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1

Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Carbonation Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases with higher heat capacities than those of O2 and N2 cause greenhouse effects. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas associated with global climate change. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30–40% of world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. There was a higher correlation between the amount of carbon dioxide emission and percentage of carbon

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

2

Residential carbon dioxide emissions in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of improving house envelope, heating system and appliance efficiencies, and fuel substitution on the atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide in the Canadian residential sector is studied based on simulation studies. The findings clearly indicate that improving appliance efficiency reduces the overall end-use energy consumption in the residential sector as well as the associated carbon dioxide emissions. However, the

V. Ismet Ugursal; Alan S. Fung

1998-01-01

3

Carbon dioxide emission scenarios: limitations of the fossil fuel resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration are in large part the result of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Scenario analysis is commonly used to generate projections of future carbon dioxide emissions, the resulting atmospheric concentrations and climate impact. In most scenario modelling published to date, carbon dioxide emission scenarios are based on demand-side (socioeconomic and technology)

Christopher Vernon; Erica Thompson; Sarah Cornell

2011-01-01

4

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

E-print Network

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions Susan Solomona,1 , Gian in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely

Fischlin, Andreas

5

U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

EIA Publications

U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its online analysis of 2012 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions today. It indicates U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels were 5,290 million metric tons carbon dioxide in 2012, a decrease of almost 4% from the 2011 level. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have declined in five of the last seven years and are the lowest they have been since 1994.

2013-01-01

6

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. PMID:22784534

O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

2012-07-14

7

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions may create significant social harm because of global warming, yet American urban development tends to be in low density areas with very hot summers. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new construction in different locations across the country. We look at emissions from driving, public transit, home heating, and household

Edward L. Glaeser; Matthew E. Kahn

2008-01-01

8

The greenness of cities: Carbon dioxide emissions and urban development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide emissions may create significant social harm because of global warming, yet American urban development tends to be in low density areas with very hot summers. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new construction in different locations across the country. We look at emissions from driving, public transit, home heating, and household

Edward L. Glaeser; Matthew E. Kahn

2010-01-01

9

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01

10

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Pelc, Magdalena

2009-01-01

11

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31

12

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01

13

CARBON DIOXIDE STANDARD EMISSIVITY BY MIXED GRAY-GASES MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional fossil fuels are of carbon-hydrogen composition. A number of alternative fuels, e.g., coal, lignite, are carbon-based fuels. The high temperature combustion of such fuels would generate carbon dioxide, and if hydrogen is present, water vapor. The knowledge of the emissivities of carbon dioxide and water vapor is very important in burner design and thermal efficiency calculations. The present work

IHAB H. FARAG; T. A. ALLAM

1982-01-01

14

Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common valuations. It is clear that, whilst aviation must remain one piece of the transport-jigsaw, environmentally a global regulator with ‘teeth' is urgently required.

Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

2014-10-01

15

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-print Network

Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01

16

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-print Network

Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

17

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to

Robert Joseph Andres; J. S. Gregg; London M Losey; Gregg Marland; Thomas A Boden

2011-01-01

18

Assessing carbon dioxide emissions from energy use at a university  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with consumption of a single unit was

William Riddell; Krishan Kumar Bhatia; Matthew Parisi; Jessica Foote; John Imperatore III

2009-01-01

19

Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

1992-01-01

20

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Consumption in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying monthly sales and consumption data of coal, petroleum and natural gas, a monthly time series of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption is created for Indonesia. These are then modeled with an autoregressive function to produce a quantitative description of the seasonal distribution and long-term pattern of CO2 emissions. Currently, Indonesia holds the 21st ranked position in total anthropogenic

J. S. Gregg; A. J. Robert

2005-01-01

21

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use, 1751 1950  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly compiled energy statistics allow for an estimation of the complete time series of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil-fuel use for the years 1751 to the present. The time series begins with 3×106 metric tonnes carbon (C). This initial flux represents the early stages of the fossil-fuel era. The CO2 flux increased exponentially until World War I. The time

R. J. Andres; D. J. Fielding; G. Marland; T. A. Boden; N. Kumar; A. T. Kearney

1999-01-01

22

Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

2011-12-01

23

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-print Network

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory October, 2008 Contract #05-310 "Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission-310 "Spatial disaggregated estimate of energy-related carbon dioxide for California" #12;Acknowledgments

24

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

E-print Network

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental. In this project, the sunlight-induced/photochemical production of carbon dioxide will be determined in a study

Uppsala Universitet

25

Hestia Software Measures Urban Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video describes the Hestia project - a software tool and data model that provide visualizations of localized CO2 emissions from residential, commercial, and vehicle levels, as well as day versus night comparisons, in the city of Indianapolis.

Gurney, Kevin; Sustainability, Asu G.

26

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

1991-08-01

27

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.

Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Calvache V., M.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States) Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto (Colombia)); Lopez, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1992-04-01

28

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

PubMed Central

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450–600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the “dust bowl” era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4–1.0 m if 21st century CO2 concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6–1.9 m for peak CO2 concentrations exceeding ?1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-01-01

29

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer. PMID:19179281

Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

2009-02-10

30

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01

31

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950-2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, R. J.; Gregg, J. S.; Losey, L.; Marland, G.; Boden, T. A.

2011-07-01

32

The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who - like other scientists - rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005-2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

Stohl, A.

2008-04-01

33

The Swedish carbon dioxide tax: effects on biofuel use and carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swedish carbon dioxide tax was introduced in 1991, by adjusting the existing energy taxation to consider the carbon load of fuels. The tax was initially set at a general level of US $13311The exchange rate used in this paper is US $1=7.5 SEK (Swedish krona) per ton carbon (tc). It was differentiated in 1993, with the result that industry

Folke Bohlin

1998-01-01

34

High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of ~5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

2014-05-01

35

Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (`negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These

Naomi Vaughan; Timothy Lenton

2010-01-01

36

Temperature response to an emission of carbon dioxide today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions cause the Earth to warm, but there is substantial uncertainty in just how much warming will be caused by any particular CO2 emission. Here, by combining the results of a carbon-cycle model intercomparison project (Joos et al, 2013) and CMIP5 physical-climate model intercomparison project (Taylor et al, 2012), we estimate the amount and timing of warming caused by an individual CO2 emission occurring today. We quantify the uncertainty in these estimates, portioning it into three different contributing factors: the carbon cycle response, climate sensitivity and ocean thermal inertia. We find that uncertainty in equilibrium climate sensitivity is the largest contributor to aggregate uncertainty in the temperature change resulting from a CO2 emission, but carbon-cycle uncertainties and uncertainty in the thermal inertia of the climate system also play important roles. The time interval between an emission and maximum warming is estimated to have a median value of 10 years, with a likely (66% probability) range of 8 to 18 years. The amount of maximum warming is estimated to have a maximum value of 2.2 mK GtC-1, with a likely range of 1.8 to 2.6 mK GtC-1. Thus, the greatest warming from a typical emission today is likely to occur during the lifetime of the person doing the emitting. Our analysis provides an approximation of the time series for incremental warming caused by CO2 emitted today that spans the uncertainty range of model results, yet is simple enough to be employed in a broad range of climate change assessment applications.

Ricke, Katharine; Caldeira, Ken

2014-05-01

37

Carbon dioxide emissions from estuaries of northern and northeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon dioxide flux through the air-water interface of coastal estuarine systems must be quantified to understand the regional balance of carbon and its transport through adjacent coastal regions. We estimated and calculated the emissions of carbon dioxide (FCO2) and the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) values in 28 estuarine environments at a variety of spatial scales in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. The results showed a mean FCO2 (water to air) of 55 +/- 45 mmol.m-2.d-1. Additionally, a negative correlation between dissolved oxygen saturation and pCO2 was observed, indicating a control by biological processes and especially by organic matter degradation. This leads to increased dissolved CO2 concentration in estuarine waters which results in a pCO2 that reached 8,638 ?atm. Our study suggests that northern and northeastern Brazilian estuaries act as sources of atmospheric CO2. The range of pCO2 observed were similar to those found in inner estuaries in other places around the world, with the exception of a few semi-arid estuaries (Köppen climate classification - BSh) in which record low levels of pCO2 have been detected.

Noriega, Carlos; Araujo, Moacyr

2014-08-01

38

Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

2007-08-04

39

Estimating Diesel Fuel Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Forest Road Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest access road construction is a necessary component of many on-the- ground forest vegetation treatment projects. However, the fuel energy requirements and associated carbon dioxide emissions from forest road construction are unknown. We present a method for estimating diesel fuel consumed and related carbon dioxide emissions from constructing forest roads using published results from a study designed to measure road

Dan Loeffler; Greg Jones; Nikolaus Vonessen; Sean Healey; Woodam Chung

40

Estimates of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Mexico at Monthly Time Intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human consumption of fossil fuels has greatly contributed to the rise of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere. To better understand the global carbon cycle, it is important to identify the major sources of these fossil fuels. Mexico is among the top fifteen nations in the world for producing fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions. Based on this information and that

L. M. Losey; R. J. Andres

2003-01-01

41

Natural sources of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic degassing of carbon dioxide plays an important role in keeping the atmosphere-ocean portion of the carbon geochemical cycle in balance. The atmosphere-ocean carbon deficit requires replenishment of 6??1012 mol CO2/yr, and places an upper limit on the output of carbon dioxide from volcanoes. The CO2 output of the global mid-oceanic ridge system is ca. 0.7??1012 mol/yr, thus supplying only a fraction of the amount needed to balance the carbon deficit. The carbon dioxide flux from subaerial volcanoes is poorly known, but it appears to be at least as large as the mid-oceanic ridge flux. Much (perhaps most) of the CO2 emitted from volcanoes is degassed noneruptively. This mode of degassing may lead to impacts on the environment and biosphere that are fundamentally different in character from those envisioned in published scenarios, which are based on the assumption that CO2 degassing occurs predominantly by eruptive processes. Although the flux of carbon dioxide from volcanoes is poorly constrained at present, it is clearly two orders of magnitude lower than the anthropogenic output of CO2.

Gerlach, Terrence

1990-01-01

42

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts

Robert Joseph Andres; Thomas A Boden; F.-M. Breon; P. Ciais; S. Davis; D Erickson; J. S. Gregg; Andrew Jacobson; Gregg Marland; J. Miller; T Oda; J. G. J. Oliver; Michael Raupach; P Rayner; K. Treanton

2012-01-01

43

Carbon dioxide emissions and fossil fuel consumption a Canadian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential climate change due to increased loading of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has emerged as one of the most significant environmental threats of the late twentieth century. An analysis of a variety of feasible energy demand scenarios for Canada indicates that if we continue to consume the same types and proportions of fuels as we do today, the

John Peter Doucet

1988-01-01

44

Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for the flux footprint estimated using a simple Kormann-Meixner model. Methane emissions from central London exhibit diurnal trends both for concentrations and fluxes. The former is consistent with cycles of growth and shrinkage of the urban boundary layer. Methane fluxes are strongly correlated with those of carbon dioxide. Work is ongoing to establish to what extent the diurnal cycles reflect dynamic changes in ground sources (emissions from road traffic, commercial/ domestic heating, variations in flux footprint) and to what extent they are affected by transport efficiency between street level and the top of the tower and storage in between, given the high measurement height.

Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

2013-04-01

45

Monthly Estimates of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Five European Countries: The United Kingdom, France, Spain, Italy and Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human consumption of fossil fuels has greatly contributed to the rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the Earth's atmosphere. To better understand the global carbon cycle, it is important to identify the major sources of these fossil fuel emissions. Annual analyses for fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions have dominated the literature to this date. By studying the monthly consumption

L. M. Losey; R. J. Andres

2004-01-01

46

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we

47

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Breon, F.-M. [CEA/DSM/LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Davis, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J. S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Miller, J. [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Oda, T [NOAA ESRL/Boulder, CO/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State Univ.; Oliver, J. G. J. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Rayner, P [University of Melbourne, Australia; Treanton, K. [Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency, Paris, France

2012-01-01

48

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we

G. Myhre; K. Alterskjær; D. Lowe

2009-01-01

49

The carbon dioxide emission footprint of food products and their application in the food system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The research reported has developed a method for calculating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from food products using recipe and farm production data. The method has utilised published Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) CO2 emission measurements for the production of crop and livestock ingredients. These measurements are complemented by conversions of energy use for drying, milling and baking of these ingredients

W MARTINDALE; R McGLOIN; M JONES; P BARLOW

50

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

EIA Publications

This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

2013-01-01

51

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)  

EIA Publications

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

2010-01-01

52

Carbon dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

Arie Melamed-Katz (None;)

2007-06-19

53

Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973--87: A Divisia index decomposition to changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, industry structure, energy intensities, and international structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the reduction in energy-related manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions for nine OECD countries in the period 1973 to 1987 is analyzed. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from energy use data. The emphasis is on carbon dioxide intensities, defined as emissions divided by value added. The overall manufacturing carbon dioxide intensity for the nine OECD countries was reduced by

Torvanger

1990-01-01

54

The annual cycle of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-series of estimated monthly carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of coal, petroleum and natural gas in the United States from 1981 to 2002 have been derived from energy consumption data. The data series for coal and natural gas each reveal a consistent seasonal pattern, with a winter peak for gas and two peaks (summer and winter) for coal. The annual

T. J. Blasing; C. T. Broniak; G. Marland

2005-01-01

55

On the Potential Economic Costs of Cutting Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic activity in Portugal. We find that energy consumption has a significant impact on macroeconomic activity. In fact, a one ton of oil equivalent permanent reduction in aggregate energy consumption reduces output in the long term by €6,340. More

Alfredo M. Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

2008-01-01

56

Trends and breaks in per-capita carbon dioxide emissions, 1870-2028  

E-print Network

We consider per-capita carbon dioxide emission trends in 16 early developed countries over the period 1870-2028. Using a multiple-break time series method we find more evidence for very early downturns in per-capita trends ...

