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1

Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Carbonation Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases with higher heat capacities than those of O2 and N2 cause greenhouse effects. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas associated with global climate change. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30–40% of world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. There was a higher correlation between the amount of carbon dioxide emission and percentage of carbon

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

2

Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, \\

K. Caldeira; S. J. Davis; L. Cao

2008-01-01

3

Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxes levied on the carbon content of fuels (carbon taxes) are being considered in many OECD countries as a possible policy instrument to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper first reviews the policy response in Member countries to the threat of global warming. It then discusses the link between carbon emission intensities and current energy prices, touching also on the

Peter Hoeller; Markku Wallin

1991-01-01

4

Carbon dioxide emissions and global GDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) implicated in global warming, and GDP is shown in this paper, examining per capita income and CO2 emissions of 137 countries across 21 years. It also appears that as per capita incomes accelerate across countries emissions increases, for the most part, tend to decelerate. It could be

Michael Tucker

1995-01-01

5

Management practices affects soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural practices contribute about 25% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Soil can act both as sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide fixed in plant biomass through photosynthesis can be stored in soil as organi...

6

The Emission Spectrum of Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission spectrum of carbon dioxide has been studied by the electron beam excitation method used by Smyth and Arnott. The whole range of the spectrum from 6500 to 1400 has been examined and only the bands reported by Fox, Duffendack and Barker in the region from 2700 to 5000 have been observed. A particular effort was made to get

H. D. Smyth

1931-01-01

7

Carbon dioxide emission from european estuaries  

PubMed

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface waters and related atmospheric exchanges were measured in nine European estuaries. Averaged fluxes over the entire estuaries are usually in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mole of CO2 per square meter per day. For wide estuaries, net daily fluxes to the atmosphere amount to several hundred tons of carbon (up to 790 tons of carbon per day in the Scheldt estuary). European estuaries emit between 30 and 60 million tons of carbon per year to the atmosphere, representing 5 to 10% of present anthropogenic CO2 emissions for Western Europe. PMID:9774261

Frankignoulle; Abril; Borges; Bourge; Canon; Delille; Libert; Theate

1998-10-16

8

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. PMID:22784534

O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

2012-07-10

9

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three

C A Smith; A J Simon; R D Belles

2011-01-01

10

MODELING MODELING MODELING MODELING CARBON CARBON CARBON CARBON DIOXIDE DIOXIDE DIOXIDE DIOXIDE EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS WITH WITH WITH WITHA A A A SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM OF OF OF OF DIFFENTIAL DIFFENTIAL DIFFENTIAL DIFFENTIAL EQUATIONS EQUATIONS EQUATIONS EQUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT The object of the present study is to model carbon dioxide emissions data with a system of differential equations. Carbon dioxide emissions, CO2, are one of the key attributable variables in GLOBAL WARMING along with atmospheric temperature. We develop a differential equation for each of six attributable variables that constitute CO2 emissions and a differential system of

Chris P. Tsokos

11

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in International Trade of Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts such as the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions that may be linked to climate change focus on six greenhouse gases (GHG). Carbon dioxide is by far the largest of these by volume, representing about 80% of the total emissions of these six gases. Almost all carbon dioxide is emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and OECD countries account

Nadim Ahmad; Andrew Wyckoff

2003-01-01

12

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative

Susan Solomon; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Reto Knutti; Pierre Friedlingstein

2009-01-01

13

Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At least one recent report and numerous news articles suggest that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are rising more rapidly than expected. This contention is often made by comparing recent emissions estimates with the greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios publishe...

J. Logan J. A. Leggett

2008-01-01

14

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

William Watson

1994-08-01

15

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01

16

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factor for Combustion of Swedish Peat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Swedish carbon dioxide emission factor for combustion of energy peat is reviewed. Three year old peat analysis from two Swedish peat producers indicated a notably lower emission factor than 107.3 g CO2/MJ which is the value used in Sweden's National E...

K. Nilsson

2004-01-01

17

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)|

Myers, Alan

2002-01-01

18

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to

Robert Joseph Andres; J. S. Gregg; London M Losey; Gregg Marland; Thomas A Boden

2011-01-01

19

Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

2009-01-01

20

Modeling Seasonality in Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil Fuel Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using United States data, a method is developed to estimate the monthly consumption of solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuels using monthly sales data to estimate the relative monthly proportions of the total annual national fossil fuel use. These proportions are then used to estimate the total monthly carbon dioxide emissions for each state. From these data, the goal is

P. Kishore; K. Igarashi; H. Oikawa; M. Uotome; J. S. Gregg; R. J. Andres

2004-01-01

21

Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

1992-01-01

22

Economic Effects of Using Carbon Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Major OECD Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tax on fossil fuels designed to obtain a 20 percent reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by the year 2020 would lower output among major OECD nations by 1 to 3 1/2 percent. The tax required to achieve a 20% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide b...

1992-01-01

23

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Consumption in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying monthly sales and consumption data of coal, petroleum and natural gas, a monthly time series of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption is created for Indonesia. These are then modeled with an autoregressive function to produce a quantitative description of the seasonal distribution and long-term pattern of CO2 emissions. Currently, Indonesia holds the 21st ranked position in total anthropogenic

J. S. Gregg; A. J. Robert

2005-01-01

24

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using COâ\\/SOâ from volcanic gas analyses and SOâ flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 à 10¹² g COâ\\/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 à 10¹² g COâ\\/yr from eruptions. Volcanic COâ presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects

S. N. Williams; S. J. Schaefer; M. L. Calvache V; D. Lopez

1992-01-01

25

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO2\\/SO2 from volcanic gas analyses and SO2 flux, to be 34 +\\/- 24 x 10 exp 12 g CO2\\/yr from passive degassing and 31 +\\/- 22 x 10 exp 12 g CO2\\/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO2 presently represents only 0.22 percent of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to

Stanley N. Williams; Stephen J. Schaeffer; Marta L. Calvache; Dina Lopez

1992-01-01

26

Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are known to be strong source for atmospheric CO2, however, little information is available from Indian estuaries. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge (wet) period. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ˜300 and 18492 ?atm which are within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G. D.; Prasad, V. R.; Kumar, B. S. K.; Naidu, S. A.; Kumar, N. A.; Rao, D. B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M. S.; Reddy, N. P. C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T. V. R.

2012-02-01

27

Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans act as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, however, the role of coastal bodies on global CO2 fluxes remains unclear due to lack of data. The estimated absorption of CO2 from the continental shelves, with limited data, is 0.22 to 1.0 PgC/y, and of CO2 emission by estuaries to the atmosphere is 0.27 PgC/y. The estimates from the estuaries suffer from large uncertainties due to large variability and lack of systematic data collection. It is especially true for Southeast Asian estuaries as the biogeochemical cycling of material are different due to high atmospheric temperature, seasonality driven by monsoons, seasonal discharge etc. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge wet and dry periods. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ~300 and 18492 microatm which were within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

Sarma Vedula, VSS

2012-07-01

28

The effect of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on world emissions of a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. We\\u000a use a large unbalanced panel data consisting of 177 countries from 1980 to 2006. The key finding of this paper is that there\\u000a are structural breaks in the data that demonstrate the effects of the international agreement. While carbon

Risa Kumazawa; Michael S. Callaghan

2012-01-01

29

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM EXHUMED PETROCALCIC HORIZONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The second largest pool of terrestrial carbon is pedogenic CaCO3. In addition to being an important sink of atmospheric CO2, pedogenic carbonate has the potential to be an important source of atmospheric CO2. The cemented form of pedogenic carbonate (the petrocalcic horizon) develops in geomorphical...

30

Economic analysis of global energy and carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use represent a threat to the global climate system. The issue can be examined as a global commons problem. A long-term, global, energy model is constructed, a base-case energy-use path is developed, and various carbon-limiting policy scenarios are examined. It is found that the United States acting alone can have little effect on global emissions. It is also found that the marginal cost of reducing carbon emissions (in terms of lost GNP) rises as greater reductions are required. However, the marginal cost of reductions is relatively small over most ranges. It is concluded that a major obstacle to any action is the public-goods nature of the problem in the absence of a central global authority with the power to make effective policy.

Reilly, J.M.

1983-01-01

31

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

1991-08-01

32

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.

Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Calvache V., M.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States) Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto (Colombia)); Lopez, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1992-04-01

33

Electricity Load and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Effects of a Carbon Price in the Short Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at acceptable levels will require a dramatic de-carbonization of the electric generation sector in the U.S. One increasingly discussed way to meet this policy goal is to put an explicit price on carbon emissions, either through a tax or a trading scheme. Increasing demand response has also been discussed as a way to reduce carbon

Adam Newcomer; Seth Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan

2008-01-01

34

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

PubMed Central

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the “dust bowl” era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4–1.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6–1.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding ?1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer.

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-01-01

35

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-01-28

36

The carbon dioxide emissions game: Playing the net  

SciTech Connect

Concern about rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the earth`s atmosphere has led to calls for the United States and other countries to reduce carbon emissions. These concerns resulted in the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The Framework calls for nations to develop action plans for limiting emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gases. In December 1992, in accordance with the Framework, the US Government released for public comment its National Action Plan for Global Climate Change (US Department of State, 1992). The Action Plan detailed steps for reducing carbon emissions by 93 to 130 million metric tons (MMT) by 2000. Some of the steps included in the Action Plan were reforming regulations, setting energy standards, promoting research and development of new energy technologies, expanding the use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and planting trees to sequester carbon. This paper explores the economic implications of implementing a much larger tree-planting program than the one presented in the Action Plan. Whereas the Action Plan estimated that 5 to 9 MMT of carbon (MMTC) could be sequestered in 2000 (with perhaps threefold increases in sequestration in later years when trees are growing the fastest), the program being considered in this analysis annually sequesters as much as 231 MMTC during its peak years. Our analysis focuses on how much the costs of stabilizing US carbon emissions at 1990 levels are reduced when economic criteria alone determine the number of trees that will be used. Our results show that when the focus is shifted from stabilization of gross emissions to net emissions the cost reductions are dramatic, about 20 to 80 percent depending on the assumed cost of trees. Political and institutional obstacles to the formation of such a cost effective response are explored in the conclusions.

Richards, K.R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Rosenthal, D.H.; Wise, M.

1993-06-01

37

Carbon taxes, consumer demand and carbon dioxide emissions: a simulation analysis for the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the effects of a carbon tax, one of the possible instruments for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Such taxes are currently being proposed as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, motivated by concerns about the global greenhouse effect and its potential impact on global climate and sea levels (Cline, 1991) and on global economies (Nordhaus,

Elizabeth Symons; John Proops; Philip Gay

1994-01-01

38

Options for lowering U.S. carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States can decrease its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to as much as 35 percent below 1987 levels within the next 25 years by adopting an aggressive package of policies crossing all sectors of the economy. Such emissions reductions will be difficult to achieve and may be costly, but no major technological breakthroughs are needed. In this paper, we identify a ``Tough'' package of energy conservation, energy supply, and forest managment practices to accomplish this level of emissions reductions. We also present a package of cost-effective, ``Moderate'' technical options, which if adopted, would hold CO2 emissions to about 15-percent increase over 1987 levels by 2015. In constrast, if the United State takes not new actions to curb energy use, CO2 emissions will likely rise 50 percent during that time. A variety of Federal policy initiatives will be required to achieve large reductions in U.S. CO2 emissions. Such policy actions will have to include both regulatory ``push'' and market ``pull'' mechanisms--including performance standards, tax incentive programs, carbon-emission or energy taxes, labeling and efficiency ratings, and research, development, and demostration activities.

Bierbaum, Rosina M.; Friedman, Robert M.; Levenson, Howard; Rapoport, Richard D.; Sundt, Nick

1992-03-01

39

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01

40

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, R. J.; Gregg, J. S.; Losey, L.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A.

2011-07-01

41

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use, 1751 1950  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly compiled energy statistics allow for an estimation of the complete time series of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel use for the years 1751 to the present. The time series begins with 3×106 metric tonnes carbon (C). This initial flux represents the early stages of the fossil-fuel era. The CO2 flux increased exponentially until World War I. The time series derived here seamlessly joins the modern 1950 to present time series. Total cumulative CO2 emissions through 1949 were 61.0×109 tonnes C from fossil-fuel use, virtually all since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution around 1860. The rate of growth continues to grow during present times, generating debate on the probability of enhanced greenhouse warming. In addition to global totals, national totals and 1° global distributions of the data have been calculated.

Andres, R. J.; Fielding, D. J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A.; Kumar, N.; Kearney, A. T.

1999-09-01

42

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2 emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr-1 (95% CI: 5.84 -10.46), averaging 750 g C m-2 yr-1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m-2 yr-1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr-1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ˜6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

Striegl, Robert G.; Dornblaser, M. M.; McDonald, C. P.; Rover, J. R.; Stets, E. G.

2012-12-01

43

Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENT investigations on Mount Etna (Sicily)1-3 have revealed that volcanoes may release abundant carbon dioxide not only from their active craters, but also from their flanks, as diffuse soil emanations. Here we present analyses of soil gases and air in water wells on Vulcano Island which provide further evidence of such lateral degassing. Nearly pure carbon dioxide, enriched in helium

J. C. Baubron; P. Allard; J. P. Toutain

1990-01-01

44

Annual volcanic carbon dioxide emission: An estimate from eruption chronologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing interest in the effects of carbon dioxide on climate has been promoted by the exponentially increasing anthropogenic production of CO2. Volcanoes are also a major source of carbon dioxide, but their average input to the atmosphere is generally considered minor relative to anthropogenic input. This study examines eruption chronologies to determine a new estimate of the volcanic CO2 input

Steven W. Leavitt

1982-01-01

45

Estimates of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Mexico at Monthly Time Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human consumption of fossil fuels has greatly contributed to the rise of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. To better understand the global carbon cycle, it is important to identify the major sources of these fossil fuels. Mexico is among the top fifteen nations in the world for producing fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions. Based on this information and that

L. M. Losey; R. J. Andres

2003-01-01

46

Global Biogenic Emission of Carbon Dioxide from Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-induced increases in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gas components have been underway over the past century and are expected to drive climate change in the coming decades. Carbon dioxide was responsible for an estimated 55 % of the antropogenically driven radiactive forcing of the atmosphere in the 1980s and is predicted to have even greater importance over the next century (Houghton et al., 1990). A highly resolved understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2, and how they are affected by climate and land use, is essential in the analysis of the global carbon cycle and how it may be impacted by human activities. Landfills are biochemical reactors that produce CH4 and CO2 emissions due to anaerobic digestion of solid urban wastes. Estimated global CH4 emission from landfills is about 44 millions tons per year and account for a 7.4 % of all CH4 sources (Whiticar, 1989). Observed CO2/CH4 molar ratios from landfill gases lie within the range of 0.7-1.0; therefore, an estimated global biogenic emission of CO2 from landfills could reach levels of 11.2-16 millions tons per year. Since biogas extraction systems are installed for extracting, purifying and burning the landfill gases, most of the biogenic gas emission to the atmosphere from landfills occurs through the surface environment in a diffuse and disperse form, also known as non-controlled biogenic emission. Several studies of non-controlled biogenic gas emission from landfills showed that CO2/CH4 weight ratios of surface landfill gases, which are directly injected into the atmosphere, are about 200-300 times higher than those observed in the landfill wells, which are usually collected and burned by gas extraction systems. This difference between surface and well landfill gases is mainly due to bacterial oxidation of the CH4 to CO2 inducing higher CO2/CH4 ratios for surface landfill gases than those well landfill gases. Taking into consideration this observation, the global biogenic CO2 emission from landfills could be estimated about 8.8-13.2\\times103 million tons per year, equivalent to a 0.04-0.06 % of the fossil fuel emission of CO2.

Lima, R.; Nolasco, D.; Meneses, W.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.

2002-12-01

47

Annual volcanic carbon dioxide emission: An estimate from eruption chronologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing interest in the effects of carbon dioxide on climate has been promoted by the exponentially increasing anthropogenic\\u000a production of CO2. Volcanoes are also a major source of carbon dioxide, but their average input to the atmosphere is generally considered minor\\u000a relative to anthropogenic input. This study examines eruption chronologies to determine a new estimate of the volcanic CO2 input

Steven W. Leavitt

1982-01-01

48

Space-based observational approaches for carbon dioxide emissions treaty assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing demand for methodologies to support the assessment of international treaties on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The situation is complicated by the fact that the treaty protocols under consideration require the evaluation of the net global CO2 emissions (total anthropogenic emissions less sequestration or accumulation in long-term carbon stocks) on spatial scales of nation states (~100 km). These

Charles Miller; David Baker; Riley Duren; David Crisp

2010-01-01

49

Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for the flux footprint estimated using a simple Kormann-Meixner model. Methane emissions from central London exhibit diurnal trends both for concentrations and fluxes. The former is consistent with cycles of growth and shrinkage of the urban boundary layer. Methane fluxes are strongly correlated with those of carbon dioxide. Work is ongoing to establish to what extent the diurnal cycles reflect dynamic changes in ground sources (emissions from road traffic, commercial/ domestic heating, variations in flux footprint) and to what extent they are affected by transport efficiency between street level and the top of the tower and storage in between, given the high measurement height.

Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

2013-04-01

50

Guidance for Determining Best Available Control Technology for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidance provides an illustration of reasoning that a Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting authority may use to support the conclusion that the best available control technology (BACT) for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at a bioen...

2011-01-01

51

Carbon dioxide emissions and fossil fuel consumption a Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential climate change due to increased loading of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has emerged as one of the most significant environmental threats of the late twentieth century. An analysis of a variety of feasible energy demand scenarios for Canada indicates that if we continue to consume the same types and proportions of fuels as we do today, the

John Peter Doucet

1988-01-01

52

The Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon emissions: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the

J. S. Gregg; R. J. Andres

2006-01-01

53

Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts of Mammoth Mountain. Humans and other animals exposed to CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent could lose consciousness and die rapidly. With knowledge of the problem and reasonable caution, however, the health hazard to humans can be avoided. As noted earlier, the CO2 emission is related to magmatic activity at depth, but at present (1998) it does not portend an imminent volcanic eruption.

Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

1999-01-01

54

Monthly Estimates of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Five European Countries: The United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy and Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human consumption of fossil fuels has greatly contributed to the rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the Earth's atmosphere. To better understand the global carbon cycle, it is important to identify the major sources of these fossil fuel emissions. Annual analyses for fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions have dominated the literature to this date. By studying the monthly consumption

L. M. Losey; R. J. Andres

2004-01-01

55

Evaluating Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emission from Alternative Inter-regional High Speed Passenger Transport Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from transport activities from long-distance and high- demand sections is recognized especially in developed countries. This study aims to compare CO2 emission from Shinkansen high speed railway with emissions from air transport by employing LCA method. Here it is assumed that only existing airports are used for air transport but Shinkansen is

Naoki SHIBAHARA; Hirokazu KATO; Yoshitsugu HAYASHI

56

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Breon, F.-M. [CEA/DSM/LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Davis, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J. S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Miller, J. [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Oda, T [NOAA ESRL/Boulder, CO/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State Univ.; Oliver, J. G. J. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Rayner, P [University of Melbourne, Australia; Treanton, K. [Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency, Paris, France

2012-01-01

57

Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy.  

PubMed

RECENT investigations on Mount Etna (Sicily)(1-3) have revealed that volcanoes may release abundant carbon dioxide not only from their active craters, but also from their flanks, as diffuse soil emanations. Here we present analyses of soil gases and air in water wells on Vulcano Island which provide further evidence of such lateral degassing. Nearly pure carbon dioxide, enriched in helium and radon, escapes from the slopes of the Fossa active cone, adding a total output of 30 tonnes per day to the fumarolic crater discharge ( 180 tonnes CO(2) per day). This emanation has similar He/CO(2) and (13)C/(12)C ratios to those of the crater fumaroles (300%ndash;500 degrees C) and therefore a similar volcanic origin. Gases rich in carbon dioxide also escape at sea level along the isthmus between the Fossa and Vulcanello volcanic cones, but their depletion in both He and (13)C suggests a distinct source. Diffuse volcanic gas emanations, once their genetic link with central fumarole degassing has been demonstrated, can be used for continuous volcano monitoring, at safe distances from active craters. Such monitoring has been initiated at Vulcano, where soil and well emanations of nearly pure CO(2) themselves represent a threat to the local population. PMID:18278024

Baubron, J C; Allard, P; Toutain, J P

1990-03-01

58

Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide: A global database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global database describing the geographical distribution of the biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide has been constructed. Termite biomasses were assigned to various ecosystems using published measurements and a recent high-resolution (10' × 10') database of vegetation categories. The assigned biomasses were then combined with literature measurements of fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from termites and extrapolated to give global emission estimates for each gas. The global emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are 19.7 ± 1.5 and 3500 ± 700 Mt yr-1, respectively (1 Mt = 1012 g). These emissions contribute approximately 4% and 2%, respectively, to the total global fluxes of these gases. This database gives an accurate distribution of the biomasses and gaseous emissions by termites and may be incorporated into global models of the atmosphere.

Sanderson, M. G.

1996-12-01

59

The Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon emissions: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon emissions. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, only national annual data for anthropogenic carbon emissions are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of emissions are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon emissions. The annual total emissions estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon emissions allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon emissions, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.

Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.

2006-12-01

60

Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds—0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h?1. Emission factors and their relative values between

Z. D. Ristovski; E. R. Jayaratne; L. Morawska; G. A. Ayoko; M. Lim

2005-01-01

61

The relationships of carbon dioxide emissions and income in a newly industrialized economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions patterns in coordination with the economic development of Taiwan. The resulting quadratic relationship between emissions and income are partly due to the structural change of energy supply in Taiwan, with the introduction of nuclear energy in 1980 to 1986. This relationship is quite unique and different from the N-shaped relationships in some

Wan-Jiun Chen

2012-01-01

62

The relationships of carbon dioxide emissions and income in a newly industrialized economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions patterns in coordination with the economic development of Taiwan. The resulting quadratic relationship between emissions and income are partly due to the structural change of energy supply in Taiwan, with the introduction of nuclear energy in 1980 to 1986. This relationship is quite unique and different from the N-shaped relationships in some

Wan-Jiun Chen

2011-01-01

63

The carbon dioxide emission footprint of food products and their application in the food system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The research reported has developed a method for calculating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from food products using recipe and farm production data. The method has utilised published Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) CO2 emission measurements for the production of crop and livestock ingredients. These measurements are complemented by conversions of energy use for drying, milling and baking of these ingredients

W MARTINDALE; R McGLOIN; M JONES; P BARLOW

64

Modeling Seasonality in German Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil Fuel Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is developed to determine seasonal fossil fuel consumption patterns by using monthly sales data to estimate the relative monthly proportions of the total annual carbon dioxide emissions for Germany. From these data, the goal is to develop mathematical models that describe the seasonal flux in consumption for each type of fuel, as well as the total emissions for

J. S. Gregg; R. J. Andres

2004-01-01

65

Development of a Local Carbon Dioxide Emissions Inventory Based on Energy Demand and Waste Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment

João Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues; M. C. Chang; Norman Robinson; Dana Trimble; Steven Kohl; John Watson; L.-W. Chen; Hsing-Wang Li; Yee-Lin Wu; Wen-Jhy Lee; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; David Schaad; James Halley; Vince Alaimo; David Epperson; Miriam Lev-On; Hal Taback; Jeffrey Siegell; Karin Ritter; Yu Zhou; Lixin Fu; Linglin Cheng; Pao-Wen Liu; Daniel Brady; Gregory Pratt; Qingzhong Yuan; Kalliat Valsaraj; Danny Reible; Clinton Willson; Wipada Sanongraj; Yongsheng Chen; John Crittenden; Hugo Destaillats; David Hand; David Perram; Roy Taylor; Sangil Lee; Armistead Russell; Karsten Baumann

2007-01-01

66

The influence of soil crusting on carbon dioxide emissions from soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global soils contain an estimated 1500GT of carbon, over twice that present in the atmosphere, however the role of soil in the global carbon cycle is highly debated. The influence of soil erosion and deposition in the global carbon cycle has been primarily investigated through the incubation of small volumes of loose sediment. The physical properties of this sediment are likely to differ to those in the environment where in situ soil forms part of an intact unit which can have a cohesive high density crust at the surface. The primary aim of this investigation was to measure carbon dioxide emissions from intact crusted soil samples. Rainfall simulation was used to create areas of soil crusting under high and low rainfall intensity in areas of erosion and deposition. The carbon dioxide emissions were measured over a 58 day period using an Infra Red Gas Analyser (IRGA). Physical properties of the crusts (total C content, C:N ratio, texture, density, degree of aggregation) were also determined. It was found that CO2 emissions were not related to C content alone, with strong correlation found to density (rs - 0.70) and aggregation (rs - 0.67), and texture also being influential although to a lesser extent. It is the effect that these properties have on OM bioavailability and gas diffusivity which affects the emissions of carbon dioxide. The physical properties of a crust are influenced by rainfall intensity, a conceptual diagram explaining this process has been developed. Given the strong correlation that has been found between carbon dioxide emissions and the physical properties of soils to base estimates of emissions on studies of loose samples maybe flawed. Furthermore given that rainfall intensity is predicted to change with global warming so to may soil crusting and emissions of carbon dioxide.

Armstrong, Elizabeth; Quinton, John; Kuhn, Nikolaus

2010-05-01

67

Influence of vegetation cover of depleted peat deposits at the emission and absorption of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total peatlands area in Belarus before the beginning of drainage and peat extraction was 2,939,000 hectares, or 14.2% of the total territory of the Republic. Wide-scale melioration and industrial peat extraction have led to reduction of their virgin area by more than 40% and to degradation of environment on a local level. Currently total area of depleted peat deposits makes about 260 thousand hectares. Carbon dioxide is a product of vital activity of aerobic organisms that make decomposition of organic matter, and because of this oxygen is taken from the atmosphere and is used for biochemical oxidation of the residual peat layer and carbon dioxide is emitted into atmosphere. Emission of carbon dioxide into atmosphere from the depleted peat deposits depends on the type of peat deposit, level of peatlands water, current vegetation. Mineralization of peat depends on the humidity, temperature and aeration of peat layer. Emission of carbon dioxide from the depleted and not covered with grass plots of raised bogs made 2,9-13,2 (in average -9,5 tons CO2/ha per annum), from fen mires - 4,4-20,6 (in average -14,3 tons CO2/ha per annum) . Emission of carbon dioxide from the depleted and covered with grass plots of raised bogs made 3,3-9,9 (in average - 5,8 tons CO2/ha per annum), from the fen mires - 4,4-12,8 (in average - 9,9 tons CO2/ha per annum). Average annual emission of carbon dioxide from depleted covered with trees and shrubs plots of raised peatlands made (-1,2)-4,4 (in average - 2,9 tons CO2/ha per annum), from fen mires - (-1,5)- 1,4 (in average - (-0,8) tons CO2/ha per annum). Balance of carbon dioxide for covered with trees and shrubs sites of depleted peat deposits consists of emission of organic matter of peat into atmosphere in the process of mineralization and absorption of carbon dioxide in the process of increment of vegetation biomass. At the depleted peat deposits of fen type covered with trees and shrubs absorption of carbon dioxide exceeds its emission. However drained peat deposits used in the forestry are fire dangerous. Almost always this brings down to zero increment of timber in the result of peatlands drainage.

Rakovich, V. A.; Chabrouskaya, O. M.

2010-05-01

68

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

2001-04-01

69

Assessment of the Contribution of Gas to the Global Emissions of Carbon Dioxide. Final Report February-December 1983,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the project is to assess the contribution of future gas combustion to the global emissions of carbon dioxide. The resources of natural gas are too small to make a significant contribution to ultimate carbon emissions. The carbon emissions...

