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1

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides this new data on carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring in 1995. Data for one degree grid cells can be downloaded from the site in addition to code for analysis of the data.

2

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

EIA Publications

U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its online analysis of 2012 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions today. It indicates U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels were 5,290 million metric tons carbon dioxide in 2012, a decrease of almost 4% from the 2011 level. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have declined in five of the last seven years and are the lowest they have been since 1994.

2013-10-21

3

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three

C A Smith; A J Simon; R D Belles

2011-01-01

4

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

William Watson

1994-08-01

5

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01

6

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)

Myers, Alan

2002-01-01

7

Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with

Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

2009-01-01

8

Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8(+0.25)(-0.25)? petagrams of carbon (Pg?C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32(+0.52)(-0.26)? Pg?C?yr(-1) from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1?Pg?C?yr(-1) is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally. PMID:24256802

Raymond, Peter A; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Drr, Hans; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

2013-11-21

9

Economic Effects of Using Carbon Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Major OECD Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tax on fossil fuels designed to obtain a 20 percent reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by the year 2020 would lower output among major OECD nations by 1 to 3 1/2 percent. The tax required to achieve a 20% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide b...

1992-01-01

10

Hedging Carbon Risk: Protecting Customers and Shareholders from the Financial Risk Associated with Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Utilities and regulators are recognizing the imprudence of assuming that carbon dioxide emissions will not cost anything over the long lifetime of new investments. Several utilities have begun to protect their customers and shareholders from this financial risk by integrating an estimated cost of carbon dioxide emissions into their evaluation of resource options, and selecting the overall least-cost portfolio of resources.

Bokenkamp, Karl; LaFlash, Hal; Singh, Virinder; Bachrach Wang, Devra

2005-07-01

11

Hestia Software Measures Urban Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video describes the Hestia project - a software tool and data model that provide visualizations of localized CO2 emissions from residential, commercial, and vehicle levels, as well as day versus night comparisons, in the city of Indianapolis.

Gurney, Kevin; Sustainability, Asu G.

12

Growth rates of carbon dioxide emission in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryEstimates have been made of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission into the atmosphere through the combustion of non-fossil and fossil fuels in India for the period 19501982. Results show that 6.5 1015 g C has been added to the earth's atmosphere. Of this, the individual contributions have been 69.2% by fire-wood, 23.7% by coal, 6.2% by petroleum products, 0.3%

L. S. Hingane; Bh. V. Ramana Murty

1984-01-01

13

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.

Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Calvache V., M.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States) Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto (Colombia)); Lopez, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1992-04-01

14

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

PubMed Central

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the dust bowl era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.41.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.61.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding ?1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer.

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-01-01

15

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-02-10

16

Electricity Load and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Effects of a Carbon Price in the Short Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at acceptable levels will require a dramatic de-carbonization of the electric generation sector in the U.S. One increasingly discussed way to meet this policy goal is to put an explicit price on carbon emissions, either through a tax or a trading scheme. Increasing demand response has also been discussed as a way to reduce carbon

Adam Newcomer; Seth Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan

2008-01-01

17

Options for lowering U.S. carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States can decrease its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to as much as 35 percent below 1987 levels within the next 25 years by adopting an aggressive package of policies crossing all sectors of the economy. Such emissions reductions will be difficult to achieve and may be costly, but no major technological breakthroughs are needed. In this paper, we identify a ``Tough'' package of energy conservation, energy supply, and forest managment practices to accomplish this level of emissions reductions. We also present a package of cost-effective, ``Moderate'' technical options, which if adopted, would hold CO2 emissions to about 15-percent increase over 1987 levels by 2015. In constrast, if the United State takes not new actions to curb energy use, CO2 emissions will likely rise 50 percent during that time. A variety of Federal policy initiatives will be required to achieve large reductions in U.S. CO2 emissions. Such policy actions will have to include both regulatory ``push'' and market ``pull'' mechanisms--including performance standards, tax incentive programs, carbon-emission or energy taxes, labeling and efficiency ratings, and research, development, and demostration activities.

Bierbaum, Rosina M.; Friedman, Robert M.; Levenson, Howard; Rapoport, Richard D.; Sundt, Nick

1992-03-01

18

High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of ~5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

2014-05-01

19

Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (`negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These

Naomi Vaughan; Timothy Lenton

2010-01-01

20

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2 emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr-1 (95% CI: 5.84 -10.46), averaging 750 g C m-2 yr-1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m-2 yr-1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr-1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and 6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

Striegl, Robert G.; Dornblaser, M. M.; McDonald, C. P.; Rover, J. R.; Stets, E. G.

2012-12-01

21

Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

2007-08-04

22

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the US iron and steel sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an in-depth analysis of cost-effective energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the US iron and steel industry. We show that physical energy intensity for iron and steelmaking (at the aggregate level, standard Industrial Classification 331, 332) dropped 27%, from 35.6 GJ\\/tonne to 25.9 GJ\\/tonne between 1958 and 1994, while carbon dioxide intensity (carbon dioxide

Ernst Worrell; Lynn Price; Nathan Martin

2001-01-01

23

Energy and exergy utilization, and carbon dioxide emission in vegetable oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and exergy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during production of soybean, sunflower, and olive oils are assessed. In all cases, agriculture is the most energy and exergy intensive process and emits most of the carbon dioxide, and diesel is the dominant energy and exergy source. The cumulative degree of perfection (CDP) for soybean and olive oil is 0.92 and

Mustafa zilgen; Esra Sorgven

2011-01-01

24

New insights into the interactions between carbon dioxide and ammonia emissions during sewage sludge composting.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the role of carbon dioxide in reducing ammonia emissions. Three variations of a composting experiment were conducted in a laboratory-scale reactor, all of which exhibited the three typical composting phases. Approximately 70% of the ammonia emissions occurred within 96-144 h of the thermophilic stage. The maximum rate of change for the carbon dioxide emissions occurred at different times for different carbon source types, mixing rates, and addition times. The rate of change and total concentration of emitted carbon dioxide played a crucial role in ammonia emission due to their relationship to the intensity of ammonia assimilation. The addition of a carbon source that could be utilized by thermophilic microorganisms stimulated ammonia assimilation and thus reduced ammonia emissions. These findings suggested that the addition of a 7:3 mixture of sucrose and straw powder at 108 h is suitable for reducing ammonia emissions. PMID:23567706

Li, Yunbei; Li, Weiguang; Wu, Chuandong; Wang, Ke

2013-05-01

25

Guidance for Determining Best Available Control Technology for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidance provides an illustration of reasoning that a Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting authority may use to support the conclusion that the best available control technology (BACT) for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at a bioen...

2011-01-01

26

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003-2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8 GtC yr-1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

Myhre, G.; Alterskjr, K.; Lowe, D.

2009-09-01

27

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Breon, F.-M. [CEA/DSM/LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Davis, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J. S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Miller, J. [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Oda, T [NOAA ESRL/Boulder, CO/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State Univ.; Oliver, J. G. J. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Rayner, P [University of Melbourne, Australia; Treanton, K. [Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency, Paris, France

2012-01-01

28

The Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption are presented for the five Asian countries that are among the global leaders in anthropogenic carbon emissions: China (13% of global total), Japan (5% of global total), India (5% of global total), South Korea (2% of global total), and Indonesia (1% of global total). Together, these five countries represent over a quarter of the world's fossil-fuel based carbon emissions. Moreover, these countries are rapidly developing and energy demand has grown dramatically in the last two decades. A method is developed to estimate the spatial and seasonal flux of fossil-fuel consumption, thereby greatly improving the temporal and spatial resolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Currently, only national annual data for anthropogenic carbon emissions are available, and as such, no understanding of seasonal or sub-national patterns of emissions are possible. This methodology employs fuel distribution data from representative sectors of the fossil-fuel market to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel consumption. These patterns of fuel consumption are then converted to patterns of carbon emissions. The annual total emissions estimates produced by this method are consistent to those maintained by the United Nations. Improved estimates of temporal and spatial resolution of the human based carbon emissions allows for better projections about future energy demands, carbon emissions, and ultimately the global carbon cycle.

Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.

2006-12-01

29

Implementation of Emission Trading in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Optimization Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an effective mid- and long- term solution for large-scale mitigation of industrial CO2 emissions, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) has been paid more and more attention in the past decades. A general CCS management system has complex characteristics of multiple emission sources, multiple mitigation technologies, multiple sequestration sites, and multiple project periods. Trade-off exists among numerous environmental, economic, political, and technical factors, leading to varied system features. Sound decision alternatives are thus desired for provide decision supports for decision makers or managers for managing such a CCS system from capture to the final geologic storage phases. Carbon emission trading has been developed as a cost-effective tool for reducing the global greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, a carbon capture and sequestration optimization management model is proposed to address the above issues. The carbon emission trading is integrated into the model, and its impacts on the resulting management decisions are analyzed. A multi-source multi-period case study is provided to justify the applicability of the modeling approach, where uncertainties in modeling parameters are also dealt with.

Zhang, X.; Duncan, I.

2013-12-01

30

Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide Emission Factors Applicable to Wastewater Wet Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of wastewater in sewer networks causes potential problems associated with gases which include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and methane, in regard to odor nuisance, irritation, toxicity, and microbially induced corrosion. The extent of these problems depends on the emission rates of gases in the sewer atmosphere. To limit these kinds of problems an estimate of the

Madhuri Mudragaddam

2010-01-01

31

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)  

EIA Publications

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

Information Center

2010-05-11

32

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

2001-04-01

33

Carbon dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

Arie Melamed-Katz (None;)

2007-06-19

34

Energy analysis and carbon dioxide emission of Tokamak fusion power reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy gain and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of tokamak fusion power reactors are evaluated in this study compared with other reactor types, structural materials, and other Japanese energy sources currently in use. The reactors treated in this study are (1) a conventional physics performance international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), like a reactor based upon the ITER engineering design activity (ITER-EDA),

Koji Tokimatsu; Hiroki Hondo; Yuichi Ogawa; Kunihiko Okano; Kenji Yamaji; Makoto Katsurai

2000-01-01

35

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States, July 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The President issued a directive on April 15, 1999, requiring an annual report summarizing the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by the generation of electricity by utilities and nonutilities in the United States. In response, the U.S. Department of...

2000-01-01

36

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes key trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy and technology usage related to model year (MY) 1975 through 2009 light-duty vehicles sold in the United States. Light-duty vehicles are those vehicles that EPA classifies a...

2009-01-01

37

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States 1998  

EIA Publications

The President issued a directive on April 15, 1999, requiring an annual report summarizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by electricity generation in the United States, including both utilities and nonutilities. In response, this report is jointly submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Information Center

1999-10-15

38

Options and Instruments for a Deep Cut in CO2 Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Capture or Renewables, Taxes or Subsidies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares both the main physical options and the principal policy instruments to realize a deep cut in carbon dioxide emissions necessary to control global climate change. A top-down energy-economy model is used that has three emission reduction options: energy savings, a transition towards less carbon-intensive or non-carbon energy resources, and the use of carbon dioxide capture and storage

Reyer Gerlagh; Bob van der Zwaan

2006-01-01

39

Drivers on carbon dioxide emissions from the Scheldt river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland waters are a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle that transport organic and inorganic C from the terrestrial biosphere to the coastal ocean and emit CO2 to the atmosphere at a significant rate for global CO2 budgets. Yet, mechanisms underlying this CO2 emission to the atmosphere remain poorly understood and seldom modelled mechanistically. For this application a module describing the carbonate system and CO2 air-water exchange was added to the biogeochemical Seneque/Riverstrahler model describing transformation of C, N, P, Si occurring within hydrological networks. The model was applied to the human impacted Scheldt basin and the evolution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and air-water CO2 flux was simulated for the year 1997 when data of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pCO2 are available for model validation. The model reproduces reasonably well the seasonal and spatial variations of the DIC, TA and pCO2 within the 5 main rivers of the Scheldt basin where data are available. At the annual level, the studied rivers act as major sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Results show that the longitudinal variations of pCO2 are mainly controlled by the importance of air-water CO2 exchange. However, the choice of the parameterization of the gas transfer coefficient does not appear critical for this particular system. Biological activity also locally modulates the longitudinal variations of pCO2, while diffuse inputs from the watershed determine the initial conditions in the river without significantly altering the patterns observed from the upstream to the downstream. Both diffuse and punctual sources of C and TA are important drivers of the CO2 exchange in the river. In particular, model application evidences the sensitivity of the simulated CO2 fluxes to the description of human activities on the watershed.

Gypens, Nathalie; Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Silvestre, Marie; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

40

The effect of trade between China and the UK on national and global carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the amount of carbon dioxide embodied in bi-lateral trade between the UK and China in 2004. Developing and applying the method of Shui and Harriss [2006. The role of CO2 embodiment in USChina trade. Energy Policy 34, 40634068], the most recently available data on trade and CO2 emissions have been updated and adjusted to calculate the CO2 emissions

You Li; C. N. Hewitt

2008-01-01

41

Carbon dioxide emission implications if hydrofluorocarbons are regulated: a refrigeration case study.  

PubMed

The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and a historically used refrigerant. The results indicate current regulations being considered may increase global climate change. PMID:20050659

Blowers, Paul; Lownsbury, James M

2010-03-01

42

Short-term emissions of ammonia and carbon dioxide from cattle urine contaminated tropical grassland microcosm.  

PubMed

The study was designed to understand the emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from a single cattle urination event on a tropical grassland and underline the significance of the emissions in the context of huge animal population grazing on large pasture areas in some countries. Emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were monitored for three weeks from a tropical grassland (dominated by Cynodon dactylon Pers.) microcosm contaminated with cow and buffalo urine. The grassland microcosms were treated with urine (50 and 100 ml of each) only once and irrigated with water once every week. Ammonia was sampled by an automatic sampling system comprising of a vacuum pump, three-way stopcocks and rubber tubing and an impinger containing suitable absorbing solution (H(2)SO(4)), connected to the tubing suitably. The sampled gas, after sucked by the vacuum pump and absorbed in H(2)SO(4), was allowed to enter the closed microcosm again maintaining internal pressure of the microcosm. Carbon dioxide was sampled by absorption in an alkali (NaOH) trap inside the microcosm. Both NH(3) and CO(2) emissions were highly variable temporally and there was no continuous increasing or decreasing emission trend with time. Respectively, 45 and 46% of total NH(3)-N were emitted within first 48 h from 50 and 100 ml cow urine application while the corresponding values for buffalo urine were 34 and 32%. Total NH(3)-N emissions, integrated for sampling days (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 15, 18 and 21st) were 11 and 6% in cow and 8 and 5% in buffalo urine, of the total-N added through 50 and 100 ml urine samples. Carbon dioxide emissions were standardized at 25 degrees C by using a suitable formula which were lower than actual emissions at actual soil temperature (> 25 degrees C). Carbon dioxide emission rates were classified on the basis of soil repiratory classification and classes ranged from moderately low soil activity up to unusually high soil activity, the latter observed only on very few sampling days. Grasses in the microcosm had shown appreciable growth after urine application. Although variable and somewhat unpredictable, emissions were appreciable and that too only from a patch of single urination, indicating to the huge magnitude of total emissions under the scenario of thousands of cattle grazing on hundreds of acres of grasslands in a tropical country. PMID:16770502

Majumdar, Deepanjan; Patel, Manoj; Drabar, Reena; Vyas, Manish

2006-11-01

43

Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the labs total carbon footprint.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

2009-06-29

44

Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions at Monthly Resolution for the Countries of the North American Carbon Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examination of national statistical databases has allowed for the widely-used, CDIAC-housed data set on annual, fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide emissions to be subdivided into monthly time intervals. This analysis focused on establishing reliable statistics that represent the solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels consumed in each country at monthly time scales. An intermediate product of this analysis was the fraction of the annual total consumption occurring in each month for each fuel. This monthly fraction was then multiplied by the annual carbon dioxide emission value to obtain a monthly emission estimate. This has the benefit of yielding monthly and annual emissions time series that are mutually-consistent. This presentation will give monthly emissions for multiple years for the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

Andres, R. J.; Gregg, J. S.; Losey, L. M.; Marland, G.

2004-12-01

45

Economic effects of using carbon taxes to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in major OECD countries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A tax on fossil fuels designed to obtain a 20 percent reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by the year 2020 would lower output among major OECD nations by 1 to 3 1/2 percent. The tax required to achieve a 20% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by 2020 ranged from $489.4 (Sweden) per metric ton of carbon to $2,427.9 (Japan) per ton of carbon. The tax required for the U.S. was $720.6 per ton. In the U.S., a tax per $100 per ton of carbon would equate to a tax of $70.68 per short ton of coal, $11.42 per barrel of oil, $1.66 per MCF of natural gas and 0.27 per gallon of gasoline. The study is part of a multi-phase effort to gauge the economic consequences of various measures being discussed by the international community to mitigate the possibility of global climate change by limiting emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use. The study assumed that the carbon tax program would be revenue neutral in that increased revenues from the carbon tax would be offset by reductions in personal income taxes.

Not Available

1992-01-01

46

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM THE GLOBAL CEMENT INDUSTRY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, making the cement industry an important sector for CO2-emission mitigation strategies. CO2 is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation. In this paper, we review the total CO2 emissions from cement making, including process and

Ernst Worrell; Lynn Price; Nathan Martin; Chris Hendriks; Leticia Ozawa Meida

2001-01-01

47

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-02-01

48

High resolution carbon dioxide emission gridded data for china derived from point sources.  

PubMed

A high spatial resolution carbon dioxide (CO2) emission map of China is proving to be essential for China's carbon cycle research and carbon reduction strategies given the current low quality of CO2 emission data and the inconsistencies in data quality between different regions. Ten km resolution CO2 emission gridded data has been built up for China based on point emission sources and other supporting data. The predominance of emissions from industrial point sources (84% of total emissions) in China supports the use of bottom-up methodology. The resultant emission map is informative and proved to be more spatially accurate than the EDGAR data. Spatial distribution of CO2 emissions in China is highly unbalanced and has positive spatial autocorrelation. The spatial pattern is mainly influenced by key cities and key regions, i.e., the Jing-Jin-Ji region, the Yangtze River delta region, and the Pearl River delta region. The emission map indicated that the supervision of 1% of total land could enable the management of about 70% of emissions in China. PMID:24840164

Wang, Jinnan; Cai, Bofeng; Zhang, Lixiao; Cao, Dong; Liu, Lancui; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Zhansheng; Xue, Wenbo

2014-06-17

49

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing  

EIA Publications

Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S.Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historicalenergy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991,1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

Mark Schipper

2006-11-01

50

Life-cycle energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of world cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tank-to-wheel fuel consumption (i.e. fuel economy) of an average car model was found to be 8.4 liters (diesel\\/petrol) per 100 km, which is equal to 30.3 miles per gallon (mpg). The carbon dioxide emissions of an average car model are 209 g\\/km. The curb weight of an average car model is 1488 kg. However, an average new light-duty vehicle

Kimmo Klemola

51

Trade-Off Between Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Logistics Costs Based on Multiobjective Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between the freight transport costs and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in given intermodal and truck-only freight networks. When the trade-off, which is represented as the relationship, is changed, the freight mode share and route choice are also modified. To show the ever changing trade-off and mode and route choice, a decision-support tool was developed.

Nam Seok Kim; Milan Janic; Bert van Wee

2009-01-01

52

Avoiding excessive greenhouse effect by delayed emission of carbon dioxide from the fossil-fuel cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to mitigate substantially the atmospheric CO2 peak, responsible for the greenhouse effect, it is proposed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from the fossil-fuel cycle and to store it in the form of CO2 dry ice in huge, thermally insulated, leaky repositories to delay the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere.It is estimated that a sphere of CO2 dry

W. Seifritz

1995-01-01

53

Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These relationships are illustrated over a multi-centennial timescale, allowing sufficient time for the carbon-cycle to respond to the anthropogenic perturbation. The anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios (focussing on those from fossil fuel combustion) range from more to less stringent mitigation of emissions and includes the scenario assumed in our previous work on the maximum cooling potential of different geoengineering options. Results are presented in terms of transient atmospheric CO2 concentration and global mean temperature from year 1900 to year 2500. Implementation of solar radiation control strategies requires an understanding of the timing and effect of terminating such an intervention, a so called exit strategy'. The results illustrate a number of considerations regarding exit strategies, including the inherent commitment to either carbon dioxide removal interventions, or the length of time the solar radiation control mechanism must be maintained for. The impacts of the various trade-offs are also discussed in the context of adaptation and adaptive resilience. The results have a bearing on policy and long term planning by illustrating some of the important assumptions regarding implementation of solar radiation management. These include baseline assumptions about emission mitigation efforts, timescale of intervention maintenance and impacts on adaptation.

Vaughan, Naomi; Lenton, Timothy

2010-05-01

54

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-08-01

55

Calculation of global carbon dioxide emissions: Review of emission factors and a new approach taking fuel quality into consideration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions resulting from fossil fuel consumption play a major role in the current debate on climate change. Carbon dioxide emissions are calculated on the basis of a carbon dioxide emission factor (CEF) for each type of fuel. Published CEFs are reviewed in this paper. It was found that for nearly all CEFs, fuel quality is not adequately taken into account. This is especially true in the case of the CEFs for coal. Published CEFs are often based on generalized assumptions and inexact conversions. In particular, conversions from gross calorific value to net calorific value were examined. A new method for determining CEFs as a function of calorific value (for coal, peat, and natural gas) and specific gravity (for crude oil) is presented that permits CEFs to be calculated for specific fuel qualities. A review of proportions of fossil fuels that remain unoxidized owing to incomplete combustion or inclusion in petrochemical products, etc., (stored carbon) shows that these figures need to be updated and checked for their applicability on a global scale, since they are mostly based on U.S. data.

Hiete, Michael; Berner, Ulrich; Richter, Otto

2001-03-01

56

A new method for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from transportation at fine spatial scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial scales are useful to both modelers and decision makers who are faced with the problem of global warming and climate change. Globally, transport related emissions of carbon dioxide are growing. This letter presents a new method based on the volume-preserving principle in the areal interpolation literature to disaggregate transportation-related CO2 emission estimates from the county-level scale to a 1 km2 grid scale. The proposed volume-preserving interpolation (VPI) method, together with the distance-decay principle, were used to derive emission weights for each grid based on its proximity to highways, roads, railroads, waterways, and airports. The total CO2 emission value summed from the grids within a county is made to be equal to the original county-level estimate, thus enforcing the volume-preserving property. The method was applied to downscale the transportation-related CO2 emission values by county (i.e. parish) for the state of Louisiana into 1 km2 grids. The results reveal a more realistic spatial pattern of CO2 emission from transportation, which can be used to identify the emission 'hot spots'. Of the four highest transportation-related CO2 emission hotspots in Louisiana, high-emission grids literally covered the entire East Baton Rouge Parish and Orleans Parish, whereas CO2 emission in Jefferson Parish (New Orleans suburb) and Caddo Parish (city of Shreveport) were more unevenly distributed. We argue that the new method is sound in principle, flexible in practice, and the resultant estimates are more accurate than previous gridding approaches.

Shu, Yuqin; Lam, Nina S. N.; Reams, Margaret

2010-10-01

57

A 11 distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1950-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

One degree latitude by one degree longitude (11) data sets of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture were produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. National estimates of carbon emissions were combined with 11 data sets of political units and human population density to create the new 11 carbon emissions data sets. The human population

Robert J. Andres; Gregg Marland; Inez Fung; Elaine Matthews

1996-01-01

58

Prediction on carbon dioxide emissions based on fuzzy rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several ways to predict air quality, varying from simple regression to models based on artificial intelligence. Most of the conventional methods are not sufficiently able to provide good forecasting performances due to the problems with non-linearity uncertainty and complexity of the data. Artificial intelligence techniques are successfully used in modeling air quality in order to cope with the problems. This paper describes fuzzy inference system (FIS) to predict CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Furthermore, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to compare the prediction performance. Data of five variables: energy use, gross domestic product per capita, population density, combustible renewable and waste and CO2 intensity are employed in this comparative study. The results from the two model proposed are compared and it is clearly shown that the ANFIS outperforms FIS in CO2 prediction.

Pauzi, Herrini; Abdullah, Lazim

2014-06-01

59

Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur

Steven J. Smith; Hugh M. Pitcher; Tom M. Wigley

2005-01-01

60

Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals

W. J. J. Huijgen; R. N. J. Comans

2007-01-01

61

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOEpatents

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18

62

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions  

DOEpatents

A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

Huffman, Gerald P.

2012-11-13

63

Short and Long Term Impacts of Forest Bioenergy Production on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. The benefit of managing forests for bioenergy substitution of fossil fuels versus potential carbon sequestration by reducing harvest needs to be evaluated. This study uses a combination of Federal Forest Inventory data (FIA), remote sensing, and a coupled carbon-nitrogen ecosystem process model (CLM4-CN) to predict net atmospheric CO2 emissions from forest thinning for bioenergy production in Oregon under varying future management and climate scenarios. We use life-cycle assessment (LCA) incorporating both the forest and forest product sinks and sources of carbon dioxide. Future modeled results are compared with a reduced harvest scenario to determine the potential for increased carbon sequestration in forest biomass. We find that Oregon forests are a current strong sink of 7.5 1.7 Tg C yr-1 or 61 g C m-2 yr-1. (NBP; NEP minus removals from fire and harvest). In the short term, we find that carbon dynamics following harvests for fire prevention and large-scale bioenergy production lead to 2-15% higher emissions over the next 20 years compared to current management, assuming 100% effectiveness of fire prevention. Given the current sink strength, analysis of the forest sector in Oregon demonstrates that increasing harvest levels by all practices above current business-as-usual levels increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as long as the region's sink persists. In the long-term, we find that projected changes in climate and fire regimes reduce the baseline sink in drier portions of the state making thinning for bioenergy production an effective means to reduce atmospheric emissions. However, in the more productive wetter areas, management for carbon sequestration removes more CO2 from the atmosphere than substitution of fossil fuels with forest bioenergy. Management strategies should consider the emission reduction potential of reducing harvest in some areas before implementing bioenergy production.

Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.; Thornton, P. E.

2011-12-01

64

Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown proportion of corpses and 161 (19%) survivors treated in hospital; though these lesions were initially believed to be burns from acidic gases, further investigation suggested that they were associated with coma states caused by exposure to carbon dioxide in air. The disaster at Lake Nyos and a similar event at Lake Monoun, Cameroon, two years previously provide new information on the possible medical effects of large scale emissions of carbon dioxide, though the presence of other toxic factors in these gas releases cannot be excluded. Images FIG 2 a FIG 2 b FIG 2 c FIG 2 d FIG 2 e FIG 3 FIG 4

Baxter, P. J.; Kapila, M.; Mfonfu, D.

1989-01-01

65

Estimated carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation improved by carbon-density maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation contributes 6-17% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Large uncertainties in emission estimates arise from inadequate data on the carbon density of forests and the regional rates of deforestation. Consequently there is an urgent need for improved data sets that characterize the global distribution of aboveground biomass, especially in the tropics. Here we use multi-sensor satellite data to estimate aboveground live woody vegetation carbon density for pan-tropical ecosystems with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution. Results indicate that the total amount of carbon held in tropical woody vegetation is 228.7PgC, which is 21% higher than the amount reported in the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 (ref. ). At the national level, Brazil and Indonesia contain 35% of the total carbon stored in tropical forests and produce the largest emissions from forest loss. Combining estimates of aboveground carbon stocks with regional deforestation rates we estimate the total net emission of carbon from tropical deforestation and land use to be 1.0PgCyr-1 over the period 2000-2010--based on the carbon bookkeeping model. These new data sets of aboveground carbon stocks will enable tropical nations to meet their emissions reporting requirements (that is, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Tier 3) with greater accuracy.

Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Walker, W. S.; Laporte, N. T.; Sun, M.; Sulla-Menashe, D.; Hackler, J.; Beck, P. S. A.; Dubayah, R.; Friedl, M. A.; Samanta, S.; Houghton, R. A.

2012-03-01

66

2002 Monthly Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Mexico at a 10x10k Spatial Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the total measured amount of CO2 in the Earths atmosphere remains an important component of carbon cycle science, particularly as efforts to understand the net exchange of carbon at the surface move to smaller scales. In order to reduce the uncertainty of this flux, researchers led by Purdue University have built a high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 flux inventory for the United States, called Vulcan. The Vulcan inventory quantifies emissions for the United States at 10km resolution every hour for the year 2002 and can be seen as a key component of a national assessment and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions and emissions mitigation. As part of the North American Carbon Project, the 2002 carbon dioxide emissions from Mexico are presented at the monthly temporal and municipality spatial scale. Mexico is of particular importance because of the scientific integration under the North American Carbon Program. Furthermore, Mexico has seen a notable growth in its population as well as migration toward urban centers and increasing energy requirements due in part to industrial intensification. The native resolution of the emissions is geolocated (lat/lon) for point sources, such as power plants, airports, and large industry. The emissions are estimated at the municipality level for residential and commercial sources, and allocated to roads for the mobile transport sector. Data sources include the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), and Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA). CO2 emissions are calculated from the 1999 NEI data by converting CO emissions using sector and process-dependent emission factors, and is scaled up to 2002 using statistics obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center CDIAC. CEC and CARMA data, which encompass power plant emissions, are already in units of CO2. Emissions are regridded to 10x10k and 0.1x0.1 deg grids to enable atmospheric CO2 transport modeling. All economic sectors are analyzed, including power plants, commercial, residential, industrial, on-road, and non-road. Municipality and regional scale analysis is presented to explore the differences in economic and industrial development and need. Specific centers of high emissions are highlighted and analyzed in order to put into context the development and growth of certain economic sectors. The annualized emissions are compared to estimates by the International Energy Agency and found to be very similar although some discrepancies are expected due to the different methods of obtaining results. Vulcan reports process-based emissions while IEA reports fuel sales. The Vulcan output is also disaggregated by fuel type and comparisons with IEA are presented across economic sectors. A monthly product based on monthly sales is also presented. Sales by major fuel types (oil, natural gas, coal) are obtained from EIA data and those results shape the monthly cycle. These results are compared to a similar national studies, and similarities and differences are analyzed and discussed.

Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Geethakumar, S.; Zhou, Y.; Sahni, N.

2009-12-01

67

Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and efficient approach to meeting carbon mitigation targets.

Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

2013-01-01

68

A Comparison of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions Datasets: UND and CDIAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), a technique is developed to estimate the monthly consumption of solid, liquid and gaseous fossil fuels for each state in the union. This technique employs monthly sales data to estimate the relative monthly proportions of the total annual carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use for all states in the union. The University of North Dakota (UND) results are compared to those published by Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Recently, annual emissions per U.S. state (Blasing, Broniak, Marland, 2004a) as well as monthly CO2 emissions for the United States (Blasing, Broniak, Marland, 2004b) have been added to the CDIAC website. To determine the success of this technique, the individual state results are compared to the annual state totals calculated by CDIAC. In addition, the monthly country totals are compared with those produced by CDIAC. In general, the UND technique produces estimates that are consistent with those available on the CDIAC Trends website. Comparing the results from these two methods permits an improved understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of both estimation techniques. The primary advantages of the UND approach are its ease of implementation, the improved spatial and temporal resolution it can produce, and its universal applicability.

Gregg, J. S.; Andres, R. J.

2005-05-01

69

Future ocean increasingly transparent to low-frequency sound owing to carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-frequency sound in the ocean is produced by natural phenomena such as rain, waves and marine life, as well as by human activities, such as the use of sonar systems, shipping and construction. Sea water absorbs sound mainly owing to the viscosity of the water and the presence of chemical constituents, such as magnesium sulphate, boric acid and carbonate ions. The concentration of dissolved chemicals absorbing sound near 1kHz depends on the pH of the ocean, which has declined as a result of increases in acidity due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Here we use a global ocean model forced with projected carbon dioxide emissions to predict regional changes in pH, and thus sound absorption, in the years 1800-2300. According to our projections, ocean pH could fall by up to 0.6 units by 2100. Sound absorption-in the range between ~100Hz and ~10kHz-could fall by up to 60% in the high latitudes and in areas of deep-water formation over the same time period. We predict that over the twenty-first century, chemical absorption of sound in this frequency range will nearly halve in some of the regions that experience significant radiated noise from industrial activity, such as the North Atlantic Ocean. We suggest that our forecast of reduced sound absorption in acoustic hotspots will help in identifying target regions for future monitoring.

Ilyina, Tatiana; Zeebe, Richard E.; Brewer, Peter G.

2010-01-01

70

The sociology of ecologically unequal exchange and carbon dioxide emissions, 1960-2005.  

PubMed

The author engages the sociological theory of ecologically unequal exchange to assess the extent to which levels of per capita anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are a function of the "vertical flow" of exports to high-income nations. Results of cross-national fixed effects panel model estimates indicate that levels of such emissions are positively associated with the vertical flow of exports, and the relationship is much more pronounced for lower-income countries than for high-income countries. Additional findings suggest that the observed relationship for lower-income nations has grown in magnitude through time, indicating that structural associations between high-income and lower-income countries have become increasingly ecologically unequal, at least in the context of greenhouse gas emissions. These results hold, net of various important controls. PMID:23017748

Jorgenson, Andrew K

2012-03-01

71

Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from a headwater stream network of interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal ecosystems store significant quantities of organic carbon (C) that may be vulnerable to degradation as a result of a warming climate. Despite their limited coverage on the landscape, streams play a significant role in the processing, gaseous emission, and downstream export of C, and small streams are thought to be particularly important because of their close connection with the surrounding landscape. However, ecosystem carbon studies do not commonly incorporate the role of the aquatic conduit. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations and emissions in a headwater stream network of interior Alaska underlain by permafrost to assess the potential role of stream gas emissions in the regional carbon balance. First-order streams exhibited the greatest variability in fluxes of CO2 and CH4, and the greatest mean pCO2. High-resolution time series of stream pCO2 and discharge at two locations on one first-order stream showed opposing pCO2 responses to storm events, indicating the importance of hydrologic flowpaths connecting CO2-rich soils with surface waters. Repeated longitudinal surveys on the stream showed consistent areas of elevated pCO2 and pCH4, indicative of discrete hydrologic flowpaths delivering soil water and groundwater having varying chemistry. Up-scaled basin estimates of stream gas emissions suggest that streams may contribute significantly to catchment-wide CH4 emissions. Overall, our results indicate that while stream-specific gas emission rates are disproportionately high relative to the terrestrial landscape, both stream surface area and catchment normalized emission rates were lower than those documented for the Yukon River Basin as a whole. This may be due to limitations of C sources and/or C transport to surface waters.

Crawford, John T.; Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Stanley, Emily H.

2013-06-01

72

[Effects of fungicide chlorothalonil on soil nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions].  

PubMed

A 14 d incubation test at 60% WHC and 25 degrees C was conducted to study the effects of fungicide chlorothalonil at its application rates of 0, 5.5 mg x kg(-1) (field application rate, FR), 110 mg x kg(-1) (20FR) and 220 mg x kg(-1) (40FR) on the nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from acidic, neutral, and alkaline soils. The results indicated that the effects of chlorothalonil on the two gases emissions depended on its application rate and soil type. Comparing with no chlorothalonil application, the chlorothalonil at 20FR and 40FR inhibited the N2O emission from acid soil significantly, while that at FR, 20FR and 40FR stimulated the N2O emission from neutral soil, with the strongest effect at FR. Higher application rates (20FR and 40FR) of chlorothalonil inhibited the N2O emission from alkaline soil at the early stage of incubation, but stimulated it at late incubation stage. Chlorothalonil at FR had no obvious effects on the CO2 emission from test soils, but that at 20FR and 40FR promoted the CO2 emission from acid soil while inhibited it from neutral and alkaline soils significantly. PMID:19288733

Lang, Man; Cai, Zu-cong

2008-12-01

73

MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS  

SciTech Connect

Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

2001-06-25

74

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unless carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion is captured and disposed of safely and permanently, the concerns over climate change will eventually lead to the demise of fossil fuels. Because of their importance in today's energy market the phasing out of fossil fuels would likely precipitate a major energy crisis. Mineral sequestration and extraction of carbon dioxide from the air are two advanced technologies for carbon sequestration that aim at maintaining access to the vast fossil energy resources for centuries to come. While it is straightforward to dispose of carbon dioxide in limited amounts and for a limited time, permanent disposal of trillions of tons of carbon poses serious challenges. The formation of solid mineral carbonates from readily available minerals would provide safe and permanent storage. Capture of carbon dioxide from air makes it possible to sequester carbon dioxide emissions from sources other than power plants. This is important considering that even the relatively minor reductions suggested by the Kyoto Accord would have required the US to eliminate carbon dioxide emissions comparable to those of the entire 1990 coal fired power plant fleet. Capture of carbon dioxide from the air, would make it possible to close the carbon cycle in the transportation sector without phasing out liquid hydrocarbon fuels. It eliminates the need for long distance transport of carbon dioxide and allows the continued use of the existing energy infrastructure. Mineral sequestration at remote sites combined with on site carbon dioxide capture from air, would allow for long term stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. I will outline the current state of the technology and point to advances required before these approaches are ready for large-scale implementation.

Lackner, K. S.

2002-05-01

75

White Island volcano, New Zealand: carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide emission rates and melt inclusion studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 and SO2 emission rates are reported for the volcanic gas plume from White Island, the most active volcano in New Zealand. SO2 emission rates were measured 16 times by correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) from 1986 to 1999 and range from 171 to 900 Mg day?1. We estimate the average SO2 emission rate was 43070 Mg day?1 between 1983 and 1999.

Lois J. Wardell; Philip R. Kyle; Nelia Dunbar; Bruce Christenson

2001-01-01

76

Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and 84 g C m-2 for PSL, AAS and LDC respectively. Carbon dioxide emission rates were corroborated with results obtained from the quantification of water-extractable organic C (WEOC) and soil microbial biomass-C (Cmic). The former represents the more labile fraction of soil organic matter and its concentration in the freshly amended soils followed the order LDC > AAS ? PSL. However, whereas WEOC concentrations decrease rapidly for PSL and LDC amended soils, AAS treated soils showed a steady increase during the first 20 days of incubation followed by a decrease thereafter. This was attributed to the release of soluble organic matter from the anaerobically stabilised digestate in the presence of an aerobic soil microbial community. Irrespective of the type of amendment, Cmic values increased with time with respect to the unamended controls, reaching highest values after 20 days from amendment and decreasing thereafter. Even after 40 days of incubation, Cmic values in all amended soils did not return to the background values obtained with unamended controls. These results suggest that the application of stabilised livestock-derived organic materials to soils may play an important role in reducing C emissions associated with agricultural practices and increase soil C stocks, apart from other indirect beneficial effects such as the recovery of energy from combustion of biogas from anaerobic fermentation of these waste materials.

Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

2009-04-01

77

Trade-off in emissions of acid gas pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel power plants on the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur oxides (SOX), which are acid gas pollutants. This was done by estimating the emissions of these chemical compounds from natural gas combined cycle and pulverized coal plants, equipped with post-combustion carbon capture technology for the

Evangelos Tzimas; Arnaud Mercier; Calin-Cristian Cormos; Stathis D. Peteves

2007-01-01

78

The costs of different energy taxes for stabilizing U. S. carbon dioxide emissions: An application of the Gemini model  

SciTech Connect

In the absence of policies to mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide, US emissions will grow substantially over the period 1990 to 2030. One option for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions is to tax energy use. For example, fossil energy might be taxed according to its carbon content, heating value, or market value. Using a partial equilibrium model of US energy markets that combines detailed representation of technological processes with optimizing behavior by energy users and suppliers, the authors compare the costs of using carbon, Btu, and ad valorem taxes as instruments to implement a policy of emission stabilization. The authors also examine the differential impacts of these taxes on the mix of primary energy consumed in the US. The carbon tax induces the substitution of renewables and natural gas for coal and stabilizes carbon dioxide emissions at an estimated annual cost of $125 billion. The Btu tax induces the substitution of renewables for coal, but does not encourage the use of natural gas. The estimated cost of stabilization with the Btu tax is $210 billion per year. The ad valorem tax, like the Btu tax, does not encourage the substitution of natural gas for coal. It also causes a significant shift away from oil in comparison to the carbon tax. The cost of stabilizing emissions with the ad valorem tax is estimated at $450 billion per year.

Leary, N.A.; Scheraga, J.D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Climate Change Div.)

1993-09-01

79

The leverage of demographic dynamics on carbon dioxide emissions: does age structure matter?  

PubMed

This article provides a methodological contribution to the study of the effect of changes in population age structure on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions. First, I propose a generalization of the IPAT equation to a multisector economy with an age-structured population and discuss the insights that can be obtained in the context of stable population theory. Second, I suggest a statistical model of household consumption as a function of household size and age structure to quantitatively evaluate the extent of economies of scale in consumption of energy-intensive goods, and to estimate age-specific profiles of consumption of energy-intensive goods and of CO(2) emissions. Third, I offer an illustration of the methodologies using data for the United States. The analysis shows that per-capita CO(2) emissions increase with age until the individual is in his or her 60s, and then emissions tend to decrease. Holding everything else constant, the expected change in U.S. population age distribution during the next four decades is likely to have a small, but noticeable, positive impact on CO(2) emissions. PMID:21328039

Zagheni, Emilio

2011-02-01

80

Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan  

DOE Data Explorer

The Vulcan Project is a NASA/DOE funded effort under the North American Carbon Program (NACP) to quantify North American fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at space and time scales much finer than has been achieved in the past. The purpose is to aid in quantification of the North American carbon budget, to support inverse estimation of carbon sources and sinks, and to support the demands posed by higher resolution CO2 observations (in situ and remotely sensed). The detail and scope of the Vulcan CO2 inventory has also made it a valuable tool for policymakers, demographers, social scientists and the public at large. The Vulcan project has achieved the quantification of the 2002 U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the scale of individual factories, powerplants, roadways and neighborhoods on an hourly basis. The entire inventory was built on a common 10 km x 10 km grid to facilitate atmospheric modeling. In addition to improvement in space and time resolution, Vulcan is quantified at the level of fuel type, economic sub-sector, and county/state identification. Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

Gurney, Kevin [PI and spokesperson for the Vulcan Collaboration

81

US Carbon Dioxide Motor Vehicle Emissions Resolved Hourly at a County and 36x36 km Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the sources of fossil/industrial carbon dioxide emissions, the motor vehicle sector poses a variety of challenges when attempting to generate spatiotemporal emission estimates. In addition to generating explicit space and time estimates of emissions for the United States, understanding the underlying drivers to emissions is a critical component in supporting research on the US carbon budget and carbon cycling studies. We will present new estimates of carbon dioxide emissions generated by motor vehicles for the Continental United States using two different modeling systems developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). One is the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM) combined with the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) and the other is the Consolidated Community Emissions Processing Tool (CONCEPT). Both models utilize the MOBILE model to generate emissions from motor vehicles. We will present emission estimates for the United States, highlighting the diurnal, weekly and seasonal cycles of emissions. We will identify some of the key drivers for the spatial and temporal patterns and intercompare the results from the two different modeling systems. Key drivers include vehicle miles traveled, fuel efficiency, fuel used, and traffic patterns. We will present output validation by comparing these spatiotemporally explicit estimates to sectoral totals from independent estimates such as the Edgar database and national sectoral estimates. These results are part of the "Vulcan" project at Purdue University funded under the North American Carbon Program.

Mendoza, D.; Gurney, K. R.

2006-12-01

82

[Measurement of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from ruminants based on the NDIR technique].  

PubMed

Methane (CH4) production in the rumen represents a loss of energy for the host animal; in addition, methane eructated by ruminants may contribute to a greenhouse effect or global warming. The dinumal CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from sheep were continuously recorded using the flow-through chamber method. A type new type of non-disperse infrared (NDIR) gas sensors based on pulse IR source was introduced, and by using the high performance pyroelectric IR sensor with built in interference filter and the "single light and two wavelengths" technology, CH4 and CO2 measurement from ruminants was achieved. Animals were given dry oat hay as the basic diet and supplemented concentrate with the ratio of 7 : 3. The results showed that the recovery was 96.7% and 96.2% for CH4 and CO2, respectively. Methane and carbon dioxide output from sheep respectively averaged 15.6 g per day and 184.7 g per day, equivalent to 6.8 and 71.1 kg per animal. Diurnal fluctuations in hourly rates of CH4 and CO2 production in hourly of methane increased during day light to reach a peak at or near sunset and then declined towards sunrise, and consideration was given to the dry matter intake of the animals used in these studies and its possible effects on CH4 production. PMID:20707138

Ding, Xue-Zhi; Long, Rui-Jun; Mi, Jian-Dui; Guo, Xu-Sheng

2010-06-01

83

Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics  

PubMed Central

We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO2-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO2-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility.

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario

2010-01-01

84

Methane emissions of rice increased by elevated carbon dioxide and temperature.  

PubMed

Methane (CH4) effluxes by paddy-culture rice (Oryza sativa L.) contribute about 16% of the total anthropogenic emissions. Since radiative forcing of CH4 at current atmospheric concentrations is 21 times greater on a per mole basis than that of carbon dioxide (CO2), it is imperative that the impact of global change on rice CH4 emissions be evaluated. Rice (cv. IR72) was planted in sunlit, closed-circulation, controlled-environment chambers in which CH4 efflux densities were measured daily. The CO2 concentration was maintained at either 330 or 660 micromol mol(-1). Air temperatures were controlled to daily maxima and minima of 32/23, 35/26, and 38/29 degrees C at each CO2 treatment. Emissions of CH4 each day were determined during a 4-h period after venting and resealing the chambers at 0800 h. Diurnal CH4 effluxes on 77, 98, and 119 d after planting (DAP) were obtained similarly at 4-h intervals. Emissions over four-plant hills and over flooded bare soil were measured at 53, 63, and 100 DAP. Emissions were negligible before 40 DAP. Thereafter, emissions were observed first in high-CO2, high-temperature treatments and reached a sustained maximum efflux density of about 7 mg m(-2) h(-1) (0.17 g m(-2) d(-1)) near the end of the growing season. Total seasonal CH4 emission was fourfold greater for high-CO2, high-temperature treatments than for the low-CO2, low-temperature treatment, probably due to more root sloughing or exudates, since about sixfold more acetate was found in the soil at 71 DAP. Both rising CO2 and increasing temperatures could lead to a positive feedback on global warming by increasing the emissions of CH4 from rice. PMID:14674519

Allen, Leon H; Albrecht, Stephan L; Coln-Guasp, Wilfredo; Covell, Stephen A; Baker, Jeffrey T; Pan, Deyun; Boote, Kenneth J

2003-01-01

85

Predicting ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions from carbon and nitrogen biodegradability during animal waste composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

During composting of livestock manure, transformations of organic matter result in gaseous emissions, which can harm the environment. Two experiments were done in enclosures to measure the fluxes of NH3, N2O, CO2, CH4 and H2O emitted by 8 heaps of compost representing the range of biodegradability of nitrogen and carbon in the livestock manure. The heaps were monitored for the

Jean-Marie Paillat; Paul Robin; Mlynda Hassouna; Philippe Leterme

2005-01-01

86

First satellite measurements of carbon dioxide and methane emission ratios in wildfire plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using methane and carbon dioxide atmospheric mixing ratios retrieved using SWIR spectra from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), we report the first wildfire plume CH4 to CO2 emission ratios (ERCH4/CO2) determined from space. We demonstrate the approach's potential using forward modeling and identify a series of real GOSAT spectra containing wildfire plumes. These show significantly changed total-column CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios, and from these we calculate ERCH4/CO2 for boreal forest, tropical forest, and savanna fires as 0.00603, 0.00527, and 0.00395 mol mol-1, respectively. These ERs are statistically significantly different from each other and from the "normal" atmospheric CH4 to CO2 ratio and generally agree with past ground and airborne studies.

Ross, Adrian N.; Wooster, Martin J.; Boesch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert

2013-08-01

87

Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for their physical nature and their links to traditional neo-classical economics.

Garrett, T. J.

2012-12-01

88

TRACKING THE EMISSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE BY NATION, SECTOR, AND FUEL TYPE: A TRACE GAS ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (TGAS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a new way to estimate an efficient econometric model of global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by nation, sector, and fuel type. Equations for fuel intensity are estimated for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and heat for six sectors: agricultural, indus...

89

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2009 Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes key trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy and technology usage related to model year (MY) 1975 through 2009 light-duty vehicles sold in the United States. Light-duty vehicles are those vehicles that EPA classifies a...

2009-01-01

90

Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2011. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes key trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy, and CO2- and fuel economy-related technology for gasoline- and diesel-fueled personal vehicles sold in the United States, from model years (MY) 1975 through 2011. Personal ...

2012-01-01

91

The emission of biogenic sulphur gases from incubated Chinese paddy soil and its relationship with carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeic sulphur gases emitted from terrestrial ecosystem may play an important role in the global sulphur cycle and have a profound influence on global climate change. In this paper, the emissions of volatile sulphur gases and carbon dioxide from incubated paddy soil were measured. The paddy soils were collected from Nanjing and Yangzhou, China. Six species of sulphur?containing gases were

Zhen Yang; Li Kong; Shiming Wang

1997-01-01

92

An analysis of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in countries of the Middle East and North Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from 17 countries of the Middle East and North Africa are studied using Data Envelopment Analysis. Four indicators for the year 1996 are employed in the analysis. The analysis shows that Sudan, Bahrain and Oman are considered efficient, and Saudi Arabia is rated as the least efficient under constant returns to

Ramakrishnan Ramanathan

2005-01-01

93

Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and at K/T boundary greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. The authors estimate total eruptive and noneruptive CO{sub 2} output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 {times} 10{sup 16} moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years based on best estimates of the CO{sub 2} weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO{sub 2} degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO{sub 2} on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO{sub 2} due to Deccan Traps CO{sub 2} emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1C over several hundred thousand years. They conclude that the direct climate effects of CO{sub 2} emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

Caldeira, K. (New York Univ., NY (USA)); Rampino, M.R. (New York Univ., NY (USA) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, New York, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

94

Carbon dioxide concentrator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passed exhaled air through electrochemical cell containing alkali metal carbonate aqueous solution, and utilizes platinized electrodes causing reaction of oxygen at cathode with water in electrolyte, producing hydroxyl ions which react with carbon dioxide to form carbonate ions.

Williams, C. F.; Huebscher, R. G.

1972-01-01

95

The carbon dioxide cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

James, P. B.; Hansen, G. B.; Titus, T. N.

2005-01-01

96

Temperature VS Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students examine the relationship between carbon dioxide levels and global temperature change by studying a graph of these two variables. They will discover that by using data from ice cores, scientists can determine temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the air as far back as a hundred thousand years in the past. The students try to predict which variable is the independent one and then make a graph of temperature change and carbon dioxide levels. After making their graph, students describe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to determine if their predictions were correct.

97

Evaluation of Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Devices in Energy Cascade Systems under the Restriction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is necessary to introduce energy cascade systems into the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the refrigerating and air conditioning devices in cases of introducing both energy cascade systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. The authors have developed an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Limitation of carbon dioxide emissions results in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature one is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustor waste heat can reduce electric power for the turbo refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator.

Shimazaki, Yoichi; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

98

Capturing Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate carbon sequestration by creating a carbonated beverage out of apple juice and dry ice. This experiment illustrates how carbon dioxide can be stored in a substance. Learners compare and contrast the results to determine if liquid carbonation is an effective method for carbon sequestration. Safety note: this activity involves dry ice; please follow recommended guidelines.

Saltz, Austen

2010-01-01

99

Possible cellular regulation schemes of isoprene synthesis and emission under different ambient carbon dioxide levels. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the effects of higher atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on isoprene synthesis and emission leaded to several newly proposed regulation schemes. They can be classified as substrate level control on one side and as energetic cofactor control of the plastidic 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway on the other one. Viewed on a whole cell scale, the precursors of isoprene, such as dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), can be found in several cellular compartments such as chloroplasts, cytosol and mitochondria. Furthermore, necessary entry points into the isoprene synthesis pathway like phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate are provided by two processes, photosynthesis and glycolysis, which are as well located in different cellular compartments. These findings imply, that the effect of modulating the isoprene emission under high levels of atmospheric CO2 have to take transport over membranes, possible concurrent pathways, i.e. Shikimi acid pathway or anaplerotic metabolism reactions and the availability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) on a cellular scale into account. In this modeling study we applied box models that include several facets of the proposed regulation and transport schemes. The models have been set up such that at least two cellular compartments, chloroplast and cytosol are taken into account. The boxes itself represent metabolites and several possible regulation schemes have been realized by the formulation of rate equations between those metabolite pools. As many intermediates are not readily available as measured values, the models aim to build a set of tools to simulate possible regulatory schemes and provide parameter estimations for key processes. Inverse modeling techniques allow to assess certain parameter ranges within the proposed regulation schemes by fitting the models to data on isoprene emission and photosynthesis under normal and elevated ambient CO2 levels.

Noe, S. M.; Schnitzler, J.; Arneth, A.; Monson, R. K.; Niinemets, U.

2010-12-01

100

Carbon Dioxide Fountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)

Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

2007-01-01

101

Carbon Dioxide and Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

Brewer, Peter G.

1978-01-01

102

Emissions of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from uncompressed and pelletized biomass fuel burning in typical household stoves in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) impact climate change and human health. The uncertainties in emissions inventories of CO2 and CO are primarily due to the large variation in measured emissions factors (EFs), especially to the lack of EFs from developing countries. China's goals of reducing CO2 emissions require a maximum utilization of biomass fuels. Pelletized biomass fuels are well suited for the residential biomass market, providing possibilities of more automated and optimized systems with higher modified combustion efficiency (MCE) and less products from incomplete combustion. However, EFs of CO2 and CO from pellet biomass fuels are seldom reported, and a comparison to conventional uncompressed biomass fuels has never been conducted. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to experimentally determine the CO2 and CO EFs from uncompressed biomass (i.e., firewood and crop residues) and biomass pellets (i.e., pine wood pellet and corn straw pellet) under real residential applications and to compare the influences of fuel properties and combustion conditions on CO2 and CO emissions from the two types of biomass fuels. For the uncompressed biomass examples, the CO2 and CO EFs were 1649.4 35.2 g kg-1 and 47.8 8.9 g kg-1, respectively, for firewood and 1503.2 148.5 g kg-1 and 52.0 14.2 g kg-1, respectively, for crop residues. For the pellet biomass fuel examples, the CO2 and CO EFs were 1708.0 3.8 g kg-1 and 4.4 2.4 g kg-1, respectively, for pellet pine and 1552.1 16.3 g kg-1 and 17.9 10.2 g kg-1, respectively, for pellet corn. In rural China areas during 2007, firewood and crop residue burning produced 721.7 and 23.4 million tons of CO2 and CO, respectively.

Wei, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Tong, Yindong; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Xuejun

2012-09-01

103

Variability in the Mass and Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions for the Countries of the North American Carbon Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we focus more intently on the carbon cycle in North America, the spatial and temporal scales of our observations become more important. The carbon dioxide released from fossil fuel consumption can show large variability in both spatial and temporal scales. This presentation will focus on this variability. We have compiled a data set that contains the monthly emissions of carbon dioxide released from fossil-fuel consumption for the countries of the North American Carbon Program. These data are consistent with the annual emissions as reported by CDIAC. As an example of spatial variability, in August 2000, emissions from Idaho (356 Gg C) and Texas (19,051 Gg C) differed by a factor of 53. As an example of temporal variability, in 1999, emissions from Texas differed by 31% between the months of February (13,807 Gg C) and August (18,107 Gg C). When looking at the stable carbon isotopic composition (del 13 C), variability also exists at these spatial and temporal scales. As an example of spatial variability, in April 1984, emissions from Louisiana (-36.32 per mil) and North Dakota (-25.23 per mil) differed by 11.09 per mil. As an example of temporal variability, in 2002, emissions from Montana differed by 5.22 per mil between the months of July (-28.38 per mil) and December (- 33.60 per mil). Finally, this presentation will also include analysis of the uncertainty associated with these time series. Variations in data collection are such that the uncertainty varies among the three countries of North America and uncertainty increases as the spatial and temporal scales decrease.

Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Gregg, J. S.; Losey, L.; Marland, G.

2007-12-01

104

Long-term ocean oxygen depletion in response to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ongoing global warming could persist far into the future, because natural processes require decades to hundreds of thousands of years to remove carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning from the atmosphere. Future warming may have large global impacts including ocean oxygen depletion and associated adverse effects on marine life, such as more frequent mortality events, but long, comprehensive simulations of these

Gary Shaffer; Steffen Malskr Olsen; Jens Olaf Pepke Pedersen

2009-01-01

105

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

106

The impact of electric passenger transport technology under an economy-wide climate policy in the United States: Carbon dioxide emissions, coal use, and carbon dioxide capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2010-01-01

107

Carbon dioxide: atmospheric overload  

SciTech Connect

The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing and may double within the next century. The result of this phenomenon, climatic alterations, will adversely affect crop production, water supplies, and global temperatures. Sources of CO2 include the combustion of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, and the decay of organic matter in soils. The most serious effect of possible climatic changes could occur along the boundaries of arid and semiarid regions. Shifts is precipitation patterns could accelerate the processes of desertification. An increase of 5..cap alpha..C in the average temperature of the top 1000 m of ocean water would raise sea level by 2 m. CO2 releases to the atmosphere can be reduced by controlling emissions from fossil fuel-fired facilities and by careful harvesting of forest regions. (3 photos, 5 references)

Not Available

1980-04-01

108

The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity  

PubMed Central

Background This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population affluence technology) approach. Results Results suggest the weak existence of an environmental Kuznets curve, in which the wealthiest cities are reducing their emissions through increased efficiency. Significant institutional impacts are also found to hold in the predicted directions. Specifically, panel and cross-sectional regressions indicate that membership in the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and non-profit organizational presence have negative effects on industrial carbon dioxide emissions. Conclusion The presence of institutional drivers at the city level provides empirical support for the POETICs rubric, which recasts the ecological framing of the IPAT identity in a more sociological mold. The results also indicate that Japanese civil society has a role to play in carbon mitigation. More refined studies need to take into consideration an expanded set of methods, drivers, and carbon budgets, as applied to a broader range of cases outside of Japan, to more accurately assess how civil society can bridge the issue of scale that separates local level policy concerns from global level climate dynamics.

Scholz, Stephan

2006-01-01

109

The potential for control of carbon dioxide emissions from integrated gasification/combined-cycle systems  

SciTech Connect

Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation, a process that reduces CO{sub 2} production through efficient fuel used is amenable to CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents a comparison of energy systems that encompass fuel supply, an IGCC system, CO{sub 2} recovery using commercial technologies, CO{sub 2} transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering in geological reservoirs. The intent is to evaluate the energy-efficiency impacts of controlling CO{sub 2} in such systems and to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an to equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. The value used for the ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget is 1 kg/kWh CO{sub 2}. The base case for the comparison is a 457-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, preparation, and transportation of the coal and limestone result in a net system electric power production of 454 MW with a 0.835 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate. For comparison, the gasifier output is taken through a water-gas shift to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and then processed in a glycol-based absorber unit to recover CO{sub 2} Prior to the combustion turbine. A 500-km pipeline then transports the CO{sub 2} for geological sequestering. The net electric power production for the system with CO{sub 2} recovery is 381 MW with a 0.156 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate.

Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.

1994-06-01

110

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection of luminescent microorganisms are maintained under cultivation to provide suitable biosensors for the testing program for carbon dioxide. The basic bioluminescent agar medium is currently being used for growth of the cultures. Tests of lumi...

P. S. Biernacki J. J. Kalvinskas

1973-01-01

111

Carbon dioxide (reduction).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The twin problems of global warming, caused by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and limited fossil fuel resources have stimulated research in the utilization of CO2. These problems would be partially alleviated by the develo...

