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1

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides this new data on carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring in 1995. Data for one degree grid cells can be downloaded from the site in addition to code for analysis of the data.

2

Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxes levied on the carbon content of fuels (carbon taxes) are being considered in many OECD countries as a possible policy instrument to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper first reviews the policy response in Member countries to the threat of global warming. It then discusses the link between carbon emission intensities and current energy prices, touching also on the

Peter Hoeller; Markku Wallin

1991-01-01

3

Management practices affects soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural practices contribute about 25% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Soil can act both as sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide fixed in plant biomass through photosynthesis can be stored in soil as organi...

4

Carbon dioxide emissions and global GDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) implicated in global warming, and GDP is shown in this paper, examining per capita income and CO2 emissions of 137 countries across 21 years. It also appears that as per capita incomes accelerate across countries emissions increases, for the most part, tend to decelerate. It could be

Michael Tucker

1995-01-01

5

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

E-print Network

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions Susan Solomona,1 , Gian in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely

Fischlin, Andreas

6

World Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950-2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced-form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period of 1950-1990. Using the same set of income and population growth assumptions as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we find that the IPCC's widely used emissions

Richard Schmalensee; Thomas M. Stoker; Ruth A. Judson

1998-01-01

7

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

EIA Publications

U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its online analysis of 2012 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions today. It indicates U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels were 5,290 million metric tons carbon dioxide in 2012, a decrease of almost 4% from the 2011 level. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have declined in five of the last seven years and are the lowest they have been since 1994.

2014-01-01

8

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. PMID:22784534

O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

2012-07-14

9

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative

Susan Solomon; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Reto Knutti; Pierre Friedlingstein

2009-01-01

10

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01

11

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-print Network

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes), Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB3030, doi:10.1029/2008GB003184. 1. Introduction [2] Atmospheric carbon dioxide

Follows, Mick

12

Federal Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: What are the Options?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Supreme Court in Massachusetts v. EPA held that carbon dioxide is a pollutant under the Clean Air Act (CAA) and remanded the case to EPA. The Agency must decide whether CO2 emissions contribute to climate change. If the Agency responds affirmatively, it must meet other requirements of the CAA in order to regulate carbon dioxide or other greenhouse

Reitze Jr. Arnold W

2009-01-01

13

Explaining Human Influences on Carbon Dioxide Emissions across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change is a vital issue facing the planet today, posing significant risks to both humans and the natural environment. This dangerous phenomenon is largely caused by the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, resulting from such activities as energy production and vehicle travel This paper examines the factors leading to differences in carbon dioxide emissions among countries,

Peterson Karin

2009-01-01

14

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31

15

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Pelc, Magdalena

2009-01-01

16

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01

17

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-print Network

Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01

18

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-print Network

Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

19

Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common valuations. It is clear that, whilst aviation must remain one piece of the transport-jigsaw, environmentally a global regulator with ‘teeth' is urgently required.

Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

2014-10-01

20

Global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use semi-mechanistic, empirically based statistical models to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of global carbon dioxide emissions from terrestrial soils. Emissions include the respiration of both soil organisms and plant roots. At the global scale, rates of soil COâ efflux correlate significantly with temperature and precipitation; they do not correlated well with soil carbon pools, soil nitrogen pools,

James W. Raich; Christopher S. Potter

1995-01-01

21

The role of carbon dioxide in ammonia emission from manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems, and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between carbon dioxide emission, manure pH, a...

22

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-print Network

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

23

Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

2009-01-01

24

World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050  

E-print Network

. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may, and the National Science Foundation for financial support. They are grateful to Taejong Kimfor diligent research of anthropogenic CO2 emissions currently produced by combustion of fossil fuels.4 Because of their importance

25

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Using the Mole Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an application of quantitative chemistry concepts in the context of motor vehicle emissions. Shows how carbon dioxide emissions from cars may be reduced by up to 25% by reducing motorway speeds from 70-75 mph to 60 mph. (Author/MM)

Myers, Alan

2002-01-01

26

Upscaling carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying CO2 fluxes from lakes to the atmosphere is important for balancing regional and global-scale carbon budgets. CO2 emissions are estimated through statistical upscaling procedures that aggregate data from a large number of lakes. However, aggregation can bias flux estimates if the physical and chemical factors determining CO2 exchange between water and the atmosphere are not independent. We evaluated the magnitude of aggregation biases with moment expansions and pCO2 data from 5140 Swedish lakes. The direction of the aggregation bias depends on lake size; mean flux was overestimated by 4% for small lakes (0.01-0.1 km2) but underestimated by 13% for large lakes (100-1000 km2). Simple covariance-based correction factors were generated to adjust for upscaling biases. These correction factors represent an easily interpretable and implemented approach to improving the accuracy of regional and global estimates of lake CO2 emissions.

Seekell, David A.; Carr, Joel A.; Gudasz, Cristian; Karlsson, Jan

2014-11-01

27

Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

1992-01-01

28

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using COâ\\/SOâ from volcanic gas analyses and SOâ flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 à 10¹² g COâ\\/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 à 10¹² g COâ\\/yr from eruptions. Volcanic COâ presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects

S. N. Williams; S. J. Schaefer; M. L. Calvache V; D. Lopez

1992-01-01

29

Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuaries are known to be strong source for atmospheric CO2, however, little information is available from Indian estuaries. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge (wet) period. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ˜300 and 18492 ?atm which are within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G. D.; Prasad, V. R.; Kumar, B. S. K.; Naidu, S. A.; Kumar, N. A.; Rao, D. B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M. S.; Reddy, N. P. C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T. V. R.

2012-02-01

30

Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oceans act as a net sink for atmospheric CO2, however, the role of coastal bodies on global CO2 fluxes remains unclear due to lack of data. The estimated absorption of CO2 from the continental shelves, with limited data, is 0.22 to 1.0 PgC/y, and of CO2 emission by estuaries to the atmosphere is 0.27 PgC/y. The estimates from the estuaries suffer from large uncertainties due to large variability and lack of systematic data collection. It is especially true for Southeast Asian estuaries as the biogeochemical cycling of material are different due to high atmospheric temperature, seasonality driven by monsoons, seasonal discharge etc. In order to quantify CO2 emissions from the Indian estuaries, samples were collected at 27 estuaries all along the Indian coast during discharge wet and dry periods. The emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere from Indian estuaries were 4-5 times higher during wet than dry period. The pCO2 ranged between ~300 and 18492 microatm which were within the range of world estuaries. The mean pCO2 and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed positive relation with rate of discharge suggesting availability of high quantities of organic matter that led to enhanced microbial decomposition. The annual CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries, together with dry period data available in the literature, amounts to 1.92 TgC which is >10 times less than that from the European estuaries. The low CO2 fluxes from the Indian estuaries are attributed to low flushing rates and less human settlements along the banks of the Indian estuaries.

Sarma Vedula, VSS

2012-07-01

31

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-print Network

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory October, 2008 Contract #05-310 "Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission-310 "Spatial disaggregated estimate of energy-related carbon dioxide for California" #12;Acknowledgments

32

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

E-print Network

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental. In this project, the sunlight-induced/photochemical production of carbon dioxide will be determined in a study

Uppsala Universitet

33

Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

2011-12-01

34

Hestia Software Measures Urban Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video describes the Hestia project - a software tool and data model that provide visualizations of localized CO2 emissions from residential, commercial, and vehicle levels, as well as day versus night comparisons, in the city of Indianapolis.

Kevin Gurney

35

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.

Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Calvache V., M.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States) Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto (Colombia)); Lopez, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1992-04-01

36

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

1991-08-01

37

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-02-10

38

The carbon dioxide emissions game: Playing the net  

SciTech Connect

Concern about rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the earth`s atmosphere has led to calls for the United States and other countries to reduce carbon emissions. These concerns resulted in the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. The Framework calls for nations to develop action plans for limiting emissions of carbon and other greenhouse gases. In December 1992, in accordance with the Framework, the US Government released for public comment its National Action Plan for Global Climate Change (US Department of State, 1992). The Action Plan detailed steps for reducing carbon emissions by 93 to 130 million metric tons (MMT) by 2000. Some of the steps included in the Action Plan were reforming regulations, setting energy standards, promoting research and development of new energy technologies, expanding the use of alternative-fueled vehicles, and planting trees to sequester carbon. This paper explores the economic implications of implementing a much larger tree-planting program than the one presented in the Action Plan. Whereas the Action Plan estimated that 5 to 9 MMT of carbon (MMTC) could be sequestered in 2000 (with perhaps threefold increases in sequestration in later years when trees are growing the fastest), the program being considered in this analysis annually sequesters as much as 231 MMTC during its peak years. Our analysis focuses on how much the costs of stabilizing US carbon emissions at 1990 levels are reduced when economic criteria alone determine the number of trees that will be used. Our results show that when the focus is shifted from stabilization of gross emissions to net emissions the cost reductions are dramatic, about 20 to 80 percent depending on the assumed cost of trees. Political and institutional obstacles to the formation of such a cost effective response are explored in the conclusions.

Richards, K.R.; Edmonds, J.A.; Rosenthal, D.H.; Wise, M.

1993-06-01

39

Carbon taxes, consumer demand and carbon dioxide emissions: a simulation analysis for the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the effects of a carbon tax, one of the possible instruments for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Such taxes are currently being proposed as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, motivated by concerns about the global greenhouse effect and its potential impact on global climate and sea levels (Cline, 1991) and on global economies (Nordhaus,

Elizabeth Symons; John Proops; Philip Gay

1994-01-01

40

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use, 1751 1950  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly compiled energy statistics allow for an estimation of the complete time series of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel use for the years 1751 to the present. The time series begins with 3×106 metric tonnes carbon (C). This initial flux represents the early stages of the fossil-fuel era. The CO2 flux increased exponentially until World War I. The time series derived here seamlessly joins the modern 1950 to present time series. Total cumulative CO2 emissions through 1949 were 61.0×109 tonnes C from fossil-fuel use, virtually all since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution around 1860. The rate of growth continues to grow during present times, generating debate on the probability of enhanced greenhouse warming. In addition to global totals, national totals and 1° global distributions of the data have been calculated.

Andres, R. J.; Fielding, D. J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A.; Kumar, N.; Kearney, A. T.

1999-09-01

41

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accounting is how to deal with bioenergy. The questions arises because, unlike for fossil fuels, burning of biomass fuels represents part of a cycle in which combustion releases back to the atmosphere carbon that was earlier removed from the atmosphere by growing plants. In a sustainable system, plants will again remove the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the atmosphere. Conceptually, it is clear that there are no net emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} if biomass is harvested and combusted at the same rate that biomass grows and removes CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. The problem lies in the fact that growth and combustion do not occur at the same time or in the same place, and our accounting system boundaries - spatial and temporal - frequently do not provide full and balanced accounting. When the first comprehensive guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were put together by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, they noted that it has been argued that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from bioenergy consumption should not be included in a country's official emission inventory because there are no net emissions if the biomass is produced sustainably, and if the biomass is not produced sustainably, the loss of carbon will be captured as part of the accounting for emissions from land-use change. In the same philosophical vein, the Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions or sinks of CO{sub 2} from land-use change and forestry activities be measured as the 'verifiable changes in carbon stocks'. From these has grown the convention that emissions from biomass fuels are generally not counted as part of emissions inventories, and biomass energy is sometimes referred to as being 'carbon neutral.' But what happens when a forest is harvested for fuel but takes 60 years to regrow or when biomass is harvested in a country that is not party to an international accord but is burned in a country that is party to an international accord? Biomass energy is only truly 'carbon neutral' if we get the system boundaries right. They need to make sure that the accounting methodology is compatible with our needs and realities in management and policy.

Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2010-12-01

42

High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of ~5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

2014-05-01

43

Carbon dioxide emissions from estuaries of northern and northeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon dioxide flux through the air-water interface of coastal estuarine systems must be quantified to understand the regional balance of carbon and its transport through adjacent coastal regions. We estimated and calculated the emissions of carbon dioxide (FCO2) and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) values in 28 estuarine environments at a variety of spatial scales in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. The results showed a mean FCO2 (water to air) of 55 +/- 45 mmol.m-2.d-1. Additionally, a negative correlation between dissolved oxygen saturation and pCO2 was observed, indicating a control by biological processes and especially by organic matter degradation. This leads to increased dissolved CO2 concentration in estuarine waters which results in a pCO2 that reached 8,638 ?atm. Our study suggests that northern and northeastern Brazilian estuaries act as sources of atmospheric CO2. The range of pCO2 observed were similar to those found in inner estuaries in other places around the world, with the exception of a few semi-arid estuaries (Köppen climate classification - BSh) in which record low levels of pCO2 have been detected.

Noriega, Carlos; Araujo, Moacyr

2014-08-01

44

Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

2007-08-04

45

Carbon dioxide emission related to chemical properties of a tropical bare soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the relationship between CO2 emissions and the soil properties of a tropical Brazilian bare soil was investigated. Carbon dioxide emissions were measured on three different days at different soil temperature and the soil moisture conditions, and the soil properties were investigated at the same points that emissions were measured. The soil CO2 emissions were correlated to carbon

N. La Scala; J. Marques; G. T. Pereira; J. E. Corá

2000-01-01

46

Market-driven emissions from recovery of carbon dioxide gas.  

PubMed

This article uses a market-based allocation method in a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) framework to estimate the environmental emissions created by recovering carbon dioxide (CO2). We find that 1 ton of CO2 recovered as a coproduct of chemicals manufacturing leads to additional greenhouse gas emissions of 147-210 kg CO2 eq , while consuming 160-248 kWh of electricity, 254-480 MJ of heat, and 1836-4027 kg of water. The ranges depend on the initial and final purity of the CO2, particularly because higher purity grades require additional processing steps such as distillation, as well as higher temperature and flow rate of regeneration as needed for activated carbon treatment and desiccant beds. Higher purity also reduces process efficiency due to increased yield losses from regeneration gas and distillation reflux. Mass- and revenue-based allocation methods used in attributional LCA estimate that recovering CO2 leads to 19 and 11 times the global warming impact estimated from a market-based allocation used in consequential LCA. PMID:25412142

Supekar, Sarang D; Skerlos, Steven J

2014-12-16

47

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the US iron and steel sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an in-depth analysis of cost-effective energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the US iron and steel industry. We show that physical energy intensity for iron and steelmaking (at the aggregate level, standard Industrial Classification 331, 332) dropped 27%, from 35.6 GJ\\/tonne to 25.9 GJ\\/tonne between 1958 and 1994, while carbon dioxide intensity (carbon dioxide

Ernst Worrell; Lynn Price; Nathan Martin

2001-01-01

48

Natural sources of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide plays an important role in keeping the atmosphere-ocean portion of the carbon geochemical cycle in balance. The atmosphere-ocean carbon deficit requires replenishment of 6??1012 mol CO2/yr, and places an upper limit on the output of carbon dioxide from volcanoes. The CO2 output of the global mid-oceanic ridge system is ca. 0.7??1012 mol/yr, thus supplying only a fraction of the amount needed to balance the carbon deficit. The carbon dioxide flux from subaerial volcanoes is poorly known, but it appears to be at least as large as the mid-oceanic ridge flux. Much (perhaps most) of the CO2 emitted from volcanoes is degassed noneruptively. This mode of degassing may lead to impacts on the environment and biosphere that are fundamentally different in character from those envisioned in published scenarios, which are based on the assumption that CO2 degassing occurs predominantly by eruptive processes. Although the flux of carbon dioxide from volcanoes is poorly constrained at present, it is clearly two orders of magnitude lower than the anthropogenic output of CO2.

Gerlach, Terrence

1990-01-01

49

SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION STRATEGIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farming practices can have a large impact on the soil carbon cycle and the resulting net emission of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO**2), methane and nitrous oxide. Primary sources of CO**2 emission on dairy farms are soil, plant, and animal respiration with smaller contributions from ...

50

Monthly Estimates of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Five European Countries: The United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy and Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human consumption of fossil fuels has greatly contributed to the rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the Earth's atmosphere. To better understand the global carbon cycle, it is important to identify the major sources of these fossil fuel emissions. Annual analyses for fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions have dominated the literature to this date. By studying the monthly consumption

L. M. Losey; R. J. Andres

2004-01-01

51

Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts of Mammoth Mountain. Humans and other animals exposed to CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent could lose consciousness and die rapidly. With knowledge of the problem and reasonable caution, however, the health hazard to humans can be avoided. As noted earlier, the CO2 emission is related to magmatic activity at depth, but at present (1998) it does not portend an imminent volcanic eruption.

Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

1999-01-01

52

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Breon, F.-M. [CEA/DSM/LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Davis, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J. S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Miller, J. [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Oda, T [NOAA ESRL/Boulder, CO/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State Univ.; Oliver, J. G. J. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Rayner, P [University of Melbourne, Australia; Treanton, K. [Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency, Paris, France

2012-01-01

53

Evaluating Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emission from Alternative Inter-regional High Speed Passenger Transport Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from transport activities from long-distance and high- demand sections is recognized especially in developed countries. This study aims to compare CO2 emission from Shinkansen high speed railway with emissions from air transport by employing LCA method. Here it is assumed that only existing airports are used for air transport but Shinkansen is

Naoki SHIBAHARA; Hirokazu KATO; Yoshitsugu HAYASHI

54

Global passenger travel: implications for carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans spend, on average, a constant fraction of their time and expenditure on travel. These and a few other constraints allow a new model for projecting regional and world travel, which we use to develop a scenario for carbon emissions from passenger transport. Globally, carbon emissions rise from 0.8 GtC in 1990 to 2.7 GtC in 2050. In every industrialized

Andreas Schafer; David G. Victor

1999-01-01

55

A strategic decision-making model considering the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions for sustainable supply chain management.  

PubMed

Incorporating sustainability into supply chain management has become a critical issue driven by pressures from governments, customers, and various stakeholder groups over the past decade. This study proposes a strategic decision-making model considering both the operational costs and social costs caused by the carbon dioxide emissions from operating such a supply chain network for sustainable supply chain management. This model was used to evaluate carbon dioxide emissions and operational costs under different scenarios in an apparel manufacturing supply chain network. The results showed that the higher the social cost rate of carbon dioxide emissions, the lower the amount of the emission of carbon dioxide. The results also suggested that a legislation that forces the enterprises to bear the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from their economic activities is an effective approach to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. PMID:24412595

Tseng, Shih-Chang; Hung, Shiu-Wan

2014-01-15

56

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from Shan-Chu-Ku landfill site in northern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the methane and carbon dioxide emissions from landfill, samples were taken of material up to 5 years old from Shan-Chu-Ku landfill located in the northern part of Taiwan. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide ranged from 310 to 530, 2.64 to 20.16 and 0.358 to 1.516 ppmv with the measurement of gas-type open-path Fourier transform

Ullas Hegde; Tsan-Chang Chang; Shang-Shyng Yang

2003-01-01

57

The carbon dioxide emission footprint of food products and their application in the food system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The research reported has developed a method for calculating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from food products using recipe and farm production data. The method has utilised published Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) CO2 emission measurements for the production of crop and livestock ingredients. These measurements are complemented by conversions of energy use for drying, milling and baking of these ingredients

W MARTINDALE; R McGLOIN; M JONES; P BARLOW

58

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

EIA Publications

This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

2013-01-01

59

Implementation of Emission Trading in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Optimization Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an effective mid- and long- term solution for large-scale mitigation of industrial CO2 emissions, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) has been paid more and more attention in the past decades. A general CCS management system has complex characteristics of multiple emission sources, multiple mitigation technologies, multiple sequestration sites, and multiple project periods. Trade-off exists among numerous environmental, economic, political, and technical factors, leading to varied system features. Sound decision alternatives are thus desired for provide decision supports for decision makers or managers for managing such a CCS system from capture to the final geologic storage phases. Carbon emission trading has been developed as a cost-effective tool for reducing the global greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, a carbon capture and sequestration optimization management model is proposed to address the above issues. The carbon emission trading is integrated into the model, and its impacts on the resulting management decisions are analyzed. A multi-source multi-period case study is provided to justify the applicability of the modeling approach, where uncertainties in modeling parameters are also dealt with.

Zhang, X.; Duncan, I.

2013-12-01

60

Carbon dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

Arie Melamed-Katz (None; )

2007-06-19

61

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)  

EIA Publications

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

2010-01-01

62

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

2001-04-01

63

An Estimate of the Recoverable Chlorofluorocarbons Available to Offset Future Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of sequestered chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the United States that potentially is available for capture and destruction during the next several decades is estimated. This work is motivated by recent proposed legislation that would require utilities to offset new carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in several possible ways, including capturing and destroying their equivalent in CFCs. Past and future domestic

Mark E. Fernau

1993-01-01

64

The Effect on Asset Values of the Allocation of Carbon Dioxide Emission Allowances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradoxically, owners of existing generation assets may be better off by paying for carbon dioxide emission allowances rather than having them distributed for free. An analysis shows that it takes just 7.5 percent of the revenue raised under an auction to preserve the asset values of existing generators.

Dallas Burtraw; Karen Palmer; Ranjit Bharvirkar; Anthony Paul

2002-01-01

65

State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2011  

EIA Publications

This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix— especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

2014-01-01

66

Options and Instruments for a Deep Cut in CO 2 Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Capture or Renewables, Taxes or Subsidies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares both the main physical options and the principle policy instruments to realize a deep cut in carbon dioxide emissions necessary to control global climate change. A top-down energy-economy model is used that has three emission reduction options: energy savings, a transition towards less- carbon-intensive or non-carbon energy resources, and the use of carbon dioxide capture and storage

Reyer Gerlagh; Bob van der Zwaan

67

Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V ?m-1 and threshold field of 0.657 V ?m-1 corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

Xu, Jinzhuo; Xu, Peng; Ou-Yang, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Li, Jun; Piao, Xianqing; Wang, Miao; Sun, Zhuo

2015-02-01

68

Improved carbon dioxide characterization and estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) are validated using a dataset that includes measurements over land and ocean in both hemispheres including aircraft transects over the west Pacific (CONTRAIL), and vertical profiles over the Pacific (HIPPO), South American (SAN) and the United states (ARM-SGP). Although TES data compares well to validation data overall, a latitude-dependent bias and land/ocean differences are found in preliminary v5 TES data. Proposed improvements based on these findings are shown. March-May, 2006 TES carbon dioxide with GLOBALVIEW surface data overplotted (circles)

Kulawik, S. S.; Worden, J.; Nassar, R.; Jones, D. B.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; Fischer, M. L.; Biraud, S. C.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

2010-12-01

69

The effect of trade between China and the UK on national and global carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the amount of carbon dioxide embodied in bi-lateral trade between the UK and China in 2004. Developing and applying the method of Shui and Harriss [2006. The role of CO2 embodiment in US–China trade. Energy Policy 34, 4063–4068], the most recently available data on trade and CO2 emissions have been updated and adjusted to calculate the CO2 emissions

You Li; C. N. Hewitt

2008-01-01

70

Carbon dioxide emission implications if hydrofluorocarbons are regulated: a refrigeration case study.  

PubMed

The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and a historically used refrigerant. The results indicate current regulations being considered may increase global climate change. PMID:20050659

Blowers, Paul; Lownsbury, James M

2010-03-01

71

Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

2009-06-29

72

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.  

PubMed

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-01-01

73

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario  

PubMed Central

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-01-01

74

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM THE GLOBAL CEMENT INDUSTRY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, making the cement industry an important sector for CO2-emission mitigation strategies. CO2 is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation. In this paper, we review the total CO2 emissions from cement making, including process and

Ernst Worrell; Lynn Price; Nathan Martin; Chris Hendriks; Leticia Ozawa Meida

2001-01-01

75

Life-cycle energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of world cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tank-to-wheel fuel consumption (i.e. fuel economy) of an average car model was found to be 8.4 liters (diesel\\/petrol) per 100 km, which is equal to 30.3 miles per gallon (mpg). The carbon dioxide emissions of an average car model are 209 g\\/km. The curb weight of an average car model is 1488 kg. However, an average new light-duty vehicle

Kimmo Klemola

76

The marginal damage costs of carbon dioxide emissions: An assessment of the uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and three estimates of the marginal damage costs of carbon dioxide emissions were gathered from 28 published studies and combined to form a probability density function. The uncertainty is strongly right-skewed. If all studies are combined, the mode is $2\\/tC, the median $14\\/tC, the mean $93\\/tC, and the 95 percentile $350\\/tC. Studies with a lower discount rate have

Richard S. J. Tol

2005-01-01

77

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-print Network

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

78

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-08-01

79

Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

2013-12-01

80

Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators  

SciTech Connect

The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2008-05-01

81

Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals

W. J. J. Huijgen; R. N. J. Comans

2007-01-01

82

FOREST FIRES IN RUSSIA: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE  

EPA Science Inventory

Boreal forests of Russia play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the f lux of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. ecause f ire and other disturbances are ecologically inherent in boreal forests, large areas are burned annually and contributions to the flux of carbo...