D. B. Reister

1984-01-01

70

Contributions of Vehicular Traffic to Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Kaduna and Abuja, Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) contributed by automobile emissions to the environment was determined at some areas in Kaduna and Abuja in Northern Nigeria. Five census stations were selected in each of the two towns. In Kaduna, Jabi road in Ungwan Rimi, Kawo Motor park, Stadium round- about, Sabo and Kasuwa (Kaduna Main Market), were selected, while Asokoro (behind

Peter Ndoke NDOKE; Uduak George AKPAN; Mary Egiganya KATO

2006-01-01

71

Carbon Dioxide Emission Index as a Mean for Assessing Fuel Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO2 released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The

E. Furimsky

2007-01-01

72

Prediction of Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Simulated Food Waste Composting Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model was established on a synthesis of substrate specific kinetics and Contois function to predict ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions in simulated food waste composting processes. To verify the developed model, a series of composting experiments were undertaken. The model shows better agreement with experimental result for soluble substrate concentration (S), in which the average relative error was

Yu Li; Jiangling Wang

2008-01-01

73

Economic growth, energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions in India: 1990-2020  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the linkages between economic growth, energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in India by analysing the structure of production and consumption in the Indian economy. We begin with an examination of the consumption pattern of six different income classes, three each in urban and rural India, and then estimate the direct and indirect energy and CO2

N. S. MURTHY; M. PANDA; J. PARIKH

1997-01-01

74

Measuring National Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Tourism as a Key Step Towards Achieving Sustainable Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most tourism-related activities require energy directly in the form of fossil fuels or indirectly in the form of electricity often generated from petroleum, coal or gas. This consumption leads to the emission of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide. Tourism is not a traditional sector in the System of National Accounts and as a result no country possesses comprehensive national statistics

Susanne Becken; Murray Patterson

2006-01-01

75

Can natural factors explain any cross-country differences in carbon dioxide emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines what role natural factors play in explaining cross-country differences in carbon dioxide emissions. Natural factors mean here differences in the climatic conditions, the availability of renewable and fossil fuel resources and the transportation requirements of countries. While income remains the main variable, regression results show that natural factors contribute significantly to an explanation of cross-country differences in

Eric Neumayer

2002-01-01

76

Viewpoint Can natural factors explain any cross-country differences in carbon dioxide emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines what role natural factors play in explaining cross-country differences in carbon dioxide emissions. Natural factors mean here differences in the climatic conditions, the availability of renewable and fossil fuel resources and the transportation requirements of countries. While income remains the main variable, regression results show that natural factors contribute significantly to an explanation of cross-country differences in

Eric Neumayer

77

The Shock Effect of China's Economic Growth on Main Energy's Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the shock effect of China's economic growth on main energy's (consist of raw coal and crude oil in this paper) carbon dioxide emissions. The impulse response functions (IRF) derived from a factor-augmented vector autoregression (FAVAR) model are used in this paper. By intruducing model's operation steps and conducting 153 macroeconomic time series in quarterly frequency over

Shanshen Li; Yu Yao; Kuisheng Zhou

2011-01-01

78

Carbon dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

Arie Melamed-Katz (None;)

2007-06-19

79

Options and Instruments for a Deep Cut in CO 2 Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Capture or Renewables, Taxes or Subsidies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares both the main physical options and the principle policy instruments to realize a deep cut in carbon dioxide emissions necessary to control global climate change. A top-down energy-economy model is used that has three emission reduction options: energy savings, a transition towards less- carbon-intensive or non-carbon energy resources, and the use of carbon dioxide capture and storage

Reyer Gerlagh; Bob van der Zwaan

80

Options and Instruments for a Deep Cut in CO2 Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Capture or Renewables, Taxes or Subsidies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares both the main physical options and the principal policy instruments to realize a deep cut in carbon dioxide emissions necessary to control global climate change. A top-down energy-economy model is used that has three emission reduction options: energy savings, a transition towards less carbon-intensive or non-carbon energy resources, and the use of carbon dioxide capture and storage

Reyer Gerlagh; Bob van der Zwaan

2006-01-01

81

Carbon Dioxide Disposal via Carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonation is a solidification\\/stabilization process. The availability of a carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming causes severe restrictions on CO2 emissions. In order to prevent rapid climate change, it will be necessary to stabilize CO2 as carbonate by the carbonation process. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (Mg2SiO4) converts CO2 into an

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

82

Improved carbon dioxide characterization and estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are validated using a dataset that includes measurements over land and ocean in both hemispheres including aircraft transects over the west Pacific (CONTRAIL), and vertical profiles over the Pacific (HIPPO), South American (SAN) and the United states (ARM-SGP). Although TES data compares well to validation data overall, a latitude-dependent bias and land/ocean differences are found in preliminary v5 TES data. Proposed improvements based on these findings are shown. March-May, 2006 TES carbon dioxide with GLOBALVIEW surface data overplotted (circles)

Kulawik, S. S.; Worden, J.; Nassar, R.; Jones, D. B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; Fischer, M. L.; Biraud, S. C.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

2010-12-01

83

Carbon dioxide emission from olive oil pastes during the transformation process: technological spin offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from olive paste during malaxation was investigated in a lab experiment using a hermetically sealed malaxation chamber.\\u000a A rapid increase in the concentration of CO2 during malaxation was observed, with an average increase of 32 ml\\/(l min) for the initial 5 min. Then, the emission progressively\\u000a decreased to a mean rate of 1.1 ml\\/(l min). This was probably the

A. Parenti; P. Spugnoli; P. Masella; L. Calamai

2006-01-01

84

Carbon dioxide emission implications if hydrofluorocarbons are regulated: a refrigeration case study.  

PubMed

The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and a historically used refrigerant. The results indicate current regulations being considered may increase global climate change. PMID:20050659

Blowers, Paul; Lownsbury, James M

2010-03-01

85

Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown proportion of corpses and 161 (19%) survivors treated in hospital; though these lesions were initially believed to be burns from acidic gases, further investigation suggested that they were associated with coma states caused by exposure to carbon dioxide in air. The disaster at Lake Nyos and a similar event at Lake Monoun, Cameroon, two years previously provide new information on the possible medical effects of large scale emissions of carbon dioxide, though the presence of other toxic factors in these gas releases cannot be excluded. PMID:2502283

Baxter, P J; Kapila, M; Mfonfu, D

1989-05-27

86

Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

2009-06-29

87

A 1° × 1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1950–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

One degree latitude by one degree longitude (1° × 1°) data sets of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture were produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. National estimates of carbon emissions were combined with 1° × 1° data sets of political units and human population density to create the new 1° × 1° carbon

Robert J. Andres; Gregg Marland; Inez Fungand; Elaine Matthews

1996-01-01

88

Technologies to reduce or capture and store carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store COâ emissions, primarily as they relate to direct coal combustion and also coal gasification and liquefaction. The report surveys and summarizes existing research, discusses relevant federal programs, makes recommendations regarding additional research opportunities and public policy objectives, and recommends a technology-based framework for mitigating COâ emissions

G. Nelson; M. Mueller; M. McCall; R. Knipp

2007-01-01

89

Life-cycle energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of world cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tank-to-wheel fuel consumption (i.e. fuel economy) of an average car model was found to be 8.4 liters (diesel\\/petrol) per 100 km, which is equal to 30.3 miles per gallon (mpg). The carbon dioxide emissions of an average car model are 209 g\\/km. The curb weight of an average car model is 1488 kg. However, an average new light-duty vehicle

Kimmo Klemola

90

The Leverage of Demographic Dynamics on Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Does Age Structure Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a methodological contribution to the study of the effect of changes in population age structure on carbon\\u000a dioxide (CO2) emissions. First, I propose a generalization of the IPAT equation to a multisector economy with an age-structured population\\u000a and discuss the insights that can be obtained in the context of stable population theory. Second, I suggest a statistical

Emilio Zagheni

2011-01-01

91

Current status of waste to power generation in Japan and resulting reduction of carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the current status of waste to power generation (WPG) in Japan and various scenarios involving indirect reduction\\u000a of carbon dioxide emissions by WPG. The number of WPG facilities domestically as of 2005 was 286. Power generation capacity\\u000a attained 1,515 MW and power generation 7,050 GWh\\/year. This amount substitutes energy otherwise acquired from natural resources\\u000a such as fossil fuels in thermal

Masaki Takaoka; Nobuo Takeda; Naruo Yamagata; Takahiro Masuda

92

Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions for China at Monthly Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a mixture of official government statistics and industrial records, the relative monthly amounts of fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide emissions from China have been estimated for one year (2004). This analysis focused on establishing reliable monthly statistics that represent the fraction of annual-total solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels consumed during each month. Ongoing analyses may extend this time series to more

R. J. Andres; G. Marland

2005-01-01

93

Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators.  

PubMed

The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO2 emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO2 emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO2 emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO2 emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO2 emissions that has been shown in earlier workto stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO2 reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. PMID:18522086

Newcomer, Adam; Blumsack, Seth A; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester B; Morgan, M Granger

2008-05-01

94

Estimating diesel fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions ...  

Treesearch

Description: Forest access road construction is a necessary component of many ... carbon accounting, forest management, road construction, forest products, diesel ... and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.

95

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-08-01

96

Analysis of carbon dioxide emission from energy systems  

SciTech Connect

A linear programming model MARKAL is used to explore technology options and cost for meeting energy demands while reducing CO[sub 2] emissions from energy system of Japan. The model consists of an extension of the existing energy system and possible alternative energy technologies available during 45 years from 1983 to 2027. Using two scenarios of high- and low-energy demand, an optimal configuration of the model is examined under the mix of specified constraints on the use of technologies and fuels. The results show that energy conservation is robust in yielding reduction in CO[sub 2] emissions under a variety of conditions, and that stringent constraints on the national CO[sub 2] emissions produce major shifts in the market shares of fossil and non-fossil fuels that necessitate advanced technologies and an increase in the total system cost.

Ihara, S.; Koyama, S. (Nippon Inst. of Tech., Saitama (Japan) Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1992-01-01

97

FOREST FIRES IN RUSSIA: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE  

EPA Science Inventory

Boreal forests of Russia play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the f lux of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. ecause f ire and other disturbances are ecologically inherent in boreal forests, large areas are burned annually and contributions to the flux of carbo...

98

Electricity sector reforms in four Latin-American countries and their impact on carbon dioxide emissions and renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions related to energy consumption for electricity generation in four Latin-American countries in the context of the liberalization process. From 1990 to 2006, power plants based on renewable energy sources decreased its share in power installed capacity, and the carbon index defined as CO2 emission by unit of energy for electricity production stayed almost

Belizza Janet Ruiz-Mendoza; Claudia Sheinbaum-Pardo

2010-01-01

99

Technologies to reduce or capture and store carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store CO{sub 2} emissions, primarily as they relate to direct coal combustion and also coal gasification and liquefaction. The report surveys and summarizes existing research, discusses relevant federal programs, makes recommendations regarding additional research opportunities and public policy objectives, and recommends a technology-based framework for mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-based electricity generation plants. The US Department of Energy is already at work to foster the development of these technologies. The report recognizes the scope of that work and in essence, concludes that much work still remains. A summary of the report is published in hard copy and on the CD-ROM. The full 160 page report is on the CD-ROM.

Nelson, G.; Mueller, M.; McCall, M.; Knipp, R. [PTI Resources Inc. (United States)

2007-06-15

100

A 1°×1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1950-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

One degree latitude by one degree longitude (1°×1°) data sets of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture were produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. National estimates of carbon emissions were combined with 1°×1° data sets of political units and human population density to create the new 1°×1° carbon emissions data sets. The human population

Robert J. Andres; Gregg Marland; Inez Fung; Elaine Matthews

1996-01-01

101

Carbon Sequestration in Massachusetts Forests as an Offset for Energy Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gases are both a regulatory and scientific challenge. Policymakers are developing new legislation to utilize forests to mitigate the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) uses afforestation, the planting of new forests, for this purpose. Using afforestation alone, however, ignores current sequestration due to growth, which is already happening within the Northeastern United States. In

Minda Berbeco; Colin Orians

102

Carbon dioxide emission from Katanuma volcanic lake, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report herein the first results of a CO2 efflux survey carried out at Katanuma volcanic lake, Japan. A total of 110 CO2 efflux measurements were undertaken at the lake by means of the floating accumulation chamber method during August 2010 to estimate the total CO2 output from the studied area. Two different mechanisms of degassing were observed during the survey; (1) diffusion through the water-air interface and (2) bubbling. CO2 efflux values ranged from 0.5 up to 322 g m-2 d-1. In addition, the probability graph was used to distinguish the existence of different geochemical populations in the measured values. Sequential Gaussian Simulation was used to construct a map of CO2 efflux from 200 simulations and to compute the total CO2 diffuse emission at the studied area, i.e., 17 ± 0.6 t d-1.

Hernández, P. A.; Mori, T.; Padrón, E.; Sumino, H.; Pérez, N.

2011-11-01

103

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOEpatents

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18

104

Short and Long Term Impacts of Forest Bioenergy Production on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. The benefit of managing forests for bioenergy substitution of fossil fuels versus potential carbon sequestration by reducing harvest needs to be evaluated. This study uses a combination of Federal Forest Inventory data (FIA), remote sensing, and a coupled carbon-nitrogen ecosystem process model (CLM4-CN) to predict net atmospheric CO2 emissions from forest thinning for bioenergy production in Oregon under varying future management and climate scenarios. We use life-cycle assessment (LCA) incorporating both the forest and forest product sinks and sources of carbon dioxide. Future modeled results are compared with a reduced harvest scenario to determine the potential for increased carbon sequestration in forest biomass. We find that Oregon forests are a current strong sink of 7.5 ± 1.7 Tg C yr-1 or 61 g C m-2 yr-1. (NBP; NEP minus removals from fire and harvest). In the short term, we find that carbon dynamics following harvests for fire prevention and large-scale bioenergy production lead to 2-15% higher emissions over the next 20 years compared to current management, assuming 100% effectiveness of fire prevention. Given the current sink strength, analysis of the forest sector in Oregon demonstrates that increasing harvest levels by all practices above current business-as-usual levels increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as long as the region's sink persists. In the long-term, we find that projected changes in climate and fire regimes reduce the baseline sink in drier portions of the state making thinning for bioenergy production an effective means to reduce atmospheric emissions. However, in the more productive wetter areas, management for carbon sequestration removes more CO2 from the atmosphere than substitution of fossil fuels with forest bioenergy. Management strategies should consider the emission reduction potential of reducing harvest in some areas before implementing bioenergy production.

Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.; Thornton, P. E.

2011-12-01

105

Variability in the Mass and Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions for the Countries of the North American Carbon Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we focus more intently on the carbon cycle in North America, the spatial and temporal scales of our observations become more important. The carbon dioxide released from fossil fuel consumption can show large variability in both spatial and temporal scales. This presentation will focus on this variability. We have compiled a data set that contains the monthly emissions of

R. J. Andres; T. A. Boden; J. S. Gregg; L. Losey; G. Marland

2007-01-01

106

Adapting sustainable low-carbon techologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific community is deeply concerned about the effect of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) on global climate change. A major climate shift can result in tragic destruction to our world. Carbon dioxide (COsb2) emissions from coal-fired power plants are major anthropogenic sources that contribute to potential global warming. The People's Republic of China, with its rapidly growing economy and heavy dependence on

Peter Shyr-Jye Kuo

1997-01-01

107

Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions at Monthly Resolution for the Countries of the North American Carbon Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of national statistical databases has allowed for the widely-used, CDIAC-housed data set on annual, fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide emissions to be subdivided into monthly time intervals. This analysis focused on establishing reliable statistics that represent the solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels consumed in each country at monthly time scales. An intermediate product of this analysis was the fraction of the

R. J. Andres; J. S. Gregg; L. M. Losey; G. Marland

2004-01-01

108

Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation contributes 6-17% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Large uncertainties in emission estimates arise from inadequate data on the carbon density of forests and the regional rates of deforestation. Consequently there is an urgent need for improved data sets that characterize the global distribution of aboveground biomass, especially in the tropics. Here we use multi-sensor satellite data to estimate aboveground live woody vegetation carbon density for pan-tropical ecosystems with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution. Results indicate that the total amount of carbon held in tropical woody vegetation is 228.7PgC, which is 21% higher than the amount reported in the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (ref. ). At the national level, Brazil and Indonesia contain 35% of the total carbon stored in tropical forests and produce the largest emissions from forest loss. Combining estimates of aboveground carbon stocks with regional deforestation rates we estimate the total net emission of carbon from tropical deforestation and land use to be 1.0PgCyr-1 over the period 2000-2010--based on the carbon bookkeeping model. These new data sets of aboveground carbon stocks will enable tropical nations to meet their emissions reporting requirements (that is, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Tier 3) with greater accuracy.

Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Walker, W. S.; Laporte, N. T.; Sun, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Hackler, J.; Beck, P. S. A.; Dubayah, R.; Friedl, M. A.; Samanta, S.; Houghton, R. A.

2012-03-01

109

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of industrialized countries in promoting the adoption of low carbon technologies, how do international steel and cement companies influence the situation, and how can such information be used in the context of Clean Development Mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol?

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-09-01

110

Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown proportion of corpses and 161 (19%) survivors treated in hospital; though these lesions were initially believed to be burns from acidic gases, further investigation suggested that they were associated with coma states caused by exposure to carbon dioxide in air. The disaster at Lake Nyos and a similar event at Lake Monoun, Cameroon, two years previously provide new information on the possible medical effects of large scale emissions of carbon dioxide, though the presence of other toxic factors in these gas releases cannot be excluded. Images FIG 2 a FIG 2 b FIG 2 c FIG 2 d FIG 2 e FIG 3 FIG 4

Baxter, P. J.; Kapila, M.; Mfonfu, D.

1989-01-01

111

2002 Monthly Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Mexico at a 10x10k Spatial Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the total measured amount of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere remains an important component of carbon cycle science, particularly as efforts to understand the net exchange of carbon at the surface move to smaller scales. In order to reduce the uncertainty of this flux, researchers led by Purdue University have built a high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 flux inventory for the United States, called “Vulcan”. The Vulcan inventory quantifies emissions for the United States at 10km resolution every hour for the year 2002 and can be seen as a key component of a national assessment and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions and emissions mitigation. As part of the North American Carbon Project, the 2002 carbon dioxide emissions from Mexico are presented at the monthly temporal and municipality spatial scale. Mexico is of particular importance because of the scientific integration under the North American Carbon Program. Furthermore, Mexico has seen a notable growth in its population as well as migration toward urban centers and increasing energy requirements due in part to industrial intensification. The native resolution of the emissions is geolocated (lat/lon) for point sources, such as power plants, airports, and large industry. The emissions are estimated at the municipality level for residential and commercial sources, and allocated to roads for the mobile transport sector. Data sources include the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), and Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA). CO2 emissions are calculated from the 1999 NEI data by converting CO emissions using sector and process-dependent emission factors, and is scaled up to 2002 using statistics obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center CDIAC. CEC and CARMA data, which encompass power plant emissions, are already in units of CO2. Emissions are regridded to 10x10k and 0.1x0.1 deg grids to enable atmospheric CO2 transport modeling. All economic sectors are analyzed, including power plants, commercial, residential, industrial, on-road, and non-road. Municipality and regional scale analysis is presented to explore the differences in economic and industrial development and need. Specific centers of high emissions are highlighted and analyzed in order to put into context the development and growth of certain economic sectors. The annualized emissions are compared to estimates by the International Energy Agency and found to be very similar although some discrepancies are expected due to the different methods of obtaining results. Vulcan reports process-based emissions while IEA reports fuel sales. The Vulcan output is also disaggregated by fuel type and comparisons with IEA are presented across economic sectors. A monthly product based on monthly sales is also presented. Sales by major fuel types (oil, natural gas, coal) are obtained from EIA data and those results shape the monthly cycle. These results are compared to a similar national studies, and similarities and differences are analyzed and discussed.

Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Geethakumar, S.; Zhou, Y.; Sahni, N.

2009-12-01

112

Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source (δthinsp¹³C=-4.5 to -5{per_thousand}, ³He\\/⁴He=4.5 to 6.7 R{sub A}) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves

M. L. Sorey; W. C. Evans; B. M. Kennedy; C. D. Farrar; L. J. Hainsworth; B. Hausback

1998-01-01

113

Future ocean increasingly transparent to low-frequency sound owing to carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-frequency sound in the ocean is produced by natural phenomena such as rain, waves and marine life, as well as by human activities, such as the use of sonar systems, shipping and construction. Sea water absorbs sound mainly owing to the viscosity of the water and the presence of chemical constituents, such as magnesium sulphate, boric acid and carbonate ions. The concentration of dissolved chemicals absorbing sound near 1kHz depends on the pH of the ocean, which has declined as a result of increases in acidity due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Here we use a global ocean model forced with projected carbon dioxide emissions to predict regional changes in pH, and thus sound absorption, in the years 1800-2300. According to our projections, ocean pH could fall by up to 0.6 units by 2100. Sound absorption-in the range between ~100Hz and ~10kHz-could fall by up to 60% in the high latitudes and in areas of deep-water formation over the same time period. We predict that over the twenty-first century, chemical absorption of sound in this frequency range will nearly halve in some of the regions that experience significant radiated noise from industrial activity, such as the North Atlantic Ocean. We suggest that our forecast of reduced sound absorption in acoustic hotspots will help in identifying target regions for future monitoring.

Ilyina, Tatiana; Zeebe, Richard E.; Brewer, Peter G.

2010-01-01

114

Space-based observational approaches for carbon dioxide emissions treaty assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing demand for methodologies to support the assessment of international treaties on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The situation is complicated by the fact that the treaty protocols under consideration require the evaluation of the net global CO2 emissions (total anthropogenic emissions less sequestration or accumulation in long-term carbon stocks) on spatial scales of nation states (~100 km). These signals must also be disentangled from the large natural CO2 sources and sinks with high confidence. The current state of the art for observationally driven estimates of global CO2 fluxes comes from the TRANSCOM experiment and is limited to spatial resolutions of order 10,000 km (~25 global regions). Simulations of satellite data from the Greenhouse Gas Observations Satellite (GOSAT) or the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) sensors have shown the potential to reduce flux uncertainties by a factor of 10 or more while increasing the number of regions to ~100. We will present a series of flux inversion simulations using constellations of up to 4 OCO-like satellites that demonstrate the ability of space-based measurements to deliver weekly global CO2 fluxes on a 1° x 2.5° spatial resolution (~100 km x 200 km or 30,000 global regions) with flux uncertainties that are consistent with those needed to support the assessment of treaties regulating CO2 emissions.

Miller, Charles; Baker, David; Duren, Riley; Crisp, David

2010-05-01

115

Small ponds with major impact: The relevance of ponds and lakes in permafrost landscapes to carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although ponds make up roughly half of the total area of surface water in permafrost landscapes, their relevance to carbon dioxide emissions on a landscape scale has, to date, remained largely unknown. We have therefore investigated the inflows and outflows of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon from lakes, ponds, and outlets on Samoylov Island, in the Lena Delta of northeastern Siberia in September 2008, together with their carbon dioxide emissions. Outgassing of carbon dioxide (CO2) from these ponds and lakes, which cover 25% of Samoylov Island, was found to account for between 74 and 81% of the calculated net landscape-scale CO2 emissions of 0.2-1.1 g C m-2 d-1 during September 2008, of which 28-43% was from ponds and 27-46% from lakes. The lateral export of dissolved carbon was negligible compared to the gaseous emissions due to the small volumes of runoff. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ponds were found to triple during freezeback, highlighting their importance for temporary carbon storage between the time of carbon production and its emission as CO2. If ponds are ignored the total summer emissions of CO2-C from water bodies of the islands within the entire Lena Delta (0.7-1.3 Tg) are underestimated by between 35 and 62%.

Abnizova, A.; Siemens, J.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.

2012-06-01

116

Trade-off in emissions of acid gas pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel power plants on the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur oxides (SOX), which are acid gas pollutants. This was done by estimating the emissions of these chemical compounds from natural gas combined cycle and pulverized coal plants, equipped with post-combustion carbon capture technology for the

Evangelos Tzimas; Arnaud Mercier; Calin-Cristian Cormos; Stathis D. Peteves

2007-01-01

117

Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and 84 g C m-2 for PSL, AAS and LDC respectively. Carbon dioxide emission rates were corroborated with results obtained from the quantification of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) and soil microbial biomass-C (Cmic). The former represents the more labile fraction of soil organic matter and its concentration in the freshly amended soils followed the order LDC > AAS ? PSL. However, whereas WEOC concentrations decrease rapidly for PSL and LDC amended soils, AAS treated soils showed a steady increase during the first 20 days of incubation followed by a decrease thereafter. This was attributed to the release of soluble organic matter from the anaerobically stabilised digestate in the presence of an aerobic soil microbial community. Irrespective of the type of amendment, Cmic values increased with time with respect to the unamended controls, reaching highest values after 20 days from amendment and decreasing thereafter. Even after 40 days of incubation, Cmic values in all amended soils did not return to the background values obtained with unamended controls. These results suggest that the application of stabilised livestock-derived organic materials to soils may play an important role in reducing C emissions associated with agricultural practices and increase soil C stocks, apart from other indirect beneficial effects such as the recovery of energy from combustion of biogas from anaerobic fermentation of these waste materials.

Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

2009-04-01

118

Carbon dioxide and climate: a bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography with abstracts presents 394 citations retrieved from the Energy Data Base of the Department of Energy Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The citations cover all aspects of the climatic effects of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. These include carbon cycling, temperature effects, carbon dioxide control technologies, paleoclimatology, carbon dioxide sources and sinks, mathematical models, energy policies,

Ringe

1980-01-01

119

Carbon dioxide and climate. A bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This updated bibliography with abstracts presents 667 citations retrieved from the Energy Data Base of the Department of Energy Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The citations cover all aspects of the climatic effects of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. These include carbon cycling, temperature effects, carbon dioxide control technologies, paleoclimatology, carbon dioxide sources and sinks, mathematical models, energy

Ringe

1981-01-01

120

White Island volcano, New Zealand: carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emission rates and melt inclusion studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 and SO2 emission rates are reported for the volcanic gas plume from White Island, the most active volcano in New Zealand. SO2 emission rates were measured 16 times by correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) from 1986 to 1999 and range from 171 to 900 Mg day?1. We estimate the average SO2 emission rate was 430±70 Mg day?1 between 1983 and 1999.

Lois J. Wardell; Philip R. Kyle; Nelia Dunbar; Bruce Christenson

2001-01-01

121

Remote Sensing of Volcanic Water, Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data on SO_2 emissions from Lascar and Lonquimay Volcanoes, Chile revives an old observation in igneous petrogenesis: that convergent plate boundary volcanoes often emit more gas than their extrusion products suggest. A comprehensive model which integrates the processes of convection, distillation and basaltic underplating of andesitic magma chambers is suggested to explain these excessive gas emissions. New SO_2 data

Robert Joseph Andres

1992-01-01

122

Implications of delayed actions in addressing carbon dioxide emission reduction in the context of geo-engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions need to be reduced well below current emissions if atmospheric concentrations are to be stabilised\\u000a at a level likely to avoid dangerous climate change. We investigate how delays in reducing CO2 emissions affect stabilisation scenarios leading to overshooting of a target concentration pathway. We show that if geo-engineering\\u000a alone is used to compensate for the delay in

O. Boucher; J. A. Lowe; C. D. Jones

2009-01-01

123

Seasonal Odor, Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Emissions from Swine Grower-Finisher Rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], and carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rates (OGCERs) from swine facilities are vital for providing accurate source emissions and reducing the uncertainty of setback distances on the basis of emission data. In this study, a repeated measurement experimental method and a split-block statistical model were used to obtain seasonal OGCER

Gang Sun; Huiqing Guo; Jonathan Peterson; Glauber Mariano; Ani Torres; Wellington Jesus; Walter Nakaema; Maria Jorge; Rauda Mariani; Klara Slezakova; Dionísia Castro; Maria Pereira; Simone Morais; Cristina Delerue-Matos; Maria Alvim-Ferraz; Catherine Barton; Charles Zarzecki; Mark Russell; Marjaleena Aatamila; Pia Verkasalo; Maarit Korhonen; Marja Viluksela; Kari Pasanen; Pekka Tiittanen; Aino Nevalainen; Li Rong; Peter Nielsen; Guoqiang Zhang; Yi-Ming Kuo; Juu-En Chang; Kun-Yu Chang; Chih-C. Chao; Yeu-Juin Tuan; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; Yongping Li; Guohe Huang; Arhontoula Chatzilazarou; Evangelos Katsoyannos; Olga Gortzi; Stavros Lalas; Yiannis Paraskevopoulos; Euthalia Dourtoglou; John Tsaknis; Tarek Abichou; Jeremy Clark; Sze Tan; Jeffery Chanton; Gary Hater; Roger Green; Doug Goldsmith; Morton Barlaz; Nathan Swan; Zhengmin Qian; Hung-Mo Lin; Walter Stewart; Nirav Shah; Linli Kong; Fen Xu; Denjin Zhou; Zhicao Zhu; Qingci He; Shengwen Liang; Weiqing Chen; Chungsying Lu; Hsunling Bai; Fengsheng Su; Wenfa Chen; Jyh Hwang; Hsiu-Hsia Lee; Judith Chow; John Watson; Douglas Lowenthal; Lung-Wen Chen; Nehzat Motallebi

2010-01-01

124

The leverage of demographic dynamics on carbon dioxide emissions: does age structure matter?  