A. Fujita

2000-01-01

112

Old carbon contributes to aquatic emissions of carbon dioxide in the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the rate that carbon is cycled is crucial to understanding the dynamics of carbon transfer pathways. Recent technical developments now support measurement of the 14C age of evaded CO2 from fluvial systems, which provides an important "fingerprint" of the source of C. Here we report the first direct measurements of the 14C age of effluxed CO2 from two small streams and two rivers within the Western Amazonian Basin. The rate of degassing and hydrochemical controls on degassing are also considered. We observe that CO2 efflux from all systems except the seasonal small stream was 14C-depleted relative to the contemporary atmosphere, indicating a~contribution from "old" carbon fixed before ~1955 AD. Further, "old" CO2 was effluxed from the perennial stream in the rainforest, unexpected as here connectivity with the contemporary C cycle is likely greatest. The effluxed gas represents all sources of CO2 in the aquatic system and thus we used end member analysis to identify the relative inputs of fossil, modern and intermediately-aged C. The most likely solutions indicated a contribution from fossil carbon sources of between 3 and 9% which we interpret as being derived from carbonate weathering. This is significant as the currently observed intensification of weather has the potential to increase the future release of old carbon, which can be subsequently degassed to the atmosphere, and so render older, slower C cycles faster. Thus 14C fingerprinting of evaded CO2 provides understanding essential to more accurately model the carbon cycle in the Amazon Basin.

Vihermaa, L. E.; Waldron, S.; Garnett, M. H.; Newton, J.

2014-01-01

113

Air plasma gasification of RDF as a prospective method for reduction of carbon dioxide emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste disposal dumps are one of sources of carbonic gas penetration in the atmosphere. The waste is treated into RDF (refuse-derived fuel) and used in boilers for electric power or heat generation for decrease in carbonic gas emissions in the atmosphere. In industry power stations on the basis of the combined cycle have the highest efficiency of burning. The paper

A. N. Bratsev; I. I. Kumkova; V. A. Kuznetsov; V. E. Popov; S. V. Shtengel; A. A. Ufimtsev

2011-01-01

114

The Social Meaning of Carbon Dioxide Emission Trading Institutional Capacity Building for a Green Market in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forests offer good possibilities for the sequestration of carbon dioxide. This service can be commodified by the introduction of carbon (dioxide) credits, which can be traded on a carbon market. The premise of this paper is that the traditional economic view on the construction of these carbon markets is a too simplistic one, particularly, because it neglects the social meaning

Miriam Miranda; Carel Dieperink; Pieter Glasbergen

2002-01-01

115

Carbon dioxide sensor  

DOEpatents

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15

116

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is increasing ocean tempera- tures and raising sea levels. New scientific research shows that our oceans are beginning to face yet another threat due to global warm- ing-related emissions - their basic chemistry is changing because of the uptake of carbon dioxide released by human activities. When carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans it reacts with seawater

Richard A. Feely; Christopher L. Sabine; Victoria J. Fabry

117

Validation of modeled carbon-dioxide emissions from an urban neighborhood with direct eddy-covariance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeled carbon-dioxide (CO 2) emissions from an urban area are validated against direct eddy-covariance flux measurements. Detailed maps of modeled local carbon-dioxide emissions for a 4 km 2 residential neighborhood in Vancouver, BC, Canada are produced. Inputs to the emission model include urban object classifications (buildings, trees, land-cover) automatically derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and optical remote sensing in combination with census, assessment, traffic and measured radiation and climate data. Different sub-models for buildings, transportation, human respiration, soils and vegetation were aggregated. Annual and monthly CO 2 emissions were modeled on a spatial grid of 50 m for the entire study area. The study area overlaps with the source area of a micrometeorological flux tower for which continuous CO 2 flux data (net exchange) were available for a two-year period. The measured annual total was 6.71 kg C m -2 yr -1with significant seasonal differences (16.0 g C m -2 day -1 in Aug vs. 22.1 g C m -2 day -1 in Dec correlated with the demand for space heating) and weekday-weekend differences (25% lower emissions on weekends attributed to traffic volume differences). Model results were weighted using the long-term turbulent source areas of the tower. Annual total modeled (7.42 kg C m -2 yr -1) and measured emissions agreed within 11%, but show more substantial differences in wind sectors dominated by traffic emissions. Over the year, agreement was better in summer (5% overestimation by model) vs. winter (15% overestimation), which is partially attributed to climate differences unaccounted for in the building energy models. The study shows that direct CO 2 flux measurements based on the EC approach - if sites are carefully chosen - are a promising method to validate fine-scale emission inventories/models at the block or neighborhood scale and can inform further model improvements.

Christen, A.; Coops, N. C.; Crawford, B. R.; Kellett, R.; Liss, K. N.; Olchovski, I.; Tooke, T. R.; van der Laan, M.; Voogt, J. A.

2011-10-01

118

Carbon Dioxide Removal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment using sprigs of Elodea, learners will observe a natural process that removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from Earth's atmosphere. This process is a part of the carbon cycle and results in temperature suitable for life. Note: this experiment requires that learners make observations an hour or the next day after they set up the materials.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

119

Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source (??13C = -4.5 to -5???, 3He/4He = 4.5 to 6.7 RA) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO2 discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m-2 d-1 at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO2 discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO2 flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30-50 t/d of CO2 are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO2 and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N2/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time.

Sorey, M. L.; Evans, W. C.; Kennedy, B. M.; Farrar, C. D.; Hainsworth, L. J.; Hausback, B.

1998-01-01

120

Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ( ?13C = -4.5 to -5, 3He/ 4He = 4.5 to 6.7 RA) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO2 discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m-2 d-1 at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO2 discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO2 flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30-50 t/d of CO2 are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO2 and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N2/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time.

Sorey, M. L.; Evans, W. C.; Kennedy, B. M.; Farrar, C. D.; Hainsworth, L. J.; Hausback, B.

1998-07-01

121

Are there basic physical constraints on future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Circulation Models (GCMs) provide projections for future climate warming using a wide variety of highly sophisticated\\u000a anthropogenic CO2 emissions scenarios as input, each based on the evolution of four emissions drivers: population p, standard of living g, energy productivity (or efficiency) f and energy carbonization c (IPCC WG III 2007). The range of scenarios considered is extremely broad, however,

Timothy J. Garrett

2011-01-01

122

Carbon Dioxide Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students work in groups, plotting carbon dioxide concentrations over time on overheads and estimating the rate of change over five years. Stacked together, the overheads for the whole class show an increase on carbon dioxide over five years and annual variation driven by photosynthesis. This exercise enables students to practice basic quantitative skills and understand how important sampling intervals can be when studying changes over time. A goal is to see how small sample size may give incomplete picture of data.

Richardson, Randy; Collection, Serc -.

123

Application of the Denitrification-Decomposition Model to Predict Carbon Dioxide Emissions under Alternative Straw Retention Methods  

PubMed Central

Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45?t?C?ha?1?y?1 and 2.13?t?C?ha?1?y?1, respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (Tmean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant.

Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

2013-01-01

124

Application of the denitrification-decomposition model to predict carbon dioxide emissions under alternative straw retention methods.  

PubMed

Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45 t C ha(-1) y(-1) and 2.13 t C ha(-1) y(-1), respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (T mean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant. PMID:24453915

Chen, Can; Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

2013-01-01

125

Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carboncarbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially,

Iwao Omae

2006-01-01

126

Emission of carbon dioxide influenced by different water levels from soil incubated organic residues.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25C for 120 days. Higher CO?-C (265.45?mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120 days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO?-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO?-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO?-C. Maximum CO?-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO?-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO?-C (158.23 mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO?-C (349.91?mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO?-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003?g d?) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon. PMID:24163626

Hossain, M B; Puteh, A B

2013-01-01

127

Carbon dioxide fixation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO(sub 2) conv...

E. Fujita

2000-01-01

128

Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)

Bent, Henry A.

1987-01-01

129

Carbon Dioxide Increases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze the Keeling Curve showing carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere since 1985 to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

130

Carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface in a bilberry-sphagnum pine forest of the Middle Taiga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the carbon dioxide emissions from the surface of a gleyic iron-illuvial sandy peat podzolic soil under a mature bilberry-sphagnum pine forest were studied during the growing seasons of 2008-2010. The maximum rates of the CO2 emission were observed in late July-early August, and the minimum rates were in October. In the hot summer of 2010, an additional maximum was observed in June. A close positive correlation existed between the intensity of the CO2 emission and the soil temperature ( r = 0.71, ? = 0.05), whereas no significant correlation was found between the CO2 emission and the soil water content. The coefficient of multiple correlation between the rate of the CO2 emission and the hydrothermic soil characteristics reached 0.57 (at ? = 0.05). The total CO2 emission from the soil surface during the growing season was estimated at 68-100 g of C m-2.

Osipov, A. F.

2013-05-01

131

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004  

SciTech Connect

Changes in cropland production and management influence energy consumption and emissions of CO2 from fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO2 emissions for cropping practices in the US at the county scale. Energy consumption and emissions occur on-site from the operation of farm machinery and occur off-site from the manufacture and transport of cropland production inputs, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural lime. Estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions for cropping practices enable (a) the monitoring of energy and emissions with changes in land management, and (b) the calculation and balancing of regional and national carbon budgets. Results indicate on-site energy use and total energy use (i.e., the sum of on-site and off-site) on US croplands in 2004 ranged from 1.6-7.9 GJ ha-1 yr-1 and from 5.5-20.5 GJ ha-1 yr-1, respectively. On-site and total CO2 emissions in 2004 ranged from 23-176 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and from 91-365 kg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. During the period of this analysis (1990-2004), national total energy consumption for crop production ranged from 1204-1297 PJ yr-1 (Petajoule = 1 1015 Joule) with associated total fossil CO2 emissions ranging from 22.0-23.2 Tg C yr-1 (Teragram = 1 1012 gram). The annual proportion of on-site CO2 to total CO2 emissions changed depending on the diversity of crops planted. Adoption of reduced tillage practices in the US from 1990 to 2004 resulted in a net emissions reduction of 2.4 Tg C.

West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Nelson, Richard G [ORNL; Hellwinckel, Chad M [ORNL; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G [ORNL

2009-01-01

132

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from cropland production in the United States, 1990-2004.  

PubMed

Changes in cropland production and management influence energy consumption and emissions of CO(2) from fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO(2) emissions for cropping practices in the United States at the county scale. Energy consumption and emissions occur on-site from the operation of farm machinery and occur off-site from the manufacture and transport of cropland production inputs, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural lime. Estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and associated CO(2) emissions for cropping practices enable (i) the monitoring of energy and emissions with changes in land management and (ii) the calculation and balancing of regional and national carbon budgets. Results indicate on-site energy use and total energy use (i.e., the sum of on-site and off-site) on U.S. croplands in 2004 ranged from 1.6 to 7.9 GJ ha(-1) yr(-1) and from 5.5 to 20.5 GJ ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. On-site and total CO(2) emissions in 2004 ranged from 23 to 176 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) and from 91 to 365 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. During the period of this analysis (1990-2004), national total energy consumption for crop production ranged from 1204 to 1297 PJ yr(-1) (Petajoule = 1 x 10(15) Joule) with associated total fossil CO(2) emissions ranging from 21.5 to 23.2 Tg C yr(-1) (Teragram = 1 x 10(12) gram). The annual proportion of on-site CO(2) to total CO(2) emissions changed depending on the diversity of crops planted. Adoption of reduced tillage practices in the United States from 1990 to 2004 resulted in a net fossil emissions reduction of 2.4 Tg C. PMID:19202012

Nelson, Richard G; Hellwinckel, Chad M; Brandt, Craig C; West, Tristram O; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G; Marland, Gregg

2009-01-01

133

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U.S. electric generating facilities account for 8-9 percent of global fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Because estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are recorded at each power-plant point source, U.S. power-plant CO2 emissions may be the most thoroughly monitored globally significant source of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. We examined two datasets for the years 1998-2000: (1) the Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (EIA) dataset of emissions calculated from fuel data contained in the EIA electricity database files, and (2) eGRID (Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database), a publicly available database generated by the Environmental Protection Agency. We compared the eGRID and EIA estimates of CO2 emissions for electricity generation at power plants within the conterminous U.S. at two levels: (1) estimates for individual power-plant emissions, which allowed analysis of differences due to plant listings, calculation methods, and measurement methods; and (2) estimated conterminous U.S. totals for power-plant emissions, which allowed analysis of the aggregated effects of these individual plant differences, and assessment of the aggregated differences in the context of previously published uncertainty estimates. Comparison of data for individual plants, after removing outliers, shows the average difference (absolute value) between eGRID and EIA estimates for individual plants to be approximately 12 percent, relative to the means of the paired estimates. Systematic differences are apparent in the eGRID and EIA reporting of emissions from combined heat and power plants. Additional differences between the eGRID and EIA datasets can be attributed to the fact that most of the emissions from the largest plants are derived from a Continuous Emissions Monitoring (CEM) system in eGRID and are calculated using fuel consumption data in the EIA dataset. This results in a conterminous U.S. total calculated by eGRID that is 3.4 to 5.8 percent (21 to 35 teragrams carbon) larger than that calculated by EIA.

Ackerman, K. V.; Sundquist, E. T.

2006-12-01

134

Relevance of Preindustrial Land Cover Change and Emissions for Attribution of Excess Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until the 1950s, CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC), in particular from deforestation, have been of similar magnitude as or larger than CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning. It has therefore been widely acknowledged that attribution of the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change to countries has to consider not only fossil-fuel emissions, but also emissions from ALCC. Unlike fossil-fuel burning, however, ALCC caused substantial emissions in the preindustrial era: 20-40% of cumulative ALCC emissions until today have occurred before AD 1850. Here, we use simulation results from the comprehensive climate-carbon cycle model ECHAM5-JSBACH/MPIOM-HAMOCC5 and a response function approach to give improved estimates of countries contributions to atmospheric CO2 increase, based on a spatially explicit reconstruction of ALCC that reaches back until AD 800. We find that considering emissions from ALCC in addition to fossil-fuel burning substantially shifts the attribution of the present-day CO2 increase towards tropical regions, consistent with previous studies. So far unrecognized, however, has been the role of the large-scale preindustrial deforestation in India and China. Together, these countries contributed more than 20% to the CO2 increase well into the 20th century. As a consequence, the contribution to atmospheric CO2 increase of Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and North America combined is about 100% in 1850 and 70% today when only fossil-fuel emissions are considered, but only 30% in 1850 and 50% today when ALCC emissions are also considered. Reconstruction of the long history of ALCC allows accounting for legacy effects such as delayed emissions from soils and wood products, and for carbon sinks caused by historical land use activity. We find that the Middle East counteracts the atmospheric CO2 increase throughout the preindustrial era, as agricultural area is abandoned in late medieval and early modern times. As climate change largely depends on the time integral of the atmospheric CO2 concentration, the effect of preindustrial emissions is larger on present-day temperature than on CO2 concentration. On the global scale, about 20% of the present-day ALCC-induced temperature increase (13% of the CO2 increase) results from preindustrial emissions. This is 5% of the present-day total temperature increase (from ALCC and fossil-fuel burning). The importance of preindustrial ALCC for attribution studies is therefore comparable to the importance of non-linearities and carbon flux uncertainties on the global scale. For a correct attribution on both global and regional scale, including emissions, CO2 uptake, and legacy effects of ALCC, the accounting should consider land use activity in preindustrial times.

Pongratz, J.; Caldeira, K.

2010-12-01

135

Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

2010-01-01

136

Carbon dioxide adsorbent study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was initiated on the feasibility of using the alkali metal carbonate - bi-carbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of an EVA life support system. The program successfully demonstrates that carbon dioxide concentrations could be maintained below 0.1 mole per cent using this chemistry. Further a practical method for distributing the carbonates in a coherent sheet form capable of repeated regeneration (50 cycles) at modest temperatures (423 K), without loss in activity was also demonstrated. Sufficiently high reaction rates were shown to be possible with the carbonate - bi-carbonate system such that EVA hardware could be readily designed. Experimental and design data were presented on the basis of which two practical units were designed. In addition to conventional thermally regenerative systems very compact units using ambient temperature cyclic vacuum regeneration may also be feasible. For a one man - 8 hour EVA unit regenerated thermally at the base ship a system volume of 14 liters is estimated.

Onischak, M.; Baker, B. S.

1973-01-01

137

Carbon dioxide emissions under different soil tillage systems in mechanically harvested sugarcane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil tillage and other methods of soil management may influence CO2 emissions because they accelerate the mineralization of organic carbon in the soil. This study aimed to quantify the CO2 emissions under conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and reduced tillage (RT) during the renovation of sugarcane fields in southern Brazil. The experiment was performed on an Oxisol in the sugarcane-planting area with mechanical harvesting. An undisturbed or no-till (NT) plot was left as a control treatment. The CO2 emissions results indicated a significant interaction (p < 0.001) between tillage method and time after tillage. By quantifying the accumulated emissions over the 44 days after soil tillage, we observed that tillage-induced emissions were higher after the CT system than the RT and MT systems, reaching 350.09 g m-2 of CO2 in CT, and 51.7 and 5.5 g m-2 of CO2 in RT and MT respectively. The amount of C lost in the form of CO2 due to soil tillage practices was significant and comparable to the estimated value of potential annual C accumulation resulting from changes in the harvesting system in Brazil from burning of plant residues to the adoption of green cane harvesting. The CO2 emissions in the CT system could respond to a loss of 80% of the potential soil C accumulated over one year as result of the adoption of mechanized sugarcane harvesting. Meanwhile, soil tillage during the renewal of the sugar plantation using RT and MT methods would result in low impact, with losses of 12% and 2% of the C that could potentially be accumulated during a one year period.

Silva-Olaya, A. M.; Cerri, C. E. P.; La Scala, N., Jr.; Dias, C. T. S.; Cerri, C. C.

2013-03-01

138

Emission rate, isotopic composition and origin(s) of magmatic carbon dioxide at Merapi volcano, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Merapi volcano, located on a ~25 thick continental-type arc crust in central Java, is one of the most active arc volcanoes worldwide, where high temperature summit degassing and extrusion of basic andesite lava domes have persisted for several centuries at least. Carbon dioxide is the main anhydrous component of emitted magmatic gases [1,2] and is released at a time-averaged rate of ~500 tons/day from both high-temperature (900-600C) gas venting [3] and soil degassing in the summit area [4]. Its ?13C averages -4.00.2 at the extruding lava dome and at all other degassing sites [1-4], thus evidencing its overall magmatic derivation. However, its ultimate origin is still debated. Merapi lavas indeed contain abundant calc-silicate (skarn-type) xenoliths and Ca-rich xenocrysts [5-7] which demonstrates shallow magma interactions with carbonate sediments present in the basement and renders plausible a crustal contribution to the magmatic CO2 output [1,6,7]. Here I outline a number of geochemical constraints which suggest that such a shallow crustal contribution may be of second order with respect to a deep slab carbon contribution: (i) The CO2/3He ratio of Merapi magmatic gases (5 times higher than the average MORB ratio), combined with the ?13C for MORB-type upper mantle carbon (-7 to -4), implies that the volcanic CO2 contains 80% of non-mantle carbon with maximum ?13C of -3.25. This is much lower than the potential ?13C of metamorphic CO2 generated from local carbonate sediments (-2.2 to +1.4; [1,8]); (ii) The ?13C of Merapi volcanic CO2 has remained remarkably constant over 30 years of standard eruptive activity, implying steady conditions of genesis and transfer from depth to the surface. This discards a permanent influence of likely variable magma-carbonate interactions. Instead, such interactions could well be responsible of one single 'anomalous' transient ?13C value (-2.4) measured just after a nearby tectonic earthquake in 2006 [8]; and (iii) other Javanese volcanoes whose lavas do not contain calc-silicate xenoliths emit CO2 with identical ?13C values of -4. Based on the above observations and on typical arc-type isotopic ratios for water, sulphur and nitrogen in Merapi magmatic gases [2], I rather propose that 80% of CO2 emitted by the volcano ultimately derives from a subducted sediment contribution, in agreement with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data for bulk lavas [9]. The CO2/HCl ratio of Merapi magmatic gases, normalized to the bulk mass fraction of outgassed Cl inferred from analysis of melt inclusions in clinopyroxene and the matrix glasses, points to a maximum CO2 content of ~1 wt% in the undegassed magma [3], 0.8 wt% of which derived from subducted carbon. [1] Allard, 1980, C.R. Acad Sciences Paris; [2] Allard, 1986, Ph.D thesis, Paris 7 Univ.; [3] Allard et al., 1995, and submitted (JVGR, 2012); [4] Toutain et al., Bull. Volcanol. 2009; [5] Clocchiatti et al., 1982, C.R. Acad. Sciences Paris; [6] Chadwick et al., 2007, J. Petrol.; [7] Deegan et al., 2010, J. Petrol.; [8] Troll et al., 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett.; [9] Gertisser and Keller, 2003, J. Petrol..

Allard, P.

2012-12-01

139

Modeling Carbon Dioxide Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will explore levels of Carbon Dioxide ( C02) in the atmosphere over time. There is concern that levels of C02 are rising; and finding a good mathematical model for CO2 levels is an important part of determining if this is attributable to human technology. Students draw a scatter plot, choose two points to create a linear model for the data, then use the model to make predictions.

2009-01-01

140

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (AEO2013) included several alternative cases in which hypothetical carbon dioxide (CO2) emission fees were imposed on fossil fuel consumers on an economy-wide basis. The fees start at $10, $15, and $25 per metric ton of CO2 ...

2013-01-01

141

Developing the aquatic-coupled reservoir model to simulate carbon dioxide emission from a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a process-based biogeochemical reservoir model, called AF-DNDC (Aquatic-coupled Forest-DNDC), to project carbon (C) flux from water surface of a recently created hydro-electric reservoir that flooded a boreal landscape. The basis of the reservoir model is Forest-DNDC, a biogeochemical model for C and nitrogen cycling in forests and wetlands. AF-DNDC was developed by coupling a lake C model to a flooded version of Forest-DNDC. AF-DNDC includes the C cycling through the aquatic carbon pools, such as DIC (dissolved inorganic C), DOC (dissolved organic C), and planktonic community as well as C exchange between air, water, and sediment. AF-DNDC was used to examine the net change in carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between the surface and the atmosphere over the first seven years post flooding of the Eastmain-1 reservoir in northern Quebec. With present day climate and environmental conditions, simulated daily CO2 emissions from the flooded forest averaged 1.69 g C m-2 d-1 (range 0 to 20.49), and from the flooded peatland averaged 0.87 g C m-2 d-1 (range 0 to 6.86). Simulated CO2 emissions decreased with the age of reservoir. They were larger than eddy-covariance measured CO2 fluxes from the water surface over flooded forests, but compared well to the eddy-covariance fluxes during the open-water period. The simulated emissions were significantly correlated with the measured fluxes from the flooded forest (r2 = 0.33; p < 0.01) and flooded peatland (r2 = 0.41; p < 0.01). The patterns over the year were similar. AF-DNDC is suitable for use to assess the major changes in CO2 exchange due to the creation of reservoirs in boreal regions.

Kim, Y.; Roulet, N. T.; Strachan, I. B.; Tremblay, A.

2013-12-01

142

Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

PubMed Central

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

143

Glucosinolate breakdown products as insect fumigants and their effect on carbon dioxide emission of insects  

PubMed Central

Background Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile, therefore good candidates for insect fumigants. However, although they are insecticidal, the mode of action of such natural products is not clear. We studied the insecticidal effect of these compounds as fumigants, and monitored the production of carbon dioxide by the insects as a probe to the understanding of their mode of action. Results The fumigation 24-h LC50 against the house fly (Musca domestica L.) of allyl thiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate, allyl cyanide, and l-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene was 0.1, 0.13, 3.66, and 6.2 ?g cm-3, respectively; they were 0.55, 1.57, 2.8, and > 19.60 ?g cm-3, respectively, against the lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius). The fumigation toxicity of some of the glucosinolate products was very close to or better than that of the commercial insect fumigants such as chloropicrin (LC50: 0.08 and 1.3 ?g cm-3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively) and dichlorovos (LC50: < 0.02 and 0.29 ?g cm-3 against M. domestica and R. dominica, respectively) in our laboratory tests. Significantly increased CO2 expiration was found in insects exposed to the vapor of allyl isothiocyanate, allyl thiocyanate and allyl isocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate was also found to increase the CO2 expiration of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Conclusions Glucosinolate breakdown products have potential as biodegradable and safe insect fumigants. They may act on the insect respiratory system in their mode of action.

Tsao, Rong; Peterson, Chris J; Coats, Joel R

2002-01-01

144

Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

2008-01-01

145

Investigation of carbon dioxide emission in China by primary component analysis.  

PubMed

Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions (COEs) stemming from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing and their affecting factors. Eight affecting factors, namely, Population (P), Urban Population (UP); the Output Values of Primary Industry (PIOV), Secondary Industry (SIOV), and Tertiary Industry (TIOV); and the Proportions of Primary Industry's Output Value (PPIOV), Secondary Industry's Output Value (PSIOV), and Tertiary Industry's Output Value (PTIOV), are chosen. PCA is employed to eliminate the multicollinearity of the affecting factors. Two principal components, which can explain 92.86% of the variance of the eight affecting factors, are chosen as variables in the regression analysis. Ordinary least square regression is used to estimate multiple linear regression models, in which COEs and the principal components serve as dependent and independent variables, respectively. The results are given in the following. (1) Theoretically, the carbon intensities of PIOV, SIOV, and TIOV are 2573.4693, 552.7036, and 606.0791 kt per one billion $, respectively. The incomplete statistical data, the different statistical standards, and the ideology of self sufficiency and peasantry appear to show that the carbon intensity of PIOV is higher than those of SIOV and TIOV in China. (2) PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV influence the fluctuations of COE. The parameters of PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV are -2706946.7564, 2557300.5450, and 3924767.9807 kt, respectively. As the economic structure of China is strongly tied to technology level, the period when PIOV plays the leading position is characterized by lagging technology and economic developing. Thus, the influence of PPIOV has a negative value. As the increase of PSIOV and PTIOV is always followed by technological innovation and economic development, PSIOV and PTIOV have the opposite influence. (3) The carbon intensities of P and UP are 1.1029 and 1.7862 kt per thousand people, respectively. The carbon intensity of the rural population can be inferred to be lower than 1.1029 kt per thousand people. The characteristics of poverty and the use of bio-energy in rural areas result in a carbon intensity of the rural population that is lower than that of P. PMID:24295745

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Liu, Lian; Guo, Hang; Liu, Guo-Dong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Deng, Shi-Huai

2014-02-15

146

Natural perturbations, dryingwetting and freezingthawing cycles, and the emission of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane from farmed organic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of dryingwetting and freezingthawing cycles on the emission of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane from intact soil cores from farmed organic soils at sites in Germany, Sweden and Finland. During the first week following wetting or thawing, cores from the German and Swedish sites produced an up to 1000-fold increase in N2O emission rates. The

A Priem; S Christensen

2001-01-01

147

The Impact of Electric Passenger Transport Technology under an Economy-Wide Climate Policy in the United States: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Coal Use, and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear. A comprehensive analysis must consider jointly the transportation and electricity sectors, along with feedbacks to the rest of the energy system. In this paper, we use the Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys MiniCAM model to perform an integrated economic analysis of the penetration of PHEVs and the resulting impact on total U.S. CO2 emissions.

Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

2010-03-01

148

Decreasing anthropogenic methane emissions in Europe and Siberia inferred from continuous carbon dioxide and methane observations at Alert, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of increase in global atmospheric methane (CH4) abundance has steadily declined since the late 1980s with near zero increase from 1999 through 2006. At the Canadian Baseline Observatory at Alert, Canada (8228'N, 6230'W), continuous measurements of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) have been made since 1987. During winter, both gases are frequently highly correlated during well-defined episodes lasting from 2 to 5 days. We observe a gradual decrease in the ratios of CH4/CO2 during these episodes from 16 ppb CH4 (ppm CO2)-1 to 12 ppb CH4 (ppm of CO2)-1 over the entire record. An atmospheric transport model with prescribed CO2 and CH4 source distributions is used to partition simulated CH4 events into contributions by region. We show that anthropogenic emissions from Europe and Siberia account for more than 85% of the CO2 and CH4 enhancements simulated at Alert, but without a change in CH4 emissions, modeled CH4/CO2 ratios remain constant. To reproduce the observed trend in the ratio of CH4/CO2, the model requires a reduction in emissions of CH4 on the order of 30 Tg (13.6 to 33.4 Tg) in Europe and Siberia over the observational period. This is about twice the drop reported by the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) emissions inventory and large enough to account for the leveling off of the global atmospheric CH4 burden observed over the past 20 years.

Worthy, Douglas E. J.; Chan, Elton; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas; Poss, Christian; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Levin, Ingeborg

2009-05-01

149

Carbon dioxide dynamics in Kelud volcanic lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2007, the extrusion of a new lava dome evaporated Kelud volcanic lake in Java, Indonesia. Four months before a detailed echo sounding survey of the volcanic lake coupled to floating accumulation chamber measurements detected abnormally high carbon dioxide emissions. It constituted the earliest sign of the volcanic unrest; well before any other monitored parameter. CO2 flux is quantified using an empirical equation based on the volume of bubbles backscattered in the water column. Its comparison with the fluxes retrieved from the floating chamber method better constrain carbon dioxide dynamics in the volcanic lake. It reveals that 70% of the carbon dioxide enters the lake in a dissolved form, while the remaining 30% is supplied to the lake on a gaseous state. Almost three-quarter of the ascending bubbles dissolve in the water column leaving the majority of the 330 Tons day-1 of carbon dioxide diffusing at the air-water interface.

Caudron, C.; Mazot, A.; Bernard, A.

2012-05-01

150

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01

151

Are there basic physical constraints on future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Climate Models (GCMs) provide forecasts of future climate warming\\u000ausing a wide variety of highly sophisticated anthropogenic CO2 emissions models\\u000aas input, each based on the evolution of four emissions \\

Timothy J. Garrett

2008-01-01

152

Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions.

