-mo period to a depth of 3 m. Multilevel samples permitted collection of gases with subsequent measurement by gas chromatography in the laboratory. Soil air N{sub 2}O concentrations were near atmospheric levels for a majority of the study period in the prairie site but were significantly higher in the cultivated site. Annual mean N{sub 2}O concentrations were 0.403 and 1.09 {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} in the prairie and cultivated sites, respectively. Soil air CO{sub 2} annual mean concentrations were 1.56 {times} 10{sup 4} and 1.10 {times} 10{sup 4} {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} and ranged from 0.096 {times} 10{sup 4} to 6.45 {times} 10{sup 4} {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} and 0.087 {times} 10{sup 4} to 3.59 {times} 10{sup 4} {micro}L L{sup {minus}1} in the prairie and cultivated sites, respectively. Concentrations generally increased with depth, with maximum soil air N{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations at 1.0 m in the prairie site and 0.5 m in the cultivated site. Nitrous oxide in the cultivated site and CO{sub 2} at both sites did not change markedly over winter months, but CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O concentrations reached maximums during the summer months and decreased as the year progressed. Although soil air concentrations peaked and decreased faster at shallower depths, deeper depths exhibited relative maximum concentrations for longer time periods.

Sotomayor, D. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez (Puerto Rico). Agronomy and Soils Dept.; Rice, C.W. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

1999-05-01

44

Separation of root respiration from total soil respiration using carbon-13 labelling during free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE)  

SciTech Connect

Soil respiration constitutes a major component of the global carbon cycle and is likely to be altered by climate change. However, there is an incomplete understanding of the extent to which various processes contribute to total soil respiration, especially the contributions of root and rhizosphere respiration. Here, using a stable carbon isotope tracer, the authors separate the relative contributions of root and soil heterotrophic respiration to total soil respiration in situ. The Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) facility in the Duke University Forest (NC) fumigates plots of an undisturbed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest with CO{sub 2} that is strongly depleted in {sup 13}C. This labeled CO{sub 2} is found in the soil pore space through live root and mycorrhizal respiration and soil heterotroph respiration of labile root exudates. By measuring the depletion of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in the soil system, the authors found that the rhizosphere contribution to soil CO{sub 2} reflected the distribution of fine roots in the soil and that late in the growing season roots contributed 55% of total soil respiration at the surface. This estimate may represent an upper limit on the contribution of roots to soil respiration because high atmospheric CO{sub 2} often increases in root density and/or root activity in the soil.

Andrews, J.A.; Harrison, K.G.; Matamala, R.; Schlesinger, W.H.

1999-10-01

45

The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and soil nitrogen availability on the photosynthetic capacity of wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple system for free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) was recently developed and it is here briefly described. Such a MiniFACE system allowed the elevation of CO2 concentration of small field plots avoiding the occurrence of large spatial and temporal fluctuations. A CO2 enrichment field experiment was conducted in Italy in the season 1993–1994 with wheat (cv. Super-dwarf Mercia).

F. Miglietta; A. Giuntoli; M. Bindi

1996-01-01

46

Carbon Dioxide Exchange at the Air–Sea Interface: Flux Augmentation by Chemical Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical results for typical ocean conditions indicate that for film thicknesses less than, say, 400tz. oceanic exchange is not influenced by the hydration\\/dehydration reactions of dissolved carbon dioxide. This conclusion is in substantial agreement with the approximate analysis of Bolin [1960]. However, if suitable catalysts are present in the ocean (there is recent evidence to suggest that this may be

J. A. Quinn; N. C. Otto

1971-01-01

47

Carbon Dioxide Fountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

2007-01-01

48

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides this new data on carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring in 1995. Data for one degree grid cells can be downloaded from the site in addition to code for analysis of the data.

49

Production of Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners use common chemicals to produce carbon dioxide and observe its properties. This resource includes brief questions for learners to answer after the experiment. Use this activity to introduce learners to carbon dioxide and its use as a fire extinguisher. Note: this activity involves an open flame.

The Science House

2014-01-28

50

Molecular Structure of Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carbon dioxide was first described in the 17th century by Jan Baptist van Helmont, a Belgium chemist. The chemical CO2 is released into the atmosphere when carbon-containing fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal are burned in air. It is also produced by various microorganisms in fermentation and is breathed out by animals. Plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, using both the carbon and the oxygen to construct carbohydrates. Every year the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing. CO2 build-up in the atmosphere is caused by deforestation, therefore reducing the number of trees available to absorb CO2. Excess CO2 in the environment causes Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect. It is also toxic to humans since inhalation of large amounts of CO2 can cause suffocation. Some beverages, such as beer and sparkling wine contain carbon dioxide as a result of fermentation.

2002-08-15

51

Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment of soybean: influence of crop variety on residue decomposition.  

PubMed

Elevated atmospheric CO2 can result in larger plants returning greater amounts of residue to the soil. However, the effects of elevated CO2 on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling for different soybean varieties have not been examined. Aboveground residue of eight soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] varieties was collected from a field study where crops had been grown under two different atmospheric CO2 levels [370 micromol mol(-1) (ambient) and 550 micromol mol(-1) (free-air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE)]. Senesced residue material was used in a 60-d laboratory incubation study to evaluate potential C and N mineralization. In addition to assessing the overall effects of CO2 level and variety, a few specific variety comparisons were also made. Across varieties, overall residue N concentration was increased by FACE, but residue C concentration was only slightly increased. Overall residue C to N ratio was lower under FACE and total mineralized N was increased by FACE, suggesting that increased N2 fixation impacted residue decomposition; total mineralized C was also slightly increased by FACE. Across CO2 levels, varietal differences were also observed with the oldest variety having the lowest residue N concentration and highest residue C to N ratio; mineralized N was lowest in the oldest variety, illustrating the influence of high residue C to N ratio. It appears (based on our few specific varietal comparisons) that the breeding selection process may have resulted in some varietal differences in residue quality which can result in increased N or C mineralization under elevated CO2 conditions. This limited number of varietal comparisons indicated that more work investigating varietal influences on soil C and N cycling under elevated CO2 conditions is required. PMID:16825467

Prior, S A; Torbert, H A; Runion, G B; Rogers, H H; Ort, D R; Nelson, R L

2006-01-01

52

Modeling Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, and Climate on Energy Exchange of Wheat in a Free Air Carbon Dioxide Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

upon site conditions. The direction and extent of these changes are important in estimating whether ecosystems Changes in mass and energy exchange by crops under rising atmo- will become more or less water-limited when both Ca spheric CO2 concentration (Ca ) may be affected by N and weather; and air temperatures are rising as hypothesized in cur- Ca interacts with

Robert F. Grant; Bruce A. Kimball; Talbot J. Brooks; Gary W. Wall; Paul J. Pinter; Doug J. Hunsaker; Floyd J. Adamsen; Robert L. Lamorte; Steven W. Leavitt; Thomas L. Thompson; Allan D. Matthias

2001-01-01

53

Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs), carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems are reported. The balloon-borne grab-sampling system has been launched from Sanriku Balloon Center three times since 1981. It consists of: (1) six sampling cylinders, (2) eight motor driven values, (3) control and monitor circuits, and (4) pressurized housing. Particular consideration

T. Itoh; H. Kubo; H. Honda; T. Tominaga; Y. Makide; A. Yakohata; H. Sakai

1985-01-01

54

Extraction and detection of pesticide residues from air filter inserts using supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Trace quantities of airborne herbicide residues were collected on adsorbent bed cartridges and were subsequently extracted from the adsorbent using supercritical carbon dioxide. An apparatus was constructed to facilitate the extraction and recovery of the desired analytes. The resulting extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Results are presented for a series of analytes representative of common commercial pesticides or herbicides.

Zemanian, T.S.; Robins, W.H.; Lee, R.N.; Wright, B.W.

1994-10-01

55

KEY COMPARISON: International comparison CCQM-K52: Carbon dioxide in synthetic air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first key comparison on carbon dioxide in nitrogen dates from 1993-1994 (CCQM-K1.b). Since then, numerous national metrology institutes (NMIs) have been setting up facilities for gas analysis, and have developed claims for their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for these type mixtures. In the April 2005 meeting of the CCQM Gas Analysis Working Group, a policy was proposed to

Rob M. Wessel; Adriaan M. H. van der Veen; Paul R. Ziel; Paul Steele; Ray Langenfelds; Marcel van der Schoot; Damian Smeulders; Laurie Besley; Valnei Smarçao da Cunha; Zeyi Zhou; Han Qiao; Hans Joachim Heine; Belén Martin; Tatiana Macé; Prabhat K. Gupta; Elena Amico di Meane; Michela Sega; Francesca Rolle; Masaaki Maruyama; K. Kato; N. Matsumoto; Jin Seog Kim; Dong Min Moon; Jin Bok Lee; Francisco Rangel Murillo; Carlos Ramírez Nambo; Víctor M. Serrano Caballero; Manuel de Jesús Avila Salas; Alejandro Pérez Castorena; L. A. Konopelko; Y. A. Kustikov; A. V. Kolobova; V. V. Pankratov; O. V. Efremova; Stanislav Musil; Frantisek Chromek; Miroslava Valkova; Martin J. T. Milton; Gergely Vargha; F. Guenther; Walter R. Miller; Angelique Botha; James Tshilongo; Ipeleng S. Mokgoro; Nompumelelo Leshabane

2008-01-01

56

Sampling Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, student teams hypothesize which source has a greater becomes CO² concentration: their breath, auto exhaust, or air in the classroom. They test gas samples from each of these sources, plot data, and hypothesize about the respective role engine exhaust and animal respiration play in contemporary climate change. The lab procedures require Bromthymol Blue indicator solution (BTB), household ammonia, vinegar, and balloons. Links to videos supporting the investigations are provided. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "How is Carbon Dioxide Measured?," part of the unit, Climate Change, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

2012-09-28

57

Development and Testing of a Temperature-swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide in Closed-loop Air Revitalization Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby dosing the air-loop. We have developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts for performing these tasks. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low- pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. This paper discusses the design and testing of a TSAC for carbon dioxide that has application in the ISS and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop.

Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan

2005-01-01

58

Carbon dioxide removal process  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

2003-11-18

59

Integrated Testing of a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper describes the integrated test results of a flight-like CDRA and a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for carbon dioxide removal and compression. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

Knox, J. C.; Mulloth, Lila; Frederick, Kenneth; Affleck, Dave

2003-01-01

60

Carbon dioxide sensor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15

61

The Change in Carbon Dioxide Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that ice cores can help us learn not only the temperature of the Earth in times past, but also the amount of Carbon Dioxide trapped in the air bubbles in the ice. This activity uses as source data a plot of each versus time, and asks the students to plot the Temperature variable versus the other variable which is the Carbon Dioxide content. Students can fit the data to a line y = mx + b to see how changes in Temperature and related to changes in Carbon Dioxide. After they make a graph of Carbon Dioxide concentration as a function of time, they will learn about linear trends in the data, as well as the annual variation of Carbon Dioxide and will then predict the level of Carbon Dioxide in a future year from the data.

62

Carbon dioxide recycling  

EPA Science Inventory

The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the ?Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

63

The Development of Models for Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technologies for Spacecraft Air Revitalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the respiration process, humans consume oxygen (O2) while producing carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) as byproducts. For long term space exploration, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere must be managed to prevent hypercapnia. Moreover, CO2 can be used as a source of oxygen through chemical reduction serving to minimize the amount of oxygen required at launch. Reduction can be achieved through a number of techniques. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently exploring the Sabatier reaction, the Bosch reaction, and co-electrolysis of CO2 and H2O for this process. Proof-of-concept experiments and prototype units for all three processes have proven capable of returning useful commodities for space exploration. While all three techniques have demonstrated the capacity to reduce CO2 in the laboratory, there is interest in understanding how all three techniques would perform at a system-level within a spacecraft. Consequently, there is an impetus to develop predictive models for these processes that can be readily re-scaled and integrated into larger system models. Such analysis tools provide the ability to evaluate each technique on a comparable basis with respect to processing rates. This manuscript describes the current models for the carbon dioxide reduction processes under parallel developmental e orts. Comparison to experimental data is provided were available for veri cation purposes.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly

2011-01-01

64

The Development of Models for Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technologies for Spacecraft Air Revitalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the respiration process, humans consume oxygen (O2) while producing carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) as byproducts. For long term space exploration, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere must be managed to prevent hypercapnia. Moreover, CO2 can be used as a source of oxygen through chemical reduction serving to minimize the amount of oxygen required at launch. Reduction can be achieved through a number of techniques. NASA is currently exploring the Sabatier reaction, the Bosch reaction, and co- electrolysis of CO2 and H2O for this process. Proof-of-concept experiments and prototype units for all three processes have proven capable of returning useful commodities for space exploration. All three techniques have demonstrated the capacity to reduce CO2 in the laboratory, yet there is interest in understanding how all three techniques would perform at a system level within a spacecraft. Consequently, there is an impetus to develop predictive models for these processes that can be readily rescaled and integrated into larger system models. Such analysis tools provide the ability to evaluate each technique on a comparable basis with respect to processing rates. This manuscript describes the current models for the carbon dioxide reduction processes under parallel developmental efforts. Comparison to experimental data is provided were available for verification purposes.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly

2012-01-01

65

Carbon Dioxide Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students work in groups, plotting carbon dioxide concentrations over time on overheads and estimating the rate of change over five years. Stacked together, the overheads for the whole class show an increase on carbon dioxide over five years and annual variation driven by photosynthesis. This exercise enables students to practice basic quantitative skills and understand how important sampling intervals can be when studying changes over time. A goal is to see how small sample size may give incomplete picture of data.

Randy Richardson

66

Spatio -temporal Variability and Air-sea Exchanges of Carbon Dioxide In Three European Coastal Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a contribution to the understanding of the role of the coastal ocean in the global carbon cycle, we report the annual evolution of the distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of surface waters in 3 European regions with contrasting ecological and physical characteristic: the plume of the river Scheldt (Belgium), the English Channel (U.K./France) and the Galician upwelling system (NW Spain). The major processes controlling pCO2 spatial and temporal variability, as well as the estimation of air-sea fluxes of CO2 are discussed. The net annual emission of CO2 from the plume of the river Scheldt is estimated between +3 to +5 mmolC m-2 day-1. Provisional air-sea CO2 flux computations suggest that the English Channel is neutral from the point of view of atmospheric coupling. The Galician upwelling system is a net sink of CO2 in the range of -4 to -7 mmolC m-2 day-1. Our data confirm from a direct and observational approach that distal (marginal) continental shelves are net autotrophic while proximal continental shelves (influenced by terrestrial and anthropogenic carbon inputs) are net heterotrophic corresponding to a net sink and net source of atmospheric CO2, respectively. The air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the studied regions exhibit intense seasonal variations but the resulting annually integrated flux is high and probably significant for global carbon budgeting efforts.

Borges, A. V.; Frankignoulle, M.

67

Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CARBON DIOXIDE  

E-print Network

i Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CARBON DIOXIDE ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID, Afzal Siddiqui, and Judy Lai. 2011. The Carbon Dioxide Abatement Potential of California's Mid/Agricultural/Water EndUse Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Transportation The Carbon Dioxide

68

8, 73157337, 2008 Carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide distributions over Europe C. Gurk et al. Title Page Abstract distributions of carbon dioxide over Europe C. Gurk1 , H. Fischer1 , P. Hoor1 , M.G. Lawrence1 , J. Lelieveld1 Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 7315 #12;ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Easily regenerable solid adsorbents based on polyamines for carbon dioxide capture from the air.  

PubMed

Adsorbents prepared easily by impregnation of fumed silica with polyethylenimine (PEI) are promising candidates for the capture of CO2 directly from the air. These inexpensive adsorbents have high CO2 adsorption capacity at ambient temperature and can be regenerated in repeated cycles under mild conditions. Despite the very low CO2 concentration, they are able to scrub efficiently all CO2 out of the air in the initial hours of the experiments. The influence of parameters such as PEI loading, adsorption and desorption temperature, particle size, and PEI molecular weight on the adsorption behavior were investigated. The mild regeneration temperatures required could allow the use of waste heat available in many industrial processes as well as solar heat. CO2 adsorption from the air has a number of applications. Removal of CO2 from a closed environment, such as a submarine or space vehicles, is essential for life support. The supply of CO2-free air is also critical for alkaline fuel cells and batteries. Direct air capture of CO2 could also help mitigate the rising concerns about atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climatic changes, while, at the same time, provide the first step for an anthropogenic carbon cycle. PMID:24644023

Goeppert, Alain; Zhang, Hang; Czaun, Miklos; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A; Narayanan, S R

2014-05-01

70

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure, the famous Keeling Curve, shows the history of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as directly measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. This curve is an essential piece of evidence that shows the increased greenhouse gases that cause recent increases in global temperatures.

Robert A. Rohde

71

Carbon Dioxide Increases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze the Keeling Curve showing carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere since 1985 to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

72

Ocean Surface Carbon Dioxide Fugacity and Flux From Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean as the source and sink of carbon dioxide is important to global warming and ecology. We estimate the ocean-atmosphere exchanges in carbon dioxide through turbulence parameterization, which requires the difference in fugacity of carbon dioxide between sea and air, and a transfer velocity. There have been many studies on the parameterization of the transfer velocity in term of

W. Liu; X. Xie

2010-01-01

73

Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

1979-01-01

74

Operation of a breadboard liquid-sorbent/membrane-contactor system for removing carbon dioxide and water vapor from air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processes to remove and recover carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor from air are essential for successful long-duration space missions. This paper presents results of a developmental program focused on the use of a liquid-sorbent/membrane-contactor (LSMC) system for removal of CO2 and water vapor from air. In this system, air from the spacecraft cabin atmosphere is circulated through one side of a hollow-fiber membrane contactor. On the other side of the membrane contactor is flowed a liquid sorbent, which absorbs the CO2 and water vapor from the feed air. The liquid sorbent is then heated to desorb the CO2 and water vapor. The CO2 is subsequently removed from the system as a concentrated gas stream, whereas the water vapor is condensed, producing a water stream. A breadboard system based on this technology was designed and constructed. Tests showed that the LSMC breadboard system can produce a CO2 stream and a liquid-water stream. Details are presented on the operation of the system, as well as the effects on performance of variations in feed conditions.