PubMed

This article provides a methodological contribution to the study of the effect of changes in population age structure on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. First, I propose a generalization of the IPAT equation to a multisector economy with an age-structured population and discuss the insights that can be obtained in the context of stable population theory. Second, I suggest a statistical model of household consumption as a function of household size and age structure to quantitatively evaluate the extent of economies of scale in consumption of energy-intensive goods, and to estimate age-specific profiles of consumption of energy-intensive goods and of CO(2) emissions. Third, I offer an illustration of the methodologies using data for the United States. The analysis shows that per-capita CO(2) emissions increase with age until the individual is in his or her 60s, and then emissions tend to decrease. Holding everything else constant, the expected change in U.S. population age distribution during the next four decades is likely to have a small, but noticeable, positive impact on CO(2) emissions. PMID:21328039

Zagheni, Emilio

2011-02-01

125

Predicting ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions from carbon and nitrogen biodegradability during animal waste composting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During composting of livestock manure, transformations of organic matter result in gaseous emissions, which can harm the environment. Two experiments were done in enclosures to measure the fluxes of NH 3, N 2O, CO 2, CH 4 and H 2O emitted by 8 heaps of compost representing the range of biodegradability of nitrogen and carbon in the livestock manure. The heaps were monitored for the first 2 months, corresponding to the thermophilic phase during which nearly all-mass losses occur. Four parameters describe the NH 3 emission kinetics and the main influential factors were noted: (1) the response time to reach maximum intensity is affected mainly by the initial micro-flora; (2) the amplitude depends mainly on C biodegradability and also on micro-flora; (3) the emission duration depends mainly on N biodegradability; and (4) the cumulative emission, which varied from 16.5 to 48.9% of the nitrogen initially present in the heap, depends both on C and N biodegradability. A predictive model for NH 3 and CO 2 emissions for the thermophilic phase of the composting of livestock manure is proposed. The variability in cumulative emissions of CO 2 and of NH 3 is well explained by the contents of soluble elements and hemicellulose in the dry matter (Van Soest fractioning), and soluble nitrogen (12 h extraction at 4 °C in water). In our conditions of favourable aeration and humidity, N 2O and CH 4 emissions were low. The role of the biodegradable carbon in reducing NH 3 emission is highlighted.

Paillat, Jean-Marie; Robin, Paul; Hassouna, Mélynda; Leterme, Philippe

126

In-situ monitoring of carbon dioxide emissions from a diesel engine using a mid-infrared optical fibre sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust optical fibre based CO2 exhaust gas sensor operating in the mid infrared spectral range is described. It is capable of detecting on board carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from both diesel and petrol engines. The optical fibre sensor is not cross sensitive to other gaseous species in the exhaust such as water vapour (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) or oxides of sulphur (SOx).The response of the sensor to carbon dioxide present in the exhaust of Fiat Croma diesel engine are presented.

Lewis, Elfed; Clifford, John; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Dooly, Gerard; Zhao, Weizhong; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Ken; Lucas, James; Degner, Martin; Ewald, Hartmut; Lochmann, Steffan; Bramann, Gero; Merlone-Borla, Edoardo; Gili, Flavio

2011-05-01

127

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions and the carbon budget of a 10-year old tropical reservoir (Petit Saut, French Guiana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from the Petit Saut hydroelectric reservoir (Sinnamary River, French Guiana) to the atmosphere were quantified for 10 years since impounding in 1994. Diffusive emissions from the reservoir surface were computed from direct flux measurements in 1994, 1995, and 2003 and from surface concentrations monitoring. Bubbling emissions, which occur only at water depths lower than 10 m, were interpolated from funnel measurements in 1994, 1997, and 2003. Degassing at the outlet of the dam downstream of the turbines was calculated from the difference in gas concentrations upstream and downstream of the dam and the turbined discharge. Diffusive emissions from the Sinnamary tidal river and estuary were quantified from direct flux measurements in 2003 and concentrations monitoring. Total carbon emissions were 0.37 ± 0.01 Mt yr-1 C (CO2 emissions, 0.30 ± 0.02; CH4 emissions, 0.07 ± 0.01) the first 3 years after impounding (1994-1996) and then decreased to 0.12 ± 0.01 Mt yr-1 C (CO2, 0.10 ± 0.01; CH4, 0.016 ± 0.006) since 2000. On average over the 10 years, 61% of the CO2 emissions occurred by diffusion from the reservoir surface, 31% from the estuary, 7% by degassing at the outlet of the dam, and a negligible fraction by bubbling. CH4 diffusion and bubbling from the reservoir surface were predominant (40% and 44%, respectively) only the first year after impounding. Since 1995, degassing at an aerating weir downstream of the turbines has become the major pathway for CH4 emissions, reaching 70% of the total CH4 flux. In 2003, river carbon inputs were balanced by carbon outputs to the ocean and were about 3 times lower than the atmospheric flux, which suggests that 10 years after impounding, the flooded terrestrial carbon is still the predominant contributor to the gaseous emissions. In 10 years, about 22% of the 10 Mt C flooded was lost to the atmosphere. Our results confirm the significance of greenhouse gas emissions from tropical reservoir but stress the importance of: (1) considering all the gas pathways upstream and downstream of the dams and (2) taking into account the reservoir age when upscaling emissions rates at the global scale.

Abril, GwenaëL.; GuéRin, FréDéRic; Richard, Sandrine; Delmas, Robert; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Gosse, Philippe; Tremblay, Alain; Varfalvy, Louis; Dos Santos, Marco Aurelio; Matvienko, Bohdan

2005-12-01

128

A 1° × 1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1950-1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One degree latitude by one degree longitude (1° × 1°) data sets of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture were produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. National estimates of carbon emissions were combined with 1° × 1° data sets of political units and human population density to create the new 1° × 1° carbon emissions data sets. The human population density data set has an effective resolution of the country/state level. This resolution translates to the 1° × 1° carbon emissions data set. Latitudinal distribution of emissions have also been calculated. The data show continual growth with time over most of the world, with increased growth rates in major urban areas. A slow southerly shift in the bulk of the emissions is apparent as Asian countries increase their energy consumption to support their growing economies and populations. The digital data sets are available by anonymous ftp.

Andres, Robert J.; Marland, Gregg; Fung, Inez; Matthews, Elaine

1996-09-01

129

Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics  

PubMed Central

We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO2-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO2-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility.

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario

2010-01-01

130

Screen for Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a set of laboratory experiments that can assist students in the detection of carbon dioxide. Offers a variation of the supported drop method of carbon dioxide detection that provides readily visible positive results. Includes background information on carbon dioxide. (ML)|

Foster, John; And Others

1986-01-01

131

Predicting ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions from carbon and nitrogen biodegradability during animal waste composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

During composting of livestock manure, transformations of organic matter result in gaseous emissions, which can harm the environment. Two experiments were done in enclosures to measure the fluxes of NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 and H2O emitted by 8 heaps of compost representing the range of biodegradability of nitrogen and carbon in the livestock manure. The heaps were monitored for the

Jean-Marie Paillat; Paul Robin; Mélynda Hassouna; Philippe Leterme

2005-01-01

132

Graph of Projected World Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Conventional Oil for Different Values of Peak Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parabolic technique developed for the projection of geological resource assessments has been applied to the prediction of carbon dioxide emissions from conventional oil production. In a previous note, it was found that the magnitude of the peak in oil production is a linear function of the date at which it occurs. This relationship is used here as the basis

John H. Walsh

133

On board measurement of carbon dioxide exhaust car emissions using a mid-infrared optical based fibre  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the investigation of an optical sensor system for the online measurement of carbon dioxide emissions in the exhaust system of a motor vehicle. Current anti-pollution technology installed in motor vehicles fail to meet monitoring requirements as specified by the European Commission. A robust sensor design and construction have made it suitable for installation on the exhaust of

J. Clifford; J. Mulrooney; G. Dooly; C. Fitzpatrick; E. Lewis; E. Merlone-Borla; G. Flavia

2008-01-01

134

Title: Reduction of Ammonia, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Swine Waste by Dietary Manipulation, NPB #03-072  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding fiber sources to reduced crude protein, amino acid-supplemented diets on nitrogen excretion and methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia emissions from the manure. To produce the manure, twenty four barrows were allotted randomly to two dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were: 1) fortified corn-soybean meal control (Control), and 2) as Diet 1

Scott Carter

135

Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and at K/T boundary greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. The authors estimate total eruptive and noneruptive CO{sub 2} output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 {times} 10{sup 16} moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years based on best estimates of the CO{sub 2} weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO{sub 2} degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO{sub 2} on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO{sub 2} due to Deccan Traps CO{sub 2} emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1C over several hundred thousand years. They conclude that the direct climate effects of CO{sub 2} emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

Caldeira, K. (New York Univ., NY (USA)); Rampino, M.R. (New York Univ., NY (USA) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, New York, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

136

A method for estimating the temporal and spatial patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from national fossil-fuel consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proportional methodology is presented for estimating fossil-fuel consumption and concomitant anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This methodology employs data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal (monthly) and spatial (provincial\\/state) patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of CO2 emissions. The purpose is to provide a procedure for

J. S. Gregg; Robert Joseph Andres

2008-01-01

137

Carbon Dioxide Emission from Black Soil as Influenced by Land?Use Change and Long?Term Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land?use change and soil management play a vital role in influencing losses of soil carbon (C) by respiration. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of natural vegetation restoration and long?term fertilization on the seasonal pattern of soil respiration and cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from a black soil of northeast China. Soil respiration rate fluctuated greatly

Haibo Li; Xiaozeng Han; Yunfa Qiao; Xueying Hou; Baoshan Xing

2009-01-01

138

Monitoring urban carbon dioxide emissions on small spatial and time scales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer was used to measure carbon dioxide mixing ratios and associated carbon isotope compositions in the atmosphere over Salt Lake City, Utah, between 15 December 2004 and 20 January 2005. A pronounced diurnal pattern was found that reflected the contribution of gasoline versus natural gas combustion to atmospheric carbon dioxide. A brief warming period was also observed. These data show that for the first time, atmospheric measurements can be used to infer patterns of energy and fuel usage on hourly to daily time scales.

Al., Pataki E.; Agu

139

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01

140

Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is 16% lower, mainly due to uncertainty in activity factors. With only 4% of Bogota's fleet, diesel use accounts for 42% of the CO2 emissions. The emissions are almost evenly shared between public (9% of the fleet) and private transport. Peak emissions occur at 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. with maximum values over a densely industrialized area at the northwest of Bogota. This investigation allowed estimating the relative contribution of fuel and vehicle categories to spatially- and temporally-resolved CO2 emissions. Fuel consumption time series indicate a near-stabilization trend on energy consumption for transportation, which is unexpected taking into account the sustained economic and vehicle fleet growth in Bogota. The comparison of the disaggregation methodology with the IPCC methodology contributes to the analysis of possible error sources on activity factor estimations. This information is very useful for uncertainty estimation and adjustment of primary air pollutant emissions inventories.

Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

2011-12-01

141

Carbon Dioxide Reduction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatically operated carbon dioxide reduction system was developed, fabricated and tested. The system was designed to reduce the carbon dioxide equivalent to that produced by one man, and to produce carbon and oxygen. A system such as this is require...

H. Chandler

1964-01-01

142

Temperature VS Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students examine the relationship between carbon dioxide levels and global temperature change by studying a graph of these two variables. They will discover that by using data from ice cores, scientists can determine temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the air as far back as a hundred thousand years in the past. The students try to predict which variable is the independent one and then make a graph of temperature change and carbon dioxide levels. After making their graph, students describe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to determine if their predictions were correct.

143

Eddy Covariance trial measurement of carbon dioxide and fine particle emission during a controlled Savannah fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the CarboAfrica Fire Experiment (CA-FE) held in August 2007 at the Kruger National Park (South Africa), the concurrent determination of carbon dioxide, water vapor and size segregated particle (0.32 - 6.24 m nominal optical diameter) fluxes was performed by Eddy Covariance. The instrumentation (EOLO) recently developed by Fratini et al. (2007) for the determination of particle fluxes from desert storm events in Northern China, was used for a real-time determination of carbon particle fluxes. Although data were collected in three different plots, only in one of them the data set was long enough to follow the evolution of chemical species during the different phases in which fire develops. Results from other plots were used to corroborate the analysis. Emission fluxes of CO2 as high as 4.*103 mol/m2s were reached during the flaming phase, whereas values ranging between 20 and 60 mol/m2s were recorded during the smoldering phase. The temporal evolution of particle fluxes only partly correlated with those of CO2 with values ranging from ca. 3-4*103 particles/m2s in the flaming phase down to few tens of particles/m2s during the smoldering phase. While fluxes of carbon particles in the size range investigated dropped down quickly after the flaming phase, probably due to gravitational settling, CO2 fluxes reached an almost steady state, likely to last for several hours after the end of the flaming phase. References Fratini G., Ciccioli P., Febo A., Forgione A., Valentini R. (2007) Size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust from a desert area of northern China by Eddy Covariance. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2839-2854

Fratini, G.; Forgione, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Papale, D.; Valentini, R.

2009-04-01

144

Variability in the Mass and Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions for the Countries of the North American Carbon Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we focus more intently on the carbon cycle in North America, the spatial and temporal scales of our observations become more important. The carbon dioxide released from fossil fuel consumption can show large variability in both spatial and temporal scales. This presentation will focus on this variability. We have compiled a data set that contains the monthly emissions of carbon dioxide released from fossil-fuel consumption for the countries of the North American Carbon Program. These data are consistent with the annual emissions as reported by CDIAC. As an example of spatial variability, in August 2000, emissions from Idaho (356 Gg C) and Texas (19,051 Gg C) differed by a factor of 53. As an example of temporal variability, in 1999, emissions from Texas differed by 31% between the months of February (13,807 Gg C) and August (18,107 Gg C). When looking at the stable carbon isotopic composition (del 13 C), variability also exists at these spatial and temporal scales. As an example of spatial variability, in April 1984, emissions from Louisiana (-36.32 per mil) and North Dakota (-25.23 per mil) differed by 11.09 per mil. As an example of temporal variability, in 2002, emissions from Montana differed by 5.22 per mil between the months of July (-28.38 per mil) and December (- 33.60 per mil). Finally, this presentation will also include analysis of the uncertainty associated with these time series. Variations in data collection are such that the uncertainty varies among the three countries of North America and uncertainty increases as the spatial and temporal scales decrease.

Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Gregg, J. S.; Losey, L.; Marland, G.

2007-12-01

145

Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing global warming could persist far into the future, because natural processes require decades to hundreds of thousands of years to remove carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning from the atmosphere. Future warming may have large global impacts including ocean oxygen depletion and associated adverse effects on marine life, such as more frequent mortality events, but long, comprehensive simulations of these impacts are currently not available. Here we project global change over the next 100,000years using a low-resolution Earth system model, and find severe, long-term ocean oxygen depletion, as well as a great expansion of ocean oxygen-minimum zones for scenarios with high emissions or high climate sensitivity. We find that climate feedbacks within the Earth system amplify the strength and duration of global warming, ocean heating and oxygen depletion. Decreased oxygen solubility from surface-layer warming accounts for most of the enhanced oxygen depletion in the upper 500m of the ocean. Possible weakening of ocean overturning and convection lead to further oxygen depletion, also in the deep ocean. We conclude that substantial reductions in fossil-fuel use over the next few generations are needed if extensive ocean oxygen depletion for thousands of years is to be avoided.

Shaffer, Gary; Olsen, Steffen Malskær; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

2009-02-01

146

A two-stage inexact-stochastic programming model for planning carbon dioxide emission trading under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a two-stage inexact-stochastic programming (TISP) method is developed for planning carbon dioxide (CO2) emission trading under uncertainty. The developed TISP incorporates techniques of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and two-stage stochastic programming (TSP) within a general optimization framework. The TISP can not only tackle uncertainties expressed as probabilistic distributions and discrete intervals, but also provide an effective linkage between

W. T. Chen; Y. P. Li; G. H. Huang; X. Chen; Y. F. Li

2010-01-01

147

Natural emissions of CO 2 from the geosphere and their bearing on the geological storage of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Although leakage from monitored CO2 injection sites has been minimal to non-existent, experience from the natural gas storage industry suggests that, if it becomes a widely deployed technology, leaks may be expected from some storage sites. Natural occurrences of CO2 in the geosphere,

S. Holloway; J. M. Pearce; V. L. Hards; T. Ohsumi; J. Gale

2007-01-01

148

Household consumption, associated fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Greece between 1990 and 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how Greece’s household consumption has changed between 1990 and 2006 and its environmental implications in terms of fossil fuel demand and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The results show that the 44% increase in Greece’s household expenditure between 1990 and 2006 was accompanied by a 67% increase in fossil fuel demand. Of this total, indirect demand accounted for

Eleni Papathanasopoulou

2010-01-01

149

Wetland Methane Emission Response to Last Glacial Maximum Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice core records show that the atmospheric concentration of methane (CH4) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (~21,000 years ago) was 40% lower than the preindustrial Holocene. The contribution of natural wetlands to the global CH4 budget during the LGM is determined by modelling their spatial extent and productivity. Although models provide an estimated flux of ~75-180 Tg yr-1, they adopt present day physiological relationships to reconstruct past wetland emissions. Here we show that the LGM (180 ppm) carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration lowers CH4 emissions from peat cores incubated in controlled environments compared to cores maintained under a modern atmospheric CO2 concentration (380 ppm). Peat cores (110 x 400 mm) collected from a UK minerotrophic fen and upland ombrotrophic bog were maintained either in a [CO2] of 180 ppm or 380 ppm over 21 months. CH4 fluxes were measured on a monthly/weekly basis using static chambers with [CH4] measured via an LGR Fast CH4 Analyser and GC-FID. Results show that total CH4 flux from the minerotrophic fen was suppressed by 17 and 31% in season 1 and 2 respectively under LGM CO2 starvation. The ombrotrophic bog cores were suppressed by 20% in year 1 and 10% in year 2. Both peat types exhibited a rapid initial response to the sub-ambient [CO2] treatment with a change in CH4 flux recorded 5 days into the experiment. We also measured the influence of an LGM [CO2] atmosphere on CH4 flux temperature response during years 1 and 2. These results suggest that both wetland plants, and the underlying biogeochemistry of the rhizosphere, are sensitive to a reduction in [CO2] in the atmosphere and this has yet to be incorporated into global wetland CH4 models.

Boardman, C. P.; Gauci, V.; Beerling, D. J.

2008-12-01

150

Production of Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners use common chemicals to produce carbon dioxide and observe its properties. This resource includes brief questions for learners to answer after the experiment. Use this activity to introduce learners to carbon dioxide and its use as a fire extinguisher. Note: this activity involves an open flame.

House, The S.

2013-05-15

151

Carbon Dioxide and Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

Brewer, Peter G.

1978-01-01

152

Carbon Dioxide Fountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

2007-01-01

153

Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown

P. J. Baxter; M. Kapila; D. Mfonfu

1989-01-01

154

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions in Latin America: Looking for the Existence of Environmental Kuznets Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for carbon dioxide for 16 Latin American countries using nonparametric, semi-parametric, and parametric specifications. Results indicated that most of the Latin American countries are still in the rising portion of the EKC with respect to CO2 pollution.

Krishna P. Paudel; Hector O. Zapata; Alehandro Diaz; Keshav Bhattarai

2005-01-01

155

Methane consumption and carbon dioxide emission in tallgrass prairie: Effects of biomass burning and conversion to agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane and carbon dioxide in the troposphere have increased substantially in recent years. Soils are the largest terrestrial sink of atmospheric methane and an important source of carbon dioxide. Conversion of natural soils systems to other uses can have a significant impact on global methane and carbon dioxide budgets. This study compares the effects of biomass burning and the conversion

Cathy M. Tate; Robert G. Striegl

1993-01-01

156

The impact of electric passenger transport technology under an economy-wide climate policy in the United States: Carbon dioxide emissions, coal use, and carbon dioxide capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2010-01-01

157

Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973--87: A Divisia index decomposition to changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, industry structure, energy intensities, and international structure  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the reduction in energy-related manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions for nine OECD countries in the period 1973 to 1987 is analyzed. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from energy use data. The emphasis is on carbon dioxide intensities, defined as emissions divided by value added. The overall manufacturing carbon dioxide intensity for the nine OECD countries was reduced by 42% in the period 1973--1987. Five fuels are specified together with six subsectors of manufacturing. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from fossil fuel consumption, employing emissions coefficients for gas, oil and solids. In addition, electricity consumption is specified. For electricity use an emission coefficient index is calculated from the shares of fossil fuels, nuclear power and hydro power used to generate electricity, and the efficiency in electricity generation from these energy sources. A Divisia index approach is used to sort out the contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity from different components. The major finding is that the main contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity is from the general reduction in manufacturing energy intensity, most likely driven by economic growth and increased energy prices, giving incentives to invest in new technology and new industrial processes. There is also a significant contribution from reduced production in the most carbon dioxide intensive subsectors, and a contribution from higher efficiency in electricity generation together with a larger nuclear power share at the expense of oil. 19 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Torvanger, A. (Senter for Anvendt Forskning, Oslo (Norway) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01

158

The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity  

PubMed Central

Background This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population × affluence × technology) approach. Results Results suggest the weak existence of an environmental Kuznets curve, in which the wealthiest cities are reducing their emissions through increased efficiency. Significant institutional impacts are also found to hold in the predicted directions. Specifically, panel and cross-sectional regressions indicate that membership in the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and non-profit organizational presence have negative effects on industrial carbon dioxide emissions. Conclusion The presence of institutional drivers at the city level provides empirical support for the POETICs rubric, which recasts the ecological framing of the IPAT identity in a more sociological mold. The results also indicate that Japanese civil society has a role to play in carbon mitigation. More refined studies need to take into consideration an expanded set of methods, drivers, and carbon budgets, as applied to a broader range of cases outside of Japan, to more accurately assess how civil society can bridge the issue of scale that separates local level policy concerns from global level climate dynamics.

Scholz, Stephan

2006-01-01

159

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

160

Climate trade-off between black carbon and carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are various difficulties involved with comparing the effects of short-lived and long-lived atmospheric species on climate. Global warming potentials (GWPs) can be computed for pulse emissions of short-lived species. However, if the focus is on the long-term effect of a pulse emission occurring today, GWPs do not factor in the fact that if a radiative forcing is applied for

O. Boucher; M. S. Reddy

2008-01-01

161

Analysis of plume emissions after papovavirus irradiation with the carbon dioxide laser  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to evaluate potential inhalation hazards to operating room personnel after irradiation of tumors with the carbon dioxide laser. Cellular debris was analyzed for viability using labeled nucleotides and labeled glucose. In this way the plume was investigated for the presence of material with oncogenic potential. Most surgeons who have ablated venereal warts or certain tumors with the carbon dioxide laser have worried about possible hazards of inhaling the vapor that is produced as a result of their work. We utilized three methods to determine whether viable particles exist in the laser plume. Fortunately, it is most comforting that the metabolic studies, DNA and RNA studies and cytologic studies seem to indicate that the plume is biologically inactive.

Bellina, J.H.; Stjernholm, R.L.; Kurpel, J.E.

1982-05-01

162

Air plasma gasification of RDF as a prospective method for reduction of carbon dioxide emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal dumps are one of sources of carbonic gas penetration in the atmosphere. The waste is treated into RDF (refuse-derived fuel) and used in boilers for electric power or heat generation for decrease in carbonic gas emissions in the atmosphere. In industry power stations on the basis of the combined cycle have the highest efficiency of burning. The paper

A. N. Bratsev; I. I. Kumkova; V. A. Kuznetsov; V. E. Popov; S. V. Shtengel; A. A. Ufimtsev

2011-01-01

163

Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Water Supply, and Seasonality on Terpene Content and Emission by Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 µmol\\/mol (atmospheric CO2 and elevated CO2) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO2 led to increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO2 treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995,

Josep Peñuelas; Joan Llusià

1997-01-01

164

Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Ocean Acidification: The Potential Impacts on Ocean Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the focus in recent years on the potential impacts of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere linked to\\u000a anthropogenic activities has been on the ramifications of atmospheric warming for ecosystems and human institutions. However,\\u000a there is growing evidence that the gravest peril for ocean species may be acidification of the world’s oceans as a consequence\\u000a of

William C. G. Burns

165

Carbon dioxide: atmospheric overload  

SciTech Connect

The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing and may double within the next century. The result of this phenomenon, climatic alterations, will adversely affect crop production, water supplies, and global temperatures. Sources of CO2 include the combustion of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, and the decay of organic matter in soils. The most serious effect of possible climatic changes could occur along the boundaries of arid and semiarid regions. Shifts is precipitation patterns could accelerate the processes of desertification. An increase of 5..cap alpha..C in the average temperature of the top 1000 m of ocean water would raise sea level by 2 m. CO2 releases to the atmosphere can be reduced by controlling emissions from fossil fuel-fired facilities and by careful harvesting of forest regions. (3 photos, 5 references)

Not Available

1980-04-01

166

Binding carbon dioxide in mineral form: A critical step towards a zero-emission coal power plant  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have successfully developed the foundation for sequestration of carbon dioxide in mineral form. The purpose of this technology is to maintain the competitiveness of coal energy, even when in the future environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other sequestration methods, this is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, the goal is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. Such a technology will guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth exceeds the most optimistic estimates. The approach differs from all others in that the authors are developing an industrial process that chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Merrick Company (United States)

1998-11-01

167

Tillage, Cropping Sequence, and Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Dryland Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission and Carbon Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO2 emission and increase C sequestration that can influence global warming. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland soil surface CO2 flux, temperature and water content at the 0- to 1...

168

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss.  

PubMed

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N; Jardine, Sunny L

2012-07-30

169

The Social Meaning of Carbon Dioxide Emission Trading Institutional Capacity Building for a Green Market in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests offer good possibilities for the sequestration of carbon dioxide. This service can be commodified by the introduction of carbon (dioxide) credits, which can be traded on a carbon market. The premise of this paper is that the traditional economic view on the construction of these carbon markets is a too simplistic one, particularly, because it neglects the social meaning

Miriam Miranda; Carel Dieperink; Pieter Glasbergen

2002-01-01

170

Carbon dioxide (reduction).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The twin problems of global warming, caused by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and limited fossil fuel resources have stimulated research in the utilization of CO2. These problems would be partially alleviated by the develo...