Lanne, Markku

2003-01-01

57

Energy analysis and carbon dioxide emission of Tokamak fusion power reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy gain and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of tokamak fusion power reactors are evaluated in this study compared with other reactor types, structural materials, and other Japanese energy sources currently in use. The reactors treated in this study are (1) a conventional physics performance international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), like a reactor based upon the ITER engineering design activity (ITER-EDA),

Koji Tokimatsu; Hiroki Hondo; Yuichi Ogawa; Kunihiko Okano; Kenji Yamaji; Makoto Katsurai

2000-01-01

58

State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2011  

EIA Publications

This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix— especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

2014-01-01

59

Tetraphenylethylene-based phosphine: tuneable emission and carbon dioxide fixation.  

PubMed

A tetraphenylethylene-based phosphine, 1,1,2,2-tetrakis((4-diphenylphosphino)phenyl)ethylene (TPE-P4), was synthesized and showed novel aggregation-induced and mechano-responsive emission. A mixture of TPE-P4 and Ag(+) could fix atmospheric CO2in situ as carbonate ions in neutral solution to yield a rare 3D metal-organic framework with zeolite-like SOD topology, [Ag2(TPE-P4)CO3]x?nH2O (Ag-TPE-P4). Ag-TPE-P4 showed turn-on luminescence of TPE-P4, emitting bright bluish green light in the solid state. PMID:25216390

Zhang, Jianyong; Yang, Qiuli; Zhu, Yixuan; Liu, Haoliang; Chi, Zhenguo; Su, Cheng-Yong

2014-10-01

60

Drivers on carbon dioxide emissions from the Scheldt river basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland waters are a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle that transport organic and inorganic C from the terrestrial biosphere to the coastal ocean and emit CO2 to the atmosphere at a significant rate for global CO2 budgets. Yet, mechanisms underlying this CO2 emission to the atmosphere remain poorly understood and seldom modelled mechanistically. For this application a module describing the carbonate system and CO2 air-water exchange was added to the biogeochemical Seneque/Riverstrahler model describing transformation of C, N, P, Si occurring within hydrological networks. The model was applied to the human impacted Scheldt basin and the evolution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and air-water CO2 flux was simulated for the year 1997 when data of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pCO2 are available for model validation. The model reproduces reasonably well the seasonal and spatial variations of the DIC, TA and pCO2 within the 5 main rivers of the Scheldt basin where data are available. At the annual level, the studied rivers act as major sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Results show that the longitudinal variations of pCO2 are mainly controlled by the importance of air-water CO2 exchange. However, the choice of the parameterization of the gas transfer coefficient does not appear critical for this particular system. Biological activity also locally modulates the longitudinal variations of pCO2, while diffuse inputs from the watershed determine the initial conditions in the river without significantly altering the patterns observed from the upstream to the downstream. Both diffuse and punctual sources of C and TA are important drivers of the CO2 exchange in the river. In particular, model application evidences the sensitivity of the simulated CO2 fluxes to the description of human activities on the watershed.

Gypens, Nathalie; Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Silvestre, Marie; Borges, Alberto V.

2014-05-01

61

Carbon dioxide emission implications if hydrofluorocarbons are regulated: a refrigeration case study.  

PubMed

The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and a historically used refrigerant. The results indicate current regulations being considered may increase global climate change. PMID:20050659

Blowers, Paul; Lownsbury, James M

2010-03-01

62

A 1° × 1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1950–1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

One degree latitude by one degree longitude (1° × 1°) data sets of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture were produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. National estimates of carbon emissions were combined with 1° × 1° data sets of political units and human population density to create the new 1° × 1° carbon

Robert J. Andres; Gregg Marland; Inez Fungand; Elaine Matthews

1996-01-01

63

The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

Stohl, A.

2008-11-01

64

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

E-print Network

of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or nearly half of the fossil fuel carbon emissions over this periodCARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY G Carbon Dioxide: Our Role The United States is the single. Every day the average American adds about 118 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmos- phere, due largely

65

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.  

PubMed

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-01-01

66

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario  

PubMed Central

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-01-01

67

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-02-01

68

Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

2013-12-01

69

High resolution carbon dioxide emission gridded data for China derived from point sources.  

PubMed

A high spatial resolution carbon dioxide (CO2) emission map of China is proving to be essential for China's carbon cycle research and carbon reduction strategies given the current low quality of CO2 emission data and the inconsistencies in data quality between different regions. Ten km resolution CO2 emission gridded data has been built up for China based on point emission sources and other supporting data. The predominance of emissions from industrial point sources (84% of total emissions) in China supports the use of bottom-up methodology. The resultant emission map is informative and proved to be more spatially accurate than the EDGAR data. Spatial distribution of CO2 emissions in China is highly unbalanced and has positive spatial autocorrelation. The spatial pattern is mainly influenced by key cities and key regions, i.e., the Jing-Jin-Ji region, the Yangtze River delta region, and the Pearl River delta region. The emission map indicated that the supervision of 1% of total land could enable the management of about 70% of emissions in China. PMID:24840164

Wang, Jinnan; Cai, Bofeng; Zhang, Lixiao; Cao, Dong; Liu, Lancui; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Zhansheng; Xue, Wenbo

2014-06-17

70

On the potential economic costs of cutting carbon dioxide emissions in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities\\u000a on economic activity in Portugal. We find that energy consumption has a significant impact on macroeconomic activity. In fact,\\u000a a 1 ton of oil equivalent permanent reduction in aggregate energy consumption reduces output in the long term by €6,340. More\\u000a importantly,

Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

2010-01-01

71

The Impact of Social Factors and Consumer Behavior on Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIn this article we apply geodemographic consumer segmentation data in an input?output framework to understand the direct and indirect carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with consumer behavior of different lifestyles in the United Kingdom. In a subsequent regression analysis, we utilize the lifestyle segments contained in the dataset to control for aspects of behavioral differences related to lifestyles in an

Giovanni Baiocchi; Jan Minx; Klaus Hubacek

2010-01-01

72

Life-cycle energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of world cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tank-to-wheel fuel consumption (i.e. fuel economy) of an average car model was found to be 8.4 liters (diesel\\/petrol) per 100 km, which is equal to 30.3 miles per gallon (mpg). The carbon dioxide emissions of an average car model are 209 g\\/km. The curb weight of an average car model is 1488 kg. However, an average new light-duty vehicle

Kimmo Klemola

73

Avoiding excessive greenhouse effect by delayed emission of carbon dioxide from the fossil-fuel cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to mitigate substantially the atmospheric CO2 peak, responsible for the greenhouse effect, it is proposed to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from the fossil-fuel cycle and to store it in the form of CO2 dry ice in huge, thermally insulated, leaky repositories to delay the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere.It is estimated that a sphere of CO2 dry

W. Seifritz

1995-01-01

74

Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions for China at Monthly Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a mixture of official government statistics and industrial records, the relative monthly amounts of fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide emissions from China have been estimated for one year (2004). This analysis focused on establishing reliable monthly statistics that represent the fraction of annual-total solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels consumed during each month. Ongoing analyses may extend this time series to more

R. J. Andres; G. Marland

2005-01-01

75

Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (‘negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These relationships are illustrated over a multi-centennial timescale, allowing sufficient time for the carbon-cycle to respond to the anthropogenic perturbation. The anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios (focussing on those from fossil fuel combustion) range from more to less stringent mitigation of emissions and includes the scenario assumed in our previous work on the maximum cooling potential of different geoengineering options. Results are presented in terms of transient atmospheric CO2 concentration and global mean temperature from year 1900 to year 2500. Implementation of solar radiation control strategies requires an understanding of the timing and effect of terminating such an intervention, a so called ‘exit strategy'. The results illustrate a number of considerations regarding exit strategies, including the inherent commitment to either carbon dioxide removal interventions, or the length of time the solar radiation control mechanism must be maintained for. The impacts of the various trade-offs are also discussed in the context of adaptation and adaptive resilience. The results have a bearing on policy and long term planning by illustrating some of the important assumptions regarding implementation of solar radiation management. These include baseline assumptions about emission mitigation efforts, timescale of intervention maintenance and impacts on adaptation.

Vaughan, Naomi; Lenton, Timothy

2010-05-01

76

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-print Network

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

77

FOREST FIRES IN RUSSIA: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE  

EPA Science Inventory

Boreal forests of Russia play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the f lux of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. ecause f ire and other disturbances are ecologically inherent in boreal forests, large areas are burned annually and contributions to the flux of carbo...

78

Technologies to reduce or capture and store carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

The report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store CO{sub 2} emissions, primarily as they relate to direct coal combustion and also coal gasification and liquefaction. The report surveys and summarizes existing research, discusses relevant federal programs, makes recommendations regarding additional research opportunities and public policy objectives, and recommends a technology-based framework for mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-based electricity generation plants. The US Department of Energy is already at work to foster the development of these technologies. The report recognizes the scope of that work and in essence, concludes that much work still remains. A summary of the report is published in hard copy and on the CD-ROM. The full 160 page report is on the CD-ROM.

Nelson, G.; Mueller, M.; McCall, M.; Knipp, R. [PTI Resources Inc. (United States)

2007-06-15

79

A 1°×1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1950-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

One degree latitude by one degree longitude (1°×1°) data sets of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture were produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. National estimates of carbon emissions were combined with 1°×1° data sets of political units and human population density to create the new 1°×1° carbon emissions data sets. The human population

Robert J. Andres; Gregg Marland; Inez Fung; Elaine Matthews

1996-01-01

80

Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals

W. J. J. Huijgen; R. N. J. Comans

2007-01-01

81

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOEpatents

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18

82

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

Huffman, Gerald P.

2012-11-13

83

Variability in the Mass and Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions for the Countries of the North American Carbon Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we focus more intently on the carbon cycle in North America, the spatial and temporal scales of our observations become more important. The carbon dioxide released from fossil fuel consumption can show large variability in both spatial and temporal scales. This presentation will focus on this variability. We have compiled a data set that contains the monthly emissions of

R. J. Andres; T. A. Boden; J. S. Gregg; L. Losey; G. Marland

2007-01-01

84

Fossil-Fuel-Derived Carbon Dioxide Emissions at Monthly Resolution for the Countries of the North American Carbon Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of national statistical databases has allowed for the widely-used, CDIAC-housed data set on annual, fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide emissions to be subdivided into monthly time intervals. This analysis focused on establishing reliable statistics that represent the solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels consumed in each country at monthly time scales. An intermediate product of this analysis was the fraction of the

R. J. Andres; J. S. Gregg; L. M. Losey; G. Marland

2004-01-01

85

Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown proportion of corpses and 161 (19%) survivors treated in hospital; though these lesions were initially believed to be burns from acidic gases, further investigation suggested that they were associated with coma states caused by exposure to carbon dioxide in air. The disaster at Lake Nyos and a similar event at Lake Monoun, Cameroon, two years previously provide new information on the possible medical effects of large scale emissions of carbon dioxide, though the presence of other toxic factors in these gas releases cannot be excluded. Images FIG 2 a FIG 2 b FIG 2 c FIG 2 d FIG 2 e FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:2502283

Baxter, P. J.; Kapila, M.; Mfonfu, D.

1989-01-01

86

Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

2012-01-01

87

2002 Monthly Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Mexico at a 10x10k Spatial Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the total measured amount of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere remains an important component of carbon cycle science, particularly as efforts to understand the net exchange of carbon at the surface move to smaller scales. In order to reduce the uncertainty of this flux, researchers led by Purdue University have built a high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 flux inventory for the United States, called “Vulcan”. The Vulcan inventory quantifies emissions for the United States at 10km resolution every hour for the year 2002 and can be seen as a key component of a national assessment and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions and emissions mitigation. As part of the North American Carbon Project, the 2002 carbon dioxide emissions from Mexico are presented at the monthly temporal and municipality spatial scale. Mexico is of particular importance because of the scientific integration under the North American Carbon Program. Furthermore, Mexico has seen a notable growth in its population as well as migration toward urban centers and increasing energy requirements due in part to industrial intensification. The native resolution of the emissions is geolocated (lat/lon) for point sources, such as power plants, airports, and large industry. The emissions are estimated at the municipality level for residential and commercial sources, and allocated to roads for the mobile transport sector. Data sources include the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), and Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA). CO2 emissions are calculated from the 1999 NEI data by converting CO emissions using sector and process-dependent emission factors, and is scaled up to 2002 using statistics obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center CDIAC. CEC and CARMA data, which encompass power plant emissions, are already in units of CO2. Emissions are regridded to 10x10k and 0.1x0.1 deg grids to enable atmospheric CO2 transport modeling. All economic sectors are analyzed, including power plants, commercial, residential, industrial, on-road, and non-road. Municipality and regional scale analysis is presented to explore the differences in economic and industrial development and need. Specific centers of high emissions are highlighted and analyzed in order to put into context the development and growth of certain economic sectors. The annualized emissions are compared to estimates by the International Energy Agency and found to be very similar although some discrepancies are expected due to the different methods of obtaining results. Vulcan reports process-based emissions while IEA reports fuel sales. The Vulcan output is also disaggregated by fuel type and comparisons with IEA are presented across economic sectors. A monthly product based on monthly sales is also presented. Sales by major fuel types (oil, natural gas, coal) are obtained from EIA data and those results shape the monthly cycle. These results are compared to a similar national studies, and similarities and differences are analyzed and discussed.

Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Geethakumar, S.; Zhou, Y.; Sahni, N.

2009-12-01

88

Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and efficient approach to meeting carbon mitigation targets. PMID:24882922

Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

2013-01-01

89

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unless carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion is captured and disposed of safely and permanently, the concerns over climate change will eventually lead to the demise of fossil fuels. Because of their importance in today's energy market the phasing out of fossil fuels would likely precipitate a major energy crisis. Mineral sequestration and extraction of carbon dioxide from the air are two advanced technologies for carbon sequestration that aim at maintaining access to the vast fossil energy resources for centuries to come. While it is straightforward to dispose of carbon dioxide in limited amounts and for a limited time, permanent disposal of trillions of tons of carbon poses serious challenges. The formation of solid mineral carbonates from readily available minerals would provide safe and permanent storage. Capture of carbon dioxide from air makes it possible to sequester carbon dioxide emissions from sources other than power plants. This is important considering that even the relatively minor reductions suggested by the Kyoto Accord would have required the US to eliminate carbon dioxide emissions comparable to those of the entire 1990 coal fired power plant fleet. Capture of carbon dioxide from the air, would make it possible to close the carbon cycle in the transportation sector without phasing out liquid hydrocarbon fuels. It eliminates the need for long distance transport of carbon dioxide and allows the continued use of the existing energy infrastructure. Mineral sequestration at remote sites combined with on site carbon dioxide capture from air, would allow for long term stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. I will outline the current state of the technology and point to advances required before these approaches are ready for large-scale implementation.

Lackner, K. S.

2002-05-01

90

Capture and mineralization of carbon dioxide from coal combustion flue gas emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Proprietary information: PCT/US/2006/49411 and WO/2007/ 081561A) Enormous amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) released by human activity (anthropogenic), may lead to climate changes that could spread diseases, ruin crops, cause intense droughts and floods, and dramatically raise the sea levels, thereby submerging the low lying coastal regions. The objective of this study was to test whether CO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gases can be directly captured and converted into carbonate and sulfate minerals respectively through the mineralization process of alkaline solid wastes. A flow-through carbonation process was designed to react flue gases directly with alkaline fly ash, under coal combustion power plant conditions. For the first time, CO2 levels in the flue gas were reduced from 13.6% to 9.7% after the reaction with alkaline fly ash in a reaction time of less than 1 minute. Using a combination of Orion RTM plus multi-gas detector, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, flue gas CO2 mineralization on fly ash particles was detected. This method can simultaneously help in separate, capture, and mineralize anthropogenic CO2 and SO2. Moreover, this process may be environmentally safe and a stable storage for anthropogenic CO2. Capturing anthropogenic CO2 using this mineralization process is an initial step towards developing more efficient methods of reducing industrial point source CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

Attili, Viswatej

91

Carbon dioxide power cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved direct fired power system generating and employing a combustion gas which includes carbon dioxide or a working fluid including a combustion chamber for burning a mixture which includes oxygen, carbonaceous fuel and recycled carbon dioxide working fluid at a first pressure of above 1100 PSI thereby providing a combustion gas which includes carbon dioxide and water at substantially

Osgerby

1985-01-01

92

Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01

93

Seasonal Odor, Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Emissions from Swine Grower-Finisher Rooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], and carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rates (OGCERs) from swine facilities are vital for providing accurate source emissions and reducing the uncertainty of setback distances on the basis of emission data. In this study, a repeated measurement experimental method and a split-block statistical model were used to obtain seasonal OGCER

Gang Sun; Huiqing Guo; Jonathan Peterson; Glauber Mariano; Ani Torres; Wellington Jesus; Walter Nakaema; Maria Jorge; Rauda Mariani; Klara Slezakova; Dionísia Castro; Maria Pereira; Simone Morais; Cristina Delerue-Matos; Maria Alvim-Ferraz; Catherine Barton; Charles Zarzecki; Mark Russell; Marjaleena Aatamila; Pia Verkasalo; Maarit Korhonen; Marja Viluksela; Kari Pasanen; Pekka Tiittanen; Aino Nevalainen; Li Rong; Peter Nielsen; Guoqiang Zhang; Yi-Ming Kuo; Juu-En Chang; Kun-Yu Chang; Chih-C. Chao; Yeu-Juin Tuan; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; Yongping Li; Guohe Huang; Arhontoula Chatzilazarou; Evangelos Katsoyannos; Olga Gortzi; Stavros Lalas; Yiannis Paraskevopoulos; Euthalia Dourtoglou; John Tsaknis; Tarek Abichou; Jeremy Clark; Sze Tan; Jeffery Chanton; Gary Hater; Roger Green; Doug Goldsmith; Morton Barlaz; Nathan Swan; Zhengmin Qian; Hung-Mo Lin; Walter Stewart; Nirav Shah; Linli Kong; Fen Xu; Denjin Zhou; Zhicao Zhu; Qingci He; Shengwen Liang; Weiqing Chen; Chungsying Lu; Hsunling Bai; Fengsheng Su; Wenfa Chen; Jyh Hwang; Hsiu-Hsia Lee; Judith Chow; John Watson; Douglas Lowenthal; Lung-Wen Chen; Nehzat Motallebi

2010-01-01

94

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon perturbations leading to an increase in atmospheric CO2 are partly offset by the carbon uptake by the oceans and the rest of the climate system. Atmospheric CO2 approaches a new equilibrium state, reached after ocean invasion ceases after typically 1000 years, given by PCO2 = P0exp(?I?/IB), where P0 and PCO2 are the initial and final partial pressures of atmospheric CO2, ?I? is a CO2 perturbation, and IB is the buffered carbon inventory of the air-sea system. The perturbation, ?I?, includes carbon emissions and changes in the terrestrial reservoir, as well as ocean changes in the surface carbon disequilibrium and fallout of organic soft tissue material. Changes in marine calcium carbonate, ?ICaCO3, lead to a more complex relationship with atmospheric CO2, where PCO2 is changed by the ratio PCO2 = P0{IO(A - C)/(IO(A - C) - ?ICaCO3)} and then modified by a similar exponential relationship, where IO(A - C) is the difference between the inventories of titration alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon. The overall atmospheric PCO2 response to a range of perturbations is sensitive to their nonlinear interactions, depending on the product of the separate amplification factors for each perturbation.

Goodwin, Philip; Follows, Michael J.; Williams, Richard G.

2008-09-01

95

Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics  

PubMed Central

We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO2-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO2-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility. PMID:20823225

Thornton, Philip K.; Herrero, Mario

2010-01-01

96

Potential for reduced methane and carbon dioxide emissions from livestock and pasture management in the tropics.  

PubMed

We estimate the potential reductions in methane and carbon dioxide emissions from several livestock and pasture management options in the mixed and rangeland-based production systems in the tropics. The impacts of adoption of improved pastures, intensifying ruminant diets, changes in land-use practices, and changing breeds of large ruminants on the production of methane and carbon dioxide are calculated for two levels of adoption: complete adoption, to estimate the upper limit to reductions in these greenhouse gases (GHGs), and optimistic but plausible adoption rates taken from the literature, where these exist. Results are expressed both in GHG per ton of livestock product and in Gt CO(2)-eq. We estimate that the maximum mitigation potential of these options in the land-based livestock systems in the tropics amounts to approximately 7% of the global agricultural mitigation potential to 2030. Using historical adoption rates from the literature, the plausible mitigation potential of these options could contribute approximately 4% of global agricultural GHG mitigation. This could be worth on the order of $1.3 billion per year at a price of $20 per t CO(2)-eq. The household-level and sociocultural impacts of some of these options warrant further study, however, because livestock have multiple roles in tropical systems that often go far beyond their productive utility. PMID:20823225

Thornton, Philip K; Herrero, Mario

2010-11-16

97

Methane emissions of rice increased by elevated carbon dioxide and temperature.  

PubMed

Methane (CH4) effluxes by paddy-culture rice (Oryza sativa L.) contribute about 16% of the total anthropogenic emissions. Since radiative forcing of CH4 at current atmospheric concentrations is 21 times greater on a per mole basis than that of carbon dioxide (CO2), it is imperative that the impact of global change on rice CH4 emissions be evaluated. Rice (cv. IR72) was planted in sunlit, closed-circulation, controlled-environment chambers in which CH4 efflux densities were measured daily. The CO2 concentration was maintained at either 330 or 660 micromol mol(-1). Air temperatures were controlled to daily maxima and minima of 32/23, 35/26, and 38/29 degrees C at each CO2 treatment. Emissions of CH4 each day were determined during a 4-h period after venting and resealing the chambers at 0800 h. Diurnal CH4 effluxes on 77, 98, and 119 d after planting (DAP) were obtained similarly at 4-h intervals. Emissions over four-plant hills and over flooded bare soil were measured at 53, 63, and 100 DAP. Emissions were negligible before 40 DAP. Thereafter, emissions were observed first in high-CO2, high-temperature treatments and reached a sustained maximum efflux density of about 7 mg m(-2) h(-1) (0.17 g m(-2) d(-1)) near the end of the growing season. Total seasonal CH4 emission was fourfold greater for high-CO2, high-temperature treatments than for the low-CO2, low-temperature treatment, probably due to more root sloughing or exudates, since about sixfold more acetate was found in the soil at 71 DAP. Both rising CO2 and increasing temperatures could lead to a positive feedback on global warming by increasing the emissions of CH4 from rice. PMID:14674519

Allen, Leon H; Albrecht, Stephan L; Colón-Guasp, Wilfredo; Covell, Stephen A; Baker, Jeffrey T; Pan, Deyun; Boote, Kenneth J

2003-01-01

98

Is fuel-switching a no-regrets environmental policy? VAR evidence on carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic performance in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic activity in Portugal in order to evaluate the economic costs of policies designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. We find that energy consumption has a significant impact on macroeconomic activity. In fact, a one ton of oil equivalent permanent

Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

2010-01-01

99

Is Fuel-Switching a No-Regrets Environmental Policy? VAR Evidence on Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Performance in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic activity in Portugal in order to evaluate the economic costs of policies designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. We find that energy consumption has a significant impact on macroeconomic activity. In fact, a one ton of oil equivalent permanent

Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

2008-01-01

100

Is Fuel-Switching a No-Regrets Environmental Policy? VAR Evidence on Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Performance in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic activity in Portugal in order to evaluate the economic costs of policies designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. We find that energy consumption has a significant impact on macroeconomic activity. In fact, a one ton of oil equivalent permanent

Alfredo M. Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

2009-01-01

101

Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for their physical nature and their links to traditional neo-classical economics.

Garrett, T. J.

2012-12-01

102

The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of institutional variables in the form of International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives membership, ISO 14001 implementation, and non-profit sector activity addresses the ecological limitations of the often used IPAT (impact = population

Stephan Scholz

2006-01-01

103

Tracking the emission of carbon dioxide by nation, sector and fuel type; A trace gas accounting system (TGAS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new methodology that can be used to estimate an efficient econometric model of global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) by nation, sector, and fuel type. Equations for fuel intensity are estimated for coal, oil, natural gas, electricity, and heat for each of six sectors: agricultural, industrial, commercial, transportation, residential, and other.

Kaufmann, R.K. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies); Moore, B. III (Inst. for the study of Earth, Ocean and Space, Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)); Piccot, S. (Science Applications International Corp., Durham, NC (United States)); Lynch, T. (TRC, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Chappell, P.J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.)

1991-01-01

104

A Method for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide and Sulphur Dioxide in Air by Gas Chromatography Using an Emissive Helium Plasma Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of workers have used molecular sieves to separate carbon monoxide from air (1,2,3) and it has been shown that PORAPAKÅ ? is suitable for the resolution of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide from air (3,4,5). However, the sensitive detection of such gases frequently presents problems without recourse to the use of large sample volumes.

R. M. Dagnall; D. J. Johnson; T. S. West

1973-01-01

105

Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and a K/T boundary greenhouse effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. Total eruptive and noneruptive CO2 output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 x 10 to the 16th moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years is estimated based on best estimates of the CO2 weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO2 degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO2 on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO2 due to Deccan Traps CO2 emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1 C over several hundred thousand years. It is concluded that the direct climate effects of CO2 emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

1990-01-01

106

Modeling methane emissions from paddy rice fields under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane (CH4) emissions from paddy rice fields substantially contribute to the dramatic increase of this greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Due to great concern about climate change, it is necessary to predict the effects of the dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) on CH4 emissions from paddy rice fields. CH4MOD 1.0 is the most widely validated model for simulating CH4 emissions from paddy rice fields exposed to ambient CO2 (hereinafter referred to as aCO2). We upgraded the model to CH4MOD 2.0 by: (a) modifying the description of the influences of soil Eh and the water regime on CH4 production; (b) adding new features to reflect the regulatory effects of atmospheric CO2 upon methanogenic substrates, soil Eh during drainages, and vascular CH4 transport; and (c) adding a new feature to simulate the influences of nitrogen (N) addition rates on methanogenic substrates under elevated CO2 (hereinafter referred to as eCO2) condition. Validation with 109 observation cases under aCO2 condition showed that CH4MOD 2.0 possessed a minor systematic bias in the prediction of seasonally accumulated methane emissions (SAM). Validation with observations in free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in temperate and subtropical climates showed that CH4MOD 2.0 successfully simulated the effects of eCO2 upon SAM from paddy rice fields incorporated with various levels of previous crop residues and/or N fertilizer. Our results imply that CH4MOD 2.0 provides a potential approach for estimating of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 upon CH4 emissions from regional or global paddy rice fields with various management practices in a changing climate.