Mccray, Scott B.; Ray, Rod; Newbold, David D.; Millard, Douglas L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Foerg, Sandra

1992-01-01

75

Carbon dioxide adsorbent study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was initiated on the feasibility of using the alkali metal carbonate - bi-carbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of an EVA life support system. The program successfully demonstrates that carbon dioxide concentrations could be maintained below 0.1 mole per cent using this chemistry. Further a practical method for distributing the carbonates in a coherent sheet form capable of repeated regeneration (50 cycles) at modest temperatures (423 K), without loss in activity was also demonstrated. Sufficiently high reaction rates were shown to be possible with the carbonate - bi-carbonate system such that EVA hardware could be readily designed. Experimental and design data were presented on the basis of which two practical units were designed. In addition to conventional thermally regenerative systems very compact units using ambient temperature cyclic vacuum regeneration may also be feasible. For a one man - 8 hour EVA unit regenerated thermally at the base ship a system volume of 14 liters is estimated.

Onischak, M.; Baker, B. S.

1973-01-01

76

Chemical Extraction of Carbon Dioxide From Air: A Strategy to Avoid Climate Change and Sustain Fossil Energy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil energy use has benefited humankind but also threatens our environment. It has increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels from 280 ppm to 370 ppm, over the past century. This rise has been linked to with observed ocean acidification and global warming. Projections indicate that atmospheric CO2 could reach 540 to 970 ppm in 2100, with significant effects on our earth system. Given that fossil fuels are plentiful, cost-effective, and energy rich their use will be limited by our ability to mitigate their environmental impact. Carbon management provides potential solutions to this. Current approaches to manage carbon focus on capturing CO2 from large point sources such as power plants. They are limited because they fail to address emissions from transportation and the myriad of dispersed sources that amount to about half of all emissions. To solve this problem we have proposed and are developing direct CO2 extraction from air as a means to capture emissions from all sources [1-3]. It preserves our fuel distribution and transportation systems, and in principle could allow us to restore CO2 to pre-industrial levels. Our concept utilizes atmospheric circulation to capture CO2 directly from the dilute stream in air (370 ppm) by binding it to an adsorbent. Subsequent heating releases the bound CO2 as a pure stream suitable for permanent sequestration. For example, this cycle is favorable for Ca(OH)2 which reacts rapidly with CO2 to form CaCO3. The heat to recover CO2 from CaCO3 is 190 kJ/mole of C, less than half the heat of combustion of 500 kJ/ mole of C for coal. The scale of CO2 air-extraction plants to offset global emissions is large but could be manageable, and favorable relative to renewable sources. We report experiments on CO2 uptake by alkaline solutions as a function of pH, contact time, and mixing. Both active and passive mixing conditions are explored. Gram scale quantities of CO2 has been extracted from air by Ca(OH)2 and the product CaCO3 analyzed by X ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis. We identify the atmospheric sub-laminar boundary layer and the stagnant liquid surface as potential barriers to CO2 uptake. Strategies to overcome these limits are developed. We discuss other renewable, energy efficient, and effective CO2 scrubbers with lower binding energies. High-resolution simulations are also being performed to characterize the effects of atmospheric mixing, size and geometry of extractors on the collection efficiency. Capture of CO2 from air is a promising long term strategy to sustain fossil energy use by avoiding climate change but much research and development is needed to implement it. [1] Elliott S. et al.,Compensation of atmospheric CO2 buildup through engineered chemical sinkage, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(7), 1235-1238, 2001. [2] Dubey, M. K. et al., Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through engineered chemical sinkage, 2002 American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry Preprints, 47(1), 81-84, 2002. [3] Johnston, et al. Chemical Transport Modeling of Potential Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Sinks, in press Energy Conversion & Management, 2002.

Dubey, M. K.; Ziock, H.; Rueff, G.; Colman, J.; Smith, W. S.

2002-12-01

77

PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE-TREATED AND AIR-CLASSIFIED OAT BRAN CONCENTRATE MICROWAVE-IRRADIATED IN WATER OR ETHANOL AT VARYING TEMPERATURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oat bran concentrate (OBC) was defatted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SCD), then microwave-irradiated at 50, 100 or 150 deg C for 10 min in water, 50% or 100% ethanol, and extract pH, soluble solids, phenolic content and antioxidant activity were analyzed. OBC was air-classified into five frac...

78

Tree growth in carbon dioxide enriched air and its implications for global carbon cycling and maximum levels of atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the longest carbon dioxide enrichment experiment ever conducted, well-watered and adequately fertilized sour orange tree seedlings were planted directly into the ground at Phoenix, Arizona, in July 1987 and continuously exposed, from mid-November of that year, to either ambient air or air enriched with an extra 300 ppmv of CO2 in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures. Only 18 months later, the CO2-enriched trees had grown 2.8 times larger than the ambient-treated trees; and they have maintained that productivity differential to the present day. This tremendous growth advantage is due to two major factors: a CO2-induced increase in daytime net photosynthesis and a CO2-induced reduction in nighttime dark respiration. Measurements of these physiological processes in another experiment have shown three Australlian tree species to respond similarly; while an independent study of the atmosphere's seasonal CO2 cycle suggests that all earth's trees, in the mean, probably share this same response. A brief review of the plant science literature outlines how such a large growth response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment might possibly be maintained in light of resource limitations existing in nature. Finally, it is noted that a CO2 "fertilization effect" of this magnitude should substantially slow the rate at which anthropogenic carbon dioxide would otherwise accumulate in the atmosphere, possibly putting an acceptable upper limit on the level to which the CO2 content of the air may ultimately rise.

Idso, Sherwood B.; Kimball, Bruce A.

1993-09-01

79

Carbon Dioxide Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

23 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of some of the widely-varied terrain of the martian south polar residual cap. The landforms here are composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each year since MGS arrived in 1997, the scarps that bound each butte and mesa, or line the edges of each pit, in the south polar region, have changed a little bit as carbon dioxide is sublimed away. The scarps retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year. Most of the change occurs during each southern summer.

Location near: 86.7oS, 9.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

80

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

SciTech Connect

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12

81

Frozen Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

82

Carbon Dioxide Landforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

19 March 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is mostly made of frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that a person can go to see the landforms that would be produced by erosion and sublimation of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometers of carbon dioxide. Thus, the south polar cap of Mars is as alien as alien can get. This image, acquired in February 2004 by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows how the cap appears in summer as carbon dioxide is subliming away, creating a wild pattern of pits, mesas, and buttes. Darker surfaces may be areas where the ice contains impurities, such as dust, or where the surface has been roughened by the removal of ice. This image is located near 86.3oS, 0.8oW. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

2004-01-01

83

NASA launches carbon dioxide research satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last week NASA launched a new satellite to study atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Once in orbit, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, will take more than 100,000 individual measurements of atmospheric CO2 per day.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-07-01

84

High resolution measurements of methane and carbon dioxide in surface waters over a natural seep reveal dynamics of dissolved phase air-sea flux.  

PubMed

Marine hydrocarbon seeps are sources of methane and carbon dioxide to the ocean, and potentially to the atmosphere, though the magnitude of the fluxes and dynamics of these systems are poorly defined. To better constrain these variables in natural environments, we conducted the first high-resolution measurements of sea surface methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in the massive natural seep field near Coal Oil Point (COP), California. The corresponding high resolution fluxes were calculated, and the total dissolved phase air-sea fluxes over the surveyed plume area (?363 km(2)) were 6.66 × 10(4) to 6.71 × 10(4) mol day(-1) with respect to CH4 and -6.01 × 10(5) to -5.99 × 10(5) mol day(-1) with respect to CO2. The mean and standard deviation of the dissolved phase air-sea fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from the contour gridding analysis were estimated to be 0.18 ± 0.19 and -1.65 ± 1.23 mmol m(-2) day(-1), respectively. This methane flux is consistent with previous, lower-resolution estimates and was used, in part, to conservatively estimate the total area of the dissolved methane plume at 8400 km(2). The influx of carbon dioxide to the surface water refutes the hypothesis that COP seep methane appreciably influences carbon dioxide dynamics. Seeing that the COP seep field is one of the biggest natural seeps, a logical conclusion could be drawn that microbial oxidation of methane from natural seeps is of insufficient magnitude to change the resulting plume area from a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide to a source. PMID:25083936

Du, Mengran; Yvon-Lewis, Shari; Garcia-Tigreros, Fenix; Valentine, David L; Mendes, Stephanie D; Kessler, John D

2014-09-01

85

Carbon dioxide affects global ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

Eugene K. Peterson

1969-01-01

86

Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

Schilling, J.B.

1997-09-01

87

Carbon dioxide dynamics in Kelud volcanic lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2007, the extrusion of a new lava dome evaporated Kelud volcanic lake in Java, Indonesia. Four months before a detailed echo sounding survey of the volcanic lake coupled to floating accumulation chamber measurements detected abnormally high carbon dioxide emissions. It constituted the earliest sign of the volcanic unrest; well before any other monitored parameter. CO2 flux is quantified using an empirical equation based on the volume of bubbles backscattered in the water column. Its comparison with the fluxes retrieved from the floating chamber method better constrain carbon dioxide dynamics in the volcanic lake. It reveals that 70% of the carbon dioxide enters the lake in a dissolved form, while the remaining 30% is supplied to the lake on a gaseous state. Almost three-quarter of the ascending bubbles dissolve in the water column leaving the majority of the 330 Tons day-1 of carbon dioxide diffusing at the air-water interface.

Caudron, C.; Mazot, A.; Bernard, A.

2012-05-01

88

Introduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide  

E-print Network

Introduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide Air pollution can be defined as "the presence worldwide" WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide directives have implemented Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs); these are areas where air quality standards

89

Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals

W. J. J. Huijgen; R. N. J. Comans

2007-01-01

90

21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2 , CAS...

2010-04-01

91

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01

92

Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a summary of the current research which addresses the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on terrestrial ecosystems and an identification of significant unresolved issues. Chapters address the carbon dioxide effects on trees and forests, unmanaged herbaceous ecosystems, and crops. Included are experimental studies, conceptual models, general mathematical models, dynamic simulation models.

G. W. Koch; H. A. Mooney

1996-01-01

93

SOIL AIR CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN A NEW ENGLAND SPRUCE-FIR FORESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Research and modeling efforts to evaluate soil-soil solution chemical interactions must take into account solution equilibria with soil air CO2. Measurements of soil air CO2 and soil temperature were made in the major horizons of a forest soil in eastern Maine through the 1985 gr...

94

Limitations to soybean photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide in free-air enrichment and open top chamber systems.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the stimulation of soybean photosynthesis by elevated CO2 was less in free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems than in open top chambers (OTC), which might explain smaller yield increases at elevated CO2 in FACE systems. However, this has not been tested using the same cultivars grown in the same location. I tested whether soybean photosynthesis at high light and elevated CO2 (ambient+180 ?mol mol(-1)) was limited by electron transport (J) in FACE systems but by ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylation capacity (VCmax) in OTC. FACE systems with daytime and continuous CO2 enrichment were also compared. The results indicated that in both cultivars examined, midday photosynthesis at high light was always limited by VCmax, both in the FACE and in the OTC systems. Daytime only CO2 enrichment did not affect photosynthetic parameters or limitations, but did result in significantly smaller yields in both cultivars than continuous elevation. Photosynthesis measured at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was not higher at elevated than at ambient CO2, because of an acclimation to elevated CO2 which was only evident at low measurement PPFDs. PMID:25113458

Bunce, James A

2014-09-01

95

Nondestructive natural gas hydrate recovery driven by air and carbon dioxide  

PubMed Central

Current technologies for production of natural gas hydrates (NGH), which include thermal stimulation, depressurization and inhibitor injection, have raised concerns over unintended consequences. The possibility of catastrophic slope failure and marine ecosystem damage remain serious challenges to safe NGH production. As a potential approach, this paper presents air-driven NGH recovery from permeable marine sediments induced by simultaneous mechanisms for methane liberation (NGH decomposition) and CH4-air or CH4-CO2/air replacement. Air is diffused into and penetrates NGH and, on its surface, forms a boundary between the gas and solid phases. Then spontaneous melting proceeds until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as NGH depletion continues and self-regulated CH4-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed the existence of critical methane concentration forming the boundary between decomposition and replacement mechanisms in the NGH reservoirs. Furthermore, when CO2 was added, we observed a very strong, stable, self-regulating process of exchange (CH4 replaced by CO2/air; hereafter CH4-CO2/air) occurring in the NGH. The proposed process will work well for most global gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the injection conditions or geothermal gradient. PMID:25311102

Kang, Hyery; Koh, Dong-Yeun; Lee, Huen

2014-01-01

96

Nondestructive natural gas hydrate recovery driven by air and carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Current technologies for production of natural gas hydrates (NGH), which include thermal stimulation, depressurization and inhibitor injection, have raised concerns over unintended consequences. The possibility of catastrophic slope failure and marine ecosystem damage remain serious challenges to safe NGH production. As a potential approach, this paper presents air-driven NGH recovery from permeable marine sediments induced by simultaneous mechanisms for methane liberation (NGH decomposition) and CH?-air or CH?-CO?/air replacement. Air is diffused into and penetrates NGH and, on its surface, forms a boundary between the gas and solid phases. Then spontaneous melting proceeds until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as NGH depletion continues and self-regulated CH4-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed the existence of critical methane concentration forming the boundary between decomposition and replacement mechanisms in the NGH reservoirs. Furthermore, when CO? was added, we observed a very strong, stable, self-regulating process of exchange (CH? replaced by CO?/air; hereafter CH?-CO?/air) occurring in the NGH. The proposed process will work well for most global gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the injection conditions or geothermal gradient. PMID:25311102

Kang, Hyery; Koh, Dong-Yeun; Lee, Huen

2014-01-01

97

Nondestructive natural gas hydrate recovery driven by air and carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current technologies for production of natural gas hydrates (NGH), which include thermal stimulation, depressurization and inhibitor injection, have raised concerns over unintended consequences. The possibility of catastrophic slope failure and marine ecosystem damage remain serious challenges to safe NGH production. As a potential approach, this paper presents air-driven NGH recovery from permeable marine sediments induced by simultaneous mechanisms for methane liberation (NGH decomposition) and CH4-air or CH4-CO2/air replacement. Air is diffused into and penetrates NGH and, on its surface, forms a boundary between the gas and solid phases. Then spontaneous melting proceeds until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as NGH depletion continues and self-regulated CH4-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed the existence of critical methane concentration forming the boundary between decomposition and replacement mechanisms in the NGH reservoirs. Furthermore, when CO2 was added, we observed a very strong, stable, self-regulating process of exchange (CH4 replaced by CO2/air; hereafter CH4-CO2/air) occurring in the NGH. The proposed process will work well for most global gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the injection conditions or geothermal gradient.

Kang, Hyery; Koh, Dong-Yeun; Lee, Huen

2014-10-01

98

PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration  

E-print Network

PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 5, NO. 7, 2009 637 Ventilation Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Concentration complex organic molecules being broken down to simpler molecules, such as carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide waste is removed from the body through respiration. Carbon dioxide content in fresh air

Halgamuge, Malka N.

99

Ballistic Range Measurements of Stagnation-Point Heat Transfer in Air and in Carbon Dioxide at Velocities up to 18,000 Feet Per Second  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique for measuring heat-transfer rates on free-flight models in a ballistic range is described in this report. The accuracy of the heat-transfer rates measured in this way is shown to be comparable with the accuracy obtained in shock-tube measurements. The specific results of the present experiments consist of measurements of the stagnation-point heat-transfer rates experienced by a spherical-nosed model during flight through air and through carbon dioxide at velocities up to 18,000 feet per second. For flight through air these measured heat-transfer rates agree well with both the theoretically predicted rates and the rates measured in shock tubes. the heat-transfer rates agree well with the rates measured in a shock tube. Two methods of estimating the stagnation-point heat-transfer rates in carbon dioxide are compared with the experimental measurements. At each velocity the measured stagnation-point heat-transfer rate in carbon dioxide is about the same as the measured heat-transfer rate in air.

Yee, Layton; Bailey, Harry E.; Woodward, Henry T.

1961-01-01

100

Carbon Dioxide Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

7 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of the south polar residual cap at full MOC resolution, 1.5 m (5 ft) per pixel. During each of the three summers since the start of the MGS mapping mission in March 1999, the scarps that form mesas and pits in the 'Swiss cheese'-like south polar terrain have retreated an average of about 3 meters (1 yard). The material is frozen carbon dioxide; another 3 meters or so of each scarp is expected to be removed during the next summer, in late 2005. This image is located near 86.0oS, 350.8oW, and covers an area about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

2004-01-01

101

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

None

2010-10-01

102

Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of concentrations of chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs), carbon dioxide and carbon isotope ratio in stratospheric and tropospheric air by grab-sampling systems are reported. The balloon-borne grab-sampling system has been launched from Sanriku Balloon Center three times since 1981. It consists of: (1) six sampling cylinders, (2) eight motor driven values, (3) control and monitor circuits, and (4) pressurized housing. Particular consideration is paid to the problem of contamination. Strict requirements are placed on the choice of materials and components, construction methods, cleaning techniques, vacuum integrity, and sampling procedures. An aluminum pressurized housing and a 4-m long inlet line are employed to prevent the sampling air from contamination by outgassing of sampling and control devices. The sampling is performed during the descent of the system. Vertical profiles of mixing ratios of CF2Cl2, CFCl3 and CH4 are given. Mixing ratios of CF2Cl2 and CFCl3 in the stratosphere do not show the discernible effect of the increase of those in the ground level background, and decrease with altitude. Decreasing rate of CFCl3 is larger than that of CF2Cl2. CH4 mixing ratio, on the other hand, shows diffusive equilibrium, as the photodissociation cross section of CH4 is small and concentrations of OH radical and 0(sup I D) are low.

Itoh, T.; Kubo, H.; Honda, H.; Tominaga, T.; Makide, Y.; Yakohata, A.; Sakai, H.

1985-01-01

103

Spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor designed for automotive applications. The sensor is based on the well known infrared measurement principle. It includes a new robust infrared gas-detector and a corresponding, newly developed, ASIC. First application studies show its suitability for automatic vehicle ventilation systems and for leak detection in R744 air conditioning systems.

Michael Arndt; Maximilian Sauer

2004-01-01

104

Carbon dioxide removal from air by microalgae cultured in a membrane-photobioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated CO2 levels in a closed space or room are of big concerns in many situations. Controlling the CO2 level within a certain range is one of the most important tasks in a life support system. In this paper, a 10l photobioreactor integrated with a hollow fiber membrane module was constructed to remove CO2 from air by using the photosynthetic

Lihua Cheng; Lin Zhang; Huanlin Chen; Congjie Gao

2006-01-01

105

RESPONSES OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS TO FREE-AIR CARBON DIOXIDE ENRICHMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the past decade, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments have been conducted on wheat, perennial ryegrass, and rice, which are C3 grasses; sorghum, a C4 grass; white clover, a C3 legume; potato, a C3 forb with tuber storage; and cotton and grape, which are C3 woody perennials. Elevated CO2 i...