A. Fujita

2000-01-01

171

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection of luminescent microorganisms are maintained under cultivation to provide suitable biosensors for the testing program for carbon dioxide. The basic bioluminescent agar medium is currently being used for growth of the cultures. Tests of lumi...

P. S. Biernacki J. J. Kalvinskas

1973-01-01

172

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program was initiated to establish the feasibility of applying bioluminescent technology for monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) in life-support systems for divers, swimmers and underwater habitats. Experiments were performed to obtain bioluminescent c...

P. S. Biernacki J. J. Kalvinskas

1973-01-01

173

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program was initiated to establish the feasibility of applying bioluminescent technology for monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) in life-support systems for divers, swimmers and underwater habitats. Experiments were performed to obtain bioluminescent c...

P. S. Biernacki J. L. Kalvinskas

1974-01-01

174

Carbon Dioxide Absorption Manifold.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The device is for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere without the attendant release or production of noxious chemicals. It is for use in a submerged submarine. The device includes a housing, inlets, canisters containing lithium hydroxide, a blower...

W. E. McConnaughey

1965-01-01

175

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is increasing ocean tempera- tures and raising sea levels. New scientific research shows that our oceans are beginning to face yet another threat due to global warm- ing-related emissions - their basic chemistry is changing because of the uptake of carbon dioxide released by human activities. When carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans it reacts with seawater

Richard A. Feely; Christopher L. Sabine; Victoria J. Fabry

176

Carbon dioxide emissions from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peat surface CO2 emission, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 2300 emission measurements were taken at 144 locations, over a 2 year period. The autotrophic root respiration component of CO2 emission was separated from heterotrophic emission caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 emissions within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 emissions with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 emissions before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of autotrophic respiration to daytime CO2 emission was 21% along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this was up to 80% of the total emissions, but it was negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 emission measurements well away from trees were free of any autotrophic respiration contribution and thus represent only heterotrophic emissions. We found daytime mean annual CO2 emission from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha-1 y-1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum emission value of 80 t ha-1 y-1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which may result in a 14.5% reduction of the daytime emission. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depth and peat oxidation CO2 emission. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous emission/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and total CO2 emissions. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation establishment may explain over 50% of peat oxidation emissions. Our study sets a standard for greenhouse gas flux studies from tropical peatlands under different forms of agricultural land management. It is the first to purposefully quantify heterotrophic CO2 emissions resulting from tropical peat decomposition by separating these from autotrophic emissions. It also provides the most scientifically- and statistically-rigorous study to date of CO2 emissions resulting from anthropogenic modification of this globally significant carbon rich ecosystem. Our findings indicate that past studies have underestimated emissions from peatland plantations, with important implications for the scale of greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change, particularly in the light of current, rapid agricultural conversion of peatlands in the Southeast Asian region.

Jauhiainen, J.; Hooijer, A.; Page, S. E.

2012-02-01

177

Carbon dioxide emissions from mineral springs in Northland and the potential of these sites for studying the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sites in Northland with mineral springs were examined for their potential as experimental areas to study the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) on grassland. A suitable site was defined as having: (1) grassland species; (2) cold springs; (3) high levels of gas flow; and (4) high concentrations of CO2. Two sites were selected for detailed study?Hakanoa Springs near Kamo

P. C. D. Newton; C. C. Bell; H. Clark

1996-01-01

178

Space-time dynamics of carbon stocks and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay of the Laptev Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to improve understanding of carbon cycling in the Buor-Khaya Bay (BKB) by studying the inter-annual, seasonal, and meso-scale variability of carbon stocks and related hydrological and biogeochemical parameters in the water, as well as factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Here we present data sets obtained on summer cruises and winter expeditions during 12 yr of investigation. Based on data analysis, we suggest that in the heterotrophic BKB area, coastal erosion and river discharge serve as predominant drivers of the organic carbon (OC) cycle, determining OC input and transformation, dynamics of nutrients, carbon stocks in the water column, and atmospheric emissions of CO2.

Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

2013-02-01

179

Large-Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under two future hypothetical climate policies and assuming the wide-scale availability of cost-effective carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would likely be responsible for significant increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB\\/d from the Ecocene Green

James J. Dooley; Robert T. Dahowski

2009-01-01

180

Evidence that light, carbon dioxide, and oxygen dependencies of leaf isoprene emission are driven by energy status in hybrid aspen.  

PubMed

Leaf isoprene emission scales positively with light intensity, is inhibited by high carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentrations, and may be enhanced or inhibited by low oxygen (O(2)) concentrations, but the mechanisms of environmental regulation of isoprene emission are still not fully understood. Emission controls by isoprene synthase, availability of carbon intermediates, or energetic cofactors have been suggested previously. In this study, we asked whether the short-term (tens of minutes) environmental control of isoprene synthesis results from alterations in the immediate isoprene precursor dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP) pool size, and to what extent DMADP concentrations are affected by the supply of carbon and energetic metabolites. A novel in vivo method based on postillumination isoprene release was employed to measure the pool size of DMADP simultaneously with the rates of isoprene emission and net assimilation at different light intensities and CO(2) and O(2) concentrations. Both net assimilation and isoprene emission rates increased hyperbolically with light intensity. The photosynthetic response to CO(2) concentration was also hyperbolic, while the CO(2) response curve of isoprene emission exhibited a maximum at close to CO(2) compensation point. Low O(2) positively affected both net assimilation and isoprene emission. In all cases, the variation in isoprene emission was matched with changes in DMADP pool size. The results of these experiments suggest that DMADP pool size controls the response of isoprene emission to light intensity and to CO(2) and O(2) concentrations and that the pool size is determined by the level of energetic metabolites generated in photosynthesis. PMID:19587097

Rasulov, Bahtijor; Hüve, Katja; Välbe, Mikk; Laisk, Agu; Niinemets, Ulo

2009-07-08

181

The role of carbon dioxide in emission of ammonia from manure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between CO2 emission, manure pH, and ammonia emission are not completely understood. Others have recognized that CO2 emission from manure can increase the surface pH, and so increase the rate of NH3 emission, but this interaction has not been completely described or quantified. In this work, we present a model of simultaneous NH3 and CO2 emission that includes equilibrium acid/base reactions, kinetically-limited CO2 hydration/dehydration reactions, and diffusive transport. Our model accurately predicted the increase in NH3 emission from simple solutions due to CO2 emission, while an equilibrium-only model did not. Model predictions showed that when NH3 and CO2 emission occur simultaneously, CO2 emission generally increases NH3 emission rate by causing an elevation in surface pH. For thin stagnant layers, this response occurs under a wide range of conditions, although the magnitude of the effect is dependent on manure composition, temperature, surface mass transfer coefficient, and other parameters. Kinetically-limited CO2 hydration/dehydration reactions moderate this interaction, so equilibrium-based models tend to over-predict NH3 emission in the absence of significant carbonic anhydrase activity. Predicted emission from deep, mixed manure showed less dependence on CO2 emission, although higher rates of CO2 hydration/dehydration increase this effect. Interactions between CO2 and NH3 emission influence the effect of model parameters on NH3 emission and result in some unexpected responses. Future work should clarify the processes controlling CO2 speciation and transport in manure, including CO2 minerals, bubble transport, and CO2 hydration/dehydration rates. Our model can inform the development of simpler models for estimating NH3 emission, and the design of experiments aimed at quantifying processes that influence NH3 emission from manure. The effects of CO2 on NH3 emission deserve more attention, and both experimental and modeling approaches are needed to understand the interactions that control NH3 emission.

Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Alan Rotz, C.

2013-02-01

182

Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source (??13C = -4.5 to -5???, 3He/4He = 4.5 to 6.7 RA) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO2 discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m-2 d-1 at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO2 discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO2 flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30-50 t/d of CO2 are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO2 and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N2/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time.

Sorey, M. L.; Evans, W. C.; Kennedy, B. M.; Farrar, C. D.; Hainsworth, L. J.; Hausback, B.

1998-01-01

183

Carbon dioxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases. PMID:16499405

Langford, Nigel J

2005-01-01

184

Carbon dioxide foam flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of conducting an enhanced oil recovery process in a subterranean reservoir is described. There is injected into the reservoir as a sweep fluid a foam containing carbon dioxide, water, and a foaming agent having the formula ROCOCHâSOâOM, where R is a straight chain alkyl radical having from 10 to 16 carbon atoms, and M is an alkali metal

P. W. Fischer; L. W. Holm; D. S. Pye

1978-01-01

185

Carbon Dioxide Removal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment using sprigs of Elodea, learners will observe a natural process that removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from Earth's atmosphere. This process is a part of the carbon cycle and results in temperature suitable for life. Note: this experiment requires that learners make observations an hour or the next day after they set up the materials.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

186

The Greenness of China: Household Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

China urbanization is associated with both increases in per-capita income and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper uses micro data to rank 74 major Chinese cities with respect to their household carbon footprint. We find that the “greenest” cities based on this criterion are Huaian and Suqian while the “dirtiest” cities are Daqing and Mudanjiang. Even in the dirtiest city (Daqing),

Siqi Zheng; Rui Wang; Edward L. Glaeser; Matthew E. Kahn

2009-01-01

187

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (COâ) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of COâ emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to

R. J. Andres; G. Marland; T. Boden; S. Bischof

1994-01-01

188

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01

189

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01

190

New York MARKAL: An evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the State`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO2 emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Hamilton, L.D.

1992-12-31

191

Emissions of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from dairy cattle housing and manure management systems.  

PubMed

Concentrated animal feeding operations emit trace gases such as ammonia (NH?), methane (CH?), carbon dioxide (CO?), and nitrous oxide (N?O). The implementation of air quality regulations in livestock-producing states increases the need for accurate on-farm determination of emission rates. The objective of this study was to determine the emission rates of NH?, CH?, CO?, and N?O from three source areas (open lots, wastewater pond, compost) on a commercial dairy located in southern Idaho. Gas concentrations and wind statistics were measured each month and used with an inverse dispersion model to calculate emission rates. Average emissions per cow per day from the open lots were 0.13 kg NH?, 0.49 kg CH?, 28.1 kg CO?, and 0.01 kg N?O. Average emissions from the wastewater pond (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 2.0 g NH?, 103 g CH?, 637 g CO?, and 0.49 g N?O. Average emissions from the compost facility (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 1.6 g NH?, 13.5 g CH?, 516 g CO?, and 0.90 g N?O. The combined emissions of NH?, CH?, CO?, and N?O from the lots, wastewater pond and compost averaged 0.15, 1.4, 30.0, and 0.02 kg cow(-1) d(-1), respectively. The open lot areas generated the greatest emissions of NH?, CO?, and N?O, contributing 78, 80, and 57%, respectively, to total farm emissions. Methane emissions were greatest from the lots in the spring (74% of total), after which the wastewater pond became the largest source of emissions (55% of total) for the remainder of the year. Data from this study can be used to develop trace gas emissions factors from open-lot dairies in southern Idaho and potentially other open-lot production systems in similar climatic regions. PMID:21869500

Leytem, April B; Dungan, Robert S; Bjorneberg, David L; Koehn, Anita C

192

Emission of Carbon Dioxide Influenced by Different Water Levels from Soil Incubated Organic Residues  

PubMed Central

We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO2-C (265.45?mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120?days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO2-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO2-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO2-C. Maximum CO2-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO2-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO2-C (158.23?mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO2-C (349.91?mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO2-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003?g d?1) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon.

Hossain, M. B.; Puteh, A. B.

2013-01-01

193

Carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface in a bilberry-sphagnum pine forest of the Middle Taiga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the carbon dioxide emissions from the surface of a gleyic iron-illuvial sandy peat podzolic soil under a mature bilberry-sphagnum pine forest were studied during the growing seasons of 2008-2010. The maximum rates of the CO2 emission were observed in late July-early August, and the minimum rates were in October. In the hot summer of 2010, an additional maximum was observed in June. A close positive correlation existed between the intensity of the CO2 emission and the soil temperature ( r = 0.71, ? = 0.05), whereas no significant correlation was found between the CO2 emission and the soil water content. The coefficient of multiple correlation between the rate of the CO2 emission and the hydrothermic soil characteristics reached 0.57 (at ? = 0.05). The total CO2 emission from the soil surface during the growing season was estimated at 68-100 g of C m-2.

Osipov, A. F.

2013-05-01

194

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004  

SciTech Connect

Changes in cropland production and management influence energy consumption and emissions of CO2 from fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO2 emissions for cropping practices in the US at the county scale. Energy consumption and emissions occur on-site from the operation of farm machinery and occur off-site from the manufacture and transport of cropland production inputs, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural lime. Estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions for cropping practices enable (a) the monitoring of energy and emissions with changes in land management, and (b) the calculation and balancing of regional and national carbon budgets. Results indicate on-site energy use and total energy use (i.e., the sum of on-site and off-site) on US croplands in 2004 ranged from 1.6-7.9 GJ ha-1 yr-1 and from 5.5-20.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1, respectively. On-site and total CO2 emissions in 2004 ranged from 23-176 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 91-365 kg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. During the period of this analysis (1990-2004), national total energy consumption for crop production ranged from 1204-1297 PJ yr-1 (Petajoule = 1 1015 Joule) with associated total fossil CO2 emissions ranging from 22.0-23.2 Tg C yr-1 (Teragram = 1 1012 gram). The annual proportion of on-site CO2 to total CO2 emissions changed depending on the diversity of crops planted. Adoption of reduced tillage practices in the US from 1990 to 2004 resulted in a net emissions reduction of 2.4 Tg C.

West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Nelson, Richard G [ORNL; Hellwinckel, Chad M [ORNL; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G [ORNL

2009-01-01

195

Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carbon–carbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially,

Iwao Omae

2006-01-01

196

Global energy and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The literature on energy and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emissions is reviewed and a brief overview of recent work using the IEA/ORAU long-term energy CO/sub 2/ model is given. It was designed to provide forecasts of carbon emissions explicitly based to energy and economic factors. Recent work has focused on developing three emissions scenarios; the extreme scenarios are presented as bracketing the range of likely future emissions rates. Ongoing work will use Monte Carlo techniques to assess uncertainty in future forecasts and attribute uncertainty to uncertainty in model assumptions and parameters. The paper concludes that the model and scenario construction exercises should serve to complement decisionmaking and interaction among scientists and policymakers.

Reilly, J.; Edmonds, J.

1984-08-26

197

Carbon dioxide as a feedstock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources,...

Creutz Fujita

2000-01-01

198

Relevance of Preindustrial Land Cover Change and Emissions for Attribution of Excess Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until the 1950s, CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC), in particular from deforestation, have been of similar magnitude as or larger than CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning. It has therefore been widely acknowledged that attribution of the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change to countries has to consider not only fossil-fuel emissions, but also emissions from ALCC. Unlike fossil-fuel burning, however, ALCC caused substantial emissions in the preindustrial era: 20-40% of cumulative ALCC emissions until today have occurred before AD 1850. Here, we use simulation results from the comprehensive climate-carbon cycle model ECHAM5-JSBACH/MPIOM-HAMOCC5 and a response function approach to give improved estimates of countries’ contributions to atmospheric CO2 increase, based on a spatially explicit reconstruction of ALCC that reaches back until AD 800. We find that considering emissions from ALCC in addition to fossil-fuel burning substantially shifts the attribution of the present-day CO2 increase towards tropical regions, consistent with previous studies. So far unrecognized, however, has been the role of the large-scale preindustrial deforestation in India and China. Together, these countries contributed more than 20% to the CO2 increase well into the 20th century. As a consequence, the contribution to atmospheric CO2 increase of Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and North America combined is about 100% in 1850 and 70% today when only fossil-fuel emissions are considered, but only 30% in 1850 and 50% today when ALCC emissions are also considered. Reconstruction of the long history of ALCC allows accounting for legacy effects such as delayed emissions from soils and wood products, and for carbon sinks caused by historical land use activity. We find that the Middle East counteracts the atmospheric CO2 increase throughout the preindustrial era, as agricultural area is abandoned in late medieval and early modern times. As climate change largely depends on the time integral of the atmospheric CO2 concentration, the effect of preindustrial emissions is larger on present-day temperature than on CO2 concentration. On the global scale, about 20% of the present-day ALCC-induced temperature increase (13% of the CO2 increase) results from preindustrial emissions. This is 5% of the present-day total temperature increase (from ALCC and fossil-fuel burning). The importance of preindustrial ALCC for attribution studies is therefore comparable to the importance of non-linearities and carbon flux uncertainties on the global scale. For a correct attribution on both global and regional scale, including emissions, CO2 uptake, and legacy effects of ALCC, the accounting should consider land use activity in preindustrial times.

Pongratz, J.; Caldeira, K.

2010-12-01

199

Emission of methane and carbon dioxide and earthworm survival during composting of pharmaceutical sludge and spent mycelia.  

PubMed

Emissions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from spent mycelia of the mold Penicilium notatum and sludge from the effluent treatment facility (ETPS) of a pharmaceutical industry were estimated twice during a two-week composting before vermicomposting. These wastes are dumped in landfills or sometimes used in agricultural fields and no reports are available on their greenhouse gas producing potentials. The solid wastes contained appreciable organic carbon and nitrogen while very high Fe, Mn and Zn were found in ETPS only. Pure wastes did not support germination of Vigna radiata L. while mixing soil with ETPS and spent mycelia at the ratios of 12:1 and 14:1 led to 80% and 50% germination, respectively. The wastes were mixed with cowdung at the ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1 for composting. Carbon dioxide emissions were always significantly higher than CH4 emissions from all the treatments due to prevalence of aerobic condition during composting. From some treatments, CH4 emissions increased with time, indicating increasing activity of anaerobic bacteria in the waste mixtures. Methane emissions ranged from 21.6 to 231.7 microg m(-2) day(-1) while CO2 emissions were greater than thousand times at 39.8-894.8 mg m(-2) day(-1). The amount of C emitted as CH4-C and CO2-C from ranged from 0.007% to 0.081% of total C composted. Cowdung emitted highest CH4 followed by spent mycelia and ETPS while ETPS emitted more CO2 than spent mycelia but lesser than cowdung. Global warming potential of emitted CH4 was found to be in the range of 10.6-27.7 mg-CO2-equivalent on a 20-year time horizon. The results suggest that pharmaceutical wastes can be an important source of CH4 and CO2 during composting or any other stockpiling under suitable moisture conditions. The waste mixtures were found not suitable for vermicomposting after two weeks composting and earthworms did not survive long in the mixtures. PMID:15907381

Majumdar, Deepanjan; Patel, Jigisha; Bhatt, Neha; Desai, Priyanka

2006-03-01

200

Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas, having at least methane, ethane and heavier hydrocarbon, comprising: separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream, having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane, and a second stream, having methane, carbon dioxide and

Apffel

1987-01-01

201

Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)|

Bent, Henry A.

1987-01-01

202

Carbon dioxide fixation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO(sub 2) conv...

E. Fujita

2000-01-01

203

Aqueous carbon dioxide monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for measuring low levels of carbon dioxide in water sample. It comprises: means for exchanging cations for hydrogen connected to a sample stream; a first membrane separator connected to the cation exchanging means, the first membrane separator having a first and second compartment with the first and second compartments being separated by a membrane, the

1991-01-01

204

Air plasma gasification of RDF as a prospective method for reduction of carbon dioxide emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste disposal dumps are one of sources of carbonic gas penetration in the atmosphere. The waste is treated into RDF (refuse-derived fuel) and used in boilers for electric power or heat generation for decrease in carbonic gas emissions in the atmosphere. In industry power stations on the basis of the combined cycle have the highest efficiency of burning. The paper deals with the application of an air-plasma gasifier using the down draft scheme of RDF transformation into synthesis gas, which afterwards can be used in the combined cycle. Results of calculations of the process characteristics for various RDF compositions are presented. The advantage of the plasma method in comparison with autothermal one is shown. Experimental data are shown.

Bratsev, A. N.; Kumkova, I. I.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Popov, V. E.; Shtengel', S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.

2011-03-01

205

Personal Carbon Dioxide Impact (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing for many decades now, mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels by mankind. In this exercise, students will track their daily activities, and and estimate how much carbon dioxide they are responsible for emitting with the use of an online Personal Greenhouse Gas Calculator developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The calculator sums the carbon dioxide produced by driving, electricity use, and waste disposal, and provides an estimate of annual carbon dioxide emissions. It also allows users to see how changes in lifestyle could reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Links to websites with additional information are also provided.

Pratte, John

206

Alignment-Dependent Fluorescence Emission Induced by Tunnel Ionization of Carbon Dioxide from Lower-Lying Orbitals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the ionization process of molecules in an intense infrared laser field is of paramount interest in strong-field physics and constitutes the foundation of imaging of molecular valence orbitals and attosecond science. We show measurement of alignment-dependent ionization probabilities of the lower-lying orbitals of the molecules by experimentally detecting the alignment dependence of fluorescence emission from tunnel ionized carbon dioxide molecules. The experimental measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations of the strong field approximation and molecular Ammosov-Delone-Krainov models. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an all-optical approach for probing the ionization dynamics of lower-lying orbitals of molecules, which is until now still difficult to achieve by other techniques. Moreover, the deviation between the experimental and theoretical results indicates the incompleteness of current theoretical models for describing strong field ionization of molecules.

Yao, Jinping; Li, Guihua; Jia, Xinyan; Hao, Xiaolei; Zeng, Bin; Jing, Chenrui; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xie, Hongqiang; Zhang, Chaojin; Zhao, Zengxiu; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

2013-09-01

207

Reserve Driven Forecasts for Oil, Gas & Coal and Limits in Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Peak Oil, Peak Gas, Peak Coal and Peak CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is coursed by an increasing use of fossil fuels; natural gas, oil and coal. This has so far resulted in an increase of the global surface temperature of the order of one degree. In year 2000 IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, released 40 emission scenarios that can be seen as

Kjell Alekkett

2007-01-01

208

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013) included several alternative cases in which hypothetical carbon dioxide (CO2) emission fees were imposed on fossil fuel consumers on an economy-wide basis. The fees start at $10, $15, and $25 per metric ton of CO2 ...

2013-01-01

209

Balancing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasingworldwide concern, and pressure towards an internationallaw of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rainforests, and Caribbean coral reefs suggest that the biological,effects,of climate,change,may,be more,severe,than,climate,models,predict. Efforts to limit

J. Goreau

210

Natural perturbations, drying–wetting and freezing–thawing cycles, and the emission of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane from farmed organic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of drying–wetting and freezing–thawing cycles on the emission of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane from intact soil cores from farmed organic soils at sites in Germany, Sweden and Finland. During the first week following wetting or thawing, cores from the German and Swedish sites produced an up to 1000-fold increase in N2O emission rates. The

A Priemé; S Christensen

2001-01-01

211

Carbon dioxide emissions from non-energy use of fossil fuels: Summary of key issues and conclusions from the country analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-energy use of fossil fuels is a source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that is not negligible and has been increasing substantially in the last three decades. Current emission estimates for this source category are subject to major uncertainties. One important reason is that non-energy use as published in energy statistics is not defined in a consistent manner, rendering

Martin Patel; Maarten Neelis; Dolf Gielen; Johannes Gerardus Jozef Olivier; Tim Simmons; Jan Theunis

2005-01-01

212

Response of carbon dioxide emissions to sheep grazing and nitrogen application in an alpine grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has failed to address fully the response of (autotrophic and heterotrophic) respiration to grazing and nitrogen (N) addition in different ecosystems, particularly in alpine grasslands outside the growing season. From 2010 to 2011, we combined two methods (static closed chambers and a closed dynamic soil CO2 flux system) in a controlled field experiment in an alpine grassland in the Tianshan Mountains. We examined the effects of grazing and N application on ecosystem respiration (Re) both outside (NGS) and during (GS) the growing season and determined the pattern of Re in relation to climate change. There was no significant change in CO2 emissions under grazing or N application. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) accounted for 78.5% of Re. Re, Rh and autotrophic respiration (Ra) outside the growing season were equivalent to 12.9, 14.1 and 11.4% of the respective CO2 fluxes during the growing season. In addition, our results indicate that precipitation (soil water content) plays a critical role in Ra in this cold and arid environment. Both Rh and Re were sensitive to soil temperature. Moreover, our results suggest that grazing and N addition exert no significant effect on CO2 emissions in alpine grassland but may alter soil carbon stocks in alpine grassland.

Gong, Y. M.; Mohammat, A.; Liu, X. J.; Li, K. H.; Christie, P.; Fang, F.; Song, W.; Chang, Y. H.; Han, W. X.; Lü, X. T.; Liu, Y. Y.; Hu, Y. K.

2013-07-01

213

Glucosinolate breakdown products as insect fumigants and their effect on carbon dioxide emission of insects  

PubMed Central

Background Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile, therefore good candidates for insect fumigants. However, although they are insecticidal, the mode of action of such natural products is not clear. We studied the insecticidal effect of these compounds as fumigants, and monitored the production of carbon dioxide by the insects as a probe to the understanding of their mode of action. Results The fumigation 24-h LC50 against the house fly (Musca domestica L.) of allyl thiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate, allyl cyanide, and l-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene was 0.1, 0.13, 3.66, and 6.2 ?g cm-3, respectively; they were 0.55, 1.57, 2.8, and > 19.60 ?g cm-3, respectively, against the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius). The fumigation toxicity of some of the glucosinolate products was very close to or better than that of the commercial insect fumigants such as chloropicrin (LC50: 0.08 and 1.3 ?g cm-3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively) and dichlorovos (LC50: < 0.02 and 0.29 ?g cm-3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively) in our laboratory tests. Significantly increased CO2 expiration was found in insects exposed to the vapor of allyl isothiocyanate, allyl thiocyanate and allyl isocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate was also found to increase the CO2 expiration of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Conclusions Glucosinolate breakdown products have potential as biodegradable and safe insect fumigants. They may act on the insect respiratory system in their mode of action.

Tsao, Rong; Peterson, Chris J; Coats, Joel R

2002-01-01

214

Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01

215

The Impact of Electric Passenger Transport Technology under an Economy-Wide Climate Policy in the United States: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Coal Use, and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear. A comprehensive analysis must consider jointly the transportation and electricity sectors, along with feedbacks to the rest of the energy system. In this paper, we use the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MiniCAM model to perform an integrated economic analysis of the penetration of PHEVs and the resulting impact on total U.S. CO2 emissions.

Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

2010-03-01

216

Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas having at least methane, ethane and heavier. It comprises: first, separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane and a second stream, having methane, carbon

Apffel

1989-01-01

217

Relevance of Preindustrial Land Cover Change and Emissions for Attribution of Excess Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the 1950s, CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC), in particular from deforestation, have been of similar magnitude as or larger than CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning. It has therefore been widely acknowledged that attribution of the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change to countries has to consider not only fossil-fuel emissions, but also emissions from

J. Pongratz; K. Caldeira

2010-01-01

218

ADDENDUM: Addendum to 'A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Updated data for fossil fuel emissions of CO2 show a decline of 1.3% during 2009. This ended a decade with strong increase in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The regional differences in the change in the CO2 emissions are substantial for 2009. The share of coal as a fuel has increased since 2002 and this continues also in 2009.

Myhre, G.; Alterskjær, K.; Lowe, D.

2010-07-01

219

ADDENDUM: Addendum to 'A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updated data for fossil fuel emissions of CO2 show a decline of 1.3% during 2009. This ended a decade with strong increase in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The regional differences in the change in the CO2 emissions are substantial for 2009. The share of coal as a fuel has increased since 2002 and this continues also in 2009.