Xie, Baohua; Zhou, Zaixing; Zheng, Xunhua; Zhang, Wen; Zhu, Jianguo

2010-01-01

107

The carbon dioxide cycle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

2005-01-01

108

Analyzing carbon dioxide and methane emissions in California using airborne measurements and model simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have increased over the past decades and are linked to global temperature increases and climate change. These changes in climate have been suggested to have varying effects, and uncertain consequences, on agriculture, water supply, weather, sea-level rise, the economy, and energy. To counteract the trend of increasing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs, the state of California has passed the California Global Warming Act of 2006 (AB-32). This requires that by the year 2020, GHG (e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) emissions will be reduced to 1990 levels. To quantify GHG fluxes, emission inventories are routinely compiled for the State of California (e.g., CH4 emissions from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) Project). The major sources of CO2 and CH4 in the state of California are: transportation, electricity production, oil and gas extraction, cement plants, agriculture, landfills/waste, livestock, and wetlands. However, uncertainties remain in these emission inventories because many factors contributing to these processes are poorly quantified. To alleviate these uncertainties, a synergistic approach of applying air-borne measurements and chemical transport modeling (CTM) efforts to provide a method of quantifying local and regional GHG emissions will be performed during this study. Additionally, in order to further understand the temporal and spatial distributions of GHG fluxes in California and the impact these species have on regional climate, CTM simulations of daily variations and seasonality of total column CO2 and CH4 will be analyzed. To assess the magnitude and spatial variation of GHG emissions and to identify local 'hot spots', airborne measurements of CH4 and CO2 were made by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) over the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in January and February 2013 during the Discover-AQ-CA study. High mixing ratios of GHGs were observed in-flight with a high degree of spatial variability. To provide an additional method to quantify GHG emissions, and analyze AJAX measurement data, the GEOS-Chem CTM is used to simulate SFBA/SJV GHG measurements. A nested-grid version of GEOS-Chem will be applied and utilizes varying emission inventories and model parameterizations to simulate GHG fluxes/emissions. The model considers CO2 fluxes from fossil fuel use, biomass/biofuel burning, terrestrial and oceanic biosphere exchanges, shipping and aviation, and production from the oxidation of carbon monoxide, CH4, and non-methane volatile organic carbons. The major sources of CH4 simulated in GEOS-Chem are domesticated animals, rice fields, natural gas leakage, natural gas venting/flaring (oil production), coal mining, wetlands, and biomass burning. Preliminary results from the comparison between available observations (e.g., AJAX and CALGEM CH4 emission maps) and GEOS-Chem results will be presented, along with a discussion of CO2 and CH4 source apportionment and the use of the GEOS-Chem-adjoint to perform inverse GHG modeling.

Johnson, M. S.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Fischer, M. L.

2013-12-01

109

Capture and mineralization of carbon dioxide from coal combustion flue gas emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Proprietary information: PCT\\/US\\/2006\\/49411 and WO\\/2007\\/ 081561A) Enormous amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) released by human activity (anthropogenic), may lead to climate changes that could spread diseases, ruin crops, cause intense droughts and floods, and dramatically raise the sea levels, thereby submerging the low lying coastal regions. The objective of this study was to test whether CO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Viswatej Attili

2009-01-01

110

Spatial and temporal disaggregation of transport-related carbon dioxide emissions in Bogota - Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of rapid urbanization during the last 60 years, 75% of the Colombian population now lives in cities. Urban areas are net sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and contribute significantly to national GHG emission inventories. The development of scientifically-sound GHG mitigation strategies require accurate GHG source and sink estimations. Disaggregated inventories are effective mitigation decision-making tools. The disaggregation process renders detailed information on the distribution of emissions by transport mode, and the resulting a priori emissions map allows for optimal definition of sites for GHG flux monitoring, either by eddy covariance or inverse modeling techniques. Fossil fuel use in transportation is a major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Bogota. We present estimates of CO2 emissions from road traffic in Bogota using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference method, and a spatial and temporal disaggregation method. Aggregated CO2 emissions from mobile sources were estimated from monthly and annual fossil fuel (gasoline, diesel and compressed natural gas - CNG) consumption statistics, and estimations of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel use. Although bio-fuel CO2 emissions are considered balanced over annual (or multi-annual) agricultural cycles, we included them since CO2 generated by their combustion would be measurable by a net flux monitoring system. For the disaggregation methodology, we used information on Bogota's road network classification, mean travel speed and trip length for each vehicle category and road type. The CO2 emission factors were taken from recent in-road measurements for gasoline- and CNG-powered vehicles and also estimated from COPERT IV. We estimated emission factors for diesel from surveys on average trip length and fuel consumption. Using IPCC's reference method, we estimate Bogota's total transport-related CO2 emissions for 2008 (reference year) at 4.8 Tg CO2. The disaggregation method estimation is 16% lower, mainly due to uncertainty in activity factors. With only 4% of Bogota's fleet, diesel use accounts for 42% of the CO2 emissions. The emissions are almost evenly shared between public (9% of the fleet) and private transport. Peak emissions occur at 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. with maximum values over a densely industrialized area at the northwest of Bogota. This investigation allowed estimating the relative contribution of fuel and vehicle categories to spatially- and temporally-resolved CO2 emissions. Fuel consumption time series indicate a near-stabilization trend on energy consumption for transportation, which is unexpected taking into account the sustained economic and vehicle fleet growth in Bogota. The comparison of the disaggregation methodology with the IPCC methodology contributes to the analysis of possible error sources on activity factor estimations. This information is very useful for uncertainty estimation and adjustment of primary air pollutant emissions inventories.

Hernandez-Gonzalez, L. A.; Jimenez Pizarro, R.; Néstor Y. Rojas, N. Y.

2011-12-01

111

Nongovernmental valorization of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas effect. Most attempts to manage the flow of CO2 or carbon into our environment involve reducing net emissions or sequestering the gas into long-lived sinks. Using CO2 as a chemical feedstock has a long history, but using it on scales that might impact the net emissions of CO2

Gene Petersen; Donn Viviani; Kim Magrini-Bair; Stephen Kelley; Luc Moens; Phil Shepherd; Dan DuBois

2005-01-01

112

Possible cellular regulation schemes of isoprene synthesis and emission under different ambient carbon dioxide levels. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the effects of higher atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on isoprene synthesis and emission leaded to several newly proposed regulation schemes. They can be classified as substrate level control on one side and as energetic cofactor control of the plastidic 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway on the other one. Viewed on a whole cell scale, the precursors of isoprene, such as dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), can be found in several cellular compartments such as chloroplasts, cytosol and mitochondria. Furthermore, necessary entry points into the isoprene synthesis pathway like phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate are provided by two processes, photosynthesis and glycolysis, which are as well located in different cellular compartments. These findings imply, that the effect of modulating the isoprene emission under high levels of atmospheric CO2 have to take transport over membranes, possible concurrent pathways, i.e. Shikimi acid pathway or anaplerotic metabolism reactions and the availability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) on a cellular scale into account. In this modeling study we applied box models that include several facets of the proposed regulation and transport schemes. The models have been set up such that at least two cellular compartments, chloroplast and cytosol are taken into account. The boxes itself represent metabolites and several possible regulation schemes have been realized by the formulation of rate equations between those metabolite pools. As many intermediates are not readily available as measured values, the models aim to build a set of tools to simulate possible regulatory schemes and provide parameter estimations for key processes. Inverse modeling techniques allow to assess certain parameter ranges within the proposed regulation schemes by fitting the models to data on isoprene emission and photosynthesis under normal and elevated ambient CO2 levels.

Noe, S. M.; Schnitzler, J.; Arneth, A.; Monson, R. K.; Niinemets, U.

2010-12-01

113

Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita  

E-print Network

65 Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita Kinda Somlanare Romuald Abstract dioxide emissions around the world, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide emissions growth, there is no convergence, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide growth. In developed countries, we find

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

How restricting carbon dioxide and methane emissions would affect the Indian economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

India and China contain about 40 percent of the earth's people. They are at an early stage of economic development, and their increasingly massive energy requirements will depend heavily on coal, a potent source of carbon dioxide, a powerful and long-lasting greenhouse gas. India also has important sources and uses of hydroelectric and nuclear power, petroleum, and natural gas. Agriculture

Charles R. Blitzer; R. S. Eckaus; Supriya Lahiri; Alexander Meeraus

1992-01-01

115

Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during the production of fresh, peeled, diced, and juiced tomatoes are calculated. The energy utilization for production of raw and packaging materials, transportation, and waste management are also considered. The energy utilization to produce one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes is calculated to be 2412.8 MJ, whereas when the tomatoes are converted into paste, the energy

Ahmet Karakaya; Mustafa Özilgen

2011-01-01

116

Wetland Methane Emission Response to Last Glacial Maximum Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice core records show that the atmospheric concentration of methane (CH4) during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (~21,000 years ago) was 40% lower than the preindustrial Holocene. The contribution of natural wetlands to the global CH4 budget during the LGM is determined by modelling their spatial extent and productivity. Although models provide an estimated flux of ~75-180 Tg yr-1, they adopt present day physiological relationships to reconstruct past wetland emissions. Here we show that the LGM (180 ppm) carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration lowers CH4 emissions from peat cores incubated in controlled environments compared to cores maintained under a modern atmospheric CO2 concentration (380 ppm). Peat cores (110 x 400 mm) collected from a UK minerotrophic fen and upland ombrotrophic bog were maintained either in a [CO2] of 180 ppm or 380 ppm over 21 months. CH4 fluxes were measured on a monthly/weekly basis using static chambers with [CH4] measured via an LGR Fast CH4 Analyser and GC-FID. Results show that total CH4 flux from the minerotrophic fen was suppressed by 17 and 31% in season 1 and 2 respectively under LGM CO2 starvation. The ombrotrophic bog cores were suppressed by 20% in year 1 and 10% in year 2. Both peat types exhibited a rapid initial response to the sub-ambient [CO2] treatment with a change in CH4 flux recorded 5 days into the experiment. We also measured the influence of an LGM [CO2] atmosphere on CH4 flux temperature response during years 1 and 2. These results suggest that both wetland plants, and the underlying biogeochemistry of the rhizosphere, are sensitive to a reduction in [CO2] in the atmosphere and this has yet to be incorporated into global wetland CH4 models.

Boardman, C. P.; Gauci, V.; Beerling, D. J.

2008-12-01

117

Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

E-print Network

Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2007-01-01

118

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-print Network

of fossil fuels, have risen dramatically since the start of the industrial revolution. Globally, energy,London or Beijing.To avoid dangerous climate change,emissions ultimately must be reduced worldwide. An effective

Green, Donna

119

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

120

Geological storage of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is the main compound identified as affecting the stability of the Earth's climate. A significant reduction in the volume of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere is a key mechanism for mitigating against climate change. Geological storage of CO 2, or the injection and stabilization of large volumes of CO 2 in the subsurface in saline aquifers, existing

S. J. Baines; RICHARD H. WORDEN

2004-01-01

121

The impact of electric passenger transport technology under an economy-wide climate policy in the United States: Carbon dioxide emissions, coal use, and carbon dioxide capture and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear.

Marshall A. Wise; G. Page Kyle; James J. Dooley; Son H. Kim

2010-01-01

122

Old carbon contributes to aquatic emissions of carbon dioxide in the Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the rate that carbon is cycled is crucial to understanding the dynamics of carbon transfer pathways. Recent technical developments now support measurement of the 14C age of evaded CO2 from fluvial systems, which provides an important "fingerprint" of the source of C. Here we report the first direct measurements of the 14C age of effluxed CO2 from two small streams and two rivers within the Western Amazonian Basin. The rate of degassing and hydrochemical controls on degassing are also considered. We observe that CO2 efflux from all systems except the seasonal small stream was 14C-depleted relative to the contemporary atmosphere, indicating a~contribution from "old" carbon fixed before ~1955 AD. Further, "old" CO2 was effluxed from the perennial stream in the rainforest, unexpected as here connectivity with the contemporary C cycle is likely greatest. The effluxed gas represents all sources of CO2 in the aquatic system and thus we used end member analysis to identify the relative inputs of fossil, modern and intermediately-aged C. The most likely solutions indicated a contribution from fossil carbon sources of between 3 and 9% which we interpret as being derived from carbonate weathering. This is significant as the currently observed intensification of weather has the potential to increase the future release of old carbon, which can be subsequently degassed to the atmosphere, and so render older, slower C cycles faster. Thus 14C fingerprinting of evaded CO2 provides understanding essential to more accurately model the carbon cycle in the Amazon Basin.

Vihermaa, L. E.; Waldron, S.; Garnett, M. H.; Newton, J.