106

Penetration Characteristics of Air, Carbon Dioxide and Helium Transverse Sonic Jets in Mach 5 Cross Flow  

PubMed Central

An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield. PMID:25494348

Erdem, Erinc; Kontis, Konstantinos; Saravanan, Selvaraj

2014-01-01

107

Photosynthesis and growth responses of mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv Pusa Bold) plants to free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE).  

PubMed

Increased atmospheric [CO2] is likely to affect photosynthesis, plant growth, and yield potential of plants. Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) is an important oil seed crop that is widely grown in India. Therefore, the impact of elevated [CO2] (585 ?mol mol(-1)) on pigment and protein content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic electron transport reactions, CO2 assimilation, biomass production, and seed yield potential was measured in B. juncea cv Pusa Bold, grown inside free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) rings installed on the campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Plants were grown for three consecutive winter seasons (2010-2013), in ambient (385 ?mol mol(-1)) or elevated [CO2], in field conditions. Elevated [CO2] had no significant effect on the minimal chlorophyll fluorescence (F 0), while the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II, measured as variable fluorescence (F v?=?F m-F 0) to maximum fluoresence (F m), increased by 3 %. Electron transport rate, photosystem I, photosystem II, and whole chain electron transport rates increased by 8 % in elevated [CO2]. However, the net photosynthesis rate increased by ?50 % in three growing seasons under elevated [CO2] condition. The stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. The photosynthesizing surface, i.e., leaf area index substantially increased leading to higher biomass and seed yield under elevated [CO2] condition. Acclimatory downregulation of photosynthesis and plant productivity was not observed in three consecutive growing years suggesting that in the absence of nutrient limitation, B. juncea is highly responsive to elevated CO2 whose yield potential shall increase in changing climatic conditions. PMID:25471475

Ruhil, Kamal; Sheeba; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tripathy, Baishnab C

2014-12-01

108

NASA Satellite Sees Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a map of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from satellite data. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

109

Reducing carbon dioxide to products  

DOEpatents

A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

2014-09-30

110

Carbon Dioxide and Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demonstrates the affect of increased dissolved carbon dioxide on water pH using a cheap, non-toxic acid/base indicator. Students bubble breath through a straw into red cabbage juice and note the color change.

Chris Lewis

111

Carbon dioxide emissions at an Italian mineral spring: measurements of average CO 2 concentration and air temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon dioxide from vents at the Bossoleto mineral spring in Central Italy have been calculated to exceed 12 t day?1. This emission leads to enhanced atmospheric concentrations of CO2 over an area of more than 3000 m2. The vent gas is over 99% pure CO2, with a characteristic isotopic signature that is totally depleted in 14C. At night,

Paul R. van Gardingen; John Grace; Douglas D. Harkness; Franco Miglietta; Antonio Raschi

1995-01-01

112

Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle  

DOEpatents

A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

2014-11-18

113

Federal Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: What are the Options?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Supreme Court in Massachusetts v. EPA held that carbon dioxide is a pollutant under the Clean Air Act (CAA) and remanded the case to EPA. The Agency must decide whether CO2 emissions contribute to climate change. If the Agency responds affirmatively, it must meet other requirements of the CAA in order to regulate carbon dioxide or other greenhouse

Reitze Jr. Arnold W

2009-01-01

114

Free-air carbon dioxide enrichment of cotton: Root morphological characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The response of plants to rising global CO{sub 2} concentration is of critical research interest but one neglected aspect is its effect on roots. Root morphological changes in cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)`Delta Pine 77`] were examined in a 2-yr field study. The test crop was grown under two water regimes (wet, 100% of evapotranspiration [ET] replaced and dry, 75% [1990] and 67% [1991] of ET replaced) and two atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations (ambient = 370 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} and free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment [FACE] = 550 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}). A FACE technique that allows for CO{sub 2} exposure under field conditions with minimal alteration of plant microclimate was used. Excavated root systems were partitioned into taproot and lateral roots at two growth phases (vegetative and reproductive) Vertical root-pulling resistance was determined at the second sampling; this measure was higher because of CO{sub 2} enrichment but was unaffected by water stress. Water stress affected root variables only at the second sampling; water stress reduced taproot variables more than lateral variables. The larger diameter taproots seen at all sample dates under FACE exhibited large increases in dry weight and volume. FACE often increased lateral root number and lateral dry weights were higher at all sample dates. The development of more robust taproot systems in CO{sub 2}-enriched environments may allow for greater carbohydrate storage for utilization during periods such as boll filling and to ensure root growth for continued exploration of the soil profile to meet nutrient and water demands during peak demand periods. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Prior, S.A.; Royers, H.H. [National Soil Dynamics Lab., Auburn, AL (United States); Runion, G.B. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)] [and others

1995-07-01

115

Long-Duration Testing of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the results of long-duration testing of a temperature-swing adsorption compressor that has application in the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop. The air revitalization system of the ISS operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from Earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low-pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. The TSAC was developed and its operation was successfully verified in integration tests with the flight-like Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to the long-duration tests. Long-duration tests reveal the impacts of repeated thermal cycling on the compressor components and the adsorbent material.

Rosen, Micha; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

2005-01-01

116

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide of a coal gasification power plant. The separated carbon dioxide can be compressed and transported dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from

117

Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organized by NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory (CMDL), the Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference is planned September 25-30 in Broomfield, Colo. At this website, scientists involved in various aspects of the global carbon cycle, especially the current increases of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, are encouraged to attend. Users can read the preliminary announcement and can learn about the themes of the conference. Researchers can learn about abstract submissions and accommodations. The Brief Conference History link offers a nice synopsis of the accomplishments of past conferences.

118

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

119

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Oak Ridge National Laboratories in Tennessee, this Website is the US Department of Energy's "primary global-change data and information analysis center" and is a central source for many Carbon Dioxide-related resources. Among those resources are several we have reviewed, for example, the Catalog of Databases and Reports (reviewed in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) and Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates (reviewed in the March 4, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The CDIAC site offers a wealth of information, including "records of the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level." To get a feel for the research summaries and data available at the CDIAC site, see the Products section (describes the research projects associated with CDIAC as well as links to those data sets); the New section (offers a hyperlinked list of new data products); the Top 10 section (offers a hyperlinked list of Frequently Requested Global Change Products); or any of the specific project sections: FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment), NARSTO (a non-binding, tri-national, public/private alliance), OCEANS (Survey of CO2 in the Oceans), or AmeriFlux (long-term CO2 flux measurements of the Americas). This is an outstanding resource for those seeking global data (or research summaries) on the status of carbon dioxide in several components of the earth's ecosystems.

120

Plants Can't Do without Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to induce carbon dioxide deficiency to demonstrate its effects on plant growth. Suggests further studies to examine respiration by soil microbes and the effects of relative humidity, other gases, and air pollution on plant growth. (MDH)

Hershey, David R.

1992-01-01

121

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-print Network

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of power stations and from other

122

Carbon Dioxide - Our Common "Enemy"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health effects of brief and prolonged exposure to carbon dioxide continue to be a concern for those of us who manage this pollutant in closed volumes, such as in spacecraft and submarines. In both examples, considerable resources are required to scrub the atmosphere to levels that are considered totally safe for maintenance of crew health and performance. Defining safe levels is not a simple task because of many confounding factors, including: lack of a robust database on human exposures, suspected significant variations in individual susceptibility, variations in the endpoints used to assess potentially adverse effects, the added effects of stress, and the fluid shifts associated with micro-gravity (astronauts only). In 2007 the National Research Council proposed revised Continuous Exposure Guidelines (CEGLs) and Emergency Exposure Guidelines (EEGLs) to the U.S. Navy. Similarly, in 2008 the NASA Toxicology Group, in cooperation with another subcommittee of the National Research Council, revised Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). In addition, a 1000-day exposure limit was set for long-duration spaceflights to celestial bodies. Herein we examine the rationale for the levels proposed to the U.S. Navy and compare this rationale with the one used by NASA to set its limits. We include a critical review of previous studies on the effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and attempt to dissect out the challenges associated with setting fully-defensible limits. We also describe recent experiences with management of carbon dioxide aboard the International Space Station with 13 persons aboard. This includes the tandem operations of the Russian Vozduk and the U.S. Carbon Dioxide Removal System. A third removal system is present while the station is docked to the Shuttle spacecraft, so our experience includes the lithium hydroxide system aboard Shuttle for the removal of carbon dioxide. We discuss strategies for highly-efficient, regenerable removal of carbon dioxide that could meet the 1000-day SMAC of 0.5%, which would apply to long-duration voyages to Mars.

James, John T.; Macatangay, Ariel

2009-01-01

123

Sorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Sodium Carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium carbonate was used as a sorbent to capture CO2 from a gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and moisture. The breakthrough data of CO2 were measured in a fixed bed to observe the reaction kinetics of CO2?carbonate reaction. Several models such as the shrinking?core model, the homogeneous model, and the deactivation model in the non?catalytic heterogeneous reaction systems were

2006-01-01

124

Carbon dioxide fluxes across the air-water interface and its impact on carbon availability in aquatic systems  

SciTech Connect

Diffusion of CO{sub 2} across the air-water interface was analyzed with a model that simulates both transport and reaction of CO{sub 2} in a stagnant boundary layer. The atmospheric C influx was determined in relation to several environmental variables: pH, total dissolved inorganic C, temperature, and the thickness of the stagnant boundary layer in relation to ambient windspeed. We used the model to calculate the atmospheric CO{sub 2} influx into experimental ditches for a period of 6 to 8 months, starting in early spring. Three of the six ditches were dominated by aquatic macrophytes and three by benthic algae. Each series received three levels of external N and P input. A comparison with net C assimilation during the same period, as estimated from continuous oxygen measurements, showed that, especially in the ditches dominated by submersed macrophytes, a sizable fraction of the C requirements during this period could have been obtained from atmospheric CO{sub 2}. In the ditches dominated by benthic algae, this fraction was considerably less, but nonetheless substantial, and was related to the level of N and P loading. Increased primary production due to enhanced external N and P loading increased the atmospheric C input due to the resultant higher pH values. The trophic state with respect to N and P and the availability of C are therefore interrelated. 25 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

Portielje, R.; Lijklema, L. [Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands)

1995-06-01

125

VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM  

E-print Network

VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determined

126

Carbon dioxide adsorption on nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, CO2 adsorption in the presence and absence of co-adsorbed H2O was investigated on different nanomaterials including nanocrystalline NaY zeolite (nano NaY), ZnO, MgO and gamma-Al 2O3 nanoparticles as well as mixed phase aluminum nanowhiskers. In the case of nano NaY, FTIR spectra show that a majority of CO2 adsorbs in the pores of these zeolites in a linear complex with the exchangeable cation. Most interesting is the formation of carbonate and bicarbonate on the external surface of nano NaY zeolites, suggesting unique sites for CO 2 adsorption on the surface of these small nanomaterials. Adsorption of 18O-labeled carbon dioxide and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirms the assignment of these different species. For aluminum oxyhydroxide nanowhiskers and gamma alumina in the absence of co-adsorbed water, CO2 reacts with surface hydroxyl groups to yield adsorbed bicarbonate as well as some carbonate. C18O2 adsorption confirms these assignments. In the case of nanoparticulate ZnO, CO2 adsorption under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate, bicarbonates as well as carboxylates. However, in the presence of co-adsorbed water, only carbonate species is formed. 18O-labeled carbon dioxide adsorption and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirm the vibrational assignment for these different species. Mixed isotope studies with H2 16O + C18O2 and H2 18O + C16O2 suggest that there is extensive exchange between oxygen in adsorbed water and oxygen atoms in gas-phase carbon dioxide. CO2 adsorption on MgO surfaces, under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate and bicarbonates. Implications for the use of these nanomaterials in carbon dioxide uptake and storage are discussed.

Galhotra, Pragati

127

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOEpatents

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20

128

Carbon dioxide transport over complex terrain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nocturnal transport of carbon dioxide over complex terrain was investigated. The high carbon dioxide under very stable conditions flows to local low-ground. The regional drainage flow dominates the carbon dioxide transport at the 6 m above the ground and carbon dioxide was transported to the regional low ground. The results show that the local drainage flow was sensitive to turbulent mixing associated with local wind shear.

Sun, J.; Burns, S.P.; Delany, A.C.; Oncley, S.P.; Turnipseed, A.; Stephens, B.; Guenther, A.; Anderson, D.E.; Monson, R.

2004-01-01

129

An alpine treeline in a carbon dioxide-rich world: synthesis of a nine-year free-air carbon dioxide enrichment study.  

PubMed

We evaluated the impacts of elevated CO2 in a treeline ecosystem in the Swiss Alps in a 9-year free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study. We present new data and synthesize plant and soil results from the entire experimental period. Light-saturated photosynthesis (A max) of ca. 35-year-old Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata was stimulated by elevated CO2 throughout the experiment. Slight down-regulation of photosynthesis in Pinus was consistent with starch accumulation in needle tissue. Above-ground growth responses differed between tree species, with a 33 % mean annual stimulation in Larix but no response in Pinus. Species-specific CO2 responses also occurred for abundant dwarf shrub species in the understorey, where Vaccinium myrtillus showed a sustained shoot growth enhancement (+11 %) that was not apparent for Vaccinium gaultherioides or Empetrum hermaphroditum. Below ground, CO2 enrichment did not stimulate fine root or mycorrhizal mycelium growth, but increased CO2 effluxes from the soil (+24 %) indicated that enhanced C assimilation was partially offset by greater respiratory losses. The dissolved organic C (DOC) concentration in soil solutions was consistently higher under elevated CO2 (+14 %), suggesting accelerated soil organic matter turnover. CO2 enrichment hardly affected the C-N balance in plants and soil, with unaltered soil total or mineral N concentrations and little impact on plant leaf N concentration or the stable N isotope ratio. Sustained differences in plant species growth responses suggest future shifts in species composition with atmospheric change. Consistently increased C fixation, soil respiration and DOC production over 9 years of CO2 enrichment provide clear evidence for accelerated C cycling with no apparent consequences on the N cycle in this treeline ecosystem. PMID:23340765

Dawes, Melissa A; Hagedorn, Frank; Handa, Ira Tanya; Streit, Kathrin; Ekblad, Alf; Rixen, Christian; Körner, Christian; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

2013-03-01

130

7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve,  

E-print Network

7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve, shown to the left, shows the variation in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1958-1974. It is based on continuous measurements taken of rapidly increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working

131

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW  

E-print Network

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1 1 Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, USA Purdue University, March 1rst, 2013 SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12 (North Sea). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated

Santos, Juan

132

21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2 , CAS Reg....

2014-04-01

133

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW  

E-print Network

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

Santos, Juan

134

2, 18491865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in  

E-print Network

BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern Poland L. Chmura et al. Title Page Abstract is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 1849 #12;BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern urban environment with numerous local sources of carbon dioxide. Despite of relative proximity of those

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Carbon Dioxide - Sources and Sinks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, students use a chemical indicator (bromothymol blue) to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in animal and plant respiration and in the burning of fossil fuels and its absence in the products of plant photosynthesis. After completing the five parts of this activity, students compare the colors of the chemical indicator in each part and interpret the results in terms of the qualitative importance of carbon sinks and sources.

Windows to the Universe

136

Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

Winkel, Brian

2012-01-01

137

A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles  

E-print Network

A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles S.M. Liaoa) of transcritical carbon dioxide air-conditioning cycles. The analysis shows that the COP of the transcritical carbon dioxide cycle varies nonmonotonically with the heat rejection pressure; a maximum COP occurs

Zhao, Tianshou

138

Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability  

E-print Network

Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability A) to highlight the importance of convective mixing in inducing anomalous air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (2007), Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability

Follows, Mick

139

Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.  

PubMed

Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ? 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (? 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

2014-02-18

140

In situ measurements of carbon dioxide in the winter Arctic vortex and at midlatitudes: An indicator of the age of stratospheric air  

SciTech Connect

The authors report measurements of the vertical distribution of the carbon dioxide mixing ratio in the lower and middle stratosphere. They were performed during a series of balloon flights over midlatitudes (44{degree}N) during different seasons and over high latitudes (68{degree}N) during winter in the time period from 1982 until 1990. CO{sub 2} was gas chromatographically determined in air samples collected by means of cryogenic whole-air samplers. The annual increase of the CO{sub 2} content of the mid-stratospheric air is comparable to the temporal CO{sub 2} trend in the troposphere. However, the stratospheric concentrations are lagging the tropospheric ones by a mean delay time of 5.6 {plus minus} 1.1 years. This delay time may be interpreted as the age of stratospheric air masses. It is determined by the efficiency of the transport processes that mix tropospheric air into the stratosphere. The CO{sub 2} observations during the last decade suggest that these processes have varied systematically with a time period of 3 to 5 years. A rather low age of 2.3 {plus minus} 0.3 years was derived from the most recent observations over midlatitudes in summer 1989 as well as in the Arctic region during the CHEOPS III Campaign in winter 1989/90.

Schmidt, U.; Khedim, A. (Forschungszentrum Juelich (West Germany))

1991-04-01

141

Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

2014-11-04

142

Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

2012-01-01

143

Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2011-01-01

144

Detectability and significance of 12 hr barometric tide in radon-222 signal, dripwater flow rate, air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration in an underground tunnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searching for small periodic signals, such as the 12 hr (S2) barometric tide, and monitoring their amplitude as a function of time, can provide important clues on the complex processes affecting fluid transport in unsaturated fractured media under multiple influences. Here, first, we show that a modified spectrogram analysis (MSA) is more efficient than simple Fourier transform to reveal weak periodic signals. Secondly, we show how transient periodic signals can be monitored as a function of time using spectrograms. These methods are applied to time-series of radon and carbon dioxide concentration, dripwater flow rates and air temperature measured during several years in the Roselend dead-end tunnel, located in the French Alps near an artificial lake. A weak S2 line is evidenced in radon concentration, with enhanced amplitude during transient radon bursts. Similarly, the S2 line is observed using MSA in dripwater flow rates which sample mainly fracture flow, as suggested by a hydrochemical analysis, while it is not seen in dripwater flow rates sampling matrix flow. In the absence of a strong 24 hr line, the presence of a S2 line suggests sensitivity to barometric pressure, and thus a significant advective contribution in radon and some dripwater transport. No S2 line is observed in the carbon dioxide time-series. The temporal structure of the S2 component, however, is not similar in the radon concentration and the dripwater flow rates, suggesting, in particular, that dripwater does not play a significant role in the generation of radon bursts. Temperature time-series exhibit a significant S2 contribution, induced by atmospheric pressure, spatially organised in the tunnel, decreasing vertically upwards. A remarkable transient temperature inversion during radon bursts suggests that the additional advective air contributions responsible for the radon bursts occur from the non-saturated rocks below the tunnel.

Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frédéric; Pili, Eric; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe

2009-03-01

145

Synthesis of fluoropolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The authors` research is focus on the synthesis of fluopolymers is supercritical carbon dioxide. The authors reported earlier the successful homogenous free radical polymerization of a series of highly fluorinated acrylic type monomers in supercritical carbon dioxide. Now it is found that a highly fluorinated styrenic polymer also exhibits very high solubility in carbon dioxide. The fluorinated styrenic polymer was synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide using homogenous free radical polymerization and was characterized by {sup 1}HNMR, FTIR etc. Some semicrystalline fluoropolymers were also synthesized in supercritical carbon but the polymerization were heterogenous under the condition used. Various conventional nonfluorinated monomers were copolymerized with the fluorinated monomers and the copolymerizations were homogenous at very high nonfluorinated monomer feed ratio. The incorporation of nonfluorinated units onto the fluoropolymer chains increases their solubility greatly in organic solvents. The polymers synthesized in carbon dioxide will be furtherly characterized and the authors will continue the efforts on synthesizing polymers using carbon dioxide as polymerization medium.

Guan, Z.; Combes, J.R.; Elsbernd, C.S.; DeSimone, J.M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1993-12-31

146

in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean  

E-print Network

in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes College, London, UK Abstract. We analyze the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM), known to impact the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide, is also

Marshall, John

147

Management practices affects soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural practices contribute about 25% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Soil can act both as sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide fixed in plant biomass through photosynthesis can be stored in soil as organi...

148

Enhanced carbon dioxide adsorption through carbon nanoscrolls.  

PubMed

Over the last few years, significant efforts have been devoted to exploring the capabilities of carbon based structures for gas separation and filtration. In the present study the layering behavior of carbon dioxide transported through carbon nanoscrolls is examined through molecular dynamics simulations. The layering arrangements are investigated for carbon nanoscrolls with intralayer distances spanning from 4.2 to 8.3 Å at temperature of 300 K and pressures ranging from 5 to 20 bars. Characteristic layering structures are developed around the internal and external surfaces of the nanoscroll for all the examined cases. It is shown that the number of layers, their relative strength, and the starting point of bifurcation phenomena vary as a function of the nanoscrolls' intralayer distance, scroll's core radius, CO2 density, and gas structure interactions. It is also shown that the number of carbon dioxide molecules adsorbed per scroll's carbon particles is a function of the scroll's surface-to-volume ratio and is maximized under certain structural configurations. PMID:22304187

Mantzalis, Dimitrios; Asproulis, Nikolaos; Drikakis, Dimitris

2011-12-01

149

Carbon dioxide measurements in the stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass spectrometer experiment for the analysis of minor constituents in the stratosphere has been flown successfully four times from Palestine, Texas on board a balloon gondola. The carbon dioxide mixing ratio, which shows unexpectedly large variations in the stratosphere, reached 400 ppm in one particular night flight. This is about 20% higher than the ground value. Evidence is presented that the experiment performed well during each of the balloon flights. The isotopic ratio C-12/C-13 was measured and found in good agreement with previous air analyses showing a depletion of C-13.

Mauersberger, K.; Finstad, R.

1980-01-01

150

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

E-print Network

- 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

151

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity measuring the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in carbonated water at different temperatures. The amount of carbon dioxide is measured by the amount of dilute ammonia solution needed to produce a pH indicator color change. (PR)

Bush, Pat; And Others

1992-01-01

152

Carbon Cycle: Exchanging Carbon Dioxide between the Atmosphere and Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab investigates the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the ocean's surface. It is based on the fact that carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean and provides the source of that plants and plankton living in the ocean rely on for photosynthesis. Students will discover that the amount of carbon dioxide the ocean can contain depends on the temperature of the water and its salinity (whether it is sea water or fresh water) and that cold water can hold more carbon dioxide in solution than warm water. They will observe that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid which makes the water acidic, and they will test for the acidity caused by the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide using Universal Indicator, which turns yellow when the solution is acidic. This activity tests whether sea water or fresh water absorbs more carbon dioxide.

153

Climate models should include carbon dioxide increases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The specific impacts of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Australian summer were examined. It was found that plant response to increased carbon dioxide influences atmospheric temperatures and the climate in ways that are not currently captured by climate models. The authors suggest that local and global climate models should include a measure of vegetation response to natural and man-made carbon dioxide increases to accurately account for biospheric feedback.

Narisma et al.

154

Sequestering Naturally Occurring Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Deep Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid carbon dioxide has been found as shallow as 1,500 meters in seafloor ooze. Did the liquid carbon dioxide originate from volcanic activity? Or did bacteria convert organic matter, which started as atmospheric carbon dioxide, into methane and liquid carbon dioxide? At typical ocean temperatures carbon dioxide coming out of solution below 600 meters will be liquid. Therefore, one likely

M. E. Capron

2008-01-01

155

Capture of green-house carbon dioxide in Portland cement  

SciTech Connect

A novel process has been developed to sequester green-house carbon dioxide produced by the cement industry in precast cement products. Typically, 10--24 wt % of CO{sub 2} produced by calcination of calcium carbonate during clinkering of the cement may be captured. The carbonation process also cures the cement paste within minutes into hard bodies. The process maintains high pH conditions during curing, to allow conventional steel reinforcement of concrete. The process will save time and money to the cement industry, and at the same time, help them to comply with the Clean Air Act by sequestering the green-house carbon dioxide.

Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.; Knox, L.

1993-12-31

156

Development and Validation of a Novel Gas Analyzer for Simultaneous Measurements of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in Ambient Air at 20 Hz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane has increased significantly with human population levels. Pre-1750 ice core data indicates that pre- industrialization levels were about 700 ppbv, while current levels are over 1750 ppbv. In current budget estimates of atmospheric methane, major contributors include both natural (wetlands) and anthropogenic sources (energy, landfills, ruminants, biomass burning, rice agriculture). The strengths of these sources vary spatially and temporally. Estimates of emissions from wetlands are also uncertain due to the extreme variability of these ecosystems. Because methane lifetime is relatively long (8.4 years), atmospheric variations in concentration are small and accuracy in measurement is important for understanding spatial and temporal variability. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane rose sharply in 2007. Global CO2 climbed by 0.6 percent, or 19 billion tons, in 2007. Methane increased by 27 million tons after nearly a decade with little or no increase. Atmospheric CO2 levels currently stand at 385 ppmv, or about 38 percent higher than pre- industrial levels and the rise in CO2 concentrations has been accelerating since the 1980s when annual increases were around 1.5 ppm per year. Last year the increase was 2.4 ppm. We report on the development, application and independent performance characterization of a novel gas analyzer based on cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The Analyzer provides simultaneous measurements of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor in ambient air in the field for applications that require high data rates (eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that are ten times typical ambient levels or higher) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Analyzer provides continuous measurements at data rates up to 20 Hz and with replicate precision of 1 ppbv for methane (1 second measurement time), 0.2 ppmv for carbon dioxide (1 second measurement time) and 100 ppmv for water vapor (1 second measurement time). The stability of the instrument allows for reliable averaging over longer periods for applications that require even higher accuracy and precision.

Gupta, M.; Owano, T.; Fellers, R.; Dong, F.; Baer, D.

2008-12-01

157

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01

158

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2012-07-01

159

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2010-07-01

160

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2013-07-01

161

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2011-07-01

162

The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse: Is It Effective?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows students to compare the thermal properties of carbon dioxide with those of air, and can be extended to compare water vapor as well. Students discover that the gas which absorbs the most heat (infrared radiation) is the most effective greenhouse gas because in the atmosphere it would absorb more infrared coming from the surface of the Earth. This activity could be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory activity depending on the availability of equipment. Either a data logger is used to record the changing temperature of air and of carbon dioxide in plastic bottles as they are heated using electric lamps, and then allowed to cool, or if a data logger is not available, then thermometers can be used instead and monitored by students. The site contains teacher notes and instructions with a list of materials and a photograph showing the setup. It also has an introduction for the students and questions for them to answer along with a glossary.

163

Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form  

SciTech Connect

Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Auxon Corp., (United States)

1995-12-31

164

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2013-10-01

165

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2012-10-01

166

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2014-10-01

167

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2014-10-01

168

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2012-10-01

169

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

170

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2012-04-01

171

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

172

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

173

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

174

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

175

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

176

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

177

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

178

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

179

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2013-10-01

180

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

181

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

182

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

183

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2012-07-01

184

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2010-04-01

185

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2014-07-01

186

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

187

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2013-07-01

188

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2010-07-01

189

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2012-07-01

190

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2014-10-01

191

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

2011-07-01

192

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

193

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2014-01-01

194

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

2011-10-01

195

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2013-01-01

196

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2014-07-01

197

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

2013-07-01

198

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2012-01-01

199

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2013-10-01

200

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2012-07-01

201

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2014-04-01

202

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2010-04-01

203

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

204

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2012-07-01

205

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

206

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2013-07-01

207

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2010-10-01

208

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2012-04-01

209

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2013-07-01

210

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2013-07-01

211

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

2010-10-01

212

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2014-07-01

213

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

214

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

2010-07-01

215

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2013-07-01

216

46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

2012-10-01

217

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2011-07-01

218

Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide-Based Industrial Laundry Machine  

E-print Network

Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide- Based Industrial Laundry Machine Industrial developed a commercial prototype supercritical carbon dioxide-based laundry system acceptance, the technical and commercial feasibility of a supercritical-carbon dioxide textile

219

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2012-10-01

220

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2011-07-01

221

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2014-04-01

222

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2010-01-01

223

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

224

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

2012-07-01

225

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

226

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2011-10-01

227

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2011-04-01

228

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2014-07-01

229

46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking:...

2011-10-01

230

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2010-07-01

231

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2011-04-01

232

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

233

46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

2013-10-01

234

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2012-04-01

235

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

236

46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

2014-10-01

237

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2014-07-01

238

46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking:...

2010-10-01

239

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

240

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

241

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2012-07-01

242

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2011-01-01

243

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2011-10-01

244

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2010-10-01

245

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2010-04-01

246

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2011-10-01

247

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device...

2011-04-01

248

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device...

2010-04-01

249

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device...

2011-04-01

250

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2011-04-01

251

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2010-10-01

252

Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Cultured Animal Cells  

E-print Network

Dioxide Fixation Iii Effects of Olucose 15 Effects of Tryptophan « • 17 Effects of Insulin 18 Effects of Glucagon and Catecholamines 19 Effects of Glucocorticoids « • • • 20 Other Metabolic Pathways 25 Carbon Dioxide Fixing Enzymes 26 Beta-Me thyl... phosphate (101) to catalyze the formation of PEP from pyruvate. Oluconeogenesis will be discussed under the following headings* control of gluconeogenesis; gluconeogenesis and carbon dioxide fixation; effects of glucose, tryptophan, insulin, glucagon...

Kyner, David Smith

1969-01-01

253

Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

Gerald E. Marsh

2010-02-11

254

CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE IN PENNSYLVANIA PASTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global warming, caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, is increasingly being recognized as a concern for the wellbeing of the planet. Agricultural practices that increase carbon dioxide storage in soil organ...

255

Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Synthesis of Erythromycin  

PubMed Central

Erythromycin synthesis was markedly impaired in submerged cultures under high carbon dioxide tensions. Growth of Streptomyces erythreus, however, was unaltered by increased carbon dioxide. PMID:4462468

Nash, Claude H.

1974-01-01

256

DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN MULTI-PLANT CHEMICAL........................................................ 8 C. Carbon Dioxide ­ A Greenhouse Gas................................................ 9 1. Sources

Pike, Ralph W.

257

Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

Vericella, John J.; Baker, Sarah E.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Duoss, Eric B.; Hardin, James O.; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C.; Valdez, Carlos A.; Smith, William L.; Satcher, Joe H.; Bourcier, William L.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Aines, Roger D.

2015-02-01

258

Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.  

PubMed

Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture. PMID:25652243

Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

2015-01-01

259

Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

2003-11-01

260

Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxes levied on the carbon content of fuels (carbon taxes) are being considered in many OECD countries as a possible policy instrument to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper first reviews the policy response in Member countries to the threat of global warming. It then discusses the link between carbon emission intensities and current energy prices, touching also on the

Peter Hoeller; Markku Wallin

1991-01-01

261

How Is Carbon Dioxide Measured?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this textbook chapter, scientists studying the concentration of becomes CO² in the atmosphere are profiled. The techniques for measuring and recording carbon dioxide concentrations at the Mauna Loa Observatory are described. A link to a video clip of an interview with NOAA scientist Dr. Pieter Tans is included. This is the fifth chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource includes three classroom investigations, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre and post unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. The resource is part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

262

Electrochemical processing of carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

With respect to the negative role of carbon dioxide on our climate, it is clear that the time is ripe for the development of processes that convert CO(2) into useful products. The electroreduction of CO(2) is a prime candidate here, as the reaction at near-ambient conditions can yield organics such as formic acid, methanol, and methane. Recent laboratory work on the 100 A scale has shown that reduction of CO(2) to formate (HCO(2)(-)) may be carried out in a trickle-bed continuous electrochemical reactor under industrially viable conditions. Presuming the problems of cathode stability and formate crossover can be overcome, this type of reactor is proposed as the basis for a commercial operation. The viability of corresponding processes for electrosynthesis of formate salts and/or formic acid from CO(2) is examined here through conceptual flowsheets for two process options, each converting CO(2) at the rate of 100 tonnes per day. PMID:18702129

Oloman, Colin; Li, Hui

2008-01-01

263

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOEpatents

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14

264

Optimal carbon dioxide application for organ protection in cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cardiac surgery is associated with an important risk of central or peripheral organ damage, attributed in part to air embolism from incompletely deaired cardiac chambers. Insufflation of carbon dioxide into the thoracic cavity is widely used for organ protection in cardiac surgery. Methods: In patients operated on through a sternotomy, the gas was insufflated through a standard cardioplegia line

S. Martens; M. Dietrich; G. Wimmer-Greinecker; A. Moritz

2002-01-01

265

The role of carbon dioxide in ammonia emission from manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems, and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between carbon dioxide emission, manure pH, a...

266

A new look at atmospheric carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere and is of considerable concern in global climate change because of its greenhouse gas warming potential. The rate of increase has accelerated since measurements began at Mauna Loa Observatory in 1958 where carbon dioxide increased from less than 1 part per million per year (ppm yr -1) prior to 1970 to more than 2 ppm yr -1 in recent years. Here we show that the anthropogenic component (atmospheric value reduced by the pre-industrial value of 280 ppm) of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been increasing exponentially with a doubling time of about 30 years since the beginning of the industrial revolution (˜1800). Even during the 1970s, when fossil fuel emissions dropped sharply in response to the "oil crisis" of 1973, the anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide level continued increasing exponentially at Mauna Loa Observatory. Since the growth rate (time derivative) of an exponential has the same characteristic lifetime as the function itself, the carbon dioxide growth rate is also doubling at the same rate. This explains the observation that the linear growth rate of carbon dioxide has more than doubled in the past 40 years. The accelerating growth rate is simply the outcome of exponential growth in carbon dioxide with a nearly constant doubling time of about 30 years (about 2%/yr) and appears to have tracked human population since the pre-industrial era.

Hofmann, David J.; Butler, James H.; Tans, Pieter P.

267

Chemical composition and digestibility of Trifolium exposed to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free-air (FACE) fumigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) are significant drivers of plant growth and chemical composition. We hypothesized that exposure to elevated con- centrations of O 3 and CO 2 , singly and in combination, would modify the chemical com- position of Trifolium and thus alter its digestibility and nutritive quality for ruminant herbivores.

R. B. MUNTIFERING; A. H. CHAPPELKA; J. C. LIN; D. F. KARNOSKY; G. L. SOMERS

2006-01-01

268

Carbon dioxide uptake by an undisturbed tropical rain forest in southwest Amazonia, 1992 to 1993  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of carbon dioxide flux over undisturbed tropical rain forest in Brazil for 55 days in the wet and dry seasons of 1992 to 1993 show that this ecosystem is a net absorber of carbon dioxide. Photosynthetic gains of carbon dioxide exceeded respiratory losses irrespective of the season. These gains cannot be attributed to measurement error, nor to loss of carbon dioxide by drainage of cold air at night. A process-based model, fitted to the data, enabled estimation of the carbon absorbed by the ecosystem over the year as 8.5 {plus_minus} 2.0 moles per square meter per year. 27 refs., 4 figs.

Grace, J.; McIntyre, J.; Meir, P. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-11-03

269

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

270

New Trends In Carbon Dioxide Laser Microsurgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon dioxide laser has been used for cutting and cauterizing tissue in a variety of surgical procedures by means of a dry-field air/tissue interface approach. Recently, a new wet-field CO2 laser technique has been developed and is being used successfully in humans to seal intraocular fibrovascular fronds and retinal tears at the time of vitrectomy, to close rubeotic vessels in the iris, and to excise fibrovascular fronds and epiretinal membranes in cases of severe diabetic retinopathy. Specialized wet-field CO2 photosurgical probes for use in gynecologic microsurgery have been developed and are being studied experimentally. Other potential applications include otolaryngologic micro-surgery, neurosurgery, and gastrointestinal and urologic wet-field surgery.

Smith, M. R.; Miller, James B.

1981-05-01

271

Air quality at Santiago, Chile: a box modeling approach—I. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient monitored data at Santiago, Chile, are analyzed using box models with the goal of assessing contributions of different economic activities to air pollution levels. The period analyzed is 1990-2000, characterized by the introduction of air pollution emissions standards, shift to unleaded gasoline and compressed natural gas, and steady growth of the private and public fleet and the associated fuel consumption growth. The box models explicitly include the seasonal behavior of meteorological variables; the results show that dispersion conditions in fall and winter seasons are 20-30% of the summertime values. This result explains the poor air quality in those seasons and shows that significant emissions reductions are required in order to improve air quality in wintertime. Emissions of CO, NO x and SO 2 are estimated from data on fuel consumption in the city; the estimated parameters are thus fleet-average or industry-average emission factors. In terms of contributions to ambient concentrations, older cars and diesel vehicles are the major contributors to CO and NO x impacts, with more than 60% and 50%, respectively. Ambient concentrations of SO 2 are largely dominated by stationary sources, although long range contributions are not negligible. By contrast, CO and NO x pollution is dominated by local sources within the city boundaries. The box models can be used for forecasting purposes, and they can predict annual average concentrations within 20% of the observed values. The methodology requires data on ambient air quality measurements and fuel consumption statistics, and produces quantitative results, which can be combined with economic models to analyze environmental regulation and public policies.