83

A 1°×1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1950-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

One degree latitude by one degree longitude (1°×1°) data sets of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture were produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. National estimates of carbon emissions were combined with 1°×1° data sets of political units and human population density to create the new 1°×1° carbon emissions data sets. The human population

Robert J. Andres; Gregg Marland; Inez Fung; Elaine Matthews

1996-01-01

84

Partitioning Carbon Dioxide Emission and Assessing Dissolved Organic Carbon Leaching of a Drained Peatland Cultivated with Pineapple at Saratok, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2?ha/yr) than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2?ha/yr), and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2?ha/yr) under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7?mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture. PMID:25215335

Lim Kim Choo, Liza Nuriati; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna

2014-01-01

85

The time lag between a carbon dioxide emission and maximum warming increases with the size of the emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent letter, Ricke and Caldeira (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 124002) estimated that the timing between an emission and the maximum temperature response is a decade on average. In their analysis, they took into account uncertainties about the carbon cycle, the rate of ocean heat uptake and the climate sensitivity but did not consider one important uncertainty: the size of the emission. Using simulations with an Earth System Model we show that the time lag between a carbon dioxide (CO2) emission pulse and the maximum warming increases for larger pulses. Our results suggest that as CO2 accumulates in the atmosphere, the full warming effect of an emission may not be felt for several decades, if not centuries. Most of the warming, however, will emerge relatively quickly, implying that CO2 emission cuts will not only benefit subsequent generations but also the generation implementing those cuts.

Zickfeld, Kirsten; Herrington, Tyler

2015-03-01

86

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOEpatents

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18

87

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions  

DOEpatents

A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

Huffman, Gerald P.

2012-11-13

88

The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975–1996: evidence from pooled cross-country data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In assessing and forecasting the impact of population change on carbon dioxide emissions, most previous studies have assumed a unitary elasticity of emissions with respect to population change, i.e. that a 1% increase in population results in a 1% increase in emissions. This study finds that global population change over the last two decades is more than proportionally associated with

Anqing Shi

2003-01-01

89

Prediction on carbon dioxide emissions based on fuzzy rules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several ways to predict air quality, varying from simple regression to models based on artificial intelligence. Most of the conventional methods are not sufficiently able to provide good forecasting performances due to the problems with non-linearity uncertainty and complexity of the data. Artificial intelligence techniques are successfully used in modeling air quality in order to cope with the problems. This paper describes fuzzy inference system (FIS) to predict CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Furthermore, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to compare the prediction performance. Data of five variables: energy use, gross domestic product per capita, population density, combustible renewable and waste and CO2 intensity are employed in this comparative study. The results from the two model proposed are compared and it is clearly shown that the ANFIS outperforms FIS in CO2 prediction.

Pauzi, Herrini; Abdullah, Lazim

2014-06-01

90

Short and Long Term Impacts of Forest Bioenergy Production on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate forest annual net uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere is equivalent to ~16% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in the United States. Mitigation strategies to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of energy including forest biomass. The prospect of forest derived bioenergy has led to implementation of new forest management strategies based on the assumption that they will reduce total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by simultaneously reducing the risk of wildfire and substituting for fossil fuels. The benefit of managing forests for bioenergy substitution of fossil fuels versus potential carbon sequestration by reducing harvest needs to be evaluated. This study uses a combination of Federal Forest Inventory data (FIA), remote sensing, and a coupled carbon-nitrogen ecosystem process model (CLM4-CN) to predict net atmospheric CO2 emissions from forest thinning for bioenergy production in Oregon under varying future management and climate scenarios. We use life-cycle assessment (LCA) incorporating both the forest and forest product sinks and sources of carbon dioxide. Future modeled results are compared with a reduced harvest scenario to determine the potential for increased carbon sequestration in forest biomass. We find that Oregon forests are a current strong sink of 7.5 ± 1.7 Tg C yr-1 or 61 g C m-2 yr-1. (NBP; NEP minus removals from fire and harvest). In the short term, we find that carbon dynamics following harvests for fire prevention and large-scale bioenergy production lead to 2-15% higher emissions over the next 20 years compared to current management, assuming 100% effectiveness of fire prevention. Given the current sink strength, analysis of the forest sector in Oregon demonstrates that increasing harvest levels by all practices above current business-as-usual levels increases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as long as the region's sink persists. In the long-term, we find that projected changes in climate and fire regimes reduce the baseline sink in drier portions of the state making thinning for bioenergy production an effective means to reduce atmospheric emissions. However, in the more productive wetter areas, management for carbon sequestration removes more CO2 from the atmosphere than substitution of fossil fuels with forest bioenergy. Management strategies should consider the emission reduction potential of reducing harvest in some areas before implementing bioenergy production.

Hudiburg, T.; Law, B. E.; Luyssaert, S.; Thornton, P. E.

2011-12-01

91

Maximum warming occurs about one decade after a carbon dioxide emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that carbon dioxide emissions cause the Earth to warm, but no previous study has focused on examining how long it takes to reach maximum warming following a particular CO2 emission. Using conjoined results of carbon-cycle and physical-climate model intercomparison projects (Taylor et al 2012, Joos et al 2013), we find the median time between an emission and maximum warming is 10.1 years, with a 90% probability range of 6.6–30.7 years. We evaluate uncertainties in timing and amount of warming, partitioning them into three contributing factors: carbon cycle, climate sensitivity and ocean thermal inertia. If uncertainty in any one factor is reduced to zero without reducing uncertainty in the other factors, the majority of overall uncertainty remains. Thus, narrowing uncertainty in century-scale warming depends on narrowing uncertainty in all contributing factors. Our results indicate that benefit from avoided climate damage from avoided CO2 emissions will be manifested within the lifetimes of people who acted to avoid that emission. While such avoidance could be expected to benefit future generations, there is potential for emissions avoidance to provide substantial benefit to current generations.

Ricke, Katharine L.; Caldeira, Ken

2014-12-01

92

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of industrialized countries in promoting the adoption of low carbon technologies, how do international steel and cement companies influence the situation, and how can such information be used in the context of Clean Development Mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol?

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-09-01

93

Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown proportion of corpses and 161 (19%) survivors treated in hospital; though these lesions were initially believed to be burns from acidic gases, further investigation suggested that they were associated with coma states caused by exposure to carbon dioxide in air. The disaster at Lake Nyos and a similar event at Lake Monoun, Cameroon, two years previously provide new information on the possible medical effects of large scale emissions of carbon dioxide, though the presence of other toxic factors in these gas releases cannot be excluded. Images FIG 2 a FIG 2 b FIG 2 c FIG 2 d FIG 2 e FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:2502283

Baxter, P. J.; Kapila, M.; Mfonfu, D.

1989-01-01

94

The marginal cost of carbon dioxide emissions: An assessment of the uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract One hundred,and,three estimates of the marginal,damage,costs of carbon,dioxide emissions,were gathered,from,28 published studies and combined to form a probability density function. The uncertainty is strongly right-skewed. If all studies are combined, the mode is $2\\/tC, the median $14\\/tC, the mean $93\\/tC, and the 95 percentile $350\\/tC. Studies with a lower discount rate have higher estimates and much greater uncertainties. Similarly,

R Tol

2003-01-01

95

2002 Monthly Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Mexico at a 10x10k Spatial Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the total measured amount of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere remains an important component of carbon cycle science, particularly as efforts to understand the net exchange of carbon at the surface move to smaller scales. In order to reduce the uncertainty of this flux, researchers led by Purdue University have built a high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 flux inventory for the United States, called “Vulcan”. The Vulcan inventory quantifies emissions for the United States at 10km resolution every hour for the year 2002 and can be seen as a key component of a national assessment and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions and emissions mitigation. As part of the North American Carbon Project, the 2002 carbon dioxide emissions from Mexico are presented at the monthly temporal and municipality spatial scale. Mexico is of particular importance because of the scientific integration under the North American Carbon Program. Furthermore, Mexico has seen a notable growth in its population as well as migration toward urban centers and increasing energy requirements due in part to industrial intensification. The native resolution of the emissions is geolocated (lat/lon) for point sources, such as power plants, airports, and large industry. The emissions are estimated at the municipality level for residential and commercial sources, and allocated to roads for the mobile transport sector. Data sources include the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), and Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA). CO2 emissions are calculated from the 1999 NEI data by converting CO emissions using sector and process-dependent emission factors, and is scaled up to 2002 using statistics obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center CDIAC. CEC and CARMA data, which encompass power plant emissions, are already in units of CO2. Emissions are regridded to 10x10k and 0.1x0.1 deg grids to enable atmospheric CO2 transport modeling. All economic sectors are analyzed, including power plants, commercial, residential, industrial, on-road, and non-road. Municipality and regional scale analysis is presented to explore the differences in economic and industrial development and need. Specific centers of high emissions are highlighted and analyzed in order to put into context the development and growth of certain economic sectors. The annualized emissions are compared to estimates by the International Energy Agency and found to be very similar although some discrepancies are expected due to the different methods of obtaining results. Vulcan reports process-based emissions while IEA reports fuel sales. The Vulcan output is also disaggregated by fuel type and comparisons with IEA are presented across economic sectors. A monthly product based on monthly sales is also presented. Sales by major fuel types (oil, natural gas, coal) are obtained from EIA data and those results shape the monthly cycle. These results are compared to a similar national studies, and similarities and differences are analyzed and discussed.

Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Geethakumar, S.; Zhou, Y.; Sahni, N.

2009-12-01

96

Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and efficient approach to meeting carbon mitigation targets. PMID:24882922

Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

2013-01-01

97

Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and efficient approach to meeting carbon mitigation targets. PMID:24882922

Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

2013-04-01

98

Carbon Input and Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission Affected by Land Use and Management Practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land use and management practices may influence C inputs and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Carbon inputs and soil CO2 emission were monitored from crop- and grassland with various irrigation and cropping systems from 2006 to 2008 in western North Dakota, USA. Tr...

99

Screen for Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a set of laboratory experiments that can assist students in the detection of carbon dioxide. Offers a variation of the supported drop method of carbon dioxide detection that provides readily visible positive results. Includes background information on carbon dioxide. (ML)

Foster, John; And Others

1986-01-01

100

Trade-off in emissions of acid gas pollutants and of carbon dioxide in fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel power plants on the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur oxides (SOX), which are acid gas pollutants. This was done by estimating the emissions of these chemical compounds from natural gas combined cycle and pulverized coal plants, equipped with post-combustion carbon capture technology for the

Evangelos Tzimas; Arnaud Mercier; Calin-Cristian Cormos; Stathis D. Peteves

2007-01-01

101

Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics  

PubMed Central

We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO2-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO2-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility. PMID:20823225

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario

2010-01-01

102

An estimate of the recoverable chlorofluorocarbons available to offset future carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The amount of sequestered chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the United States that potentially is available for capture and destruction during the next several decades is estimated. This work is motivated by recent proposed legislation that would require utilities to offset new carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) emissions in several possible ways, including capturing and destroying their equivalent in CFCs. Past and future domestic CFC-11 and CFC-12 production levels are determined; the annual sequestration amount is estimated; and an estimate of the recoverable amount of CFCs is made, expressed as carbon equivalents. The assumptions are such that an [open quotes]optimistic[close quotes] estimate is obtained, and the actual effectiveness of capture and recovery methods is not considered. Potentially recoverable CFCs peak in 1995-the first year in which recovery is assumed to occur-at around 130 million metric tons (Mt) carbon equivalent. The amount rapidly declines as production is affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments and other legislative restrictions on CFCs, reaching around 20 Mt in 2005 and then declining to about 2 Mt by 2015 and zero shortly thereafter. These amounts are sufficient in the late 1990s to help offset new CO[sub 2] emissions, but quickly become insignificant in the first several decades of the Twenty-First Century. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Fernau, M.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1993-03-01

103

Remote Sensing of Volcanic Water, Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New data on SO_2 emissions from Lascar and Lonquimay Volcanoes, Chile revives an old observation in igneous petrogenesis: that convergent plate boundary volcanoes often emit more gas than their extrusion products suggest. A comprehensive model which integrates the processes of convection, distillation and basaltic underplating of andesitic magma chambers is suggested to explain these excessive gas emissions. New SO_2 data helps constrain a sulfur flux model for Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. This model was independently formulated and the SO_2 measurements, the first successful measurements at the site in over a decade, confirm one outlet of sulfur from the system. Prior to these measurements, the magnitude of this outlet was only assumed. Twenty years of SO_2 measurements and concurrent volcanic activity at Santiaguito dome, Pacaya Volcano and Fuego Volcano, Guatemala are summarized. SO _2 fluxes help describe the volcanic activity at these three sites and a case for continued gas monitoring of these volcanoes is presented. Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery of the same three Guatemalan volcanoes provides data about these volcanoes, not easily accessible on the ground. The images allow for description of thermal anomalies, including their temperature and changing shape over time, and the height of eruption clouds. When on site observations are not possible, imagery offers an additional tool to monitor these volcanoes. Finally, the images provide a permanent record by which to judge future changes at these volcanoes. The development of a Raman lidar for remote measurements of volcanic H_2O, CO_2 and SO_2 emissions is chronicled. The new instrument, capable of measuring many gases, has undergone preliminary design, construction and initial lab tests. Future tests and development are described.

Andres, Robert Joseph

104

Dynamics of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions from Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report herein the results of 13 soil CO2 efflux surveys at Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma Island, the most active basaltic volcano in the Canary Islands. The CO2 efflux measurements were undertaken using the accumulation chamber method between 2001 and 2013 to constrain the total CO2 output from the studied area and to evaluate occasional CO2 efflux surveys as a volcanic surveillance tool for Cumbre Vieja. Soil CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 2442 g m-2 days-1, with the highest values observed in the south, where the last volcanic eruption took place (Teneguía, 1971). Isotopic analyses of soil gas carbon dioxide suggest an organic origin as the main contribution to the CO2 efflux, with a very small magmatic gas component observed at the southern part of the volcano. Total biogenic and magmatic combined CO2 emission rates showed a high temporal variability, ranging between 320 and 1544 t days-1 and averaging 1147 t days-1 over the 220-km2 region. Two significant increases in the CO2 emission observed in 2011 and 2013 were likely caused by an enhanced magmatic endogenous contribution revealed by significant changes in the 3He/4He ratio in a CO2-rich cold spring. The relatively stable emission rate presented in this work defines the background CO2 emission range for Cumbre Vieja during a volcanic quiescence period.

Padrón, Eleazar; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Rodríguez, Fátima; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Sumino, Hirochika; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Notsu, Kenji; Calvo, David

2015-04-01

105

TRACKING THE EMISSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE BY NATION, SECTOR, AND FUEL TYPE: A TRACE GAS ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (TGAS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a new way to estimate an efficient econometric model of global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) by nation, sector, and fuel type. Equations for fuel intensity are estimated for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and heat for six sectors: agricultural, indus...

106

The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population

Stephan Scholz

2006-01-01

107

The carbon dioxide cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

2005-01-01

108

Temperature VS Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students examine the relationship between carbon dioxide levels and global temperature change by studying a graph of these two variables. They will discover that by using data from ice cores, scientists can determine temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the air as far back as a hundred thousand years in the past. The students try to predict which variable is the independent one and then make a graph of temperature change and carbon dioxide levels. After making their graph, students describe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to determine if their predictions were correct.

109

Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and a K/T boundary greenhouse effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. Total eruptive and noneruptive CO2 output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 x 10 to the 16th moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years is estimated based on best estimates of the CO2 weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO2 degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO2 on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO2 due to Deccan Traps CO2 emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1 C over several hundred thousand years. It is concluded that the direct climate effects of CO2 emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

1990-01-01

110

The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the 1970s and 1980s, emissions of carbon dioxide from energy use fell in per capita, per unit GDP, and in some cases in absolute terms in 10 industrialized countries studied by LBNL. These declines were driven principally by falling end-use energy intensities and the decreasing carbon content of energy. By the early 1990s, however, a slowdown in the decline

Lee Schipper; Michael Ting; Marta Khrushch; William Golove

1997-01-01

111

Carbon dioxide emissions at an Italian mineral spring: measurements of average CO 2 concentration and air temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of carbon dioxide from vents at the Bossoleto mineral spring in Central Italy have been calculated to exceed 12 t day?1. This emission leads to enhanced atmospheric concentrations of CO2 over an area of more than 3000 m2. The vent gas is over 99% pure CO2, with a characteristic isotopic signature that is totally depleted in 14C. At night,

Paul R. van Gardingen; John Grace; Douglas D. Harkness; Franco Miglietta; Antonio Raschi

1995-01-01

112

Monitoring urban carbon dioxide emissions on small spatial and time scales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer was used to measure carbon dioxide mixing ratios and associated carbon isotope compositions in the atmosphere over Salt Lake City, Utah, between 15 December 2004 and 20 January 2005. A pronounced diurnal pattern was found that reflected the contribution of gasoline versus natural gas combustion to atmospheric carbon dioxide. A brief warming period was also observed. These data show that for the first time, atmospheric measurements can be used to infer patterns of energy and fuel usage on hourly to daily time scales.

Pataki et al.

113

Volcanic carbon dioxide emissions: observation strategies using GOSAT FTS SWIR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About one tenth of the Earth’s human population lives under direct threat of volcanic hazards. Being able to provide sufficiently early and scientifically sound warning is a key to volcanic hazard mitigation. Forecasting volcanic eruptions is based on epidemiological and probabilistic analyses of monitoring data. In times of crisis, the extremely short time for decisions, validation and response leads to a quest for the earliest possible indicators of unrest. Among the first potential signals of ascending magma is the exsolution of volatiles contained in magma induced by dynamic depressurization, crystallization, and temperature variations. The three most abundant gas species in these emissions are usually water (H2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), and Sulfur Dioxide (SO2). SO2 monitoring methods are widespread, using COSPEC, mini-DOAS, SO2 cameras, and space-borne SO2 data. However, since H2O and SO2 are frequently scrubbed out by near-surface processes, they may be obscured unless the magma is already near the surface. SO2 is most useful for volcanoes that erupt frequently and have a dry chimney for easy gas escape. CO2 is more difficult to measure remotely than SO2} because the atmospheric background concentration of CO2 is so much higher than for SO2. Nevertheless, CO2 is important because it is the first gas to exsolve from magma (together with helium), and it is minimally affected by scrubbing and other near-surface processes. CO2 monitoring has been attempted by ground-based CO2 flux monitoring and by crater plume CO2 measurements using ground-based open-path FTIR and airborne closed-path IR measurements. In this study, we assess data acquired by JAXA’s GOSAT satellite for detection and eventually quantification of volcanic CO2 emissions. Two strategies are being investigated: (1) standard scheduled observation points, (2) repeat targeted observation requests of known centers of strong volcanic emissions. With a field of view of 10 km, GOSAT has the potential to provide spatially integrated data for entire volcanic edifices. Adverse factors include: Complex terrain, orographic clouds, emission plumes of water vapor and ash, and unknown CO2 dispersion behavior. Globally, over 80 active volcanoes are located within 50 km of a GOSAT standard observation point, but these points are usually rejected by the standard L2 SWIR CO2 algorithm because of cloud brightness. Repeat observation requests have a great potential to detect volcanic anomalies because they can target the actual points of emissions. We present comparisons of these two approaches, and comparisons to available SO2 data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI).

Schwandner, F. M.; Carn, S. A.; Head, E. M.; Newhall, C. G.

2010-12-01

114

Analyzing carbon dioxide and methane emissions in California using airborne measurements and model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have increased over the past decades and are linked to global temperature increases and climate change. These changes in climate have been suggested to have varying effects, and uncertain consequences, on agriculture, water supply, weather, sea-level rise, the economy, and energy. To counteract the trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, the state of California has passed the California Global Warming Act of 2006 (AB-32). This requires that by the year 2020, GHG (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) emissions will be reduced to 1990 levels. To quantify GHG fluxes, emission inventories are routinely compiled for the State of California (e.g., CH4 emissions from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) Project). The major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the state of California are: transportation, electricity production, oil and gas extraction, cement plants, agriculture, landfills/waste, livestock, and wetlands. However, uncertainties remain in these emission inventories because many factors contributing to these processes are poorly quantified. To alleviate these uncertainties, a synergistic approach of applying air-borne measurements and chemical transport modeling (CTM) efforts to provide a method of quantifying local and regional GHG emissions will be performed during this study. Additionally, in order to further understand the temporal and spatial distributions of GHG fluxes in California and the impact these species have on regional climate, CTM simulations of daily variations and seasonality of total column CO2 and CH4 will be analyzed. To assess the magnitude and spatial variation of GHG emissions and to identify local 'hot spots', airborne measurements of CH4 and CO2 were made by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in January and February 2013 during the Discover-AQ-CA study. High mixing ratios of GHGs were observed in-flight with a high degree of spatial variability. To provide an additional method to quantify GHG emissions, and analyze AJAX measurement data, the GEOS-Chem CTM is used to simulate SFBA/SJV GHG measurements. A nested-grid version of GEOS-Chem will be applied and utilizes varying emission inventories and model parameterizations to simulate GHG fluxes/emissions. The model considers CO2 fluxes from fossil fuel use, biomass/biofuel burning, terrestrial and oceanic biosphere exchanges, shipping and aviation, and production from the oxidation of carbon monoxide, CH4, and non-methane volatile organic carbons. The major sources of CH4 simulated in GEOS-Chem are domesticated animals, rice fields, natural gas leakage, natural gas venting/flaring (oil production), coal mining, wetlands, and biomass burning. Preliminary results from the comparison between available observations (e.g., AJAX and CALGEM CH4 emission maps) and GEOS-Chem results will be presented, along with a discussion of CO2 and CH4 source apportionment and the use of the GEOS-Chem-adjoint to perform inverse GHG modeling.

Johnson, M. S.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

2013-12-01

115

Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita  

E-print Network

65 Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita Kinda Somlanare Romuald Abstract dioxide emissions around the world, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide emissions growth, there is no convergence, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide growth. In developed countries, we find

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Carbon Dioxide Fountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

2007-01-01

117

Production of Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners use common chemicals to produce carbon dioxide and observe its properties. This resource includes brief questions for learners to answer after the experiment. Use this activity to introduce learners to carbon dioxide and its use as a fire extinguisher. Note: this activity involves an open flame.

The Science House

2014-01-28

118

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01

119

Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is 16% lower, mainly due to uncertainty in activity factors. With only 4% of Bogota's fleet, diesel use accounts for 42% of the CO2 emissions. The emissions are almost evenly shared between public (9% of the fleet) and private transport. Peak emissions occur at 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. with maximum values over a densely industrialized area at the northwest of Bogota. This investigation allowed estimating the relative contribution of fuel and vehicle categories to spatially- and temporally-resolved CO2 emissions. Fuel consumption time series indicate a near-stabilization trend on energy consumption for transportation, which is unexpected taking into account the sustained economic and vehicle fleet growth in Bogota. The comparison of the disaggregation methodology with the IPCC methodology contributes to the analysis of possible error sources on activity factor estimations. This information is very useful for uncertainty estimation and adjustment of primary air pollutant emissions inventories.

Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

2011-12-01

120

Emission rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide from Redoubt Volcano, Alaska during the 1989-1990 eruptions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates in the gas plume emitted from fumaroles in the summit crater of Redoubt Volcano were started on March 20, 1990 using the COSPEC method. During the latter half of the period of intermittent dome growth and destruction, between March 20 and mid-June 1990, sulfur dioxide emission rates ranged from approximately 1250 to 5850 t/d, rates notably higher than for other convergent-plate boundary volcanoes during periods of active dome growth. Emission rates following the end of dome growth from late June 1990 through May 1991 decreased steadily to less than 75 t/d. The largest mass of sulfur dioxide was released during the period of explosive vent clearing when explosive degassing on December 14-15 injected at least 175,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2 into the atmosphere. Following the explosive eruptions of December 1989, Redoubt Volcano entered a period of intermittent dome growth from late December 1989 to mid-June 1990 during which Redoubt emitted a total mass of SO2 ranging from 572,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes to 680,000 ?? 90,000 tonnes. From mid-June 1990 through May 1991, the volcano was in a state of posteruption degassing into the troposphere, producing approximately 183,000 ?? 50,000 tonnes of SO2. We estimate that Redoubt Volcano released a minimum mass of sulfur dioxide of approximately 930,000 tonnes. While COSPEC data were not obtained frequently enough to enable their use in eruption prediction, SO2 emission rates clearly indicated a consistent decline in emission rates between March through October 1990 and a continued low level of emission rates through the first half of 1991. Values from consecutive daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates spanning the March 23, 1990 eruption decreased in the three days prior to eruption. That decrease was coincident with a several-fold increase in the frequency of shallow seismic events, suggesting partial sealing of the magma conduit to gas loss that resulted in pressurization of the shallow magma system and an increase in earthquake activity. Unlike the short-term SO2 decrease in March 1990, the long-term decrease of sulfur dioxide emission rates from March 1990 through May 1991 was coincident with low rates of seismic energy release and was interpreted to reflect gradual depressurization of the shallow magma reservoir. The long-term declines in seismic energy release and in SO2 emission rates led AVO scientists to conclude on April 19, 1991 that the potential for further eruptive activity from Redoubt Volcano had diminished, and on this basis, the level of concern color code for the volcano was changed from code yellow (Volcano is restless; earthquake activity is elevated; activity may include extrusion of lava) to code green (Volcano is in its normal 'dormant' state). ?? 1994.

Casadevall, T.J.; Doukas, M.P.; Neal, C.A.; McGimsey, R.G.; Gardner, C.A.

1994-01-01

121

Eddy Covariance trial measurement of carbon dioxide and fine particle emission during a controlled Savannah fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the CarboAfrica Fire Experiment (CA-FE) held in August 2007 at the Kruger National Park (South Africa), the concurrent determination of carbon dioxide, water vapor and size segregated particle (0.32 - 6.24 m nominal optical diameter) fluxes was performed by Eddy Covariance. The instrumentation (EOLO) recently developed by Fratini et al. (2007) for the determination of particle fluxes from desert storm events in Northern China, was used for a real-time determination of carbon particle fluxes. Although data were collected in three different plots, only in one of them the data set was long enough to follow the evolution of chemical species during the different phases in which fire develops. Results from other plots were used to corroborate the analysis. Emission fluxes of CO2 as high as 4.*103 mol/m2s were reached during the flaming phase, whereas values ranging between 20 and 60 mol/m2s were recorded during the smoldering phase. The temporal evolution of particle fluxes only partly correlated with those of CO2 with values ranging from ca. 3-4*103 particles/m2s in the flaming phase down to few tens of particles/m2s during the smoldering phase. While fluxes of carbon particles in the size range investigated dropped down quickly after the flaming phase, probably due to gravitational settling, CO2 fluxes reached an almost steady state, likely to last for several hours after the end of the flaming phase. References Fratini G., Ciccioli P., Febo A., Forgione A., Valentini R. (2007) Size-segregated fluxes of mineral dust from a desert area of northern China by Eddy Covariance. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2839-2854

Fratini, G.; Forgione, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Papale, D.; Valentini, R.

2009-04-01

122

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

123

Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

E-print Network

Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2007-01-01

124

Impact of future nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions on the stratospheric ozone layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric levels of human-produced chlorocarbons and bromocarbons are projected to make only small contributions to ozone depletion by 2100. Increases in carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) will become increasingly important in determining the future of the ozone layer. N2O increases lead to increased production of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contributing to ozone depletion. CO2 increases cool the stratosphere and affect ozone levels in several ways. Cooling decreases the rate of many photochemical reactions, thus slowing ozone loss rates. Cooling also increases the chemical destruction of nitrogen oxides, thereby moderating the effect of increased N2O on ozone depletion. The stratospheric ozone level projected for the end of this century therefore depends on future emissions of both CO2 and N2O. We use a two-dimensional chemical transport model to explore a wide range of values for the boundary conditions for CO2 and N2O, and find that all of the current scenarios for growth of greenhouse gases project the global average ozone to be larger in 2100 than in 1960.

Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

2015-03-01

125

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Illuminated Frozen Pyruvic Acid Solutions Above Minus 140 Celsius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodecarboxylation rates of deareated aqueous pyruvic acid solutions drop by a factor of two in the frozen state at 253 K relative to the fluid at 293 K. TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl), in contrast with experiments in water, has no effect on photodecarboxylation rates in ice. Preirradiated frozen pyruvic acid (PA) solutions still release carbon dioxide (CD)in the dark at rates that increase with temperature (Ea = 22 kJ/mol, below 268 K), but which extrapolate into measurable rates in fluid solutions, at variance with observations. We verified the absence of post-illumination CD emissions in the concerted photodecomposition of benzoylformic acid in frozen solutions. We infer that PA rapidly photodecarboxylates into intermediates that slowly yield further CD via a thermally activated process. Prompt CD is apparently formed even at cryogenic temperatures, although is only able to sublimate above -140 Celsius. The detection of distant triplet radical pairs in ice below 190 K via electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry indicates that the primary process in the photodecarboxylation of pyruvic acid involves photoinduced charge transfer between the carbonyl groups of H-bonded PA dimers into triplet [PA- PA+], followed by ultrafast deprotonation/decarboxylation of the radical cation PA+. The radical anion PA- readily protonates into an alkoxyl radical to initiate polymerizations.

Guzman, M. I.; Colussi, A. J.; Hoffmann, M. R.

2005-12-01

126

Effect of Rice Residues on Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from a Paddy Soil of Subtropical China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot incubation experiment with rice residues (straw and root) was conducted under aerobic condition (60% of WHC, water holding\\u000a capacity) for a period of 55 days in a greenhouse. The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were determined by the closed chamber method in a paddy soil. The soil was derived from quaternary red clay, and

Yunsheng Lou; Lixuan Ren; Zhongpei Li; Taolin Zhang; Kazuyuki Inubushi

2007-01-01

127

Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions from soils following corn residue removal for bioenergy production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn stover has been identified as a potential cellulosic ethanol feedstock prompting assessments of the effects of residue removal on soil processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect or corn residue removal on carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soil. A r...

128

Glucosinolate breakdown products as insect fumigants and their effect on carbon dioxide emission of insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile, therefore good candidates for insect fumigants. However, although they are insecticidal, the mode of action of such natural products is not clear. We studied the insecticidal effect of these compounds as fumigants, and monitored the production of carbon dioxide by the insects as a probe to the understanding of their mode of action. RESULTS:

Rong Tsao; Chris J Peterson; Joel R Coats

2002-01-01

129

THE EFFECTS OF CROPPING SYSTEMS ON THE EMISSION OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM SOIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global warming is an arising problem which is due to an increase of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) in the atmosphere. Agriculture can have a net positive or net negative influence on atmospheric CO2 concentrations based on the balance between C inputs to soil (via phot...

130

Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised...

Goodman, Anna; Brand, Christian; Ogilvie, David; on behalf of the iConnect consortium

2012-08-03

131

Wetland Methane Emission Response to Last Glacial Maximum Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice core records show that the atmospheric concentration of methane (CH4) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (~21,000 years ago) was 40% lower than the preindustrial Holocene. The contribution of natural wetlands to the global CH4 budget during the LGM is determined by modelling their spatial extent and productivity. Although models provide an estimated flux of ~75-180 Tg yr-1, they adopt present day physiological relationships to reconstruct past wetland emissions. Here we show that the LGM (180 ppm) carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration lowers CH4 emissions from peat cores incubated in controlled environments compared to cores maintained under a modern atmospheric CO2 concentration (380 ppm). Peat cores (110 x 400 mm) collected from a UK minerotrophic fen and upland ombrotrophic bog were maintained either in a [CO2] of 180 ppm or 380 ppm over 21 months. CH4 fluxes were measured on a monthly/weekly basis using static chambers with [CH4] measured via an LGR Fast CH4 Analyser and GC-FID. Results show that total CH4 flux from the minerotrophic fen was suppressed by 17 and 31% in season 1 and 2 respectively under LGM CO2 starvation. The ombrotrophic bog cores were suppressed by 20% in year 1 and 10% in year 2. Both peat types exhibited a rapid initial response to the sub-ambient [CO2] treatment with a change in CH4 flux recorded 5 days into the experiment. We also measured the influence of an LGM [CO2] atmosphere on CH4 flux temperature response during years 1 and 2. These results suggest that both wetland plants, and the underlying biogeochemistry of the rhizosphere, are sensitive to a reduction in [CO2] in the atmosphere and this has yet to be incorporated into global wetland CH4 models.

Boardman, C. P.; Gauci, V.; Beerling, D. J.

2008-12-01

132

Carbon dioxide removal process  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

2003-11-18

133

The impact of electric passenger transport technology under an economy-wide climate policy in the United States: Carbon dioxide emissions, coal use, and carbon dioxide capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2010-01-01

134

Emission of carbon dioxide from a Tropical Estuarine System, Goa, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide species were studied in Mandovi-Zuari system, a tropical estuarine complex influenced by strong monsoonal run-off, with implications to build up and air-water exchange of CO2. Total carbon dioxide (TCO2) behaved conservatively during the estuarine mixing. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), evaluated from TCO2 and pH couple, and carbonic acid dissociation constants, exhibited supersaturation with respect to atmospheric CO2 round the year. The pCO2 attained maximal levels over 2000 µatm in waters of early estuarine mixing. Average pCO2 in estuarine system were 1045 and 1153 µatm (three times to that in atmosphere) in non- southwest (SW) and SW monsoon seasons, respectively. An experimental study revealed that soil-water interaction could be an important controller of pCO2 abundance in these estuarine waters. The calculated water-to-air average fluxes were 67 and 11 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively, in SW monsoon due to higher wind speeds and non-SW monsoons. This study strongly suggests that pH regulation by soil-water interaction is important, besides biological processes, in river and estuarine systems.

Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Kumar, M. Dileep; Manerikar, M.

135

Carbon dioxide sensor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15

136

The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity  

PubMed Central

Background This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population × affluence × technology) approach. Results Results suggest the weak existence of an environmental Kuznets curve, in which the wealthiest cities are reducing their emissions through increased efficiency. Significant institutional impacts are also found to hold in the predicted directions. Specifically, panel and cross-sectional regressions indicate that membership in the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives and non-profit organizational presence have negative effects on industrial carbon dioxide emissions. Conclusion The presence of institutional drivers at the city level provides empirical support for the POETICs rubric, which recasts the ecological framing of the IPAT identity in a more sociological mold. The results also indicate that Japanese civil society has a role to play in carbon mitigation. More refined studies need to take into consideration an expanded set of methods, drivers, and carbon budgets, as applied to a broader range of cases outside of Japan, to more accurately assess how civil society can bridge the issue of scale that separates local level policy concerns from global level climate dynamics. PMID:17005049

Scholz, Stephan

2006-01-01

137

Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form  

SciTech Connect

Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Auxon Corp., (United States)

1995-12-31

138

Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Ocean Acidification: The Potential Impacts on Ocean Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the focus in recent years on the potential impacts of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere linked to\\u000a anthropogenic activities has been on the ramifications of atmospheric warming for ecosystems and human institutions. However,\\u000a there is growing evidence that the gravest peril for ocean species may be acidification of the world’s oceans as a consequence\\u000a of

William C. G. Burns

139

Climate trade-off between black carbon and carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are various difficulties involved with comparing the effects of short-lived and long-lived atmospheric species on climate. Global warming potentials (GWPs) can be computed for pulse emissions of short-lived species. However, if the focus is on the long-term effect of a pulse emission occurring today, GWPs do not factor in the fact that if a radiative forcing is applied for

O. Boucher; M. S. Reddy

2008-01-01

140

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an artificially drained coastal wetland during a flood: Implications for wetland global warming potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods frequently produce deoxygenation and acidification in waters of artificially drained coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) wetlands. These conditions are ideal for carbon dioxide and methane production. We investigated CO2 and CH4 dynamics and quantified carbon loss within an artificially drained CASS wetland during and after a flood. We separated the system into wetland soils (inundated soil during flood and exposed soil during post flood period), drain water, and creek water and performed measurements of free CO2 ([CO2*]), CH4, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC), stable carbon isotopes, and radon (222Rn: natural tracer for groundwater discharge) to determine aquatic carbon loss pathways. [CO2*] and CH4 values in the creek reached 721 and 81 ?M, respectively, 2 weeks following a flood during a severe deoxygenation phase (dissolved oxygen ~ 0% saturation). CO2 and CH4 emissions from the floodplain to the atmosphere were 17-fold and 170-fold higher during the flooded period compared to the post-flood period, respectively. CO2 emissions accounted for about 90% of total floodplain mass carbon losses during both the flooded and post-flood periods. Assuming a 20 and 100 year global warming potential (GWP) for CH4 of 105 and 27 CO2-equivalents, CH4 emission contributed to 85% and 60% of total floodplain CO2-equivalent emissions, respectively. Stable carbon isotopes (?13C in dissolved CO2 and CH4) and 222Rn indicated that carbon dynamics within the creek were more likely driven by drainage of surface floodwaters from the CASS wetland rather than groundwater seepage. This study demonstrated that >90% of CO2 and CH4 emissions from the wetland system occurred during the flood period and that the inundated wetland was responsible for ~95% of CO2-equivalent emissions over the floodplain.

Gatland, J. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.; Duncan, T. M.; Erler, D. V.

2014-08-01

141

Binding carbon dioxide in mineral form: A critical step towards a zero-emission coal power plant  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have successfully developed the foundation for sequestration of carbon dioxide in mineral form. The purpose of this technology is to maintain the competitiveness of coal energy, even when in the future environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other sequestration methods, this is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, the goal is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. Such a technology will guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth exceeds the most optimistic estimates. The approach differs from all others in that the authors are developing an industrial process that chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Merrick Company (United States)

1998-11-01

142

Are there biomedical criteria to assess an acute carbon dioxide intoxication by a volcanic emission?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On August 21, 1987, more than 1800 people, thousands of head of cattle and countless wild animals, including birds, were killed by a gas release which occurred during about 4 hours at the lake in the crater Iwi at Nyos in Cameroon; plant life was mostly unaffected. An international inquiry was performed by British, French, Italian, Japanese and U.S. volcanologists and physicians to determine what had been the cause of this disaster. An international conference organised by United Nations Educational Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (U.N.E.S.C.O.), the Cameroon Government and the U.N. Economic Commission for Africa held in Yaoundé March, 1987 concluded: 'that the cause of sudden death was suffocation (asphyxia) in a carbon dioxide atmosphere' The medical findings have been explained by asphyxia caused by carbon dioxide. The presence of other volcanic gases, e.g. hydrogen sulfide, cannot be ruled out' (Sigvaldason, 1989, this issue). This paper reviews what is mainly known about an acute carbon dioxide intoxication in order to disprove or confirm the diagnosis and helps to interpret the field observations and testimonies to provide a basis to discuss the prevention of such an intoxication.

Stupfel, Maurice; Le Guern, François

1989-11-01

143

Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

E-print Network

how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are even higher than the ones from thermo-power plantsHydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy

Fischlin, Andreas

144

Old carbon contributes to aquatic emissions of carbon dioxide in the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the rate at which carbon is cycled is crucial to understanding the dynamics of carbon transfer pathways. Recent technical developments now support measurement of the 14C age of evaded CO2 from fluvial systems, which provides an important "fingerprint" of the source of C. Here we report the first direct measurements of the 14C age of effluxed CO2 from two small streams and two rivers within the western Amazonian Basin. The rate of degassing and hydrochemical controls on degassing are also considered. We observe that CO2 efflux from all systems except for the seasonal small stream was 14C-depleted relative to the contemporary atmosphere, indicating a contribution from "old" carbon fixed before ~ 1955 AD. Further, "old" CO2 was effluxed from the perennial stream in the rainforest; this was unexpected as here connectivity with the contemporary C cycle is likely greatest. The effluxed gas represents all sources of CO2 in the aquatic system and thus we used end-member analysis to identify the relative inputs of fossil, modern and intermediately aged C. The most likely solutions indicated a contribution from fossil carbon sources of between 3 and 9% which we interpret as being derived from carbonate weathering. This is significant as the currently observed intensification of weather has the potential to increase the future release of old carbon, which can be subsequently degassed to the atmosphere, and so renders older, slower C cycles faster. Thus 14C fingerprinting of evaded CO2 provides understanding which is essential to more accurately model the carbon cycle in the Amazon Basin.

Vihermaa, L. E.; Waldron, S.; Garnett, M. H.; Newton, J.

2014-07-01

145

Old carbon contributes to aquatic emissions of carbon dioxide in the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the rate that carbon is cycled is crucial to understanding the dynamics of carbon transfer pathways. Recent technical developments now support measurement of the 14C age of evaded CO2 from fluvial systems, which provides an important "fingerprint" of the source of C. Here we report the first direct measurements of the 14C age of effluxed CO2 from two small streams and two rivers within the Western Amazonian Basin. The rate of degassing and hydrochemical controls on degassing are also considered. We observe that CO2 efflux from all systems except the seasonal small stream was 14C-depleted relative to the contemporary atmosphere, indicating a~contribution from "old" carbon fixed before ~1955 AD. Further, "old" CO2 was effluxed from the perennial stream in the rainforest, unexpected as here connectivity with the contemporary C cycle is likely greatest. The effluxed gas represents all sources of CO2 in the aquatic system and thus we used end member analysis to identify the relative inputs of fossil, modern and intermediately-aged C. The most likely solutions indicated a contribution from fossil carbon sources of between 3 and 9% which we interpret as being derived from carbonate weathering. This is significant as the currently observed intensification of weather has the potential to increase the future release of old carbon, which can be subsequently degassed to the atmosphere, and so render older, slower C cycles faster. Thus 14C fingerprinting of evaded CO2 provides understanding essential to more accurately model the carbon cycle in the Amazon Basin.

Vihermaa, L. E.; Waldron, S.; Garnett, M. H.; Newton, J.

2014-01-01

146

Carbon dioxide recycling  

EPA Science Inventory

The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the ?Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

147

Carbon tax for subsidizing photovoltaic power generation systems and its effect on carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new framework for evaluating quantitatively the effect of carbon taxation. In this study, the tax revenues are supposed to be used only as a subsidy for installing Photovoltaic Power Generation (PV) Systems on houses. The evaluation model developed in this study comprises three sequential modules. The first module is for estimating the demand for the PV

Tetsuo Tezuka; Keisuke Okushima; Takamitsu Sawa

2002-01-01

148

Land Use and Management Practices Impact on Plant Biomass Carbon and Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land use and management practices may influence plant C input and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. We evaluated the effect of a combination of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on plant biomass (leaves + stems) C, soil temperature and water ...

149

Tillage, Cropping Sequence, and Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Dryland Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission and Carbon Content  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO2 emission and increase C sequestration that can influence global warming. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combination and N fertilization on dryland soil surface CO2 flux, temperature and water content at the 0- to 1...

150

Management practices effects on soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices can influence soil CO2 emission and C content in cropland, which can effect global warming. We examined the effects of combinations of irrigation, tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization on soil CO2 flux, temperature, water, and C content at the 0 to 20 cm depth from May ...

151

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss.  

PubMed

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5' grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO(2). Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N; Jardine, Sunny L

2012-09-01

152

Carbon Dioxide Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students work in groups, plotting carbon dioxide concentrations over time on overheads and estimating the rate of change over five years. Stacked together, the overheads for the whole class show an increase on carbon dioxide over five years and annual variation driven by photosynthesis. This exercise enables students to practice basic quantitative skills and understand how important sampling intervals can be when studying changes over time. A goal is to see how small sample size may give incomplete picture of data.

Randy Richardson

153

Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source (??13C = -4.5 to -5???, 3He/4He = 4.5 to 6.7 RA) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO2 discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m-2 d-1 at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO2 discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO2 flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30-50 t/d of CO2 are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO2 and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N2/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time.

Sorey, M.L.; Evans, William C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Farrar, C.D.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Hausback, B.

1998-01-01

154

Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals  

E-print Network

We show that fluorescence emission induced by strong field tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from its lower-lying orbitals exhibits a peculiar molecular alignment dependence. The experimentally measured alignment-dependence of the fluorescence agrees with the alignment-dependence of the ionization probability calculated in the framework of the strong field approximation. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an all-optical approach for shedding more light on the ionization mechanisms of molecules from their lower-lying orbitals in tunnel ionization regime.

Yao, Jinping; Jia, Xinyan; Hao, Xiaolei; Zeng, Bin; Jing, Chenrui; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xie, Hongqiang; Zhang, Chaojin; Zhao, Zengxiu; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

2013-01-01

155

Climate and Carbon Dioxide: Analyzing Their Relationship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this activity, students learn about atmospheric carbon dioxide and its role in the greenhouse effect. They can identify the leading producers of carbon dioxide emissions and read about the global climate conference that was held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 to set international limits on these emissions. The material provides information to increase students' understanding of the implications and processes of possible changes in the world's climate.

2002-01-01

156

Carbon dioxide emissions from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peat surface CO2 emission, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 2300 emission measurements were taken at 144 locations, over a 2 year period. The autotrophic root respiration component of CO2 emission was separated from heterotrophic emission caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 emissions within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 emissions with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 emissions before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of autotrophic respiration to daytime CO2 emission was 21% along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this was up to 80% of the total emissions, but it was negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 emission measurements well away from trees were free of any autotrophic respiration contribution and thus represent only heterotrophic emissions. We found daytime mean annual CO2 emission from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha-1 y-1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum emission value of 80 t ha-1 y-1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which may result in a 14.5% reduction of the daytime emission. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depth and peat oxidation CO2 emission. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous emission/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and total CO2 emissions. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation establishment may explain over 50% of peat oxidation emissions. Our study sets a standard for greenhouse gas flux studies from tropical peatlands under different forms of agricultural land management. It is the first to purposefully quantify heterotrophic CO2 emissions resulting from tropical peat decomposition by separating these from autotrophic emissions. It also provides the most scientifically- and statistically-rigorous study to date of CO2 emissions resulting from anthropogenic modification of this globally significant carbon rich ecosystem. Our findings indicate that past studies have underestimated emissions from peatland plantations, with important implications for the scale of greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change, particularly in the light of current, rapid agricultural conversion of peatlands in the Southeast Asian region.

Jauhiainen, J.; Hooijer, A.; Page, S. E.

2012-02-01

157

Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-  

E-print Network

-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap- ping gases, which blanket the planet and cause temperatures imperative that emissions of the main heat-trapping gas, car- bon dioxide (CO2), are significantly reduced future limits on carbon emissions. · Electricity consumers should opt for "green power" where

Combes, Stacey A.