2014-01-01

123

Vegetation sensitivity to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in a topographically complex region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may affect vegetation distribution both directly through changes in photosynthesis and water-use efficiency, and indirectly through CO2-induced climate change. Using an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) driven by a regional climate model (RegCM2.5), we tested the sensitivity of vegetation in the western United States, a topographically complex region, to the direct, indirect, and

Noah S. Diffenbaugh; Lisa C. Sloan; Mark A. Snyder; Jason L. Bell; Jed Kaplan; Sarah L. Shafer; Patrick J. Bartlein

2003-01-01

124

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an artificially drained coastal wetland during a flood: Implications for wetland global warming potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

frequently produce deoxygenation and acidification in waters of artificially drained coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) wetlands. These conditions are ideal for carbon dioxide and methane production. We investigated CO2 and CH4 dynamics and quantified carbon loss within an artificially drained CASS wetland during and after a flood. We separated the system into wetland soils (inundated soil during flood and exposed soil during post flood period), drain water, and creek water and performed measurements of free CO2 ([CO2*]), CH4, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC), stable carbon isotopes, and radon (222Rn: natural tracer for groundwater discharge) to determine aquatic carbon loss pathways. [CO2*] and CH4 values in the creek reached 721 and 81 ?M, respectively, 2 weeks following a flood during a severe deoxygenation phase (dissolved oxygen ~ 0% saturation). CO2 and CH4 emissions from the floodplain to the atmosphere were 17-fold and 170-fold higher during the flooded period compared to the post-flood period, respectively. CO2 emissions accounted for about 90% of total floodplain mass carbon losses during both the flooded and post-flood periods. Assuming a 20 and 100 year global warming potential (GWP) for CH4 of 105 and 27 CO2-equivalents, CH4 emission contributed to 85% and 60% of total floodplain CO2-equivalent emissions, respectively. Stable carbon isotopes (?13C in dissolved CO2 and CH4) and 222Rn indicated that carbon dynamics within the creek were more likely driven by drainage of surface floodwaters from the CASS wetland rather than groundwater seepage. This study demonstrated that >90% of CO2 and CH4 emissions from the wetland system occurred during the flood period and that the inundated wetland was responsible for ~95% of CO2-equivalent emissions over the floodplain.

Gatland, J. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.; Duncan, T. M.; Erler, D. V.

2014-08-01

125

Emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane from boreal forest fires in 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global boreal forest region experienced some 17.9 million ha of fire in 1998, which could be the highest level of the decade. Through the analysis of fire statistics from North America and satellite data from Russia, semimonthly estimates of area burned for five different regions in the boreal forest were generated and used to estimate total carbon release and

Eric S. Kasischke; Lori P. Bruhwiler

2003-01-01

126

Global economic potential for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from mangrove loss  

PubMed Central

Mangroves are among the most threatened and rapidly disappearing natural environments worldwide. In addition to supporting a wide range of other ecological and economic functions, mangroves store considerable carbon. Here, we consider the global economic potential for protecting mangroves based exclusively on their carbon. We develop unique high-resolution global estimates (5? grid, about 9 × 9 km) of the projected carbon emissions from mangrove loss and the cost of avoiding the emissions. Using these spatial estimates, we derive global and regional supply curves (marginal cost curves) for avoided emissions. Under a broad range of assumptions, we find that the majority of potential emissions from mangroves could be avoided at less than $10 per ton of CO2. Given the recent range of market price for carbon offsets and the cost of reducing emissions from other sources, this finding suggests that protecting mangroves for their carbon is an economically viable proposition. Political-economy considerations related to the ability of doing business in developing countries, however, can severely limit the supply of offsets and increases their price per ton. We also find that although a carbon-focused conservation strategy does not automatically target areas most valuable for biodiversity, implementing a biodiversity-focused strategy would only slightly increase the costs. PMID:22847435

Siikamäki, Juha; Sanchirico, James N.; Jardine, Sunny L.

2012-01-01

127

Carbon Dioxide Removal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment using sprigs of Elodea, learners will observe a natural process that removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from Earth's atmosphere. This process is a part of the carbon cycle and results in temperature suitable for life. Note: this experiment requires that learners make observations an hour or the next day after they set up the materials.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

128

Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source (??13C = -4.5 to -5???, 3He/4He = 4.5 to 6.7 RA) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO2 discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m-2 d-1 at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO2 discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO2 flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30-50 t/d of CO2 are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO2 and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N2/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time.

Sorey, M.L.; Evans, W.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Farrar, C.D.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Hausback, B.

1998-01-01

129

Tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on dryland soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content.  

PubMed

Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO(2) emissions and to increase C sequestration. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combinations and N fertilization on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) and soil surface CO(2) flux and C content (0- to 120-cm depth) in a Williams loam from May to October, 2006 to 2008, in eastern Montana. Treatments were no-tilled continuous malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) (NTCB), no-tilled malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (NTB-P), no-tilled malt barley-fallow (NTB-F), and conventional-tilled malt barley-fallow (CTB-F), each with 0 and 80 kg N ha(-1). Measurements were made both in Phase I (malt barley in NTCB, pea in NTB-P, and fallow in NTB-F and CTB-F) and Phase II (malt barley in all sequences) of each cropping sequence in every year. Crop biomass varied among years, was greater in the barley than in the pea phase of the NTB-P treatment, and greater in NTCB and NTB-P than in NTB-F and CTB-F in 2 out of 3 yr. Similarly, biomass was greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha(-1) in 1 out of 3 yr. Soil CO(2) flux increased from 8 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in early May to 239 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in mid-June as temperature increased and then declined to 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in September-October. Fluxes peaked immediately following substantial precipitation (>10 mm), especially in NTCB and NTB-P. Cumulative CO(2) flux from May to October was greater in 2006 and 2007 than in 2008, greater in cropping than in fallow phases, and greater in NTCB than in NTB-F. Tillage did not influence crop biomass and CO(2) flux but N fertilization had a variable effect on the flux in 2008. Similarly, soil total C content was not influenced by treatments. Annual cropping increased CO(2) flux compared with crop-fallow probably by increasing crop residue returns to soils and root and rhizosphere respiration. Inclusion of peas in the rotation with malt barley in the no-till system, which have been known to reduce N fertilization rates and sustain malt barley yields, resulted in a CO(2) flux similar to that in the CTB-F sequence. PMID:20400589

Sainju, Upendra M; Jabro, Jalal D; Caesar-Tonthat, Thecan

2010-01-01

130

Does Historical Urban Density Explain the Variation in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions Across U.S. Cities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape a city takes can have long-term impacts. The built environment is durable, and urban infrastructure is costly to alter post-construction, so decisions made early in a city's history have a lasting effect. Cities are some of the biggest aggregate sources of CO2 emissions but are also the areas with the lowest per capita emissions. Even though per capita emissions in urban areas are less than their rural counterparts, the variation in emissions across cities is drastic and understanding this variation can improve the way we build and plan cities. Research has been conducted on how density correlates with per capita emissions, but little has been done on how historical growth has influenced emissions. Using historical census data and the Vulcan Project's fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product, I investigate in greater detail whether historical population density in U.S. cities has had a significant impact on future CO2 emissions in the urban area and in the surrounding region. The census data includes all places that have reported a population of over 100,000 people in any decennial census between 1790 and 2000 and the land area the year that the city first crosses that 100,000-population threshold. This data is used to create the historical density measure. The Vulcan CO2 emissions data is broken down by sector. For this project I use the residential, commercial, and transportation (on road and non-road) emissions sectors on a 10x10km grid in 2002. I also control for regional variation in heating and cooling days, current urban density, average house age, median income, and variation in residential heating (gas, electric, fuel oil, and coal) as these are all known correlates of carbon dioxide emissions. Understanding if historical density better explains the variation in per capita carbon dioxide emissions across cities will help urban planners and city governments decide if it is appropriate to regulate growth during the initial boom of a city, a regulation that can be costly.

Campbell, K. B.

2013-12-01

131

New York MARKAL: An evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the State`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO2 emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Hamilton, L.D.

1992-12-31

132

Effects of an experimental drought and recovery on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide in a moist tropical forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in precipitation in the Amazon Basin resulting from regional deforestation, global warming, and El Nino events may affect emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO) from soils. Changes in soil emissions of radiatively important gases could have feedback implications for regional and global climate. Here, we report the final results of a

ERIC A. D; F R A N CO; ISE Y OKO; ULO M. B RANDO

133

Application of the Denitrification-Decomposition Model to Predict Carbon Dioxide Emissions under Alternative Straw Retention Methods  

PubMed Central

Straw retention has been shown to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from agricultural soils. But it remains a big challenge for models to effectively predict CO2 emission fluxes under different straw retention methods. We used maize season data in the Griffith region, Australia, to test whether the denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model could simulate annual CO2 emission. We also identified driving factors of CO2 emission by correlation analysis and path analysis. We show that the DNDC model was able to simulate CO2 emission under alternative straw retention scenarios. The correlation coefficients between simulated and observed daily values for treatments of straw burn and straw incorporation were 0.74 and 0.82, respectively, in the straw retention period and 0.72 and 0.83, respectively, in the crop growth period. The results also show that simulated values of annual CO2 emission for straw burn and straw incorporation were 3.45?t?C?ha?1?y?1 and 2.13?t?C?ha?1?y?1, respectively. In addition the DNDC model was found to be more suitable in simulating CO2 mission fluxes under straw incorporation. Finally the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between CO2 emissions and factors found that soil mean temperature (SMT), daily mean temperature (Tmean), and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were significant. PMID:24453915

Chen, Deli; Pan, Jianjun; Lam, Shu Kee

2013-01-01

134

Emission of Carbon Dioxide Influenced by Different Water Levels from Soil Incubated Organic Residues  

PubMed Central

We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO2-C (265.45?mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120?days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO2-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO2-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO2-C. Maximum CO2-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO2-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO2-C (158.23?mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO2-C (349.91?mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO2-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003?g d?1) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon. PMID:24163626

Hossain, M. B.; Puteh, A. B.

2013-01-01

135

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north-south latitudinal transect in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4 emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.

Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

2014-09-01

136

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure, the famous Keeling Curve, shows the history of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as directly measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. This curve is an essential piece of evidence that shows the increased greenhouse gases that cause recent increases in global temperatures.

Rohde, Robert A.; (from published NOAA data)

137

Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)

Bent, Henry A.

1987-01-01

138

Carbon Dioxide Laser Guidelines  

PubMed Central

The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is a versatile tool that has applications in ablative lasing and caters to the needs of routine dermatological practice as well as the aesthetic, cosmetic and rejuvenation segments. This article details the basics of the laser physics as applicable to the CO2 laser and offers guidelines for use in many of the above indications. PMID:20808594

Krupa Shankar, DS; Chakravarthi, M; Shilpakar, Rachana

2009-01-01

139

Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ({delta}thinsp{sup 13}C={minus}4.5 to {minus}5{per_thousand}, {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He=4.5 to 6.7 R{sub A}) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO{sub 2} discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills arc associated with CO{sub 2} concentrations of 30{endash}90{percent} in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 gthinspm{sup {minus}2}thinspd{sup {minus}1} at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO{sub 2} discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO{sub 2} flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30{endash}50 t/d of CO{sub 2} are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N{sub 2}/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values indicate that the Mammoth Mountain gases are derived from sources separate from those that supply gas to the hydrothermal system within the Long Valley caldera. Various data suggest that the Mammoth Mountain gas reservoir is a large, low-temperature cap over an isolated hydrothermal system, that it predates the 1989 intrusion, and that it could remain a source of gas discharge for some time. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

Sorey, M.L.; Evans, W.C. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California (United States)] Kennedy, B.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States)] Farrar, C.D. [U.S. Geological Survey, Carnelian Bay, California (United States)] Hainsworth, L.J. [Chemistry Department, Emory and Henry College, Emory, Virginia (United States)] Hausback, B. [Geology Department, California State University, Sacramento

1998-07-01

140

8, 73157337, 2008 Carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide distributions over Europe C. Gurk et al. Title Page Abstract distributions of carbon dioxide over Europe C. Gurk1 , H. Fischer1 , P. Hoor1 , M.G. Lawrence1 , J. Lelieveld1 Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 7315 #12;ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

141

Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CARBON DIOXIDE  

E-print Network

i Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CARBON DIOXIDE ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID, Afzal Siddiqui, and Judy Lai. 2011. The Carbon Dioxide Abatement Potential of California's Mid/Agricultural/Water EndUse Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Transportation The Carbon Dioxide

142

Carbon dioxide power plant for total emission control and enhanced oil recovery. [Removal, storage, and use of COâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a compact environmentally acceptable carbon dioxide diluted coal-oxygen fired power plant is described. The plant releases no combustion products to the atmosphere. The oxygen for combustion is separated in an air liquefaction plant and the effluent nitrogen is available for use in oil well production. Recycle carbon dioxide mixed with oxygen replaces the nitrogen for the combustion

F. L. Horn; M. Steinberg

1981-01-01

143

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from cropland production in the United States, 1990-2004.  

PubMed

Changes in cropland production and management influence energy consumption and emissions of CO(2) from fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO(2) emissions for cropping practices in the United States at the county scale. Energy consumption and emissions occur on-site from the operation of farm machinery and occur off-site from the manufacture and transport of cropland production inputs, such as fertilizers, pesticides, and agricultural lime. Estimates of fossil-fuel consumption and associated CO(2) emissions for cropping practices enable (i) the monitoring of energy and emissions with changes in land management and (ii) the calculation and balancing of regional and national carbon budgets. Results indicate on-site energy use and total energy use (i.e., the sum of on-site and off-site) on U.S. croplands in 2004 ranged from 1.6 to 7.9 GJ ha(-1) yr(-1) and from 5.5 to 20.5 GJ ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. On-site and total CO(2) emissions in 2004 ranged from 23 to 176 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) and from 91 to 365 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. During the period of this analysis (1990-2004), national total energy consumption for crop production ranged from 1204 to 1297 PJ yr(-1) (Petajoule = 1 x 10(15) Joule) with associated total fossil CO(2) emissions ranging from 21.5 to 23.2 Tg C yr(-1) (Teragram = 1 x 10(12) gram). The annual proportion of on-site CO(2) to total CO(2) emissions changed depending on the diversity of crops planted. Adoption of reduced tillage practices in the United States from 1990 to 2004 resulted in a net fossil emissions reduction of 2.4 Tg C. PMID:19202012

Nelson, Richard G; Hellwinckel, Chad M; Brandt, Craig C; West, Tristram O; De La Torre Ugarte, Daniel G; Marland, Gregg

2009-01-01

144

Carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface in a bilberry-sphagnum pine forest of the Middle Taiga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the carbon dioxide emissions from the surface of a gleyic iron-illuvial sandy peat podzolic soil under a mature bilberry-sphagnum pine forest were studied during the growing seasons of 2008-2010. The maximum rates of the CO2 emission were observed in late July-early August, and the minimum rates were in October. In the hot summer of 2010, an additional maximum was observed in June. A close positive correlation existed between the intensity of the CO2 emission and the soil temperature ( r = 0.71, ? = 0.05), whereas no significant correlation was found between the CO2 emission and the soil water content. The coefficient of multiple correlation between the rate of the CO2 emission and the hydrothermic soil characteristics reached 0.57 (at ? = 0.05). The total CO2 emission from the soil surface during the growing season was estimated at 68-100 g of C m-2.