Jorquera, Héctor

272

Silver oxide sorbent for carbon dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Material can be regenerated at least 20 times by heating at 250 C. Sorbent is compatible with environment of high humidity; up to 20% by weight of carbon dioxide can be absorbed. Material is prepared from silver carbonate, potassium hydroxide or carbonate, and sodium silicate.

Colombo, G. V.

1974-01-01

273

LIFETIME OF EXCESS ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

We explore the effects of a changing terrestrial biosphere on the atmospheric residende time of carbon dioxide using three simple ocean carbon cycling models and a model of global terrestrial carbon cycling. e find differences in model behavior associated with the assumption of a...

274

Global Deforestation: Contribution to Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1860 and 1980 was between 135 × 1015 and 228 × 1015 grams. Between 1.8 × 1015 and 4.7 × 1015 grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

275

Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications  

DOEpatents

A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

2004-06-08

276

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01

277

Historical and present developments of ejector refrigeration systems with emphasis on transcritical carbon dioxide air-conditioning applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of historical and present developments on how ejectors can be utilized to improve the performance of air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. Research on ejector refrigeration cycles that utilize low-grade energy sources to produce cooling is summarized. Another major class of ejector refrigeration cycles that is described tries to recover expansion work by means of a two-phase

Stefan Elbel

2011-01-01

278

Growth and yield response of field-grown tropical rice to increasing carbon dioxide and air temperature  

SciTech Connect

Although the response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and air temperature has been examined at the greenhouse or growth chamber level, no field studies have been conducted under the tropical, irrigated conditions where the bulk of the world`s rice is grown. At the International Rice Research Institute, rice (cv. IR 72) was grown from germination until maturity for the 1994 wet and 1995 dry seasons at three different CO{sub 2} concentrations (ambient, ambient + 200, and ambient + 300 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) resulted in a significant increase in total plant biomass (+31%, +40%) and crop yield (+15%, + 27%) compared with the ambient control. The increase in crop yield was associated with an increase in the number of panicles per square meter and a greater percentage of filled spikelets. Simultaneous increases in CO{sub 2} and air temperature did not alter the biomass at maturity (relative to elevated CO{sub 2} alone), but plant development was accelerated at the higher growth temperature regardless of CO{sub 2} concentration. Grain yield, however, became insensitive to CO{sub 2} concentration at the higher growth temperature. Increasing both CO{sub 2} and air temperature also reduced grain quality (e.g., protein content). The combination of CO{sub 2} and temperature effects suggests that, in warmer regions (i.e., >34{degrees}C) where rice is grown, quantitative and qualitative changes in rice supply are possible if both CO{sub 2} and air temperature continue to increase. 24 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Ziska, L.H. [USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States); Namuco, O.; Moya, T.; Quilang, J. [International Rice Research Inst., Manila (Philippines)

1997-01-01

279

Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of carbon balance of boreal ecosystems in the southern taiga of European Russia have been conducted using eddy covariance technique starting from 1998 to the present. The method allows to continuously collect net ecosystem exchange (NEE) fluxes of water and heat between forest and atmosphere with high time resolution. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric meteorological parameters are carried out. The studies have been conducted in the Tver Region, Russia (Central Forest Biosphere Nature Reserve, 56N, 33E) using a 29 m high tower in low-productive wet spruce forest (P. Sphagnum forest, WSF), a 44 m high tower in high- productive complex spruce forest (CSF) and under the surface of ombrotrophic bog. Eddy flux measurements during limited time intervals are supplemented by measurements of soil, leaves and trunks respiration. Observations of decomposition speed of organic material and the rating NPP are conducted as well. In general, the measurements period has captured a wide range of changes of climatic conditions. Years with extreme dry and damp vegetative seasons and years with close to average climatic conditions for this region fall into the period of observations. The results of our measurements show that unmanaged uneven-aged spruce forests can be both source and sink of carbon to the atmosphere depending on the type of forest and weather conditions. Soil respiration as a result of decomposition of the abundant dead surface- and underground biomass determines the sign and absolute mean of the carbon balance. The overall annual balance of carbon of the studied forest ecosystems differs from zero. The cumulative total of the NEE fluxes for the period of April to October depends first of all on spring temperature and precipitation with temperature being within the range of 5-10C and on the duration of this period. For the period of active vegetation, when air temperature is higher than 10C - the NEE flux depends on humidity. We found significant seasonal and interannual variability of carbon dioxide fluxes for the ombrotrophic bog. The sign and the mean of carbon dioxide fluxes between the surface of the bog and the atmosphere depend on humidity conditions during the green season. When the water balance is negative the ombotrophic bog becomes a source of carbon for the atmosphere.

Kurbatova, J.; Varlagin, A.; Vygodskaya, N.

2007-12-01

280

Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from flask measurements at Lampedusa Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air samples from Lampedusa Island, located south of Sicily in the Mediterranean sea, were collected weekly from May 1992 through December 2000 and analyzed for carbon dioxide content. "On the basis of annual averages calculated from monthly averages, CO2 levels at Lampedusa Island have risen from 360.80 in 1993 to 371.27 in 2000. The data show an average trend of +1.5 ppmv/y." The data from the study, newly available this month from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), include a plot of mean carbon dioxide concentration (ppmv) against time and a text table of the annual mean values. Methods, notes, and references are also provided.

Chamard, Paolo.

2001-01-01

281

Innovative polymer processing in carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide was used as the solvent in two innovative polymer processes, the preparation of energetic polymers and a Viton based pyrotechnic. The energetic polymer prepared was poly-3-nitratomethyl-3-methyl oxetane and the pyrotechnic was a magnesium, Teflon and Viton (MTV) crumb. Liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) at 140 atm and 0°C replaces methylene chloride as the solvent in the two step energetic

R. E. Farncomb; G. W. Nauflett

1998-01-01

282

Climate and Carbon Dioxide: Analyzing Their Relationship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this activity, students learn about atmospheric carbon dioxide and its role in the greenhouse effect. They can identify the leading producers of carbon dioxide emissions and read about the global climate conference that was held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 to set international limits on these emissions. The material provides information to increase students' understanding of the implications and processes of possible changes in the world's climate.

2002-01-01

283

Two stage carbon dioxide and methane separation  

SciTech Connect

Arco's process separates and recovers ethane from a carbon dioxide-ethane stream produced during natural gas processing. After methane separation, some of the ethane follows the carbon dioxide stream because the two compounds form an azeotrope. The process separates the two by means of two distillation columns operated at pressures that differ by at least 150 psia. This pressure difference shifts the azeotropic point enough to allow the separation.

Styring, R.E. Jr.

1982-09-28

284

System design and analysis of the trans-critical carbon-dioxide automotive air-conditioning system.  

PubMed

As an environmentally harmless and feasible alternate refrigerant, CO2 has attracted worldwide attention, especially in the area of automobile air-conditioning (AAC). The thermal property of CO2 and its trans-critical refrigeration cycle is very different from that of the traditional CFC or HCFC system. The detailed process of CO2 system thermal cycle design and optimization is described in this paper. System prototype and performance test bench were developed to analyze the performance of the CO2 AAC system. PMID:12765284

Mu, Jing-Yang; Chen, Jiang-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Jiu

2003-01-01

285

A correlation of optimal heat rejection pressures in transcritical carbon dioxide cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a cycle simulation model has been developed to optimize the coefficient of performance (COP) of transcritical carbon dioxide air-conditioning cycles. The analysis shows that the COP of the transcritical carbon dioxide cycle varies nonmonotonically with the heat rejection pressure; a maximum COP occurs at an optimal heat rejection pressure. It is further revealed that the values of

S. M. Liao; T. S. Zhao; A. Jakobsen

2000-01-01

286

Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

2003-01-01

287

Dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics and air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes during coccolithophore blooms in the northwest European continental margin (northern Bay of Biscay)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a data set of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) obtained during three cruises in the northern Bay of Biscay carried out in June 2006, May 2007, and May 2008. During these cruises, blooms of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi occurred, as indicated by patches of high reflectance on remote sensing images, phytoplankton pigment signatures, and microscopic examinations. Total alkalinity showed a nonconservative behavior as a function of salinity due to the cumulative effect of net community calcification (NCC) on seawater carbonate chemistry during bloom development. The cumulative effect of NCC and net community production (NCP) on DIC and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were evaluated. The decrease of DIC (and increase of pCO2) due to NCC was overwhelmingly lower than the decrease of DIC (and decrease of pCO2) due to NCP (NCC:NCP ? 1). During the cruises, the northern Bay of Biscay acted as a sink of atmospheric CO2 (on average ˜-9.7 mmol C m-2 d-1 for the three cruises). The overall effect of NCC in decreasing the CO2 sink during the cruises was low (on average ˜12% of total air-sea CO2 flux). If this is a general feature in naturally occurring phytoplankton blooms in the North Atlantic Ocean (where blooms of coccolithophores are the most intense and recurrent), and in the global ocean, then the potential feedback on increasing atmospheric CO2 of the projected decrease of pelagic calcification due to thermodynamic CO2 "production" from calcification is probably minor compared to potential feedbacks related to changes of NCP.

Suykens, K.; Delille, B.; Chou, L.; de Bodt, C.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.

2010-09-01

288

Dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics and air-sea carbon dioxide fluxes during coccolithophorid blooms in the Northeast European continental margin (northern Bay of Biscay)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a data-set of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) obtained during three cruises in the northern Bay of Biscay carried out in June 2006, May 2007, and May 2008. During these cruises, blooms of coccolithophores occurred, as indicated by patches of high reflectance on remote sensing images, phytoplankton pigment signatures, and microscopic examinations. Total alkalinity (TA) showed a non-conservative behaviour as a function of salinity due to the cumulated effect of net community calcification (NCC) during bloom development on seawater carbonate chemistry. The cumulated impact of NCC and net community production (NCP) on DIC and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were evaluated. The decrease of DIC (and increase of pCO2) due to NCC was overwhelmingly lower than the decrease of DIC (and decrease of pCO2) due to NCP (NCC:NCP << 1). During the cruises, the northern Bay of Biscay acted as a sink of atmospheric CO2 (on average ~-9.7 mmol C m-2 d-1 for the 3 cruises). The overall effect of NCC in decreasing the CO2 sink during the cruises was low (on average ~12% of total air-sea CO2 flux). If this is a general feature in naturally occurring phytoplankton blooms in the northern North Atlantic Ocean (where coccolithophorid blooms are the most intense and recurrent), and in the global ocean, then the potential feed-back on increasing atmospheric CO2 of the projected decrease of pelagic calcification due to thermodynamic CO2 "production" from calcification is probably minor compared to feed-backs related to changes of NCP.

Suykens, Kim; Delille, Bruno; Chou, Lei; de Bodt, Caroline; Harlay, Jérôme; Borges, Alberto V.

2010-05-01

289

Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita  

E-print Network

65 Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita Kinda Somlanare Romuald Abstract dioxide emissions around the world, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide emissions growth, there is no convergence, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide growth. In developed countries, we find

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Context and renewal of conditioned fear: an experimental evaluation using 20% carbon dioxide-enriched air as an unconditioned stimulus.  

PubMed

This analogue experiment used fear conditioning and extinction procedures to establish and reduce fearful responding and then test for fear renewal following a context change. Healthy undergraduates (N=61) underwent a differential fear conditioning procedure using geometric shapes as conditioned stimuli (CS) and inhalations of 20% CO(2)-enriched air as an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). Across phases (i.e., habituation, acquisition, extinction, and test), red and green ambient lighting served as contextual stimuli, and electrodermal and evaluative ratings were assessed as indices of conditioned fear. The control group underwent extinction and test phases under identical conditions (i.e., no context changes). The experimental groups either underwent acquisition and test phases in one context and the intervening extinction phase in a different context (A-B-A), or underwent acquisition and extinction phases in one context and the test phase in a novel context (A-A-B). Consistent with expectation, fear renewal was observed when the test context matched the acquisition context. This effect was modest for electrodermal responses, but reasonably robust for evaluative responses. The role of context in the subsequent renewal of fear following exposure-based treatment is discussed. PMID:19342193

Finlay, Carlos G; Forsyth, John P

2009-08-01

291

A Centrifuge-Based Technique for Dry Extraction of Air for Ice Core Studies of Carbon Dioxide.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution CO2 data from the Law Dome ice core document an abrupt ~10 ppm drop in CO2 at about 1600 AD (MacFarling Meure et al., Geophys. Res Lett., v. 33, L14810), which has been attributed to changes in human activities. CO2 measurements in ice cores are difficult, however, making verification of this feature an important task. We are undertaking a high-resolution study of CO2 between 1400 and 1800 AD in the WAIS Divide (Antarctica) ice core with a new dry extraction technique. The need for a dry extraction technique as opposed to a melt-refreeze technique in studies of CO2 from ice cores arises because of the well-documented artifacts in CO2 imposed by the presence of liquid water. Three dry-extraction methods have been employed by previous workers to measure CO2: needle-crushing method, ball-bearings method, and cheese-grater method (B. Stauffer, in: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, p. 1181, Elsevier 2007). Each has limitations, and we propose a simpler dry extraction technique, based on a large-capacity refrigerated centrifuge (the "centrifuge technique"), which eliminates the need to employ cryogenic temperatures to collect extracted gas and is more compatible with high sample throughput. The technique is now being tested on ~25-gram WAIS Divide samples in conjunction with CO2 measurements with a gas chromatograph. The technique employs a Beckman J- 6B centrifuge, in which evacuated stainless steel flask is placed: the flask has a weight inside positioned directly over a tall-standing piece of ice whose cross-section is small compared to that of the flask. Upon acceleration to 3000 rpm the weight moves down and presses the ice sample into a thin tablet covering flask's bottom, yielding the air extraction efficiency of ~80%. Preliminary tests suggest that precision and accuracy can be achieved at the level of ~1 ppm once the system is fine-tuned.

Grachev, A. M.; Brook, E. J.

2008-12-01

292

Turning carbon dioxide into fuel.  

PubMed

Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO2). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies develop, future demands now ensure that energy will be one of the defining issues of this century. This unique set of (coupled) challenges also means that science and engineering have a unique opportunity-and a burgeoning challenge-to apply their understanding to provide sustainable energy solutions. Integrated carbon capture and subsequent sequestration is generally advanced as the most promising option to tackle greenhouse gases in the short to medium term. Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO2, to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. Basically, the approach centres on the concept of the large-scale re-use of CO2 released by human activity to produce synthetic fuels, and how this challenging approach could assume an important role in tackling the issue of global CO2 emissions. We highlight three possible strategies involving CO2 conversion by physico-chemical approaches: sustainable (or renewable) synthetic methanol, syngas production derived from flue gases from coal-, gas- or oil-fired electric power stations, and photochemical production of synthetic fuels. The use of CO2 to synthesize commodity chemicals is covered elsewhere (Arakawa et al. 2001 Chem. Rev. 101, 953-996); this review is focused on the possibilities for the conversion of CO2 to fuels. Although these three prototypical areas differ in their ultimate applications, the underpinning thermodynamic considerations centre on the conversion-and hence the utilization-of CO2. Here, we hope to illustrate that advances in the science and engineering of materials are critical for these new energy technologies, and specific examples are given for all three examples. With sufficient advances, and institutional and political support, such scientific and technological innovations could help to regulate/stabilize the CO2 levels in the atmosphere and thereby extend the use of fossil-fuel-derived feedstocks. PMID:20566515

Jiang, Z; Xiao, T; Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

2010-07-28

293

Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

E-print Network

how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are even higher than the ones from thermo-power plantsHydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy

Fischlin, Andreas

294

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

Scherer, Norbert F.

295

Carbon Dioxide- Where Does it All Go?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will use a diagram of carbon fluxes, which shows the sources that contribute to current atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

296

Where in the World is Carbon Dioxide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part activity has students set up experiments to help them better understand the atmospheric portion of the carbon cycle. From this activity, they will be able to explain the concept of sources and sinks as they relate to carbon dioxide, the use of indicator solution bromothymol blue (BTB) to reveal the presence of carbon dioxide, and the qualitative differences between animal and fossil fuel sources of global carbon dioxide. The student guide has an overall description of all three parts of the activity, lists of materials, the procedure and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

297

Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Methane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A room-temperature electrocatalytic process that effects the overall chemical reaction CO2 + 2H2O yields CH4 + 2O2 has been investigated as a means of removing carbon dioxide from air and restoring oxygen to the air. The process was originally intended for use in a spacecraft life-support system, in which the methane would be vented to outer space. The process may also have potential utility in terrestrial applications in which either or both of the methane and oxygen produced might be utilized or vented to the atmosphere. A typical cell used to implement the process includes a polymer solid-electrolyte membrane, onto which are deposited cathode and anode films. The cathode film is catalytic for electrolytic reduction of CO2 at low overpotential. The anode film is typically made of platinum. When CO2 is circulated past the cathode, water is circulated past the anode, and a suitable potential is applied, the anode half-cell reaction is 4H2O yields 2O2 + 8H(+) + 8e(-). The H(+) ions travel through the membrane to the cathode, where they participate in the half-cell reaction CO2 + 8H(+) + 8e(-) yields CH4 + 2H2O.

Sammells, Anthony F.; Spiegel, Ella F.

2008-01-01

298

Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2010-02-02

299

Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

2005-05-10

300

Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-10

301

Comparison of Global Model Results from the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP) with Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Manipulation Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulation experiments have been carried out at a handful of sites to gauge the response of the biosphere to significant increases in atmospheric [CO{sub 2}]. Early synthesis results from four temperate forest sites suggest that the response of net primary productivity (NPP) is conserved across a broad range of productivity with a stimulation at the median of 23 {+-} 2% when the surrounding air [CO{sub 2}] was raised to 550{approx}ppm. As a part of the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP), a community-based model-data comparison activity, the authors have performed a global FACE modeling experiment using two terrestrial biogeochemistry modules, CLM3-CASA and CLM3-CN, coupled to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The two models were forced with an improved NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set and reconstructed atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] and N deposition data through 1997. At the beginning of 1997 in the transient simulations, global atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] was abruptly raised to 550{approx}ppm, the target value used at the FACE sites. In the control runs, [CO{sub 2}] continued to rise following observations until 2004, after which it was held constant out to year 2100. In both simulations, the last 25 years of reanalysis forcing and a constant N deposition were applied after year 2004. Across all forest biomes, the NPP responses from both models are weaker than those reported for the four FACE sites. Moreover, model responses vary widely geographically with a decreasing trend of NPP increases from 40{sup o}N to 70{sup o}N. For CLM3-CASA, the largest responses occur in arid regions of western North America and central Asia, suggesting that responses are most strongly influenced by increased water use efficiency for this model. CLM3-CN exhibits consistently weaker responses than CLM3-CASA' with the strongest responses in central Asia, but significantly constrained by N limitation. C-LAMP is a sub-project of the Computational Climate Science End Station led by Dr. Warren Washington, using computing resources at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS).

Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Randerson, Jim [University of California, Irvine; Fung, Inez [University of California, Berkeley; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Covey, Curtis [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bonan, Gordon [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Running, Steven [University of Montana, Missoula; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

2008-01-01

302

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.  

PubMed

New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

2014-01-01

303

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture  

PubMed Central

New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

2014-01-01

304

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 CREDIT CanWe Bury GLOBAL WARMING? Pumping carbon dioxide his lungs were carbon dioxide. Each time you draw breath today, 380 mole- cules per million are carbon of this upsurge in the atmosphere's carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration nor the effects that lie ahead as more

O'Donnell, Tom

305

Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya  

E-print Network

Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya Matthew J. Evans Chemistry, 7 figures, 4 tables. Keywords: metamorphic carbon dioxide; Himalaya; hot springs; carbon cycle, M. J., L. A. Derry, and C. France-Lanord (2008), Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from

Derry, Louis A.

306

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10¹⁵ and 228 X 10¹⁵ grams. Between 1.8 X 10¹⁵ and 4.7 X 10¹⁵ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

307

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30

308

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2003-03-10

309

Regenerable immobilized aminosilane sorbents for carbon dioxide capture applications  

SciTech Connect

A method for the separation of carbon dioxide from ambient air and flue gases is provided wherein a phase separating moiety with a second moiety are simultaneously coupled and bonded onto an inert substrate to create a mixture which is subsequently contacted with flue gases or ambient air. The phase-separating moiety is an amine whereas the second moiety is an aminosilane, or a Group 4 propoxide such as titanium (IV) propoxide (tetrapropyl orthotitanate, C.sub.12H.sub.28O.sub.4Ti). The second moiety makes the phase-separating moiety insoluble in the pores of the inert substrate. The new sorbents have a high carbon dioxide loading capacity and considerable stability over hundreds of cycles. The synthesis method is readily scalable for commercial and industrial production.

Gay, McMahan; Choi, Sunho; Jones, Christopher W

2014-09-16

310

Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

2001-01-01

311

Do Plants Really Use Carbon Dioxide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment demonstrates that plants use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Four Teaching Tanks (commercially available, narrow tanks) are filled with water and bromthymol blue indicator, and Elodea plants are added to two of the tanks. Blowing through a straw into each tank dissolves carbon dioxide into the water and turns the indicator yellow. The tanks are sealed with clay, and a pair of tanks—one tank with Elodea and one without—is put in sunlight, while the other pair is put in darkness. After an hour, the tank with Elodea in sunlight will have returned to blue color. Learners can infer that the carbon dioxide in that tank has been used by the Elodea, since the water in "control" tanks remains yellow. Though designed as a demonstration, this activity could be adapted to allow varying degrees of learner hands-on involvement, and higher grade learners could potentially do all the steps without a demonstrator.

2011-08-20

312

Carbon dioxide and methane in the Arctic atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty flask air samples were taken during April 1986 from a NOAA WP-3D Orion aircraft which flew missions across a broad region of the Arctic as part of the second Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP II). The samples were subsequently analyzed for both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The samples were taken in well-defined layers of Arctic

T. J. Conway; L. P. Steele

1989-01-01

313

Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on cotton nutrient dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is predicted to have positive effects on agro?ecosystem productivity. However, an area which requires further study centers on nutrient dynamics of crops grown under elevated CO2 in the field. In 1989 and 1990, cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.) ‘Deltapine 77'] was grown under two CO2 levels [370 umol mol=ambient and 550 ?mol mor=free?air

S. A. Prior; H. A. Torbert; G. B. Runion; G. L. Mullins; H. H. Rogers; J. R. Mauney

1998-01-01

314

Synthesis of fluoropolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Fluoropolymers are used in many technologically demanding applications because of their balance of high-performance properties. A significant impediment to the synthesis of variants of commercially available amorphous fluoropolymers is their general insolubility in most solvents except chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The environmental concerns about CFCs can be circumvented by preparing these technologically important materials in supercritical fluids. The homogeneous solution polymerization of highly fluorinated acrylic monomers can be achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide by using free radical methods. In addition, detailed decomposition rates and efficiency factors were measured for azobisisobutyronitrile in supercritical carbon dioxide and were compared to those obtained with conventional liquid solvents. PMID:17789638

Desimone, J M; Guan, Z; Elsbernd, C S

1992-08-14

315

Carbon dioxide opacity of the Venus' atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus' atmosphere consists of about 95% of carbon dioxide, which accounts for most of the absorption of the radiation emitted by its hot surface. The large densities and high temperatures of Venus' atmosphere make the absorption much more complex than for low density atmospheres such as Earth or Mars. Available experimental data are at present insufficient and theoretical models inadequate to describe complex absorption line shapes and collision-induced phenomena. Here we present a survey of all absorption and scattering processes which influence the transparency of Venus' atmosphere for what concerns carbon dioxide.

Snels, Marcel; Stefani, Stefania; Grassi, Davide; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Adriani, Alberto

2014-11-01

316

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

1983-12-09

317

Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1993-01-01

318

Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1991-01-01

319

40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86...Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of §...

2013-07-01

320

40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86...Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of §...

2012-07-01

321

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

2010-07-01

322

40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86...Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of §...

2010-07-01

323

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

2013-07-01

324

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

2014-07-01

325

40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86...Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of §...

2011-07-01

326

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

2012-07-01

327

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

2011-07-01

328

International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

Knox, James C.

2000-01-01

329

Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records  

E-print Network

Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model of carbon dioxide and the resulting atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide determined from the behavior

Jain, Atul K.

330

Discussion of Refrigeration Cycle Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the problem of the environment goes worse, it urges people to research and study new energy-saving and environment-friendly refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide, at present, people do research on carbon dioxide at home and abroad. This paper introduces the property of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant, sums up and analyses carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles, and points out the development and research direction in the future.

Ji, Amin; Sun, Miming; Li, Jie; Yin, Gang; Cheng, Keyong; Zhen, Bing; Sun, Ying

331

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

EIA Publications

U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its online analysis of 2012 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions today. It indicates U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels were 5,290 million metric tons carbon dioxide in 2012, a decrease of almost 4% from the 2011 level. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have declined in five of the last seven years and are the lowest they have been since 1994.

2014-01-01

332

Carbon dioxide dynamics in an artificial ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental artificial ecosystem was established as a tool to understand the behavior of closed ecosystem and to develop the technology for a future bioregenerative life support system for lunar or planetary exploration. Total effective volume of the system is 0.7 m3 . It consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a photo-bioreactor which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella), respectively. For uniform and sustained observations, lettuce and silkworms was cultivated using sequential cultivation method, and microalgae using continuous culture. Four researchers took turns breathing the system air through a tube for brief periods every few hours. A mathematic model, simulating the carbon dioxide dynamics was developed. The main biological parameters concerning photosynthesis of lettuce and microalgae, respiration of silkworms and human were validated by the experimental data. The model described the respiratory relationship between autotrophic and heterotrophic compartments. A control strategy was proposed as a tool for the atmosphere management of the artificial ecosystem.

Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei; Tong, Ling; Li, Ming; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Liu, Hong

333

Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

2005-01-01

334

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

1998-09-01

335

Spectral estimation of wetland carbon dioxide exchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous measurements of broadband normalized difference vegetation index and net ecosystem production were carried out at Rzecin wetland in 2009. Additionally, carbon fluxes, ecosystem respiration and gross ecosystem production were estimated on the basis of measured net ecosystem production values. The maximum broadband normalized difference vegetation index value (0.73) was measured on the 6th of July. The minimum broadband normalized difference vegetation index value measured before and after the vegetation period was 0.40. The annual dynamics of carbon fluxes and broadband normalized difference vegetation index runs were different from each other. During the second half of vegetation period greenness of plants decreases more slowly than plants carbon dioxide uptake capacity. These differences are likely to be determined by plants aging. The results presented in this paper show potential applicability of broadband normalized difference vegetation index for the estimation of carbon dioxide exchange in wetlands.

Chojnicki, B. H.

2013-01-01

336

49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

2011-10-01

337

High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide Søren Højgaard Jensen+,#, Jens V. T. Høgh (ASR) #12;Electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam CO2 + H2O H2 + CO + 3/2 O2 Interesting because of electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide Picture taken from J. R. Rostrup, Steam Reforming and Catalysts

338

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

E-print Network

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions Susan Solomona,1 , Gian in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely

Fischlin, Andreas

339

Identifying and Developing New, Carbon Dioxide Consuming Processes , Sudheer Indalaa  

E-print Network

408b Identifying and Developing New, Carbon Dioxide Consuming Processes Aimin Xua , Sudheer Indalaa@hal.lamar.edu, yawscl@hal.lamar.edu Key words; Carbon Dioxide Processes, Greenhouse Gases, Chemical Complex, Sustainable acceptable, catalytic processes have been identified that can use excess high purity carbon dioxide as a raw

Pike, Ralph W.

340

49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

2014-10-01

341

Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1  

E-print Network

Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1 Received 6 July 2010 feedbacks are positive, then warming causes changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) sources and sinks that increase increased carbon dioxide concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22122, doi:10.1029/2010JD014725. 1

Kammen, Daniel M.

342

Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis  

E-print Network

Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (scCO2). Herein we demonstrate that colloids may also be stabilized in CO2 the behavior of steric stabilization in compressed supercritical fluids1-3 including carbon dioxide,4

343

Thermodynamic Promotion of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Formation by  

E-print Network

Thermodynamic Promotion of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Formation by Tetrahydrofuran, Cyclopentane;______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2 Abstract Gas clathrate hydrate dissociation pressures are reported for mixtures of carbon dioxide) equilibrium data are presented for the ternary system of water-cyclopentane-carbon dioxide at temperatures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2011-04-01

345

Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations  

E-print Network

Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations C.M. COLINAa,b, *, C and speed of sound for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supercritical region, using the fluctuation method based: Fluctuations; Carbon dioxide; 2CLJQ; Joule­Thomson coefficient; Speed of sound INTRODUCTION Simulation methods

Lisal, Martin

346

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2012-04-01

347

Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in  

E-print Network

Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

Rochelle, Gary T.

348

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2014-04-01

349

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-print Network

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline,840 · Oxygen (O2) 209,460 · Argon (Ar) 9340 · Carbon dioxide (CO2) 394 · Methane (CH4) 1.79 · Ozone (O3) 0 wavelength of interest is about 400 times the size of a carbon dioxide molecule. Interaction is via

Olver, Peter

350

49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

2010-10-01

351

ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and  

E-print Network

ORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (423) 574-3645 Oak Ridge National Laboratory URL: http 37831-6335 FTP: cdiac.esd.ornl.gov #12;ORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

352

49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

2012-10-01

353

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2010-04-01

354

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2013-04-01

355

49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

2013-10-01

356

Potassium intercalation of carbon onions ‘opened’ by carbon dioxide treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potassium intercalation of onion-like carbon (OLC) samples consisting of aggregates of carbon onions is studied with photoemission spectroscopy. OLC samples were initially prepared by annealing nanodiamonds (3–20nm in diameter) at 1800K in vacuum. The resulting OLC consists of closed fullerene-like shells. The ‘closed’ OLC was subsequently treated with carbon dioxide at 1020K in order to open the carbon shells

Yu. V. Butenko; Amit K. Chakraborty; N. Peltekis; S. Krishnamurthy; V. R. Dhanak; M. R. C. Hunt; L. Šiller

2008-01-01

357

78 FR 28143 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards...state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide... and SO 2 NAAQS revised by EPA? Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) On February 9,...

2013-05-14

358

A Simple Model for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will create and use a differential equation of rate-of-change of atmospheric carbon dioxide. They will refer to the "Keeling Curve" graph and information on the sources and sinks of carbon on Earth to create the equation and apply it to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

359

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the earth's atmosphere and its potential effect on atmospheric temperature is a major concern. Changes in global environment will have major effects for natural and agricultural ecosystems. Plants have been directly affected by rising atmospheric CO2...

360

DIETHANOLAMINE-CARBON DIOXIDE BUFFER PRODUCES ETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon dioxide concentrates in containers are frequently controlled by using a diethanolamine-bicarbonate buffer. Current studies show that this buffer produces ethylene and that the production increases with increasing pH and/or time in the incubation vessel. Ethylene is not pro...

361

Ocean Acidification: The Other Carbon Dioxide Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA video discusses how the ocean absorbs the increased amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere, thereby changing the pH and buffering action of the ocean. These changes in pH are impacting calcifying organisms, such as corals and shellfish, and related food chains and ecosystems.

NOAA

362

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleoresin was extracted from ground black pepper with carbon dioxide at 28 MPa and 24 to 60 °C. The yield and contents of piperine in the extract were determined as a function of extraction time and the solvent amount. The concentration profile of piperine inside the fixed bed of pepper was also measured. The total extract contained piperine and essential

Helena Sovová; Jaromír Jez; Milena Bártlová; Jitka St'astová

1995-01-01

363

Carbon dioxide on the early earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses arguments of geochemical mass balance to arrive at an estimate of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the terrestrial atmosphere very early in earth history. It appears that this partial pressure could have been as large as 10 bars. This large estimate depends on two key considerations. First, volatiles were driven out of the interior of

James C. G. Walker

1985-01-01

364

Searching for Clues to Ancient Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Something on Earth just won't stop fiddling with the thermostat. In the past 500 million years, the planet has shivered through ice ages lasting millions of years and sweltered through episodes of global warmth. Climatologists, eager to know what keeps jiggling the planet's temperature setting, have focused their suspicions on carbon dioxide, the same heat-trapping gas expected to drive up

Tim Appenzeller

1993-01-01

365

CDIAC: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) which includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC responds to data and information requests from users from all over the world who are concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change. CDIAC's data holdings include records of the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. In operation since 1982, CDIAC: obtains, evaluates, and archives data, compiles and distributes digital numeric data packages and computer model packages, provides data management support to global-change related scientific projects, distributes related reports, produces the newsletter, CDIAC Communications, and in general acts as the information focus for the U.S. DOE Global Change Research Program. CDIAC is supported by DOE's Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System.

366

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

367

Theoretical Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns of ozone depletion and global warming call for investigation of natural refrigerants. In this study the performance potential of the carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle is investigated theoretically. For this purpose, two cycle simulation models were developed. One is an Evans-Perkins cycle model for R-22, and the other is a transcritical cycle model for CO2. By using these models, the

Yunho Hwang; Reinhard Radermacher

1998-01-01

368

RISING CARBON DIOXIDE AND WEED ECOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Documented and projected changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] and other gases suggest potential changes in climate stability which could negatively impact human systems. One such system would involve negative impacts on agricultural crops and associated weeds. Climatic o...

369

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01

370

Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from Mauna Loa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scripps Institute of Oceanography has released these data consisting of monthly carbon dioxide concentrations at Mauna Loa 1958-1999. Measurements were made using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. The data are available as graphs or tables. The text includes a brief overview of the methods and a reference list.

371

World Electricity Consumption and Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a table of global electricity consumption to answer a series of questions and consider the production of carbon dioxide associated with that consumption. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

372

Recent Events: a Perspective on Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will compare the carbon dioxide produced as a result of two 2010 events: the eruption of the Eyjafjalla Volcano and the burning of oil on the ocean surface to address the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

373

Carbon dioxide emissions and global GDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) implicated in global warming, and GDP is shown in this paper, examining per capita income and CO2 emissions of 137 countries across 21 years. It also appears that as per capita incomes accelerate across countries emissions increases, for the most part, tend to decelerate. It could be

Michael Tucker

1995-01-01

374

The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

E-print Network

, 2013 The Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics is online at fluid.annualreviews.org This article's doi: 10The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Herbert E. Huppert1-3 and Jerome A. Neufeld4 1 reservoirs within the Earth. Fluid mechanics plays a key role in determining both the feasibility and risks

Huppert, Herbert

375

Urban carbon dioxide in Portland, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are reported for the Portland, Oregon (USA) metropolitan region since late July, 2009. Three stationary locations were established: a downtown location on the campus of Portland State University; a residential site in southeast Portland; and a rural station on Sauvie Island, located ~30km northwest of Portland in the Columbia River Gorge. Continuous measurements of CO2 at the sites average 400-410ppm and show considerable variability due to CO2 sources, sinks and meteorological drivers of ventilation. Within this variability, a marked 20-30ppm diurnal cycle is observed due to photosynthetic activity and variations in the planetary boundary layer. In-city CO2 concentrations are on average enhanced by 5-6ppm over the Sauvie Island site during upgorge wind conditions, a difference which is greatest in the afternoon. Measurements of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2 in downtown Portland are significantly depleted in 13C relative to 12C compared with background air and suggest that regional CO2 is dominated by petroleum sources (70-80%). High degrees of relationship between CO2 variability and primary air pollutants CO and NO (r2=0.70 to 0.80), measured by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality at the Southeast Portland location, corroborate this finding and illustrate the importance of traffic emissions on elevated ambient CO2 concentrations. In addition to CO2 at the fixed sites, measurements of street-level CO2 concentrations were obtained using a mobile instrument mounted in a bike trailer. Results from these field data show relatively homogenous CO2 concentrations throughout residential Portland neighborhoods with significant enhancements in CO2 on busy roadways or near areas of traffic congestion.

Bostrom, G. A.; Brooks, M.; Rice, A. L.