158

The role of carbon dioxide in emission of ammonia from manure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between CO2 emission, manure pH, and ammonia emission are not completely understood. Others have recognized that CO2 emission from manure can increase the surface pH, and so increase the rate of NH3 emission, but this interaction has not been completely described or quantified. In this work, we present a model of simultaneous NH3 and CO2 emission that includes equilibrium acid/base reactions, kinetically-limited CO2 hydration/dehydration reactions, and diffusive transport. Our model accurately predicted the increase in NH3 emission from simple solutions due to CO2 emission, while an equilibrium-only model did not. Model predictions showed that when NH3 and CO2 emission occur simultaneously, CO2 emission generally increases NH3 emission rate by causing an elevation in surface pH. For thin stagnant layers, this response occurs under a wide range of conditions, although the magnitude of the effect is dependent on manure composition, temperature, surface mass transfer coefficient, and other parameters. Kinetically-limited CO2 hydration/dehydration reactions moderate this interaction, so equilibrium-based models tend to over-predict NH3 emission in the absence of significant carbonic anhydrase activity. Predicted emission from deep, mixed manure showed less dependence on CO2 emission, although higher rates of CO2 hydration/dehydration increase this effect. Interactions between CO2 and NH3 emission influence the effect of model parameters on NH3 emission and result in some unexpected responses. Future work should clarify the processes controlling CO2 speciation and transport in manure, including CO2 minerals, bubble transport, and CO2 hydration/dehydration rates. Our model can inform the development of simpler models for estimating NH3 emission, and the design of experiments aimed at quantifying processes that influence NH3 emission from manure. The effects of CO2 on NH3 emission deserve more attention, and both experimental and modeling approaches are needed to understand the interactions that control NH3 emission.

Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Alan Rotz, C.

2013-02-01

159

Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CARBON DIOXIDE  

E-print Network

i Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CARBON DIOXIDE ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID, Afzal Siddiqui, and Judy Lai. 2011. The Carbon Dioxide Abatement Potential of California's Mid/Agricultural/Water EndUse Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Transportation The Carbon Dioxide

160

8, 73157337, 2008 Carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide distributions over Europe C. Gurk et al. Title Page Abstract distributions of carbon dioxide over Europe C. Gurk1 , H. Fischer1 , P. Hoor1 , M.G. Lawrence1 , J. Lelieveld1 Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 7315 #12;ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

Effects of an experimental drought and recovery on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide in a moist tropical forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in precipitation in the Amazon Basin resulting from regional deforestation, global warming, and El Nino events may affect emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO) from soils. Changes in soil emissions of radiatively important gases could have feedback implications for regional and global climate. Here, we report the final results of a

ERIC A. D; F R A N CO; ISE Y OKO; ULO M. B RANDO

162

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure, the famous Keeling Curve, shows the history of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as directly measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. This curve is an essential piece of evidence that shows the increased greenhouse gases that cause recent increases in global temperatures.

Robert A. Rohde

163

Carbon Dioxide Increases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze the Keeling Curve showing carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere since 1985 to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

164

Does Historical Urban Density Explain the Variation in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions Across U.S. Cities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape a city takes can have long-term impacts. The built environment is durable, and urban infrastructure is costly to alter post-construction, so decisions made early in a city's history have a lasting effect. Cities are some of the biggest aggregate sources of CO2 emissions but are also the areas with the lowest per capita emissions. Even though per capita emissions in urban areas are less than their rural counterparts, the variation in emissions across cities is drastic and understanding this variation can improve the way we build and plan cities. Research has been conducted on how density correlates with per capita emissions, but little has been done on how historical growth has influenced emissions. Using historical census data and the Vulcan Project's fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product, I investigate in greater detail whether historical population density in U.S. cities has had a significant impact on future CO2 emissions in the urban area and in the surrounding region. The census data includes all places that have reported a population of over 100,000 people in any decennial census between 1790 and 2000 and the land area the year that the city first crosses that 100,000-population threshold. This data is used to create the historical density measure. The Vulcan CO2 emissions data is broken down by sector. For this project I use the residential, commercial, and transportation (on road and non-road) emissions sectors on a 10x10km grid in 2002. I also control for regional variation in heating and cooling days, current urban density, average house age, median income, and variation in residential heating (gas, electric, fuel oil, and coal) as these are all known correlates of carbon dioxide emissions. Understanding if historical density better explains the variation in per capita carbon dioxide emissions across cities will help urban planners and city governments decide if it is appropriate to regulate growth during the initial boom of a city, a regulation that can be costly.

Campbell, K. B.

2013-12-01

165

Nuclear Energy for a Low-Carbon-Dioxide-Emission Transportation System with Liquid Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two major energy challenges for the United States are to replace crude oil in our transportation system and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A multilayer strategy to replace oil using nuclear energy and various carbon sources (fossil fuels, biomass, or air) is described that (a) allows the continued use of liquid fuels (ethanol, gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) in the

Charles W

2007-01-01

166

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01

167

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01

168

Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

2010-01-01

169

Emission of Carbon Dioxide Influenced by Different Water Levels from Soil Incubated Organic Residues  

PubMed Central

We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO2-C (265.45?mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120?days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO2-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO2-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO2-C. Maximum CO2-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO2-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO2-C (158.23?mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO2-C (349.91?mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO2-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003?g d?1) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon. PMID:24163626

Hossain, M. B.; Puteh, A. B.

2013-01-01

170

Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating

Sebastian Teir; Sanni Eloneva; Ron Zevenhoven

2005-01-01

171

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north-south latitudinal transect in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4 emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.

Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

2014-09-01

172

Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ({delta}thinsp{sup 13}C={minus}4.5 to {minus}5{per_thousand}, {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He=4.5 to 6.7 R{sub A}) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO{sub 2} discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills arc associated with CO{sub 2} concentrations of 30{endash}90{percent} in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 gthinspm{sup {minus}2}thinspd{sup {minus}1} at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO{sub 2} discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO{sub 2} flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30{endash}50 t/d of CO{sub 2} are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N{sub 2}/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

Sorey, M.L.; Evans, W.C. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California (United States)] Kennedy, B.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States)] Farrar, C.D. [U.S. Geological Survey, Carnelian Bay, California (United States)] Hainsworth, L.J. [Chemistry Department, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia (United States)] Hausback, B. [Geology Department, California State University, Sacramento

1998-07-01

173

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce, compressive strength and carbon dioxide uptake seem to follow a similar trend. Vacuum-Carbonation yielded

Barthelat, Francois

174

Carbon dioxide adsorbent study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was initiated on the feasibility of using the alkali metal carbonate - bi-carbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of an EVA life support system. The program successfully demonstrates that carbon dioxide concentrations could be maintained below 0.1 mole per cent using this chemistry. Further a practical method for distributing the carbonates in a coherent sheet form capable of repeated regeneration (50 cycles) at modest temperatures (423 K), without loss in activity was also demonstrated. Sufficiently high reaction rates were shown to be possible with the carbonate - bi-carbonate system such that EVA hardware could be readily designed. Experimental and design data were presented on the basis of which two practical units were designed. In addition to conventional thermally regenerative systems very compact units using ambient temperature cyclic vacuum regeneration may also be feasible. For a one man - 8 hour EVA unit regenerated thermally at the base ship a system volume of 14 liters is estimated.

Onischak, M.; Baker, B. S.

1973-01-01

175

Carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface in a bilberry-sphagnum pine forest of the Middle Taiga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the carbon dioxide emissions from the surface of a gleyic iron-illuvial sandy peat podzolic soil under a mature bilberry-sphagnum pine forest were studied during the growing seasons of 2008-2010. The maximum rates of the CO2 emission were observed in late July-early August, and the minimum rates were in October. In the hot summer of 2010, an additional maximum was observed in June. A close positive correlation existed between the intensity of the CO2 emission and the soil temperature ( r = 0.71, ? = 0.05), whereas no significant correlation was found between the CO2 emission and the soil water content. The coefficient of multiple correlation between the rate of the CO2 emission and the hydrothermic soil characteristics reached 0.57 (at ? = 0.05). The total CO2 emission from the soil surface during the growing season was estimated at 68-100 g of C m-2.

Osipov, A. F.

2013-05-01

176

Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

New energy technologies are needed to limit CO2 emissions and the detrimental effects of global warming. In this article we describe a process which produces a low-carbon gaseous fuel from coal. Synthesis gas from a coal gasifier is shifted to a gas mixture consisting mainly of H2 and CO2. The CO2 is isolated by a physical absorption process, compressed, and

K. Blok; C. A. Hendriks; W. C. Turkenburg; R. H. Williams

177

Personal Carbon Dioxide Impact (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing for many decades now, mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels by mankind. In this exercise, students will track their daily activities, and and estimate how much carbon dioxide they are responsible for emitting with the use of an online Personal Greenhouse Gas Calculator developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The calculator sums the carbon dioxide produced by driving, electricity use, and waste disposal, and provides an estimate of annual carbon dioxide emissions. It also allows users to see how changes in lifestyle could reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Links to websites with additional information are also provided.

John Pratte

178

Input quality, trade liberalization, and abatement of carbon-dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a methodology to derive the incentives provided by two alternative policies--an emissions tax vs. liberalization of trade in higher quality coal--for increasing conversion-efficiency of electricity generation and for analyzing their impact on carbon emissions as well as on output of electricity. This methodology is applied empirically to examine the potential for abatement of carbon emissions from existing coal-based plants in the thermal power sector in India through the adoption of higher qualities of coal. The paper provides strong empirical support for achieving a complementarity between the goals of abatement and increased output, through policies which remove distortions in domestic and trade policies. It also demonstrates that abatement induced by an emissions-tax alone leads to a conflict between these goals. The authors examine a situation where the availability of higher quality coal is constrained by domestic and trade barriers. The role of coal quality in improving conversion-efficiency is analyzed when microunits are heterogeneous and have putty-clay technologies. The framework developed here juxtaposes engineering relationships governing plant performance and stylized features of electricity-generating technologies with a behavioral economic model.

Khanna, M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Zilberman, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics

1996-12-31

179

Carbon Dioxide Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

23 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of some of the widely-varied terrain of the martian south polar residual cap. The landforms here are composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each year since MGS arrived in 1997, the scarps that bound each butte and mesa, or line the edges of each pit, in the south polar region, have changed a little bit as carbon dioxide is sublimed away. The scarps retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year. Most of the change occurs during each southern summer.

Location near: 86.7oS, 9.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

180

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

SciTech Connect

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12

181

Frozen Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

182

Carbon Dioxide Landforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

19 March 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is mostly made of frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that a person can go to see the landforms that would be produced by erosion and sublimation of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometers of carbon dioxide. Thus, the south polar cap of Mars is as alien as alien can get. This image, acquired in February 2004 by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows how the cap appears in summer as carbon dioxide is subliming away, creating a wild pattern of pits, mesas, and buttes. Darker surfaces may be areas where the ice contains impurities, such as dust, or where the surface has been roughened by the removal of ice. This image is located near 86.3oS, 0.8oW. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

2004-01-01

183

Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan  

DOE Data Explorer

Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

Gurney, Kevin

184

Emission rate, isotopic composition and origin(s) of magmatic carbon dioxide at Merapi volcano, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Merapi volcano, located on a ~25 thick continental-type arc crust in central Java, is one of the most active arc volcanoes worldwide, where high temperature summit degassing and extrusion of basic andesite lava domes have persisted for several centuries at least. Carbon dioxide is the main anhydrous component of emitted magmatic gases [1,2] and is released at a time-averaged rate of ~500 tons/day from both high-temperature (900-600°C) gas venting [3] and soil degassing in the summit area [4]. Its ?13C averages -4.0±0.2 ‰ at the extruding lava dome and at all other degassing sites [1-4], thus evidencing its overall magmatic derivation. However, its ultimate origin is still debated. Merapi lavas indeed contain abundant calc-silicate (skarn-type) xenoliths and Ca-rich xenocrysts [5-7] which demonstrates shallow magma interactions with carbonate sediments present in the basement and renders plausible a crustal contribution to the magmatic CO2 output [1,6,7]. Here I outline a number of geochemical constraints which suggest that such a shallow crustal contribution may be of second order with respect to a deep slab carbon contribution: (i) The CO2/3He ratio of Merapi magmatic gases (5 times higher than the average MORB ratio), combined with the ?13C for MORB-type upper mantle carbon (-7 to -4‰), implies that the volcanic CO2 contains 80% of non-mantle carbon with maximum ?13C of -3.25‰. This is much lower than the potential ?13C of metamorphic CO2 generated from local carbonate sediments (-2.2 to +1.4‰; [1,8]); (ii) The ?13C of Merapi volcanic CO2 has remained remarkably constant over 30 years of standard eruptive activity, implying steady conditions of genesis and transfer from depth to the surface. This discards a permanent influence of likely variable magma-carbonate interactions. Instead, such interactions could well be responsible of one single 'anomalous' transient ?13C value (-2.4‰) measured just after a nearby tectonic earthquake in 2006 [8]; and (iii) other Javanese volcanoes whose lavas do not contain calc-silicate xenoliths emit CO2 with identical ?13C values of -4‰. Based on the above observations and on typical arc-type isotopic ratios for water, sulphur and nitrogen in Merapi magmatic gases [2], I rather propose that 80% of CO2 emitted by the volcano ultimately derives from a subducted sediment contribution, in agreement with Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data for bulk lavas [9]. The CO2/HCl ratio of Merapi magmatic gases, normalized to the bulk mass fraction of outgassed Cl inferred from analysis of melt inclusions in clinopyroxene and the matrix glasses, points to a maximum CO2 content of ~1 wt% in the undegassed magma [3], 0.8 wt% of which derived from subducted carbon. [1] Allard, 1980, C.R. Acad Sciences Paris; [2] Allard, 1986, Ph.D thesis, Paris 7 Univ.; [3] Allard et al., 1995, and submitted (JVGR, 2012); [4] Toutain et al., Bull. Volcanol. 2009; [5] Clocchiatti et al., 1982, C.R. Acad. Sciences Paris; [6] Chadwick et al., 2007, J. Petrol.; [7] Deegan et al., 2010, J. Petrol.; [8] Troll et al., 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett.; [9] Gertisser and Keller, 2003, J. Petrol..

Allard, P.

2012-12-01

185

Vegetation sensitivity to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in a topographically complex region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may affect vegetation distribution both directly through changes in photosynthesis and water-use efficiency, and indirectly through CO2-induced climate change. Using an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) driven by a regional climate model (RegCM2.5), we tested the sensitivity of vegetation in the western United States, a topographically complex region, to the direct, indirect, and combined effects of doubled preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Those sensitivities were quantified using the kappa statistic. Simulated vegetation in the western United States was sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with woody biome types replacing less woody types throughout the domain. The simulated vegetation was also sensitive to climatic effects, particularly at high elevations, due to both warming throughout the domain and decreased precipitation in key mountain regions such as the Sierra Nevada of California and the Cascade and Blue Mountains of Oregon. Significantly, when the direct effects of CO2 on vegetation were tested in combination with the indirect effects of CO2-induced climate change, new vegetation patterns were created that were not seen in either of the individual cases. This result indicates that climatic and nonclimatic effects must be considered in tandem when assessing the potential impacts of elevated CO2 levels.

Diffenbaugh, N.S.; Sloan, L.C.; Snyder, M.A.; Bell, J.L.; Kaplan, J.; Shafer, S.L.; Bartlein, P.J.

2003-01-01

186

Vegetation sensitivity to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in a topographically complex region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may affect vegetation distribution both directly through changes in photosynthesis and water-use efficiency, and indirectly through CO2-induced climate change. Using an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) driven by a regional climate model (RegCM2.5), we tested the sensitivity of vegetation in the western United States, a topographically complex region, to the direct, indirect, and combined effects of doubled preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Those sensitivities were quantified using the kappa statistic. Simulated vegetation in the western United States was sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with woody biome types replacing less woody types throughout the domain. The simulated vegetation was also sensitive to climatic effects, particularly at high elevations, due to both warming throughout the domain and decreased precipitation in key mountain regions such as the Sierra Nevada of California and the Cascade and Blue Mountains of Oregon. Significantly, when the direct effects of CO2 on vegetation were tested in combination with the indirect effects of CO2-induced climate change, new vegetation patterns were created that were not seen in either of the individual cases. This result indicates that climatic and nonclimatic effects must be considered in tandem when assessing the potential impacts of elevated CO2 levels.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Sloan, Lisa C.; Snyder, Mark A.; Bell, Jason L.; Kaplan, Jed; Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

2003-06-01

187

A new look at atmospheric carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere and is of considerable concern in global climate change because of its greenhouse gas warming potential. The rate of increase has accelerated since measurements began at Mauna Loa Observatory in 1958 where carbon dioxide increased from less than 1 part per million per year (ppm yr -1) prior to 1970 to more than 2 ppm yr -1 in recent years. Here we show that the anthropogenic component (atmospheric value reduced by the pre-industrial value of 280 ppm) of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been increasing exponentially with a doubling time of about 30 years since the beginning of the industrial revolution (˜1800). Even during the 1970s, when fossil fuel emissions dropped sharply in response to the "oil crisis" of 1973, the anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide level continued increasing exponentially at Mauna Loa Observatory. Since the growth rate (time derivative) of an exponential has the same characteristic lifetime as the function itself, the carbon dioxide growth rate is also doubling at the same rate. This explains the observation that the linear growth rate of carbon dioxide has more than doubled in the past 40 years. The accelerating growth rate is simply the outcome of exponential growth in carbon dioxide with a nearly constant doubling time of about 30 years (about 2%/yr) and appears to have tracked human population since the pre-industrial era.

Hofmann, David J.; Butler, James H.; Tans, Pieter P.

188

Carbon dioxide affects global ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

Eugene K. Peterson

1969-01-01

189

The physically-based model BREHOMES and its use in deriving scenarios for the energy use and carbon dioxide emissions of the UK housing stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a physically based model of the energy use of the housing stock (called BREHOMES) and explains how it has been used to develop two scenarios for energy use and carbon dioxide emissions.The general structure of the model is outlined together with the data on which it relies. These data have been systematically collected for several years, and

LD Shorrock; JE Dunster

1997-01-01

190

Carbon dioxide emissions and change in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States: an ecological study.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend=0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.49), suggesting that PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity. PMID:25108606

Zheutlin, Alexander R; Adar, Sara D; Park, Sung Kyun

2014-12-01

191

Developing the aquatic-coupled reservoir model to simulate carbon dioxide emission from a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a process-based biogeochemical reservoir model, called AF-DNDC (Aquatic-coupled Forest-DNDC), to project carbon (C) flux from water surface of a recently created hydro-electric reservoir that flooded a boreal landscape. The basis of the reservoir model is Forest-DNDC, a biogeochemical model for C and nitrogen cycling in forests and wetlands. AF-DNDC was developed by coupling a lake C model to a flooded version of Forest-DNDC. AF-DNDC includes the C cycling through the aquatic carbon pools, such as DIC (dissolved inorganic C), DOC (dissolved organic C), and planktonic community as well as C exchange between air, water, and sediment. AF-DNDC was used to examine the net change in carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between the surface and the atmosphere over the first seven years post flooding of the Eastmain-1 reservoir in northern Quebec. With present day climate and environmental conditions, simulated daily CO2 emissions from the flooded forest averaged 1.69 g C m-2 d-1 (range 0 to 20.49), and from the flooded peatland averaged 0.87 g C m-2 d-1 (range 0 to 6.86). Simulated CO2 emissions decreased with the age of reservoir. They were larger than eddy-covariance measured CO2 fluxes from the water surface over flooded forests, but compared well to the eddy-covariance fluxes during the open-water period. The simulated emissions were significantly correlated with the measured fluxes from the flooded forest (r2 = 0.33; p < 0.01) and flooded peatland (r2 = 0.41; p < 0.01). The patterns over the year were similar. AF-DNDC is suitable for use to assess the major changes in CO2 exchange due to the creation of reservoirs in boreal regions.

Kim, Y.; Roulet, N. T.; Strachan, I. B.; Tremblay, A.

2013-12-01

192

Carbon dioxide dynamics in Kelud volcanic lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2007, the extrusion of a new lava dome evaporated Kelud volcanic lake in Java, Indonesia. Four months before a detailed echo sounding survey of the volcanic lake coupled to floating accumulation chamber measurements detected abnormally high carbon dioxide emissions. It constituted the earliest sign of the volcanic unrest; well before any other monitored parameter. CO2 flux is quantified using an empirical equation based on the volume of bubbles backscattered in the water column. Its comparison with the fluxes retrieved from the floating chamber method better constrain carbon dioxide dynamics in the volcanic lake. It reveals that 70% of the carbon dioxide enters the lake in a dissolved form, while the remaining 30% is supplied to the lake on a gaseous state. Almost three-quarter of the ascending bubbles dissolve in the water column leaving the majority of the 330 Tons day-1 of carbon dioxide diffusing at the air-water interface.

Caudron, C.; Mazot, A.; Bernard, A.

2012-05-01

193

Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

2008-01-01

194

Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

PubMed Central

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

195

Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

196

21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2 , CAS...

2010-04-01

197

Applications of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Emissions from Fossil-fired Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon

M. Balat; H. Balat; C. Öz

2009-01-01

198

Investigation of carbon dioxide emission in China by primary component analysis.  

PubMed

Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions (COEs) stemming from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing and their affecting factors. Eight affecting factors, namely, Population (P), Urban Population (UP); the Output Values of Primary Industry (PIOV), Secondary Industry (SIOV), and Tertiary Industry (TIOV); and the Proportions of Primary Industry's Output Value (PPIOV), Secondary Industry's Output Value (PSIOV), and Tertiary Industry's Output Value (PTIOV), are chosen. PCA is employed to eliminate the multicollinearity of the affecting factors. Two principal components, which can explain 92.86% of the variance of the eight affecting factors, are chosen as variables in the regression analysis. Ordinary least square regression is used to estimate multiple linear regression models, in which COEs and the principal components serve as dependent and independent variables, respectively. The results are given in the following. (1) Theoretically, the carbon intensities of PIOV, SIOV, and TIOV are 2573.4693, 552.7036, and 606.0791 kt per one billion $, respectively. The incomplete statistical data, the different statistical standards, and the ideology of self sufficiency and peasantry appear to show that the carbon intensity of PIOV is higher than those of SIOV and TIOV in China. (2) PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV influence the fluctuations of COE. The parameters of PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV are -2706946.7564, 2557300.5450, and 3924767.9807 kt, respectively. As the economic structure of China is strongly tied to technology level, the period when PIOV plays the leading position is characterized by lagging technology and economic developing. Thus, the influence of PPIOV has a negative value. As the increase of PSIOV and PTIOV is always followed by technological innovation and economic development, PSIOV and PTIOV have the opposite influence. (3) The carbon intensities of P and UP are 1.1029 and 1.7862 kt per thousand people, respectively. The carbon intensity of the rural population can be inferred to be lower than 1.1029 kt per thousand people. The characteristics of poverty and the use of bio-energy in rural areas result in a carbon intensity of the rural population that is lower than that of P. PMID:24295745

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Liu, Lian; Guo, Hang; Liu, Guo-Dong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Deng, Shi-Huai

2014-02-15

199

The Impact of Electric Passenger Transport Technology under an Economy-Wide Climate Policy in the United States: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Coal Use, and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear. A comprehensive analysis must consider jointly the transportation and electricity sectors, along with feedbacks to the rest of the energy system. In this paper, we use the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MiniCAM model to perform an integrated economic analysis of the penetration of PHEVs and the resulting impact on total U.S. CO2 emissions.

Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

2010-03-01

200

Response of carbon dioxide emissions to sheep grazing and nitrogen application in an alpine grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has failed to address fully the response of (autotrophic and heterotrophic) respiration to grazing and nitrogen (N) addition in different ecosystems, particularly in alpine grasslands outside the growing season. From 2010 to 2011, we combined two methods (static closed chambers and a closed dynamic soil CO2 flux system) in a controlled field experiment in an alpine grassland in the Tianshan Mountains. We examined the effects of grazing and N application on ecosystem respiration (Re) both outside (NGS) and during (GS) the growing season and determined the pattern of Re in relation to climate change. There was no significant change in CO2 emissions under grazing or N application. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) accounted for 78.5% of Re. Re, Rh and autotrophic respiration (Ra) outside the growing season were equivalent to 12.9, 14.1 and 11.4% of the respective CO2 fluxes during the growing season. In addition, our results indicate that precipitation (soil water content) plays a critical role in Ra in this cold and arid environment. Both Rh and Re were sensitive to soil temperature. Moreover, our results suggest that grazing and N addition exert no significant effect on CO2 emissions in alpine grassland but may alter soil carbon stocks in alpine grassland.