G. Myhre; K. Alterskjær; D. Lowe

2010-01-01

220

Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon

Kathleen S. Judd; Angela R. Kora; Steve A. Shankle; Kimberly M. Fowler

2009-01-01

221

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01

222

Stationarity of Global Per Capital Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Implications for Global Warming Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual global CO2 emission forecasts at 2100 span 10 to 40 billion tonnes. Modeling work over the past decade has not narrowed this range nor provided much guidance about probabilities. We examine the time-series properties of historical per capita CO2 emissions and conclude that per capita global emissions are stationary without trend, and have a constant mean of 1.14 tonnes

Mark C. Strazicich; Ross McKitrick

2005-01-01

223

Coral reefs and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

Buddemeier, R.W. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1996-03-01

224

The potential impact of conservation and alternative energy sources on carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conservation and little change in the world's energy conservation and little change in the world's energy consumption patterns. A reduced emissions trend scenario assumes significant conservation and switching

M. W. Edenburn; E. A. Aronson

1990-01-01

225

Hiilidioksiditoimikunnan mietintoe. (Report of the carbon dioxide commission).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commission was entrusted with investigating alternative strategies and measures for limiting and reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. It was to study both technical and structural means of reducing these emissions. The ...

J. Routti

1991-01-01

226

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide on Carbonic Anhydrase Containing Substrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme catalyzing carbon dioxide hydration, was evaluated for its enhancement of carbon dioxide removal when it is present in granular materials with high water content during exposure to carbon dioxide in an aerating stream. A...

J. P. Allen

1968-01-01

227

Effects of High Carbon Dioxide Soil-Gas Concentrations and Emission Rates From Mammoth Mountain, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentrations (90 vol %) of carbon dioxide (CO2) are present in shallow soils, and CO2 is emitted to the atmosphere at high rates (1,000 g/d/m2), in several locations around Mammoth Mountain. The CO2 emissions have been diffuse and at ambient temperature. CO2 in the soil has killed most of the coniferous forest in five areas totaling 35 ha around the north, west, and south sides of the mountain at altitudes between 2,600 and 3,000 m. Part of the CO2 has dissolved in ground water, causing acidic conditions and severely corroding steel casings in several wells. The high CO2 emission rates are implicated in the deaths of four people in the past eight years. During winter, a large quantity of CO2 is sequestered in the snow pack on parts of the mountain, posing potential dangers for winter recreation. One U.S. Forest Service campground has been closed and safety plans have been implemented by the local ski resort. Mammoth Mountain is a dormant Quaternary volcanic center, but overlies an area that has been affected by periods of magmatic unrest during the past two decades. Hypocenters of long-period earthquakes indicate that basaltic intrusions reach depths as shallow as 20 to 15 km, from which CO2 has exsolved during decompression and (or) crystallization of these intrusions. CO2 moves to the land surface along fracture zones associated with faults and possibly geologic contacts. The magmatic source of CO2 is confirmed by ¦Ä13C = -3 to -5 PDB, a lack of 14C, and 3He/4He = 4 to 5 R/RA. The present-day high CO2 soil-gas concentrations and emission rates were first documented in 1994; however, anecdotal information and low 14C in post-1989 tree rings suggest that an abrupt increase in both concentrations and emission rates probably began in 1990, following a 6-month period of seismic swarm activity beneath the mountain. Emissions in an area on the south flank of the mountain have been the focus of CO2 monitoring and have shown no indications of abatement between 1994 and 2005, during which estimates of the total CO2 efflux ranged from 90 to 150 MT/d. The variations can be partly attributed to the precision of the techniques and to minor differences in measurement protocols between researchers; variations in soil- moisture and atmospheric conditions alone can cause fluctuations in efflux of ± 10% over periods of hours to days.

Farrar, C. D.; Evans, W. C.

2006-12-01

228

Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the…

Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

1993-01-01

229

Soil Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Sorghum–Sunflower Rotation in Rainfed Semi-arid Tropical Alfisols: Effects of Fertilization Rate and Legume Biomass Incorporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term effects of plant legume [horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum)] biomass incorporations were assessed in terms of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, soil quality parameters, and climatically influenced soil parameters in a dryland Alfisol under varying soil fertility conditions. Six selected treatments consisted of off-season legume incorporation (I) and no incorporation?\\/?fallow (F), each under three varying nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels

V. Ramesh; B. Venkateswarlu; K. L. Sharma; S. P. Wani

2012-01-01

230

Soil Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Sorghum-Sunflower Rotation in rainfed Semi Arid tropical Alfisols: Effects of Fertilization rate and Legume Biomass Incorporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term effects of plant legume [horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum)] biomass incorporations were assessed in terms of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, soil quality parameters, and climatically influenced soil parameters in a dryland Alfisol under varying soil fertility conditions. Six selected treatments consisted of off season legume incorporation (I) and without incorporation\\/fallow (F) each under three varying nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer

V. Ramesh; B. Venkateswarlu; K. L. Sharma; S. P. Wani

2012-01-01

231

The value of post-combustion carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in a world with uncertain greenhouse gas emissions constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

By analyzing how the largest CO2 emitting electricity-generating region in the United States, the East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR), responds to hypothetical constraints on greenhouse gas emissions, the authors demonstrate that there is an enduring role for post-combustion CO2 capture technologies. The utilization of pulverized coal generation with carbon dioxide capture and storage (PC+CCS) technologies is particularly significant

Marshall A. Wise; James J. Dooley

2009-01-01

232

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in

Ekaterina Dubrovskaya; Olga Turkovskaya

2010-01-01

233

Potential impact of conservation and alternative energy sources on carbon dioxide emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conservation and little change in the world'...

M. W. Edenburn E. A. Aronson

1990-01-01

234

Carbon dioxide emission rate of Kilauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a CO2 emission rate of 8500 metric tons per day (t d-1) for the summit of Kilauea Volcano, several times larger than previous estimates. It is based on three sets of measurements over 4 years of synchronous SO2 emission rates and volcanic CO2\\/SO2 concentration ratios for the summit correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) traverse. Volcanic CO2\\/SO2 for the traverse is

T. M. Gerlach; K. A. McGee; T. Elias; A. J. Sutton; M. P. Doukas

2002-01-01

235

Microporous metal-organic framework with potential for carbon dioxide capture at ambient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide capture and separation are important industrial processes that allow the use of carbon dioxide for the production of a range of chemical products and materials, and to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide emission. Porous metal-organic frameworks are promising materials to achieve such separations and to replace current technologies, which use aqueous solvents to chemically absorb carbon dioxide.

S. C. Xiang; Y. He; Z. Zhang; H. Wu; W. Zhou; R. Krishna; B. Chen

2012-01-01

236

Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate cha...

A. R. Kora K. M. Fowler K. S. Judd S. R. Shankle

2009-01-01

237

Influence of photoperiod on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from two pilot-scale stabilization ponds.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO(2), CH(4)) from pilot-scale algal and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP) were measured using the static chamber methodology. Daylight and nocturnal variations of GHG and wastewater characteristics (e.g. chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH) were determined via sampling campaigns during midday (12:30-15:30) and midnight (00:30-03:30) periods. The results showed that under daylight conditions in ABP median emissions were -232 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 9.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and in DBP median emissions were -1,654.5 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 71.4 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. During nocturnal conditions ABP median emissions were 3,949.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 12.7 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and DBP median emissions were 5,116 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 195.2 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Once data measured during daylight were averaged together with nocturnal data the median emissions for ABP were 1,566.8 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 72.1 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), whilst for DBP they were 3,016.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-) and 178.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These figures suggest that there were significant differences between CO(2) emissions measured during daylight and nocturnal periods (p < 0.05). This shows a sink-like behaviour for both ABP and DBP in the presence of solar light, which indicates the influence of photosynthesis in CO(2) emissions. On the other hand, the fluxes of CH(4) indicated that DBP and ABP behave as net sources of CH(4) during day and night, although higher emissions were observed from DBP. Overall, according to the compound average (daylight and nocturnal emissions) both ABP and DBP systems might be considered as net sources of GHG. PMID:22925866

Silva, Juan P; Ruiz, José L; Peña, Miguel R; Lubberding, Henk; Gijzen, Huub

2012-01-01

238

Carbon dioxide emissions in fallow periods of a corn-soybean rotation: eddy-covariance versus chamber methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes at terrestrial surface are typically quantified using eddy-covariance (EC) or chamber (Ch) techniques; however, long-term comparisons of the two techniques are not available. This study was conducted to assess the agreement between EC and Ch techniques when measuring CO2 ...

239

Inter-annual Variability in Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions in a Temperate Freshwater Marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists very little information on greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in marsh wetlands, especially in temperate climates. Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes were made from May 2005 to June 2008 in a temperate freshwater cattail marsh in Eastern Ontario, Canada. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 was measured continuously using the eddy covariance technique, and

M. Bonneville; I. Strachan

2009-01-01

240

Binding carbon dioxide in mineral form: A critical step towards a zero-emission coal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have successfully developed the foundation for sequestration of carbon dioxide in mineral form. The purpose of this technology is to maintain the competitiveness of coal energy, even when in the future environmental and political pressures will

Klaus S. Lackner; Darryl P. Butt; Christopher H. Wendt

1998-01-01

241

The relationship between national-level carbon dioxide emissions and population size: an assessment of regional and temporal variation, 1960-2005.  

PubMed

This study examines the regional and temporal differences in the statistical relationship between national-level carbon dioxide emissions and national-level population size. The authors analyze panel data from 1960 to 2005 for a diverse sample of nations, and employ descriptive statistics and rigorous panel regression modeling techniques. Initial descriptive analyses indicate that all regions experienced overall increases in carbon emissions and population size during the 45-year period of investigation, but with notable differences. For carbon emissions, the sample of countries in Asia experienced the largest percent increase, followed by countries in Latin America, Africa, and lastly the sample of relatively affluent countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania combined. For population size, the sample of countries in Africa experienced the largest percent increase, followed countries in Latin America, Asia, and the combined sample of countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania. Findings for two-way fixed effects panel regression elasticity models of national-level carbon emissions indicate that the estimated elasticity coefficient for population size is much smaller for nations in Africa than for nations in other regions of the world. Regarding potential temporal changes, from 1960 to 2005 the estimated elasticity coefficient for population size decreased by 25% for the sample of Africa countries, 14% for the sample of Asia countries, 6.5% for the sample of Latin America countries, but remained the same in size for the sample of countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania. Overall, while population size continues to be the primary driver of total national-level anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, the findings for this study highlight the need for future research and policies to recognize that the actual impacts of population size on national-level carbon emissions differ across both time and region. PMID:23437323

Jorgenson, Andrew K; Clark, Brett

2013-02-20

242

SIMULATED RAINFALL IMPACT ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM CORN AND SOYBEAN CROPPING SYSTEMS ON A MOLLISOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is an increasing concern for rising greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere including CO 2. Soil can serve as either a source or a sink for CO2. We have very little information on the impact of rainfall on levels of CO2 emissions from croplands. Objectives of our study were to determine the ...

243

Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The  

EIA Publications

This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

Information Center

2008-09-12

244

Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportati...

2008-01-01

245

Diffuse emission of carbon dioxide, methane, and helium-3 from Teide volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse emission of CO2, CH4 and 3He was investigated in the summit crater of Teide volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands. The results indicate that Teide volcano releases abundant CO2 not only from its active crater, but also from its flanks as diffuse soil emanations. The spatial distribution of these emanations correlates quite closely with that of geothermal anomalies and manifestations. Our

Pedro A. Hernández; Nemesio M. Pérez; José M. Salazar; Shun'ichi Nakai; Kenji Notsu; Hiroshi Wakita

1998-01-01

246

A comprehensive carbon dioxide analysis system for estimating CO2 emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas emissions due to combustion of fossil fuel can be estimated from observations of variations in atmospheric trace gases in time and space. Quantitative interpretation of these variations requires accounting for stronger changes due to other processes such as ecosystem metabolism, biomass burning, and air-sea gas exchange that operate on global scales. We have developed and tested an analysis

A. Denning; N. Parazoo; R. S. Lokupitiya; D. F. Baker

2010-01-01

247

Magmatic Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Mammoth Mountain, California -- A Decreasing Trend From 1996 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammoth Mountain is a Pleistocene volcano along the crest of the central Sierra Nevada Range and comprises about 20 domes of dacitic to rhyolitic composition extruded between about 110 and 57 ka. The most recent volcanic activity consisted of a few small phreatic eruptions on the north flank of the mountain about 700 yrs ago. Magmatic CO2 emissions from soils

C. D. Farrar; D. Bergfeld

2007-01-01

248

Diffuse emission of carbon dioxide, methane, and helium-3 from Teide Volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse emission of CO2, CH4 and ³He was investigated in the summit crater of Teide volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands. The results indicate that Teide volcano releases abundant CO2 not only from its active crater, but also from its flanks as diffuse soil emanations. The spatial distribution of these emanations correlates quite closely with that of geothermal anomalies and manifestations. Our

Pedro A. Hernfindez; Nemesio M. Pérez; José M. Salazar; Shun'ichi Nakai; Kenji Notsu; Hiroshi Wakita

1998-01-01

249

Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ocean chemistry calculations based on ocean general circulation model simulations of atmospheric CO2 emission, stabilization of atmospheric CO2 content, and stabilization of atmospheric CO2 achieved in total or in part by injection of CO2 to the deep ocean interior. Our goal is to provide first-order results from various CO2 pathways, allowing correspondence with studies of marine biological effects

Ken Caldeira; Michael E. Wickett

2005-01-01

250

Quenching Rates for Carbon Dioxide Emission Excited by 54.4NM Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rate constants have been determined for quenching of emission from the (0,0,0) level of CO2(+)(B doublet Sigma(u)(+)) and the (3,0,0) level of CO2(+)(A doublet Pi(u)) by CO2, H2, N2, O2, CO, N2O, C2H6, Ar, Ne and He. The measured rates represent reaction ...

C. A. Winkler J. B. Tellinghuisen L. F. Phillips

1971-01-01

251

Modelling nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emission from soil in an incubation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide (N2O), one of the primary green house gases (GHG), is an important contributor to the radiative forcing and chemistry of the atmosphere. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil are mainly due to denitrification. In this paper, we test sub-modules in the APSIM and DAYCENT models to simulate denitrification. The models were tested by comparison of predicted and measured N2O

Hongtao Xing; Enli Wang; Chris J. Smith; Denis Rolston; Qiang Yu

252

Airborne detection of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at ~2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at ~3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels ~1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of ~250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at approximately 2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at approximately 3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels approximately 1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of approximately 250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.

Gerlach, T. M.; Doukas, M. P.; McGee, K. A.; Kessler, R.

1999-01-01

253

Women's status and carbon dioxide emissions: A quantitative cross-national analysis.  

PubMed

Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas emissions have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women's traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women's status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of cross-national data, focusing on the connection between women's political status and CO(2) emissions per capita. We find that CO(2) emissions per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally. PMID:23017863

Ergas, Christina; York, Richard

2012-03-17

254

Carbon dioxide emissions after application of different tillage systems for loam in northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tillage operations influence soil physical properties and crop growth, and thus both directly and indirectly the cropland CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In this study, the results of CO2 flux measurements on cropland, under different tillage practices in northern China, are presented. CO2 flux on croplands with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea may L.) rotation was monitored on plots with conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT). Soil CO2 flux was generally greater in CT than in NT, and the RT CO2 flux was only slightly smaller than the CT. Daily soil CO2 emissions for CT, RT, and NT averaged 11.30g m-2, 9.63 g m-2 and 7.99 g m-2, respectively, during the growing period. Analysis of variance shows that these differences are significant for the three tillage treatments. Peak CO2 emissions were recorded on the CT and RT croplands after tillage operations. At the same time, no obviously increased emission of CO2 occurred on the NT plot. These differences demonstrate that tillage results in a rapid physical release of CO2.

Hongwen, Li; Lifeng, Hu; Fub, Chen; Xuemin, Zhang

2010-05-01

255

Measured carbon dioxide emissions from Oldoinyo Lengai and the skewed distribution of passive volcanic fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne measurements of CO2 released from Oldoinyo Lengai, the only carbonatite-erupting volcano in the world, reveal a CO2 flux of 0.055 × 1012 mol\\/yr. This flux is substantially smaller than that of Mount Etna (1 × 1012 mol\\/yr), which accounts for over half of the global carbon flux attributed to subaerial volcanoes (1 2 × 1012 mol\\/yr). We propose that

Susan L. Brantley; Kevin W. Koepenick

1995-01-01

256

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

1998-09-01

257

Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets.  

PubMed

In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO(2) emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future. PMID:23410395

Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N; Stanley, H Eugene

2013-01-29

258

[Progress in microalgae culture system for biodiesel combined with reducing carbon dioxide emission].  

PubMed

Wastewater resources, CO2 emission reduction and microalgae biodiesel are considered as current frontier fields of energy and environmental researches. In this paper, we reviewed the progress in system of microalgae culture for biodiesel production by wastewater and stack gas. Multiple factors including microalgal species, nutrition, culture methods and photobioreactor, which were crucial to the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, were discussed in detail. A valuable culture system of microalgae for biodiesel production or other high value products combined with the treatment of wastewater by microalgae was put forward through the optimizations of algal species and culture technology. The culture system coupled with the treatment of wastewater, the reduction of CO2 emission with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production will reduce the production cost of microalgal biofuel production and the treatment cost of wastewater simultaneously. Therefore, it would be a promising technology with important environmental value, social value and economic value to combine the treatment of wastewater with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production. PMID:22117510

Su, Hongyang; Zhou, Xuefei; Xia, Xuefen; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Yalei

2011-09-01

259

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Diffuse Carbon Dioxide Emission From Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, Central America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerro Negro is a basaltic cinder cone that has erupted 22 times since its birth in 1850. It is part of a group of four young cinder cones NW of Las Pilas volcano. Cerro Negro's most recent activity was on 5 August 1999 when erupted ash clouds at heights of about 7 km. In December 1999, three months after the eruption, a surface flux survey was carried out at Cerro Negro. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from 0.5 to 35,000 gm-2d-1 and the total diffuse CO2 output was estimated about 2,800 td-1. Soil temperature reached values above 300°C on the NE flank of the volcano (Salazar et al., 2001). The goal of this study is to evaluate how diffuse CO2 degassing rate at Cerro Negro changes through its eruptive cycle and improve its volcano monitoring program. From Febraury 26 to March 11, 2002, a new diffuse CO2 degassing survey was carried out at Cerro Negro. Sampling distribution was similar to the 1999 survey covering an area of (0.6 Km2). Diffuse CO2 emission rates for the 2002 survey showed a wide range of values from 0.3 to 26,500 gm-2d-1. Most of the study area showed soil CO2 efflux values above 110 gm-2d-1, and the highest CO2 efflux rate was observed in the Northeastern sector of the crater. Soil temperature was also recorded during the survey, and the highest value was observed in the NE flank reaching temperatures up to 450°C. The total diffuse CO2 output for the 2002 survey was estimated about 280 td-1, which is one order of magnitude lower than the estimated for the 1999 survey. This significant temporal variation on diffuse CO2 emission rate seems to be clearly related to the eruptive cycle of Cerro Negro. If we consider that the statistically eruptive cycle for Cerro Negro is less than a decade, it is obvious that the December 1999 survey was performed within its post-eruptive period, while the recent 2002 survey was carried out two years and a half after the most recent eruption of Cerro Negro, within its inter-eruptive period. These results suggest that diffuse CO2 degassing monitoring at Cerro Negro could be a potential geochemical tool for its volcanic surveillance.

Galindo, I.; Melián, G.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.; Strauch, W.

2002-12-01

260

The Hestia Project: High Spatial Resolution Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Quantification at Hourly Scale in Indianapolis, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface and contribute to sound, quantitatively-based U.S. climate change policy interests, quantification of greenhouse gases emissions drivers at fine spatial and temporal scales is essential. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the primary greenhouse gases, has become a key component to cost-effective CO2 emissions mitigation options and

Y. Zhou; K. R. Gurney

2009-01-01

261

Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase

Stephen J. Gerdemann; David C. Dahlin; William K. OConnor; Larry R. Penner

2003-01-01

262

Effects of carbon dioxide emission, kinetically-limited reactions, and diffusive transport on ammonia emission from manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from animal manure causes significant loss of fixed N from livestock operations. Ammonia emission from manure is the culmination of biological, chemical, and physical processes, all of which are well-understood. In this work, we present a speciation and transport mode...

263

Steps Towards Integrating Carbon Dioxide Sources and Sinks into Local Environmental Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide balancing can be evaluated by counting the amount of emissions and the sinks that absorb and release carbon. Local level planning can affect the emission-sinks balance. However when trying to meet international goals, it seems that local government mainly considers emission reduction and not sink losses. This paper investigates the implications of using carbon dioxide emissions and

ERIC RAPAPORT; TORGNY LIND

2003-01-01

264

The effects of carbon cycle model error in calculating future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical investigations have indicated that projections of future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of a quality quite adequate for practical questions regarding the environmental threat of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and its relationship to energy use policy could be made with the simple assumption that a constant fraction of these emissions would be retained by the atmosphere. By analysis of the

J. A. Laurmann; J. R. Spreiter

1983-01-01

265

Inter-annual Variability in Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions in a Temperate Freshwater Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists very little information on greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in marsh wetlands, especially in temperate climates. Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes were made from May 2005 to June 2008 in a temperate freshwater cattail marsh in Eastern Ontario, Canada. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 was measured continuously using the eddy covariance technique, and closed chambers were used to measure CH4 emissions from open water, soil, and vegetated portions of the marsh. Based on NEE, we found that the marsh accumulated 264 g C m-2 from May 2005 to April 2006 and 185 g C m-2 and 308 g C m-2 in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008, respectively. Lower spring temperature in 2005 seems to have delayed the initial growth of cattails and therefore led to a later switchover time from a net CO2 source to a net CO2 sink compared to spring 2006 and 2007. The lower cumulative NEE measured in 2006-2007 is mainly due to the cloudy conditions (i.e. low average incoming photosynthetically active radiation) that occurred through late summer and early fall 2006, which greatly decreased cattail photosynthesis and induced an earlier death of the pants, which in turn resulted in a lower average CO2 uptake compared to the other years. During the 2005, 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, the carbon uptake period was 109, 104, and 116 days in length, which is consistent with the inter-annual variability in NEE observed. The results suggest that the timing of the fall switchover from a net CO2 sink to a net CO2 source is probably the main factor influencing the annual CO2 accumulation. The average CH4 flux measured from open water was 658 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2005, 381 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2006, and 352 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2008. The average CH4 flux from vegetation was 1001 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2005, 1640 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2006, and 1260 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2008. The CH4 flux from soil was only measured in 2006 (255 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) and 2008 (224 mg CH4 m-2 d-1). It is known that the presence of the aerenchyma tissue that runs through the cattail's roots, stem and leaves facilitates the transport of gases such as CH4 from the production site (i.e. soil) to the atmosphere, which explains the higher fluxes measured from vegetated portions of the marsh. Knowing that CH4 is produced under anaerobic waterlogged conditions, the higher CH4 fluxes measured from plants in 2006 may be related to the higher rainfall observed during that year. This long-term record of CO2 and CH4 fluxes combined with continuous measurements of meteorological and ecosystem properties allows us to investigate the overall carbon budget of this marsh wetland as well as the major controls on the GHG fluxes for this type of ecosystem. This study provides valuable knowledge that can complement the existing information on other wetlands types and may be useful for predicting the impacts of climate change on CO2 and CH4 fluxes and for estimating national carbon stocks.

Bonneville, M.; Strachan, I.

2009-05-01

266

The effect of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on emissions of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane from a wheat field in a semi-arid environment in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no reports on the effects of elevated carbon dioxide [CO2] on the fluxes of N2O, CO2 and CH4 from semi-arid wheat cropping systems. These three soil gas fluxes were measured using closed chambers under ambient (420 ± 18 ?mol mol?1) and elevated (565 ± 37 ?mol mol?1) at the Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment experimental facility in northern China. Measurements were made over five weeks on a

Shu Kee Lam; Erda Lin; Rob Norton; Deli Chen

2011-01-01

267

The Hestia Project: High Spatial Resolution Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Quantification at Hourly Scale in Indianapolis, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface and contribute to sound, quantitatively-based U.S. climate change policy interests, quantification of greenhouse gases emissions drivers at fine spatial and temporal scales is essential. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the primary greenhouse gases, has become a key component to cost-effective CO2 emissions mitigation options and a carbon trading system. Called the ‘Hestia Project’, this pilot study generated CO2 emissions down to high spatial resolution and hourly scale for the greater Indianapolis region in the USA through the use of air quality and traffic monitoring data, remote sensing, GIS, and building energy modeling. The CO2 emissions were constructed from three data source categories: area, point, and mobile. For the area source emissions, we developed an energy consumption model using DOE/EIA survey data on building characteristics and energy consumption. With the Vulcan Project’s county-level CO2 emissions and simulated building energy consumption, we quantified the CO2 emissions for each individual building by allocating Vulcan emissions to roughly 50,000 structures in Indianapolis. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions in each individual building was developed based on temporal patterns of energy consumption. The point sources emissions were derived from the EPA National Emissions Inventory data and effluent monitoring of electricity producing facilities. The mobile source CO2 emissions were estimated at the month/county scale using the Mobile6 combustion model and the National Mobile Inventory Model database. The month/county scale mobile source CO2 emissions were downscaled to the “native” spatial resolution of road segments every hour using a GIS road atlas and traffic monitoring data. The result is shown in Figure 1. The resulting urban-scale inventory can serve as a baseline of current CO2 emissions and should be of immediate use to city environmental managers and regional industry as they plan emission mitigation options and project future emission trends. The results obtained here will also be a useful comparison to atmospheric CO2 monitoring efforts from the top-down. Figure 1. Location of the study area, the building level and mobile CO2 emissions, and an enlarged example neighborhood

Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

2009-12-01

268

SOIL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION AS AFFECTED BY IRRIGATION, TILLAGE, CROPPING SYSTEM, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices can influence soil CO2 emission and C sequestration in cropland and therefore on global warming. We examined the effects of irrigation systems (irrigated vs. non-irrigated) and soil and crop management practices on soil CO2 flux, temperature, and water and C contents at the 0 to...