2010-12-01

376

Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage  

E-print Network

Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage Mike dioxide; Viscous flow; Gravity flow 1. Introduction Disposal of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs;questions about the environmental benefits of this process concern the fate of the carbon dioxide over

Huppert, Herbert

377

Carbon Dioxide Production at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will consider the "Carbon Footprint" of a family of four in a given context, as well as the US and global averages, and compare that with their own to answer a series of questions. They will use an online Carbon Footprint calculator to determine their own per-capita carbon production. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

378

In-cabin Exposure Levels of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide and Airborne Particulate Matter in Air-Conditioned Buses of Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bus cabin air quality has not been incessantly monitored in Hong Kong. This study investigates the in-cabin exposure levels of CO, CO2 and PM10 for running buses in Hong Kong that are equipped with Euro II, III and IV engines. A representative urban—suburban bus route was chosen and there were no significantly different in-cabin CO levels reported among engine types

L. T. Wong; K. W. Mui; C. T. Cheung; W. Y. Chan; Y. H. Lee; C. L. Cheung

2011-01-01

379

Personal Carbon Dioxide Impact (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing for many decades now, mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels by mankind. In this exercise, students will track their daily activities, and and estimate how much carbon dioxide they are responsible for emitting with the use of an online Personal Greenhouse Gas Calculator developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The calculator sums the carbon dioxide produced by driving, electricity use, and waste disposal, and provides an estimate of annual carbon dioxide emissions. It also allows users to see how changes in lifestyle could reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Links to websites with additional information are also provided.

John Pratte

380

High Levels of Carbon Dioxide Threaten Oyster Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It has been widely reported that the build up of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air, which is caused by human behavior, will likely lead to climate change and have major implications for life on earth. But less focus has been given to global warmingÂ?s evil twin, ocean acidification, which occurs when CO2 lowers the pH of water bodies, thus making them more acidic. This lesser known phenomenon may have catastrophic effects on all sea life. Inna Sokolova, associate professor of biology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, studies the affect of high carbon dioxide on oyster survival, growth and shell hardness. The results of her research suggest that creatures once thought to be fairly adaptable to changes in the environment, may be in serious trouble.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2010-08-04

381

Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)  

E-print Network

Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and molecular oxygen (O2) with varying carbon-to-oxygen ratios from 1 and destruction pathways of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3

Kaiser, Ralf I.

382

Modeling the selectivity of activated carbons for efficient separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

the separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide via adsorption in activated carbons. In the simulations, both hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules are modeled as Lennard-Jones spheres, and the activated carbons essentially no preference over the two gases and the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to hydrogen falls

Wu, Jianzhong

383

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-print Network

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes), Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB3030, doi:10.1029/2008GB003184. 1. Introduction [2] Atmospheric carbon dioxide

Follows, Mick

384

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce, compressive strength and carbon dioxide uptake seem to follow a similar trend. Vacuum-Carbonation yielded

Barthelat, Francois

385

Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide ices  

E-print Network

Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer, CO3(X 1 A1), in carbon-dioxide-rich extraterrestrial ices and in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Carbon dioxide ices were

Kaiser, Ralf I.

386

Carbon Dioxide: Production and Sequestration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will refer to a satellite image to calculate the rate of carbon sequestration in the areas of bare land and forested lawn shown to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

387

Separating carbon dioxide and ethane by liquid-liquid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of carbon dioxide and ethane derived from a prior separation stage or recovery process is separated by liquid-liquid extraction. One of the liquids is a liquid azeotrope of carbon dioxide and ethane. The extraction liquid is a liquid hydrocarbon with more carbon atoms than ethane, that is, a hydrocarbon having at least 3 carbon atoms. In the extraction

Styring; R. E. Jr

1982-01-01

388

The Headache of Carbon Dioxide Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2), a natural product of human metabolism, accumulates quickly in sealed environments when humans are present, and can induce headaches, among other symptoms. Major resources are expended to control CO2 levels to concentrations that are tolerable to the crews of spacecraft and submersible craft. It is not practical to control CO2 levels to those found in the ambient environment on earth. As NASA looks ahead to long-duration missions conducted far from earth, difficult issues arise related to the management and effects of human exposure to CO2. One is the problem of pockets of CO2 in the habitat caused by excess generation of the gas in one location without a mechanism to purge the area with fresh air. This results in the crew rebreathing CO2 from their exhaled breath, exposing them to a much higher concentration of CO2 than whole-module measurements would suggest. Another issue is the potential increased sensitivity to CO2 in microgravity. For example, based on anecdotal information, it appears that space crews may be more susceptible than submarine crews to some of the subtle, yet adverse effects of CO2 exposure. Another issue, not unique to spaceflight, is the possibility of inter-individual differences in the susceptibility of crewmembers to CO2 exposure. Again, anecdotal reports from the International Space Station (ISS) crews suggest that certain individuals may experience a greater susceptibility. The implications associated with these issues are extremely important as NASA sets CO2 exposure limits that protect the crew from this compound s subtle adverse effects, without causing an unwarranted expenditure of resources to scrub CO2 from the habitat atmosphere.

James, John T.

2007-01-01

389

Iron-catalyzed hydrogenation of bicarbonates and carbon dioxide to formates.  

PubMed

The catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate to formate has been explored extensively. The vast majority of the known active catalyst systems are based on precious metals. Herein, we describe an effective, phosphine-free, air- and moisture-tolerant catalyst system based on Knölker's iron complex for the hydrogenation of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide to formate. The catalyst system can hydrogenate bicarbonate at remarkably low hydrogen pressures (1-5?bar). PMID:25603778

Zhu, Fengxiang; Zhu-Ge, Ling; Yang, Guangfu; Zhou, Shaolin

2015-02-01

390

Continuous process preparation of activated silica with low carbon dioxide content gas  

E-print Network

~sion and assistance in the performance of this research. Page XETRODUCTXOE ~ DEFX?XTION GF SYMBOLS AND ~ TRECrrr Or PROCESS DESCRIPTION GF EQUXPMERT GPERATIOE GF EQUXPNEET AEALYTXCAL PROCEDURE DIBCVBSXQW GF REBUIXFB 13 25 28 I. Carbon Dioxide and Air Feed.... Variation of' Percentage Neutralization With Carbon Dioxide Content. XI. Variatiou oi' Percentage Reutralization With Gas Rate . XII. Gel Time of Activated Bole. I. Activated Silica Pilot Plant Unit II. Typical Floe Formation. A continuous yrecess...

Burdett, Joseph Walton

1954-01-01

391

Seasonal effects on the air-water carbon dioxide exchange in the Hooghly estuary, NE coast of Bay of Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Monthly variation of CO2 fugacity (fCO2) in surface water and related atmospheric exchanges were measured in the Hooghly estuary which is one of the most important estuaries, since it is fed by one of the world's largest rivers, the Ganges with a flow of 15,646 m3 s-1 (1.6% of the world's combined river flow). Carbon dioxide fluxes averaged over the entire estuary are in the range of -2.78 to 84.4 mmol m-2 d-1. This estuary acts as a sink for CO2 during monsoon months and seasonal variation of its flux is controlled by dilution of seawater by river water. Since the solubility of CO2 and the disassociation of carbonic acid in estuarine water are controlled by temperature and salinity, the observed variations of CO2 fluxes are compared with those predicted from seasonal changes in temperature, salinity and the ratio of gross primary production to community respiration using empirical equations with an explained variability of 55%. PMID:12195998

Mukhopadhyay, S K; Biswas, H; De, T K; Sen, S; Jana, T K

2002-08-01

392

Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid  

SciTech Connect

The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine and 84% conversion of olivine to the carbonate in 6 hours. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, or some combination of the two. Future tests are intended to examine a broader pressure/temperature regime, various pretreatment options, as well as other mineral groups.

O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

2000-07-01

393

Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid  

SciTech Connect

The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine and 84% conversion of olivine to the carbonate in 6 hours. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, or some combination of the two. Future tests are intended to examine a broader pressure/temperature regime, various pretreatment options, as well as other mineral groups.

O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

2000-01-01

394

Sequestering ADM ethanol plant carbon dioxide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) and the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) are collaborating on a project in confirming that a rock formation can store carbon dioxide from the plant in its pores. The project aimed to sequester the gas underground permanently to minimize release of the greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. It is also designed to store one million tons of carbon dioxide over a three-year period. The project is worth $84.3M, funded by $66.7M from the US Department Energy, supplemented by co-funding from ADM and other corporate and state resources. The project will start drilling of wells to an expected depth over 6500 feet into the Mount Simon Sandstone formation.

Finley, R.J.; Riddle, D.

2008-01-01

395

Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A comparative assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) and radioactive waste transport systems associated with electricity generation was undertaken on the basis of 15 criteria\\u000a grouped under three areas, namely the transport chain, policy aspects and state of the technology. For CO2, we considered exclusively the transport that would take place under a future large-scale capture and storage infrastructure.\\u000a Our study

Darío R. Gómez; Michael Tyacke

396

Carbon Dioxide Laser Fiber Optics In Endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide laser surgery has been limited to a great extent to surgical application on the integument and accessible cavities such as the cervix, vagina, oral cavities, etc. This limitation has been due to the rigid delivery systems available to all carbon dioxide lasers. Articulating arms (series of hollow tubes connected by articulating mirrors) have provided an effective means of delivery of laser energy to the patient as long as the lesion was within the direct line of sight. Even direct line-of-sight applications were restricted to physical dimension of the articulating arm or associated hand probes, manipulators and hollow tubes. The many attempts at providing straight endoscopic systems to the laser only stressed the need for a fiber optic capable of carrying the carbon dioxide laser wavelength. Rectangular and circular hollow metal waveguides, hollow dielectric waveguides have proven ineffective to the stringent requirements of a flexible surgical delivery system. One large diameter (1 cm) fiber optic delivery system, incorporates a toxic thalliumAbased fiber optic material. The device is an effective alternative to an articulating arm for external or conventional laser surgery, but is too large and stiff to use as a flexible endoscopic tool. The author describes the first highly flexible inexpensive series of fiber optic systems suitable for either conventional or endoscopic carbon dioxide laser surgery. One system (IRFLEX 3) has been manufactured by Medlase, Inc. for surgical uses capable of delivering 2000w, 100 mJ pulsed energy and 15w continuous wave. The system diameter is 0.035 inches in diameter. Surgically suitable fibers as small as 120 um have been manufactured. Other fibers (IRFLEX 142,447) have a variety of transmission characteristics, bend radii, etc.

Fuller, Terry A.

1982-12-01

397

Carbon dioxide review: 1982. [Lead abstract  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Dioxide Review: 1982 was organized by the Institute for Energy Analysis (IEA) of Oak Ridge Associated Universities as part of their contribution to the United States CO/sub 2/ program. This review aims to provide a forum for critical appraisal of current thinking on the CO/sub 2/ question, its implications, and the options for dealing with it. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 17 essays and papers in the review. (KRM)

Clark, W.C. (ed.)

1982-01-01

398

Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator: Math model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A steady state computer simulation model of an Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC) has been developed. The mathematical model combines EDC heat and mass balance equations with empirical correlations derived from experimental data to describe EDC performance as a function of the operating parameters involved. The model is capable of accurately predicting performance over EDC operating ranges. Model simulation results agree with the experimental data obtained over the prediction range.

Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Carlson, J. N.

1973-01-01

399

Carbon dioxide capture with concentrated, aqueous piperazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated, aqueous piperazine (PZ) has been investigated as a novel amine solvent for carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption. The CO2 absorption rate of aqueous PZ is more than double that of 7m MEA and the amine volatility at 40°C ranges from 11 to 21ppm. Thermal degradation is negligible in concentrated, aqueous PZ up to a temperature of 150°C, a significant advantage

Stephanie A. Freeman; Ross Dugas; David H. Van Wagener; Thu Nguyen; Gary T. Rochelle

2010-01-01

400

Improved immobilized carbon dioxide capture sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture of carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas streams has been achieved by using immobilized and aminated-SBA-15 solid sorbents. SBA-15, a mesoporous silica material with a uniform pore size of 21 nm and a surface area of 200?230 m2\\/g. The solid sorbents prepared in this study exhibit similar or improved capacities relative to those already used to control CO2

M. L. Gray; Y. Soong; K. J. Champagne; H. Pennline; J. P. Baltrus; R. W. Stevens Jr.; R. Khatri; S. S. C. Chuang; T. Filburn

2005-01-01

401

Electron mobility in argon and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron drift velocities were determined in argon and in mixtures of argon with carbon dioxide, using media processed to yield a high degree of purity. The measurements were performed at a pressure of 760 torr and a temperature of 25degC. The medium was confined in a cylindrical measuring chamber made of polytetrafluorethylene (10-mm diameter, 10-mm length). The electrodes used to

Z. Kucerovsky

2006-01-01

402

Carbon dioxide as a natural refrigerant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beginnings of mechanical refrigeration, at the end of the nineteenth century, carbon dioxide was one of the fi rst refrigerants to be used in compression-type refrigerating machines, later gaining widespread application mainly onboard refrigerated ships, but common in other sectors of refrigeration as well. It was only immediately after World War II that CO2<\\/sub> was rapidly eclipsed as

Alberto Cavallini; Claudio Zilio

2007-01-01

403

Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component in technological portfolios for managing anthropogenic climate change,\\u000a since it may provide a faster and cheaper route to significant reductions in atmospheric CO2 concentrations than abating CO2 production. However, CO2 sequestration is not a perfect substitute for CO2 abatement because CO2 may leak back into the atmosphere (thus imposing

Klaus Keller; David McInerney; David F. Bradford

2008-01-01

404

World Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950-2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced-form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period of 1950-1990. Using the same set of income and population growth assumptions as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we find that the IPCC's widely used emissions

Richard Schmalensee; Thomas M. Stoker; Ruth A. Judson

1998-01-01

405

Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global temperature rose by 0.2 degrees C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4 degrees C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about

J. Hansen; D. Johnson; A. Lacis; S. Lebedeff; P. Lee; D. Rind; G. Russell

1981-01-01

406

Utilizing Diffusion Theory to predict carbon dioxide concentration in an indoor environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research details a new method of relating sources of carbon dioxide to carbon dioxide concentration in a room operating in a reduced ventilation mode by utilizing Diffusion Theory. The theoretical basis of this research involved solving Fick's Second Law of Diffusion in spherical coordinates for a source of carbon dioxide flowing at a constant rate and located in the center of an impermeable spherical boundary. The solution was developed using a Laplace Transformation. A spherical diffusion test chamber was constructed and used to validate and benchmark the developed theory. The method was benchmarked by using Dispersion Coefficients for large carbon dioxide flow rates due to diffusion induced convection. The theoretical model was adapted to model a room operating with restricted ventilation in the presence of a known, constant source of carbon dioxide. The room was modeled as a sphere of volume equal to the room and utilized a Dispersion Coefficient that is consistent with published values. The developed Diffusion Model successfully predicted the spatial concentration of carbon dioxide in a room operating in a reduced ventilation mode in the presence of a source of carbon dioxide. The flow rates of carbon dioxide that were used in the room are comparable to the average flow rate of carbon dioxide from a person during quiet breathing, also known as the Tidal Breathing. This indicates the Diffusion Model developed from this research has the potential to correlate carbon dioxide concentration with static occupancy levels which can lead to energy savings through a reduction in air exchange rates when low occupancy is detected.

Kramer, Andrew R.

407

Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions  

SciTech Connect

A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

1981-03-01

408

Bench-to-bedside review: carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide is a waste product of aerobic cellular respiration in all aerobic life forms. PaCO2 represents the balance between the carbon dioxide produced and that eliminated. Hypocapnia remains a common - and generally underappreciated - component of many disease states, including early asthma, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and acute lung injury. Induction of hypocapnia remains a common, if controversial, practice in both adults and children with acute brain injury. In contrast, hypercapnia has traditionally been avoided in order to keep parameters normal. More recently, advances in our understanding of the role of excessive tidal volume has prompted clinicians to use ventilation strategies that result in hypercapnia. Consequently, hypercapnia has become increasingly prevalent in the critically ill patient. Hypercapnia may play a beneficial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and tissue injury, but may hinder the host response to sepsis and reduce repair. In contrast, hypocapnia may be a pathogenic entity in the setting of critical illness. The present paper reviews the current clinical status of low and high PaCO2 in the critically ill patient, discusses the insights gained to date from studies of carbon dioxide, identifies key concerns regarding hypocapnia and hypercapnia, and considers the potential clinical implications for the management of patients with acute lung injury. PMID:20497620

Curley, Gerard; Laffey, John G; Kavanagh, Brian P

2010-01-01

409

Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common valuations. It is clear that, whilst aviation must remain one piece of the transport-jigsaw, environmentally a global regulator with ‘teeth' is urgently required.

Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

2014-10-01

410

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon  

SciTech Connect

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Jastrow, Julie D [ORNL; Miller, Michael R [ORNL; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University; Rice, Charles W [ORNL; Owensby, Clenton E [Kansas State University

2005-01-01

411

Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on soil carbon in terrestrial ecosystems of the Southeastern U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants depend on carbon dioxide (CO2) as the substrate for photosynthesis; they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and use it for tissue production, respiring a portion back to the air. A portion of the carbon (C) fixed by plants enters the soil via root exudation and as plant litter (both aboveground ...

412

Carbon dioxide solubility and carbon isotope fractionation in basaltic melt  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide solubility and isotope fractionation data for a MORB composition at 1,200-1,400C and 5-20 kbar have been obtained using piston-cylinder apparatus and stepped-heating mass spectrometry. Carbon dioxide solubility in basalt melt at 5, 10 and 20 kbar is 0.15-0.17%, 0.45-0.51%, and 1.49%, respectively. Values for {Delta}Co{sub 2}(vap) - CO 2/3{sup {minus}} (basalt melt), obtained from the difference between the isotopic compositions for coexisting vapor and melt, vary from 1.8% to 2.2%. A review of measured and estimated values for carbon isotope fractionation between CO{sub 2} vapor and carbon dissolved in basic melts shows variation from 1.8% to 4.6%. Results of this study and other considerations favor relatively small equilibrium CO{sub 2} vapor melt fractionation factors around 2%.

Mattey, D.P. (Univ. of London, Egham Hill (United Kingdom) Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia))

1991-11-01

413

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Reservoir Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net release of CO2 from the biosphere to the atmosphere between 1850 and 1950 is estimated to amount to 1.2 × 109 tons of carbon per year. During this interval, changes in land use reduced the total terrestrial biomass by 7 percent. There has been a smaller reduction in biomass over the last few decades. In the middle 19th

Minze Stuiver

1978-01-01

414

Evaluating Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emission from Alternative Inter-regional High Speed Passenger Transport Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from transport activities from long-distance and high- demand sections is recognized especially in developed countries. This study aims to compare CO2 emission from Shinkansen high speed railway with emissions from air transport by employing LCA method. Here it is assumed that only existing airports are used for air transport but Shinkansen is

Naoki SHIBAHARA; Hirokazu KATO; Yoshitsugu HAYASHI

415

78 FR 28173 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental...to revise the Indiana state implementation plan (SIP) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 )...

2013-05-14

416

Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

Hoppe, David T.