Gong, Y. M.; Mohammat, A.; Liu, X. J.; Li, K. H.; Christie, P.; Fang, F.; Song, W.; Chang, Y. H.; Han, W. X.; Lü, X. T.; Liu, Y. Y.; Hu, Y. K.

2013-07-01

201

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01

202

Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is a summary of the current research which addresses the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on terrestrial ecosystems and an identification of significant unresolved issues. Chapters address the carbon dioxide effects on trees and forests, unmanaged herbaceous ecosystems, and crops. Included are experimental studies, conceptual models, general mathematical models, dynamic simulation models.

G. W. Koch; H. A. Mooney

1996-01-01

203

Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success…

Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

1993-01-01

204

Sampling Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, student teams hypothesize which source has a greater becomes CO² concentration: their breath, auto exhaust, or air in the classroom. They test gas samples from each of these sources, plot data, and hypothesize about the respective role engine exhaust and animal respiration play in contemporary climate change. The lab procedures require Bromthymol Blue indicator solution (BTB), household ammonia, vinegar, and balloons. Links to videos supporting the investigations are provided. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "How is Carbon Dioxide Measured?," part of the unit, Climate Change, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

2012-09-28

205

Carbon Dioxide Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

7 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of the south polar residual cap at full MOC resolution, 1.5 m (5 ft) per pixel. During each of the three summers since the start of the MGS mapping mission in March 1999, the scarps that form mesas and pits in the 'Swiss cheese'-like south polar terrain have retreated an average of about 3 meters (1 yard). The material is frozen carbon dioxide; another 3 meters or so of each scarp is expected to be removed during the next summer, in late 2005. This image is located near 86.0oS, 350.8oW, and covers an area about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

2004-01-01

206

Carbon dioxide emissions from an Acacia plantation on peatland in Sumatra, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peat surface CO2 emission, groundwater table depth and peat temperature were monitored for two years along transects in an Acacia plantation on thick tropical peat (>4 m) in Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 2300 emission measurements were taken at 144 locations. The autotrophic root respiration component of the CO2 emission was separated from heterotrophic emissions caused by peat oxidation in three ways: (i) by comparing CO2 emissions within and beyond the tree rooting zone, (ii) by comparing CO2 emissions with and without peat trenching (i.e. cutting any roots remaining in the peat beyond the tree rooting zone), and (iii) by comparing CO2 emissions before and after Acacia tree harvesting. On average, the contribution of root respiration to daytime CO2 emission is 21 % along transects in mature tree stands. At locations 0.5 m from trees this is up to 80 % of the total emissions, but it is negligible at locations more than 1.3 m away. This means that CO2 emission measurements well away from trees are free of any root respiration contribution and thus represent only peat oxidation emission. We find daytime mean annual CO2 emission from peat oxidation alone of 94 t ha-1 yr-1 at a mean water table depth of 0.8 m, and a minimum emission value of 80 t ha-1 yr-1 after correction for the effect of diurnal temperature fluctuations, which resulted in a 14.5 % reduction of the daytime emission. There is a positive correlation between mean long-term water table depths and peat oxidation CO2 emission. However, no such relation is found for instantaneous emission/water table depth within transects and it is clear that factors other than water table depth also affect peat oxidation and total CO2 emissions. The increase in the temperature of the surface peat due to plantation development may explain over 50 % of peat oxidation emissions.

Jauhiainen, J.; Hooijer, A.; Page, S. E.

2011-08-01

207

Relevance of Preindustrial Land Cover Change and Emissions for Attribution of Excess Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until the 1950s, CO2 emissions from anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC), in particular from deforestation, have been of similar magnitude as or larger than CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning. It has therefore been widely acknowledged that attribution of the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change to countries has to consider not only fossil-fuel emissions, but also emissions from

J. Pongratz; K. Caldeira

2010-01-01

208

C A R B O N AC C O U N T I N G A N D D E C A R B O N I Z AT I O N Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

E-print Network

for CO2 emis- sions: from scientists interested in the global carbon cycle to environmen- talistsC A R B O N AC C O U N T I N G A N D D E C A R B O N I Z AT I O N Accounting for Carbon Dioxide for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is no longer just counting carbon atoms. It turns out that how you account

Vermont, University of

209

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters in India - implications for large scale greenhouse gas balances.  

PubMed

Inland waters were recently recognized to be important sources of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the atmosphere, and including inland water emissions in large scale greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets may potentially offset the estimated carbon sink in many areas. However, the lack of GHG flux measurements and well-defined inland water areas for extrapolation, make the magnitude of the potential offset unclear. This study presents coordinated flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 in multiple lakes, ponds, rivers, open wells, reservoirs, springs, and canals in India. All these inland water types, representative of common aquatic ecosystems in India, emitted substantial amounts of CH4 and a major fraction also emitted CO2 . The total CH4 flux (including ebullition and diffusion) from all the 45 systems ranged from 0.01 to 52.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) , with a mean of 7.8 ± 12.7 (mean ± 1 SD) mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean surface water CH4 concentration was 3.8 ± 14.5 ?m (range 0.03-92.1 ?m). The CO2 fluxes ranged from -28.2 to 262.4 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) and the mean flux was 51.9 ± 71.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean partial pressure of CO2 was 2927 ± 3269 ?atm (range: 400-11 467 ?atm). Conservative extrapolation to whole India, considering the specific area of the different water types studied, yielded average emissions of 2.1 Tg CH4  yr(-1) and 22.0 Tg CO2  yr(-1) from India's inland waters. When expressed as CO2 equivalents, this amounts to 75 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) (53-98 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) ; ± 1 SD), with CH4 contributing 71%. Hence, average inland water GHG emissions, which were not previously considered, correspond to 42% (30-55%) of the estimated land carbon sink of India. Thereby this study illustrates the importance of considering inland water GHG exchange in large scale assessments. PMID:24623552

Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Bastviken, David

2014-11-01

210

AIM\\/end-use Model and Its Application to Forecast Japanese Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM (Asian-Pacific Integrated Model) has been developed for predicting greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating policy measures to reduce them. Two socio-economic scenarios were assumed and CO2 emissions were predicted based on these scenarios and policy intervention assumptions. It is found that mitigating CO 2 emissions by 6% to the 1990 level without scaling back productive activities or standards of living

Mikiko Kainuma; Yuzuru Matsuoka; Tsuneyuki Morita

211

Carbon dioxide emission factors for U.S. coal by origin and destination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper describes a method that uses published data to calculate locally robust CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. The method is demonstrated by calculating CO2 emission factors by coal origin (223 counties, in 1999) and destination (479 power plants, in 2005). Locally robust CO2 emission factors should improve the accuracy and verification of greenhouse gas emission measurements from individual coal-fired power plants. Based largely on the county origin, average emission factors for U.S. lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite coal produced during 1999 were 92.97,91.97,88.20, and 98.91 kg CO2/GJgross, respectively. However, greater variation is observed within these rank classes than between them, which limits the reliability of CO2 emission factors specified by coal rank. Emission factors calculated by destination (power plant) showed greater variation than those listed in the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), which exhibit an unlikely uniformity that is inconsistent with the natural variation of CO2 emission factors for U.S. coal. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

Quick, J.C.

2010-01-01

212

Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

213

Impact of human activities on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions: a statistical analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study aims at identifying significant or influential human activities (i.e. factors) on CO{sub 2} emissions using statistical analyses. The study was conducted for two cases: (i) developed countries and (ii) developing countries. In developed countries, this study identified three influential human activities for CO{sub 2} emissions: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) population pressure on natural and terrestrial ecosystems, and (iii) land use change. In developing countries, the significant human activities causing an upsurge of CO{sub 2} emissions are: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) terrestrial ecosystem strength and (iii) land use change. Among these factors, combustion of fossil fuels is the most influential human activity for CO{sub 2} emissions both in developed and developing countries. Regression analysis based on the factor scores indicated that combustion of fossil fuels has significant positive influence on CO{sub 2} emissions in both developed and developing countries. Terrestrial ecosystem strength has a significant negative influence on CO{sub 2} emissions. Land use change and CO{sub 2} emissions are positively related, although regression analysis showed that the influence of land use change on CO{sub 2} emissions was still insignificant. It is anticipated, from the findings of this study, that CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by reducing fossil-fuel consumption and switching to alternative energy sources, preserving exiting forests, planting trees on abandoned and degraded forest lands, or by planting trees by social/agroforestry on agricultural lands.

Abdus Salam; Toshikuni Noguchi [Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Department of Statistics

2005-03-15

214

Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energy’s Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

2003-11-01

215

Hydrological controls on nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions across an agricultural landscape  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in hydrological controls on soil greenhouse gas emissions could result in important climate change feedbacks. Water table fluctuations into surface soils are “hot moments” of soil CO2 and N2O emissions. Future global change may affect the frequency and magnitude of water table fluctuations...

216

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13

217

Atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide from different nitrogen fertilizers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a growing interest in the quantification of significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural practices. Alternative N fertilizers that produce low GHG emissions from soil are needed to reduce the impact of agricultural practices on global warming potential (GWP). We q...

218

Carbon dioxide emissions after application of tillage systems for a dark red latosol in southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil tillage may influence CO2 emissions in agricultural systems. Agricultural soils are managed in several ways in Brazil, ranging from no tillage to intensive land preparation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of common soil tillage treatments (disk harrow, reversible disk plow, rotary tiller and chisel plow tillage systems) on the intermediate CO2 emissions of a

N La Scala; A Lopes; J Marques; G. T Pereira

2001-01-01

219

Emissions of Ammonia, Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide From Dairy Cattle Housing and Manure Management Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concentrated animal feeding operations emit trace gases such as ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. The implementation of air quality regulations in livestock-producing states increases the need for accurate on-farm determination of emissio...

220

Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

Ackerman, K.V.; Sundquist, E.T.

2008-01-01

221

Effects of High Carbon Dioxide Soil-Gas Concentrations and Emission Rates From Mammoth Mountain, California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentrations (90 vol %) of carbon dioxide (CO2) are present in shallow soils, and CO2 is emitted to the atmosphere at high rates (1,000 g/d/m2), in several locations around Mammoth Mountain. The CO2 emissions have been diffuse and at ambient temperature. CO2 in the soil has killed most of the coniferous forest in five areas totaling 35 ha around the north, west, and south sides of the mountain at altitudes between 2,600 and 3,000 m. Part of the CO2 has dissolved in ground water, causing acidic conditions and severely corroding steel casings in several wells. The high CO2 emission rates are implicated in the deaths of four people in the past eight years. During winter, a large quantity of CO2 is sequestered in the snow pack on parts of the mountain, posing potential dangers for winter recreation. One U.S. Forest Service campground has been closed and safety plans have been implemented by the local ski resort. Mammoth Mountain is a dormant Quaternary volcanic center, but overlies an area that has been affected by periods of magmatic unrest during the past two decades. Hypocenters of long-period earthquakes indicate that basaltic intrusions reach depths as shallow as 20 to 15 km, from which CO2 has exsolved during decompression and (or) crystallization of these intrusions. CO2 moves to the land surface along fracture zones associated with faults and possibly geologic contacts. The magmatic source of CO2 is confirmed by ¦Ä13C = -3 to -5 PDB, a lack of 14C, and 3He/4He = 4 to 5 R/RA. The present-day high CO2 soil-gas concentrations and emission rates were first documented in 1994; however, anecdotal information and low 14C in post-1989 tree rings suggest that an abrupt increase in both concentrations and emission rates probably began in 1990, following a 6-month period of seismic swarm activity beneath the mountain. Emissions in an area on the south flank of the mountain have been the focus of CO2 monitoring and have shown no indications of abatement between 1994 and 2005, during which estimates of the total CO2 efflux ranged from 90 to 150 MT/d. The variations can be partly attributed to the precision of the techniques and to minor differences in measurement protocols between researchers; variations in soil- moisture and atmospheric conditions alone can cause fluctuations in efflux of ± 10% over periods of hours to days.

Farrar, C. D.; Evans, W. C.

2006-12-01

222

NASA Satellite Sees Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a map of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from satellite data. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

223

Reducing carbon dioxide to products  

DOEpatents

A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

2014-09-30

224

Carbon Dioxide and Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demonstrates the affect of increased dissolved carbon dioxide on water pH using a cheap, non-toxic acid/base indicator. Students bubble breath through a straw into red cabbage juice and note the color change.

Chris Lewis

225

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

1998-09-01

226

Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle  

DOEpatents

A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

2014-11-18

227

Influence of photoperiod on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from two pilot-scale stabilization ponds.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO(2), CH(4)) from pilot-scale algal and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP) were measured using the static chamber methodology. Daylight and nocturnal variations of GHG and wastewater characteristics (e.g. chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH) were determined via sampling campaigns during midday (12:30-15:30) and midnight (00:30-03:30) periods. The results showed that under daylight conditions in ABP median emissions were -232 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 9.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and in DBP median emissions were -1,654.5 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 71.4 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. During nocturnal conditions ABP median emissions were 3,949.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 12.7 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and DBP median emissions were 5,116 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 195.2 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Once data measured during daylight were averaged together with nocturnal data the median emissions for ABP were 1,566.8 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 72.1 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), whilst for DBP they were 3,016.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-) and 178.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These figures suggest that there were significant differences between CO(2) emissions measured during daylight and nocturnal periods (p < 0.05). This shows a sink-like behaviour for both ABP and DBP in the presence of solar light, which indicates the influence of photosynthesis in CO(2) emissions. On the other hand, the fluxes of CH(4) indicated that DBP and ABP behave as net sources of CH(4) during day and night, although higher emissions were observed from DBP. Overall, according to the compound average (daylight and nocturnal emissions) both ABP and DBP systems might be considered as net sources of GHG. PMID:22925866

Silva, Juan P; Ruiz, José L; Peña, Miguel R; Lubberding, Henk; Gijzen, Huub

2012-01-01

228

Using DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery to estimate carbon dioxide emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study highlighted a method for estimating CO2 emission from electric power plants using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) stable light image product for 1999. CO2 emissions from power plants account for a high percentage of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumptions. Thermal power plants generate the electricity by burning fossil fuels, so they emit CO2 directly. In many Asian countries such as China, Japan, India, and South Korea, the amounts of electric power generated by thermal power accounts over 58% in the total amount of electric power in 1999. So far, figures of the CO2 emission were obtained mainly by traditional statistical methods. Moreover, the statistical data were summarized as administrative regions, so it is difficult to examine the spatial distribution of non-administrative division. In some countries the reliability of such CO2 emission data is relatively low. However, satellite remote sensing can observe the earth surface without limitation of administrative regions. Thus, it is important to estimate CO2 using satellite remote sensing. In this study, we estimated the CO2 emission by fossil fuel consumption from electric power plant using stable light image of the DMSP/OLS satellite data for 1999 after correction for saturation effect in Japan. Digital number (DN) values of the stable light images in center areas of cities are saturated due to the large nighttime light intensities and characteristics of the OLS satellite sensors. To more accurately estimate the CO2 emission using the stable light images, a saturation correction method was developed by using the DMSP radiance calibration image, which does not include any saturation pixels. A regression equation was developed by the relationship between DN values of non-saturated pixels in the stable light image and those in the radiance calibration image. And, regression equation was used to adjust the DNs of the radiance calibration image. Then, saturated DNs of the stable light image was corrected using adjusted radiance calibration image. After that, regression analysis was performed with cumulative DNs of the corrected stable light image, electric power consumption, electric power generation and CO2 emission by fossil fuel consumption from electric power plant each other. Results indicated that there are good relationships (R2>90%) between DNs of the corrected stable light image and other parameters. Based on the above results, we estimated the CO2 emission from electric power plant using corrected stable light image. Keywords: DMSP/OLS, stable light, saturation light correction method, regression analysis Acknowledgment: The research was financially supported by the Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from the Japan Science Society.

Desheng, B.; Letu, H.; Bao, Y.; Naizhuo, Z.; Hara, M.; Nishio, F.

2012-12-01

229

Carbon dioxide and methane annual emissions from two boreal reservoirs and nearby lakes in Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of dissolved GHG (CO2 and CH4) measurement campaigns carried out in Quebec (Canada) during the open-water periods and under-ice in a newly created reservoir (Eastmain 1), a 25 year old reservoir (Robert-Bourassa) and in three reference lakes are presented. While CO2 partial pressures varied with season with a net increase under the ice cover, CH4 partial pressures did not. We were able to extrapolate the highest CO2 partial pressures reached in the different studied systems just before ice break-up with high spring emission period. We then estimated the springtime CO2 fluxes and compared them to annual CO2 fluxes and GHG fluxes. Thus we clearly demonstrated that in our systems CH4 fluxes was of minor importance in the GHG emissions, CO2 fluxes representing around 90% of the annual fluxes. We also pointed out the importance of springtime emissions in the annual budget.

Demarty, M.; Bastien, J.; Tremblay, A.

2009-03-01

230

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at Oak Ridge National Laboratories in Tennessee, this Website is the US Department of Energy's "primary global-change data and information analysis center" and is a central source for many Carbon Dioxide-related resources. Among those resources are several we have reviewed, for example, the Catalog of Databases and Reports (reviewed in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) and Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates (reviewed in the March 4, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The CDIAC site offers a wealth of information, including "records of the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level." To get a feel for the research summaries and data available at the CDIAC site, see the Products section (describes the research projects associated with CDIAC as well as links to those data sets); the New section (offers a hyperlinked list of new data products); the Top 10 section (offers a hyperlinked list of Frequently Requested Global Change Products); or any of the specific project sections: FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment), NARSTO (a non-binding, tri-national, public/private alliance), OCEANS (Survey of CO2 in the Oceans), or AmeriFlux (long-term CO2 flux measurements of the Americas). This is an outstanding resource for those seeking global data (or research summaries) on the status of carbon dioxide in several components of the earth's ecosystems.

231

Response of carbon dioxide emissions to warming under no-till and conventional till systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

No-tillage (NT) tends to have greater soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in the surface soil layer relative to (conventional tillage) CT but few studies have addressed the stability of the SOC under conditions of global warming. An open warming experiment was conducted in situ by infrared heating of l...

232

Molecular Structure of Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carbon dioxide was first described in the 17th century by Jan Baptist van Helmont, a Belgium chemist. The chemical CO2 is released into the atmosphere when carbon-containing fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal are burned in air. It is also produced by various microorganisms in fermentation and is breathed out by animals. Plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, using both the carbon and the oxygen to construct carbohydrates. Every year the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing. CO2 build-up in the atmosphere is caused by deforestation, therefore reducing the number of trees available to absorb CO2. Excess CO2 in the environment causes Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect. It is also toxic to humans since inhalation of large amounts of CO2 can cause suffocation. Some beverages, such as beer and sparkling wine contain carbon dioxide as a result of fermentation.

2002-08-15

233

The role of renewable energy in carbon dioxide emission reduction in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on the efficiency energy coefficient (output\\/input) is proposed for the assessment of renewable energy sources implementation and for evaluation of their potential for CO2 emission reduction. Energy coefficients were evaluated for renewable energy sources (such as solar, wind and biomass) as well as for their conventional substitutes based on coal, oil and gas. Relative coefficients for CO2

Stanislaw M. Pietruszko; Magdalena Rogulska; Anna Grzybek

1995-01-01

234

SOIL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION AS INFLUENCED BY IRRIGATION, TILLAGE, CROPPING SYSTEM, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and crop management practices can influence CO2 emission from crop and grasslands and therefore on global warming. We examined the effects of two irrigation systems (irrigated vs. non-irrigated) and six management practices [no-till malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) with 67 or 134 kg N ha-1 (NT...

235

SIMULATED RAINFALL IMPACT ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM CORN AND SOYBEAN CROPPING SYSTEMS ON A MOLLISOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is an increasing concern for rising greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere including CO 2. Soil can serve as either a source or a sink for CO2. We have very little information on the impact of rainfall on levels of CO2 emissions from croplands. Objectives of our study were to determine the ...

236

Increased methane emissions from an invasive wetland plant under elevated carbon dioxide levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetlands function as important climate regulators by providing conditions for the large-scale production and release of methane from vegetation. Several studies have suggested an apparent link between two global warming gases that result in higher emissions of methane from rice paddies and wetlands subjected to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2. We show that an increase in the relative abundance of

Jenny Kao-Kniffin; Dominique S. Freyre; Teri C. Balser

2011-01-01

237

How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

E-print Network

. Passenger transport, especially air transport, is the least efficient subsector. It causes 87% of tourism emissions per added value with 0.23 kg CO2/CHF. It is surpassed only by the transport sector. The tourism on the transport and accommodation subsectors. A special focus should be placed on air transport, the biggest

Fischlin, Andreas

238

Trends in energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of passenger cars and buses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we develop aggregate car ownership and bus fleet models in order to forecast and compare fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from passenger cars and buses. Greece was selected as a case study, being a country fairly representative of lower-income Mediterranean and Eastern European countries and data were collected for the period 1970 to 2002. Percent adults in

J. A. Paravantis; D. A. Georgakellos

2007-01-01

239

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture  

E-print Network

materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we agent of climate change (1, 2). The major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide are the flue gas of power plants and automobile emissions. The dominant method for capture is passing postcombustion flue

240

WRF Simulations of Los Angeles Region Carbon-dioxide Emissions: Comparisons with Column Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California’s South coast air basin, a densely populated urban area (15 million people) with huge CO2 emissions (~200 Tg/year) distributed over a large area (~10(6) km2) that is bounded by mountains on three sides, is a good candidate for flux verification. Recently ground based solar tracking Fourier transform spectrometer measurements of columnar CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O at high temporal resolution (minutes) have been made from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Wunch et al., GRL 2009). Observations show large (up to 8 ppm) and variable increases in column CO2 that are attributed to anthropogenic emissions that are modulated by atmospheric dynamics. We perform nested grid simulations using the Weather Research Forecast model with constructed and reported spatio-temporally gridded CO2 emissions for this region during March 23 to 28, 2008. We predict largest CO2 increases of ~40 ppm at the surface, and simulate large rising plumes during midday. Our model reproduces the observed timing of the late afternoon drop in the column CO2 that results from when the boundary layer is higher than the mountains resulting in venting. Simulations capture the observed day-to-day variability in CO2 accumulation, particularly the small increase on March 27 due to flows from the north. We use combine our simulations and observations to assess available emissions inventories (CARB, EDGAR and VULCAN) for this region. We plan to gather some single-time snapshots of CO2 gradients from GOSAT and check for consistency and report satellite retrieval algorithms that are less sensitive to aerosols, water and surface reflectance. Our goal is to help develop integrated remote sensing and modeling methods top down verification of bottoms up greenhouse gas emissions.

Dubey, M. K.; Costigan, K. R.; Chylek, P.; Wunch, D.; Wennberg, P. O.

2009-12-01

241

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide of a coal gasification power plant. The separated carbon dioxide can be compressed and transported dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from

242

Non-Native Plant Litter Enhances Soil Carbon Dioxide Emissions in an Invaded Annual Grassland  

PubMed Central

Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k?=?0.20 month?1) compared to in isolation (k?=?0.10 month?1). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration even at intermediate stages of invasion in these annual grasslands. PMID:24647312

Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E.; Siemann, Evan

2014-01-01

243

Non-native plant litter enhances soil carbon dioxide emissions in an invaded annual grassland.  