269

Tillage and Crop Residue Effects on Soil Carbon and Carbon Dioxide Emission in Corn–Soybean Rotations  

Microsoft Academic Search

in soil organic C in the first 2 to 5 yr after changing to conservation management, but a large increase in TC Soil C change and CO2 emission due to different tillage systems occurred in the next 5 to 10 yr. In addition, Duiker need to be evaluated to encourage the adoption of conservation prac- tices to sustain soil productivity

Mahdi M. Al-Kaisi; Xinhua Yin

2005-01-01

270

Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emission rates from an alkaline intra-plate volcano: Mt. Erebus, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of CO and CO2 flux from Mt. Erebus, Antarctica, an alkaline intra-plate volcano with a convecting lava lake. The CO2 flux from the Mt. Erebus plume was measured by in-plume infrared analysis during December 1997, December 1999 and January 2001. The CO2 emission rates were consistently close to the average of 22.3 kg\\/s (1930 Mg\\/day)

L. J. Wardell; P. R. Kyle; C. Chaffin

2004-01-01

271

Concept for the remote sounding measurement of the atmospheric carbon dioxide column from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the climatic effects of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has resulted in a growing need, both scientifically and politically, to monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide. The development of a satellite instrument which could measure the global distribution of atmospheric carbon dioxide would greatly improve our understanding of the global carbon cycle and provide a means of monitoring regional sources

Boyd T. Tolton; Matt Toohey; Dany Plouffe; Philippe Benoit; Leonid Yurganov

2002-01-01

272

The fate of carbon in grasslands under carbon dioxide enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth's atmosphere is rising rapidly, with the potential to alter many ecosystem processes. Elevated CO2 often stimulates photosynthesis, creating the possibility that the terrestrial biosphere will sequester carbon in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, partly offsetting emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, cement manufacture, and deforestation,. However, the responses of intact ecosystems to

Bruce A. Hungate; Elisabeth A. Holland; Robert B. Jackson; F. Stuart Chapin; Harold A. Mooney; Christopher B. Field

1997-01-01

273

Effect of Bacterial and Fungal Abundance in Soil on the Emission of Carbon Dioxide from Soil in Semi-arid Climate in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere is actively increasing since industrial revolution (1800) from 285 ppmv to 378\\u000a ppmv in 2005. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil due to floral and faunal respiration in soil, called soil respiration, is the\\u000a second largest source of increasing concentration of CO2 in atmosphere. Soil respiration produces almost 11 times more carbon dioxide in atmosphere than

Rashmi Kant; Chirashree Ghosh; Lokendra Singh; Neelam Tripathi

274

Measured and estimated methane and carbon dioxide emissions from sawdust waste in the Tennessee Valley under alternative management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood waste is a potential source of methane production due to its high degradable organic carbon content and an on-site storage method that is conducive to development of anaerobic conditions. Future emissions from wood waste could be even higher if waste piles must be converted to landfills by soil capping in order to comply with national criteria for solid waste

P. A. Pier; J. M. Kelly

1997-01-01

275

Carbon dioxide neutral, integrated biofuel facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae are efficient biocatalysts for both capture and conversion of carbon dioxide in the environment. In earlier work, we have optimized the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to rapidly capture CO2 from man-made emission sources by varying environmental growth conditions and bioreactor design. Here we demonstrate that a coupled biodiesel-bioethanol facility, using yeast to produce ethanol and photosynthetic algae to produce

E. E. Powell; G. A. Hill

2010-01-01

276

Space-time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to improve understanding of carbon cycling in the Buor-Khaya Bay (BKB) and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea by studying the inter-annual, seasonal, and meso-scale variability of carbon and related hydrological and biogeochemical parameters in the water, as well as factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Here we present data sets obtained on summer cruises and winter expeditions during 12 yr of investigation. Based on data analysis, we suggest that in the heterotrophic BKB area, input of terrestrially borne organic carbon (OC) varies seasonally and inter-annually and is largely determined by rates of coastal erosion and river discharge. Two different BKB sedimentation regimes were revealed: Type 1 (erosion accumulation) and Type 2 (accumulation). A Type 1 sedimentation regime occurs more often and is believed to be the quantitatively most important mechanism for suspended particular matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery to the BKB. The mean SPM concentration observed in the BKB under a Type 1 regime was one order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration of SPM (~ 20 mg L-1) observed along the Lena River stream in summer 2003. Loadings of the BKB water column with particulate material vary by more than a factor of two between the two regimes. Higher partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), higher concentrations of nutrients, and lower levels of oxygen saturation were observed in the bottom water near the eroded coasts, implying that coastal erosion and subsequent oxidation of eroded organic matter (OM) rather than the Lena River serves as the predominant source of nutrients to the BKB. Atmospheric CO2 fluxes from the sea surface in the BKB vary from 1 to 95 mmol m-2 day-1 and are determined by specific features of hydrology and wind conditions, which change spatially, seasonally, and inter-annually. Mean values of CO2 emission from the shallow Laptev Sea were similar in September 1999 and 2005 (7.2 and 7.8 mmol m-2 day-1, respectively), while the CO2 efflux can be one order lower after a strong storm such as in September 2011. Atmospheric CO2 emissions from a thawed coastal ice complex in the BKB area varied from 9 to 439 mmol m-2 day-1, with the mean value ranged from 75.7 to 101 mmol m-2 day-1 in two years (September 2006 and 2009), suggesting that at the time of observations the eroded coastal area served as a more significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere than the tundra (mean value: 22.7 mmol m-2 day-1) on the neighboring Primorsky coastal plain (September 2006). The observed increase in the Lena River discharge since the 1990s suggests that increased levels of "satellite-derived" annual primary production could be explained by an increasing load of humic acids delivered to shelf water; in this water the color resulting from the presence of CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) mimics the color resulting from the presence of Chl a when seen from space. Because the BKB area can be employed as an integrator of ongoing changes in the surrounding environment, we suggest that under ongoing changes, more nutrients, products of eroded OC transformation and river transport, will be delivered to the Arctic Ocean with its shrinking ice cover, potentially increasing primary production outside of the shallow East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). At the same time, because the ESAS is characterized by very low transparency which limits euphotic layer thickness, excessive pCO2 will not be utilized by photosynthesis but will rather be emitted to the atmosphere at increasing rates, affecting regional CO2 balance.

Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

2013-09-01

277

Carbon Dioxide Information Center thesaurus  

SciTech Connect

This thesaurus lists the keywords (including narrower, broader, and related terms, as well as forbidden terms) used by the Carbon Dioxide Information Center for the input and retrieval of records for its Bibliographic Information System (BIS), BIS is a specialized bibliographic data base on carbon dioxide and climate. It is being merged into the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base (EDB). The keywords used in the BIS Thesaurus are also used in the much larger EDB thesaurus so EDB may be searched for CO2 references using either thesaurus.

Millemann, R.E.; Cushman, R.M.

1986-04-01

278

Carbon dioxide capture and storage: a status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel combustion is the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As a result of combustion, essentially all of the fuel carbon is emitted to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2), along with small amounts of methane and, in some cases, nitrous oxide. It has been axiomatic that reducing anthropogenic GHG emissions requires reducing fossil-fuel use. However, that

Lenny Bernstein; Arthur Lee; Steven Crookshank

2006-01-01

279

A compilation of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emission-rate data from Cook Inlet volcanoes (Redoubt, Spurr, Iliamna, and Augustine), Alaska during the period from 1990 to 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sampling of the Cook Inlet volcanoes (Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) began in 1986 when several measurements were carried out at Augustine volcano during the eruption of 1986 (Rose and others, 1988). More systematic monitoring for SO2 began in March 1990 and for carbon dioxide (CO2) began in June, 1990 at Redoubt Volcano (Brantley, 1990 and Casadevall and others, 1994) and continues to the present. This report contains all of the available daily SO2 and CO2 emission rates determined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 1990 through July 1994. Intermittent measurements (four to six month intervals) at Augustine and Iliamna began in 1990 and continues to the present. Intermittent measurements began at Mt. Spurr volcano in 1991, and were continued at more regular intervals from June, 1992 through the 1992 eruption at the Crater Peak vent to the present.

Doukas, Michael P.

1995-01-01

280

21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

2009-04-01

281

Dust Retardation Studies of Carbon Dioxide Sorbents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surfaces of carbon dioxide sorbent granules were treated with various liquid preparations to diminish dusting tendency and to improve carbon dioxide capacity. Emphasis was placed on a screening program whereby granules of lithium hydroxide were impregnate...

F. Tepper J. V. Friel

1968-01-01

282

Reaction of Calcium Hydroxide with Carbon Dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Details for carrying out an experiment on the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide are given. The addition of water is necessary for a reaction between dry calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide. (ERA citation 02:005491)

F. W. Dorst

1975-01-01

283

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01

284

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01

285

Carbon dioxide adsorption on nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, CO2 adsorption in the presence and absence of co-adsorbed H2O was investigated on different nanomaterials including nanocrystalline NaY zeolite (nano NaY), ZnO, MgO and gamma-Al 2O3 nanoparticles as well as mixed phase aluminum nanowhiskers. In the case of nano NaY, FTIR spectra show that a majority of CO2 adsorbs in the pores of these zeolites in a linear complex with the exchangeable cation. Most interesting is the formation of carbonate and bicarbonate on the external surface of nano NaY zeolites, suggesting unique sites for CO 2 adsorption on the surface of these small nanomaterials. Adsorption of 18O-labeled carbon dioxide and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirms the assignment of these different species. For aluminum oxyhydroxide nanowhiskers and gamma alumina in the absence of co-adsorbed water, CO2 reacts with surface hydroxyl groups to yield adsorbed bicarbonate as well as some carbonate. C18O2 adsorption confirms these assignments. In the case of nanoparticulate ZnO, CO2 adsorption under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate, bicarbonates as well as carboxylates. However, in the presence of co-adsorbed water, only carbonate species is formed. 18O-labeled carbon dioxide adsorption and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirm the vibrational assignment for these different species. Mixed isotope studies with H2 16O + C18O2 and H2 18O + C16O2 suggest that there is extensive exchange between oxygen in adsorbed water and oxygen atoms in gas-phase carbon dioxide. CO2 adsorption on MgO surfaces, under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate and bicarbonates. Implications for the use of these nanomaterials in carbon dioxide uptake and storage are discussed.

Galhotra, Pragati

286

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Transportation Options in the Illinois Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes carbon dioxide (CO) capture options from large stationary emission sources in the Illinois Basin, primarily focusing on coal-fired utility power plants. The CO emissions data were collected for utility power plants and industrial facilities over most of Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and western Kentucky. Coal-fired power plants are by far the largest CO emission sources in the Illinois

M. Rostam-Abadi; S. S. Chen; Y. Lu

2004-01-01

287

Carbon Dioxide - Sources and Sinks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, students use a chemical indicator (bromothymol blue) to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in animal and plant respiration and in the burning of fossil fuels and its absence in the products of plant photosynthesis. After completing the five parts of this activity, students compare the colors of the chemical indicator in each part and interpret the results in terms of the qualitative importance of carbon sinks and sources.

Universe, Windows T.

288

Aircraft monitoring of surface carbon dioxide exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft-mounted sensors were used to measure the exchange of carbon dioxide above a cornfield, a forest, and a lake under midday conditions. Mean absorption values of 3400, 1200, and 100 milligrams of carbon dioxide per square meter per hour, respectively, are consistent with reported ground-based observations of carbon dioxide flux. Such information, gathered by aircraft, could be used to provide

R. L. Desjardins; P. Alvo; P. H. Schuepp

1982-01-01

289

Aircraft Monitoring of Surface Carbon Dioxide Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft-mounted sensors were used to measure the exchange of carbon dioxide above a cornfield, a forest, and a lake under midday conditions. Mean absorption values of 3400, 1200, and 100 milligrams of carbon dioxide per square meter per hour, respectively, are consistent with reported ground-based observations of carbon dioxide flux. Such information, gathered by aircraft, could be used to provide

R. L. Desjardins; E. J. Brach; P. Alvo; P. H. Schuepp

1982-01-01

290

Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

Winkel, Brian

2012-01-01

291

Historical changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in the eutrophied Southern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities after the Second World War have severely increased river nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] loads to European coastal areas. The resulting N: P: Si imbalance (compared to phytoplankton requirements) stimulated in the Southern North Sea the growth of Phaeocystis colonies modifying the functioning of the ecosystem and, therefore, the carbon but also the biogenic sulphur cycles. Phaeocystis is a significant producer of DMSP (dimethylsulphide propionate), the precursor of DMS. When emitted to the atmosphere the DMS has a cooling effect on the climate contrarily to the CO2 greenhouse gas. Since the late 1990's specific nutrient reduction policies have however considerably reduced P loads while N is maintained. In this application we explore, with a mathematical tool, the effects of changing N and P loads on air-sea CO2 exchanges and DMS marine emissions. The chosen model is the MIRO-CO2-DMS, a complex biogeochemical model describing carbon, biogenic sulphur and nutrient cycles in the marine domain. Model simulations are performed for the contemporary period since 1950, using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER model simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Results are discussing the importance of human activities and river inputs of carbon and nutrients on the eutrophication of coastal areas, their ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 and the importance of DMS emissions associated with phytoplankton blooms, especially Phaeocystis.

Gypens, N.; Borges, A. V.; Lancelot, C.

2012-04-01

292

Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO2 emissions, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO2 emissions. Methods 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 emissions. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO2 emissions. Results CO2 emissions were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight). Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO2 emissions, while active travel was associated with lower CO2 emissions. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO2 emissions. Conclusions Establishing the direction of causality between weight status and travel behaviour requires longitudinal data, but the association with engine size suggests that there may be at least some causal effect of obesity on CO2 emissions. More generally, transport CO2 emissions are associated in different ways with different health-related characteristics. These include associations between health goods and environmental harms (recreational physical activity and high emissions), indicating that environment-health ‘co-benefits’ cannot be assumed. Instead, attention should also be paid to identifying and mitigating potential areas of tension, for example by promoting low-carbon recreational physical activity.

2012-01-01

293

Taxing sulfur dioxide emission allowances  

SciTech Connect

The acid rain control program authorized by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) was designed to reduce the adverse effects of acid rain by limiting emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) into the atmosphere. The program is a complex scheme involving the issuance, consumption, holding, and trading of emission allowances for SO[sub 2]. Not surprisingly, electric utilities will face federal income tax issues in connection with the program. Under the emission allowance program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will issue emission allowance to owners or operators of certain utility power plants at no cost to the recipients. An emission allowance is an authorization to emit one ton of SO[sub 2] during or after the calendar year for which it is issued. If a utility power plant subject to the program emits SO[sub 2] in excess of its allowances, the owner or operator will be subject to a penalty of $2,000 a ton, and must offset the excess emissions with allowances in the subsequent year. Allowances may be bought and sold. Phase I of the program begins January 1, 1995, and will apply to 110 utility generating units. Phase II takes effect January 1, 2000, and will include most electric utility generating units. EPA will withhold a specified number of allowances for direct sale and auction. The resulting proceeds will be paid to the utilities from which the allowances were withheld. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has provided somewhat limited guidance on several tax issues raised by the program. Significant tax issues and the positions articulated by the IRS (if any) are discussed in this article.

Nelson, G.L. (Reid Priest, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-09-15

294

CARIOCA - monitoring carbon dioxide exchange  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) gas has been identified as a major contributor to global warming as a so-called [open quotes]greenhouse gas[close quotes]. The ocean acts as the largest sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide, but the calculated values of this effect (2.0 [times] 10[sup 15] grams carbon per annum) are subject to huge inaccuracies of the order of 30 percent. There is a need for data on the geographical distribution of the various sinks and sources of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the variation of the extent of exchange over an annual cycle. Equipment is required that is capable of making measurements over a 12-month period in order to monitor annual variations and spread throughout the world's oceans. The CARIOCA project was set up in order to develop a suitably instrumented drifting buoy. It is a pan-European cooperative effort. This paper describes the sensor and buoy development with particular reference to how the sensors were designed. Preliminary trials have been successfully completed and the overall aim of CARIOCA will be to release a buoyed network of 100 to 150 buoys.

Walton, J. (Chelsea Instruments Ltd., Surry (United Kingdom))

1994-10-01

295

Wood-based building materials and atmospheric carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the global impact of wood as a building material by considering emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Wood is compared with other materials in terms of stored carbon and emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel energy used in manufacturing. An analysis of typical forms of building construction shows that wood buildings require much lower process

Andrew H Buchanan; S. Bry Levine

1999-01-01

296

Climate change and carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration: an African perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990 carbon dioxide emissions in Africa have increased by about 50%. The total carbon dioxide emissions of the entire African continent are not, however, anywhere near those of countries such as India or China. Yet certain African countries have per capita emissions comparable to some European countries. What is the outlook for Africa? How should African countries respond as

M. Sengul; A. E. Pillay; C. G. Francis; M. Elkadi

2007-01-01

297

Mariner 6: Origin of Mars Ionized Carbon Dioxide Ultraviolet Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted intensities of the ionized carbon dioxide (CO2{}+) emission feature at 2890 angstroms and the Fox-Duffendack-Barker bands are 5.2 and 19.9 kilorayleighs, respectively, for a vertical column. Direct photoionization of carbon dioxide by solar radiation contributes 3.5 and 4.1 kilorayleighs, respectively, and fluorescent scattering by CO2{}+, 1.6 and 15.3 kilorayleighs, respectively. Photoelectron impacts are less important.

A. Dalgarno; T. C. Degges; A. I. Stewart

1970-01-01

298

Mariner 6: origin of Mars ionized carbon dioxide ultraviolet spectrum.  

PubMed

The predicted intensities of the ionized carbon dioxide (CO(2)+) emission feature at 2890 angstroms and the Fox-Duffendack-Barker bands are 5.2 and 19.9 kilorayleighs, respectively, for a vertical column. Direct photoionization of carbon dioxide by solar radiation contributes 3.5 and 4.1 kilorayleighs, respectively, and fluorescent scattering by C0(2)+, 1.6 and 15.3 kilorayleighs, respectively. Photoelectron impacts are less important. PMID:17750345

Dalgarno, A; Degges, T C; Stewart, A I

1970-03-13

299

Summer Ice and Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and research ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55 degrees and 80 degrees N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

1981-10-01

300

Summer ice and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and reseach ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55/sup o/ and 80/sup o/N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

1981-10-30

301

Carbon dioxide absorption by MEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas generally contains significant quantities of carbon dioxide in addition to methane. A bubbling column reactor operating\\u000a at atmospheric pressure is proposed for cheap separation and a Mettler RC1 reaction calorimeter was used to build a simplified\\u000a empirical model for measuring the molar heat of solubility of CO2 in aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA). Determinations were performed in 12 mass%

N. Palmeri; S. Cavallaro; J. C. J. Bart

2008-01-01

302

Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota Do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes Da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves De; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

2011-06-01

303

Carbon dioxide transport in crustal magmatic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile chemistry of juvenile volcanic glasses has suggested that shallow-stored crustal magmas often suffer the open-system addition of a carbon-dioxide-rich fluid from below, probably from a mantle-derived basaltic source ("carbon dioxide fluxing"). However, the actual mechanism of such a fluid transport is poorly understood. To constrain the volatile transport mechanism, we formulated this phenomenon as a reactive transport process and clarified the fundamental characteristics of chemical exchange in the system. The model assumes that a carbon-dioxide-rich fluid is introduced into a water-rich rhyolitic magma column from below and ascends at a constant velocity whilst a volatile exchange takes place between the fluid and melt. Two types of exchange modes were examined. One is the equilibrium mode where the volatile exchange is instantaneously achieved at all column depths. The second is the diffusive mode where the volatile exchange is rate limited by diffusion. In the equilibrium mode, the extent of re-equilibration of the entire column is controlled solely by the mass ratio of the integrated fluid to the melt. In the diffusive mode, the extent of re-equilibration is controlled by the Damköhler number, a dimensionless parameter representing the ratio of the advection time to the diffusion time. When the Damköhler number for carbon dioxide exceeds 10, the diffusive exchange becomes indistinguishable from the equilibrium exchange. Both exchange modes produce a negative correlation between the concentrations of carbon dioxide and water in the melt, which cannot be explained by conventional degassing models without significant crystallisation. The fluid emitted from the column as a volcanic gas changes its composition from carbon dioxide rich to water rich, and the emission rate decreases monotonically during fluxing. The simulation enables us to constrain the mechanism of fluid transport. For the melt inclusion data from the Bishop Tuff (Wallace et al., 1999; Anderson et al., 2000), fluid velocity in this magma was estimated to be 10 - 6 -10 - 7 m/s. The corresponding mechanism of fluid transport may include permeable flow with a permeability of ~ 10 - 15 m 2 or a buoyant ascent of individual bubbles with a radius of 4-7 mm.

Yoshimura, Shumpei; Nakamura, Michihiko

2011-07-01

304

Lifetime of Excess Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors explore the effects of a changing terrestrial biosphere on the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide using three simple ocean carbon cycling models and a model of global terrestrial carbon cycling. We find differences in model behavior ...

B. Moore B. H. Braswell

1994-01-01

305

An option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide global greenhouse effect including estimates for reduced COâ emissions technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technical option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect has been devised. The option concerns a ''hydrogen economy'' based on coal. We have developed a very efficient process called HYDROCARB, which effectively splits coal into carbon and hydrogen. This process produces a clean, pure carbon fuel from coal for application in both mobile

Steinberg

1988-01-01

306

World fossil fuel subsidies and global carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larsen and Shah present evidence on the level of fossil fuel subsidies and their implications for carbon dioxide emissions. They conclude that substantial fossil fuel subsidies prevail in a handful of large, carbon-emitting countries. Removing such subsidies could substantially reduce national carbon emissions in some countries. Global carbon emissions could be reduced by 9 percent, assuming no change in world

Bjorn Larsen; Anwar Shah

1992-01-01

307

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

SciTech Connect

Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

2001-05-01

308

The effects of carbon cycle model error in calculating future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical investigations have indicated that projections of future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of a quality\\u000a quite adequate for practical questions regarding the environmental threat of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and its\\u000a relationship to energy use policy could be made with the simple assumption that a constant fraction of these emissions would\\u000a be retained by the atmosphere. By analysis of the

J. A. Laurmann; J. R. Spreiter

1983-01-01

309

C balance, carbon dioxide emissions and global warming potentials in LCA-modelling of waste management systems.  

PubMed

Global warming potential (GWP) is an important impact category in life-cycle-assessment modelling of waste management systems. However, accounting of biogenic CO(2) emissions and sequestered biogenic carbon in landfills and in soils, amended with compost, is carried out in different ways in reported studies. A simplified model of carbon flows is presented for the waste management system and the surrounding industries, represented by the pulp and paper manufacturing industry, the forestry industry and the energy industry. The model calculated the load of C to the atmosphere, under ideal conditions, for 14 different waste management scenarios under a range of system boundary conditions and a constant consumption of C-product (here assumed to be paper) and energy production within the combined system. Five sets of criteria for assigning GWP indices to waste management systems were applied to the same 14 scenarios and tested for their ability to rank the waste management alternatives reflecting the resulting CO(2) load to the atmosphere. Two complete criteria sets were identified yielding fully consistent results; one set considers biogenic CO(2) as neutral, the other one did not. The results showed that criteria for assigning global warming contributions are partly linked to the system boundary conditions. While the boundary to the paper industry and the energy industry usually is specified in LCA studies, the boundary to the forestry industry and the interaction between forestry and the energy industry should also be specified and accounted for. PMID:19423592

Christensen, Thomas H; Gentil, Emmanuel; Boldrin, Alessio; Larsen, Anna W; Weidema, Bo P; Hauschild, Michael

2009-05-07

310

Reduction of the temperature sensitivity of minerotrophic fen methane emissions by simulated glacial atmospheric carbon dioxide starvation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

to the global wetland CH4 source strength in response to changes in orbital insolation patterns and atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]a) are hypothesized to play an important role in determining glacial-interglacial variations in atmospheric CH4 concentration ([CH4]a). Here the interactive effects of temperature, a major controlling variable determining wetland CH4 flux, and the low [CO2]a of glacial intervals are investigated for the first time. We measured the temperature dependence of CH4 emissions from replicated mesocosms (n = 8 per CO2 treatment) collected from a minerotrophic fen and an ombrotrophic bog incubated in either ambient (c. 400 ppm) or glacial (c. 200 ppm) [CO2]a located in the United Kingdom. CH4 fluxes were measured at 5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C and then in reverse order over a 20 day period under each [CO2]a treatment. Results showed that the Q10 temperature response of CH4 emissions from the Carex/Juncus-dominated fen declined significantly by approximately 39% under glacial [CO2]a (ambient [CO2]a = 2.60, glacial [CO2]a = 1.60; P < 0.01). By contrast, the response of CH4 emissions from the Sphagnum-dominated bog remained unaltered (ambient [CO2]a = 3.67, glacial [CO2]a = 3.67; P > 0.05). This contrasting response may be linked to differences in plant species assemblage and the varying impact of CO2 starvation on plant productivity and carbon availability in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, our results provide empirical evidence to support recent model-based indications that glacial-interglacial variations in [CH4]a may be explained by changes in wetland CH4 source strength in response to orbitally forced changes in climate and [CO2]a.

Boardman, Carl P.; Gauci, Vincent; Fox, Andrew; Blake, Stephen; Beerling, David J.

2013-06-01

311

Carbon dioxide equilibria and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ion, and carbonate ion comprise the most important acid-base system in natural waters, and the equilibria between them regulate the pH of seawater, as well as most rainwater, stream water, river water, and groundwater. Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications provides a clear, compact presentation of this topic, which is central to geochemistry and environmental engineering. It

1992-01-01

312

Catalyst Cartridge for Carbon Dioxide Reduction Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A catalyst cartridge is described for use in a system for the reduction of carbon dioxide to water and carbon, utilizing the Bosch catalytic reaction. A mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases is compressed, heated to a reaction temperature of 1000 t...

R. F. Holmes

1971-01-01

313

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an activity measuring the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in carbonated water at different temperatures. The amount of carbon dioxide is measured by the amount of dilute ammonia solution needed to produce a pH indicator color change. (PR)|

Bush, Pat; And Others

1992-01-01

314

Climate models should include carbon dioxide increases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The specific impacts of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Australian summer were examined. It was found that plant response to increased carbon dioxide influences atmospheric temperatures and the climate in ways that are not currently captured by climate models. The authors suggest that local and global climate models should include a measure of vegetation response to natural and man-made carbon dioxide increases to accurately account for biospheric feedback.

Al., Narisma E.; Agu

315

The fate of carbon in grasslands under carbon dioxide enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth's atmosphere is rising rapidly, with the potential to alter many ecosystem processes. Elevated CO2 often stimulates photosynthesis, creating the possibility that the terrestrial biosphere will sequester carbon in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, partly offsetting emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, cement manufacture, and deforestation,. However, the responses of intact ecosystems to elevated CO2 concentration, particularly the below-ground responses, are not well understood. Here we present an annual budget focusing on below-ground carbon cycling for two grassland ecosystems exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Three years of experimental CO2 doubling increased ecosystem carbon uptake, but greatly increased carbon partitioning to rapidly cycling carbon pools below ground. This provides an explanation for the imbalance observed in numerous CO2 experiments, where the carbon increment from increased photosynthesis is greater than the increments in ecosystem carbon stocks. The shift in ecosystem carbon partitioning suggests that elevated CO2 concentration causes a greater increase in carbon cycling than in carbon storage in grasslands.

Hungate, Bruce A.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Jackson, Robert B.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Mooney, Harold A.; Field, Christopher B.

1997-08-01

316

Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Which emits more carbon dioxide (CO2): Earth's volcanoes or human activities? Research findings indicate unequivocally that the answer to this frequently asked question is human activities. However, most people, including some Earth scientists working in fields outside volcanology, are surprised by this answer. The climate change debate has revived and reinforced the belief, widespread among climate skeptics, that volcanoes emit more CO2 than human activities [Gerlach, 2010; Plimer, 2009]. In fact, present-day volcanoes emit relatively modest amounts of CO2, about as much annually as states like Florida, Michigan, and Ohio.

Gerlach, Terry

2011-06-01

317

Real-World Carbon Dioxide Impacts of Traffic Congestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation plays a significant role in carbon dioxide (CO2) emis- sions, accounting for approximately a third of the U.S. inventory. To reduce CO2 emissions in the future, transportation policy makers are planning on making vehicles more efficient and increasing the use of carbon-neutral alternative fuels. In addition, CO2 emissions can be low- ered by improving traffic operations, specifically through the

Matthew Barth; Kanok Boriboonsomsin

2008-01-01

318

Hydrologic support of carbon dioxide flux revealed by whole-lake carbon budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater lakes are an important component of the global carbon cycle through both organic carbon (OC) sequestration and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Most lakes have a net annual loss of CO2 to the atmosphere and substantial current evidence suggests thatbiologic mineralization of allochthonous OC maintains this flux. Because net CO2 flux to the atmosphere implies net mineralization of OC within

Edward G. Stets; Robert G. Striegl; George R. Aiken; Donald O. Rosenberry; Thomas C. Winter

2009-01-01

319

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1 Section 179.102-1...102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following...

2011-10-01

320

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1 Section 179.102-1...102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following...

2012-10-01

321

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...same principle, are in common use for carbon dioxide anesthesia. They are the...

2009-01-01

322

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial use and monthly thereafter...test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as...

2009-07-01

323

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...same principle, are in common use for carbon dioxide anesthesia. They are the...

2010-01-01

324

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial use and monthly thereafter...test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as...

2010-07-01

325

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device...

2013-04-01

326

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device...