1991-01-01

417

Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene  

SciTech Connect

One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)

1997-03-01

418

Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur.

Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

1988-06-20

419

Carbon dioxide emissions from estuaries of northern and northeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon dioxide flux through the air-water interface of coastal estuarine systems must be quantified to understand the regional balance of carbon and its transport through adjacent coastal regions. We estimated and calculated the emissions of carbon dioxide (FCO2) and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) values in 28 estuarine environments at a variety of spatial scales in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. The results showed a mean FCO2 (water to air) of 55 +/- 45 mmol.m-2.d-1. Additionally, a negative correlation between dissolved oxygen saturation and pCO2 was observed, indicating a control by biological processes and especially by organic matter degradation. This leads to increased dissolved CO2 concentration in estuarine waters which results in a pCO2 that reached 8,638 ?atm. Our study suggests that northern and northeastern Brazilian estuaries act as sources of atmospheric CO2. The range of pCO2 observed were similar to those found in inner estuaries in other places around the world, with the exception of a few semi-arid estuaries (Köppen climate classification - BSh) in which record low levels of pCO2 have been detected.

Noriega, Carlos; Araujo, Moacyr

2014-08-01

420

Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and butadiene via a lactone intermediate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although carbon dioxide has attracted broad interest as a renewable carbon feedstock, its use as a monomer in copolymerization with olefins has long been an elusive endeavour. A major obstacle for this process is that the propagation step involving carbon dioxide is endothermic; typically, attempted reactions between carbon dioxide and an olefin preferentially yield olefin homopolymerization. Here we report a strategy to circumvent the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for copolymerizations of carbon dioxide and olefins by using a metastable lactone intermediate, 3-ethylidene-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, which is formed by the palladium-catalysed condensation of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene. Subsequent free-radical polymerization of the lactone intermediate afforded polymers of high molecular weight with a carbon dioxide content of 33 mol% (29 wt%). Furthermore, the protocol was applied successfully to a one-pot copolymerization of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene, and one-pot terpolymerizations of carbon dioxide, butadiene and another 1,3-diene. This copolymerization technique provides access to a new class of polymeric materials made from carbon dioxide.

Nakano, Ryo; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

2014-04-01

421

Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success…

Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

1993-01-01

422

Carbon Dioxide Production in the Oxidation of Organic  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Production in the Oxidation of Organic Acids by Cerium(IV) under Aerobic are oxidized to carbon dioxide. Hence, the determination of the stoichiometry between produced CO2 and reduced The study of oxidation of relatively low molecular weight carbonic acids by metal ions has been an active

Steinbock, Oliver

423

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system,

David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01

424

Carbon Dioxide Transport through Membranes*  

PubMed Central

Several membrane channels, like aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the RhAG protein of the rhesus complex, were hypothesized to be of physiological relevance for CO2 transport. However, the underlying assumption that the lipid matrix imposes a significant barrier to CO2 diffusion was never confirmed experimentally. Here we have monitored transmembrane CO2 flux (JCO2) by imposing a CO2 concentration gradient across planar lipid bilayers and detecting the resulting small pH shift in the immediate membrane vicinity. An analytical model, which accounts for the presence of both carbonic anhydrase and buffer molecules, was fitted to the experimental pH profiles using inverse problems techniques. At pH 7.4, the model revealed that JCO2 was entirely rate-limited by near-membrane unstirred layers (USL), which act as diffusional barriers in series with the membrane. Membrane tightening by sphingomyelin and cholesterol did not alter JCO2 confirming that membrane resistance was comparatively small. In contrast, a pH-induced shift of the CO2 hydration-dehydration equilibrium resulted in a relative membrane contribution of about 15% to the total resistance (pH 9.6). Under these conditions, a membrane CO2 permeability (3.2 ± 1.6 cm/s) was estimated. It indicates that cellular CO2 uptake (pH 7.4) is always USL-limited, because the USL size always exceeds 1 ?m. Consequently, facilitation of CO2 transport by AQP1, RhAG, or any other protein is highly unlikely. The conclusion was confirmed by the observation that CO2 permeability of epithelial cell monolayers was always the same whether AQP1 was overexpressed in both the apical and basolateral membranes or not. PMID:18617525

Missner, Andreas; Kügler, Philipp; Saparov, Sapar M.; Sommer, Klaus; Mathai, John C.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Pohl, Peter

2008-01-01

425

Rapid setting of portland cement by greenhouse carbon dioxide capture  

SciTech Connect

Following the work by Berger et al. on rapid setting of calcium silicates by carbonation, a method of high-volume capture of CO{sub 2} in portland cement has been developed. Typically, 10--24 wt. % of CO{sub 2} produced by the calcination of calcium carbonate during clinkering, may be captured, and the set cement acquires most of its full strength in less than a day. The approach will have economic advantages in fabrication of precast structures, in emergency development of infrastructure during natural disasters, and in defense applications. Moreover, it will help the cement industry comply with the Clean Air Act of 1990 by sequestering the greenhouse carbon dioxide.

Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Knox, L.J.

1994-04-01

426

Supercritical carbon dioxide: a solvent like no other  

PubMed Central

Summary Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) could be one aspect of a significant and necessary movement towards green chemistry, being a potential replacement for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Unfortunately, carbon dioxide has a notoriously poor solubilising power and is famously difficult to handle. This review examines attempts and breakthroughs in enhancing the physicochemical properties of carbon dioxide, focusing primarily on factors that impact solubility of polar and ionic species and attempts to enhance scCO2 viscosity. PMID:25246947

Peach, Jocelyn

2014-01-01

427

75 FR 35519 - Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide; Final Rule Federal Register...National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Sulfur Dioxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection...the air quality criteria for oxides of sulfur and the primary national ambient air...

2010-06-22

428

Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixing of carbon in the form of high sulfur coal with sulfuric acid reduces the temperature of sulfuric acid decomposition from 830.degree. C. to between 300.degree. C. and 400.degree. C. The low temperature sulfuric acid decomposition is particularly useful in thermal chemical cycles for splitting water to produce hydrogen. Carbon dioxide is produced as a commercially desirable byproduct. Lowering of the temperature for the sulfuric acid decomposition or oxygen release step simplifies equipment requirements, lowers thermal energy input and reduces corrosion problems presented by sulfuric acid at conventional cracking temperatures. Use of high sulfur coal as the source of carbon for the sulfuric acid decomposition provides an environmentally safe and energy efficient utilization of this normally polluting fuel.

Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor); England, Christopher (Inventor)

1984-01-01

429

Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and Ozone Measurements on the NCAR C-130 During ACE-Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several in situ trace gases were measured from the NCAR C-130 to provide indications of air mass origin during the ACE-Asia intensive field campaign. Carbon dioxide was measured using a dual cell, non-dispersive infrared absorption instrument, modified to provide temperature and pressure control. This instrument was developed to be highly precise and accurate, having a 0.1 ppmv precision and +\\/-

T. L. Campos; I. Faloona; S. R. Hall; L. Cinquini; R. E. Shetter

2001-01-01

430

A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

Carlson, R. W.

1999-01-01

431

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

2014-06-10

432

Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating

Sebastian Teir; Sanni Eloneva; Ron Zevenhoven

2005-01-01

433

Simulation of carbon dioxide insufflation via a diffuser in an open surgical wound model.  

PubMed

Flow within a model surgical opening during insufflation with heated carbon dioxide was studied using computational fluid dynamics. A volume of fluid method was used to simulate the mixture of ambient air and carbon dioxide gas. The negative buoyancy of the carbon dioxide caused it to fill the wound and form a protective layer on the internal surfaces for a range of flow rates, temperatures, and angles of patient inclination. It was observed that the flow remained attached to the surface of the model due to the action of the Coanda effect. A flow rate of 10 L/min was sufficient to maintain a warm carbon dioxide barrier for a moderately sized surgical incision for all likely angles of inclination. PMID:25103346

Cater, John E; van der Linden, Jan

2015-01-01

434

Asthma, sulfur dioxide, and the Clean Air Act  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory findings on the effects of sulfur dioxide in patients with asthma are related to theories about the mechanisms of bronchial hyperreactivity, an abnormality that may be fundamental to the pathogenesis of asthma and then to questions of national policy on air quality. Work has shown that people with asthma are abnormally sensitive to inhalation of sulfur dioxide and that bronchospasm may develop if they pursue activities that require light exercise while breathing air containing a level of sulfur dioxide permitted by current ambient air-quality standards. The provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 require that sensitive groups in the population be protected against adverse health effects, and our data therefore indicate the need for a short-term standard for sulfur dioxide.

Boushey, H.

1982-02-01

435

A Conductivity Device for Measuring Sulfur Dioxide in the Air  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a general electroconductivity device enabling students to determine sulfur dioxide concentration in a particular location, hopefully leading to a deeper understanding of the problem of air pollution. (DF)

Craig, James C.

1972-01-01

436

PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS AMONG FORMALDEHYDE, CHLORINE, AND NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Photochemical reactions among chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde were studied, using parts-per-million concentrations in 1 atm of air. The reactant mixtures were irradiated by ultraviolet fluorescent lamps and simultaneously analyzed by the Fourier transform infrared te...

437

Carbon Dioxide and Nisin Act Synergistically on Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the synergistic action of carbon dioxide and nisin on Listeria monocytogenes Scott A wild-type and nisin-resistant (Nisr) cells grown in broth at 4°C. Carbon dioxide extended the lag phase and decreased the specific growth rate of both strains, but to a greater degree in the Nisr cells. Wild-type cells grown in 100% CO2 were two to five times longer than cells grown in air. Nisin (2.5 ?g/ml) did not decrease the viability of Nisr cells but for wild-type cells caused an immediate 2-log reduction of viability when they were grown in air and a 4-log reduction when they were grown in 100% CO2. There was a quantifiable synergistic action between nisin and CO2 in the wild-type strain. The MIC of nisin for the wild-type strain grown in the presence of 2.5 ?g of nisin per ml increased from 3.1 to 12.5 ?g/ml over 35 days, but this increase was markedly delayed for cultures in CO2. This synergism between nisin and CO2 was examined mechanistically by following the leakage of carboxyfluorescein (CF) from listerial liposomes. Carbon dioxide enhanced nisin-induced CF leakage, indicating that the synergistic action of CO2 and nisin occurs at the cytoplasmic membrane. Liposomes made from cells grown in a CO2 atmosphere were even more sensitive to nisin action. Liposomes made from cells grown at 4°C were dramatically more nisin sensitive than were liposomes derived from cells grown at 30°C. Cells grown in the presence of 100% CO2 and those grown at 4°C had a greater proportion of short-chain fatty acids. The synergistic action of nisin and CO2 is consistent with a model where membrane fluidity plays a role in the efficiency of nisin action. PMID:10653749

Nilsson, Lilian; Chen, Yuhuan; Chikindas, Michael L.; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone; Montville, Thomas J.

2000-01-01

438

Amino acid-mediated impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and simulated root herbivory on aphids are neutralized by increased air temperatures  

PubMed Central

Changes in host plant quality, including foliar amino acid concentrations, resulting from global climate change and attack from multiple herbivores, have the potential to modify the pest status of insect herbivores. This study investigated how mechanically simulated root herbivory of lucerne (Medicago sativa) before and after aphid infestation affected the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) under elevated temperature (eT) and carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2). eT increased plant height and biomass, and eCO2 decreased root C:N. Foliar amino acid concentrations and aphid numbers increased in response to eCO2, but only at ambient temperatures, demonstrating the ability of eT to negate the effects of eCO2. Root damage reduced aboveground biomass, height, and root %N, and increased root %C and C:N, most probably via decreased biological nitrogen fixation. Total foliar amino acid concentrations and aphid colonization success were higher in plants with roots cut early (before aphid arrival) than those with roots cut late (after aphid arrival); however, this effect was counteracted by eT. These results demonstrate the importance of amino acid concentrations for aphids and identify individual amino acids as being potential factors underpinning aphid responses to eT, eCO2, and root damage in lucerne. Incorporating trophic complexity and multiple climatic factors into plant–herbivore studies enables greater insight into how plants and insects will interact in the future, with implications for sustainable pest control and future crop security. PMID:25403916

Ryalls, James M. W.; Moore, Ben D.; Riegler, Markus; Gherlenda, Andrew N.; Johnson, Scott N.

2015-01-01

439

Amino acid-mediated impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and simulated root herbivory on aphids are neutralized by increased air temperatures.  

PubMed

Changes in host plant quality, including foliar amino acid concentrations, resulting from global climate change and attack from multiple herbivores, have the potential to modify the pest status of insect herbivores. This study investigated how mechanically simulated root herbivory of lucerne (Medicago sativa) before and after aphid infestation affected the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) under elevated temperature (eT) and carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2). eT increased plant height and biomass, and eCO2 decreased root C:N. Foliar amino acid concentrations and aphid numbers increased in response to eCO2, but only at ambient temperatures, demonstrating the ability of eT to negate the effects of eCO2. Root damage reduced aboveground biomass, height, and root %N, and increased root %C and C:N, most probably via decreased biological nitrogen fixation. Total foliar amino acid concentrations and aphid colonization success were higher in plants with roots cut early (before aphid arrival) than those with roots cut late (after aphid arrival); however, this effect was counteracted by eT. These results demonstrate the importance of amino acid concentrations for aphids and identify individual amino acids as being potential factors underpinning aphid responses to eT, eCO2, and root damage in lucerne. Incorporating trophic complexity and multiple climatic factors into plant-herbivore studies enables greater insight into how plants and insects will interact in the future, with implications for sustainable pest control and future crop security. PMID:25403916

Ryalls, James M W; Moore, Ben D; Riegler, Markus; Gherlenda, Andrew N; Johnson, Scott N

2015-02-01

440

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

SciTech Connect

Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

2001-05-01

441

Cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware and is used to predict the costs of three carbon dioxide concentration systems. The cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other programs are utilized as a basis for establishing the cost estimating relationships. The concentration systems analyzed are the molecular sieves C02 concentrator, the hydrogen-depolarized concentrator, and the regenerable solid desiccant concentrator. Besides the cost estimates for each system, their comparative criteria including relative characteristics, operational differences, and development status are considered.

Yakut, M. M.

1972-01-01

442

Searching for clues to ancient carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Something on Earth just won't stop fiddling with the thermostat. In the past 500 million years, the planet has shivered through ice ages lasting millions of years and sweltered through episodes of global warmth. Climatologists, eager to know what keeps jiggling the planet's temperature setting, have focused their suspicions on carbon dioxide, the same heat-trapping gas expected to drive up temperatures in coming decades. Catching this suspect in the act has been difficult, however; the atmospheres of millions of years ago are gone with the wind.

Appenzeller, T.

1993-02-12

443

Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication of a one-person Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator subsystem incorporating advanced electrochemical, mechanical, and control and monitor instrumentation concepts is discussed. This subsystem included an advanced liquid cooled unitized core composite cell module and integrated electromechanical components. Over 1800 hours with the subsystem with removal efficiencies between 90%. and 100%; endurance tests with a Fluid Control Assembly which integrates 11 gas handling components of the subsystem; and endurance testing of a coolant control assembly which integrates a coolant pump, diverter valve and a liquid accumulator were completed.

Heppner, D. B.; Dahlausen, M. J.; Schubert, F. H.

1983-01-01

444

Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption  

DOEpatents

A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

Srinivasachar, Srivats

2014-09-23

445

The kinetics of binding carbon dioxide in magnesium carbonate  

SciTech Connect

Humans currently consume about 6 Gigatons of carbon annually as fossil fuel. In some sense, the coal industry has a unique advantage over many other anthropogenic and natural emitters of CO{sub 2} in that it owns large point sources of CO{sub 2} from which this gas could be isolated and disposed of. If the increased energy demands of a growing world population are to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of sequestration technologies will likely be unavoidable. The authors` method of sequestration involves binding carbon dioxide as magnesium carbonate, a thermodynamically stable solid, for safe and permanent disposal, with minimal environmental impact. The technology is based on extracting magnesium hydroxide from common ultramafic rock for thermal carbonation and subsequent disposition. The economics of the method appear to be promising, however, many details of the proposed process have yet to be optimized. Realization of a cost effective method requires development of optimal technologies for efficient extraction and thermal carbonation.

Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H.; Vaidya, R.; Pile, D.L.; Park, Y.; Holesinger, T.; Harradine, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nomura, Koji [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.]|[Chichibu Onada Cement Co., Tokyo (Japan)

1998-08-01

446

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

2013-04-01

447

46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements...Requirements § 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

2010-10-01

448

21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section... § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

2010-04-01

449

49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section... § 175.900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

2012-10-01

450

27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a...42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2010-04-01

451

46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2013-10-01

452

46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements...Requirements § 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

2014-10-01

453

21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

2011-04-01

454

46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

2012-10-01

455

21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

2012-04-01

456

21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

2011-04-01

457

46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements...Requirements § 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

2011-10-01

458

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

2010-04-01

459

46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 ...and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2013-10-01

460

46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials § 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

2010-10-01

461

27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a...42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2012-04-01

462

49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section... § 175.900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

2013-10-01

463

46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

2012-10-01

464

21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

2012-04-01

465

21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

2012-04-01

466

21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

2014-04-01

467

46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements...Requirements § 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

2012-10-01

468

21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

2010-04-01

469

21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2 ) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

2014-04-01

470

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

2011-04-01

471

49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid...

2014-10-01

472

46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials § 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

2014-10-01

473

46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

2014-10-01

474

40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1049 Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the...

2011-07-01

475

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2013-10-01

476

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2014-10-01

477

21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

2014-04-01

478

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2012-10-01

479

49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid...

2010-10-01

480

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices § 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

2012-04-01

481

46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials § 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

2011-10-01

482

46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing...Requirements § 167.45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing...working spaces. Pipes for conveying carbon dioxide or other extinguishing...

2011-10-01

483

27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a...42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2011-04-01

484

21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section... § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

2013-04-01

485

49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid...

2011-10-01

486

40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances § 180.1049 Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the...

2014-07-01

487

46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2012-10-01

488

21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2 ) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

2013-04-01

489

46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

2014-10-01

490

27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a...42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

491

21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

2013-04-01

492

49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section... § 175.900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

2010-10-01

493

21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

2013-04-01

494

46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements...Requirements § 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

2013-10-01

495

21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions § 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

2011-04-01

496

46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing...Requirements § 167.45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing...working spaces. Pipes for conveying carbon dioxide or other extinguishing...

2010-10-01

497

76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration...RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are...RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that...

2011-09-09

498

46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

2013-10-01

499

46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials § 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

2013-10-01

500

46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials § 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

2012-10-01