PubMed

Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k?=?0.20 month(-1)) compared to in isolation (k?=?0.10 month(-1)). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration even at intermediate stages of invasion in these annual grasslands. PMID:24647312

Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; Siemann, Evan

2014-01-01

244

Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present ocean chemistry calculations based on ocean general circulation model simulations of atmospheric CO2 emission, stabilization of atmospheric CO2 content, and stabilization of atmospheric CO2 achieved in total or in part by injection of CO2 to the deep ocean interior. Our goal is to provide first-order results from various CO2 pathways, allowing correspondence with studies of marine biological effects

Ken Caldeira; Michael E. Wickett

2005-01-01

245

Atmospheric dispersion of natural carbon dioxide emissions on Vulcano Island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La Fossa quiescent volcano and its surrounding area on the Island of Vulcano (Italy) are characterized by intensive, persistent degassing through both fumaroles and diffuse soil emissions. Periodic degassing crises occur, with marked increase in temperature and steam and gas output (mostly CO2) from crater fumaroles and in CO2 soil diffuse emission from the crater area as well as from the volcano flanks and base. The gas hazard of the most inhabited part of the island, Vulcano Porto, was investigated by simulating the CO2 dispersion in the atmosphere under different wind conditions. The DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) code, an Eulerian model based on advection-diffusion equations, was used together with the mass-consistent Diagnostic Wind Model. Numerical simulations were validated by measurements of air CO2 concentration inside the village and along the crater's rim by means of a Soil CO2 Automatic Station and a Tunable Diode Laser device. The results show that in the village of Vulcano Porto, the CO2 air concentration is mostly due to local soil degassing, while the contribution from the crater gas emission is negligible at the breathing height for humans and always remains well below the lowest indoor CO2 concentration threshold recommended by the health authorities (1000 ppm). Outdoor excess CO2 maxima up to 200 ppm above local background CO2 air concentration are estimated in the center of the village and up to 100 ppm in other zones. However, in some ground excavations or in basements the health code threshold can be exceeded. In the crater area, because of the combined effect of fumaroles and diffuse soil emissions, CO2 air concentrations can reach 5000-7000 ppm in low-wind conditions and pose a health hazard for visitors.

Granieri, D.; Carapezza, M. L.; Barberi, F.; Ranaldi, M.; Ricci, T.; Tarchini, L.

2014-07-01

246

Airborne detection of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at ~2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at ~3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels ~1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of ~250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at approximately 2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at approximately 3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels approximately 1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of approximately 250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.

Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

1999-01-01

247

Improving the way we think about projecting future energy use and emissions of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of decision makers need projections of future energy demand, CO2 emissions and similar factors that extend many decades into the future. The past performance of such projections has been\\u000a systematically overconfident. Analysts have often used scenarios based on detailed story lines that spell out “plausible alternative\\u000a futures” as a central tool for evaluating uncertainty. No probabilities are typically

M. Granger Morgan; David W. Keith

2008-01-01

248

Women's status and carbon dioxide emissions: A quantitative cross-national analysis.  

PubMed

Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas emissions have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women's traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women's status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of cross-national data, focusing on the connection between women's political status and CO(2) emissions per capita. We find that CO(2) emissions per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally. PMID:23017863

Ergas, Christina; York, Richard

2012-07-01

249

Carbon dioxide emissions after application of different tillage systems for loam in northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tillage operations influence soil physical properties and crop growth, and thus both directly and indirectly the cropland CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In this study, the results of CO2 flux measurements on cropland, under different tillage practices in northern China, are presented. CO2 flux on croplands with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea may L.) rotation was monitored on plots with conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT). Soil CO2 flux was generally greater in CT than in NT, and the RT CO2 flux was only slightly smaller than the CT. Daily soil CO2 emissions for CT, RT, and NT averaged 11.30g m-2, 9.63 g m-2 and 7.99 g m-2, respectively, during the growing period. Analysis of variance shows that these differences are significant for the three tillage treatments. Peak CO2 emissions were recorded on the CT and RT croplands after tillage operations. At the same time, no obviously increased emission of CO2 occurred on the NT plot. These differences demonstrate that tillage results in a rapid physical release of CO2.

Hongwen, Li; Lifeng, Hu; Fub, Chen; Xuemin, Zhang

2010-05-01

250

An Integrated, Low Temperature Process to Capture and Sequester Carbon Dioxide from Industrial Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments show that it is possible to integrate (1) the chemistry of serpentine dissolution, (2) capture of CO2 gas from the combustion of natural gas and coal-fired power plants using aqueous amine-based solvents, (3) long-term CO2 sequestration via solid phase carbonate precipitation, and (4) capture solvent regeneration with acid recycling in a single, continuous process. In our process, magnesium is released from serpentine at 300°C via heat treatment with ammonium sulfate salts or at temperatures as low as 50°C via reaction with sulfuric acid. We have also demonstrated that various solid carbonate phases can be precipitated directly from aqueous amine-based (NH3, MEA, DMEA) CO2 capture solvent solutions at room temperature. Direct precipitation from the capture solvent enables regenerating CO2 capture solvent without the need for heat and without the need to compress the CO2 off gas. We propose that known low-temperature electrochemical methods can be integrated with this process to regenerate the aqueous amine capture solvent and recycle acid for dissolution of magnesium-bearing mineral feedstocks and magnesium release. Although the direct precipitation of magnesite at ambient conditions remains elusive, experimental results demonstrate that at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 60°C, either nesquehonite Mg(HCO3)(OH)?2H2O or a double salt with the formula [NH4]2Mg(CO3)2?4H2O or an amorphous magnesium carbonate precipitate directly from the capture solvent. These phases are less desirable for CO2 sequestration than magnesite because they potentially remove constituents (water, ammonia) from the reaction system, reducing the overall efficiency of the sequestration process. Accordingly, the integrated process can be accomplished with minimal energy consumption and loss of CO2 capture and acid solvents, and a net generation of 1 to 4 moles of H2O/6 moles of CO2 sequestered (depending on the solid carbonate precipitate and amount of produced H2 and O2 gas reacted to produce heat and water). Features of the integrated process include the following: 1) the four separate processes have compatible chemistry, enabling design of an integrated, continuous process scheme for CO2 capture and sequestration; 2) all 4 stages of the process can be conducted at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures; 3) precipitating carbonate directly from the capture solvent eliminates the need for costly CO2 gas compression; and 4) recycling the acid used for serpentine dissolution and the solvent used for CO2 capture reduces feed stock costs.

Wendlandt, R. F.; Foremski, J. J.

2013-12-01

251

Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide ................................................................................................................................ 7 1.1 APPROACHES TO REDUCING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

252

Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organized by NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory (CMDL), the Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference is planned September 25-30 in Broomfield, Colo. At this website, scientists involved in various aspects of the global carbon cycle, especially the current increases of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, are encouraged to attend. Users can read the preliminary announcement and can learn about the themes of the conference. Researchers can learn about abstract submissions and accommodations. The Brief Conference History link offers a nice synopsis of the accomplishments of past conferences.

253

Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

2013-01-01

254

Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets.  

PubMed

In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO(2) emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future. PMID:23410395

Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N; Stanley, H Eugene

2013-01-01

255

Effects of smelter sulfur dioxide emissions: a spatiotemporal perspective using carbon isotopes in tree rings.  

PubMed

We wanted to test the hypothesis that forest exposure to phytotoxic gases indirectly affects their carbon uptake. We estimated that the reduction of photosynthesis may have reached 20 to 30% at a site located 9 km (test site) from the Horne copper smelter in Rouyn-Noranda, which is a point source of SO2. Twenty-one spruce trees older than 100 yr were selected from seven sites at various distances from the smelter to evaluate conditions prior to and during the periods of smelter operation. The carbon isotope results obtained from spruce tree rings at our test site reveal an unprecedented and abrupt shift of +4/1000 after the onset of smelter operations. This large and permanent shift exceeds natural variations in regional pre-smelter series or in the series at a remote control site. All trees up to 116 km downwind from the smelter show delta13C positive shifts following the onset of operations. There is also a clear inverse relationship between the amplitude of the first-order trends and distance from the smelter. Those delta13C trends indicate that trees exposed to high levels of SO2 decrease their level of CO2 uptake through activation of stomatal closure. This is strongly supported by the significant departure of the Rouyn-Noranda trends from those measured for trees from non-industrialized areas of the Northern Hemisphere, or calculated using global atmospheric conditions. Considering the large number of SO2 point sources in North America, our results imply that CO2 uptake by the boreal forest in the vicinity of these sources may be lower than previously thought. PMID:14964354

Savard, Martine M; Bégin, Christian; Parent, Michel; Smirnoff, Anna; Marion, Joëlle

2004-01-01

256

Carbon dioxide emission and heat release estimation for Pantelleria Island (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed surveys of diffuse CO2 flux, soil temperature, thermal gradients, and sampling of high-T fumaroles were carried out in the Favare area and Lake Specchio di Venere on Pantelleria Island. Spatial patterns of diffuse CO2 emissions in the Favare area reflect structural discontinuities (faults, fractures or cracks in the soil) associated with the volcano-tectonic structures of the young Monastero Caldera (NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending). The estimated diffuse CO2 output from two adjacent sites in the Favare area (~ 93,000 m2) is 7.8 t d- 1 (equivalent to 2.62 kt a- 1), whereas that from the west shore of the lake (450 m2) is 0.041 t d- 1 (or 0.015 kt a- 1). The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across the entire altered area of Favare suggests that CO2 emissions are ~ 19.3 t d- 1. The diffuse CO2 flux correlates with shallow soil temperatures, indicating a similar source for both the heat and volatiles from the underlying geothermal reservoir. Gas equilibria applied to fumarolic effluents define P-T conditions for this reservoir at 2-6 bar and 120-160 °C, in good agreement with measurements from exploratory wells in these areas (e.g., 135 °C at a depth of 290 m). Using the CO2 flux as a tracer for steam output, and consequently for heat flow, the calculated thermal energy for the shallow reservoir is 10-12 MW; this represents the minimum geothermal potential of the reservoir on Pantelleria island.

Granieri, Domenico; Chiodini, Giovanni; Avino, Rosario; Caliro, Stefano

2014-04-01

257

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-print Network

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of power stations and from other

258

Carbon dioxide emissions in conventional and no-till corn production systems under different fertilizer management practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil management practices such as tillage and fertilizer application methods affect soil emissions of greenhouse gases which impacts agricultural contributions of greenhouse gases. It is important to develop and evaluate strategies for reducing soil emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon diox...

259

Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

2009-04-30

260

OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE  

E-print Network

OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE­ BAITED VECTOR surveillance trap support was designed as a tripod of polyvinyl chloride pipes to suspend carbon dioxide, vector surveillance, hanging traps, carbon dioxide, mosquito trap Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is common

261

Carbon Dioxide Measurement and Tracking We are combining our expertise in remote sensing, measurement,  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Measurement and Tracking We are combining our expertise in remote sensing, measurement, experimentation, and modeling to track and quantify CO2. 7 08 FACT SHEET Carbon Dioxide." Among the proposed solutions are carbon sequestration (storing carbon dioxide emissions in geologic

262

Carbon Dioxide - Our Common "Enemy"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health effects of brief and prolonged exposure to carbon dioxide continue to be a concern for those of us who manage this pollutant in closed volumes, such as in spacecraft and submarines. In both examples, considerable resources are required to scrub the atmosphere to levels that are considered totally safe for maintenance of crew health and performance. Defining safe levels is not a simple task because of many confounding factors, including: lack of a robust database on human exposures, suspected significant variations in individual susceptibility, variations in the endpoints used to assess potentially adverse effects, the added effects of stress, and the fluid shifts associated with micro-gravity (astronauts only). In 2007 the National Research Council proposed revised Continuous Exposure Guidelines (CEGLs) and Emergency Exposure Guidelines (EEGLs) to the U.S. Navy. Similarly, in 2008 the NASA Toxicology Group, in cooperation with another subcommittee of the National Research Council, revised Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). In addition, a 1000-day exposure limit was set for long-duration spaceflights to celestial bodies. Herein we examine the rationale for the levels proposed to the U.S. Navy and compare this rationale with the one used by NASA to set its limits. We include a critical review of previous studies on the effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and attempt to dissect out the challenges associated with setting fully-defensible limits. We also describe recent experiences with management of carbon dioxide aboard the International Space Station with 13 persons aboard. This includes the tandem operations of the Russian Vozduk and the U.S. Carbon Dioxide Removal System. A third removal system is present while the station is docked to the Shuttle spacecraft, so our experience includes the lithium hydroxide system aboard Shuttle for the removal of carbon dioxide. We discuss strategies for highly-efficient, regenerable removal of carbon dioxide that could meet the 1000-day SMAC of 0.5%, which would apply to long-duration voyages to Mars.

James, John T.; Macatangay, Ariel

2009-01-01

263

Sorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Sodium Carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium carbonate was used as a sorbent to capture CO2 from a gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and moisture. The breakthrough data of CO2 were measured in a fixed bed to observe the reaction kinetics of CO2?carbonate reaction. Several models such as the shrinking?core model, the homogeneous model, and the deactivation model in the non?catalytic heterogeneous reaction systems were

2006-01-01

264

CDIAC: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) which includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC responds to data and information requests from users from all over the world who are concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change. CDIAC's data holdings include records of the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. In operation since 1982, CDIAC: obtains, evaluates, and archives data, compiles and distributes digital numeric data packages and computer model packages, provides data management support to global-change related scientific projects, distributes related reports, produces the newsletter, CDIAC Communications, and in general acts as the information focus for the U.S. DOE Global Change Research Program. CDIAC is supported by DOE's Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System.

265

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution  

SciTech Connect

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

1994-10-01

266

VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM  

E-print Network

VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determined

267

Carbon dioxide adsorption on nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, CO2 adsorption in the presence and absence of co-adsorbed H2O was investigated on different nanomaterials including nanocrystalline NaY zeolite (nano NaY), ZnO, MgO and gamma-Al 2O3 nanoparticles as well as mixed phase aluminum nanowhiskers. In the case of nano NaY, FTIR spectra show that a majority of CO2 adsorbs in the pores of these zeolites in a linear complex with the exchangeable cation. Most interesting is the formation of carbonate and bicarbonate on the external surface of nano NaY zeolites, suggesting unique sites for CO 2 adsorption on the surface of these small nanomaterials. Adsorption of 18O-labeled carbon dioxide and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirms the assignment of these different species. For aluminum oxyhydroxide nanowhiskers and gamma alumina in the absence of co-adsorbed water, CO2 reacts with surface hydroxyl groups to yield adsorbed bicarbonate as well as some carbonate. C18O2 adsorption confirms these assignments. In the case of nanoparticulate ZnO, CO2 adsorption under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate, bicarbonates as well as carboxylates. However, in the presence of co-adsorbed water, only carbonate species is formed. 18O-labeled carbon dioxide adsorption and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirm the vibrational assignment for these different species. Mixed isotope studies with H2 16O + C18O2 and H2 18O + C16O2 suggest that there is extensive exchange between oxygen in adsorbed water and oxygen atoms in gas-phase carbon dioxide. CO2 adsorption on MgO surfaces, under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate and bicarbonates. Implications for the use of these nanomaterials in carbon dioxide uptake and storage are discussed.

Galhotra, Pragati

268

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOEpatents

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20

269

Carbon dioxide transport over complex terrain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nocturnal transport of carbon dioxide over complex terrain was investigated. The high carbon dioxide under very stable conditions flows to local low-ground. The regional drainage flow dominates the carbon dioxide transport at the 6 m above the ground and carbon dioxide was transported to the regional low ground. The results show that the local drainage flow was sensitive to turbulent mixing associated with local wind shear.

Sun, J.; Burns, S.P.; Delany, A.C.; Oncley, S.P.; Turnipseed, A.; Stephens, B.; Guenther, A.; Anderson, D.E.; Monson, R.

2004-01-01

270

Tillage and crop residue effects on soil carbon and carbon dioxide emission in corn-soybean rotations.  

PubMed

Soil C change and CO2 emission due to different tillage systems need to be evaluated to encourage the adoption of conservation practices to sustain soil productivity and protect the environment. We hypothesize that soil C storage and CO2 emission respond to conservation tillage differently from conventional tillage because of their differential effects on soil properties. This study was conducted from 1998 through 2001 to evaluate tillage effects on soil C storage and CO2 emission in Clarion-Nicollet-Webster soil association in a corn [Zea mays L.]-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation in Iowa. Treatments included no-tillage with and without residue, strip-tillage, deep rip, chisel plow, and moldboard plow. No-tillage with residue and strip-tillage significantly increased total soil organic C (TC) and mineral fraction C (MFC) at the 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-cm soil depths compared with chisel plow after 3 yr of tillage practices. Soil CO2 emission was lower for less intensive tillage treatments compared with moldboard plow, with the greatest differences occurring immediately after tillage operations. Cumulative soil CO2 emission was 19 to 41% lower for less intensive tillage treatments than moldboard plow, and it was 24% less for no-tillage with residue than without residue during the 480-h measurement period. Estimated soil mineralizable C pool was reduced by 22 to 66% with less intensive tillage treatments compared with moldboard plow. Adopting less intensive tillage systems such as no-tillage, strip-tillage, deep rip, and chisel plow and better crop residue cover are effective in reducing CO2 emission and thus improving soil C sequestration in a corn-soybean rotation. PMID:15758095

Al-Kaisi, Mahdi M; Yin, Xinhua

2005-01-01

271

Effect of Bacterial and Fungal Abundance in Soil on the Emission of Carbon Dioxide from Soil in Semi-arid Climate in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere is actively increasing since industrial revolution (1800) from 285 ppmv to 378\\u000a ppmv in 2005. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil due to floral and faunal respiration in soil, called soil respiration, is the\\u000a second largest source of increasing concentration of CO2 in atmosphere. Soil respiration produces almost 11 times more carbon dioxide in atmosphere than

Rashmi Kant; Chirashree Ghosh; Lokendra Singh; Neelam Tripathi

272

7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve,  

E-print Network

7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve, shown to the left, shows the variation in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1958-1974. It is based on continuous measurements taken of rapidly increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working

273

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW  

E-print Network

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1 1 Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, USA Purdue University, March 1rst, 2013 SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12 (North Sea). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated

Santos, Juan

274

21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2 , CAS Reg....

2014-04-01

275

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW  

E-print Network

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

Santos, Juan

276

2, 18491865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in  

E-print Network

BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern Poland L. Chmura et al. Title Page Abstract is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 1849 #12;BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern urban environment with numerous local sources of carbon dioxide. Despite of relative proximity of those

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Fluoropolymer-based capacitive carbon dioxide sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a thin film sensor of carbon dioxide which relies on the change in capacitance of a fluoropolymer thin film caused by the difference in dielectric constants between air and carbon dioxide and by the preferred adsorption by the polymer of carbon dioxide compared to that of air. The fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 2400™, selectively adsorbs large quantities of CO2

Paul L. Kebabian; Andrew Freedman

2006-01-01

278

SOIL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION AS AFFECTED BY IRRIGATION, TILLAGE, CROPPING SYSTEM, AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management practices can influence soil CO2 emission and C sequestration in cropland and therefore on global warming. We examined the effects of irrigation systems (irrigated vs. non-irrigated) and soil and crop management practices on soil CO2 flux, temperature, and water and C contents at the 0 to...

279

Carbon Dioxide - Sources and Sinks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, students use a chemical indicator (bromothymol blue) to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in animal and plant respiration and in the burning of fossil fuels and its absence in the products of plant photosynthesis. After completing the five parts of this activity, students compare the colors of the chemical indicator in each part and interpret the results in terms of the qualitative importance of carbon sinks and sources.

Windows to the Universe

280

Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

Winkel, Brian

2012-01-01

281

II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17  

E-print Network

15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

282

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13?/12? ratio in the respired ??2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (?13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the soil microbiota. The plants and microorganisms used had the isotopic signatures similar to that of the soil, whereas the ?13C of HD was -47.9‰. The HD mineralization level was assessed by determining the difference between the isotopic compositions of soil CO2 immediately after pollution and during remediation. In the unvegetated soil, about 13% of initially added HD was mineralized, the phytoremediation increased the total decomposition of the contaminant to 19%, and an additional plant inoculation with strain SR80 raised it to 33%. The GC analysis of soil demonstrated that contaminant loss in the plant treatments and in the inoculated plant treatment was 71 and 72%, respectively, whereas in the nonvegetated treatments, it was 64 and 66%, respectively. Thus, the elimination of the contaminant resulted from its total mineralization (CO2 emission) and partial chemical transformation.

Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

2010-05-01

283

Evidence That Light, Carbon Dioxide, and Oxygen Dependencies of Leaf Isoprene Emission Are Driven by Energy Status in Hybrid Aspen1  

PubMed Central

Leaf isoprene emission scales positively with light intensity, is inhibited by high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and may be enhanced or inhibited by low oxygen (O2) concentrations, but the mechanisms of environmental regulation of isoprene emission are still not fully understood. Emission controls by isoprene synthase, availability of carbon intermediates, or energetic cofactors have been suggested previously. In this study, we asked whether the short-term (tens of minutes) environmental control of isoprene synthesis results from alterations in the immediate isoprene precursor dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP) pool size, and to what extent DMADP concentrations are affected by the supply of carbon and energetic metabolites. A novel in vivo method based on postillumination isoprene release was employed to measure the pool size of DMADP simultaneously with the rates of isoprene emission and net assimilation at different light intensities and CO2 and O2 concentrations. Both net assimilation and isoprene emission rates increased hyperbolically with light intensity. The photosynthetic response to CO2 concentration was also hyperbolic, while the CO2 response curve of isoprene emission exhibited a maximum at close to CO2 compensation point. Low O2 positively affected both net assimilation and isoprene emission. In all cases, the variation in isoprene emission was matched with changes in DMADP pool size. The results of these experiments suggest that DMADP pool size controls the response of isoprene emission to light intensity and to CO2 and O2 concentrations and that the pool size is determined by the level of energetic metabolites generated in photosynthesis. PMID:19587097

Rasulov, Bahtijor; Hüve, Katja; Välbe, Mikk; Laisk, Agu; Niinemets, Ülo

2009-01-01

284

A compilation of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emission-rate data from Cook Inlet volcanoes (Redoubt, Spurr, Iliamna, and Augustine), Alaska during the period from 1990 to 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Airborne sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas sampling of the Cook Inlet volcanoes (Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) began in 1986 when several measurements were carried out at Augustine volcano during the eruption of 1986 (Rose and others, 1988). More systematic monitoring for SO2 began in March 1990 and for carbon dioxide (CO2) began in June, 1990 at Redoubt Volcano (Brantley, 1990 and Casadevall and others, 1994) and continues to the present. This report contains all of the available daily SO2 and CO2 emission rates determined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 1990 through July 1994. Intermittent measurements (four to six month intervals) at Augustine and Iliamna began in 1990 and continues to the present. Intermittent measurements began at Mt. Spurr volcano in 1991, and were continued at more regular intervals from June, 1992 through the 1992 eruption at the Crater Peak vent to the present.

Doukas, Michael P.

1995-01-01

285

Effects of an experimental drought and recovery on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and  

E-print Network

and consumption. Keywords: Amazon Basin, Brazil, climate change, CH4, CO2, N2O, nitrogen, NO, soil carbon Received severe as global climatic change proceeds during the 21st century (Cox et al., 2004; Li et al., 2006 precipitation may have important feedback effects on climate change by altering soil emissions of radiatively

Saleska, Scott

286

Space-time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to improve understanding of carbon cycling in the Buor-Khaya Bay (BKB) and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea by studying the inter-annual, seasonal, and meso-scale variability of carbon and related hydrological and biogeochemical parameters in the water, as well as factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Here we present data sets obtained on summer cruises and winter expeditions during 12 yr of investigation. Based on data analysis, we suggest that in the heterotrophic BKB area, input of terrestrially borne organic carbon (OC) varies seasonally and inter-annually and is largely determined by rates of coastal erosion and river discharge. Two different BKB sedimentation regimes were revealed: Type 1 (erosion accumulation) and Type 2 (accumulation). A Type 1 sedimentation regime occurs more often and is believed to be the quantitatively most important mechanism for suspended particular matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery to the BKB. The mean SPM concentration observed in the BKB under a Type 1 regime was one order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration of SPM (~ 20 mg L-1) observed along the Lena River stream in summer 2003. Loadings of the BKB water column with particulate material vary by more than a factor of two between the two regimes. Higher partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), higher concentrations of nutrients, and lower levels of oxygen saturation were observed in the bottom water near the eroded coasts, implying that coastal erosion and subsequent oxidation of eroded organic matter (OM) rather than the Lena River serves as the predominant source of nutrients to the BKB. Atmospheric CO2 fluxes from the sea surface in the BKB vary from 1 to 95 mmol m-2 day-1 and are determined by specific features of hydrology and wind conditions, which change spatially, seasonally, and inter-annually. Mean values of CO2 emission from the shallow Laptev Sea were similar in September 1999 and 2005 (7.2 and 7.8 mmol m-2 day-1, respectively), while the CO2 efflux can be one order lower after a strong storm such as in September 2011. Atmospheric CO2 emissions from a thawed coastal ice complex in the BKB area varied from 9 to 439 mmol m-2 day-1, with the mean value ranged from 75.7 to 101 mmol m-2 day-1 in two years (September 2006 and 2009), suggesting that at the time of observations the eroded coastal area served as a more significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere than the tundra (mean value: 22.7 mmol m-2 day-1) on the neighboring Primorsky coastal plain (September 2006). The observed increase in the Lena River discharge since the 1990s suggests that increased levels of "satellite-derived" annual primary production could be explained by an increasing load of humic acids delivered to shelf water; in this water the color resulting from the presence of CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) mimics the color resulting from the presence of Chl a when seen from space. Because the BKB area can be employed as an integrator of ongoing changes in the surrounding environment, we suggest that under ongoing changes, more nutrients, products of eroded OC transformation and river transport, will be delivered to the Arctic Ocean with its shrinking ice cover, potentially increasing primary production outside of the shallow East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). At the same time, because the ESAS is characterized by very low transparency which limits euphotic layer thickness, excessive pCO2 will not be utilized by photosynthesis but will rather be emitted to the atmosphere at increasing rates, affecting regional CO2 balance.

Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

2013-09-01

287

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01

288

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01

289

Turning carbon dioxide into fuel.  

PubMed

Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO2). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies develop, future demands now ensure that energy will be one of the defining issues of this century. This unique set of (coupled) challenges also means that science and engineering have a unique opportunity-and a burgeoning challenge-to apply their understanding to provide sustainable energy solutions. Integrated carbon capture and subsequent sequestration is generally advanced as the most promising option to tackle greenhouse gases in the short to medium term. Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO2, to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. Basically, the approach centres on the concept of the large-scale re-use of CO2 released by human activity to produce synthetic fuels, and how this challenging approach could assume an important role in tackling the issue of global CO2 emissions. We highlight three possible strategies involving CO2 conversion by physico-chemical approaches: sustainable (or renewable) synthetic methanol, syngas production derived from flue gases from coal-, gas- or oil-fired electric power stations, and photochemical production of synthetic fuels. The use of CO2 to synthesize commodity chemicals is covered elsewhere (Arakawa et al. 2001 Chem. Rev. 101, 953-996); this review is focused on the possibilities for the conversion of CO2 to fuels. Although these three prototypical areas differ in their ultimate applications, the underpinning thermodynamic considerations centre on the conversion-and hence the utilization-of CO2. Here, we hope to illustrate that advances in the science and engineering of materials are critical for these new energy technologies, and specific examples are given for all three examples. With sufficient advances, and institutional and political support, such scientific and technological innovations could help to regulate/stabilize the CO2 levels in the atmosphere and thereby extend the use of fossil-fuel-derived feedstocks. PMID:20566515

Jiang, Z; Xiao, T; Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

2010-07-28

290

Incentives of carbon dioxide regulation for investment in low-carbon electricity technologies in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the incentives a carbon dioxide emissions price creates for investment in low carbon dioxide-emitting technologies in the electricity sector. We consider the extent to which operational differences across generation technologies – particularly, nuclear, wind and solar photovoltaic – create differences in the incentives for new investment, which is measured by the operating profits of a potential entrant.

Anya Castillo; Joshua Linn

2011-01-01

291

Soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and nitrogen fertilization.  

PubMed

Management practices can influence soil CO(2) emission and C content in cropland, which can effect global warming. We examined the effects of combinations of irrigation, tillage, cropping systems, and N fertilization on soil CO(2) flux, temperature, water, and C content at the 0- to 20-cm depth from May to November 2005 at two sites in the northern Great Plains. Treatments were two irrigation systems (irrigated vs. non-irrigated) and six management practices that contained tilled and no-tilled malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) with 0 to 134 kg N ha(-1), no-tilled pea (Pisum sativum L.), and a conservation reserve program (CRP) planting applied in Lihen sandy loam (sandy, mixed, frigid, Entic Haplustolls) in western North Dakota. In eastern Montana, treatments were no-tilled malt barley with 78 kg N ha(-1), no-tilled rye (Secale cereale L.), no-tilled Austrian winter pea, no-tilled fallow, and tilled fallow applied in dryland Williams loam (fine-loamy, mixed Typic Argiborolls). Irrigation increased CO(2) flux by 13% compared with non-irrigation by increasing soil water content in North Dakota. Tillage increased CO(2) flux by 62 to 118% compared with no-tillage at both places. The flux was 1.5- to 2.5-fold greater with tilled than with non-tilled treatments following heavy rain or irrigation in North Dakota and 1.5- to 2.0-fold greater with crops than with fallow following substantial rain in Montana. Nitrogen fertilization increased CO(2) flux by 14% compared with no N fertilization in North Dakota and cropping increased the flux by 79% compared with fallow in no-till and 0 kg N ha(-1) in Montana. The CO(2) flux in undisturbed CRP was similar to that in no-tilled crops. Although soil C content was not altered, management practices influenced CO(2) flux within a short period due to changes in soil temperature, water, and nutrient contents. Regardless of irrigation, CO(2) flux can be reduced from croplands to a level similar to that in CRP planting using no-tilled crops with or without N fertilization compared with other management practices. PMID:18178882

Sainju, Upendra M; Jabro, Jalal D; Stevens, William B

2008-01-01

292

Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

1979-01-01

293

Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

2012-01-01

294

Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2011-01-01

295

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-print Network

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

296

Synthesis of fluoropolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The authors` research is focus on the synthesis of fluopolymers is supercritical carbon dioxide. The authors reported earlier the successful homogenous free radical polymerization of a series of highly fluorinated acrylic type monomers in supercritical carbon dioxide. Now it is found that a highly fluorinated styrenic polymer also exhibits very high solubility in carbon dioxide. The fluorinated styrenic polymer was synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide using homogenous free radical polymerization and was characterized by {sup 1}HNMR, FTIR etc. Some semicrystalline fluoropolymers were also synthesized in supercritical carbon but the polymerization were heterogenous under the condition used. Various conventional nonfluorinated monomers were copolymerized with the fluorinated monomers and the copolymerizations were homogenous at very high nonfluorinated monomer feed ratio. The incorporation of nonfluorinated units onto the fluoropolymer chains increases their solubility greatly in organic solvents. The polymers synthesized in carbon dioxide will be furtherly characterized and the authors will continue the efforts on synthesizing polymers using carbon dioxide as polymerization medium.

Guan, Z.; Combes, J.R.; Elsbernd, C.S.; DeSimone, J.M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

1993-12-31

297

Enhanced carbon dioxide adsorption through carbon nanoscrolls.  

PubMed

Over the last few years, significant efforts have been devoted to exploring the capabilities of carbon based structures for gas separation and filtration. In the present study the layering behavior of carbon dioxide transported through carbon nanoscrolls is examined through molecular dynamics simulations. The layering arrangements are investigated for carbon nanoscrolls with intralayer distances spanning from 4.2 to 8.3 Å at temperature of 300 K and pressures ranging from 5 to 20 bars. Characteristic layering structures are developed around the internal and external surfaces of the nanoscroll for all the examined cases. It is shown that the number of layers, their relative strength, and the starting point of bifurcation phenomena vary as a function of the nanoscrolls' intralayer distance, scroll's core radius, CO2 density, and gas structure interactions. It is also shown that the number of carbon dioxide molecules adsorbed per scroll's carbon particles is a function of the scroll's surface-to-volume ratio and is maximized under certain structural configurations. PMID:22304187

Mantzalis, Dimitrios; Asproulis, Nikolaos; Drikakis, Dimitris

2011-12-01

298

The Change in Carbon Dioxide Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students discover that ice cores can help us learn not only the temperature of the Earth in times past, but also the amount of Carbon Dioxide trapped in the air bubbles in the ice. This activity uses as source data a plot of each versus time, and asks the students to plot the Temperature variable versus the other variable which is the Carbon Dioxide content. Students can fit the data to a line y = mx + b to see how changes in Temperature and related to changes in Carbon Dioxide. After they make a graph of Carbon Dioxide concentration as a function of time, they will learn about linear trends in the data, as well as the annual variation of Carbon Dioxide and will then predict the level of Carbon Dioxide in a future year from the data.

299

A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions is paramount to carbon cycle studies, but the use of atmospheric inverse modeling approaches for this purpose has been limited by the highly heterogeneous and non-Gaussian spatiotemporal variability of emissions. Here we explore the feasibility of capturing this variability using a low-dimensional parameterization that can be implemented within the context of atmospheric CO2 inverse problems aimed at constraining regional-scale emissions. We construct a multiresolution (i.e., wavelet-based) spatial parameterization for ffCO2 emissions using the Vulcan inventory, and examine whether such a~parameterization can capture a realistic representation of the expected spatial variability of actual emissions. We then explore whether sub-selecting wavelets using two easily available proxies of human activity (images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas) yields a low-dimensional alternative. We finally implement this low-dimensional parameterization within an idealized inversion, where a sparse reconstruction algorithm, an extension of stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), is used to identify the wavelet coefficients. We find that (i) the spatial variability of fossil-fuel emission can indeed be represented using a low-dimensional wavelet-based parameterization, (ii) that images of lights at night can be used as a proxy for sub-selecting wavelets for such analysis, and (iii) that implementing this parameterization within the described inversion framework makes it possible to quantify fossil-fuel emissions at regional scales if fossil-fuel-only CO2 observations are available.

Ray, J.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.; McKenna, S. A.

2014-09-01

300

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

E-print Network

- 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

301

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity measuring the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in carbonated water at different temperatures. The amount of carbon dioxide is measured by the amount of dilute ammonia solution needed to produce a pH indicator color change. (PR)

Bush, Pat; And Others

1992-01-01

302

Carbon Cycle: Exchanging Carbon Dioxide between the Atmosphere and Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab investigates the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the ocean's surface. It is based on the fact that carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean and provides the source of that plants and plankton living in the ocean rely on for photosynthesis. Students will discover that the amount of carbon dioxide the ocean can contain depends on the temperature of the water and its salinity (whether it is sea water or fresh water) and that cold water can hold more carbon dioxide in solution than warm water. They will observe that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid which makes the water acidic, and they will test for the acidity caused by the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide using Universal Indicator, which turns yellow when the solution is acidic. This activity tests whether sea water or fresh water absorbs more carbon dioxide.

303

CARBON DIOXIDE HYDRATES CRYSTALLISATION IN EMULSION Aurlie Galfr, Amara Fezoua, Yamina Ouabbas, Ana Cameirao, Jean Michel Herri  

E-print Network

CARBON DIOXIDE HYDRATES CRYSTALLISATION IN EMULSION Aurélie Galfré, Amara Fezoua, Yamina Ouabbas de SAINT-ETIENNE FRANCE ABSTRACT Greenhouse gases emissions, like carbon dioxide, have been identified as major sources responsible for global warming. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions, capture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

304

Climate models should include carbon dioxide increases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The specific impacts of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Australian summer were examined. It was found that plant response to increased carbon dioxide influences atmospheric temperatures and the climate in ways that are not currently captured by climate models. The authors suggest that local and global climate models should include a measure of vegetation response to natural and man-made carbon dioxide increases to accurately account for biospheric feedback.

Narisma et al.

305

Sequestering Naturally Occurring Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Deep Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid carbon dioxide has been found as shallow as 1,500 meters in seafloor ooze. Did the liquid carbon dioxide originate from volcanic activity? Or did bacteria convert organic matter, which started as atmospheric carbon dioxide, into methane and liquid carbon dioxide? At typical ocean temperatures carbon dioxide coming out of solution below 600 meters will be liquid. Therefore, one likely

M. E. Capron

2008-01-01

306

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

SciTech Connect

Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

2001-05-01

307

Household carbon dioxide production in relation to the greenhouse effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 655 households from eastern suburbs of Melbourne was undertaken to determine householders[prime] attitudes to, and understanding of, the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from car, electricity and gas use were computed and household actions which could reduce CO[sub 2] emissions were addressed. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates that householders in this area are aware of,

D. Stokes; A. Lindsay; J. Marinopoulos; A. Treloar; G. Wescott

1994-01-01

308

Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major amtrihtitor to global wanning is considered to he the high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide (COJ, caused by the burtiing of fossil fuel. Thus, to mitigate CO^ emissions, renewable energy sources such as ethanol have been seen as a promising alternative to fossil fuel consumption. Brazil was the world's first nation to run a large-scale

MARCELO E. DIAS DE OLIVEIRA; BURTON E. VAUGHAN; EDWARD J. RYKIEL JR

2005-01-01

309

Carbon Dioxide Emissions as Affected by Alternative Long-Term Irrigation and Tillage Management Practices in the Lower Mississippi River Valley  

PubMed Central

Ensuring the sustainability of cultivated soils is an ever-increasing priority for producers in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV). As groundwater sources become depleted and environmental regulations become more strict, producers will look to alternative management practices that will ensure the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of their production systems. This study was conducted to assess the long-term (>7?years) effects of irrigation (i.e., irrigated and dryland production) and tillage (conventional and no-tillage) on estimated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil respiration during two soybean (Glycine max L.) growing seasons from a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.-) soybean, double-cropped production system in the LMRV region of eastern Arkansas. Soil surface CO2 fluxes were measured approximately every two weeks during two soybean growing seasons. Estimated season-long CO2 emissions were unaffected by irrigation in 2011 (P > 0.05); however, during the unusually dry 2012 growing season, season-long CO2 emissions were 87.6% greater (P = 0.044) under irrigated (21.9?Mg CO2 ha?1) than under dryland management (11.7?Mg CO2 ha?1). Contrary to what was expected, there was no interactive effect of irrigation and tillage on estimated season-long CO2 emissions. Understanding how long-term agricultural management practices affect soil respiration can help improve policies for soil and environmental sustainability. PMID:25371912

Smith, S. F.; Brye, K. R.

2014-01-01

310

Carbon dioxide emissions as affected by alternative long-term irrigation and tillage management practices in the lower Mississippi River Valley.  

PubMed

Ensuring the sustainability of cultivated soils is an ever-increasing priority for producers in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV). As groundwater sources become depleted and environmental regulations become more strict, producers will look to alternative management practices that will ensure the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of their production systems. This study was conducted to assess the long-term (>7 years) effects of irrigation (i.e., irrigated and dryland production) and tillage (conventional and no-tillage) on estimated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil respiration during two soybean (Glycine max L.) growing seasons from a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.-) soybean, double-cropped production system in the LMRV region of eastern Arkansas. Soil surface CO2 fluxes were measured approximately every two weeks during two soybean growing seasons. Estimated season-long CO2 emissions were unaffected by irrigation in 2011 (P > 0.05); however, during the unusually dry 2012 growing season, season-long CO2 emissions were 87.6% greater (P = 0.044) under irrigated (21.9 Mg CO2 ha(-1)) than under dryland management (11.7 Mg CO2 ha(-1)). Contrary to what was expected, there was no interactive effect of irrigation and tillage on estimated season-long CO2 emissions. Understanding how long-term agricultural management practices affect soil respiration can help improve policies for soil and environmental sustainability. PMID:25371912

Smith, S F; Brye, K R

2014-01-01

311

Effects of ozone exposure on 'Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of 'Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Correa, Savio Figueira; Brito Paiva, Luisa; Mota do Couto, Flavio; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo; Silva Sthel, Marcelo; Vargas, Helion [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mota, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Goncalves de Oliveira, Jurandi [Laboratorio de Melhoramento Genetico Vegetal, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego 2000, Parque California 28013-602, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miklos, Andras [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Bauphysik, Nobelstrasse 12, Vaihingen 70569, Stuttgart, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany)

2011-06-01

312

Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

2011-06-01

313

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2012-07-01

314

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2010-07-01

315

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2013-07-01

316

40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

2011-07-01

317

Wood-based building materials and atmospheric carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the global impact of wood as a building material by considering emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Wood is compared with other materials in terms of stored carbon and emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel energy used in manufacturing. An analysis of typical forms of building construction shows that wood buildings require much lower process

Andrew H Buchanan; S. Bry Levine

1999-01-01

318

Source attribution of fossil-fuel emissions at the urban scale using stable isotopologues of carbon-dioxide (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can atmospheric measurements be used to constrain estimates of sector-specific CO2 emissions at the urban scale? In a pilot-study in the Vancouver Metropolitan Region, BC, Canada, we explored the potential of using time-series of the stable carbon isotope composition of CO2 in the urban atmosphere to identify and separate fossil-fuel (FF) emission sources. For extended periods in winter, spring and summer of 2012/13, total CO2 concentration, ?13C and ?18O in CO2 was measured in the urban atmosphere over the Vancouver Metropolitan Region using a tunable diode laser absorption system (TGA 200, Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT, USA). The system continuously sampled outdoor air and was calibrated against NOAA standard gases with a precision of 0.1 per mil and 0.4 per mil for ?13C and ?18O in CO2, respectively. Time series are analyzed in combination with meteorological data (mixed layer height, wind direction). Data conditionally sampled for selected wind direction was used to determine intercepts using Keeling-plots, assuming that the urban boundary layer is well mixed and the two dominant FF sources are natural gas and gasoline. Source attributions based on those atmospheric measurements are compared to the Community Energy and Emissions Inventory (CEEI) for Metro Vancouver 2010 which is based on an fuel-consumption and bottom-up modeling approach and distributed using traffic counts, utility data and building energy modeling on a monthly scale. The emission source attribution using isotopologues is promising, in particular given that the measurements are made at a single site - likely because the Vancouver Metropolitan Region is an isolated urbanized region commonly experiencing background-air inflow from the Pacific. In January, the isotopologue approach proposes that 53% of the CO2 emissions in the urban boundary layer originate from natural gas, the primary fuel for home heating, which matches relatively well the distributed CEEI data for the same month (58%). By May, natural gas emissions have decreased and the atmospheric measurements suggest 25% natural gas (vs. 31% in the CEEI). The dataset also allows for the determination of diurnal courses of emission - the urban boundary layer contains more CO2 from gasoline combustion in the afternoon, and more from natural gas combustion in the night. Our results demonstrate that regional to urban-scale measurements of isotopologue ratios can be a feasible and promising approach to determine the sources of CO2 emissions in cities. Such atmospheric measurements will fill a gap in emission validation at intermediate urban scales - between well-known emission factors of selected elements of an urban system (cars, space heating systems, individual buildings) and national fuel consumption inventories. Further, urban-scale monitoring of emissions will be an essential prerequisite to validate upcoming satellite products of tropospheric column-averaged CO2 concentrations that will be able to resolve, monitor and quantify plumes of individual cities in the future.

Christen, A.; Ketler, R.; Nesic, Z.; Roth, M.; Schwendenmann, L.

2013-12-01

319

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2013-10-01

320

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2012-10-01

321

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2014-10-01

322

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2014-10-01

323

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2012-10-01

324

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

325

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2012-04-01

326

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

327

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

328

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

329

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

330

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

331

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

332

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

333

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

334

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2013-10-01

335

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

336

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

337

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

338

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2012-07-01

339

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2010-04-01

340

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2014-07-01

341

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

342

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2013-07-01

343

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2010-07-01

344

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2012-07-01

345

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2014-10-01

346

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

2011-07-01

347

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

348

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2014-01-01

349

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

2011-10-01

350

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2013-01-01

351

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

2013-07-01

353

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2012-01-01

354

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2013-10-01

355

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2012-07-01

356

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2014-04-01

357

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2010-04-01

358

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

359

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2012-07-01

360

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

361

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2013-07-01

362

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2010-10-01

363

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2012-04-01

364

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2013-07-01

365

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2013-07-01

366

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

2010-10-01

367

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2014-07-01

368

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2013-10-01

369

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

2010-07-01

370

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2013-07-01

371

46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

2012-10-01

372

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2011-07-01

373

Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide-Based Industrial Laundry Machine  

E-print Network

Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide- Based Industrial Laundry Machine Industrial developed a commercial prototype supercritical carbon dioxide-based laundry system acceptance, the technical and commercial feasibility of a supercritical-carbon dioxide textile

374

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2012-10-01

375

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2011-07-01

376

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2014-04-01

377

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2010-01-01

378

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

379

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

2012-07-01

380

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2014-10-01

381

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) § 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

2011-10-01

382

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2011-04-01

383

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2014-07-01

384

46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking:...

2011-10-01

385

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2010-07-01

386

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2011-04-01

387

46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment § 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

2012-10-01

388

46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

2013-10-01

389

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2012-04-01

390

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

391

46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

2014-10-01

392

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2014-07-01

393

46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking:...

2010-10-01

394

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

395

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

396

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2012-07-01

397

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK § 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2011-01-01

398

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2011-10-01

399

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2010-10-01

400

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2010-04-01

401

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

2011-10-01

402

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device...

2011-04-01

403

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device...

2010-04-01

404

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device...

2011-04-01

405

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2011-04-01

406

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2010-10-01

407

Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Cultured Animal Cells  

E-print Network

Dioxide Fixation Iii Effects of Olucose 15 Effects of Tryptophan « • 17 Effects of Insulin 18 Effects of Glucagon and Catecholamines 19 Effects of Glucocorticoids « • • • 20 Other Metabolic Pathways 25 Carbon Dioxide Fixing Enzymes 26 Beta-Me thyl... phosphate (101) to catalyze the formation of PEP from pyruvate. Oluconeogenesis will be discussed under the following headings* control of gluconeogenesis; gluconeogenesis and carbon dioxide fixation; effects of glucose, tryptophan, insulin, glucagon...

Kyner, David Smith

1969-01-01

408

Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

Gerald E. Marsh

2010-02-11

409

CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE IN PENNSYLVANIA PASTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global warming, caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, is increasingly being recognized as a concern for the wellbeing of the planet. Agricultural practices that increase carbon dioxide storage in soil organ...

410

Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Synthesis of Erythromycin  

PubMed Central

Erythromycin synthesis was markedly impaired in submerged cultures under high carbon dioxide tensions. Growth of Streptomyces erythreus, however, was unaltered by increased carbon dioxide. PMID:4462468

Nash, Claude H.

1974-01-01

411

DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN MULTI-PLANT CHEMICAL........................................................ 8 C. Carbon Dioxide ­ A Greenhouse Gas................................................ 9 1. Sources

Pike, Ralph W.

412

Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

Vericella, John J.; Baker, Sarah E.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Duoss, Eric B.; Hardin, James O.; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C.; Valdez, Carlos A.; Smith, William L.; Satcher, Joe H.; Bourcier, William L.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Aines, Roger D.

2015-02-01

413

Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.  

PubMed

Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture. PMID:25652243

Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

2015-01-01

414

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18

415

How Is Carbon Dioxide Measured?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this textbook chapter, scientists studying the concentration of becomes CO² in the atmosphere are profiled. The techniques for measuring and recording carbon dioxide concentrations at the Mauna Loa Observatory are described. A link to a video clip of an interview with NOAA scientist Dr. Pieter Tans is included. This is the fifth chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource includes three classroom investigations, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre and post unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. The resource is part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

416

Electrochemical processing of carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

With respect to the negative role of carbon dioxide on our climate, it is clear that the time is ripe for the development of processes that convert CO(2) into useful products. The electroreduction of CO(2) is a prime candidate here, as the reaction at near-ambient conditions can yield organics such as formic acid, methanol, and methane. Recent laboratory work on the 100 A scale has shown that reduction of CO(2) to formate (HCO(2)(-)) may be carried out in a trickle-bed continuous electrochemical reactor under industrially viable conditions. Presuming the problems of cathode stability and formate crossover can be overcome, this type of reactor is proposed as the basis for a commercial operation. The viability of corresponding processes for electrosynthesis of formate salts and/or formic acid from CO(2) is examined here through conceptual flowsheets for two process options, each converting CO(2) at the rate of 100 tonnes per day. PMID:18702129

Oloman, Colin; Li, Hui

2008-01-01

417

Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during the production. They are concrete blocks and fiber?cement panels. The two products are currently mass produced and cured by steam. Carbon dioxide can be used to replace steam in curing process to accelerate early strength, improve the long?term durability and reduce energy and emission. For a reaction within a 24?hour process window, the theoretical maximum possible carbon uptake in concrete is found to be 29% based on cement mass in the product. To reach the maximum uptake, a special process is developed to promote the reaction efficiency to 60?80% in 4?hour carbon dioxide curing and improve the resistance to freeze?thaw cycling and sulfate ion attack. The process is also optimized to meet the project target of $10/tCO{sub 2} in carbon utilization. By the use of self?concentrating absorption technology, high purity CO{sub 2} can be produced at a price below $40/t. With low cost CO{sub 2} capture and utilization technologies, it is feasible to establish a network for carbon capture and utilization at the vicinity of carbon sources. If all block produces and panel producers in United States could adopt carbon dioxide process in their production in place of steam, carbon utilization in these two markets alone could consume more than 2 Mt CO{sub 2}/year. This capture and utilization process can be extended to more precast products and will continue for years to come.