2013-04-01

327

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2013-04-01

328

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2010-10-01

329

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2013-07-01

330

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2013-07-01

331

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

332

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2013-07-01

333

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

334

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

335

Carbon dioxide emissions of soils under pure and mixed stands of beech and spruce, affected by decomposing foliage litter mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration is the largest terrestrial source of CO2 to the atmosphere. In forests, roughly half of the soil respiration is autotrophic (mainly root respiration) while the remainder is heterotrophic, originating from decomposition of soil organic matter. Decomposition is an important process for cycling of nutrients in forest ecosystems. Hence, tree species induced changes may have a great impact on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Since studies on the combined effects of beech-spruce mixtures are very rare, we firstly measured CO2 emission rates in three adjacent stands of pure spruce (Picea abies), mixed spruce-beech and pure beech (Fagus sylvatica) on three base-rich sites (Flysch) and three base-poor sites (Molasse; yielding a total of 18 stands) during two summer periods using the closed chamber method. CO2 emissions were higher on the well aerated sandy soils on Molasse than on the clayey soils on Flysch, characterized by frequent water logging. Mean CO2 effluxes increased from spruce (41) over the mixed (55) to the beech (59) stands on Molasse, while tree species effects were lower on Flysch (30-35, mixed > beech = spruce; all data in mg CO2-C m-2 h-1). Secondly, we studied decomposition after fourfold litter manipulations at the 6 mixed species stands: the Oi- and Oe horizons were removed and replaced by additions of beech -, spruce - and mixed litter of the adjacent pure stands of known chemical quality and one zero addition (blank) in open rings (20 cm inner diameter), which were covered with meshes to exclude fresh litter fall. Mass loss within two years amounted to 61-68% on Flysch and 36-44% on Molasse, indicating non-additive mixed species effects (mixed litter showed highest mass loss). However, base cation release showed a linear response, increasing from the spruce - over the mixed - to the beech litter. The differences in N release (immobilization) resulted in a characteristic converging trend in C/N ratios for all litter compositions on both bedrocks during decomposition. In the summers 2006 and 2007 we measured CO2 efflux from these manipulated areas (a closed chamber fits exactly over such a ring) as field indicator of the microbial activity. Net fluxes (subtracting the so-called blank values) are considered an indicator of litter induced changes only and increased on both bedrocks from the spruce - over the mixed - to the beech litter. According to these measurements, decomposing litter contributed between 22-32% (Flysch) and 11-28% (Molasse) to total soil respiration, strengthening its role within the global carbon cycle.

Berger, Torsten W.; Inselsbacher, Erich; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

2010-05-01

336

Introduction to the Economics of Atmospheric Carbon-Dioxide Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide an introduction to the economics of controlling the stock of carbon-dioxide in the atmosphere. The paper starts with a brief summary of the arguments against a wait-and-see strategy and in favour of controlling carbon emissions. It then provides a basic analysis of the effect of carbon tax on net-cash flow maximising agents’

Amnon Levy

2011-01-01

337

CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE IN PENNSYLVANIA PASTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global warming, caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, is increasingly being recognized as a concern for the wellbeing of the planet. Agricultural practices that increase carbon dioxide storage in soil organ...

338

Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COClâ), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with COâ. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature,

M. Aresta; E. Quaranta

1997-01-01

339

Carbon Dioxide Reduction and Water Electrolysis System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated system for oxygen recovery from carbon dioxide was investigated as a breadboard laboratory model of nominal 1/2-man capacity. System design for carbon dioxide reduction was based on alternate operation of two Bosch reactors with periodic coo...

B. C. Kim E. S. Kolic R. H. Cherry J. E. Clifford

1968-01-01

340

Arterialisation of transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared previously calculated global correction factors for oxygen and carbon dioxide arterial\\/transcutaneous ratios with individual in vivo calibrations from the first arterial sample. In infants beyond the neonatal period and older children in vivo calibration confers little benefit over the use of a global calibration correction factor for transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and may reduce the precision with which arterial

E Broadhurst; P Helms; H Vyas; G Cheriyan

1988-01-01

341

Carbon dioxide in northeastern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is known to occur in many parts of northeastern New Mexico. The main producing areas include the Bueyeros field in Harding County, Des Moines field in Union County, and Estancia field in Torrance County. In recent years, production has been limited to the Bueyeros field. Wildcat oil tests also have encountered carbon dioxide in Cofax, Mora, and San

ROY W. FOSTER; JAMES G. JENSEN

1972-01-01

342

Nashville Sulfur Dioxide Emission Inventory and the Relationship of Emission to Measured Sulfur Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed inventory of sulfur dioxide emissions was prepared as part of the Nashville Community Air Pollution Study conducted by the Public Health Service during 1958–59. The primary purpose of the inventory was to provide data for a study of the relationship between the emission of sulfur dioxide and measured ambient levels. The development of the inventory, data collection methods,

W. W. Stalker; P. A. Kenline; H. J. Paulus

1964-01-01

343

The European and global potential of carbon dioxide sequestration in tackling climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although, it has received relatively little attention as a potential method of combating climate change in comparison to energy reduction measures and development of carbon-free energy technologies, sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic or biospheric sinks has enormous potential. This paper reviews the potential for sequestration using geological and ocean storage as a means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions.Considerable quantities

M. C. Grimston; V. Karakoussis; R. Fouquet; R. van der Vorst; P. Pearson; M. Leach

2001-01-01

344

Validating modelled carbon-dioxide emissions against long-term eddy-covariance measurements at the urban neighborhood-scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

It can be expected that integrative greenhouse-gas emission modeling at block or neighborhood-scales becomes an increasingly relevant part of urban planning processes in the future. A particular challenge forms the geographical distribution of emissions and a proper validation of modeled emissions at this fine scale where consumption statistics are often lacking. Direct flux measurements of GHGs using the eddy-covariance (EC)

A. Christen; N. C. Coops; B. Crawford; E. Heyman; R. Kellett; K. Liss; T. R. Oke; I. Olchovski; R. Tooke; M. van der Laan; J. A. Voogt

2010-01-01

345

Strategies for carbon dioxide emissions reductions: Residential natural gas efficiency, economic, and ancillary health impacts in Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of its commitments to the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the State of Maryland, USA, auctions emission permits to electric utilities, creating revenue that can be used to benefit consumers and the environment. This paper explores the CO2 emissions reductions that may be possible by allocating some of that revenue to foster efficiency improvements in the residential sector’s

Matthias Ruth; Andrew Blohm; Joanna Mauer; Steven A. Gabriel; Vijay G. Kesana; Yihsu Chen; Benjamin F. Hobbs; Daraius Irani

2010-01-01

346

An Exergy-Based Method for Allocating Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cogeneration Systems - Part II: Justification for Exergy Basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government and industry have sought means to allocate emissions for cogeneration systems, and research has been undertaken to determine rational allocation methods. Previous research has yielded results that are not universally accepted. Some of the difficulties cited with previously developed allocation methods for cogeneration emissions are that the methods inconsistent, complex and difficult to use and, most importantly, not based

Marc A. Rosen

2006-01-01

347

Carbon dioxide emission rate of Ki??lauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report a CO2 emission rate of 8500 metric tons per day (t d-1) for the summit of Kilauea Volcano, several times larger than previous estimates. It is based on three sets of measurements over 4 years of synchronous SO2 emission rates and volcanic CO2/SO2 concentration ratios for the summit correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) traverse. Volcanic CO2/SO2 for the traverse is representative of the global ratio for summit emissions. The summit CO2 emission rate is nearly constant, despite large temporal variations in summit CO2/SO2 and SO2 emission rates. Summit CO2 emissions comprise most of Ki??lauea's total CO2 output (??? 9000 t d-1). The bulk CO2 content of primary magma determined from CO2 emission and magma supply rate data is ???0.70 wt %. Most of the CO2 is present as exsolved vapor at summit reservoir depths, making the primary magma strongly buoyant. Turbulent mixing with resident reservoir magma, however, prevents frequent eruptions of buoyant primary magma in the summit region. CO2 emissions confirm that the magma supply enters the edifice through the summit reservoir. A persistent several hundred parts per million CO2 anomaly arises from the entry of magma into the summit reservoir beneath a square kilometer area east of Halemaumau pit crater. Since most of the CO2 in primary magma is degassed in the summit, the summit CO2 emission rate is an effective proxy for the magma supply rate. Both scrubbing of SO2 and solubility controls on CO2 and S in basaltic melt cause high CO2/SO2 in summit emissions and spatially uncorrelated distributions of CO2 and SO2 in the summit plume.

Gerlach, T. M.; McGee, K. A.; Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.; Doukas, M. P.

2002-01-01

348

DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

349

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOEpatents

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14

350

Reaction of yttrium polonides with carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proved that heating of yttrium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to 500 and 800°C alters the gas phase composition, causing formation of carbon monoxide and reduction of oxygen content. A study of the thermal stability of yttrium polonides in carbon dioxide showed that yttrium sesqui- and monopolonides decompose at 400-430°C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure

A. S. Abakumov; A. D. Khokhlov; N. F. Reznikova

1986-01-01

351

Carbon Dioxide Storage: Geological Security and Environmental Issues - Case Study on the Sleipner Gas Field in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one option for mitigatining atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby contributes in actions for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Carbon dioxide storage in geological formations has been in practice since early 1970s. Information and experience gained from the injection and\\/or storage of CO 2 from a large number of existing

Semere Solomon

2007-01-01

352

Measurements of carbon dioxide on a very tall tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a continuous, 2-year long record of carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio at three altitudes up to 496 m above the ground on a television transmitter tower in the southeastern United States. The data show strong diurnal and seasonal variations, and large vertical gradients. The diurnal cycles are modulated by surface uptake and release by vegetation and soils, emissions

Peter S. Bakwin; Pieter P. Tans; Conglong Zhao; William Ussler III; Everett Quesnell

1995-01-01

353

Open columns: a carbon dioxide (CO2) responsive architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of composite urethane elastomers for constructing responsive structures at an architectural scale. It explains the underlying material research and design criteria for constructing deployable columns that are responsive to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and are used to reconfigure and pattern the space of inhabitation.

Omar Khan

2010-01-01

354

Carbon dioxide emission rate of K?lauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a CO2 emission rate of 8500 metric tons per day (t d?1) for the summit of K?lauea Volcano, several times larger than previous estimates. It is based on three sets of measurements over 4 years of synchronous SO2 emission rates and volcanic CO2\\/SO2 concentration ratios for the summit correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) traverse. Volcanic CO2\\/SO2 for the traverse is

T. M. Gerlach; K. A. McGee; T. Elias; A. J. Sutton; M. P. Doukas

2002-01-01

355

3,4-Dimethylpyrazol phosphate effect on nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, ammonia, and carbon dioxide emissions from grasslands.  

PubMed

Intensively managed grasslands are potentially a large source of NH3, N2O, and NO emissions because of the large input of nitrogen (N) in fertilizers. Addition of nitrification inhibitors (NI) to fertilizers maintains soil N in ammonium form. Consequently, N2O and NO losses are less likely to occur and the potential for N utilization is increased, and NH3 volatilization may be increased. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP) on NH3, N2O, NO, and CO2 emissions following the application of 97 kg N ha(-1) as ammonium sulfate nitrate (ASN) and 97 kg NH4+ -N ha(-1) as cattle slurry to a mixed clover-ryegrass sward in the Basque Country (northern Spain). After slurry application, 16.0 and 0.7% of the NH4+ -N applied was lost in the form of N2O and NO, respectively. The application of DMPP induced a decrease of 29 and 25% in N2O and NO emissions, respectively. After ASN application 4.6 and 2.8% of the N applied was lost as N2O and NO, respectively. The application of DMPP with ASN (as ENTEC 26; COMPO, Münster, Germany) unexpectedly did not significantly reduce N2O emissions, but induced a decrease of 44% in NO emissions. The amount of NH4+ -N lost in the form of NH3 following slurry and slurry + DMPP applications was 7.8 and 11.0%, respectively, the increase induced by DMPP not being statistically significant. Levels of CO2 emissions were unaffected in all cases by the use of DMPP. We conclude that DMPP is an efficient nitrification inhibitor to be used to reduce N2O and NO emissions from grasslands. PMID:16738381

Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

2006-05-31

356

The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis  

SciTech Connect

There has been much attention drawn to plans for reductions or restraint in future C02 emissions, yet little analysis of the recent history of those emissions by end use or economic activity. Understanding the components of C02 emissions, particularly those related to combustion of fossil fuels, is important for judging the likely success of plans for dealing with future emissions. Knowing how fuel switching, changes in economic activity and its structure, or changes in energy-use efficiency affected emissions in the past, we can better judge both the realism of national proposals to restrain future emissions and the outcome as well. This study presents a first step in that analysis. The organization of this paper is as follows. We present a brief background and summarize previous work analyzing changes in energy use using the factorial method. We then describe our data sources and method. We then present a series of summary results, including a comparison of C02 emissions in 1991 by end use or sector. We show both aggregate change and change broken down by factor, highlighting briefly the main components of change. We then present detailed results, sector by sector. Next we highlight recent trends. Finally, we integrate our results, discussing -the most important factors driving change - evolution in economic structure, changes in energy intensities, and shifts in the fuel mix. We discuss briefly some of the likely causes of these changes - long- term technological changes, effects of rising incomes, the impact of overall changes in energy prices, as well as changes in the relative prices of energy forms.

Schipper, L.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Unander, F.; Monahan, P.; Golove, W.

1996-08-01

357

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

358

Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO capture is reversible

Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

2009-01-01

359

A weekly cycle in atmospheric carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new statistic called the ``Mean Symmetrized Residual'' (MSR) for detection and quantification of a weekly cycle in measured daily atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). At the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, we conclude that CO2 concentrations, on average, are significantly lower (0.022 parts per million by volume, ppmv) on weekends (Saturday-Sunday) than during the rest of the week. Over the past twenty-five years, the variation of the mean values of MSR (as a function of day of the week) has been relatively stable. We speculate that the observed weekday/weekend variation in CO2 at Mauna Loa is the result of anthropogenic emissions on Hawaii and nearby sources. We do not detect a weekly cycle in daily CO2 concentration measured at South Pole, Antarctica. This methodology has applicability to a variety of datasets.

Cerveny, Randall S.; Coakley, Kevin J.

2002-01-01

360

Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Carbon Dioxide Research Progress Report, fiscal year 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the global carbon cycle and the effects of increased carbon dioxide on the global climate system is reported. Environmental and societal effects related to COâ and environmental control technology for COâ are also discussed. Lists of research projects and reports and publications of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program are included. An expanded COâ monitoring network is

R. C. Dahlman; T. Gross; L. Machta; W. Elliott; M. MacCracken

1980-01-01

361

Formation of DNA adducts in rat lung following chronic inhalation of diesel emissions, carbon black and titanium dioxide particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine whether the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH or other polycyclic organic matter adsorbed to diesel particles induces the formation of DNA adducts in the lung when compared to particles with little or no adsorbed organic matter in conjunction with a chronic inhalation cancer study. Wistar rats were exposed to diesel emissions (7.5

J. Gallagher; U. Heinrich; M. George; L. Hendee; D. H. Phillips; J. Lewtas

1994-01-01

362

Water and Carbon Removal from Carbon Dioxide Reduction Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods suitable for use in a weightless environment for removing water and carbon from carbon dioxide reduction process systems were investigated. Water removal studies were conducted using a porous metal, plate-type, condenser-separator to remove the wa...

A. D. Babinsky S. J. Derezinski

1966-01-01

363

End-tidal carbon dioxide as a measure of arterial carbon dioxide during intermittent mandatory ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PetCO2) is a clinically reliable indicator of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) under conditions of heterogeneous tidal volumes and ventilation-perfusion inequality, we examined the expiratory gases of\\u000a 25 postcardiotomy patients being weaned from ventilator support with intermittent mandatory ventilation. Using a computerized\\u000a system that automatically sampled airway flow, pressure, and expired carbon dioxide

Matthew B. Weinger; John E. Britain

1987-01-01

364

LIFETIME OF EXCESS ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

We explore the effects of a changing terrestrial biosphere on the atmospheric residende time of carbon dioxide using three simple ocean carbon cycling models and a model of global terrestrial carbon cycling. e find differences in model behavior associated with the assumption of a...

365

Acoustic emission and volumetric strain induced in coal by the displacement sorption of methane and carbone dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess whether acoustic emission (AE) could carry information on preferential sorption\\/desorption\\u000a of CH4 or CO2 in coal. AE and expansion\\/contraction of two nearly identical cylindrical coal samples were continuously monitored during\\u000a displacement sorption experiments. One sample was subjected to presorption of CH4, followed by sorption of CH4\\/CO2 mixture. With the other one, presorption

Zofia Majewska; Jerzy Zietek

2008-01-01

366

Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils.  

PubMed

Compared with natural ecosystems and managed agricultural systems, engineered landfills represent a highly managed soil system for which there has been no systematic quantification of emissions from coexisting daily, intermediate, and final cover materials. We quantified the seasonal variability of CH, CO, and NO emissions from fresh refuse (no cover) and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at northern and southern California landfill sites with engineered gas extraction systems. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m d [± SD]) averaged CH 0.053 (± 0.03), CO 135 (± 117), and NO 0.063 (± 0.059). Average CH emissions across all cover types and wet/dry seasons ranged over more than four orders of magnitude (<0.01-100 g m d) with most cover types, including both final covers, averaging <0.1 g m d with 10 to 40% of surface areas characterized by negative fluxes (uptake of atmospheric CH). The northern California intermediate cover (50 cm) had the highest CH fluxes. For both the intermediate (50-100 cm) and final (>200 cm) cover materials, below which methanogenesis was well established, the variability in gaseous fluxes was attributable to cover thickness, texture, density, and seasonally variable soil moisture and temperature at suboptimal conditions for CH oxidation. Thin daily covers (30 cm local soil) and fresh refuse generally had the highest CO and NO fluxes, indicating rapid onset of aerobic and semi-aerobic processes in recently buried refuse, with rates similar to soil ecosystems and windrow composting of organic waste. This study has emphasized the need for more systematic field quantification of seasonal emissions from multiple types of engineered covers. PMID:21546687

Bogner, Jean E; Spokas, Kurt A; Chanton, Jeffrey P

367

Role of activated carbon pellets in carbon dioxide removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of carbon dioxide from gas\\/air streams is more often becoming necessary in many industries for different purposes. In cryogenic air separation plant, air has to be free from carbon dioxide before its liquefaction otherwise blockage due to freezing of heat exchange equipment would result. Enrichment of methane in biogas to have fuel of higher calorific value can be

S. C Sarkar; A Bose

1997-01-01

368

Carbon Dioxide Power Plant of Medium Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article considers the prospect of creating highly economical and compact carbon dioxide power plants for average unit capacities and results are cited of the study of basic components of 50 megawatt installation.

B. S. Tishchenko D. P. Gokhshtein E. K. Olesevich E. L. Dekhtyarev V. N. Khalaidzhi

1968-01-01

369

Carbon dioxide hazards in general aviation.  

PubMed

There are numerous reports of carbon dioxide fire extinguishers or significant loads of dry ice causing actual or potential carbon dioxide intoxication leading to accidents or incidents, both in the military and in the airlines. To evaluate the significance of the problem in general aviation, dry ice sublimation reported in literature and measured sublimation was theoretically applied to general aviation aircraft, and carbon dioxide from fire extinguishers was measured, both in static and flight condition. The results indicate that the use of carbon dioxide fire extinguishers or the transportation under some conditions of dry ice could produce levels which could cause severe anxiety due to respiratory stimulation or actually produce pilot impairment and contribute to or cause accidents. PMID:856155

Gibbons, H L

1977-03-01

370

Influence of freeze-thaw events on carbon dioxide emission from soils at different moisture and land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The repeated freeze-thaw events during cold season, freezing of soils in autumn and thawing in spring are typical for the tundra, boreal, and temperate soils. The thawing of soils during winter-summer transitions induces the release of decomposable organic carbon and acceleration of soil respiration. The winter-spring fluxes of CO2 from permanently and seasonally frozen soils are essential part of

Irina Kurganova; Robert Teepe; Norman Loftfield

2007-01-01

371

Using a mass balance model to understand carbon dioxide and its connection to global warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 40 years with an interactive online model. They use the model and observations to estimate present emission rates and emission growth rates. The model is then used to estimate future levels of carbon dioxide using different future emission scenarios. These different scenarios are then linked by students to climate model predictions also used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Mackay, Robert; Collection, Serc -.

372

Magnesian calcite sorbent for carbon dioxide capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesian calcite with controlled properties was synthesized for the removal of carbon dioxide. The results from characterization, reactivity and CO2 capture capacity for different synthesis conditions are reported. The magnesian calcite samples (CaCO3:MgCO3) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of specific amounts of commercially available CaO and MgO by carbon dioxide. Characterization was done with BET, SEM\\/EDS, particle size analysis and

James C. Mabry; Kanchan Mondal

2011-01-01

373

Carbon dioxide emission from surface water in cascade reservoirs-river system on the Maotiao River, southwest of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, controversies about whether hydropower is still a clean energy have been arisen up with the studies about high CO 2 emission flux from hydroelectric reservoirs in boreal and tropical regions. In this study, four subtropical reservoirs and their related reaches, draining on karstic area in southwest of China, were investigated to understand their CO 2 emission, with monthly sampling strategy from July 2007 to June 2008. pCO 2 values in the surface water of these reservoirs ranged from 38 to 3300 ? atm, indicating that reservoir surface could be not only source but also sink to atmosphere CO 2 in different seasons. In Hongfeng reservoir, the flux of CO 2 from surface water varied from -9 to 70 mmol m -2 d -2 with an average of 15 mmol m -2 d -2, and in Baihua reservoir, it had a range from -8 to 77 mmol m -2 d -2 with an average of 24 mmol m -2 d -2. Hongyan reservoir had similar average flux of CO 2 to Baihua reservoir. Xiuwen had the highest average flux of CO 2 with a value of 47 mmol m -2 d -2 among the studied reservoirs. Downstream the dams discharged by hydropower generation from these reservoirs generally had quite high flux of CO 2, with an average of 489 ± 297 mmol m -2 d -2, which is close to those from tropical rivers. This means that water releasing from these reservoirs would be an important way for CO 2 emission into atmosphere. The results showed that dam construction has significant impacts on the river water chemistry, with abrupt changes in pCO 2, DO, T, pH and SIc in surface water and their outlets. In addition, with the development of thermal gradient in warm seasons, water chemistry along the water column of reservoirs also showed seasonal variations, except in Xiuwen reservoir which only has daily storage capacity.

Wang, Fushun; Wang, Baoli; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Wang, Yuchun; Guan, Jin; Liu, Xiaolong; Yu, Yuanxiu

2011-07-01

374

Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic information system model predicted that boar grubbing would lead to the release of an additional 49,731.10-98,454.74 t CO(2) year(-1). These values are relatively small compared to total soil emissions estimated for Swiss hardwood forests and suggest that boars will have little effect on large-scale emissions unless their numbers increase and their range expands dramatically. PMID:20512594

Risch, Anita C; Wirthner, Sven; Busse, Matt D; Page-Dumroese, Deborah S; Schütz, Martin

2010-05-30

375

Carbon dioxide fluxes following tillage from a mollisol in the Argentine Rolling Pampa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emission from soil plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. Short term losses of soil carbon due to tillage are of a variable magnitude. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of plowing the soil on CO2-C emissions during summer in a coarse-loamy mixed thermic Typic Hapludoll from the Argentine Rolling Pampa. Temperature after tillage was

Roberto Alvarez; Carina Rosa Alvarez; Gabriel Lorenzo

2001-01-01

376

In situ methane hydrate dissociation with carbon dioxide sequestration: Current knowledge and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are large resources of methane gas as hydrates in permafrost and deep-sea sediments around the world. On the other hand, the emissions of carbon dioxide into atmosphere have gone up in the last hundred years. The emitted carbon dioxide can be sequestered as hydrate while helping dissociate the in situ methane hydrates. Such approach can improve the economics of

Naval Goel

2006-01-01

377

Economics of Pricing the Cost of Carbon Dioxide Restrictions in the Production of Electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint in the production of electricity by modeling the replacement of coal generators with natural gas generators. We find: First, replacing coal generators with natural gas generators is the most economical way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. Second, replacing existing coal generation capacity with modern coal generation plants can

Dagobert L. Brito; Robert F. Curl

2011-01-01

378

Carbon dioxide emissions from vegetation-kill zones around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, eastern California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera California was performed to evaluate the premise that gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to renewed intrusion of magma. Some kill sites are long-lived features and others have developed in the past few years. Total anomalous CO2 emissions from the thirteen areas average around 8.7 t per day; but the majority of the emissions come from four sites west of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. Geochemical analyses of the soil-gases from locations west and east of the plant revealed the presence of isobutane related to plant operations. The ?13C values of diffuse CO2 range from - 5.7‰ to - 3.4‰, similar to values previously reported for CO2 from hot springs and thermal wells around Long Valley. At many of the vegetation-kill sites soil temperatures reach boiling at depths ? 20 cm. Soil temperature/depth profiles at two of the high-emissions areas indicate that the conductive thermal gradient in the center of the areas is around 320 °C m- 1. We estimate total heat loss from the two areas to be about 6.1 and 2.3 MW. Given current thinking on the rate of hydrothermal fluid flow across the caldera and using the CO2 concentration in the thermal fluids, the heat and CO2 loss from the kill areas is easily provided by the shallow hydrothermal system, which is sourced to the west of the resurgent dome. We find no evidence that the development of new areas of vegetation kill across the resurgent dome are related to new input of magma or magmatic fluids from beneath the resurgent dome. Our findings indicate that the areas have developed as a response to changes in the shallow hydrologic system. Some of the changes are likely related to fluid production at the power plant, but at distal sites the changes are more likely related to seismicity and uplift of the dome.

Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Howle, James F.; Farrar, Christopher D.

2006-04-01

379

Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

2003-01-01

380

Photoacoustic study of ethylene emission and respiration rate of carbon dioxide from insulin germinated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to study ethylene and CO2 respiration emission rates from germinating bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) seeds. The concentration of ethylene was measured at 10P(12) and 10P(14) lines of the CO2 laser with the PA cell in the intracavity configuration. On the other hand, the respiration rate of CO2 was deduced (precision 1 ppm) from the concentration data measured by the commercial PA analyser operating in the infrared range. The objective of this study was to obtain better understanding of insulin signalling in the germinating seeds. The experiments were performed with seeds imbibed either in water or in aqueous solution of insulin (0,9 ?g.mL-1 H2O).

Baptista-Filho, M.; Corrêa, S. F.; da Silva, L. B.; Xavier-Filho, J.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

381

Carbon dioxide diffuse emission from the soil: ten years of observations at Vesuvio and Campi Flegrei (Pozzuoli), and linkages with volcanic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide flux from the soil is regularly monitored in selected areas of Vesuvio and Solfatara (Campi Flegrei, Pozzuoli)\\u000a with the twofold aim of i) monitoring spatial and temporal variations of the degassing process and ii) investigating if the\\u000a surface phenomena could provide information about the processes occurring at depth. At present, the surveyed areas include\\u000a 15 fixed points around

D. Granieri; R. Avino; G. Chiodini

2010-01-01

382

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid...cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid...tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming...Charpy V-Notch energy absorption requirements...

2010-10-01

383

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid...cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid...tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming...Charpy V-Notch energy absorption requirements...

2009-10-01

384

Acoustic emission and volumetric strain induced in coal by the displacement sorption of methane and carbone dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to assess whether acoustic emission (AE) could carry information on preferential sorption/desorption of CH4 or CO2 in coal. AE and expansion/contraction of two nearly identical cylindrical coal samples were continuously monitored during displacement sorption experiments. One sample was subjected to presorption of CH4, followed by sorption of CH4/CO2 mixture. With the other one, presorption of CO2 preceded sorption of the mixture. The results obtained are the following: first, AE and stain kinetics show that the affinity of the coal tested is higher for CO2 than for CH4; second, methane is preferentially desorbed after presorption of CH4 — sorption of mixture of CH4 and CO2; third, during displacement sorption, kinetics of AE and sample swelling/shrinkage bring out the importance of presorption and the sorbate used. It matters whether the coal is first exposed to CH4 or to CO2. The present study has demonstrated that injection of CO2 into the coal previously exposed to CH4 causes considerable swelling of the coal. On desorption after CH4/CO2 exchange sorption, initial shrinkage is followed by swelling of the coal. These results could have implications for the sequestration of CO2 in coal seams and CH4 recovery from coalbeds (ECBM). Swelling/shrinkage of the coal matrix should be included in models used to predict coal permeability and gas flow rates. They also show that the AE technique can give more insights into coal matrix-gas interactions.