Osipov, A. F.

2013-05-01

145

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-print Network

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions monoxide, carbon dioxide, and exhaust hydrocarbons in the IR and nitric oxide in the UV. The design adds the capability to measure nitrogen dioxide in the UV with one spectrometer and to measure SO2 and NH3 along

Denver, University of

146

Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating

Sebastian Teir; Sanni Eloneva; Ron Zevenhoven

2005-01-01

147

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

148

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines...Procedures § 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

149

Carbon dioxide emissions under different soil tillage systems in mechanically harvested sugarcane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil tillage and other methods of soil management may influence CO2 emissions because they accelerate the mineralization of organic carbon in the soil. This study aimed to quantify the CO2 emissions under conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and reduced tillage (RT) during the renovation of sugarcane fields in southern Brazil. The experiment was performed on an Oxisol in the sugarcane-planting area with mechanical harvesting. An undisturbed or no-till (NT) plot was left as a control treatment. The CO2 emissions results indicated a significant interaction (p < 0.001) between tillage method and time after tillage. By quantifying the accumulated emissions over the 44 days after soil tillage, we observed that tillage-induced emissions were higher after the CT system than the RT and MT systems, reaching 350.09 g m-2 of CO2 in CT, and 51.7 and 5.5 g m-2 of CO2 in RT and MT respectively. The amount of C lost in the form of CO2 due to soil tillage practices was significant and comparable to the estimated value of potential annual C accumulation resulting from changes in the harvesting system in Brazil from burning of plant residues to the adoption of green cane harvesting. The CO2 emissions in the CT system could respond to a loss of 80% of the potential soil C accumulated over one year as result of the adoption of mechanized sugarcane harvesting. Meanwhile, soil tillage during the renewal of the sugar plantation using RT and MT methods would result in low impact, with losses of 12% and 2% of the C that could potentially be accumulated during a one year period.

Silva-Olaya, A. M.; Cerri, C. E. P.; La Scala, N., Jr.; Dias, C. T. S.; Cerri, C. C.

2013-03-01

150

Air plasma gasification of RDF as a prospective method for reduction of carbon dioxide emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste disposal dumps are one of sources of carbonic gas penetration in the atmosphere. The waste is treated into RDF (refuse-derived fuel) and used in boilers for electric power or heat generation for decrease in carbonic gas emissions in the atmosphere. In industry power stations on the basis of the combined cycle have the highest efficiency of burning. The paper deals with the application of an air-plasma gasifier using the down draft scheme of RDF transformation into synthesis gas, which afterwards can be used in the combined cycle. Results of calculations of the process characteristics for various RDF compositions are presented. The advantage of the plasma method in comparison with autothermal one is shown. Experimental data are shown.

Bratsev, A. N.; Kumkova, I. I.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Popov, V. E.; Shtengel', S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.

2011-03-01

151

Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan  

DOE Data Explorer

Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

Gurney, Kevin (PI and spokesperson for the Vulcan Collaboration)

152

Modeling Carbon Dioxide Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will explore levels of Carbon Dioxide ( C02) in the atmosphere over time. There is concern that levels of C02 are rising; and finding a good mathematical model for CO2 levels is an important part of determining if this is attributable to human technology. Students draw a scatter plot, choose two points to create a linear model for the data, then use the model to make predictions.

2009-01-01

153

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

SciTech Connect

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12

154

Personal Carbon Dioxide Impact (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing for many decades now, mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels by mankind. In this exercise, students will track their daily activities, and and estimate how much carbon dioxide they are responsible for emitting with the use of an online Personal Greenhouse Gas Calculator developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The calculator sums the carbon dioxide produced by driving, electricity use, and waste disposal, and provides an estimate of annual carbon dioxide emissions. It also allows users to see how changes in lifestyle could reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Links to websites with additional information are also provided.

Pratte, John

155

Vegetation sensitivity to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in a topographically complex region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may affect vegetation distribution both directly through changes in photosynthesis and water-use efficiency, and indirectly through CO2-induced climate change. Using an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) driven by a regional climate model (RegCM2.5), we tested the sensitivity of vegetation in the western United States, a topographically complex region, to the direct, indirect, and combined effects of doubled preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Those sensitivities were quantified using the kappa statistic. Simulated vegetation in the western United States was sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with woody biome types replacing less woody types throughout the domain. The simulated vegetation was also sensitive to climatic effects, particularly at high elevations, due to both warming throughout the domain and decreased precipitation in key mountain regions such as the Sierra Nevada of California and the Cascade and Blue Mountains of Oregon. Significantly, when the direct effects of CO2 on vegetation were tested in combination with the indirect effects of CO2-induced climate change, new vegetation patterns were created that were not seen in either of the individual cases. This result indicates that climatic and nonclimatic effects must be considered in tandem when assessing the potential impacts of elevated CO2 levels.

Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Sloan, L. C.; Snyder, M. A.; Bell, J. L.; Kaplan, J.; Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.

2003-01-01

156

Vegetation sensitivity to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in a topographically complex region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may affect vegetation distribution both directly through changes in photosynthesis and water-use efficiency, and indirectly through CO2-induced climate change. Using an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) driven by a regional climate model (RegCM2.5), we tested the sensitivity of vegetation in the western United States, a topographically complex region, to the direct, indirect, and combined effects of doubled preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Those sensitivities were quantified using the kappa statistic. Simulated vegetation in the western United States was sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with woody biome types replacing less woody types throughout the domain. The simulated vegetation was also sensitive to climatic effects, particularly at high elevations, due to both warming throughout the domain and decreased precipitation in key mountain regions such as the Sierra Nevada of California and the Cascade and Blue Mountains of Oregon. Significantly, when the direct effects of CO2 on vegetation were tested in combination with the indirect effects of CO2-induced climate change, new vegetation patterns were created that were not seen in either of the individual cases. This result indicates that climatic and nonclimatic effects must be considered in tandem when assessing the potential impacts of elevated CO2 levels.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Sloan, Lisa C.; Snyder, Mark A.; Bell, Jason L.; Kaplan, Jed; Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

2003-06-01

157

Carbon dioxide emissions and change in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States: An ecological study.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend=0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.49), suggesting that PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity. PMID:25108606

Zheutlin, Alexander R; Adar, Sara D; Park, Sung Kyun

2014-12-01

158

Alignment-dependent fluorescence emission induced by tunnel ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals.  

PubMed

The study of the ionization process of molecules in an intense infrared laser field is of paramount interest in strong-field physics and constitutes the foundation of imaging of molecular valence orbitals and attosecond science. We show measurement of alignment-dependent ionization probabilities of the lower-lying orbitals of the molecules by experimentally detecting the alignment dependence of fluorescence emission from tunnel ionized carbon dioxide molecules. The experimental measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations of the strong field approximation and molecular Ammosov-Delone-Krainov models. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of an all-optical approach for probing the ionization dynamics of lower-lying orbitals of molecules, which is until now still difficult to achieve by other techniques. Moreover, the deviation between the experimental and theoretical results indicates the incompleteness of current theoretical models for describing strong field ionization of molecules. PMID:24116776

Yao, Jinping; Li, Guihua; Jia, Xinyan; Hao, Xiaolei; Zeng, Bin; Jing, Chenrui; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xie, Hongqiang; Zhang, Chaojin; Zhao, Zengxiu; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiaojun; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

2013-09-27

159

Potentials for reductions of carbon dioxide emissions of the industrial sector in transitional economies -- A case study of implementation of absorption chiller and co-generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central and East European (CEE) countries together with former USSR emitted about 25 percent of the world carbon dioxide emissions, predominantly because of high energy intensity of their industries and dependence on coal. The paper focuses on technologies which would reduce the need for fossil fuel burning by improving energy efficiency in industry. In the process industry, heat demand is

J. Remec; N. Dolsak

1996-01-01

160

An introduction to a simple modelling tool to evaluate the annual energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from non-domestic buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper describes an introduction to a simple modelling tool for designers of environmentally sensitive buildings. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theoretical basis of the program is explained with examples given of typical program output. Findings – The package can be used as an environmental simulator of a building's energy consumption and energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. It is specifically designed

Ian Frame

2005-01-01

161

Concentrations and emission rates of aerial ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, dust and endotoxin in UK broiler and layer houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A survey of the concentration and emission rates of aerial ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, dust and endotoxin was undertaken in 4 examples each of typical UK broiler, cage and perchery houses over 24 h during winter and summer.2. Overall the air quality within the poultry houses was unsatisfactory as judged by the dual criteria of farmer health

C. M. Wathes; M. R. Holden; R. W. Sneath; R. P. White; V. R. Phillips

1997-01-01

162

Developing the aquatic-coupled reservoir model to simulate carbon dioxide emission from a young boreal hydroelectric reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a process-based biogeochemical reservoir model, called AF-DNDC (Aquatic-coupled Forest-DNDC), to project carbon (C) flux from water surface of a recently created hydro-electric reservoir that flooded a boreal landscape. The basis of the reservoir model is Forest-DNDC, a biogeochemical model for C and nitrogen cycling in forests and wetlands. AF-DNDC was developed by coupling a lake C model to a flooded version of Forest-DNDC. AF-DNDC includes the C cycling through the aquatic carbon pools, such as DIC (dissolved inorganic C), DOC (dissolved organic C), and planktonic community as well as C exchange between air, water, and sediment. AF-DNDC was used to examine the net change in carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange between the surface and the atmosphere over the first seven years post flooding of the Eastmain-1 reservoir in northern Quebec. With present day climate and environmental conditions, simulated daily CO2 emissions from the flooded forest averaged 1.69 g C m-2 d-1 (range 0 to 20.49), and from the flooded peatland averaged 0.87 g C m-2 d-1 (range 0 to 6.86). Simulated CO2 emissions decreased with the age of reservoir. They were larger than eddy-covariance measured CO2 fluxes from the water surface over flooded forests, but compared well to the eddy-covariance fluxes during the open-water period. The simulated emissions were significantly correlated with the measured fluxes from the flooded forest (r2 = 0.33; p < 0.01) and flooded peatland (r2 = 0.41; p < 0.01). The patterns over the year were similar. AF-DNDC is suitable for use to assess the major changes in CO2 exchange due to the creation of reservoirs in boreal regions.

Kim, Y.; Roulet, N. T.; Strachan, I. B.; Tremblay, A.

2013-12-01

163

Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

164

Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01

165

Validating modelled carbon-dioxide emissions against long-term eddy-covariance measurements at the urban neighborhood-scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It can be expected that integrative greenhouse-gas emission modeling at block or neighborhood-scales becomes an increasingly relevant part of urban planning processes in the future. A particular challenge forms the geographical distribution of emissions and a proper validation of modeled emissions at this fine scale where consumption statistics are often lacking. Direct flux measurements of GHGs using the eddy-covariance (EC) approach could be a valuable approach to validate such fine-scale urban emission inventories. In combination with micrometeorological source-area models, EC measurements provide spatial-temporal information of emissions - at scales where utility or consumption data is not available. A residential neighborhood in Vancouver, BC, Canada is used as a case study to validate modeled carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions against direct eddy-covariance flux measurements. The model is a combination of top-down inventory and bottom-up modelling of individual objects (buildings, vegetation, traffic counts). Carbon is conceptually tracked through quantifying inputs and outputs into the modelled urban neighborhood, as well as storage changes within the neighborhood. The spatial modelling of emissions is conceptually separated into four components - buildings, transportation, human respiration and vegetation/soils. Inputs to the emission model include automated urban object classifications (buildings, trees, land cover) based on LiDAR and optical remote sensing data in combination with census data, assessment data, traffic counts and measured radiation and climate data. Based on those inputs, spatial maps of total annual CO2 emissions (or uptake) are modeled at 50 m resolution for 4 km2. The resulting maps (building, transportation, human respiration and vegetation) are then summed to create a map of integral (net-)emissions. The mapped area overlaps with the source-area of a micrometeorological flux tower location in the center of the study area. Continuous CO2-flux data are available for a two-year period. Modelled and measured emissions agree within 11% with 6.71 kg C m-2 year-1 measured vs. 7.11 kg C m-2 year-1 modeled, and show more substantial differences in wind sectors dominated by traffic emissions probably due an oversimplified transportation model. Observed, and projected transportation sector emissions were shown to be 42% less on weekends than weekdays in the study area. The presentation concludes that direct CO2 flux measurements from urban flux towers are a promising method to independently validate fine-scale emission inventories. However it will be also noted that - if considering all processes that are part of an ‘urban metabolism’ - effects that take place beyond the study area’s limits there is a conceptual discrepancy between localized tower measurements and the carbon ‘footprint’ of urban activities.