A. L. Brenkert; R. J. Andres; G. Marland; I. Fung; E. Matthews

1997-01-01

153

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in cropland production and management influence energy consumption and emissions of CO2 from fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO2 emissions for cropping practices in the US at the county scale. Energy consumption and emissions occur on-site from the operation of farm machinery and occur off-site from the manufacture and transport of

Tristram O. West; Craig C Brandt; Gregg Marland; Richard G Nelson; Chad M Hellwinckel; Daniel G De La Torre Ugarte

2009-01-01

154

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide on Carbonic Anhydrase Containing Substrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme catalyzing carbon dioxide hydration, was evaluated for its enhancement of carbon dioxide removal when it is present in granular materials with high water content during exposure to carbon dioxide in an aerating stream. A...

J. P. Allen

1968-01-01

155

Impact of human activities on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions: a statistical analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study aims at identifying significant or influential human activities (i.e. factors) on CO{sub 2} emissions using statistical analyses. The study was conducted for two cases: (i) developed countries and (ii) developing countries. In developed countries, this study identified three influential human activities for CO{sub 2} emissions: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) population pressure on natural and terrestrial ecosystems, and (iii) land use change. In developing countries, the significant human activities causing an upsurge of CO{sub 2} emissions are: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) terrestrial ecosystem strength and (iii) land use change. Among these factors, combustion of fossil fuels is the most influential human activity for CO{sub 2} emissions both in developed and developing countries. Regression analysis based on the factor scores indicated that combustion of fossil fuels has significant positive influence on CO{sub 2} emissions in both developed and developing countries. Terrestrial ecosystem strength has a significant negative influence on CO{sub 2} emissions. Land use change and CO{sub 2} emissions are positively related, although regression analysis showed that the influence of land use change on CO{sub 2} emissions was still insignificant. It is anticipated, from the findings of this study, that CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by reducing fossil-fuel consumption and switching to alternative energy sources, preserving exiting forests, planting trees on abandoned and degraded forest lands, or by planting trees by social/agroforestry on agricultural lands.

Abdus Salam; Toshikuni Noguchi [Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Department of Statistics

2005-03-15

156

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. electric generating facilities account for 8-9 percent of global fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Because estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are recorded at each power-plant point source, U.S. power-plant CO2 emissions may be the most thoroughly monitored globally significant source of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. We examined two datasets for the years 1998-2000: (1) the Department of Energy\\/Energy Information Administration

K. V. Ackerman; E. T. Sundquist

2006-01-01

157

Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

158

Sampling Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, student teams hypothesize which source has a greater becomes CO² concentration: their breath, auto exhaust, or air in the classroom. They test gas samples from each of these sources, plot data, and hypothesize about the respective role engine exhaust and animal respiration play in contemporary climate change. The lab procedures require Bromthymol Blue indicator solution (BTB), household ammonia, vinegar, and balloons. Links to videos supporting the investigations are provided. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "How is Carbon Dioxide Measured?," part of the unit, Climate Change, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

159

Carbon dioxide emissions from diesel and compressed natural gas buses during acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle emission factors are generally derived from driving tests mimicking steady state conditions or transient drive cycles. Neither of these test conditions, however, completely represents real world driving conditions. In particular, they fail to determine emissions generated during the accelerating phase a condition in which urban buses spend much of their time. We analyse and compare the results

E. R. Jayaratne; Z. D. Ristovski; L. Morawska; N. K. Meyer

2010-01-01

160

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13

161

Methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide emissions from septic tank systems.  

PubMed

Emissions of CH4, CO2, and N2O from conventional septic tank systems are known to occur, but there is a dearth of information as to the extent. Mass emission rates of CH4, CO2, and N2O, as measured with a modified flux chamber approach in eight septic tank systems, were determined to be 11, 33.3, and 0.005 g capita(-1) day(-1), respectively, in this research. Existing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission models based on BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) loading have estimated methane emissions to be as high as 27.1 g CH4 capita(-1) day(-1), more than twice the value measured in our study, and concluded that septic tanks are potentially significant sources of GHGs due to the large number of systems currently in use. Based on the measured CH4 emission value, a revised CH4 conversion factor of 0.22 (compared to 0.5) for use in the emissions models is suggested. Emission rates of CH4, CO2, and N2O were also determined from measurements of gas concentrations and flow rates in the septic vent system and were found to be 10.7, 335, and 0.2 g capita(-1)day(-1), respectively. The excellent agreement in the CH4 emission rates between the flux chamber and the vent values indicates the dominant CH4 source is the septic tank. PMID:21381675

Diaz-Valbuena, Libia R; Leverenz, Harold L; Cappa, Christopher D; Tchobanoglous, George; Horwath, William R; Darby, Jeannie L

2011-04-01

162

Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success

Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

1993-01-01

163

Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of fossil-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO{sub 2} emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Katherine V. Ackerman; Eric T. Sundquist [U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States)

2008-08-15

164

Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets.  

PubMed

Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions. PMID:18754494

Ackerman, Katherine V; Sundquist, Eric T

2008-08-01

165

Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

Ackerman, K. V.; Sundquist, E. T.

2008-01-01

166

Hiilidioksiditoimikunnan mietintoe. (Report of the carbon dioxide commission).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commission was entrusted with investigating alternative strategies and measures for limiting and reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. It was to study both technical and structural means of reducing these emissions. The ...

J. Routti

1991-01-01

167

The impact of future carbon dioxide emission reduction targets on U.S. electric sector water use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. electric sector's reliance on water makes it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on water resources. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumption in the U.S. electric sector through 2055. We use simulations of the EPA's U.S. 9-region (EPAUS9r) MARKAL least-cost optimization energy systems model with updated water use factors for electricity generating technologies. Model results suggest CO2 constraints could force the retirement of old power plants and drive increased use of low water-use renewable and nuclear power as well as natural gas CCS plants with more advanced cooling systems. These changes in electric sector technology mix reduce water withdrawal in all scenarios but increase water consumption in aggressive scenarios. Decreased electric sector water withdrawal would likely reduce electric sector vulnerability to climate change, but the rise in consumption could increase competition with other users.

Cameron, Colin MacKay

168

Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC): Methane  

DOE Data Explorer

(Scroll down to find Methane, a subheading under the broader heading of Trace Gas Emissions) CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to methane and other trace gas emissions includes: Methane Emissions (Trends Online) Annual Estimates of Global Anthropogenic Methane Emissions: 1860-1994, (1998) (Trends Online) Global and Latitudinal Estimates of ? 13C from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture (1996) (Specialized Interface)

169

A preliminary survey of household and personal carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model specifically designed for Ireland was used to measure CO2e emissions (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from Irish households for the first time. A total of 103 Irish households with occupancy rates varying between 1 and 6 (mean 2.9) were surveyed. The average annual household emission was found to be 16.55t CO2e y?1, which is equivalent to an average personal

Tricia Kenny; N. F. Gray

2009-01-01

170

Global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from soils on a 0.5-degree-grid-cell basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semimechanistic, empirically based statistical models were used to predict the spatial (0.5-degree grid cells) and temporal (monthly and annual) patterns of global carbon emissions form terrestrial soils. Emissions include the respiration of both soil organisms and plant roots. Geographically referenced data of mean monthly air temperature and precipitation, soil organic carbon and nitrogen content, soil type and natural vegetation type

J. W. Raich; C. S. Potter

1996-01-01

171

Development of a US Carbon Dioxide Emission Inventory with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power generation and transportation are responsible for about 40 percent and 33 percent, respectively, of the CO2 generated from US fossil fuel combustion. We are developing a US CO2 emission inventory of the power generation and on-road motor vehicle sectors that incorporates the high spatial and temporal resolution available in a variety of data sets. CO2 emission data with up to hourly resolution are measured by continuous emission monitors installed at most US power generation facilities. CO2 emissions from on-road motor vehicles are determined from annual Federal Highway Administration statistics on gasoline and diesel sales in every US state. These statewide data are spatially allocated to 4-km resolution using the EPA's National Emission Inventory estimates of NOx and CO emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel combustion. The inventory incorporating these highly resolved components is compared with other available bottom-up estimates of CO2 sources for the US. Comparisons are also made between this inventory and atmospheric measurements from air quality field studies during the past decade.

Frost, G. J.; Petron, G.; McKeen, S.; Capps, S.; Trainer, M.

2006-12-01

172

Using DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery to estimate carbon dioxide emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study highlighted a method for estimating CO2 emission from electric power plants using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) stable light image product for 1999. CO2 emissions from power plants account for a high percentage of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumptions. Thermal power plants generate the electricity by burning fossil fuels, so they emit CO2 directly. In many Asian countries such as China, Japan, India, and South Korea, the amounts of electric power generated by thermal power accounts over 58% in the total amount of electric power in 1999. So far, figures of the CO2 emission were obtained mainly by traditional statistical methods. Moreover, the statistical data were summarized as administrative regions, so it is difficult to examine the spatial distribution of non-administrative division. In some countries the reliability of such CO2 emission data is relatively low. However, satellite remote sensing can observe the earth surface without limitation of administrative regions. Thus, it is important to estimate CO2 using satellite remote sensing. In this study, we estimated the CO2 emission by fossil fuel consumption from electric power plant using stable light image of the DMSP/OLS satellite data for 1999 after correction for saturation effect in Japan. Digital number (DN) values of the stable light images in center areas of cities are saturated due to the large nighttime light intensities and characteristics of the OLS satellite sensors. To more accurately estimate the CO2 emission using the stable light images, a saturation correction method was developed by using the DMSP radiance calibration image, which does not include any saturation pixels. A regression equation was developed by the relationship between DN values of non-saturated pixels in the stable light image and those in the radiance calibration image. And, regression equation was used to adjust the DNs of the radiance calibration image. Then, saturated DNs of the stable light image was corrected using adjusted radiance calibration image. After that, regression analysis was performed with cumulative DNs of the corrected stable light image, electric power consumption, electric power generation and CO2 emission by fossil fuel consumption from electric power plant each other. Results indicated that there are good relationships (R2>90%) between DNs of the corrected stable light image and other parameters. Based on the above results, we estimated the CO2 emission from electric power plant using corrected stable light image. Keywords: DMSP/OLS, stable light, saturation light correction method, regression analysis Acknowledgment: The research was financially supported by the Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from the Japan Science Society.

Desheng, B.; Letu, H.; Bao, Y.; Naizhuo, Z.; Hara, M.; Nishio, F.

2012-12-01

173

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California and Disaggregated Estimate of Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide for California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropoganic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted fo...

2008-01-01

174

Use of videoconferencing in Wales to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, travel costs and time.  

PubMed

In September 2005 a telemedicine service was started to assist multidisciplinary teams in Wales to improve cancer services. In October 2006 and October 2007 users of videoconferencing equipment at one site completed questionnaires. During October 2006 a total of 18,000 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 1696 kg of CO(2) emission. During October 2007 a total of 20,800 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 2590 kg of CO(2) emission. We estimate that 48 trees would take a year to absorb that quantity of CO(2). The results of the surveys show that exploiting telemedicine makes better use of staff time, reduces the time spent travelling and assists in reducing climate change by limiting the emissions of CO(2). PMID:19364897

Lewis, Delyth; Tranter, Glynis; Axford, Alan T

2009-01-01

175

Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The  

EIA Publications

This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

Information Center

2008-09-12

176

Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A likelihood of disastrous global environmental consequences has been surmised as a result of projected increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. These estimates are based on computer climate modeling, a branch of science still in its infancy despite recent substantial strides in knowledge. Because the expected anthropogenic climate forcings are relatively small compared to other background and forcing factors (internal

Willie Soon; Sallie Baliunas; Sherwood B. Idso; KY Kondratyev; Eric S. Posmentier

2001-01-01

177

Magmatic Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Mammoth Mountain, California -- A Decreasing Trend From 1996 to 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammoth Mountain is a Pleistocene volcano along the crest of the central Sierra Nevada Range and comprises about 20 domes of dacitic to rhyolitic composition extruded between about 110 and 57 ka. The most recent volcanic activity consisted of a few small phreatic eruptions on the north flank of the mountain about 700 yrs ago. Magmatic CO2 emissions from soils on Mammoth Mountain were first detected and measured in 1994 but later, based are 14C in tree rings, were shown to have begun in 1990. The CO2 is released during decompression and cooling of small magma bodies that intrude the crust beneath the mountain. The magmatic gas is thought to have collected in a sealed-, natural-reservoir, 1-4 km deep, which was breached by crustal deformation during an episode of seismic unrest in 1989. Recent measurements of the diffuse emission of magmatic CO2 at Mammoth Mountain show that the total output of CO2 decreased by 80% between 1996 and 2006. CO2 discharged from steam vents in fumarolic areas is minor and was not quantified. Estimates of the total mass of CO2 emitted from soils have been made based on kriging of ground-based, closed-chamber CO2 flux measurements. In five areas where measurements were made in 1996 and 2006, the rate of CO2 emission decreased by 58 to 85% in the individual areas. In the same period the total output of CO2 from the five areas decreased from 495 to 100 tonnes per day. The decrease in CO2 emission is consistent with the depletion of gas stored in a reservoir that filled over a period much longer than the 18 years since the reservoir seal was breached in 1989. Measurements of magmatic gas emissions at volcanoes such as Mammoth Mountain may not always provide reasonable estimates of the volumes of recent shallow degassing intrusions because the source of these emissions may be accumulated gas from older intrusions. Preliminary estimates from data being collected in 2007 indicate that the trend of declining CO2 emissions continues.

Farrar, C. D.; Bergfeld, D.

2007-12-01

178

Atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide from different nitrogen fertilizers.  

PubMed

Alternative N fertilizers that produce low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soil are needed to reduce the impacts of agricultural practices on global warming potential (GWP). We quantified and compared growing season fluxes of NO, CH, and CO resulting from applications of different N fertilizer sources, urea (U), urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN), ammonium nitrate (NHNO), poultry litter, and commercially available, enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers as follows: polymer-coated urea (ESN), SuperU, UAN + AgrotainPlus, and poultry litter + AgrotainPlus in a no-till corn ( L.) production system. Greenhouse gas fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers. The ESN delayed the NO flux peak by 3 to 4 wk compared with other N sources. No significant differences were observed in NO emissions among the enhanced-efficiency and traditional inorganic N sources, except for ESN in 2009. Cumulative growing season NO emission from poultry litter was significantly greater than from inorganic N sources. The NO loss (2-yr average) as a percentage of N applied ranged from 0.69% for SuperU to 4.5% for poultry litter. The CH-C and CO-C emissions were impacted by environmental factors, such as temperature and moisture, more than the N source. There was no significant difference in corn yield among all N sources in both years. Site specifics and climate conditions may be responsible for the differences among the results of this study and some of the previously published studies. Our results demonstrate that N fertilizer source and climate conditions need consideration when selecting N sources to reduce GHG emissions. PMID:22031562

Sistani, K R; Jn-Baptiste, M; Lovanh, N; Cook, K L

2011-01-01

179

Emissions of non-methane organic compounds and carbon dioxide from forest floor cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest floor emissions of CO[sub 2] and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMOCs) were measured to determine their contribution to C losses from forests. Forest floor cores 19 cm in diameter and approximately 10 cm deep were obtained from beneath loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L), oak-maple (Quercus-Acer), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L) trees on the Walker Branch Watershed, Oak Ridge, TN.

P. J. Hanson; W. A. Hoffman

2009-01-01

180

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions and nitrogen turnover during liquid manure storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal slurry stored in-house and outside is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4). The CH4 source strength of stored slurry is greatly affected by temperature. To improve emission calculations on a global scale there\\u000a is a need for knowledge about the relationship between production of CH4 in slurry and temperature. In this study, the filling of slurry channels was

Sven G. Sommer; Sren O. Petersen; Peter Srensen; Hanne D. Poulsen; Henrik B. Mller

2007-01-01

181

Net energy payback and carbon dioxide emissions from helium-3 fusion and wind electrical power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A net energy analysis and life cycle CO2 emission analysis is performed on a D3He- fusion power plant using lunar helium-3 and five other electricity-generating power plant technologies, including a wind, conventional coal, PWR and two DT- fusion tokamak (UWMAK-I and ARIES-RS) power plants. The energy payback ratio is the amount of electrical energy produced over the lifetime of the

Scott William White

1998-01-01

182

Non-native plant litter enhances soil carbon dioxide emissions in an invaded annual grassland.  

PubMed

Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k?=?0.20 month(-1)) compared to in isolation (k?=?0.10 month(-1)). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration even at intermediate stages of invasion in these annual grasslands. PMID:24647312

Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; Siemann, Evan

2014-01-01

183

Carbon Dioxide and Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demonstrates the affect of increased dissolved carbon dioxide on water pH using a cheap, non-toxic acid/base indicator. Students bubble breath through a straw into red cabbage juice and note the color change.

Lewis, Chris

184

NASA Satellite Sees Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a map of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from satellite data. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

185

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Kill Zones Around the Resurgent Dome, Long Valley Caldera, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An episode of seismic unrest beneath the resurgent dome at Long Valley caldera (LVC) in eastern California began in 1980 and is associated with approximately 80 cm of cumulative uplift on parts of the dome since that time. Studies of hydrologic and geochemical parameters can be useful in determining the source of uplift; and of particular relevance here, studies of diffuse soil degassing and temperature have been used to examine relations between gas emissions, uplift, and energy release. We present results from an eighteen-month investigation of soil temperature, soil-gas chemistry and CO2 efflux from fourteen discrete areas of vegetation kill that have appeared inside the caldera over the past two decades. Compared with the tree-kill around Mammoth Mountain on the southwest rim of the caldera, dead zones we studied around the resurgent dome are small. Individually the areas cover between 800 and 36,000 m2. All of the areas have some sites with elevated CO2 flux and elevated soil temperature. \\delta 13C values of CO2 from sites in eight of the studied areas are between -5.7 and -3.9\\permil, and are within the range of magmatic CO2. Results from the flux measurements indicate that on average total CO2 emissions from four of the areas sum about 10 tonnes per day. The other vegetation kill areas currently have only a few sites that exhibit anomalous soil temperatures and CO2 flux, and CO2 emissions from these areas are typically less than 0.3 of a tonne per day. The chemical composition of gas emissions from thermal ground in kill zones located 1.5 to 2 km northwest of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant demonstrate a connection between some of the dead areas and perturbations related to geothermal fluid production. These results and estimates of thermal output from two of the high flux grids are used to evaluate the premise that the gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to magmatic intrusion beneath the resurgent dome.

Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W. C.; Farrar, C. D.; Howle, J. F.

2004-12-01

186

Tunable pulsed carbon dioxide laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transverse electrically-excited-atmosphere (TEA) laser is continuously tunable over several hundred megahertz about centers of spectral lines of carbon dioxide. It is operated in single longitudinal mode (SLM) by injection of beam from continuous-wave, tunable-waveguide carbon dioxide laser, which serves as master frequency-control oscillator. Device measures absorption line of ozone; with adjustments, it is applicable to monitoring of atmospheric trace species.

Megie, G. J.; Menzies, R. T.

1981-01-01

187

Methanation of carbon dioxide: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although being very challenging, utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) originating from production processes and flue gases of CO2-intensive sectors has a great environmental and industrial potential due to improving the resource efficiency of industry\\u000a as well as by contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions. As a renewable and environmentally friendly source of carbon, catalytic approaches for CO2 fixation in

Wang Wei; Gong Jinlong

2011-01-01

188

Carbon dioxide emission and heat release estimation for Pantelleria Island (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed surveys of diffuse CO2 flux, soil temperature, thermal gradients, and sampling of high-T fumaroles were carried out in the Favare area and Lake Specchio di Venere on Pantelleria Island. Spatial patterns of diffuse CO2 emissions in the Favare area reflect structural discontinuities (faults, fractures or cracks in the soil) associated with the volcano-tectonic structures of the young Monastero Caldera (NNESSW to NESW trending). The estimated diffuse CO2 output from two adjacent sites in the Favare area (~ 93,000 m2) is 7.8 t d? 1 (equivalent to 2.62 kt a? 1), whereas that from the west shore of the lake (450 m2) is 0.041 t d? 1 (or 0.015 kt a? 1). The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across the entire altered area of Favare suggests that CO2 emissions are ~ 19.3 t d? 1. The diffuse CO2 flux correlates with shallow soil temperatures, indicating a similar source for both the heat and volatiles from the underlying geothermal reservoir. Gas equilibria applied to fumarolic effluents define PT conditions for this reservoir at 26 bar and 120160 C, in good agreement with measurements from exploratory wells in these areas (e.g., 135 C at a depth of 290 m). Using the CO2 flux as a tracer for steam output, and consequently for heat flow, the calculated thermal energy for the shallow reservoir is 1012 MW; this represents the minimum geothermal potential of the reservoir on Pantelleria island.

Granieri, Domenico; Chiodini, Giovanni; Avino, Rosario; Caliro, Stefano

2014-04-01

189

Societal Consequences of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Impacts to Well Being of Reduced Fossil Fuel Dependence.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of global warming raises important questions about ways human activities are altering the biophysical environment. The burning of fossil fuels by modern societies is a principal contributor to greenhouse gases implicated in climate change. Furthermore, there is growing concern about how global environmental changes anticipated due to global warming may impact the long-term sustainability of all societies. The threat of global warming challenges scientists and policy makers to further our understanding of relationships among fossil fuel consumption and CO_2, emissions on the one hand, and economic and social well-being on the other. This challenge is especially germane to the industrialized countries, for they are the largest consumers of fossil fuels. This study comprises a multiwave panel design focused on the period 1950-1985 for twenty-three highly industrialized nations. A trend analysis showed that CO _2 emissions diverged along three separate patterns after 1970, grouping countries into one of the three patterns, while measures of societal well -being continued on their historical trajectories. Numerous comparisons made via a path analysis showed that the amount of fossil fuel consumed had a continued positive impact on economic well-being. At the same time overall fossil fuel consumption had a declining and sometimes negligible direct effect on various dimensions of social well-being over the time period. On the general welfare and modern life-style dimensions, the positive impact of economic well-being overshadowed the impact of fossil fuel consumption. Both fossil fuel consumption and economic well-being had a declining negative influence on health and safety and an insignificant effect on life stress. The structure of energy use, reflected in gross land mass, appeared to have an important influence on fossil fuel consumption, with greater geographical dispersion leading to greater fossil fuel consumption. However while the structure of energy use appeared to have an important impact on economic well-being and modern life-style, it had a negligible impact on general welfare, health and safety and life stress.

Krebill-Prather, Rose Louise

190

Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emission and Stock of Domestic Wood Resources using Material Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lifecycle greenhouse gas emission and carbon stock of domestic wood resources and products were evaluated using material flow\\u000a analysis and life cycle assessment. Carbon storage and material substitution effect was analysed for a single residential\\u000a wooden house substituting typical concrete house. The embodied greenhouse gas emission of wooden type was lower than that\\u000a of concrete type by 54.3t CO2e. Furthermore,

Junhee Cha; Youn Yeo-Chang; Jong-Hak Lee

191

Measuring and Modeling the Emission of Carbon Dioxide from a Natural Analogue of a Leaking Underground Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystal Geyser in eastern Utah is a rare, non-geothermal, cold geyser that emits carbon dioxide gas in periodic and spectacular eruptions. This geyser is the largest single source of CO2 originating from a deep reservoir. For that reason, Crystal Geyser represents the extreme example of CO2 leakage from a well. We conducted two studies of this geyser: estimated the mass of CO2 emitted per minute of eruption, and recorded a long series of eruptions to discover the regularity of eruptions. During our first study, we collected air samples downwind of three separate eruptions and analyzed the air for excess CO2. The time-integrated mass of CO2 in air along a crosswind arc was fitted to a normal curve. We used a simple Gaussian dispersion model to produce estimates of the mass of CO2 emitted during the eruption. The emission rate was between 2.6 and 5.8 kg/s during the eruptions, and about 0.17 kg/s during the active pre-eruptive events. For our second field expedition to Crystal Geyser, we deployed sensors that monitored the timing of eruptions. Using the data from this unattended system, we created a contiguous 76-day record that featured 140 eruptions. The distributions of eruption duration and time between eruptions are strikingly bimodal. About two thirds of the eruptions were short (7-32 min), and one third were long (98-113 minutes). The complete record shows 7733 minutes of eruption, averaging just over 100 minutes of eruption per day. We are also able to predict the time and duration of the next eruption, a feat the local experts thought impossible. Using the information collected on these two field studies, we estimate the total annual emission of CO2 from Crystal Geyser to be 11 gigagrams (11,000 tonne). Several other CO2 vents are within a few miles of Crystal Geyser. These vents are much smaller than Crystal Geyser, and emit gas though natural fissures in the cap rock. Previous studies have shown the area around Green River, Utah is unique in that several different examples of leaks from natural CO2 reservoirs of can be found. This suite of CO2 leaks to the subsurface and free air would be a convenient place to challenge surface monitoring systems.

Friedmann, S. J.; Gouveia, F. J.

2006-12-01

192

Carbon Dioxide - Our Common "Enemy"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health effects of brief and prolonged exposure to carbon dioxide continue to be a concern for those of us who manage this pollutant in closed volumes, such as in spacecraft and submarines. In both examples, considerable resources are required to scrub the atmosphere to levels that are considered totally safe for maintenance of crew health and performance. Defining safe levels is not a simple task because of many confounding factors, including: lack of a robust database on human exposures, suspected significant variations in individual susceptibility, variations in the endpoints used to assess potentially adverse effects, the added effects of stress, and the fluid shifts associated with micro-gravity (astronauts only). In 2007 the National Research Council proposed revised Continuous Exposure Guidelines (CEGLs) and Emergency Exposure Guidelines (EEGLs) to the U.S. Navy. Similarly, in 2008 the NASA Toxicology Group, in cooperation with another subcommittee of the National Research Council, revised Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). In addition, a 1000-day exposure limit was set for long-duration spaceflights to celestial bodies. Herein we examine the rationale for the levels proposed to the U.S. Navy and compare this rationale with the one used by NASA to set its limits. We include a critical review of previous studies on the effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and attempt to dissect out the challenges associated with setting fully-defensible limits. We also describe recent experiences with management of carbon dioxide aboard the International Space Station with 13 persons aboard. This includes the tandem operations of the Russian Vozduk and the U.S. Carbon Dioxide Removal System. A third removal system is present while the station is docked to the Shuttle spacecraft, so our experience includes the lithium hydroxide system aboard Shuttle for the removal of carbon dioxide. We discuss strategies for highly-efficient, regenerable removal of carbon dioxide that could meet the 1000-day SMAC of 0.5%, which would apply to long-duration voyages to Mars.

James, John T.; Macatangay, Ariel

2009-01-01

193

State-By-State Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Use in the United States 19602000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time series of fossil fuel carbon emissions from 19602000 for each of the U.S. states and the District of Columbia are presented and discussed. Comparison of the nationally summarized results with other national datasets shows generally good agreement, usually within 2%, and gives insight into the quality of all the data series. Our extension of the state-by-state emissions estimates back

T. J. Blasing; Christine Broniak; Gregg Marland

2005-01-01

194

Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

195

Hydrocarbon Displacement by Carbon Dioxide Dispersions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is investigating methods to control the mobility of carbon dioxide for use in gas miscible displacements of hydrocarbons that are found in petroleum reservoirs. Carbon dioxide ...

J. R. Duda

1986-01-01

196

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOEpatents

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20

197

Carbon dioxide transport over complex terrain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nocturnal transport of carbon dioxide over complex terrain was investigated. The high carbon dioxide under very stable conditions flows to local low-ground. The regional drainage flow dominates the carbon dioxide transport at the 6 m above the ground and carbon dioxide was transported to the regional low ground. The results show that the local drainage flow was sensitive to turbulent mixing associated with local wind shear.

Sun, J.; Burns, S. P.; Delany, A. C.; Oncley, S. P.; Turnipseed, A.; Stephens, B.; Guenther, A.; Anderson, D. E.; Monson, R.

2004-01-01

198

Space-time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to improve understanding of carbon cycling in the Buor-Khaya Bay (BKB) and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea by studying the inter-annual, seasonal, and meso-scale variability of carbon and related hydrological and biogeochemical parameters in the water, as well as factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Here we present data sets obtained on summer cruises and winter expeditions during 12 yr of investigation. Based on data analysis, we suggest that in the heterotrophic BKB area, input of terrestrially borne organic carbon (OC) varies seasonally and inter-annually and is largely determined by rates of coastal erosion and river discharge. Two different BKB sedimentation regimes were revealed: Type 1 (erosion accumulation) and Type 2 (accumulation). A Type 1 sedimentation regime occurs more often and is believed to be the quantitatively most important mechanism for suspended particular matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery to the BKB. The mean SPM concentration observed in the BKB under a Type 1 regime was one order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration of SPM (~ 20 mg L-1) observed along the Lena River stream in summer 2003. Loadings of the BKB water column with particulate material vary by more than a factor of two between the two regimes. Higher partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), higher concentrations of nutrients, and lower levels of oxygen saturation were observed in the bottom water near the eroded coasts, implying that coastal erosion and subsequent oxidation of eroded organic matter (OM) rather than the Lena River serves as the predominant source of nutrients to the BKB. Atmospheric CO2 fluxes from the sea surface in the BKB vary from 1 to 95 mmol m-2 day-1 and are determined by specific features of hydrology and wind conditions, which change spatially, seasonally, and inter-annually. Mean values of CO2 emission from the shallow Laptev Sea were similar in September 1999 and 2005 (7.2 and 7.8 mmol m-2 day-1, respectively), while the CO2 efflux can be one order lower after a strong storm such as in September 2011. Atmospheric CO2 emissions from a thawed coastal ice complex in the BKB area varied from 9 to 439 mmol m-2 day-1, with the mean value ranged from 75.7 to 101 mmol m-2 day-1 in two years (September 2006 and 2009), suggesting that at the time of observations the eroded coastal area served as a more significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere than the tundra (mean value: 22.7 mmol m-2 day-1) on the neighboring Primorsky coastal plain (September 2006). The observed increase in the Lena River discharge since the 1990s suggests that increased levels of "satellite-derived" annual primary production could be explained by an increasing load of humic acids delivered to shelf water; in this water the color resulting from the presence of CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) mimics the color resulting from the presence of Chl a when seen from space. Because the BKB area can be employed as an integrator of ongoing changes in the surrounding environment, we suggest that under ongoing changes, more nutrients, products of eroded OC transformation and river transport, will be delivered to the Arctic Ocean with its shrinking ice cover, potentially increasing primary production outside of the shallow East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). At the same time, because the ESAS is characterized by very low transparency which limits euphotic layer thickness, excessive pCO2 will not be utilized by photosynthesis but will rather be emitted to the atmosphere at increasing rates, affecting regional CO2 balance.

Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

2013-09-01

199

A compilation of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emission-rate data from Cook Inlet volcanoes (Redoubt, Spurr, Iliamna, and Augustine), Alaska during the period from 1990 to 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sampling of the Cook Inlet volcanoes (Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) began in 1986 when several measurements were carried out at Augustine volcano during the eruption of 1986 (Rose and others, 1988). More systematic monitoring for SO2 began in March 1990 and for carbon dioxide (CO2) began in June, 1990 at Redoubt Volcano (Brantley, 1990 and Casadevall and others, 1994) and continues to the present. This report contains all of the available daily SO2 and CO2 emission rates determined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 1990 through July 1994. Intermittent measurements (four to six month intervals) at Augustine and Iliamna began in 1990 and continues to the present. Intermittent measurements began at Mt. Spurr volcano in 1991, and were continued at more regular intervals from June, 1992 through the 1992 eruption at the Crater Peak vent to the present.

Doukas, Michael P.

1995-01-01

200

Carbon Dioxide - Sources and Sinks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, students use a chemical indicator (bromothymol blue) to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in animal and plant respiration and in the burning of fossil fuels and its absence in the products of plant photosynthesis. After completing the five parts of this activity, students compare the colors of the chemical indicator in each part and interpret the results in terms of the qualitative importance of carbon sinks and sources.

Universe, Windows T.

201

RECARBONATION AND LIQUID CARBON DIOXIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

After water has been lime-softened, it is frequently caustic; pH reduction is usually achieved by adding carbon dioxide to the watera process called recarbonation. Here is a history of recarbonation, with up-to-date information for modern installations.

Paul D. Haney; Carl L. Hamann

1969-01-01

202

How a new uncertainty estimate of global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption affects our understanding of the source/sink nature of the terrestrial biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new evaluation of the uncertainty associated with the global total of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production is based on approaching the emissions estimates from a different perspective than the approach used by Marland and Rotty (1984, Tellus 36B: 232-261). This new evaluation is based on quantifying the qualitative national error classes shown in Andres et al. (1996, GBC 10:419-429) and assuming that the energy data for each nation are independent of each other nation's data. Global total emissions for the years 1950 to 2011 are calculated from the sum of emissions from individual nations plus an additional term which accounts for emissions not included in national totals (e.g., bunker fuels, Andres et al., 2012, Biogeosci. 9:1845-1871). The uncertainty on this global total is then calculated from square root(?((emissions*uncertainty)^2)) where the summation is done over all nations. The result of this calculation is the uncertainty expressed in terms of mass in a given year. Calculations are now underway for the 1950-2011 time series. Based on previous calculations, for the years 1950 to 2010, the 2 ? uncertainty on global fossil fuel emissions was 2.6 to 4.8% (41 Tg C in 1950 and 415 Tg C in 2010, respectively). To examine one implication of this new uncertainty estimate, it is propagated into the rest of the global carbon cycle via a five-component box model. For simplicity, this uncertainty is accommodated entirely within the terrestrial biosphere. We conclude that for most years since 1950, the propagated uncertainty results in a terrestrial biosphere that may have acted as either a source or sink of carbon.

Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.

2012-12-01

203

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01

204

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01

205

Carbon dioxide capture at the molecular level.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide is recognized as a typical greenhouse gas and drastic reduction of CO2 emissions from industrial process is becoming more and more important in relation to global warming. In fact, the reaction between monoethanolamine (MEA) and CO2 in aqueous solution has been widely used for the removal from flue gases. In this study, the role of the interplay between solvent water and nitrogen (MEA)-carbon (CO2) bond formation is discussed based on the molecular theory using RISM-SCF-SEDD, which is the hybrid method of quantum chemistry of solute and statistical mechanics of solvent. PMID:19774287

Iida, Kenji; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Atsushi; Sato, Hirofumi; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

2009-10-14

206

CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.  

SciTech Connect

This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

2000-12-09

207

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into FischerTropsch synthesis of liquid fuels from coal to minimize carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis gas (syngas) produced from coal typically has hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios in the range of approximately 0.71.1, depending on the gasification method. In order to produce liquid fuels from this syngas by FischerTropsch synthesis (FTS), these ratios must be raised to 2.0 or higher. If this is accomplished by the watergas shift reaction, the traditional method, large emissions

Gerald P. Huffman

2011-01-01

208

Historical changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in the eutrophied Southern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities after the Second World War have severely increased river nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] loads to European coastal areas. The resulting N: P: Si imbalance (compared to phytoplankton requirements) stimulated in the Southern North Sea the growth of Phaeocystis colonies modifying the functioning of the ecosystem and, therefore, the carbon but also the biogenic sulphur cycles. Phaeocystis is a significant producer of DMSP (dimethylsulphide propionate), the precursor of DMS. When emitted to the atmosphere the DMS has a cooling effect on the climate contrarily to the CO2 greenhouse gas. Since the late 1990's specific nutrient reduction policies have however considerably reduced P loads while N is maintained. In this application we explore, with a mathematical tool, the effects of changing N and P loads on air-sea CO2 exchanges and DMS marine emissions. The chosen model is the MIRO-CO2-DMS, a complex biogeochemical model describing carbon, biogenic sulphur and nutrient cycles in the marine domain. Model simulations are performed for the contemporary period since 1950, using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER model simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Results are discussing the importance of human activities and river inputs of carbon and nutrients on the eutrophication of coastal areas, their ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 and the importance of DMS emissions associated with phytoplankton blooms, especially Phaeocystis.

Gypens, N.; Borges, A. V.; Lancelot, C.

2012-04-01

209

Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global carbon cycle model is used to reconstruct the carbon budget, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere. We apply Bayesian statistics to estimate uncertainty of carbon uptake by the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model

Haroon S. Kheshgi; Atul K. Jain; Donald J. Wuebbles

1999-01-01

210

Emissions of ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from swine wastewater during and after acidification treatment: effect of pH, mixing and aeration.  

PubMed

This study aimed at evaluating the effect of swine slurry acidification and acidification-aeration treatments on ammonia (NH(3)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emissions during slurry treatment and subsequent undisturbed storage. The study was conducted in an experimental setup consisting of nine dynamic flux chambers. Three pH levels (pH=6.0, pH=5.8 and pH=5.5), combined with short-term aeration and venting (with an inert gas) treatments were studied. Acidification reduced average NH(3) emissions from swine slurry stored after acidification treatment compared to emissions during storage of non-acidified slurry. The reduction were 50%, 62% and 77% when pH was reduce to 6.0, 5.8 and 5.5, respectively. However, it had no significant effect on average CO(2) and H(2)S emissions during storage of slurry after acidification. Aeration of the slurry for 30min had no effect on average NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S emissions both during the process and from stored slurry after venting treatments. During aeration treatment, the NH(3), CO(2) and H(2)S release pattern observed was related to the liquid turbulence caused by the gas bubbles rather than to biological oxidation processes in this study. PMID:23246907

Dai, X R; Blanes-Vidal, V

2013-01-30

211

A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions is paramount to carbon cycle studies, but the use of atmospheric inverse modeling approaches for this purpose has been limited by the highly heterogeneous and non-Gaussian spatiotemporal variability of emissions. Here we explore the feasibility of capturing this variability using a low-dimensional parameterization that can be implemented within the context of atmospheric CO2 inverse problems aimed at constraining regional-scale emissions. We construct a multiresolution (i.e., wavelet-based) spatial parameterization for ffCO2 emissions using the Vulcan inventory, and examine whether such a parameterization can capture a realistic representation of the expected spatial variability of actual emissions. We then explore whether sub-selecting wavelets using two easily available proxies of human activity (images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas) yields a low-dimensional alternative. We finally implement this low-dimensional parameterization within an inversion, where a sparse reconstruction algorithm, an extension of Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP), is used to identify the wavelet coefficients. We find that (i) the spatial variability of fossil fuel emission can indeed be represented using a low-dimensional wavelet-based parameterization, (ii) that images of lights at night can be used as a proxy for sub-selecting wavelets for such analysis, and (iii) that implementing this parameterization within the described inversion framework makes it possible to quantify fossil fuel emissions at regional scales under some simplifying conditions.

Ray, J.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.; McKenna, S. A.

2014-02-01

212

Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

1979-01-01

213

Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

2012-01-01

214

Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Record  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mauna Loa atmospheric CO2 measurements constitute the longest continuous record of atmospheric CO2 concentrations available in the world. The Mauna Loa site is considered one of the most favorable locations for measuring undisturbed air because possible local influences are minimal. Methods and equipment used to obtain these measurements have remained essentially unchanged during the 47-year monitoring program. This easy to use dataset contains monthly averages of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations from 1958 through 2004.

Bollenbacher, A. F.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Piper, S. C.; Walker, Jeffrey S.

2010-07-05

215

Interpreting recent carbon dioxide data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using web-accessed climate data, students will examine the latitudinal distribution of CO2 and explain how (and why) that has changed over (recent) time. They will then work in groups of two or three to download, graph, and interpret carbon dioxide concentration data from one individual location (different groups will be assigned a different site). Each student will complete a series of questions to ensure their understanding of the concepts outlined above.

Gordon, Elizabeth

216

Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2011-01-01

217

Carbon dioxide review 1982  

SciTech Connect

The buildup of CO/sub 2/ is a reality, monitored with increasing precision since 1957 and inferred for much earlier dates. A statistical section gives the monitored values to 1980, as well as a review of a long series of measurements made at Mauna Loa by the pioneers of such monitoring, Charles D. Keeling, Robert B. Bacastow, and Timothy P. Whorf. The book discusses internal transport processes in the ocean, of ocean-atmosphere interaction, of the magnitude of forest and soil carbon wastage, of the future course of fossil-fuel consumption. Yet something else emerges, too: if the CO/sub 2/ buildup continues; if the big general circulation models are right about its impact on climate, and if we have not miscalculated the potential role of the oceans, then we face a climatic change in the next century and a half like nothing the post-glacial world, and hence civilized humanity, has seen.

Clark, W.C. (ed.)

1982-01-01

218

Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Corra, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flvio Mota Do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes Da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonalves De; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Mikls, Andrs

2011-06-01

219

Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mota, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miklos, Andras [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany)

2011-06-01

220

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity measuring the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in carbonated water at different temperatures. The amount of carbon dioxide is measured by the amount of dilute ammonia solution needed to produce a pH indicator color change. (PR)

Bush, Pat; And Others

1992-01-01

221

Carbon dioxide equilibria and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ion, and carbonate ion comprise the most important acid-base system in natural waters, and the equilibria between them regulate the pH of seawater, as well as most rainwater, stream water, river water, and groundwater. Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications provides a clear, compact presentation of this topic, which is central to geochemistry and environmental engineering. It

1992-01-01

222

Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major amtrihtitor to global wanning is considered to he the high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide (COJ, caused by the burtiing of fossil fuel. Thus, to mitigate CO^ emissions, renewable energy sources such as ethanol have been seen as a promising alternative to fossil fuel consumption. Brazil was the world's first nation to run a large-scale

MARCELO E. DIAS DE OLIVEIRA; BURTON E. VAUGHAN; EDWARD J. RYKIEL JR

2005-01-01

223

Closed carbon dioxide filtration revisited.  

PubMed

There are compelling reasons why the closed carbon dioxide filtration method for inhalation anaesthesia deserves serious reconsideration. Use of the closed absorption system today can provide all the benefits recognised by those who introduced it seventy to eighty years ago. A most important benefit is the increased opportunity of learning afforded the user, which leads either neophyte or senior clinician to improvement of both concept and clinical skills. The current resurgence of interest is fully appropriate for all physicians who aspire to be true specialists in the care of patients during clinical anaesthesia. PMID:7978194

Morris, L E

1994-08-01

224

Sorption of carbon dioxide onto sodium carbonate  

SciTech Connect

Sodium carbonate was used as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} from a gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and moisture. The breakthrough data of CO{sub 2} were measured in a fixed bed to observe the reaction kinetics of CO{sub 2}-carbonate reaction. Several models such as the shrinking-core model, the homogeneous model, and the deactivation model in the non-catalytic heterogeneous reaction systems were used to explain the kinetics of reaction among CO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and moisture using analysis of the experimental breakthrough data. Good agreement of the deactivation model was obtained with the experimental breakthrough data. The sorption rate constant and the deactivation rate constant were evaluated by analysis of the experimental breakthrough data using a nonlinear least squares technique and described as Arrhenius form.

Sang-Wook Park; Deok-Ho Sung; Byoung-Sik Choi; Kwang-Joong Oh; Kil-Ho Moon [Pusan National University, Busan (Republic of Korea). Division of Chemical Engineering

2006-07-01

225

Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0{sup 2} include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO{sup 2} and total concentration of dissolved C0{sup 2}, sea-air pCO{sup 2} difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0{sup 2} uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0{sup 2} from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0{sup 2} fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

Peng, Tsung-Hung [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Takahashi, Taro [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

1993-06-01

226

Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0[sup 2] include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO[sup 2] and total concentration of dissolved C0[sup 2], sea-air pCO[sup 2] difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0[sup 2] uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0[sup 2] from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0[sup 2] fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

Peng, Tsung-Hung (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Takahashi, Taro (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

1993-01-01

227

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

228

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still...

2009-04-01

229

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...and Reports § 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still...

2010-04-01

230

46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

2013-10-01

231

Carbon Dioxide Reduction with Alkali-Metal Amalgams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reduction of carbon dioxide by alkali-metal amalgams was studied as a potential means for reclamation of carbon dioxide waste gas in space systems. The carbon dioxide reduction reactions were investigated at moderate temperatures and pressures - typic...

C. M. Cox R. W. Treharne

1968-01-01

232

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18

233

Multi-scale Measurements and Modeling to Verify and Attribute Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Four Corners Power Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Four Corners region of New Mexico contains two large coal-fired power plants with real-time in-stack CO2 and pollutant monitors, in a semi-arid region with a feeble natural carbon cycle, making it an ideal site to evaluate remote sensing top-down verification methods. LANL has developed a test-bed site that includes a high-resolution solar tracking Fourier Transform Spectrometer (Bruker 125 HR) to monitor column abundance of greenhouse gases and pollutants (CO2, CH4, N2O and CO), and in situ cavity ring-down (CRDS, Picarro) and standard EPA sensors that measure CO2, CH4, CO, NOx, SO2 and particulates. We also have deployed a meteorological station, a ceilometer to measure boundary layer heights and an AERONET system to measure aerosol optical depths. We have been making continuous measurements since 11 March 2011. Our system's retrievals were validated against airborne in situ vertical gas profiles measured by NCAR's HIPPO system on 7 June 2011. We report observed power-plant signals, their diurnal cycles, and how they depend on local meteorology. Typically, the total-column FTS data show 2 to 8 ppm increases in CO2 when a power-plant plume is blowing towards our site, while the in situ CRDS sensor measures increases of 10 to 50 ppm. In situ CH4 measurements reveal large nocturnal increases of 4-5 ppm that could be from extensive gas and coal mining activities in the region. In contrast, in situ CO2 increases at night are small, likely because the power plant stacks are higher than the nocturnal boundary layer. Furthermore, our site sampled long range transport of pollutants from the Wallow fire that we distinguish from power plant emissions. To analyze our observations, we have developed a customized ultra-high-resolution plume model (HIGRAD) and coupled it with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) in the Four Corners area. Hourly real-time emissions are taken from EPA's in-stack monitors and other spatio-temporally resolved inventories like Vulcan. WRF-Chem employs multiple nested grids and high resolution topography to simulate atmospheric variability ranging from synoptic scales to micro-scales (~200 m), while including locally developed flows influenced by the nearby complex terrain of the San Juan Mountains. The simulated local atmospheric dynamics are provided to force the HIGRAD plume model, which links meso-scale atmospheric variability to the small-scale simulation of the power plant plumes (~10m). Our multi-scale forward modeling simulations are compared with our column and in situ observations of CO2, other greenhouse gases and pollutants for specific days. We use this to quantify the current ability of remote and in situ sensing measurements to quantify emissions in a relatively simple environment. Finally, we examine satellite data (CO2 and CH4 from GOSAT and NO2 from OMI) for signals over Four Corners and assess the value added for longer-term trend analysis. We gratefully acknowledge members of the TCCON (D. Wunch and P. Wennberg) and HIPPO (S. Wofsy and B. Stephens) teams for their input and guidance.

Dubey, M. K.; Love, S. P.; Henderson, B. G.; Lee, S.; Costigan, K. R.; Reisner, J.; Flowers, B. A.; Chylek, P.

2011-12-01

234

Electrochemical processing of carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

With respect to the negative role of carbon dioxide on our climate, it is clear that the time is ripe for the development of processes that convert CO(2) into useful products. The electroreduction of CO(2) is a prime candidate here, as the reaction at near-ambient conditions can yield organics such as formic acid, methanol, and methane. Recent laboratory work on the 100 A scale has shown that reduction of CO(2) to formate (HCO(2)(-)) may be carried out in a trickle-bed continuous electrochemical reactor under industrially viable conditions. Presuming the problems of cathode stability and formate crossover can be overcome, this type of reactor is proposed as the basis for a commercial operation. The viability of corresponding processes for electrosynthesis of formate salts and/or formic acid from CO(2) is examined here through conceptual flowsheets for two process options, each converting CO(2) at the rate of 100 tonnes per day. PMID:18702129

Oloman, Colin; Li, Hui

2008-01-01

235

Microfluidic studies of carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) sequestration, storage and recycling will greatly benefit from comprehensive studies of physical and chemical gas-liquid processes involving CO2 . Over the past five years, microfluidics emerged as a valuable tool in CO2 -related research, due to superior mass and heat transfer, reduced axial dispersion, well-defined gas-liquid interfacial areas and the ability to vary reagent concentrations in a high-throughput manner. This Minireview highlights recent progress in microfluidic studies of CO2 -related processes, including dissolution of CO2 in physical solvents, CO2 reactions, the utilization of CO2 in materials science, and the use of supercritical CO2 as a "green" solvent. PMID:24961230

Abolhasani, Milad; Gnther, Axel; Kumacheva, Eugenia

2014-07-28

236

How Is Carbon Dioxide Measured?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this textbook chapter, scientists studying the concentration of becomes CO² in the atmosphere are profiled. The techniques for measuring and recording carbon dioxide concentrations at the Mauna Loa Observatory are described. A link to a video clip of an interview with NOAA scientist Dr. Pieter Tans is included. This is the fifth chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource includes three classroom investigations, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre and post unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. The resource is part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

237

Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5 grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

Smith, S. J. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Van Aardenne, J. [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Klimont, Z. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Volke, A. [European Environment Agency, Kongens Nytorv 6, 1050 Copenhagen K, Denmark; Delgado Arias, S [Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI)

2011-01-01

238

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOEpatents

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14

239

DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

240

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

241

Carbon dioxide emission rate of Ki??lauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report a CO2 emission rate of 8500 metric tons per day (t d-1) for the summit of Kilauea Volcano, several times larger than previous estimates. It is based on three sets of measurements over 4 years of synchronous SO2 emission rates and volcanic CO2/SO2 concentration ratios for the summit correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) traverse. Volcanic CO2/SO2 for the traverse is representative of the global ratio for summit emissions. The summit CO2 emission rate is nearly constant, despite large temporal variations in summit CO2/SO2 and SO2 emission rates. Summit CO2 emissions comprise most of Ki??lauea's total CO2 output (??? 9000 t d-1). The bulk CO2 content of primary magma determined from CO2 emission and magma supply rate data is ???0.70 wt %. Most of the CO2 is present as exsolved vapor at summit reservoir depths, making the primary magma strongly buoyant. Turbulent mixing with resident reservoir magma, however, prevents frequent eruptions of buoyant primary magma in the summit region. CO2 emissions confirm that the magma supply enters the edifice through the summit reservoir. A persistent several hundred parts per million CO2 anomaly arises from the entry of magma into the summit reservoir beneath a square kilometer area east of Halemaumau pit crater. Since most of the CO2 in primary magma is degassed in the summit, the summit CO2 emission rate is an effective proxy for the magma supply rate. Both scrubbing of SO2 and solubility controls on CO2 and S in basaltic melt cause high CO2/SO2 in summit emissions and spatially uncorrelated distributions of CO2 and SO2 in the summit plume.

Gerlach, T. M.; McGee, K. A.; Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.; Doukas, M. P.

2002-01-01

242

Isotopic metrology of carbon dioxide. II. Effects of ion source materials, conductance, emission, and accelerating voltage on dual-inlet cross contamination.  

PubMed

We report high-precision isotopic carbon dioxide measurements, made before and after ion source modification to gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instruments. Measurement protocols were designed to explore the effects of ion source material substitution, source conductance, inlet pressure, electron emission, acceleration potential, and inlet changeover equilibration time. After modification of the IRMS instruments at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry (MPI-Mainz), immediate changes were observed. At NIST, measurements were no longer sensitive to inlet equilibration times greater than 15 s, and different settings of ion source conductance resulted in delta(13)C shifts of about 0.04 per thousand per 10 per thousand measurement difference between sample and reference, a five-fold improvement. No significant changes in machine performance were observed after a month of use. After a year, performance had degraded slightly, but was controlled by ion source cleaning and the use of low-energy ion acceleration to minimize sputtering. At MPI-Mainz, results were very similar. We report cross-contamination coefficients measured since 1996, and discuss the role of adsorption, ion implantation, and sputtering on cross contamination in mass spectrometry systems. We recommend that users of high-precision IRMS instruments test for and minimize the effects described. PMID:12672130

Verkouteren, R Michael; Assonov, Sergey; Klinedinst, Donna B; Brand, Willi A

2003-01-01

243

Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 - 2005. A combination of mass balance and best available inventory data was used in order to achieve the most accurate estimate possible. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties of up to 30% were found. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping.

Smith, Steven J.; van Aardenne, John; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert; Volke, April C.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina

2011-01-02

244

High Precision Stable Isotope Analysis of Methane and Carbon Dioxide using Trace Gas CF-IRMS: Instrumentation Development, London Diurnal Studies and Measurements of Emissions from Irish Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled with the Trace Gas preparation system (GV Instruments) has been used to analyse air samples with a precision of better than 0.1 for ? 13C of CH4 and ? 13C and ? 18O of CO2. 75cm3 of air is required, with a 16-minute analysis time. This precision makes the technique ideal for source studies, although it is also approaching the precision required to identify annual variations in measurements at some background stations. Diurnal studies have been carried out from the sampling site at Royal Holloway, west of London, measuring either ? 13C of CH4 or ? 13C and ? 18O of CO2 at 30-minute intervals. Source calculations for methane showed the local sources had ? 13C values of between -37.9 (typical of gas leaks) and -54.0 (landfill emissions). The methane was most enriched in 13C in the early evening, during the rush hour, suggesting that at this time vehicle exhaust emissions are a measurable local source of methane. Methane and carbon dioxide mixing ratios and isotopes were measured on samples collected from Irish wetlands. Samples were collected in early summer and autumn to investigate variations in emissions from blanket bogs, raised bogs and fens. Air samples were collected upwind, downwind and in the centre of the bogs and were supplemented with soil air samples and chamber collection above waterlogged areas. Results were compared with the Atlantic background record of methane ? 13C at Mace Head for which measurements have been carried out using a conventional cryogenic extraction line since 1995, to investigate whether Irish wetland emissions affect the Mace Head record for trajectories passing over the southwestern corner of Ireland. Preliminary results from the summer campaign indicate that blanket bogs, which are the prevalent type of peatland along the western coast of Ireland, did not emit significant amounts of methane. Hence Atlantic blanket bog is unlikely to affect the methane isotopes measured at Mace Head. However raised bogs and fens were found to have much larger methane emissions. Source ? 13C isotope values of emitted methane ranged from -55 at a fen (Pollardstown fen) to -80 at a raised bog (Clara bog).

Fisher, R.; Lowry, D.; O'Brien, P.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Nisbet, E. G.

2004-12-01

245

Photolytical Generation of Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide has been found by Cassini VIMS throughout the Saturnian system in locations such as Iapetus' equator where the temperature is too high for it to remain as free ice for more than a few hundred years. We suggest that the 4.26 micron absorption feature found on Iapetus and Hyperion (that has been attributed to complexed CO2) is the result of either UV photolysis or ion bombardment driving chemistry between the carbon rich layer and the water ice regolith. We conducted experiments to simulate the generation of CO2 by UV radiation under conditions similar to those on the surface of Iapetus. A simulated icy regolith was created in an argon atmosphere using flash-frozen, degassed water crushed into sub-millimeter sized particles. Isotopically labeled amorphous carbon (13C), which was ground into a fine dust, was mixed into the regolith allowing for extensive grain contact. This sample was placed in a vacuum chamber and cooled to temperatures as low at 60K. The sample was irradiated with UV light, and the products were measured using both a mass spectrometer to identify free molecules and an IR spectrometer for molecules that remained trapped on and in the simulated regolith. We report on the production and reaction rates of CO2 and CO, as well as the generation of free hydrogen and oxygen as detected by a SRS-100 mass spectrometer. We also identify residual products that either freeze on the surface or become entrained by or adsorbed onto the ice grains. We attempt to match the CO2 absorption feature found on Iapetus with that seen in our simulation, perhaps identifying a possible source of CO2 in the Saturnian system. Finally, we estimate the time required for these reactions to occur on Iapetus to see if UV photolysis would be effective.

Palmer, E. E.; Brown, R. H.

2008-12-01

246

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication titled Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most datasets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to atmospheric carbon dioxide data includes: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Isotopes Atmospheric carbon dioxide records from Mauna Loa, Hawaii Monthly atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and other data from the NOAA/CMDL continuous monitoring network Data from the CSIRO GASLAB Flask Sampling Network Atmospheric CO2 records from continuous measurements at Jubany Station, Antarctica and from 10 sites in the SIO air sampling network Historical data from the extended Vostok ice core (2003) and the Siple Station ice core (1997) Historical records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores (1998) AmeriFlux Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Data from the Canadian Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network Flask Samples from at U.S.S.R.-Operated Sites (1991) The CISIRO (Australia) Monitoring Program from Aircraft for 1972-1981 CO2 Concentrations in Surface Water and the Atmosphere during 1986-1989 NOAA/PMEL Cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans Surface Water and Atmospheric CO2 and Nitrous Oxide Observations by Shipboard Automated Gas Chromatography: Results from Expeditions Between 1977 and 1990 (1992) IPCC Working Group 1, 1994: Modeling Results Relating Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations to Industrial Emissions (1995). New datasets are added when available to the category of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

247

Pulsed-discharge carbon dioxide lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to attempt a general introduction to pulsed carbon dioxide lasers of the kind used or proposed for laser radar applications. Laser physics is an excellent example of a cross-disciplinary topic, and the molecular spectroscopy, energy transfer, and plasma kinetics of the devices are explored. The concept of stimulated emission and population inversions is introduced, leading on to the molecular spectroscopy of the CO2 molecule. This is followed by a consideration of electron-impact pumping, and the pertinent energy transfer and relaxation processes which go on. Since the devices are plasma pumped, it is necessary to introduce a complex subject, but this is restricted to appropriate physics of glow discharges. Examples of representative devices are shown. The implications of the foregoing to plasma chemistry and gas life are discussed.

Willetts, David V.

1990-01-01

248

The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans are faced with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually into the atmosphere. A possible way to mitigate the effects is to store CO2 in large porous reservoirs within the Earth. Fluid mechanics plays a key role in determining both the feasibility and risks involved in this geological sequestration. We review current research efforts looking at the propagation of CO2 within the subsurface, the possible rates of leakage, the mechanisms that act to stably trap CO2, and the geomechanical response of the crust to large-scale CO2 injection. We conclude with an outline for future research.

Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

2014-01-01

249

The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis  

SciTech Connect

There has been much attention drawn to plans for reductions or restraint in future C02 emissions, yet little analysis of the recent history of those emissions by end use or economic activity. Understanding the components of C02 emissions, particularly those related to combustion of fossil fuels, is important for judging the likely success of plans for dealing with future emissions. Knowing how fuel switching, changes in economic activity and its structure, or changes in energy-use efficiency affected emissions in the past, we can better judge both the realism of national proposals to restrain future emissions and the outcome as well. This study presents a first step in that analysis. The organization of this paper is as follows. We present a brief background and summarize previous work analyzing changes in energy use using the factorial method. We then describe our data sources and method. We then present a series of summary results, including a comparison of C02 emissions in 1991 by end use or sector. We show both aggregate change and change broken down by factor, highlighting briefly the main components of change. We then present detailed results, sector by sector. Next we highlight recent trends. Finally, we integrate our results, discussing -the most important factors driving change - evolution in economic structure, changes in energy intensities, and shifts in the fuel mix. We discuss briefly some of the likely causes of these changes - long- term technological changes, effects of rising incomes, the impact of overall changes in energy prices, as well as changes in the relative prices of energy forms.

Schipper, L.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Unander, F.; Monahan, P.; Golove, W.