Majewska, Zofia; Zi?tek, Jerzy

2008-06-01

385

Impact of rising CO 2 on emissions of volatile organic compounds: isoprene emission from Phragmites australis growing at elevated CO 2 in a natural carbon dioxide spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoprene basal emission (the emission of isoprene from leaves exposed to a light intensity of 1000 m m m m mol m - - - - 2 s - - - - 1 and maintained at a temperature of 30 ? ? ? ? C) was measured in Phragmites australis plants growing under elevated CO 2 in the Bossoleto CO

P. A. SCHOLEFIELD; K. J. DOICK; B. M. J. HERBERT; P. PINELLI

386

A Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Reduction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of solid electrolyte cells utilizing a 90 mole % ZrO2-10 mole % Y2O3 electrolyte and platinum electrodes for the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen was carried out. At 1000 C, oxygen production efficiency is less th...

H. W. Chandler L. J. Howell

1969-01-01

387

A Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Reduction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solid electrolyte cells utilizing a 90 mole percent Zr02(-10) mole percent Y203 electrolyte and platinum electrodes were used for the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen. Methods of fabricating multicell units were investigated and t...

H. W. Chandler L. J. Howell

1968-01-01

388

Effect of carbon dioxide on nitrification rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lab-scale ideal mixed, aerated reactors were employed to test the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) on the growth rate of a nitrifier community. The buffer medium used did not contain any carbon sources. Reactors were inoculated alternatively with sludge from a nitrifying membrane assisted bioreactor, reflecting autotrophic material, or with sludge from a plant having denitrification and nitrification steps, which

M. Denecke; T. Liebig

2003-01-01

389

Laser surgery: using the carbon dioxide laser.  

PubMed Central

In 1917 Einstein theorized tha through an atomic process a unique kind of electromagnetic radiation could be produced by stimulated emission. When such radiation is in the optical or infrared spectrum it is termed laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) light. A laser, a high-intensity light source, emits a nearly parallel electromagnetic beam of energy at a given wavelength that can be captured by a lens and concentrated in the focal spot. The wavelength determines how the laser will be used. The carbon dioxide laser is now successfully employed for some surgical procedures in gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, neurosurgery, and plastic and general surgery. The CO2 laser beam is directed through the viewing system of an operating microscope or through a hand-held laser component. Its basic action in tissue is thermal vaporization; it causes minimal damage to adjacent tissues. Surgeons require special training in the basic methods and techniques of laser surgery, as well as in the safety standards that must be observed. Images FIG. 5

Wright, V. C.

1982-01-01

390

Where in the World is Carbon Dioxide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part activity has students set up experiments to help them better understand the atmospheric portion of the carbon cycle. From this activity, they will be able to explain the concept of sources and sinks as they relate to carbon dioxide, the use of indicator solution bromothymol blue (BTB) to reveal the presence of carbon dioxide, and the qualitative differences between animal and fossil fuel sources of global carbon dioxide. The student guide has an overall description of all three parts of the activity, lists of materials, the procedure and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

391

Regional carbon dioxide implications of forest bioenergy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include substitution of fossil fuel with bioenergy from forests, where carbon emitted is expected to be recaptured in the growth of new biomass to achieve zero net emissions, and forest thinning to reduce wildfire emissions. Here, we use forest inventory data to show that fire prevention measures and large-scale bioenergy harvest in US West Coast forests lead to 2-14% (46-405TgC) higher emissions compared with current management practices over the next 20 years. We studied 80 forest types in 19 ecoregions, and found that the current carbon sink in 16 of these ecoregions is sufficiently strong that it cannot be matched or exceeded through substitution of fossil fuels by forest bioenergy. If the sink in these ecoregions weakens below its current level by 30-60gCm-2yr-1 owing to insect infestations, increased fire emissions or reduced primary production, management schemes including bioenergy production may succeed in jointly reducing fire risk and carbon emissions. In the remaining three ecoregions, immediate implementation of fire prevention and biofuel policies may yield net emission savings. Hence, forest policy should consider current forest carbon balance, local forest conditions and ecosystem sustainability in establishing how to decrease emissions.

Hudiburg, Tara W.; Law, Beverly E.; Wirth, Christian; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

2011-11-01

392

Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2010-02-02

393

Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-10

394

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2003-03-10

395

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30

396

Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Global Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is one of the key variables of the ‘Earth system’ — the web of interactions between\\u000a the atmosphere, oceans, soils and living things that determines conditions at the Earth surface. Atmospheric CO2 plays several roles in this system. For example, it is the carbon source for nearly all terrestrial green plants, and the\\u000a source of carbonic

Andrew J. Watson; James C. Orr

397

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10¹⁵ and 228 X 10¹⁵ grams. Between 1.8 X 10¹⁵ and 4.7 X 10¹⁵ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

398

Deep sixing carbon dioxide from power plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The injection and storage of carbon dioxide into the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans was simulated over a 500-year period in order to explore how climate change could alter ocean circulation and the ability of the ocean to store carbon for long periods. It was found that climate change increased the duration that injected carbon remained in the Atlantic, but had no influence in the Pacific and Indian oceans.

Jain, Atul K.; Cao, Long; Agu

399

Enhancing carbon dioxide sorption rates using hygroscopic additives  

SciTech Connect

A carbon dioxide sorbent useful in the removal of carbon dioxide from a gaseous stream is described, comprising: a. a metal oxide; b. an alkali metal carbonate; and c. an alkali fluoride; whereby said sorbent is capable of absorbing carbon dioxide in relative humidities below about 25%.

Nalette, T.A.; Birbara, P.J.

1993-05-25

400

Measuring the human contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is well established that humans are responsible for the modern increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, the precise emission rates of carbon dioxide and other environmentally important gases are less well known. Traditionally, the reported usages of coal, oil, and other commodities are used to estimate emission rates. Though this economics-based approach is thought to work well at global and national scales, uncertainties increase for smaller regional scales or time scales shorter than a year. Drawing on 6 years of gas concentration measurements taken every 2 weeks from an airplane at two sites over the northeastern United States, Miller et al. developed a system to measure the anthropogenic contribution to atmospheric gas concentrations that is independent of accounting-based approaches.

Schultz, Colin

2012-05-01

401

Effect of Change of Forest Carbon Storage on Net Carbon Dioxide Balance of Wood Use for Energy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis study analyzed the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reductions between 2005 and 2050 by using wood for energy under various scenarios of forest management and energy conversion technology in Japan, considering both CO2 emission reductions from replacement of fossil fuels and changes in carbon storage in forests. According to our model, wood production for energy results in a significant

Chihiro Kayo; Toshiya Aramaki; Keisuke Hanaki

2011-01-01

402

Database of normal human cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen measured by positron emission tomography with 15 O-labelled carbon dioxide or water, carbon monoxide and oxygen: a multicentre study in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2) by positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide (C 15O 2) or 15O-labelled water (H 2 15O), 15O-labelled carbon monoxide (C 15O) and 15O-labelled oxygen ( 15O 2) is useful for diagnosis and treatment planning

Hiroshi Ito; Iwao Kanno; Chietsugu Kato; Toshiaki Sasaki; Kazunari Ishii; Yasuomi Ouchi; Akihiko Iida; Hidehiko Okazawa; Kohei Hayashida; Naohiro Tsuyuguchi; Yasuo Kuwabara; Michio Senda

2004-01-01

403

THE RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO CARBON DIOXIDE  

PubMed Central

1. A technique for determining the respiratory response to carbon dioxide on the Peabody principle is described. 2. The relation between minute volume of total pulmonary ventilation and percentage of carbon dioxide in the inspired air can be expressed by a simple mathematical formula, viz. Y = K + abz, in which Y is the ventilation rate, X is the CO2 content of the inspired air, and K, a, and b are constants characteristic for the individual. 3. The respiratory response to carbon dioxide as expressed by the total pulmonary ventilation is slightly greater at high oxygen percentages (90 per cent ±) than at normal oxygen percentages in the inspired air. 4. Respiratory fatigue may consist of two elements—one nervous, manifesting itself in increased excitability of the center and a more marked response when the demand for pulmonary ventilation is small, the other muscular and involving an inability to respond when the demand for pulmonary ventilation is great.

Davies, H. Whitridge; Brow, George R.; Binger, Carl A. L.

1925-01-01

404

Do Plants Really Use Carbon Dioxide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment demonstrates that plants use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Four Teaching Tanks (commercially available, narrow tanks) are filled with water and bromthymol blue indicator, and Elodea plants are added to two of the tanks. Blowing through a straw into each tank dissolves carbon dioxide into the water and turns the indicator yellow. The tanks are sealed with clay, and a pair of tanksâone tank with Elodea and one withoutâis put in sunlight, while the other pair is put in darkness. After an hour, the tank with Elodea in sunlight will have returned to blue color. Learners can infer that the carbon dioxide in that tank has been used by the Elodea, since the water in "control" tanks remains yellow. Though designed as a demonstration, this activity could be adapted to allow varying degrees of learner hands-on involvement, and higher grade learners could potentially do all the steps without a demonstrator.

Products, American E.

1992-01-01

405

Noninvasive quantification of regional myocardial blood flow in coronary artery disease with oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide inhalation and positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-15-labeled water is a diffusible, metabolically inert myocardial blood flow tracer with a short half-life (2 minutes) that can be used quantitatively with positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to validate a new technique to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) in animals and to assess its application in patients. The technique involves the administration of 15O-labeled carbon dioxide (C15O2) and rapid dynamic scanning. Arterial and myocardial time activity curves were fitted to a single tissue compartment tracer kinetic model to estimate MBF in each myocardial region. Validation studies consisted of 52 simultaneous measurements of MBF with PET and gamma-labeled microspheres in nine closed-chest dogs over a flow range of 0.5-6.1 ml/g/min. A good correlation between the two methods was obtained (y = 0.36 + 1.0x, r = 0.91). Human studies consisted of 11 normal volunteers and eight patients with chronic stable angina and single-vessel disease, before and after intravenous dipyridamole infusion. In the normal group, MBF was homogeneous throughout the left ventricle both at rest and after administration of dipyridamole (0.88 +/- 0.08 ml/g/min and 3.52 +/- 1.12 ml/g/min, respectively; p less than or equal to 0.001). In patients, resting MBF was similar in the distribution of the normal and stenotic arteries (1.03 +/- 0.23 and 0.93 +/- 0.21 ml/g/min, respectively). After dipyridamole infusion, MBF in normally perfused areas increased to 2.86 +/- 0.83 ml/g/min, whereas in the regions supplied by stenotic arteries it increased to only 1.32 +/- 0.27 ml/g/min (p less than or equal to 0.001). PET with C15O2 inhalation provides an accurate noninvasive quantitative method for measuring regional myocardial blood flow in patients.

Araujo, L.I.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Rhodes, C.G.; McFalls, E.O.; Iida, H.; Rechavia, E.; Galassi, A.; De Silva, R.; Jones, T.; Maseri, A. (MRC Cyclotron Unit, London (England))

1991-03-01

406

Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Air: Is It An Option?  

SciTech Connect

Controlling the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere without limiting access to fossil energy resources is only possible if carbon dioxide is collected and disposed of away from the atmosphere. While it may be cost-advantageous to collect the carbon dioxide at concentrated sources without ever letting it enter the atmosphere, this approach is not available for the many diffuse sources of carbon dioxide. Similarly, for many older plants a retrofit to collect the carbon dioxide is either impossible or prohibitively expensive. For these cases we investigate the possibility of collecting the carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. We conclude that there are no fundamental obstacles to this approach and that it deserves further investigation. Carbon dioxide extraction directly from atmosphere would allow carbon management without the need for a completely changed infrastructure. In addition it eliminates the need for a complex carbon dioxide transportation infrastructure, thus at least in part offsetting the higher cost of the extraction from air.

Klaus Lackner; Hans-Joachim Ziock; Patrick Grimes

1999-02-01

407

Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide by nut shell carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nut shell carbon (NSC)–nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2) composites were prepared by sol–gel method. Photocatalytic activity on degradation of dye Rhodamine B was studied. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area, pore size distribution, ultraviolet–vis light absorption spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum were carried out to characterize the composite catalyst. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of NSC–nano-TiO2 composites

Xiaoliang Shi; Sheng Wang; Xuebin Dong; Qiaoxin Zhang

2009-01-01

408

Airborne Validation of Laser Remote Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future space missions to globally map atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at all latitudes during the day and night, such as the ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Day, and Seasons) mission, will require high-precision laser measurements of CO2 columns across the troposphere from low Earth orbit. This paper discusses the development and measurement validation of a unique, multi-frequency,

Edward V. Browell; Jeremy Dobler; Susan A. Kooi; Yonghoon Choi; F. Wallace Harrison; Berrien Moore III; T. Scott Zaccheo

2010-01-01

409

A statistical analysis of the carbon dioxide capture process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture is one of the most commonly adopted technologies for reducing industrial CO2 emissions, which is now an important goal given the widespread concern over global warming. Research on amine-based CO2 capture has mainly focused on improving effectiveness and efficiency of the CO2 capture process. Our research work focuses on studying the relationships among the

Qing Zhou; Christine W. Chan; Paitoon Tontiwachiwuthikul; Raphael Idem; Don Gelowitz

2009-01-01

410

Reduction of Atmospheric Radiocarbon Concentration by Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide and the Mean Life of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that the combustion of fossil fuels over the period 1860 to 1954 has produced an amount of carbon dioxide, containing no radiocarbon, that is equal to approximately 13% of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The addition of this 'old' carbon dioxide to the atmosphere has observably disturbed the steady-state distribution of carbon-14 in nature. In

G. J. Fergusson

1958-01-01

411

Synthesis of Fluoropolymers in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluoropolymers are used in many technologically demanding applications because of their balance of high-performance properties. A significant impediment to the synthesis of variants of commercially available amorphous fluoropolymers is their general insolubility in most solvents except chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The environmental concerns about CFCs can be circumvented by preparing these technologically important materials in supercritical fluids. The homogeneous solution polymerization of highly fluorinated acrylic monomers can be achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide by using free radical methods. In addition, detailed decomposition rates and efficiency factors were measured for azobisisobutyronitrile in supercritical carbon dioxide and were compared to those obtained with conventional liquid solvents.

Desimone, J. M.; Guan, Zihibin; Elsbernd, C. S.

1992-08-01

412

Use of carbon dioxide in the chemical synthesis technologies, plasma gasification and carbon production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modern electric power sector is based on burning of carbonaceous substances (coal, oil, natural gas, etc.). Large power stations are powerful local sources of carbon dioxide. Inconstancy of the electric power demand leads to increase in CO2 specific emissions, as the output power is basically higher than required one by the power network. One of promising ways of increase of operating efficiency of power stations is use of surpluses of the generated electric power in plasma technologies. The paper deals with the opportunity to use the plasma technologies in processes of methanol and methane production from carbon dioxide. Comparison of ranges of key parameters of plasma gasification of wood by air, carbon dioxide, and steam is presented. Also, use of CO2 for pure carbon production is examined.

Rutberg, Ph G.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Bratsev, A. N.; Popov, V. E.; Shtengel', S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.

2011-03-01

413

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

1983-12-09

414

Carbon Emission Capstone (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are two ways to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide: limit how much carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere as we burn fossil fuels, or increase the rate at which it is absorbed. In this lesson, discussion topics include the Kyoto Protocol and the use of carbon credits to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Students can listen to a National Public Radio show that reports on new research that both illuminates and further complicates the picture of how the Earth is warming. The lesson includes an activity in which students examine their personal annual carbon emissions (calculated in the previous exercise) and determine how many trees it would take to sequester these emissions. They will then extrapolate this number to the populations of their school campus and their county.

Pratte, John

415

Monthly estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in Brazil during the late 1990s and early 2000s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed understanding of global carbon cycling requires estimates of CO2 emissions on temporal and spatial scales finer than annual and country. This is the first attempt to derive such estimates for a large, developing, Southern Hemisphere country. Though data on energy use are not complete in terms of time and geography, there are enough data available on the sale or

London M Losey; Robert Joseph Andres; Gregg Marland

2006-01-01

416

Relative permeabilities of plastic films to water and carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

The permeabilities of several types of plastic films to water and to carbon dioxide were measured. No material was found to have a carbon dioxide permeability as great as its water permeability. PMID:16656548

Woolley, J T

1967-05-01

417

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas mixture to aid in...techniques such as chemical titration, absorption of infrared radiation, gas...

2009-04-01

418

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas mixture to aid in...techniques such as chemical titration, absorption of infrared radiation, gas...

2010-04-01

419

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection...Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for the dilute-sample CO2...

2013-07-01

420

First Airborne Laser Remote Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide for Future Active Sensing of Carbon Dioxide from Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future space missions to globally map atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at all latitudes during the day and night, such as the ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Day, and Seasons) mission, will require high-precision laser measurements of CO2 columns across the troposphere from low Earth orbit. This paper discusses the development and flight demonstration of a unique, multi-frequency,

E. V. Browell; M. E. Dobbs; J. Dobler; S. A. Kooi; Y. Choi; F. W. Harrison; B. Moore III; T. S. Zaccheo

2009-01-01

421

Carbon dioxide absorption with aqueous potassium carbonate promoted by piperazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial processes for the removal of carbon dioxide from high-pressure gases use aqueous potassium carbonate systems promoted by secondary amines. This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic data for aqueous potassium carbonate promoted by piperazine. Research has been performed at typical absorber conditions for the removal of CO2 from flue gas.Piperazine, used as an additive in 20–30wt% potassium carbonate, was

J. Tim Cullinane; Gary T. Rochelle

2004-01-01

422

Discussion of Refrigeration Cycle Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the problem of the environment goes worse, it urges people to research and study new energy-saving and environment-friendly refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide, at present, people do research on carbon dioxide at home and abroad. This paper introduces the property of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant, sums up and analyses carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles, and points out the development and research direction in the future.

Ji, Amin; Sun, Miming; Li, Jie; Yin, Gang; Cheng, Keyong; Zhen, Bing; Sun, Ying

423

Potentials and costs of carbon dioxide mitigation in the world's buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buildings are responsible for over a third of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. A significant share of these emissions can be avoided cost effectively through improved energy efficiency, while providing the same or higher level of energy services. How large is this emission reduction potential globally and how much will it cost for society to unlock it? This paper

Diana Ürge-Vorsatz; Aleksandra Novikova

2008-01-01

424

Shifting streams : on the health, safety and environmental impacts of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas emissions are expected to result in global climate change with potentially severe consequences for ecosystems and mankind. In this perspective, greenhouse gas emissions from using fossil fuels should be restrained and the strong link between our energy supply and CO2 emissions should be broken. One of the possible options to achieve this can be carbon dioxide capture and

J. M. Koornneef

2010-01-01

425

Platinum catalyst for forming carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a platinum wire catalytic apparatus for catalyzing the reaction of carbon monoxide and oxygen to form carbon dioxide by directly heating the catalyst to an activation temperature of about 1000{degrees} C. The improvement comprises a layer of platinum black deposited on the surface of the platinum wire to form a coating whereby the wire with the coating is directly heated to an activation temperature within the range of about 150 to 300{degrees} C.

McNeil, J.A.; Cohn, D.B.

1991-05-28

426

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319 ...WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2010-04-01

427

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319 ...WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2009-04-01

428

Leucocyte values in rats and mice following carbon dioxide euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leucocyte counts obtained from Wistar rats and CD1 mice following euthanasia with carbon dioxide were compared to leucocyte values obtained using other agents for anaesthesia or euthanasia. In rats, following euthanasia with carbon dioxide, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in samples taken from the heart were significantly raised compared with sodium barbiturate euthanasia. In mice, following carbon dioxide, total leucocyte counts

G. O. Evans; D. E. C. Smith

1991-01-01

429

Randomized, Controlled Trial of Carbon Dioxide Insufflation During Colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Insufflation of air is a cause of discomfort during and after colonoscopy. Although this can be minimized by good technique, the use of carbon dioxide insufflation may provide further benefits. Carbon dioxide is rapidly absorbed and excreted through the lungs. We hypothesized that carbon dioxide would alleviate postcolonoscopy discomfort. METHODS: After they had provided informed consent, patients presenting for

J. Church; C. Delaney

2003-01-01

430

Removal of carbon dioxide in geothermal power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for removing carbon dioxide in geothermal power generating processes employing a geothermal fluid such as geothermal brine containing carbon dioxide, to improve the efficiency of geothermal power generation, comprises introducing an aqueous alkaline solution, preferably an aqueous calcium hydroxide solution, into a vapor stream obtained from the brine during power generation, to remove carbon dioxide from the stream.

Wahl

1982-01-01

431

Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Inhibits Nitrate Assimilation in Wheat and Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere may double by the end of the 21st century. The response of higher plants to a carbon dioxide doubling often includes a decline in their nitrogen status, but the reasons for this decline have been uncertain. We used five independent methods with wheat and Arabidopsis to show that atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment

Arnold J. Bloom; Martin Burger; Jose Salvador Rubio Asensio; Asaph B. Cousins

2010-01-01

432

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to

David W. Holladay; Gary L. Haag

1979-01-01

433

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention comprises a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to

D. W. Holladay; G. L. Haag

1979-01-01

434

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2013-01-01

435

CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION AI NIGHT AFFECTS TRANSLOCATION FROM SOYBEAN LEAVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have indicated that the concentration of carbon dioxide during the dark period may influence plant dry matter production. It is often suggested that these effects on growth result from effects of carbon dioxide on rates of respiration, but responses of respiration to carbon dioxide remain c...

436

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2013-04-01

437

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91.320 Section 91.320 Protection...91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction...range with carbon dioxide-in-N2 calibration or span gases having nominal...

2012-07-01

438

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.524-78 Section 86.524-78...524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction...operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration gases with nominal concentrations...

2013-07-01

439

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90.320 Section 90.320 Protection...90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial use...range with carbon dioxide-in-N2 calibration or span gases having nominal...

2012-07-01

440

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1324-84 Section 86.1324-84...1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into...spaced, carbon dioxide-in-N2 calibration or span gases (e.g., 15,...

2013-07-01

441

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.124-78 Section 86.124-78...124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into...operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration gases with nominal concentrations...

2013-07-01

442

Diffusion of undecane (1); carbon dioxide (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) undecane; (2) carbon dioxide

Winkelmann, J.

443

Spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor designed for automotive applications. The sensor is based on the well known infrared measurement principle. It includes a new robust infrared gas-detector and a corresponding, newly developed, ASIC. First application studies show its suitability for automatic vehicle ventilation systems and for leak detection in R744 air conditioning systems.

Michael Arndt; Maximilian Sauer

2004-01-01

444

Ocean Acidification: The Other Carbon Dioxide Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA video discusses how the ocean absorbs the increased amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere, thereby changing the pH and buffering action of the ocean. These changes in pH are impacting calcifying organisms, such as corals and shellfish, and related food chains and ecosystems.

Noaa; Administration, National O.

445

Diffusion of air (1); carbon dioxide (2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) carbon dioxide

J. Winkelmann

2007-01-01

446

Infrared Spectrum of Carbon Dioxide Anion Radical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressed alkali halide disks of infrared spectroscopy have been used as matrices to trap and to stabilize the carbon dioxide anion free radical. The radical was generated by exposing disks containing the formate ion in solid solution to gamma rays from a cobalt source. The ESR, the ultraviolet, and the infrared spectra of the radical have been identified. From the

K. O. Hartman; I. C. Hisatsune

1966-01-01

447

Carbon dioxide storage potential of shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Options for the geologic storage of carbon dioxide vary from saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas reservoirs to unminable coal seams and abandoned coal mines. Important aspects include the sealing integrity of the cap rock and potential changes in this integrity, owing to the interaction with CO2.In this study, diffusive transport and gas sorption experiments on one well characterised

Andreas Busch; Sascha Alles; Yves Gensterblum; Dirk Prinz; David N. Dewhurst; Mark D. Raven; Helge Stanjek; Bernhard M. Krooss

2008-01-01

448

Catalyst Cartridge for Carbon Dioxide Reduction Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a...

R. F. Holmes

1973-01-01

449

Carbon Dioxide Reduction Aboard the Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Classification of carbon dioxide reduction processes to be used in CO2 processing systems is considered. The advantages and the problems of realization of the processes are considered. The results obtained in the development of a unit prototype based on t...

L. I. Gavrilov V. A. Naumov A. I. Rjabkin T. N. Pavlova N. M. Samsonov

1991-01-01

450

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

2010-01-01

451

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

2011-01-01

452

Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the

Halil Berberoglu

2008-01-01

453

Carbon dioxide enhances fragility of ice crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice caps and glaciers cover 7% of the Earth, greater than the land area of Europe and North America combined, and play an important role in global climate. The small-scale failure mechanisms of ice fracture, however, remain largely elusive. In particular, little understanding exists about how the presence and concentration of carbon dioxide molecules, a significant component in the atmosphere, affects the propensity of ice to fracture. Here we use atomic simulations with the first-principles based ReaxFF force field capable of describing the details of chemical reactions at the tip of a crack, applied to investigate the effects of the presence of carbon dioxide molecules on ice fracture. Our result shows that increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide molecules significantly decrease the fracture toughness of the ice crystal, making it more fragile. Using enhanced molecular sampling with metadynamics we reconstruct the free energy landscape in varied chemical microenvironments and find that carbon dioxide molecules affect the bonds between water molecules at the crack tip and decrease their strength by altering the dissociation energy of hydrogen bonds. In the context of glacier dynamics our findings may provide a novel viewpoint that could aid in understanding the breakdown and melting of glaciers, suggesting that the chemical composition of the atmosphere can be critical to mediate the large-scale motion of large volumes of ice.

Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

2012-11-01

454

RECYCLED CARBON DIOXIDE - THE VETERAN & VERSATILE PESTICIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long history of using carbon dioxide (CO2) in the control of stored grain insects. The ancient practice of burying grain and benefiting from the insecticidal effect of the respired CO2 has advanced to other pesticide applications. ? Anon (1917) reported CO2 the \\

R. F. Ryan

455

Diffusion of propylbenzene (1); carbon dioxide (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) propylbenzene; (2) carbon dioxide

Winkelmann, J.

456

Can the carbon dioxide problem be resolved  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (COâ). This may cause a long-term warming of the atmosphere. Solutions to the COâ problem are particularly difficult because adverse effects will be felt by future generations, but remedial action and sacrifices must be made by present generations. Decisions regarding the problem which affect both the immediate and long-range

Lemons

1984-01-01

457

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

2001-11-13

458

Carbon dioxide embolism treated with hyperbaric oxygen.  

PubMed

We report a case of suspected carbon dioxide embolism occurring during laparoscopy. Among the sequelae was neurological dysfunction felt to be secondary to paradoxical embolization. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen should be considered when confronted with a clinically important gas embolism. PMID:2529050

McGrath, B J; Zimmerman, J E; Williams, J F; Parmet, J

1989-09-01

459

Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage (“CCS”). Legal, regulatory, and organizational issues will need to be resolved for the industrial organization of CO2 transportation and storage, storage safety and integrity issues, and liability. Although there are some gaps in the

M. A. de Figueiredo; H. J. Herzog; P. L. Joskow; K. A. Oye; D. M. Reiner

2007-01-01

460

Biogas, membranes and carbon dioxide capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, which consists primarily of methane, can be obtained through the biological transformation of a large variety of organic wastes, and has drawn an increased interest within