Christen, A.; Coops, N. C.; Crawford, B.; Heyman, E.; Kellett, R.; Liss, K.; Oke, T. R.; Olchovski, I.; Tooke, R.; van der Laan, M.; Voogt, J. A.

2010-12-01

166

Investigation of carbon dioxide emission in China by primary component analysis.  

PubMed

Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions (COEs) stemming from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing and their affecting factors. Eight affecting factors, namely, Population (P), Urban Population (UP); the Output Values of Primary Industry (PIOV), Secondary Industry (SIOV), and Tertiary Industry (TIOV); and the Proportions of Primary Industry's Output Value (PPIOV), Secondary Industry's Output Value (PSIOV), and Tertiary Industry's Output Value (PTIOV), are chosen. PCA is employed to eliminate the multicollinearity of the affecting factors. Two principal components, which can explain 92.86% of the variance of the eight affecting factors, are chosen as variables in the regression analysis. Ordinary least square regression is used to estimate multiple linear regression models, in which COEs and the principal components serve as dependent and independent variables, respectively. The results are given in the following. (1) Theoretically, the carbon intensities of PIOV, SIOV, and TIOV are 2573.4693, 552.7036, and 606.0791 kt per one billion $, respectively. The incomplete statistical data, the different statistical standards, and the ideology of self sufficiency and peasantry appear to show that the carbon intensity of PIOV is higher than those of SIOV and TIOV in China. (2) PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV influence the fluctuations of COE. The parameters of PPIOV, PSIOV, and PTIOV are -2706946.7564, 2557300.5450, and 3924767.9807 kt, respectively. As the economic structure of China is strongly tied to technology level, the period when PIOV plays the leading position is characterized by lagging technology and economic developing. Thus, the influence of PPIOV has a negative value. As the increase of PSIOV and PTIOV is always followed by technological innovation and economic development, PSIOV and PTIOV have the opposite influence. (3) The carbon intensities of P and UP are 1.1029 and 1.7862 kt per thousand people, respectively. The carbon intensity of the rural population can be inferred to be lower than 1.1029 kt per thousand people. The characteristics of poverty and the use of bio-energy in rural areas result in a carbon intensity of the rural population that is lower than that of P. PMID:24295745

Zhang, Jing; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Liu, Lian; Guo, Hang; Liu, Guo-Dong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Deng, Shi-Huai

2014-02-15

167

Response of carbon dioxide emissions to sheep grazing and nitrogen application in an alpine grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has failed to address fully the response of (autotrophic and heterotrophic) respiration to grazing and nitrogen (N) addition in different ecosystems, particularly in alpine grasslands outside the growing season. From 2010 to 2011, we combined two methods (static closed chambers and a closed dynamic soil CO2 flux system) in a controlled field experiment in an alpine grassland in the Tianshan Mountains. We examined the effects of grazing and N application on ecosystem respiration (Re) both outside (NGS) and during (GS) the growing season and determined the pattern of Re in relation to climate change. There was no significant change in CO2 emissions under grazing or N application. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) accounted for 78.5% of Re. Re, Rh and autotrophic respiration (Ra) outside the growing season were equivalent to 12.9, 14.1 and 11.4% of the respective CO2 fluxes during the growing season. In addition, our results indicate that precipitation (soil water content) plays a critical role in Ra in this cold and arid environment. Both Rh and Re were sensitive to soil temperature. Moreover, our results suggest that grazing and N addition exert no significant effect on CO2 emissions in alpine grassland but may alter soil carbon stocks in alpine grassland.

Gong, Y. M.; Mohammat, A.; Liu, X. J.; Li, K. H.; Christie, P.; Fang, F.; Song, W.; Chang, Y. H.; Han, W. X.; Lü, X. T.; Liu, Y. Y.; Hu, Y. K.

2013-07-01

168

Carbon dioxide and intergenerational choice  

SciTech Connect

Depending on ethical beliefs, different decisions emerge for resolving the carbon dioxide (CO/sup 2/) issue. It is doubtful that an international consensus can be reached on a correct ethical criterion. Perhaps the best strategy would be to delay acceptance of either a particular set of beliefs or the existing scientific evidence and wait for more-accurate and conclusive research to emerge. If the scientific evidence is accepted as valid, and all future generations that will exist are evaluated equally, then the optimal current regulatory strategy is to restrict, as much as possible, current emissions of CO/sup 2/. 17 references, 2 figure, 1 table.

D'Arge, R.C.; Schulze, W.D.; Brookshire, D.S.

1982-05-01

169

Carbon dioxide affects global ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

Eugene K. Peterson

1969-01-01

170

Effects of an experimental drought on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide in a moist tropical forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in precipitation in the Amazon Basin resulting from regional deforestation, global warming, and El Nino events may affect emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitric oxide (NO) from soils. Changes in soil emissions of radiatively important gases could have feedback implications for regional and global climates. Here we report results of a large-scale (1

ERIC A. D AV; F R A N CO; I S E Y O K O I S H I D Aw

2004-01-01

171

Carbon dioxide emissions from non-energy use of fossil fuels: Summary of key issues and conclusions from the country analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-energy use of fossil fuels is a source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that is not negligible and has been increasing substantially in the last three decades. Current emission estimates for this source category are subject to major uncertainties. One important reason is that non-energy use as published in energy statistics is not defined in a consistent manner, rendering

Martin Patel; Maarten Neelis; Dolf Gielen; Johannes Gerardus Jozef Olivier; Tim Simmons; Jan Theunis

2005-01-01

172

The Impact of Electric Passenger Transport Technology under an Economy-Wide Climate Policy in the United States: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Coal Use, and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear. A comprehensive analysis must consider jointly the transportation and electricity sectors, along with feedbacks to the rest of the energy system. In this paper, we use the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MiniCAM model to perform an integrated economic analysis of the penetration of PHEVs and the resulting impact on total U.S. CO2 emissions.

Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

2010-03-01

173

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

Barthelat, Francois

174

Carbon dioxide and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earth's climate is getting warmer because of a buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that will continue well into the next century, according to a report released October 20 by the National Research Council (NRC), the research arm of the National Academy of Sciences. As the result of a 2-year study commissioned by Congress, the NRC's Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee predicts a global temperature rise of as much as 4.5°C by the year 2100, enough to shift weather patterns, raise sea levels, and eliminate agriculture in some parts of the world. What's more, the trend seems inevitable— even drastic changes in our energy use would not prevent the warmup, according to the committee's findings.CO2, the major contributor to a thermal “greenhouse effect” that traps re-radiated heat in the atmosphere, has risen from a concentration of 315 parts per million (ppm) to 340 ppm in one generation, largely as a result of the use of fossil fuels. Sometime in the third quarter of the next century, the report predicts, the concentration will probably be double the current level. The result will be a global warming of surface air of between 1.5° and 4.5°C, with temperature rises relatively greater at the poles.

175

Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry of Agriculture; 237 p. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry--Guidelines for professional and volunteer

Standiford, Richard B.

176

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unless carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion is captured and disposed of safely and permanently, the concerns over climate change will eventually lead to the demise of fossil fuels. Because of their importance in today's energy market the phasing out of fossil fuels would likely precipitate a major energy crisis. Mineral sequestration and extraction of carbon dioxide from the air

K. S. Lackner

2002-01-01

177

Coral reefs and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

Buddemeier, R.W. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1996-03-01

178

ADDENDUM: Addendum to 'A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updated data for fossil fuel emissions of CO2 show a decline of 1.3% during 2009. This ended a decade with strong increase in the fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The regional differences in the change in the CO2 emissions are substantial for 2009. The share of coal as a fuel has increased since 2002 and this continues also in 2009.

G. Myhre; K. Alterskjær; D. Lowe

2010-01-01

179

Criteria for Intermediate Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Geological Formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse gas (GHG) making the largest contribution to atmospheric emissions from human activities is carbon dioxide (CO 2) and released dominantly by burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Increased emissions of GHG, causes global warming thus steps should be taken that aim in the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide capture

Semere Solomon

180

Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions.

A. L. Brenkert; R. J. Andres; G. Marland; I. Fung; E. Matthews

1997-01-01

181

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters in India - implications for large scale greenhouse gas balances.  

PubMed

Inland waters were recently recognized to be important sources of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the atmosphere, and including inland water emissions in large scale greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets may potentially offset the estimated carbon sink in many areas. However, the lack of GHG flux measurements and well-defined inland water areas for extrapolation, make the magnitude of the potential offset unclear. This study presents coordinated flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 in multiple lakes, ponds, rivers, open wells, reservoirs, springs, and canals in India. All these inland water types, representative of common aquatic ecosystems in India, emitted substantial amounts of CH4 and a major fraction also emitted CO2 . The total CH4 flux (including ebullition and diffusion) from all the 45 systems ranged from 0.01 to 52.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) , with a mean of 7.8 ± 12.7 (mean ± 1 SD) mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean surface water CH4 concentration was 3.8 ± 14.5 ?m (range 0.03-92.1 ?m). The CO2 fluxes ranged from -28.2 to 262.4 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) and the mean flux was 51.9 ± 71.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean partial pressure of CO2 was 2927 ± 3269 ?atm (range: 400-11 467 ?atm). Conservative extrapolation to whole India, considering the specific area of the different water types studied, yielded average emissions of 2.1 Tg CH4  yr(-1) and 22.0 Tg CO2  yr(-1) from India's inland waters. When expressed as CO2 equivalents, this amounts to 75 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) (53-98 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) ; ± 1 SD), with CH4 contributing 71%. Hence, average inland water GHG emissions, which were not previously considered, correspond to 42% (30-55%) of the estimated land carbon sink of India. Thereby this study illustrates the importance of considering inland water GHG exchange in large scale assessments. PMID:24623552

Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Bastviken, David

2014-11-01

182

A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS 1  

E-print Network

Agricultural soils are a source as well as a sink for C. Proposed is a model to assess CO2 emissions from agricultural soils for each Ecodistrict in the white area of Alberta. Results indicate that C emissions vary with cropping and tillage systems and range from 140 to 669 kg CO2 ha-1 y-1. Annual CO2 emissions from conventional till are two times higher than from zero till systems.

Jilene L. Sauvé; Tom W. Goddard; Karen R. Cannon

183

Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

184

Impact of human activities on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions: a statistical analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study aims at identifying significant or influential human activities (i.e. factors) on CO{sub 2} emissions using statistical analyses. The study was conducted for two cases: (i) developed countries and (ii) developing countries. In developed countries, this study identified three influential human activities for CO{sub 2} emissions: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) population pressure on natural and terrestrial ecosystems, and (iii) land use change. In developing countries, the significant human activities causing an upsurge of CO{sub 2} emissions are: (i) combustion of fossil fuels, (ii) terrestrial ecosystem strength and (iii) land use change. Among these factors, combustion of fossil fuels is the most influential human activity for CO{sub 2} emissions both in developed and developing countries. Regression analysis based on the factor scores indicated that combustion of fossil fuels has significant positive influence on CO{sub 2} emissions in both developed and developing countries. Terrestrial ecosystem strength has a significant negative influence on CO{sub 2} emissions. Land use change and CO{sub 2} emissions are positively related, although regression analysis showed that the influence of land use change on CO{sub 2} emissions was still insignificant. It is anticipated, from the findings of this study, that CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by reducing fossil-fuel consumption and switching to alternative energy sources, preserving exiting forests, planting trees on abandoned and degraded forest lands, or by planting trees by social/agroforestry on agricultural lands.

Abdus Salam; Toshikuni Noguchi [Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Department of Statistics

2005-03-15

185

Carbon Dioxide Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

7 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of the south polar residual cap at full MOC resolution, 1.5 m (5 ft) per pixel. During each of the three summers since the start of the MGS mapping mission in March 1999, the scarps that form mesas and pits in the 'Swiss cheese'-like south polar terrain have retreated an average of about 3 meters (1 yard). The material is frozen carbon dioxide; another 3 meters or so of each scarp is expected to be removed during the next summer, in late 2005. This image is located near 86.0oS, 350.8oW, and covers an area about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

2004-01-01

186

Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success…

Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

1993-01-01

187

Carbon dioxide emissions from diesel and compressed natural gas buses during acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor vehicle emission factors are generally derived from driving tests mimicking steady state conditions or transient drive cycles. Neither of these test conditions, however, completely represents real world driving conditions. In particular, they fail to determine emissions generated during the accelerating phase – a condition in which urban buses spend much of their time. We analyse and compare the results

E. R. Jayaratne; Z. D. Ristovski; L. Morawska; N. K. Meyer

2010-01-01

188

The potential impact of conservation and alternative energy sources on carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conservation and little change in the world's energy conservation and little change in the world's energy consumption patterns. A reduced emissions trend scenario assumes significant conservation and switching

M. W. Edenburn; E. A. Aronson

1990-01-01

189

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13

190

Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

Ackerman, K. V.; Sundquist, E. T.

2008-01-01

191

The impact of future carbon dioxide emission reduction targets on U.S. electric sector water use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. electric sector's reliance on water makes it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on water resources. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumption in the U.S. electric sector through 2055. We use simulations of the EPA's U.S. 9-region (EPAUS9r) MARKAL least-cost optimization energy systems model with updated water use factors for electricity generating technologies. Model results suggest CO2 constraints could force the retirement of old power plants and drive increased use of low water-use renewable and nuclear power as well as natural gas CCS plants with more advanced cooling systems. These changes in electric sector technology mix reduce water withdrawal in all scenarios but increase water consumption in aggressive scenarios. Decreased electric sector water withdrawal would likely reduce electric sector vulnerability to climate change, but the rise in consumption could increase competition with other users.