1996-08-01

250

Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO capture is reversible

Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

2009-01-01

251

Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide on Chemically Modified Carbon Adsorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon adsorbents were chemically modified to have base sites on their surfaces, and the adsorption characteristics of carbon dioxide on them were investigated. Three kinds of carbon materials were used as support materials: two activated carbons and a carbon black. Base sites were introduced by impregnating the support materials with calcium acetate solution, followed by calcination at 700C for 2

Hyun-K Song; Kun-Hing Lee

1998-01-01

252

Silver oxide sorbent for carbon dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Material can be regenerated at least 20 times by heating at 250 C. Sorbent is compatible with environment of high humidity; up to 20% by weight of carbon dioxide can be absorbed. Material is prepared from silver carbonate, potassium hydroxide or carbonate, and sodium silicate.

Colombo, G. V.

1974-01-01

253

Global Deforestation: Contribution to Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1860 and 1980 was between 135 1015 and 228 1015 grams. Between 1.8 1015 and 4.7 1015 grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

254

LIFETIME OF EXCESS ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

We explore the effects of a changing terrestrial biosphere on the atmospheric residende time of carbon dioxide using three simple ocean carbon cycling models and a model of global terrestrial carbon cycling. e find differences in model behavior associated with the assumption of a...

255

Carbon Dioxide Absorption and Desorption by Tris with Carbonic Anhydrase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One concept of carbon dioxide control in aerospace vehicle atmosphere regeneration and control requires an efficient gas absorber which is effective in a moist gas stream. A tris (tri(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) solution containing the enzyme, carbonic an...

J. P. Allen

1967-01-01

256

Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Concentrator Subsystem Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fabrication of a one-person Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator subsystem incorporating advanced electrochemical, mechanical, and control and monitor instrumentation concepts is discussed. This subsystem included an advanced liquid...

D. B. Heppner, M. J. Dahlausen, F. H. Schubert

1983-01-01

257

Biochemical Capture and Removal of Carbon Dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We devised an enzyme-based facilitated transport membrane bioreactor system to selectively remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space station environment. We developed and expressed site-directed enzyme mutants for CO2 capture. Enzyme kinetics showed the ...

M. C. Trachtenberg

1998-01-01

258

Cost Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Concentrators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A methodology is developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware and is used to predict the costs of three carbon dioxide concentration systems. The cost and ...

M. M. Yakut

1972-01-01

259

Carbon Dioxide Catastrophes: Past and Future Menace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon dioxide is important in its role as coupler of the terrestrial biosphere to inorganic chemical processes and as the principal greenhouse gas controlling Earth's surface temperature. The hypothesis that atmospheric CO2 levels have diminished with ti...

M. E. Baur

1988-01-01

260

Role of activated carbon pellets in carbon dioxide removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of carbon dioxide from gas\\/air streams is more often becoming necessary in many industries for different purposes. In cryogenic air separation plant, air has to be free from carbon dioxide before its liquefaction otherwise blockage due to freezing of heat exchange equipment would result. Enrichment of methane in biogas to have fuel of higher calorific value can be

S. C Sarkar; A Bose

1997-01-01

261

Formation of DNA adducts in rat lung following chronic inhalation of diesel emissions, carbon black and titanium dioxide particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine whether the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH or other polycyclic organic matter adsorbed to diesel particles induces the formation of DNA adducts in the lung when compared to particles with little or no adsorbed organic matter in conjunction with a chronic inhalation cancer study. Wistar rats were exposed to diesel emissions (7.5

J. Gallagher; U. Heinrich; M. George; L. Hendee; D. H. Phillips; J. Lewtas

1994-01-01

262

Application of System Dynamics model as decision making tool in urban planning process toward stabilizing carbon dioxide emissions from cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the fact that cities are the main sources of CO2 emissions, presently there are still no specific measures directly addressing the global warming issue in the urban planning process in Malaysia. The present study thus aims to shed new light in the urban planning sector in Malaysia by adopting System Dynamics Model as one of the decision

Wee-Kean Fong; Hiroshi Matsumoto; Yu-Fat Lun

2009-01-01

263

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy surveys, prompted the current work, which develops a new methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking. This is based on food consumption statistics, and the specific energy for food cooking. Estimated biofuel consumption in India was 379

Gazala Habib; Chandra Venkataraman; Manish Shrivastava; Rangan Banerjee; J. W. Stehr; Russell R. Dickerson

2004-01-01

264

Mitigating strategies for carbon dioxide problems  

SciTech Connect

Society can take steps to enhance our ability to adapt more easily to carbon dioxide induced changes. Given the rapidity of social and technological change in the twentieth century, facilitating adjustment is important. With the exception of data collection and analysis focused on climate, enhancing each of these functions will be to the general benefit of society, but will not be unique to carbon dioxide-induced problems. Carbon dioxide issues can provide a rationale, but more probably will be a catalyst, for pushing society to enhance its ability to adapt to and exploit change. Carbon dioxide is but one of many factors which will have an enormous impact on the economic and social institutions of the United States in the twenty-first century. If carbon dioxide-induced changes were as large as now appears possible, and if they were the only major change, then it would be worthwhile to invest in enhancing education and capital formation so that we could minimize the effects of adverse changes and take advantage of beneficial ones. Since carbon dioxide-induced changes are likely to be only one, possibly small, source of change, there is all the more reason to devote resources to making our economic and social institutions more flexible and adaptable. 7 references.

Lave, L.B.

1982-05-01

265

Acoustic emission and volumetric strain induced in coal by the displacement sorption of methane and carbone dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess whether acoustic emission (AE) could carry information on preferential sorption\\/desorption\\u000a of CH4 or CO2 in coal. AE and expansion\\/contraction of two nearly identical cylindrical coal samples were continuously monitored during\\u000a displacement sorption experiments. One sample was subjected to presorption of CH4, followed by sorption of CH4\\/CO2 mixture. With the other one, presorption

Zofia Majewska; Jerzy Zietek

2008-01-01

266

Influence of freeze-thaw events on carbon dioxide emission from soils at different moisture and land use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The repeated freeze-thaw events during cold season, freezing of soils in autumn and thawing in spring are typical for the tundra, boreal, and temperate soils. The thawing of soils during winter-summer transitions induces the release of decomposable organic carbon and acceleration of soil respiration. The winter-spring fluxes of CO2 from permanently and seasonally frozen soils are essential part of

Irina Kurganova; Robert Teepe; Norman Loftfield

2007-01-01

267

Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

2003-01-01

268

MAMAP - a new spectrometer system for column-averaged methane and carbon dioxide observations from aircraft: retrieval algorithm and first inversions for point source emission rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAMAP is an airborne passive remote sensing instrument designed to measure the dry columns of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The MAMAP instrument comprises two optical grating spectrometers: the first observing in the short wave infrared band (SWIR) at 1590-1690 nm to measure CO2 and CH4 absorptions, and the second in the near infrared (NIR) at 757-768 nm to measure O2 absorptions for reference/normalisation purposes. MAMAP can be operated in both nadir and zenith geometry during the flight. Mounted on an aeroplane, MAMAP surveys areas on regional to local scales with a ground pixel resolution of approximately 29 m 33 m for a typical aircraft altitude of 1250 m and a velocity of 200 km h-1. The retrieval precision of the measured column relative to background is typically ? 1% (1?). MAMAP measurements are valuable to close the gap between satellite data, having global coverage but with a rather coarse resolution, on the one hand, and highly accurate in situ measurements with sparse coverage on the other hand. In July 2007, test flights were performed over two coal-fired power plants operated by Vattenfall Europe Generation AG: Jnschwalde (27.4 Mt CO2 yr-1) and Schwarze Pumpe (11.9 Mt CO2 yr-1), about 100 km southeast of Berlin, Germany. By using two different inversion approaches, one based on an optimal estimation scheme to fit Gaussian plume models from multiple sources to the data, and another using a simple Gaussian integral method, the emission rates can be determined and compared with emissions reported by Vattenfall Europe. An extensive error analysis for the retrieval's dry column results (XCO2 and XCH4) and for the two inversion methods has been performed. Both methods - the Gaussian plume model fit and the Gaussian integral method - are capable of deriving estimates for strong point source emission rates that are within 10% of the reported values, given appropriate flight patterns and detailed knowledge of wind conditions.

Krings, T.; Gerilowski, K.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Tretner, A.; Erzinger, J.; Heinze, D.; Pflger, U.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

2011-09-01

269

Evaluation of carbon dioxide equivalent values for greenhouse gases: CEWN as a new indicator replacing GWP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new indicator, the CEWN (Carbon Dioxide Equivalent Warming Number), is proposed as an alternative to the GWP (Global Warming Potential). CEWN is a metric where the global warming by the emission of gases is compared unifying the removal rate of each gas from the atmosphere, using carbon dioxide as a reference. To comply with the basket system of the

Akira Sekiya; Sayuri Okamoto

2010-01-01

270

Comparison of life cycle carbon dioxide emissions and embodied energy in four renewable electricity generation technologies in New Zealand.  

PubMed

In order to make the best choice between renewable energy technologies, it is important to be able to compare these technologies on the basis of their sustainability, which may include a variety of social, environmental, and economic indicators. This study examined the comparative sustainability of four renewable electricity technologies in terms of their life cycle CO2 emissions and embodied energy, from construction to decommissioning and including maintenance (periodic component replacement plus machinery use), using life cycle analysis. The models developed were based on case studies of power plants in New Zealand, comprising geothermal, large-scale hydroelectric, tidal (a proposed scheme), and wind-farm electricity generation. The comparative results showed that tidal power generation was associated with 1.8 g of CO2/kWh, wind with 3.0 g of CO2/kWh, hydroelectric with 4.6 g of CO2/kWh, and geothermal with 5.6 g of CO2/kWh (not including fugitive emissions), and that tidal power generation was associated with 42.3 kJ/kWh, wind with 70.2 kJ/kWh, hydroelectric with 55.0 kJ/kWh, and geothermal with 94.6 kJ/kWh. Other environmental indicators, as well as social and economic indicators, should be applied to gain a complete picture of the technologies studied. PMID:19746744

Rule, Bridget M; Worth, Zeb J; Boyle, Carol A

2009-08-15

271

Carbon dioxide emissions from vegetation-kill zones around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, eastern California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of diffuse CO 2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera California was performed to evaluate the premise that gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to renewed intrusion of magma. Some kill sites are long-lived features and others have developed in the past few years. Total anomalous CO 2 emissions from the thirteen areas average around 8.7 t per day; but the majority of the emissions come from four sites west of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. Geochemical analyses of the soil-gases from locations west and east of the plant revealed the presence of isobutane related to plant operations. The ?13C values of diffuse CO 2 range from - 5.7 to - 3.4, similar to values previously reported for CO 2 from hot springs and thermal wells around Long Valley. At many of the vegetation-kill sites soil temperatures reach boiling at depths ? 20 cm. Soil temperature/depth profiles at two of the high-emissions areas indicate that the conductive thermal gradient in the center of the areas is around 320 C m - 1 . We estimate total heat loss from the two areas to be about 6.1 and 2.3 MW. Given current thinking on the rate of hydrothermal fluid flow across the caldera and using the CO 2 concentration in the thermal fluids, the heat and CO 2 loss from the kill areas is easily provided by the shallow hydrothermal system, which is sourced to the west of the resurgent dome. We find no evidence that the development of new areas of vegetation kill across the resurgent dome are related to new input of magma or magmatic fluids from beneath the resurgent dome. Our findings indicate that the areas have developed as a response to changes in the shallow hydrologic system. Some of the changes are likely related to fluid production at the power plant, but at distal sites the changes are more likely related to seismicity and uplift of the dome.

Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Howle, James F.; Farrar, Christopher D.

2006-04-01

272

Carbon dioxide emissions from vegetation-kill zones around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, eastern California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera California was performed to evaluate the premise that gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to renewed intrusion of magma. Some kill sites are long-lived features and others have developed in the past few years. Total anomalous CO2 emissions from the thirteen areas average around 8.7 t per day; but the majority of the emissions come from four sites west of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant. Geochemical analyses of the soil-gases from locations west and east of the plant revealed the presence of isobutane related to plant operations. The ??13C values of diffuse CO2 range from -5.7??? to -3.4???, similar to values previously reported for CO2 from hot springs and thermal wells around Long Valley. At many of the vegetation-kill sites soil temperatures reach boiling at depths ???20 cm. Soil temperature/depth profiles at two of the high-emissions areas indicate that the conductive thermal gradient in the center of the areas is around 320 ??C m-1. We estimate total heat loss from the two areas to be about 6.1 and 2.3 MW. Given current thinking on the rate of hydrothermal fluid flow across the caldera and using the CO2 concentration in the thermal fluids, the heat and CO2 loss from the kill areas is easily provided by the shallow hydrothermal system, which is sourced to the west of the resurgent dome. We find no evidence that the development of new areas of vegetation kill across the resurgent dome are related to new input of magma or magmatic fluids from beneath the resurgent dome. Our findings indicate that the areas have developed as a response to changes in the shallow hydrologic system. Some of the changes are likely related to fluid production at the power plant, but at distal sites the changes are more likely related to seismicity and uplift of the dome.

Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W. C.; Howle, J. F.; Farrar, C. D.

2006-01-01

273

Simulation and measurement of carbon dioxide exhaust emissions using an optical-fibre-based mid-infrared point sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel optical-fibre-based sensor for measurement of CO2 gas emission concentrations in exhaust systems of a motor vehicle is reported. The sensing principle is based on open-path direct absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range. The sensor system comprises of low cost and compact mid-infrared components, which make it suitable for insertion into the exhaust system of automotive vehicles. The sensor utilizes a calcium fluoride CaF2 narrow band pass (NBP) filter for detection of CO2 gas without cross-sensitivity to other gases present in the exhaust system. Furthermore, it can be integrated into the mechanical and electronic interface systems of existing vehicles without any problems.

Muda, Razali; Dooly, Gerard; Clifford, John; Mulrooney, Jim; Flavia, Gili; Merlone-Borla, Edoardo; Chambers, Paul; Fitzpatrick, Colin; Lewis, Elfed

2009-05-01

274

The Value of Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in a World with Uncertain Greenhouse Gas Emissions Constraints  

SciTech Connect

By analyzing how the largest CO2 emitting electricity generating region in the United States, the East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR), responds to hypothetical constraints on greenhouse gas emissions, the authors demonstrate that there is an enduring role for post combustion CO2 capture technologies. The utilization of pulverized coal with carbon dioxide capture and storage (PC+CCS) technologies is particularly significant in a world where there is significant uncertainty about the future evolution of climate policy and in particular uncertainty about the rate at which the climate policy will become more stringent. The papers analysis shows that within this one large, heavily coal-dominated electricity generating region, as much as 20-40 GW of PC+CCS could be in operation before the middle of this century. Depending upon the state of PC+CCS technology development and the evolution of future climate policy, the analysis shows that these CCS systems could be mated to either already existing PC units or PC units that are currently under construction, announced and planned units, as well as PC units that could continue to be built for a number of decades even in the face of a climate policy. In nearly all the cases analyzed here, these PC+CCS generation units are compliments to a much larger deployment of CCS-enabled coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The analysis presented here shows that the combined deployment of PC+CCS and IGCC+CCS units within this one region of the U.S. could result in the potential capture and storage of between 3.2 and 4.9 billion tones of CO2 before the middle of this century in the regions deep geologic storage formations.

Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.

2009-01-01

275

Carbon dioxide sequestration by ex-situ mineral carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process developed for carbon dioxide sequestration utilizes a slurry of water mixed with olivine- forsterite end member (MgSiO), which is reacted with supercritical CO to produce magnesite (MgCO). Carbon dioxide is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid, which likely dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO⁻. The H{sup +} hydrolyzes the silicate mineral, freeing the cation (Mg{sup 2+}), which

W. K. OConnor; D. C. Dahlin; P. C. Turner

2000-01-01

276

Carbon Dioxide- Where Does it All Go?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will use a diagram of carbon fluxes, which shows the sources that contribute to current atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

277

Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-10

278

Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2010-02-02

279

Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

2005-05-10

280

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2003-03-10

281

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture  

PubMed Central

New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture.

Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

2014-01-01

282

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10¹⁵ and 228 X 10¹⁵ grams. Between 1.8 X 10¹⁵ and 4.7 X 10¹⁵ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

283

THE RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO CARBON DIOXIDE  

PubMed Central

1. A technique for determining the respiratory response to carbon dioxide on the Peabody principle is described. 2. The relation between minute volume of total pulmonary ventilation and percentage of carbon dioxide in the inspired air can be expressed by a simple mathematical formula, viz. Y = K + abz, in which Y is the ventilation rate, X is the CO2 content of the inspired air, and K, a, and b are constants characteristic for the individual. 3. The respiratory response to carbon dioxide as expressed by the total pulmonary ventilation is slightly greater at high oxygen percentages (90 per cent ) than at normal oxygen percentages in the inspired air. 4. Respiratory fatigue may consist of two elementsone nervous, manifesting itself in increased excitability of the center and a more marked response when the demand for pulmonary ventilation is small, the other muscular and involving an inability to respond when the demand for pulmonary ventilation is great.

Davies, H. Whitridge; Brow, George R.; Binger, Carl A. L.

1925-01-01

284

Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

2001-01-01

285

Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990  

SciTech Connect

Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO{sub 2} emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional and national annual estimates for 1950 through 1992 were published previously. Those national, annual CO{sub 2} emission estimates were based on statistics on fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty. The national annual estimates were combined with gridded one-degree data on political units and 1984 human populations to create the new gridded CO{sub 2} emission data sets. The same population distribution was used for each of the years as proxy for the emission distribution within each country. The implied assumption for that procedure was that per capita energy use and fuel mix is uniform over a political unit. The consequence of this first-order procedure is that the spatial changes observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption and nation-based fuel mix. Increases in emissions over time are apparent for most areas.

Brenkert, A.L. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Andres, R.J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Fung, I. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Matthews, E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

1997-03-01

286

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

1983-12-09

287

Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation. This process can reduce C0[sub 2] production because of its higher efficiency, and it is amenable to C0[sub 2] capture, because C0[sub 2] can be removed before combustion and the associated dilution with atmospheric nitrogen. This paper presents a process-design baseline

R. D; J. C. Molburg; P. Thimmapuram; G. F. Berry; C. D. Livengood; R. A. Johnson

1993-01-01

288

Noninvasive quantification of regional myocardial blood flow in coronary artery disease with oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide inhalation and positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-15-labeled water is a diffusible, metabolically inert myocardial blood flow tracer with a short half-life (2 minutes) that can be used quantitatively with positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to validate a new technique to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) in animals and to assess its application in patients. The technique involves the administration of 15O-labeled carbon dioxide (C15O2) and rapid dynamic scanning. Arterial and myocardial time activity curves were fitted to a single tissue compartment tracer kinetic model to estimate MBF in each myocardial region. Validation studies consisted of 52 simultaneous measurements of MBF with PET and gamma-labeled microspheres in nine closed-chest dogs over a flow range of 0.5-6.1 ml/g/min. A good correlation between the two methods was obtained (y = 0.36 + 1.0x, r = 0.91). Human studies consisted of 11 normal volunteers and eight patients with chronic stable angina and single-vessel disease, before and after intravenous dipyridamole infusion. In the normal group, MBF was homogeneous throughout the left ventricle both at rest and after administration of dipyridamole (0.88 +/- 0.08 ml/g/min and 3.52 +/- 1.12 ml/g/min, respectively; p less than or equal to 0.001). In patients, resting MBF was similar in the distribution of the normal and stenotic arteries (1.03 +/- 0.23 and 0.93 +/- 0.21 ml/g/min, respectively). After dipyridamole infusion, MBF in normally perfused areas increased to 2.86 +/- 0.83 ml/g/min, whereas in the regions supplied by stenotic arteries it increased to only 1.32 +/- 0.27 ml/g/min (p less than or equal to 0.001). PET with C15O2 inhalation provides an accurate noninvasive quantitative method for measuring regional myocardial blood flow in patients.

Araujo, L.I.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Rhodes, C.G.; McFalls, E.O.; Iida, H.; Rechavia, E.; Galassi, A.; De Silva, R.; Jones, T.; Maseri, A. (MRC Cyclotron Unit, London (England))

1991-03-01

289

Carbon Cycle Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to carbon cycle includes: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Data Sets Area and Carbon Content of Sphagnum Since Last Glacial Maximum (2002) (Trends Online) Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2002) (Trends Online) Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A., (2004) (Trends Online) Estimates of Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emitted for Each State in the U.S.A. and the District of Columbia for Each Year from 1960 through 2001 (Trends Online) Global, Regional, and National Annual CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 1751-1999 (updated 2002) Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (1997) Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (1998) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Working Group 1, 1994: Modelling Results Relating Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations to Industrial Emissions (1995) Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1980-1994) (2003) Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1996) Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-use Changes: 1850 to 1990 (2001) Northern Hemisphere Biome- and Process-Specific Changes in Forest Area and Gross Merchantable Volume: 1890-1990 (1997) Historic Land Use and Carbon Estimates for South and Southeast Asia: 1880-1980 (1994) Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database (2001) Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (1996) Worldwide Organic Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Data (1986) A Global 1 Degree by 1 Degree Distribution of Atmospheric - Soil CO2 Consumption by Continental Weathering and of Riverine HCO3 Yield (1995) Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) 3-Dimensional (3-D) Global Tracer Transport Model (1993) (Specialized Interface)

290

Carbon Dioxide Removal System of the Regenerable Solid Adsorbent Type.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a regenerable carbon dioxide removal system is discussed. The system utilizes solid zeolites to adsorb carbon dioxide and silica gel for predrying the gas stream. The system is completely regenerable, operates automatically and continuo...

G. A. Remus P. P. Nuccio R. J. Honegger

1969-01-01

291

International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

Knox, James C.

2000-01-01

292

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...and Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a)...

2013-10-01

293

Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1993-01-01

294

Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1991-01-01

295

Use of carbon dioxide in the chemical synthesis technologies, plasma gasification and carbon production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern electric power sector is based on burning of carbonaceous substances (coal, oil, natural gas, etc.). Large power stations are powerful local sources of carbon dioxide. Inconstancy of the electric power demand leads to increase in CO2 specific emissions, as the output power is basically higher than required one by the power network. One of promising ways of increase

Ph G. Rutberg; V. A. Kuznetsov; A. N. Bratsev; V. E. Popov; S. V. Shtengel; A. A. Ufimtsev

2011-01-01

296

Carbon Dioxide Research Conference: Carbon Dioxide, Science and Consensus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE program focuses on three areas each of which requires more research before the many CO sub 2 -related questions can be answered. These areas include the global carbon cycle, climate effects, and vegetation effects. Additional information is needed...

1983-01-01

297

Air Quality and Power Production in the United States: Emissions Trading and State-Level Initiatives in the Control of Acid-Producing Emissions, Mercury, and Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the U.S. federal government has pursued a determined strategy toward increased energy production while paying little\\u000a heed to the impact of this strategy on air quality and failing to take effective measures to reduce emissions of pollutants\\u000a from the fossil-fueled power plants that dominate U.S. energy generation. While the evolution of the Clean Air Act and its\\u000a important amendmentsparticularly

Daniel Sosland

298

Platinum catalyst for forming carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a platinum wire catalytic apparatus for catalyzing the reaction of carbon monoxide and oxygen to form carbon dioxide by directly heating the catalyst to an activation temperature of about 1000{degrees} C. The improvement comprises a layer of platinum black deposited on the surface of the platinum wire to form a coating whereby the wire with the coating is directly heated to an activation temperature within the range of about 150 to 300{degrees} C.

McNeil, J.A.; Cohn, D.B.

1991-05-28

299

A Simple Model for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will create and use a differential equation of rate-of-change of atmospheric carbon dioxide. They will refer to the "Keeling Curve" graph and information on the sources and sinks of carbon on Earth to create the equation and apply it to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

300

Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0[sup 2] include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO[sup 2] and total concentration of dissolved C0[sup 2], sea-air pCO[sup 2] difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these

Tsung-Hung Peng; Taro Takahashi

1993-01-01

301

Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0² include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO² and total concentration of dissolved C0², sea-air pCO² difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and

Tsung-Hung Peng; Taro Takahashi

1993-01-01

302

Carbon dioxide hydrationand dehydration kinetics in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate constants for the hydration and dehydration reactions of carbon dioxide with water and with hydroxyl ion were measured in seawater by a pH-stat method at salinities (X lO:l) from 3.4 to 37.06 at 25C and from 5\\

Kenneth S. Johnson

1982-01-01

303

Carbon dioxide embolism during endoscopic vein harvesting.  

PubMed

Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) is becoming common for the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Using carbon dioxide insufflations during the vein harvest can produce rare but catastrophic CO(2) embolism. We report a case of massive right atrial CO(2) embolism due to femoral vein injury which occurred during the performance of a routine EVH procedure. PMID:18381362

Tamim, Muhammed; Omrani, Maher; Tash, Adel; El Watidy, Ahmed

2008-08-01

304

Ocean Acidification: The Other Carbon Dioxide Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA video discusses how the ocean absorbs the increased amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere, thereby changing the pH and buffering action of the ocean. These changes in pH are impacting calcifying organisms, such as corals and shellfish, and related food chains and ecosystems.

Noaa; Administration, National O.

305

Carbon dioxide laser management cervical intraepithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe the use of the carbon dioxide laser for the outpatient management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). A comparison of treatment effectiveness for different grades of CIN is also included. Two hundred fifty-six cases were evaluated by colposcopy, cytology, and histopathology, treated by at least 5 to 6 mm of laser vaporization, and followed up for

J. H. Bellina; V. C. Wright; J. I. Voros; M. A. Riopelle; V. Hohenschutz

1981-01-01

306

Geothermal carbon dioxide for use in greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal fluids often contain carbon dioxide, which is a very effective growth stimulant for plants in greenhouses. Studies have shown that as CO concentration is increased from a normal level of 300 ppm (mmol\\/kmol) to levels of approximately 1000 ppm crop yields may increase by up to 15% (Ullmann`s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 1989). It is suggested that geothermal greenhouse

M. G. Dunstall; G. Graeber

1997-01-01

307

World Electricity Consumption and Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a table of global electricity consumption to answer a series of questions and consider the production of carbon dioxide associated with that consumption. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

308

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01

309

Nitrile oxide cycloadditions in supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

The regioselectivity of dipolar cycloadditions of mesitonitrile oxide to various dipolarophiles in supercritical carbon dioxide can be tuned by changes in density, the magnesium bromide-mediated cycloaddition to pent-1-en-3-ol proceeding with higher stereoselectivity than in most conventional solvents. PMID:15543310

Lee, Connie K Y; Holmes, Andrew B; Al-Duri, Bushra; Leeke, Gary A; Santos, Regina C D; Seville, Jonathan P K

2004-11-21

310

Recent Events: a Perspective on Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will compare the carbon dioxide produced as a result of two 2010 events: the eruption of the Eyjafjalla Volcano and the burning of oil on the ocean surface to address the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

311

DIETHANOLAMINE-CARBON DIOXIDE BUFFER PRODUCES ETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon dioxide concentrates in containers are frequently controlled by using a diethanolamine-bicarbonate buffer. Current studies show that this buffer produces ethylene and that the production increases with increasing pH and/or time in the incubation vessel. Ethylene is not pro...

312

Spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor designed for automotive applications. The sensor is based on the well known infrared measurement principle. It includes a new robust infrared gas-detector and a corresponding, newly developed, ASIC. First application studies show its suitability for automatic vehicle ventilation systems and for leak detection in R744 air conditioning systems.

Michael Arndt; Maximilian Sauer

2004-01-01

313

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General...not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100...

2010-04-01

314

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General...not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100...

2009-04-01

315

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General...not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100...

2010-04-01

316

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General...not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100...

2009-04-01

317

Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Multiplication of Fusarium in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

NUMEROUS studies have been made on the effects of carbon dioxide on fungal growth in pure culture, and on substrates other than soil. Since soil is the natural habitat of many fungi, and frequently has carbon dioxide-levels exceeding that present in normal air, it is important that effects of carbon dioxide-enriched air on fungal behaviour in soil be investigated. With

R. H. Stover; S. R. Freiberg

1958-01-01

318

Absorption of carbon dioxide in waste tanks (October 21, 1986).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The absorption of atmospheric carbon dioxide in eight waste tanks located in H-Area has been monitored for a period of six months. All of the tanks are continuously absorbing carbon dioxide. Approximately 75% of the carbon dioxide entering the waste tanks...

D. T. Hobbs

1986-01-01

319

49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

2010-10-01

320

49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

2009-10-01

321

Catalyst cartridge for carbon dioxide reduction unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a base plate closing one end of the cartridge, and a cover plate closing the other end of the cartridge. The cover plate has a central aperture through which a supply line with a heater feeds a gaseous reaction mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon dioxide at a temperature from about 1000 to about 1400 F. The outer surfaces of the internal wall and the inner surfaces of the outer wall are lined with a ceramic fiber batting material of sufficient thickness to prevent carbon formed in the reaction from passing through it. The portion of the surfaces of the base and cover plates defined within the inner and outer walls are also lined with ceramic batting. The heated reaction mixture passes outwardly through the inner perforated wall and ceramic batting and over the catalyst. The solid carbon product formes is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The solid carbon product formed is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The water vapor and unreacted carbon dioxide and any intermediate products pass through the perforations of the outer wall.

Holmes, R. F. (inventor)

1973-01-01

322

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne.  