Shao, Yixin

2014-03-31

418

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOEpatents

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14

419

14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

emissions is through increased carbon sequestration into forests. In a large-scale assessment, Birdsey- ing carbon sequestration in southern forests. Carbon sequestration via southern pine forests may policy commitments. Keywords: carbon sequestration; southern pine forests ABSTRACT MEETING GLOBAL POLICY

Teskey, Robert O.

420

Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas Phase  

E-print Network

Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming, it is necessary to find are primarily responsible for the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations and therefore a main cause

Petta, Jason

421

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

422

Carbon dioxide emissions of soils under pure and mixed stands of beech and spruce, affected by decomposing foliage litter mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration is the largest terrestrial source of CO2 to the atmosphere. In forests, roughly half of the soil respiration is autotrophic (mainly root respiration) while the remainder is heterotrophic, originating from decomposition of soil organic matter. Decomposition is an important process for cycling of nutrients in forest ecosystems. Hence, tree species induced changes may have a great impact on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Since studies on the combined effects of beech-spruce mixtures are very rare, we firstly measured CO2 emission rates in three adjacent stands of pure spruce (Picea abies), mixed spruce-beech and pure beech (Fagus sylvatica) on three base-rich sites (Flysch) and three base-poor sites (Molasse; yielding a total of 18 stands) during two summer periods using the closed chamber method. CO2 emissions were higher on the well aerated sandy soils on Molasse than on the clayey soils on Flysch, characterized by frequent water logging. Mean CO2 effluxes increased from spruce (41) over the mixed (55) to the beech (59) stands on Molasse, while tree species effects were lower on Flysch (30-35, mixed > beech = spruce; all data in mg CO2-C m-2 h-1). Secondly, we studied decomposition after fourfold litter manipulations at the 6 mixed species stands: the Oi- and Oe horizons were removed and replaced by additions of beech -, spruce - and mixed litter of the adjacent pure stands of known chemical quality and one zero addition (blank) in open rings (20 cm inner diameter), which were covered with meshes to exclude fresh litter fall. Mass loss within two years amounted to 61-68% on Flysch and 36-44% on Molasse, indicating non-additive mixed species effects (mixed litter showed highest mass loss). However, base cation release showed a linear response, increasing from the spruce - over the mixed - to the beech litter. The differences in N release (immobilization) resulted in a characteristic converging trend in C/N ratios for all litter compositions on both bedrocks during decomposition. In the summers 2006 and 2007 we measured CO2 efflux from these manipulated areas (a closed chamber fits exactly over such a ring) as field indicator of the microbial activity. Net fluxes (subtracting the so-called blank values) are considered an indicator of litter induced changes only and increased on both bedrocks from the spruce - over the mixed - to the beech litter. According to these measurements, decomposing litter contributed between 22-32% (Flysch) and 11-28% (Molasse) to total soil respiration, strengthening its role within the global carbon cycle.

Berger, Torsten W.; Inselsbacher, Erich; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

2010-05-01

423

Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals  

SciTech Connect

The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. By accelerating the naturally occurring carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals it is possible to sequester carbon dioxide in the geologically stable mineral magnesite (MgCO3). The carbonation of two classes of magnesium silicate minerals, olivine (Mg2SiO4) and serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4), was investigated in an aqueous process. The slow natural geologic process that converts both of these minerals to magnesite can be accelerated by increasing the surface area, increasing the activity of carbon dioxide in the solution, introducing imperfections into the crystal lattice by high-energy attrition grinding, and in the case of serpentine, by thermally activating the mineral by removing the chemically bound water. The effect of temperature is complex because it affects both the solubility of carbon dioxide and the rate of mineral dissolution in opposing fashions. Thus an optimum temperature for carbonation of olivine is approximately 185 degrees C and 155 degrees C for serpentine. This paper will elucidate the interaction of these variables and use kinetic studies to propose a process for the sequestration of the carbon dioxide.

Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.

2003-01-01

424

Multi-scale Measurements and Modeling to Verify and Attribute Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Four Corners Power Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Four Corners region of New Mexico contains two large coal-fired power plants with real-time in-stack CO2 and pollutant monitors, in a semi-arid region with a feeble natural carbon cycle, making it an ideal site to evaluate remote sensing top-down verification methods. LANL has developed a test-bed site that includes a high-resolution solar tracking Fourier Transform Spectrometer (Bruker 125 HR) to monitor column abundance of greenhouse gases and pollutants (CO2, CH4, N2O and CO), and in situ cavity ring-down (CRDS, Picarro) and standard EPA sensors that measure CO2, CH4, CO, NOx, SO2 and particulates. We also have deployed a meteorological station, a ceilometer to measure boundary layer heights and an AERONET system to measure aerosol optical depths. We have been making continuous measurements since 11 March 2011. Our system's retrievals were validated against airborne in situ vertical gas profiles measured by NCAR's HIPPO system on 7 June 2011. We report observed power-plant signals, their diurnal cycles, and how they depend on local meteorology. Typically, the total-column FTS data show 2 to 8 ppm increases in CO2 when a power-plant plume is blowing towards our site, while the in situ CRDS sensor measures increases of 10 to 50 ppm. In situ CH4 measurements reveal large nocturnal increases of 4-5 ppm that could be from extensive gas and coal mining activities in the region. In contrast, in situ CO2 increases at night are small, likely because the power plant stacks are higher than the nocturnal boundary layer. Furthermore, our site sampled long range transport of pollutants from the Wallow fire that we distinguish from power plant emissions. To analyze our observations, we have developed a customized ultra-high-resolution plume model (HIGRAD) and coupled it with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) in the Four Corners area. Hourly real-time emissions are taken from EPA's in-stack monitors and other spatio-temporally resolved inventories like Vulcan. WRF-Chem employs multiple nested grids and high resolution topography to simulate atmospheric variability ranging from synoptic scales to micro-scales (~200 m), while including locally developed flows influenced by the nearby complex terrain of the San Juan Mountains. The simulated local atmospheric dynamics are provided to force the HIGRAD plume model, which links meso-scale atmospheric variability to the small-scale simulation of the power plant plumes (~10m). Our multi-scale forward modeling simulations are compared with our column and in situ observations of CO2, other greenhouse gases and pollutants for specific days. We use this to quantify the current ability of remote and in situ sensing measurements to quantify emissions in a relatively simple environment. Finally, we examine satellite data (CO2 and CH4 from GOSAT and NO2 from OMI) for signals over Four Corners and assess the value added for longer-term trend analysis. We gratefully acknowledge members of the TCCON (D. Wunch and P. Wennberg) and HIPPO (S. Wofsy and B. Stephens) teams for their input and guidance.

Dubey, M. K.; Love, S. P.; Henderson, B. G.; Lee, S.; Costigan, K. R.; Reisner, J.; Flowers, B. A.; Chylek, P.

2011-12-01

425

Silver oxide sorbent for carbon dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Material can be regenerated at least 20 times by heating at 250 C. Sorbent is compatible with environment of high humidity; up to 20% by weight of carbon dioxide can be absorbed. Material is prepared from silver carbonate, potassium hydroxide or carbonate, and sodium silicate.

Colombo, G. V.

1974-01-01

426

LIFETIME OF EXCESS ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

We explore the effects of a changing terrestrial biosphere on the atmospheric residende time of carbon dioxide using three simple ocean carbon cycling models and a model of global terrestrial carbon cycling. e find differences in model behavior associated with the assumption of a...

427

Global Deforestation: Contribution to Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1860 and 1980 was between 135 × 1015 and 228 × 1015 grams. Between 1.8 × 1015 and 4.7 × 1015 grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

428

Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO capture is reversible

Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

2009-01-01

429

Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications  

DOEpatents

A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

2004-06-08

430

DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

431

Validating modelled carbon-dioxide emissions against long-term eddy-covariance measurements at the urban neighborhood-scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

It can be expected that integrative greenhouse-gas emission modeling at block or neighborhood-scales becomes an increasingly relevant part of urban planning processes in the future. A particular challenge forms the geographical distribution of emissions and a proper validation of modeled emissions at this fine scale where consumption statistics are often lacking. Direct flux measurements of GHGs using the eddy-covariance (EC)

A. Christen; N. C. Coops; B. Crawford; E. Heyman; R. Kellett; K. Liss; T. R. Oke; I. Olchovski; R. Tooke; M. van der Laan; J. A. Voogt

2010-01-01

432

Role of activated carbon pellets in carbon dioxide removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of carbon dioxide from gas\\/air streams is more often becoming necessary in many industries for different purposes. In cryogenic air separation plant, air has to be free from carbon dioxide before its liquefaction otherwise blockage due to freezing of heat exchange equipment would result. Enrichment of methane in biogas to have fuel of higher calorific value can be

S. C Sarkar; A Bose

1997-01-01

433

Innovative polymer processing in carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide was used as the solvent in two innovative polymer processes, the preparation of energetic polymers and a Viton based pyrotechnic. The energetic polymer prepared was poly-3-nitratomethyl-3-methyl oxetane and the pyrotechnic was a magnesium, Teflon and Viton (MTV) crumb. Liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) at 140 atm and 0°C replaces methylene chloride as the solvent in the two step energetic

R. E. Farncomb; G. W. Nauflett

1998-01-01

434

Two stage carbon dioxide and methane separation  

SciTech Connect

Arco's process separates and recovers ethane from a carbon dioxide-ethane stream produced during natural gas processing. After methane separation, some of the ethane follows the carbon dioxide stream because the two compounds form an azeotrope. The process separates the two by means of two distillation columns operated at pressures that differ by at least 150 psia. This pressure difference shifts the azeotropic point enough to allow the separation.

Styring, R.E. Jr.

1982-09-28

435

Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: Daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We quantified the seasonal variability of CH4, CO2, and N2O emissions from fresh refuse and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at two California landfills. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m-2 d-1) averaged CH4 0.053[+/-0.03], CO2 135[+/-117], and N2O 0.063[+/-0.059]. Average CH4 emissions across ...

436

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India  

E-print Network

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

Dickerson, Russell R.

437

Carbon dioxide emission rate of Ki??lauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report a CO2 emission rate of 8500 metric tons per day (t d-1) for the summit of Kilauea Volcano, several times larger than previous estimates. It is based on three sets of measurements over 4 years of synchronous SO2 emission rates and volcanic CO2/SO2 concentration ratios for the summit correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) traverse. Volcanic CO2/SO2 for the traverse is representative of the global ratio for summit emissions. The summit CO2 emission rate is nearly constant, despite large temporal variations in summit CO2/SO2 and SO2 emission rates. Summit CO2 emissions comprise most of Ki??lauea's total CO2 output (??? 9000 t d-1). The bulk CO2 content of primary magma determined from CO2 emission and magma supply rate data is ???0.70 wt %. Most of the CO2 is present as exsolved vapor at summit reservoir depths, making the primary magma strongly buoyant. Turbulent mixing with resident reservoir magma, however, prevents frequent eruptions of buoyant primary magma in the summit region. CO2 emissions confirm that the magma supply enters the edifice through the summit reservoir. A persistent several hundred parts per million CO2 anomaly arises from the entry of magma into the summit reservoir beneath a square kilometer area east of Halemaumau pit crater. Since most of the CO2 in primary magma is degassed in the summit, the summit CO2 emission rate is an effective proxy for the magma supply rate. Both scrubbing of SO2 and solubility controls on CO2 and S in basaltic melt cause high CO2/SO2 in summit emissions and spatially uncorrelated distributions of CO2 and SO2 in the summit plume.

Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.; Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.; Doukas, M.P.

2002-01-01

438

High Precision Stable Isotope Analysis of Methane and Carbon Dioxide using Trace Gas CF-IRMS: Instrumentation Development, London Diurnal Studies and Measurements of Emissions from Irish Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry coupled with the Trace Gas preparation system (GV Instruments) has been used to analyse air samples with a precision of better than 0.1 ‰ for ? 13C of CH4 and ? 13C and ? 18O of CO2. 75cm3 of air is required, with a 16-minute analysis time. This precision makes the technique ideal for source studies, although it is also approaching the precision required to identify annual variations in measurements at some background stations. Diurnal studies have been carried out from the sampling site at Royal Holloway, west of London, measuring either ? 13C of CH4 or ? 13C and ? 18O of CO2 at 30-minute intervals. Source calculations for methane showed the local sources had ? 13C values of between -37.9‰ (typical of gas leaks) and -54.0‰ (landfill emissions). The methane was most enriched in 13C in the early evening, during the rush hour, suggesting that at this time vehicle exhaust emissions are a measurable local source of methane. Methane and carbon dioxide mixing ratios and isotopes were measured on samples collected from Irish wetlands. Samples were collected in early summer and autumn to investigate variations in emissions from blanket bogs, raised bogs and fens. Air samples were collected upwind, downwind and in the centre of the bogs and were supplemented with soil air samples and chamber collection above waterlogged areas. Results were compared with the Atlantic background record of methane ? 13C at Mace Head for which measurements have been carried out using a conventional cryogenic extraction line since 1995, to investigate whether Irish wetland emissions affect the Mace Head record for trajectories passing over the southwestern corner of Ireland. Preliminary results from the summer campaign indicate that blanket bogs, which are the prevalent type of peatland along the western coast of Ireland, did not emit significant amounts of methane. Hence Atlantic blanket bog is unlikely to affect the methane isotopes measured at Mace Head. However raised bogs and fens were found to have much larger methane emissions. Source ? 13C isotope values of emitted methane ranged from -55 ‰ at a fen (Pollardstown fen) to -80 ‰ at a raised bog (Clara bog).

Fisher, R.; Lowry, D.; O'Brien, P.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Nisbet, E. G.

2004-12-01

439

Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

2003-01-01

440

Integrated approach for best mix of technologies of reduction of carbon dioxide emission - Tokyo Half Project (THP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas various kinds of efforts have been paid to reduce greenhouse gas from manufacturing sector, emission has been significantly increased in non-manufacturing sector such as transportation, residential, commercial and service sector. Such GHG increase is closely related with urban activity both in direct way and in indirect way. The contribution of this non-manufacturing sector to all CO2 emission is increasing

Keisuke HANAKI

2002-01-01

441

Performance assessments for the geological storage of carbon dioxide: Learning from the radioactive waste disposal experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geological storage of carbon dioxide is currently being considered as a possible technology for reducing emissions to atmosphere. Although there are several operational sites where carbon dioxide is stored in this way, methods for assessing the long-term performance and safety of geological storage are at an early stage of development. In this paper the similarities and differences between this

Philip R. Maul; Richard Metcalfe; Jonathan Pearce; David Savage; Julia M. West

2007-01-01

442

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01

443

The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis  

SciTech Connect

There has been much attention drawn to plans for reductions or restraint in future C02 emissions, yet little analysis of the recent history of those emissions by end use or economic activity. Understanding the components of C02 emissions, particularly those related to combustion of fossil fuels, is important for judging the likely success of plans for dealing with future emissions. Knowing how fuel switching, changes in economic activity and its structure, or changes in energy-use efficiency affected emissions in the past, we can better judge both the realism of national proposals to restrain future emissions and the outcome as well. This study presents a first step in that analysis. The organization of this paper is as follows. We present a brief background and summarize previous work analyzing changes in energy use using the factorial method. We then describe our data sources and method. We then present a series of summary results, including a comparison of C02 emissions in 1991 by end use or sector. We show both aggregate change and change broken down by factor, highlighting briefly the main components of change. We then present detailed results, sector by sector. Next we highlight recent trends. Finally, we integrate our results, discussing -the most important factors driving change - evolution in economic structure, changes in energy intensities, and shifts in the fuel mix. We discuss briefly some of the likely causes of these changes - long- term technological changes, effects of rising incomes, the impact of overall changes in energy prices, as well as changes in the relative prices of energy forms.

Schipper, L.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Unander, F.; Monahan, P.; Golove, W.

1996-08-01

444

Effect of encapsulated calcium carbide on dinitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide emissions from flooded rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of N use in flooded rice is usually low, chiefly due to gaseous losses. Emission of CH4, a gas implicated in global warming, can also be substantial in flooded rice. In a greenhouse study, the nitrification inhibitor encapsulated calcium carbide (a slow-release source of acetylene) was added with 75, 150, and 225 mg of 75 atom % 15N

K. F. Bronson; A. R. Mosier

1991-01-01

445

NASA launches carbon dioxide research satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last week NASA launched a new satellite to study atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Once in orbit, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, will take more than 100,000 individual measurements of atmospheric CO2 per day.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-07-01

446

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

Scherer, Norbert F.

447

Carbon Dioxide- Where Does it All Go?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will use a diagram of carbon fluxes, which shows the sources that contribute to current atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

2012-08-03

448

Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4 emission, which may have been influenced also by increasing starch with increasing CS in the diet as reflected by the increased ruminal propionate molar proportion. Overall, production performances were greatest for the intermediate AS:CS ratios (40:60 and 60:40), but daily excretion of urine, manure, fecal N, urinary urea N, and urinary N decreased with increasing proportion of CS in the diet, whereas daily CH4 emission was reduced for the 2 extreme AS:CS ratios (20:80 and 80:20). However, the proportion of AS and CS in the diet did not affect CH4/fat-and-protein corrected milk. PMID:25465537

Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

2015-01-01

449

Where in the World is Carbon Dioxide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part activity has students set up experiments to help them better understand the atmospheric portion of the carbon cycle. From this activity, they will be able to explain the concept of sources and sinks as they relate to carbon dioxide, the use of indicator solution bromothymol blue (BTB) to reveal the presence of carbon dioxide, and the qualitative differences between animal and fossil fuel sources of global carbon dioxide. The student guide has an overall description of all three parts of the activity, lists of materials, the procedure and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

450

Atmospheric Pollutants and Trace Gases Effects of Smelter Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: A Spatiotemporal Perspective Using Carbon Isotopes in Tree Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports on tree-ring 13 C values address physiologi- cal questions, paleoclimatic records (e.g., Farquhar et We wanted to test the hypothesis that forest exposure to phytotoxic al., 1989; Lipp et al., 1996), or higher atmospheric CO2 gases indirectly affects their carbon uptake. We estimated that the concentration effects on tree growth (e.g., Bert et al., reduction of photosynthesis may

Martine M. Savard; Christian Begin; Michel Parent; Anna Smirnoff; Joelle Marion

451

Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2010-02-02

452

Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

2005-05-10

453

Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-10

454

Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Dairy Cows in Full Lactation Monitored over a Six-Month Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Methane and CO2 emissions,from,a herd of 11 8 lactating cows,were meas- ured directly by continuous,monitoring with an infrared gas analyzer from,24 gas sampling,locations. A total of 112 d of gas output was recorded between June 1993 and November,1993. Recordings were integrated at .5-h intervals, so that there were,48 data points,for each 24-h period. The mean,24-h CH4 emis- sion per

R. Kinsman; F. D. Sauer; H. A. Jackson; M. S. Wolynetz

1995-01-01

455

Dehydrogenase activity, redox potential, and emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from Cambisols under flooding conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from topsoils (0-10 cm) of 16 Polish arable Cambisols developed from different parent materials (sand, silt, sandy gravel, loess, loam and clay), were incubated under flooded conditions with NO3-. Dehydrogenase activity, redox potential (Eh), and emissions of CO2 and N2O were measured. According to dehydrogenase activity, the soils were divided into two groups: those of low activity (I), where

Teresa W?odarczyk; Witold St?pniewski; Ma?gorzata Brzezi?ska

2002-01-01

456

Black carbon reductions in the Arctic tied to declining emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon, or soot, is now considered to be the second most potent driver of anthropogenic climate change, its effect on global temperatures trailing only that of carbon dioxide. Whereas carbon dioxide emissions spread broadly across the planet, black carbon's effects are far more localized. On broad regional scales, black carbon can have a prominent effect, particularly in polar regions where soot strongly dampens the surface albedo.

Schultz, Colin

2014-10-01

457

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

E-print Network

PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report (Jan 2004) 2 ABSTRACT A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one

Hultman, Nathan E.

458

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.  

PubMed

New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

2014-01-01

459

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture  

PubMed Central

New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

2014-01-01

460

Carbon dioxide emission from surface water in cascade reservoirs-river system on the Maotiao River, southwest of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, controversies about whether hydropower is still a clean energy have been arisen up with the studies about high CO 2 emission flux from hydroelectric reservoirs in boreal and tropical regions. In this study, four subtropical reservoirs and their related reaches, draining on karstic area in southwest of China, were investigated to understand their CO 2 emission, with monthly sampling strategy from July 2007 to June 2008. pCO 2 values in the surface water of these reservoirs ranged from 38 to 3300 ? atm, indicating that reservoir surface could be not only source but also sink to atmosphere CO 2 in different seasons. In Hongfeng reservoir, the flux of CO 2 from surface water varied from -9 to 70 mmol m -2 d -2 with an average of 15 mmol m -2 d -2, and in Baihua reservoir, it had a range from -8 to 77 mmol m -2 d -2 with an average of 24 mmol m -2 d -2. Hongyan reservoir had similar average flux of CO 2 to Baihua reservoir. Xiuwen had the highest average flux of CO 2 with a value of 47 mmol m -2 d -2 among the studied reservoirs. Downstream the dams discharged by hydropower generation from these reservoirs generally had quite high flux of CO 2, with an average of 489 ± 297 mmol m -2 d -2, which is close to those from tropical rivers. This means that water releasing from these reservoirs would be an important way for CO 2 emission into atmosphere. The results showed that dam construction has significant impacts on the river water chemistry, with abrupt changes in pCO 2, DO, T, pH and SIc in surface water and their outlets. In addition, with the development of thermal gradient in warm seasons, water chemistry along the water column of reservoirs also showed seasonal variations, except in Xiuwen reservoir which only has daily storage capacity.

Wang, Fushun; Wang, Baoli; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Wang, Yuchun; Guan, Jin; Liu, Xiaolong; Yu, Yuanxiu

2011-07-01

461

Grubbing by wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) and its impact on hardwood forest soil carbon dioxide emissions in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Interest in soil C storage and release has increased in recent years. In addition to factors such as climate/land-use change, vertebrate animals can have a considerable impact on soil CO(2) emissions. To date, most research has considered herbivores, while the impact of omnivorous animals has rarely been investigated. Our goal was to determine how European wild boars (Sus scrofa L.), large omnivores that consume soil-inhabiting animals and belowground plant parts by grubbing in the soil, affect soil C dynamics. We measured soil respiration (CO(2)), temperature, and moisture on paired grubbed and non-grubbed plots in six hardwood forest stands for a 3-year period and sampled fine root and microbial biomass at the beginning and after 2 years of the study. We also measured the percentage of freshly disturbed forest soil within the larger surroundings of each stand and used this information together with hunting statistics and forest cover data to model the total amount of CO(2) released from Swiss forest soils due to grubbing during 1 year. Soil CO(2) emissions were significantly higher on grubbed compared to non-grubbed plots during the study. On average 23.1% more CO(2) was released from these plots, which we associated with potential alterations in CO(2) diffusion rates, incorporation of litter into the mineral soil and higher fine root/microbial biomass. Thus, wild boars considerably increased the small-scale heterogeneity of soil properties. Roughly 1% of Switzerland's surface area is similar to our sites (boar density/forest cover). Given the range of forest soil disturbance of 27-54% at our sites, the geographic informatio