PubMed

Global efforts to mitigate climate change are guided by projections of future temperatures. But the eventual equilibrium global mean temperature associated with a given stabilization level of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations remains uncertain, complicating the setting of stabilization targets to avoid potentially dangerous levels of global warming. Similar problems apply to the carbon cycle: observations currently provide only a weak constraint on the response to future emissions. Here we use ensemble simulations of simple climate-carbon-cycle models constrained by observations and projections from more comprehensive models to simulate the temperature response to a broad range of carbon dioxide emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission is better constrained than the warming response to a stabilization scenario. Furthermore, the relationship between cumulative emissions and peak warming is remarkably insensitive to the emission pathway (timing of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide are likely to be more robust to scientific uncertainty than emission-rate or concentration targets. Total anthropogenic emissions of one trillion tonnes of carbon (3.67 trillion tonnes of CO(2)), about half of which has already been emitted since industrialization began, results in a most likely peak carbon-dioxide-induced warming of 2 degrees C above pre-industrial temperatures, with a 5-95% confidence interval of 1.3-3.9 degrees C. PMID:19407800

Allen, Myles R; Frame, David J; Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Meinshausen, Malte; Meinshausen, Nicolai

2009-04-30

323

Somewhere beyond the sea? The oceanic - carbon dioxide - reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In correlation to climate change and CO2 emission different campaigns highlight the importance of forests and trees to regulate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earths' atmosphere. Seeing millions of square miles of rainforest cut down every day, this is truly a valid point. Nevertheless, we often tend to forget what scientists like Spokes try to raise awareness for: The oceans - and foremost deep sea sections - resemble the second biggest deposit of carbon dioxide. Here carbon is mainly found in form of carbonate and hydrogen carbonate. The carbonates are needed by corals and other sea organisms to maintain their skeletal structure and thereby to remain vital. To raise awareness for the protection of this fragile ecosystem in schools is part of our approach. Awareness is achieved best through understanding. Therefore, our approach is a hands-on activity that aims at showing students how the carbon dioxide absorption changes in relation to the water temperature - in times of global warming a truly sensitive topic. The students use standard syringes filled with water (25 ml) at different temperatures (i.e. 10C, 20C, 40C). Through a connector students inject carbon dioxide (25ml) into the different samples. After a fixed period of time, students can read of the remaining amount of carbon dioxide in relation to the given water temperature. Just as with every scientific project, students need to closely monitor their experiments and alter their setups (e.g. water temperature or acidity) according to their initial planning. A digital template (Excel-based) supports the analysis of students' experiments. Overview: What: hands-on, minds -on activity using standard syringes to exemplify carbon dioxide absorption in relation to the water temperature (Le Chatelier's principle) For whom: adjustable from German form 11-13 (age: 16-19 years) Time: depending on the prior knowledge 45-60 min. Sources (extract): Spokes, L.: Wie Ozeane CO2 aufnehmen. Environmental Sciences. University of East Anglia, Norwich 2007. Von Borstel, G. und Bhm, A.: Le Chatelier einmal anders, Gleichgewichtsverschiebungen am Kontext Sprudelwasser. Naturwissenschaft im Unterricht Chemie 6 (2006) H. 96, S. 34-37

Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

2014-05-01

324

HIGH PRESSURE VAPOR LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR CARBON DIOXIDE + ETHANOL + 2BUTANONE SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-liquid equilibrium was measured for three binary systems, carbon dioxide + ethanol, carbon dioxide + 2-butanone, and ethanol + 2-butanone, and a ternary system, carbon dioxide + ethanol + 2-butanone, at 313.2K. A circulation type apparatus was used in case of the high pressure systems, carbon dioxide + ethanol, carbon dioxide + 2-butanone, and carbon dioxide + ethanol + 2-butanone,

Tomoya TSUJI; Masatoshi SAKAI; Toshihiko HIAKI

325

Carbon dioxide adsorption in graphene sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control over the CO2 emission via automobiles and industrial exhaust in atmosphere, is one of the major concerns to render environmental friendly milieu. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods, offering potential energy savings compared to absorbent systems. Different carbon nanostructures (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes) have attracted attention as CO2 adsorbents due to their

Ashish Kumar Mishra; Sundara Ramaprabhu

2011-01-01

326

[Modeling of carbon dioxide measurement and optimization on building ceramic industry].  

PubMed

Input-output model and low carbon programming model on building ceramic industry were established. Carbon dioxide emissions of key steps and carbon footprint of products were calculated and predicted using the input-output model. While products planning was optimized using the low carbon programming model. The results showed that CO2 emission in the enterprise reached 182 543.9 t a year and CO2 emission per unit product was 10% more than advanced level in the world. 80% of the total CO2 was emitted during the processes of firing and drying. As a result, we should focus on these two steps in order to reduce carbon dioxide emission of building ceramic industry. Carbon footprint of blank tile, polished tile, and glazed tile were 150.2 t, 168.0 t, 159.6 t respectively. Optimized by the low carbon model, The ceramic enterprise could reduce carbon dioxide emission by 5.4% while not sacrificing any profit, and also could obtain profit 5.6% higher than before while unrise the carbon dioxide emission. PMID:22509613

Peng, Jun-Xi; Zhao, Yu-Bo; Jiao, Li-Hua; Zeng, Lu; Zheng, Wei-Min

2012-02-01

327

Monthly estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in Brazil during the late 1990s and early 2000s  

SciTech Connect

Detailed understanding of global carbon cycling requires estimates of CO2 emissions on temporal and spatial scales finer than annual and country. This is the first attempt to derive such estimates for a large, developing, Southern Hemisphere country. Though data on energy use are not complete in terms of time and geography, there are enough data available on the sale or consumption of fuels in Brazil to reasonably approximate the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel use and CO2 emissions. Given the available data, a strong annual cycle in emissions from Brazil is not apparent. CO2 emissions are unevenly distributed within Brazil as the population density and level of development both vary widely.

Losey, London M [ORNL; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2006-12-01

328

Carbon Emission Capstone (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are two ways to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide: limit how much carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere as we burn fossil fuels, or increase the rate at which it is absorbed. In this lesson, discussion topics include the Kyoto Protocol and the use of carbon credits to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Students can listen to a National Public Radio show that reports on new research that both illuminates and further complicates the picture of how the Earth is warming. The lesson includes an activity in which students examine their personal annual carbon emissions (calculated in the previous exercise) and determine how many trees it would take to sequester these emissions. They will then extrapolate this number to the populations of their school campus and their county.

Pratte, John

329

Carbon Dioxide: Production and Sequestration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will refer to a satellite image to calculate the rate of carbon sequestration in the areas of bare land and forested lawn shown to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

330

Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic CO(sup 2) include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO(sup 2) and total concentration of dissolved CO(sup 2), sea-air pCO(sup 2) difference, gas exchange rate across th...

T. H. Peng T. Takahashi

1993-01-01

331

Estimation of carbon dioxide emissions per urban center link unit using data collected by the Advanced Traffic Information System in Daejeon, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 emissions on roads in urban centers substantially affect global warming. It is important to quantify CO2 emissions in terms of the link unit in order to reduce these emissions on the roads. Therefore, in this study, we utilized real-time traffic data and attempted to develop a methodology for estimating CO2 emissions per link unit. Because of the recent development of the vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication technology, data from probe vehicles (PVs) can be collected and speed per link unit can be calculated. Among the existing emission calculation methodologies, mesoscale modeling, which is a representative modeling measurement technique, requires speed and traffic data per link unit. As it is not feasible to install fixed detectors at every link for traffic data collection, in this study, we developed a model for traffic volume estimation by utilizing the number of PVs that can be additionally collected when the PV data are collected. Multiple linear regression and an artificial neural network (ANN) were used for estimating the traffic volume. The independent variables and input data for each model are the number of PVs, travel time index (TTI), the number of lanes, and time slots. The result from the traffic volume estimate model shows that the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the ANN is 18.67%, thus proving that it is more effective. The ANN-based traffic volume estimation served as the basis for the calculation of emissions per link unit. The daily average emissions for Daejeon, where this study was based, were 2210.19 ton/day. By vehicle type, passenger cars accounted for 71.28% of the total emissions. By road, Gyeryongro emitted 125.48 ton/day, accounting for 5.68% of the total emission, the highest percentage of all roads. In terms of emissions per kilometer, Hanbatdaero had the highest emission volume, with 7.26 ton/day/km on average. This study proves that real-time traffic data allow an emissions estimate in terms of the link unit. Furthermore, an analysis of CO2 emissions can support traffic management to make decisions related to the reduction of carbon emissions.

Ryu, B. Y.; Jung, H. J.; Bae, S. H.; Choi, C. U.

2013-12-01

332

Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1996-04-01

333

Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts (measured in Dobson Units) are much higher in the more extensive Nyamuragira cloud, which contained roughly 420 kilotons of sulfur dioxide. Although several factors could affect the size of the observed cloud in each case-such as the delay between the onset of the eruption and the TOMS overpass, and the volume of lava emitted and the lava composition-the TOMS data suggest that the Nyiragongo magma may have been largely degassed before eruption. One possible mechanism by which this could be achieved is the cyclic degassing of magma in the subaerial lava lakes that have been intermittently present in Nyiragongo's summit crater over the past few decades. Images courtesy Simon Cairn, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland-Baltimore County

2002-01-01

334

Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid  

SciTech Connect

The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine and 84% conversion of olivine to the carbonate in 6 hours. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, or some combination of the two. Future tests are intended to examine a broader pressure/temperature regime, various pretreatment options, as well as other mineral groups.

O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

2000-01-01

335

Urban carbon dioxide in Portland, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are reported for the Portland, Oregon (USA) metropolitan region since late July, 2009. Three stationary locations were established: a downtown location on the campus of Portland State University; a residential site in southeast Portland; and a rural station on Sauvie Island, located ~30km northwest of Portland in the Columbia River Gorge. Continuous measurements of CO2 at the sites average 400-410ppm and show considerable variability due to CO2 sources, sinks and meteorological drivers of ventilation. Within this variability, a marked 20-30ppm diurnal cycle is observed due to photosynthetic activity and variations in the planetary boundary layer. In-city CO2 concentrations are on average enhanced by 5-6ppm over the Sauvie Island site during upgorge wind conditions, a difference which is greatest in the afternoon. Measurements of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2 in downtown Portland are significantly depleted in 13C relative to 12C compared with background air and suggest that regional CO2 is dominated by petroleum sources (70-80%). High degrees of relationship between CO2 variability and primary air pollutants CO and NO (r2=0.70 to 0.80), measured by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality at the Southeast Portland location, corroborate this finding and illustrate the importance of traffic emissions on elevated ambient CO2 concentrations. In addition to CO2 at the fixed sites, measurements of street-level CO2 concentrations were obtained using a mobile instrument mounted in a bike trailer. Results from these field data show relatively homogenous CO2 concentrations throughout residential Portland neighborhoods with significant enhancements in CO2 on busy roadways or near areas of traffic congestion.

Bostrom, G. A.; Brooks, M.; Rice, A. L.

2010-12-01

336

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-01-01

337

Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The global temperature rose by 0.2/sup 0/C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4/sup 0/C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about the mean trend of increasing temperature. It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980's. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage.

Hansen, J.; Johnson, D.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Lee, P.; Rind, D.; Russell, G.

1981-08-28

338

Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global temperature rose by 0.2 degrees C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4 degrees C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about the mean trend of increasing temperature. It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980's. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage.

Hansen, J.; Johnson, D.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Lee, P.; Rind, D.; Russell, G.

1981-08-01

339

Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation. The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) under ambient temperatures and pressures was examined through

Deborah N. Huntzinger; John S. Gierke; S. Komar Kawatra; Timothy C. Eisele; Lawrence L. Sutter

2009-01-01

340

Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning  

SciTech Connect

A high-negative voltage at the cathode initiates a dark discharge, resulting in a reduction of the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. An experiment indicated that nearly 44% of the carbon dioxide in exhaust gas disappears after a high-voltage application to the cathode. The energy needed for the endothermic reaction of the carbon dioxide dissociation corresponding to this concentration reduction is provided mainly by the internal energy reduction of the discharge gas, which is nearly 20 times the electrical energy for electron emission.

Uhm, Han S. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul H. [S and P Energy Co. Ltd., 286-10 Chujari, Opo-Eup, Gwangju-Si 464-909 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-11-15

341

Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global temperature rose by 0.2 degrees C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4 degrees C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about

J. Hansen; D. Johnson; A. Lacis; S. Lebedeff; P. Lee; D. Rind; G. Russell

1981-01-01

342

Solubilities of phenols in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium solubilities of pure anthracene at 50 C, 1-naphthol at 35, 45, and 55 C, and hydroquinone at 35 and 45 C in supercritical carbon dioxide over a pressure range of about 85--300 bar have been measured using a supercritical fluid extractor coupled with an external high-pressure liquid chromatographer. The solubility results, along with those for other phenols reported in the literature, are correlated with the translated-modified Peng Robinson equation of state.

Coutsikos, P.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

1995-07-01

343

Carbon dioxide capture with concentrated, aqueous piperazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated, aqueous piperazine (PZ) has been investigated as a novel amine solvent for carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption. The CO2 absorption rate of aqueous PZ is more than double that of 7m MEA and the amine volatility at 40C ranges from 11 to 21ppm. Thermal degradation is negligible in concentrated, aqueous PZ up to a temperature of 150C, a significant advantage

Stephanie A. Freeman; Ross Dugas; David H. Van Wagener; Thu Nguyen; Gary T. Rochelle

2010-01-01

344

Improved immobilized carbon dioxide capture sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture of carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas streams has been achieved by using immobilized and aminated-SBA-15 solid sorbents. SBA-15, a mesoporous silica material with a uniform pore size of 21 nm and a surface area of 200?230 m2\\/g. The solid sorbents prepared in this study exhibit similar or improved capacities relative to those already used to control CO2

M. L. Gray; Y. Soong; K. J. Champagne; H. Pennline; J. P. Baltrus; R. W. Stevens Jr.; R. Khatri; S. S. C. Chuang; T. Filburn

2005-01-01

345

Polymerizations in Liquid and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, remarkable progress has been made in defining the scope and limitations of carbon dioxide (CO2) as an inert polymerization medium. It has appear that CO2 represents a viable solvent choice for a variety of propagation mechanisms including both chain growth and step growth polymerizations.\\u000a When the environmental advantages of CO2 are combined with its ability

Dorian A. Canelas; Joseph M. DeSimone

346

Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A comparative assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) and radioactive waste transport systems associated with electricity generation was undertaken on the basis of 15 criteria\\u000a grouped under three areas, namely the transport chain, policy aspects and state of the technology. For CO2, we considered exclusively the transport that would take place under a future large-scale capture and storage infrastructure.\\u000a Our study

Daro R. Gmez; Michael Tyacke

347

A weekly cycle in atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new statistic called the Mean Symmetrized Residual (MSR) for detection and quantification of a weekly cycle in measured daily atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). At the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, we conclude that CO2 concentrations, on average, are significantly lower (0.022 parts per million by volume, ppmv) on weekends (SaturdaySunday) than during the rest of the week.

Randall S. Cerveny; Kevin J. Coakley

2002-01-01

348

Bench-to-bedside review: Carbon dioxide  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide is a waste product of aerobic cellular respiration in all aerobic life forms. PaCO2 represents the balance between the carbon dioxide produced and that eliminated. Hypocapnia remains a common - and generally underappreciated - component of many disease states, including early asthma, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and acute lung injury. Induction of hypocapnia remains a common, if controversial, practice in both adults and children with acute brain injury. In contrast, hypercapnia has traditionally been avoided in order to keep parameters normal. More recently, advances in our understanding of the role of excessive tidal volume has prompted clinicians to use ventilation strategies that result in hypercapnia. Consequently, hypercapnia has become increasingly prevalent in the critically ill patient. Hypercapnia may play a beneficial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and tissue injury, but may hinder the host response to sepsis and reduce repair. In contrast, hypocapnia may be a pathogenic entity in the setting of critical illness. The present paper reviews the current clinical status of low and high PaCO2 in the critically ill patient, discusses the insights gained to date from studies of carbon dioxide, identifies key concerns regarding hypocapnia and hypercapnia, and considers the potential clinical implications for the management of patients with acute lung injury.

2010-01-01

349

Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy  

PubMed Central

Bariatric restrictive and malabsorptive operations are being carried out in most countries laparoscopically. Carbon dioxide or gas embolism has never been reported in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. We report a case of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in a young super obese female patient. Early diagnosis and successful management of this complication are discussed. An 18-year-old super obese female patient with enlarged fatty liver underwent LSG under general anesthesia. During initial intra-peritoneal insufflation with CO2 at high flows through upper left quadrant of the abdomen, she had precipitous fall of end-tidal CO2 and SaO2 % accompanied with tachycardia. Early suspicion led to stoppage of further insufflation. Clinical parameters were stabilized after almost 30 min, while the blood gas analysis was restored to normal levels after 1 h. The area of gas entrainment on the damaged liver was recognized by the surgeon and sealed and the surgery was successfully carried out uneventfully. Like any other laparoscopic surgery, carbon dioxide embolism can occur during bariatric laparoscopic surgery also. Caution should be exercised when Veress needle is inserted through upper left quadrant of the abdomen in patients with enlarged liver. A high degree of suspicion and prompt collaboration between the surgeon and anesthetist can lead to complete recovery from this potentially fatal complication.

Zikry, Amir Abu; DeSousa, Kalindi; Alanezi, Khaled H

2011-01-01

350

Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions  

SciTech Connect

A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

Gosink, T.A.; Kelley, J.J.

1981-03-01

351

Carbon dioxide makes heat therapy work  

SciTech Connect

Scientists can now propagate healthy blueberry and raspberry plants from virus-infected stock by treating it with heat and carbon dioxide. Plants are grown at 100/sup 0/F, which makes them develop faster than the virus can spread. Then cuttings are taken of the new growth - less than an inch long - and grown into full-sized, virus-free plants. But in this race to outdistance the virus, some plant species are not able to take the heat. Some even die. Chemical reactions double for every 14/sup 0/F rise in temperature. So, if you try to grow a plant at 100/sup 0/F that was originally growing at 86/sup 0/F, it will double its respiration rate. Adding carbon dioxide increases the rate of photosynthesis in plants, which increases the plant's food reserves. What carbon dioxide does to allow some plants to grow at temperatures at which they would otherwise not survive and it allows other plants to grow for longer periods at 100/sup 0/F. One problem with the process, says Converse, is that the longer plants are exposed to heat the greater the mutation rate. So, resulting clones should be closely examined for trueness to horticultural type.

Sherman, H.

1987-01-01

352

Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

Gamse, T.; Marr, R. [Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Graz (Austria); Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M. [VTU, Graz (Austria)

1997-01-01

353

An optimal centralized carbon dioxide repository for Florida, USA.  

PubMed

For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at various sites around the globe, but none have identified the potential for a statewide system in Florida, USA. In 2005, 83% of Florida's electrical energy was produced by natural gas, coal, or oil (e.g., fossil fuels), from power plants spread across the state. In addition, only limited research has been completed on evaluating optimal pipeline transportation networks to centralized carbon dioxide repositories. This paper describes the feasibility and preliminary locations for an optimal centralized Florida-wide carbon sequestration repository. Linear programming optimization modeling is used to plan and route an idealized pipeline network to existing Florida power plants. Further analysis of the subsurface geology in these general locations will provide insight into the suitability of the subsurface conditions and the available capacity for carbon sequestration at selected possible repository sites. The identification of the most favorable site(s) is also presented. PMID:21695024

Poiencot, Brandon; Brown, Christopher

2011-04-01

354

Carbon dioxide reduction by the Bosch process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototype units for carrying out the reduction of carbon dioxide to elementary carbon have been built and operated successfully. In some cases, however, startup difficulties have been reported. Moreover, the recycle reactor product has been reported to contain only small amounts of water and undesirably high yields of methane. This paper presents the results of the first phase of an experimental study that was carried out to define the mechanisms occurring in the reduction process. Conclusions are drawn and possible modifications to the present recycle process are suggested.

Manning, M. P.; Reid, R. C.

1975-01-01

355

Carbon dioxide sensitivity of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.  

PubMed

Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks of zinc, cobalt, and cadmium, including the framework ZIF-8 commercially sold as Basolite Z1200, exhibit surprising sensitivity to carbon dioxide under mild conditions. The frameworks chemically react with CO2 in the presence of moisture or liquid water to form carbonates. This effect, which has been previously not reported in metal-organic framework chemistry, provides an explanation for conflicting reports on ZIF-8 stability to water and is of outstanding significance for evaluating the potential applications of metal-organic frameworks, especially for CO2 sequestration. PMID:24889776

Mottillo, Cristina; Fri?i?, Tomislav

2014-07-14

356

Carbon Dioxide Aquariums Greenhouse Gas Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This classroom activity looks at carbon dioxide and its role in climate change. Students will perform an in-class experiment using aquariums. CO2 gas will be added to one aquarium, and measurements are taken of both aquariums over a one or two week period. This lesson includes step by step instructions on carrying out the experiment. The unit is a good introduction to the concepts of the carbon cycle, heat transfer, energy flow in ecosystems, the human impact on ecosystems and climate, non-renewable energy, resource consumption and pollution. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format. A class worksheet is included with the document.

Orzali, Joe

2009-01-01

357

Selection and Pilot Plant Tests of New Absorbents for PostCombustion Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide is the only technique that can be rapidly and safely employed for substantially reducing carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants and may also be the best choice for power plants to be built in the near future. For large scale post-combustion capture, absorption is the method of choice. The key question of the absorption\\/desorption

R. Notz; N. Asprion; I. Clausen; H. Hasse

2007-01-01

358

Reduction of carbon dioxide on modified glassy carbon electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere gives an important contribution to environmental pollution due to the progressive increase of its production everywhere from many sources. It is believed now that the capacity of the biosphere, due to absorption and transformation of CO{sub 2}, has been considerably exceeded and many attempts to overcome this problem by different ways, have been successful. Electrochemical reduction seems to be an appropriate route for carbon dioxide consumption and its transformation to useful compounds. Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide on glassy carbon (GC) was studied by applying different potential regimes and monitoring the effect of the electrode surface conditioning, as well as the nature of supporting electrolyte, upon the nature of the reaction. In the case of constant potential electrolyses, a rapid decay of the cathodic current was observed, while application of a suitable pulse program to the working electrode, in addition to the ultrasonic cleaning of the surface, allowed completion of the reaction without premature current downfall. Modification of the electrode surface, by applying potential pulses, caused a decrease of the reduction potential of CO{sub 2} on glassy carbon. High yields in carbon monoxide and methanol were obtained in these media, with the highest value obtained for methanol in sodium chloride and carbon monoxide in ammonium oxalate.

Hernandez, R.M.; Marquez, J.; Marquez, O.P.; Choy, M.; Ovalles, C.; Garcia, J.J.; Scharifker, B.

1999-11-01

359

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Reservoir Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The net release of CO2 from the biosphere to the atmosphere between 1850 and 1950 is estimated to amount to 1.2 109 tons of carbon per year. During this interval, changes in land use reduced the total terrestrial biomass by 7 percent. There has been a smaller reduction in biomass over the last few decades. In the middle 19th

Minze Stuiver

1978-01-01

360

Sequestering Naturally Occurring Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Deep Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid carbon dioxide has been found as shallow as 1,500 meters in seafloor ooze. Did the liquid carbon dioxide originate from volcanic activity? Or did bacteria convert organic matter, which started as atmospheric carbon dioxide, into methane and liquid carbon dioxide? At typical ocean temperatures carbon dioxide coming out of solution below 600 meters will be liquid. Therefore, one likely mechanism for generating liquid carbon dioxide in seafloor ooze is the bacterial decomposition of organic matter. This paper examines quantitative and qualitative bacterial decomposition of aquatic biomass, with an emphasis on assessing and demonstrating feasibility. Calculations suggest natural processes sequestering liquid carbon dioxide in the seafloor can be sustainably increased to decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. First, algae growing on the ocean surface absorb carbon dioxide. The algae are then gathered into a submerged container. Naturally occurring bacteria will digest the algae producing methane, liquid carbon dioxide, and ammonium. The ammonium can be recycled as a nutrient for growing more algae. Bacterial decomposition continues in dilute solutions with any biomass. The process does not require any particular biomass. Also, concentrating the biomass by removing water is not essential. The buoyancy provided by water allows relatively inexpensive tension fabric structures to contain the dilute algae and decomposition products. Calculations based on algae growth in open ponds and experience with bacterial decomposition at 1 to 5 bar pressures suggest the economics of the associated macro-algae growing and harvesting can favor increasing ocean species diversity.

Capron, M. E.

2008-12-01

361

Carbon dioxide solubility and carbon isotope fractionation in basaltic melt  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide solubility and isotope fractionation data for a MORB composition at 1,200-1,400C and 5-20 kbar have been obtained using piston-cylinder apparatus and stepped-heating mass spectrometry. Carbon dioxide solubility in basalt melt at 5, 10 and 20 kbar is 0.15-0.17%, 0.45-0.51%, and 1.49%, respectively. Values for {Delta}Co{sub 2}(vap) - CO 2/3{sup {minus}} (basalt melt), obtained from the difference between the isotopic compositions for coexisting vapor and melt, vary from 1.8% to 2.2%. A review of measured and estimated values for carbon isotope fractionation between CO{sub 2} vapor and carbon dissolved in basic melts shows variation from 1.8% to 4.6%. Results of this study and other considerations favor relatively small equilibrium CO{sub 2} vapor melt fractionation factors around 2%.

Mattey, D.P. (Univ. of London, Egham Hill (United Kingdom) Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia))

1991-11-01

362

Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

Hoppe, David T.

1991-01-01

363

Carbon dioxide releases from fossil-fuel burning: Statement before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussion of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is given. There are three kinds of human activity that are currently resulting in net release of carbon dioxide (CO) to the atmosphere: burning fossil fuels, converting tropical forest area to other land use, and manufacturing cement. Although it is a comparatively small source of CO, cement manufacture involves

Marland G; T. Boden

1989-01-01

364

A study of methods of carbon dioxide capture and sequestrationthe sustainability of a photosynthetic bioreactor approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world is faced with an intrinsic environmental responsibility, i.e. the minimisation of greenhouse gas emission to acceptable levels. This study seeks to explain the methods of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration and to discuss a line of research that may, in the future, help to reduce the greenhouse effect in a sustainable manner.The capture of carbon dioxide produced by

Caleb Stewart; Mir-Akbar Hessami

2005-01-01

365

The use of microalgae for assimilation and utilization of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plant flue gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, primarily as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels, has been linked to potential global climate change. Capture and utilization of the carbon dioxide by microalgae has emerged as a promising technology to help reduce emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Microalgae are of particular interest because of their rapid growth

Kathryn G. Zeiler; Dana A. Heacox; Susan T. Toon; Kiran L. Kadam; Lewis M. Brown

1995-01-01

366

Carbon Dioxide Transport through Membranes*  

PubMed Central

Several membrane channels, like aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the RhAG protein of the rhesus complex, were hypothesized to be of physiological relevance for CO2 transport. However, the underlying assumption that the lipid matrix imposes a significant barrier to CO2 diffusion was never confirmed experimentally. Here we have monitored transmembrane CO2 flux (JCO2) by imposing a CO2 concentration gradient across planar lipid bilayers and detecting the resulting small pH shift in the immediate membrane vicinity. An analytical model, which accounts for the presence of both carbonic anhydrase and buffer molecules, was fitted to the experimental pH profiles using inverse problems techniques. At pH 7.4, the model revealed that JCO2 was entirely rate-limited by near-membrane unstirred layers (USL), which act as diffusional barriers in series with the membrane. Membrane tightening by sphingomyelin and cholesterol did not alter JCO2 confirming that membrane resistance was comparatively small. In contrast, a pH-induced shift of the CO2 hydration-dehydration equilibrium resulted in a relative membrane contribution of about 15% to the total resistance (pH 9.6). Under these conditions, a membrane CO2 permeability (3.2 1.6 cm/s) was estimated. It indicates that cellular CO2 uptake (pH 7.4) is always USL-limited, because the USL size always exceeds 1 ?m. Consequently, facilitation of CO2 transport by AQP1, RhAG, or any other protein is highly unlikely. The conclusion was confirmed by the observation that CO2 permeability of epithelial cell monolayers was always the same whether AQP1 was overexpressed in both the apical and basolateral membranes or not.

Missner, Andreas; Kugler, Philipp; Saparov, Sapar M.; Sommer, Klaus; Mathai, John C.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Pohl, Peter

2008-01-01

367

Choices in calculating life cycle emissions of carbon containing gases associated with forest derived biofuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life cycle studies concerning carbon dioxide emissions associated with biofuels from forests may consider emissions originating in the use of fossil fuels and biogenic emissions. When both types of emissions are considered, emission factors are dependent on choices as to time-frame, land-use scenario, allocation of sequestration and fate of sequestered carbon after fuel wood harvesting. Dependent on such choices life

L. Reijnders; M. A. J Huijbregts

2003-01-01

368

Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene  

SciTech Connect

One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)

1997-03-01

369

The nature of carbon dioxide waters in Snaefellsnes, western Iceland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over 20 occurrences of thermal and non-thermal waters rich in carbon dioxide are known in the Snaefellsnes Peninsula of western Iceland. On the basis of the thermal, chemical and isotopic characteristics of these waters, and hydrological considerations, it is concluded that they represent meteoric waters which have seeped to variable depths into the bedrock. Ascending carbon dioxide gas originating from intrusions or the mantle mixes with the meteoric waters to produce carbon dioxide waters: at considerable depth in the case of the thermal carbon dioxide waters but close to the surface in the case of cold carbon dioxide waters. The occurrence of carbon dioxide waters cannot be regarded as evidence for underground geothermal reservoirs. ?? 1983.

Arnorsson, S.; Barnes, I.

1983-01-01

370

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system,

David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01

371

Elevated pressure of carbon dioxide affects growth of thermophilic Petrotoga sp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a promising new technology which reduces carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and thereby decelerates global warming. During CCS, carbon dioxide is captured from emission sources (e.g. fossil fuel power plants or other industries), pressurised, and finally stored in deep geological formations, such as former gas or oil reservoirs as well as saline aquifers. However, with CCS being a very young technology, there are a number of unknown factors that need to be investigated before declaring CCS as being safe. Our research investigates the effect of high carbon dioxide concentrations and pressures on an indigenous microorganism that colonises a potential storage site. Growth experiments were conducted using the thermophilic thiosulphate-reducing bacterium Petrotoga sp., isolated from formation water of the gas reservoir Schneeren (Lower Saxony, Germany), situated in the Northern German Plain. Growth (OD600) was monitored over one growth cycle (10 days) at different carbon dioxide concentrations (50%, 100%, and 150% in the gas phase), and was compared to control cultures grown with 20% carbon dioxide. An additional growth experiment was performed over a period of 145 days with repeated subcultivation steps in order to detect long-term effects of carbon dioxide. Cultivation over 10 days at 50% and 100% carbon dioxide slightly reduced cell growth. In contrast, long-term cultivation at 150% carbon dioxide reduced cell growth and finally led to cell death. This suggested a more pronounced effect of carbon dioxide at prolonged cultivation and stresses the need for a closer consideration of long-term effects. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a sterilising effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures with 100 bar of hydrostatic pressure. Further experiments will examine physiological and molecular properties of the model organism allowing for prediction of its sensitivity and/or adaptability to carbon dioxide in potential future storage sites.

Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Schippers, Axel; Schlmann, Michael; Krger, Martin

2014-05-01

372

Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixing of carbon in the form of high sulfur coal with sulfuric acid reduces the temperature of sulfuric acid decomposition from 830.degree. C. to between 300.degree. C. and 400.degree. C. The low temperature sulfuric acid decomposition is particularly useful in thermal chemical cycles for splitting water to produce hydrogen. Carbon dioxide is produced as a commercially desirable byproduct. Lowering of the temperature for the sulfuric acid decomposition or oxygen release step simplifies equipment requirements, lowers thermal energy input and reduces corrosion problems presented by sulfuric acid at conventional cracking temperatures. Use of high sulfur coal as the source of carbon for the sulfuric acid decomposition provides an environmentally safe and energy efficient utilization of this normally polluting fuel.

Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor); England, Christopher (Inventor)

1984-01-01

373

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and carbon reservoir changes.  

PubMed

The net release of CO(2) from the biosphere to the atmosphere between 1850 and 1950 is estimated to amount to 1.2 x 10(9) tons of carbon per year. During this interval, changes in land use reduced the total terrestrial biomass by 7 percent. There has been a smaller reduction in biomass over the last few decades. In the middle 19th century the air had a CO(2) content of approximately 268 parts per millon, and the total increase in atmospheric CO(2) content since 1850 has been 18 percent. Major sinks for fossil fuel CO(2) are the thermocline regions of large oceanic gyres. About 34 percent of the excess CO(2) generated so far is stored in surface and thermocline gyre waters, and 13 percent has been advected into the deep sea. This leaves an airborne fraction of 53 percent. PMID:17759647

Stuiver, M

1978-01-20

374

Hemodynamic effects of carbon dioxide insufflation during endoscopic vein harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A prospective study was performed assessing the hemodynamic effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation during endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) using the Guidant Vasoview Uniport system.Methods. Five hemodynamic and respiratory parameters (end-tidal carbon dioxide, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, mean arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, and cardiac output), were measured in 100 consecutive patients undergoing EVH with CO2

Richard M Vitali; Ramachandra C Reddy; Peter J Molinaro; Mario F Sabado; Israel J Jacobowitz

2000-01-01

375

Response of carbon dioxide emissions to sheep grazing and N application in an alpine grassland - Part 2: Effect of N application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has led to great changes in carbon exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Grassland is one of the most sensitive ecosystems to N deposition. However, the effect of N deposition on ecosystem respiration (Re) in grasslands has been conducted mainly in temperate grasslands, which are limited largely by water availability, with few studies focused on alpine grasslands that are primarily constrained by low temperatures. Failure to assess the magnitude of the response in Re outside the growing season (NGS) in previous studies also limits our understanding of carbon exchange under N deposition conditions. To address these knowledge gaps we used a combination of static closed chambers and gas chromatography in an alpine grassland from 2010 to 2011 to test the effects of N application on ecosystem respiration (Re) both inside and outside the growing season. There was no significant change in CO2 emissions under N application. Re outside the growing season was at least equivalent to 9.4% of the CO2 fluxes during the growing season (GS). Annual Re was calculated to be 279.0-403.9 g CO2 m-2 yr-1 in Bayinbuluk alpine grasslands. In addition, our results indicate that soil temperature was the dominant abiotic factor regulating variation in Re in the cold and arid environment. Our results suggest that short-term N additions exert no significant effect on CO2 emissions in alpine grassland.

Gong, Y. M.; Mohammat, A.; Liu, X. J.; Li, K. H.; Christie, P.; Fang, F.; Song, W.; Chang, Y. H.; Han, W. X.; L, X. T.; Liu, Y. Y.; Hu, Y. K.

2014-04-01

376

Preparation of perlite-based carbon dioxide absorbent.  

PubMed

A new highly efficient carbon dioxide absorbent consisting of sodium hydroxide, expanded perlite and acid-base indicator was prepared. The absorption efficiency, absorption capacity, flow resistance and color indication for the absorbent were tested and compared with some commercial products. The absorbent can reduce the carbon dioxide content in gases to 3.3 ppb (v/v) and absorbs not less than 35% of its weight of carbon dioxide. Besides its large capacity and sharp color indication, the absorbent has an outstanding advantage of small flow resistance in comparison with other commercial carbon dioxide absorbents. Applications in gas analysis and purification were also investigated. PMID:18965919

He, H; Wu, L; Zhu, J; Yu, B

1994-02-01

377

A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto.  

PubMed

An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. PMID:9933159

Carlson, R W

1999-02-01

378

A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

Carlson, R. W.

1999-01-01

379

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of two binary systems: Carbon dioxide + cyclohexanol and carbon dioxide + cyclohexanone  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibria for carbon dioxide + cyclohexanol and carbon dioxide + cyclohexanone were measured using an apparatus based on a static-analytic method with in situ samplings. P, T, x, y measurements were made at pressures up to 22 MPa. The carbon dioxide + cyclohexanol system was studied at 433 and 473 K, and carbon dioxide + cyclohexanone, at 433 and 473 K. The results are correlated by the Redlich-Kwong-Soave and Peng and Robinson equations and several mixing rules. The best fittings are obtained with the Peng-Robinson equation of state and a two-parameter mixing rule, i.e., within 1.1% for both pressures and vapor mole fractions on the carbon dioxide + cyclohexanone system and within 1.9% for pressures and 2.9% for vapor mole fractions on the carbon dioxide + cyclohexanol system. More recent equations by Patel and Teja and Salim and Trebble show no significant advantages.

Laugier, S. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie et Physique de Bordeaux, Talence (France)] [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie et Physique de Bordeaux, Talence (France); Richon, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France)] [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France)

1997-01-01

380

Development of a prototype regenerable carbon dioxide absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design information was obtained for a new, regenerable carbon dioxide control system for extravehicular activity life support systems. Solid potassium carbonate was supported in a thin porous sheet form and fabricated into carbon dioxide absorber units. Carbon dioxide and water in the life support system atmosphere react with the potassium carbonate and form potassium bicarbonate. The bicarbonate easily reverts to the carbonate by heating to 150 deg C. The methods of effectively packing the sorbent material into EVA-sized units and the effects of inlet concentrations, flowrate, and temperature upon performance were investigated. The cycle life of the sorbent upon the repeated thermal regenerations was demonstrated through 90 cycles.

Onischak, M.

1976-01-01

381

Cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology is developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware and is used to predict the costs of three carbon dioxide concentration systems. The cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other programs are utilized as a basis for establishing the cost estimating relationships. The concentration systems analyzed are the molecular sieves C02 concentrator, the hydrogen-depolarized concentrator, and the regenerable solid desiccant concentrator. Besides the cost estimates for each system, their comparative criteria including relative characteristics, operational differences, and development status are considered.

Yakut, M. M.

1972-01-01

382

Searching for clues to ancient carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Something on Earth just won't stop fiddling with the thermostat. In the past 500 million years, the planet has shivered through ice ages lasting millions of years and sweltered through episodes of global warmth. Climatologists, eager to know what keeps jiggling the planet's temperature setting, have focused their suspicions on carbon dioxide, the same heat-trapping gas expected to drive up temperatures in coming decades. Catching this suspect in the act has been difficult, however; the atmospheres of millions of years ago are gone with the wind.

Appenzeller, T.

1993-02-12

383

Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication of a one-person Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator subsystem incorporating advanced electrochemical, mechanical, and control and monitor instrumentation concepts is discussed. This subsystem included an advanced liquid cooled unitized core composite cell module and integrated electromechanical components. Over 1800 hours with the subsystem with removal efficiencies between 90%. and 100%; endurance tests with a Fluid Control Assembly which integrates 11 gas handling components of the subsystem; and endurance testing of a coolant control assembly which integrates a coolant pump, diverter valve and a liquid accumulator were completed.

Heppner, D. B.; Dahlausen, M. J.; Schubert, F. H.

1983-01-01

384

Carbon dioxide measurements in the stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass spectrometer experiment for the analysis of minor constituents in the stratosphere has been flown successfully four times from Palestine, Texas on board a balloon gondola. The carbon dioxide mixing ratio, which shows unexpectedly large variations in the stratosphere, reached 400 ppm in one particular night flight. This is about 20% higher than the ground value. Evidence is presented that the experiment performed well during each of the balloon flights. The isotopic ratio C-12/C-13 was measured and found in good agreement with previous air analyses showing a depletion of C-13.

Mauersberger, K.; Finstad, R.

1980-01-01

385

Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.  

PubMed

A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency. PMID:24307628

Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

2014-01-13

386

Vapor-liquid phase coexistence of alkane-carbon dioxide and perfluoroalkane-carbon dioxide mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both government and industry are seeking benign substitutes for the many organic solvents used in industry. Solvents are used as media for cleaning, for chemical reactions, and for chemical separation, and most of the solvents used are hazardous to health, safety, and the environment. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO) is often considered as an ideal solvent substitute, but several important classes

S. T. Cui; H. D. Cochran; P. T. Cummings

1999-01-01

387

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers. (b) The use of linearizing circuits is permitted. (c) The minimum water rejection...

2013-07-01

388

Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions  

PubMed Central

Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energyeconomic growth model that accounts for a range of demographic dynamics, we show that slowing population growth could provide 1629% of the emissions reductions suggested to be necessary by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change. We also find that aging and urbanization can substantially influence emissions in particular world regions.

O'Neill, Brian C.; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Leiwen; Pachauri, Shonali; Zigova, Katarina

2010-01-01

389

Carbon emission and management of China's power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

com Abstract - Electricity is a basic necessary ingredient for modern economic growth and electricity sectors and also is the main sources of Carbon dioxides (C02) emission. As the second largest electricity producer and consumer in the world, China has electricity sector as one of the most important sector controlling C02 emission. This study presents the results of a life

Shuyan Caol; Hong Guol; Yufei Gu; Yi Zhang

2011-01-01

390

Modeling flow of mineralized carbon dioxide slurry  

SciTech Connect

Direct mineral carbonation was investigated at Albany Research Center (US DOE) as a means to sequester carbon dioxide into stable mineral matrices. Although previous work focused on treating Mg-containing minerals in conventional autoclaves, recent work has been done using pipeline-reactor technology for the high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) reaction of the minerals in aqueous/CO2 media. Sequestration of CO2 using above-ground reactors may be uneconomical, but the technology may also be applicable in geological sequestration of CO2. Progress is described in using a prototype HTHP flow-loop reactor to model flow in the dynamic three-phase system to help determine the pumping-energy requirements to optimize reactivity.

Penner, Larry R.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Saha, K.K. (Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Dept., Computational Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Arizona State University)

2005-04-01

391

Distribution of and changes in industrial carbon dioxide production  

SciTech Connect

The burning of fossils fuels is believed to be the major source responsible for an observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere now measured at many locations around the world. This paper revises earlier published data on the annual amounts of carbon released to the atmosphere during the period 1950--1978 and updates the record through 1980. A latitudinal distribution of the fossil fuel source is presented as an aid in explaining the differences in the observed CO/sub 2/ concentrations at several stations. Data from Mauna Loa Observatory, the South Pole, and elsewhere around the world (Keeling et al., 1978a, b; Bolin and Bischof, 1970; Herbert, 1980) show an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Attempts to deduce from these records information about the global carbon cycle depend upon data pertaining to the sources of CO/sub 2/ introduced by man: burning of fossil fuels and conversion of the world's forests. The latitudinal distribution of the fossil fuel production of CO/sub 2/ should be an important aid in carbon-cycle analysis. Observations in the atmosphere show that the Northern Hemisphere CO/sub 2/ concentration is increasing more rapidly than the Southern Hemisphere concentration and that the most rapid increase is at 50/sup 0/--60/sup 0/N latitude. The greatest seasonal variation also occurs in this latitude band. This paper updates and documents the fossil fuel sources of CO/sub 2/. It revises global CO/sub 2/ emission values for 1950--1978 published earlier; it demonstrates that a change in the rate of increase of annual CO/sub 2/ emissions occurred in 1973; and it attempts to delineate the regional distribution of this source of CO/sub 2/.

Rotty, R.M.

1983-02-20

392

Carbon dioxide enrichment inhibits nitrate assimilation in wheat and Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere may double by the end of the 21st century. The response of higher plants to a carbon dioxide doubling often includes a decline in their nitrogen status, but the reasons for this decline have been uncertain. We used five independent methods with wheat and Arabidopsis to show that atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment inhibited the assimilation of nitrate into organic nitrogen compounds. This inhibition may be largely responsible for carbon dioxide acclimation, the decrease in photosynthesis and growth of plants conducting C(3) carbon fixation after long exposures (days to years) to carbon dioxide enrichment. These results suggest that the relative availability of soil ammonium and nitrate to most plants will become increasingly important in determining their productivity as well as their quality as food. PMID:20466933

Bloom, Arnold J; Burger, Martin; Rubio Asensio, Jose Salvador; Cousins, Asaph B

2010-05-14

393

The effect of elevated carbon dioxide on the growth and yield of wheat in the Australian Grains Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (AGFACE) experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current predictions indicate that Australia is likely to be particularly challenged by the impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and the consequent perturbations in climate. The Australian Grains Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (AGFACE) project in Horsham, Victoria was designed to simulate predicted atmospheric carbon dioxide levels in the year 2050. The experiment measures the interacting effects of carbon dioxide

Rob Norton; Glenn Fitzgerald; Chris Korte

394

Spatio-temporal variations of carbon dioxide and its gross emission regulated by artificial operation in a typical hydropower reservoir in China.  

PubMed

Supersaturation and excess emission of greenhouse gases in freshwater reservoirs have received a great deal of attention in recent years. Although impoundment of reservoirs has been shown to contribute to the net emission of greenhouse gases, reservoir age, geographical distribution, submerged soil type and artificial regulation also have a great impact on their emissions. To examine how large scale reservoir operation impact the water column CO2 and its air-water interface flux, a field study was conducted in 2010 to evaluate potential ecological processes that regulate the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the water column in the Pengxi River backwater area (PBA), a typical tributary in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Measurements of total alkalinity (TA), pH and water temperature were applied to compute the pCO2. And this approach was also validated by calculation of pCO2 from the dissolved inorganic carbon data of samples. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to determine how the dynamics of the water pCO2 were related to the available variables. The estimated pCO2 in our sample ranged from 26 to 4,087 ?atm in the surface water. During low water operation from July to early September, there was an obvious pCO2 stratification, and pCO2 in the surface was almost unsaturated. This phenomenon was also observed in the spring bloom during discharge period. Conversely, there was no significant pCO2 stratification and the entire water column was supersaturated during high water operation from November to the following February. Significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of pCO2, DO and chlorophyll a, suggesting that phytoplankton dynamics regulate pCO2 in the PBA. The average areal rate of CO2 emissions from the Pengxi River ranged from 18.06 to 48.09 mmol m(-2) day(-1), with an estimated gross CO2 emission from the water surface of 14-37 t day(-1) in this area in 2010. Photosynthesis and respiration rates by phytoplankton might be the dominant processes that regulated pCO2 in the water column. We conclude that pCO2 values in the surface water of Pengxi River could be regarded as potential sources of CO2 to the atmosphere were smaller or similar to those that have been reported for many other reservoirs to date. PMID:24488326

Li, Zhe; Zhang, Zengyu; Xiao, Yan; Guo, Jinsong; Wu, Shengjun; Liu, Jing

2014-05-01

395

Chemical Reactions in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing supercritical fluids as environmentally benign solvents for chemical synthesis is one of the new approaches in the "greening" of chemistry. Carbon dioxide is the most widely used gas for supercritical fluid studies because of its moderate critical constants, nontoxic nature, and availability in pure form. One unique property of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) is its high solubility for fluorinated compounds. Thus sc-CO2 can be used to replace Freons that are conventionally used as solvents for synthesis of perfluoro-polymers. Another property of sc-CO2 is its miscibility with gases such as H2. Heterogeneous reactions involving these gases may become homogeneous reactions in sc-CO2. Reactions in sc-CO2 may offer several advantages including controlling phase behavior and products, increasing speed of reactions, and obtaining specific reaction channels. This paper describes the following nine types of chemical reactions reported in the literature utilizing sc-CO2 as a solvent to illustrate the unique properties of the supercritical fluid reaction systems: (i) hydrogenation and hydroformylation, (ii) synthesis of organometallic compounds, (iii) metal chelation and extraction, (iv) preparation of inorganic nanoparticles, (v) stereo-selectivity of lipase-catalyzed reactions, (vi) asymmetric catalytic hydrogenation, (vii) polymerization, (viii) Diels-Alder reaction, and (ix) free radical reactions.

Wai, Chien M.; Hunt, Fred; Ji, Min; Chen, Xiaoyuan

1998-12-01

396

Six-fold coordinated carbon dioxide VI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent, whereas silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a covalent solid, and one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO2 transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO2 tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of an extended-solid phase of CO2: a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO2-II (refs 1,2) above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO2-V (refs 3-5) and a-carbonia, this extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO2 (a prototypical molecular solid) and SiO2 (one of Earth's fundamental building blocks). We present a phase diagram with a limited stability domain for molecular CO2-I, and suggest that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50GPa occurs via intermediate phases II (refs 1,2), III (refs 7,8) and IV (refs 9,10). The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the c axis in stishovite-like P42/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp3 hybridization.

Iota, Valentin; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Klepeis, Jae-Hyun; Jenei, Zsolt; Evans, William; Cynn, Hyunchae

2007-01-01

397

The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse: Is It Effective?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows students to compare the thermal properties of carbon dioxide with those of air, and can be extended to compare water vapor as well. Students discover that the gas which absorbs the most heat (infrared radiation) is the most effective greenhouse gas because in the atmosphere it would absorb more infrared coming from the surface of the Earth. This activity could be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory activity depending on the availability of equipment. Either a data logger is used to record the changing temperature of air and of carbon dioxide in plastic bottles as they are heated using electric lamps, and then allowed to cool, or if a data logger is not available, then thermometers can be used instead and monitored by students. The site contains teacher notes and instructions with a list of materials and a photograph showing the setup. It also has an introduction for the students and questions for them to answer along with a glossary.

398

Peer Review for the PQA/Ricardo Report 'A Study of Potential Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Reducing Vehicle Technologies.'  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In July 2007, US EPA contracted with Perrin Quarles Associates, Inc. who subcontracted with Ricardo, Inc. to perform vehicle simulation modeling to estimate the impact of various technology packages on carbon dioxide emissions. The resulting report from R...

C. Caffrey

2008-01-01

399

Reactions of Carbon Dioxide with Silicates under High Pressures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reactions of carbon dioxide with molten glass under high pressures were studied. Two special types of apparatus were employed. The results supported the existence of equilibria between silicates and carbonates. No evidence was found for the existence of e...

W. Weyl

1975-01-01

400

66 FR 66994 - Controlling Corrosion on Hazardous Liquid and Carbon Dioxide Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...195 Controlling Corrosion on Hazardous Liquid and Carbon Dioxide Pipelines; Final Rule...2137-AD24 Controlling Corrosion on Hazardous Liquid and Carbon Dioxide Pipelines AGENCY...corrosion control standards for hazardous liquid and carbon dioxide pipelines. The...

2001-12-27

401

46 CFR 34.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Carbon dioxide storage-T/ALL. 34.15-20 Section 34.15-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-20 Carbon dioxide storageT/ALL....

2013-10-01

402

76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY: Environmental...to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams...to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 )...

2011-09-09

403

Hydrodynamic Controls on Carbon Dioxide Efflux from Inland Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive research has been undertaken on carbon dioxide efflux from lakes, estuaries and oceans, but much less attention has been given to rivers and streams, especially lower order streams. River systems are often over-saturated with carbon dioxide and so tend to act as sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It has been thought that rivers act as pipes carrying this terrestrial carbon to the oceans. However, recent studies have shown that a significant amount of the carbon is reprocessed within the system in a series of transformations and losses. Fluvial evasion of carbon dioxide is now recognised to be a significant component of carbon cycles, however the factors controlling carbon dioxide efflux and its magnitude remain poorly understood and quantified. This research aims to quantify, and better understand the controls on, freshwater carbon dioxide evasion. Data are presented here from field measurements that commenced in Sept 2013 in two contrasting Scottish rivers: the River Kelvin which has a large (335 km.sq) part-urban catchment with predominantly non-peat soils and Drumtee Water, a small (9.6 km.sq) rural catchment of peat soils and agricultural land. Using a floating chamber with the headspace connected to an infrared gas analyser to measure changes in carbon dioxide concentration, efflux rates from 0.22 - 47.4 ?mol CO2/m.sq/sec were measured, these close to the middle of the range of previously reported values. At one site on the River Kelvin in May 2013 an influx of -0.61 - -3.53 ?mol CO2/m.sq/sec was recorded. Whereas previous research finds carbon dioxide efflux to increase with decreasing river size and a more organic-rich soil catchment, here the controls on carbon dioxide evasion are similar across the contrasting catchments. Carbon dioxide evasion shows seasonality, with maximum fluxes in the summer months being up to twice as high as the winter maxima. Linear regression demonstrates that evasion increases with increased flow velocity, water surface disturbance indicated by Froude number, and turbulent mixing indicated by Reynolds number. Similar relationships with season, flow velocity and turbulence have been reported previously, but there is little known about the mechanisms involved. When comparing spot carbon dioxide efflux measurements to river stage time series data, carbon dioxide efflux is more sensitive to an increase in stage at more turbulent measurement points. Further investigation of the mechanisms will be obtained by measurement of DIC concentration and isotopic composition to assess the controls of carbon source versus degassing, and the analysis of the interactions between hydraulic and seasonal controls and carbon dioxide fluxes extended.

Long, H. E.; Waldron, S.; Hoey, T.; Newton, J.; Quemin, S.

2013-12-01

404

Foaming agents for carbon dioxide and steam floods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes improvement in a steam flood or carbon dioxide flood in an underground hydrocarbon formation. The improvement comprises: injecting into an injection well above 0.05% to about 5% by weight aqueous surfactant solution which will foam and reduce the permeability of swept zones, forcing steam or carbon dioxide into unswept areas of the formation, the aqueous surfactant solution

Naae

1991-01-01

405

Solid amine compounds as sorbents for carbon dioxide: A concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid amine compounds were examined as possible absorbents for removal of carbon dioxide in life support systems of type which may be employed in high altitude aircraft, spacecraft, or submarines. Many solid amine compounds release absorbed carbon dioxide when heated in vacuum, therefore, when properly packaged spent amine compounds can be readily regenerated and put back into service.

Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

1972-01-01

406

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Waste Tanks (September 3, 1987).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Air flow rates and carbon dioxide concentrations of air entering and exiting eight H-Area waste tanks were monitored for a period of one year. The average instanteous concentration of carbon dioxide in air is within the range reported offsite, and therefo...

D. T. Hobbs

1987-01-01

407

An Electrochemical Technic for Measuring Carbon Dioxide Content of Blood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electrochemical technic for measuring carbon dioxide content in whole blood has been devised and evaluated. This technic has been extended to measure the Bunsen solubility coefficient of carbon dioxide. The method requires a membrane-covered pH electro...

R. J. Reyes J. R. Neville

1967-01-01

408

Drug pharmacokinetics and the carbon dioxide breath test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelationship of the pharmacokinetics of a drug and the expiration of carbon dioxide formed as a metabolite have been studied. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug that affect the usefulness of the carbon dioxide excretion as a measure of liver function were examined by means of computer simulations. The parent drug extraction ratio, fraction demethylated, volume of distribution, and

Ioanis Parashos

1986-01-01

409

The acid rain\\/carbon dioxide threat Control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the world's most troublesome problems are closely interrelated. A case in point is the acid rain\\/carbon dioxide threat. Acid rain is the commonly used synonym for the major ingredients in the ongoing regional forest dieback, and carbon dioxide is a major influencing factor in the man-induced global geophysical experiment which is feared to lead to unacceptable climatic changes.

Wilfrid Bach

1985-01-01

410

Carbon dioxide and climate: Summaries of research in FY 1988  

SciTech Connect

Detailed worldwide measurements indicate that the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere has increased about 25 percent during the past 188 years, primarily because of fossil-fuel combustion and deforestation. Carbon dioxide is one of several trace gases that can modify the earth's heat balance by absorbing outgoing radiation from the earth's surface, thereby increasing the amount of heat retained by the atmosphere--the so-called greenhouse effect. Scientific analyses suggest that this increase could substantially affect climate, agriculture, and other human endeavors. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program is aimed at improving the scientific knowledge base to enable researchers to project future atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, to estimate carbon dioxide-induced global and regional climate changes, and to assess the responses of vegetation to higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and changing climate. The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of directed research and to coordinate this research with relevant activities of other federal agencies, private concerns, and international institutions. This Program Summary documents the activities and products of the Carbon Dioxide Research (CDR) Program in Fiscal Year 1988. The Summary provides descriptions of all projects funded during the year and a brief overview of the CDR Program's goals, objectives, and organization. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1988-10-01

411

Carbon Dioxide Changes During the Last 400,000 years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a graph of carbon dioxide concentration in the last 400,000 years and consider the rise in carbon dioxide of the last 150 years. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

412

Flexible substrates as basis for photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photocatalytic system for converting carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide was designed and constructed. The system relies on thin films of the photocatalyst prepared at low temperature using spray coating. We formulated inks based on the well-known photocatalyst titanium dioxide and characterized the performance in this setting. Glass substrates were used for model studies with an active area of 100cm2

Jacob Jensen; Mette Mikkelsen; Frederik C. Krebs

2011-01-01

413

Ocean Acidification Consequences of Stabilization of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate ocean chemistry changes that would result from the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at different levels. To determine the fate of ocean chemistry after atmospheric carbon dioxide is stabilized, we perform a suite of simulations using the UVic Earth system model in which atmospheric CO2 is stabilized at levels ranging from 280 ppm to 5000 ppm. Atmospheric

L. Cao; K. Caldeira

2007-01-01

414

Climate Science in a Nutshell: Where Carbon Dioxide Come From?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video discusses where carbon dioxide, the gas that is mainly responsible for warming up our planet and changing the climate, comes from. It discusses how the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide comes directly from the burning of fossil fuels and indirectly from the human need for energy.

Nutshell, Planet; Network, Utah E.

415

Herbivore responses to plants grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our initial study of sagebrush and grasshopper responses to elevated and historical carbon dioxide atmospheres is complete and has been accepted for publication. The study on Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide has completed and the manuscript has been submitted for publication. We have completed the study of plant growth under two nutrient

Lincoln

1990-01-01

416

A Tenuous Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere on Jupiter's Moon Callisto  

Microsoft Academic Search

An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the CO, v,, band was observed up to 100 km above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10\\

Robert W. Carlson

1999-01-01

417

Monitoring Troposphere Carbon Dioxide Spatial and Temporal Distribution Changes over China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide is an important component of the Earth's atmosphere because it absorbs and emits infrared radiation at wavelengths of 4.26 ?m and 14.99 ?m, thereby playing a role in the greenhouse effect. The concentration of the carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere has reached 391 ppm (parts per million) as of October 2012 and rose by 2.0 ppm/yr during 2000-2009. Global carbon dioxide emissions are widely seen as a major factor responsible for an increase in world temperatures. The carbon dioxide emissions in China have grown strongly in the past decade. It overtakes the United States and has become the world's largest energy consumer. In this work we analyze atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration variability on both temporal and spatial scale over China. AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO_2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded data showed that the average distribution of carbon dioxide concentration in the middle troposphere over China from January 2003 to December 2011 was extremely uneven showing a great seasonal component. High consistency of the seasonal variation characteristics was observed between the AIRS data and Waliguan close ground station data from 2003 to 2011. High concentrations were observed over the northeast plain, Inner Mongolia autonomous region and Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region March to May as compared to the lower values over the southern region. Over the 35N-45N range there were significant enhancements, yet Tibetan plateau and Yunan showed lower carbon dioxide concentration. In summer, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang Uygur and northern Gansu showed high concentrations, yet in September and October, the high value was still concentrated in the north area about latitude 40N. During the winter season high carbon dioxide concentrations fluctuated between eastern regions in December and the western Xinjiang, Qinghai province and in most parts of the eastern area during January and February. Hence, we have found that spring concentrations are highest while the winter ones are the lowest. Further analysis is undergoing between the carbon dioxide concentrations and the surface average temperature. Preliminary results show that the carbon dioxide average concentration has linear rising trend over the past 9 years and have an obvious seasonal variability.

Jiang, Y.; El-Askary, H. M.

2013-12-01

418

Carbon dioxide sequestration by ex-situ mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

The process developed for carbon dioxide sequestration utilizes a slurry of water mixed with olivine- forsterite end member (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), which is reacted with supercritical CO{sub 2} to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Carbon dioxide is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid, which likely dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. The H{sup +} hydrolyzes the silicate mineral, freeing the cation (Mg{sup 2+}), which reacts with the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} to form the solid carbonate. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural mineral, have demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction are slow at ambient temperature (22 degrees C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 7.4 MPa). However, at elevated temperature and pressure, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant conversion to the carbonate occurs. Extent of reaction is roughly 90% within 24 h, at 185 degrees C and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 11.6 MPa. Current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, and/or solution modification. Subsequent tests are intended to examine these options, as well as other mineral groups.

O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Turner, P.C.; and Walters, R.P.

2000-01-01

419

Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

2012-03-01

420

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

DOEpatents

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

2011-10-04

421

Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ? H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and s