Cameron, Colin MacKay

192

Carbon dioxide emissions from Ultisol under different land uses in mid–subtropical China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic carbon (SOC) pools and turnover time are highly sensitive to site variables and land-use change. In order to ascertain mass distributions of different SOC pools influenced by land use and evaluate their relationships with carbon mineralization and different soil properties, a 62-day laboratory incubation under a range of moisture (20 to 100% of water-holding capacity) and temperature conditions

Javed Iqbal; Ronggui Hu; Shan Lin; Bocar Ahamadou; Minglei Feng

2009-01-01

193

Non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting carbon dioxide emissions: bottom–up estimates for the world as a whole and for major developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and apply a simple bottom–up model for estimating non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. We apply this model for the year 2000: (1) to the world as a whole, (2) to the aggregate of Annex\\u000a I countries and non-Annex I countries, and (3) to the ten non-Annex I countries with the highest consumption of

Martin Weiss; Maarten Neelis; Kornelis Blok; Martin Patel

2009-01-01

194

Using DMSP/OLS nighttime imagery to estimate carbon dioxide emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study highlighted a method for estimating CO2 emission from electric power plants using the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) stable light image product for 1999. CO2 emissions from power plants account for a high percentage of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumptions. Thermal power plants generate the electricity by burning fossil fuels, so they emit CO2 directly. In many Asian countries such as China, Japan, India, and South Korea, the amounts of electric power generated by thermal power accounts over 58% in the total amount of electric power in 1999. So far, figures of the CO2 emission were obtained mainly by traditional statistical methods. Moreover, the statistical data were summarized as administrative regions, so it is difficult to examine the spatial distribution of non-administrative division. In some countries the reliability of such CO2 emission data is relatively low. However, satellite remote sensing can observe the earth surface without limitation of administrative regions. Thus, it is important to estimate CO2 using satellite remote sensing. In this study, we estimated the CO2 emission by fossil fuel consumption from electric power plant using stable light image of the DMSP/OLS satellite data for 1999 after correction for saturation effect in Japan. Digital number (DN) values of the stable light images in center areas of cities are saturated due to the large nighttime light intensities and characteristics of the OLS satellite sensors. To more accurately estimate the CO2 emission using the stable light images, a saturation correction method was developed by using the DMSP radiance calibration image, which does not include any saturation pixels. A regression equation was developed by the relationship between DN values of non-saturated pixels in the stable light image and those in the radiance calibration image. And, regression equation was used to adjust the DNs of the radiance calibration image. Then, saturated DNs of the stable light image was corrected using adjusted radiance calibration image. After that, regression analysis was performed with cumulative DNs of the corrected stable light image, electric power consumption, electric power generation and CO2 emission by fossil fuel consumption from electric power plant each other. Results indicated that there are good relationships (R2>90%) between DNs of the corrected stable light image and other parameters. Based on the above results, we estimated the CO2 emission from electric power plant using corrected stable light image. Keywords: DMSP/OLS, stable light, saturation light correction method, regression analysis Acknowledgment: The research was financially supported by the Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from the Japan Science Society.

Desheng, B.; Letu, H.; Bao, Y.; Naizhuo, Z.; Hara, M.; Nishio, F.

2012-12-01

195

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in COâ emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating

K. S. Lackner; D. P. Butt; R. Jensen; H. Ziock

1998-01-01

196

Permanent storage of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs by mineral carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions continue to increase rapidly despite efforts aimed at curbing the release of such gases. One potentially long-term solution for offsetting these emissions is the capture and storage of carbon dioxide. In principle, fluid or gaseous carbon dioxide can be injected into the Earth's crust and locked up as carbonate minerals through chemical reactions with calcium and magnesium

Peter B. Kelemen; Jürg M. Matter

2009-01-01

197

The contribution of renewable distributed generation in mitigating carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional approach in electric power generation is to have centralized plants distributing electricity through an extensive transmission and distribution network. Distributed generation (DG) provides electric power at a site closer to the customer, eliminating the unnecessary transmission and distribution costs. In addition, it can reduce fossil fuel emissions, defer capital cost, reduce maintenance investments and improve the distribution feeder

Paulino E. Labis; Rey G. Visande; Reuel C. Pallugna; Nolan D. Caliao

2011-01-01

198

A preliminary survey of household and personal carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland.  

PubMed

A model specifically designed for Ireland was used to measure CO(2)e emissions (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) from Irish households for the first time. A total of 103 Irish households with occupancy rates varying between 1 and 6 (mean 2.9) were surveyed. The average annual household emission was found to be 16.55 t CO(2)e y(-1), which is equivalent to an average personal emission of 5.70 t CO(2)e Ca(-1) y(-1) comprising 42.2% related to home energy use, 35.1% to transport, 20.6% to air travel and other fuel intensive leisure activities, and just 2.1% associated with household waste disposal. Air travel accounts for an average personal emission of 1.152 t CO(2)e Ca(-1) y(-1), although this is highest in single and two person households at 1.693 and 2.227 t CO(2)e Ca(-1) y(-1) respectively. Household energy consumption becomes more efficient when occupancy rate increases. The most energy efficient homes in the survey were terraced with a natural gas heating systems. The least efficient were detached house with oil fuelled heating system. PMID:18718663

Kenny, Tricia; Gray, N F

2009-02-01

199

Dissociation-excitation reactions of argon metastables with carbon dioxide.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study showing that a metastable argon-carbon dioxide reaction results in dissociation of carbon dioxide and electronic excitation of one of the products, carbon monoxide or oxygen. A flow system using a 2450-MHz discharge was used to produce metastable argon atoms. Metastable argon in the afterglow was confirmed by adding nitrogen to the afterglow. Without addition of carbon dioxide no argon line emission, or any other emission, is observed from the reaction zone. Absence of argon line emission produced by recombination indicates the absence of charged species.

Starr, W. L.

1971-01-01

200

Atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide from different nitrogen fertilizers.  

PubMed

Alternative N fertilizers that produce low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soil are needed to reduce the impacts of agricultural practices on global warming potential (GWP). We quantified and compared growing season fluxes of NO, CH, and CO resulting from applications of different N fertilizer sources, urea (U), urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN), ammonium nitrate (NHNO), poultry litter, and commercially available, enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers as follows: polymer-coated urea (ESN), SuperU, UAN + AgrotainPlus, and poultry litter + AgrotainPlus in a no-till corn ( L.) production system. Greenhouse gas fluxes were measured during two growing seasons using static, vented chambers. The ESN delayed the NO flux peak by 3 to 4 wk compared with other N sources. No significant differences were observed in NO emissions among the enhanced-efficiency and traditional inorganic N sources, except for ESN in 2009. Cumulative growing season NO emission from poultry litter was significantly greater than from inorganic N sources. The NO loss (2-yr average) as a percentage of N applied ranged from 0.69% for SuperU to 4.5% for poultry litter. The CH-C and CO-C emissions were impacted by environmental factors, such as temperature and moisture, more than the N source. There was no significant difference in corn yield among all N sources in both years. Site specifics and climate conditions may be responsible for the differences among the results of this study and some of the previously published studies. Our results demonstrate that N fertilizer source and climate conditions need consideration when selecting N sources to reduce GHG emissions. PMID:22031562

Sistani, K R; Jn-Baptiste, M; Lovanh, N; Cook, K L

2011-01-01

201

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

1998-09-01

202

Atmospheric dispersion of natural carbon dioxide emissions on Vulcano Island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossa quiescent volcano and its surrounding area on the Island of Vulcano (Italy) are characterized by intensive, persistent degassing through both fumaroles and diffuse soil emissions. Periodic degassing crises occur, with marked increase in temperature and steam and gas output (mostly CO2) from crater fumaroles and in CO2 soil diffuse emission from the crater area as well as from the volcano flanks and base. The gas hazard of the most inhabited part of the island, Vulcano Porto, was investigated by simulating the CO2 dispersion in the atmosphere under different wind conditions. The DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) code, an Eulerian model based on advection-diffusion equations, was used together with the mass-consistent Diagnostic Wind Model. Numerical simulations were validated by measurements of air CO2 concentration inside the village and along the crater's rim by means of a Soil CO2 Automatic Station and a Tunable Diode Laser device. The results show that in the village of Vulcano Porto, the CO2 air concentration is mostly due to local soil degassing, while the contribution from the crater gas emission is negligible at the breathing height for humans and always remains well below the lowest indoor CO2 concentration threshold recommended by the health authorities (1000 ppm). Outdoor excess CO2 maxima up to 200 ppm above local background CO2 air concentration are estimated in the center of the village and up to 100 ppm in other zones. However, in some ground excavations or in basements the health code threshold can be exceeded. In the crater area, because of the combined effect of fumaroles and diffuse soil emissions, CO2 air concentrations can reach 5000-7000 ppm in low-wind conditions and pose a health hazard for visitors.

Granieri, D.; Carapezza, M. L.; Barberi, F.; Ranaldi, M.; Ricci, T.; Tarchini, L.

2014-07-01

203

Non-native plant litter enhances soil carbon dioxide emissions in an invaded annual grassland.  

PubMed

Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k?=?0.20 month(-1)) compared to in isolation (k?=?0.10 month(-1)). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration even at intermediate stages of invasion in these annual grasslands. PMID:24647312

Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; Siemann, Evan

2014-01-01

204

Non-Native Plant Litter Enhances Soil Carbon Dioxide Emissions in an Invaded Annual Grassland  

PubMed Central

Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k?=?0.20 month?1) compared to in isolation (k?=?0.10 month?1). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration even at intermediate stages of invasion in these annual grasslands. PMID:24647312

Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E.; Siemann, Evan

2014-01-01

205

Carbon dioxide emissions after application of different tillage systems for loam in northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tillage operations influence soil physical properties and crop growth, and thus both directly and indirectly the cropland CO2 exchange with the atmosphere. In this study, the results of CO2 flux measurements on cropland, under different tillage practices in northern China, are presented. CO2 flux on croplands with a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea may L.) rotation was monitored on plots with conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT). Soil CO2 flux was generally greater in CT than in NT, and the RT CO2 flux was only slightly smaller than the CT. Daily soil CO2 emissions for CT, RT, and NT averaged 11.30g m-2, 9.63 g m-2 and 7.99 g m-2, respectively, during the growing period. Analysis of variance shows that these differences are significant for the three tillage treatments. Peak CO2 emissions were recorded on the CT and RT croplands after tillage operations. At the same time, no obviously increased emission of CO2 occurred on the NT plot. These differences demonstrate that tillage results in a rapid physical release of CO2.

Hongwen, Li; Lifeng, Hu; Fub, Chen; Xuemin, Zhang

2010-05-01

206

Carbon Dioxide and Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Demonstrates the affect of increased dissolved carbon dioxide on water pH using a cheap, non-toxic acid/base indicator. Students bubble breath through a straw into red cabbage juice and note the color change.

Lewis, Chris

207

An Integrated, Low Temperature Process to Capture and Sequester Carbon Dioxide from Industrial Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments show that it is possible to integrate (1) the chemistry of serpentine dissolution, (2) capture of CO2 gas from the combustion of natural gas and coal-fired power plants using aqueous amine-based solvents, (3) long-term CO2 sequestration via solid phase carbonate precipitation, and (4) capture solvent regeneration with acid recycling in a single, continuous process. In our process, magnesium is released from serpentine at 300°C via heat treatment with ammonium sulfate salts or at temperatures as low as 50°C via reaction with sulfuric acid. We have also demonstrated that various solid carbonate phases can be precipitated directly from aqueous amine-based (NH3, MEA, DMEA) CO2 capture solvent solutions at room temperature. Direct precipitation from the capture solvent enables regenerating CO2 capture solvent without the need for heat and without the need to compress the CO2 off gas. We propose that known low-temperature electrochemical methods can be integrated with this process to regenerate the aqueous amine capture solvent and recycle acid for dissolution of magnesium-bearing mineral feedstocks and magnesium release. Although the direct precipitation of magnesite at ambient conditions remains elusive, experimental results demonstrate that at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 60°C, either nesquehonite Mg(HCO3)(OH)?2H2O or a double salt with the formula [NH4]2Mg(CO3)2?4H2O or an amorphous magnesium carbonate precipitate directly from the capture solvent. These phases are less desirable for CO2 sequestration than magnesite because they potentially remove constituents (water, ammonia) from the reaction system, reducing the overall efficiency of the sequestration process. Accordingly, the integrated process can be accomplished with minimal energy consumption and loss of CO2 capture and acid solvents, and a net generation of 1 to 4 moles of H2O/6 moles of CO2 sequestered (depending on the solid carbonate precipitate and amount of produced H2 and O2 gas reacted to produce heat and water). Features of the integrated process include the following: 1) the four separate processes have compatible chemistry, enabling design of an integrated, continuous process scheme for CO2 capture and sequestration; 2) all 4 stages of the process can be conducted at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures; 3) precipitating carbonate directly from the capture solvent eliminates the need for costly CO2 gas compression; and 4) recycling the acid used for serpentine dissolution and the solvent used for CO2 capture reduces feed stock costs.

Wendlandt, R. F.; Foremski, J. J.

2013-12-01

208

Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

2013-01-01

209

Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records  

E-print Network

of carbon dioxide by the burning of fossil fuels ( 6 billion tons of carbon per year). Possible shiftsModel-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide, balancing emissions from fossil fuel and land use with carbon uptake by the oceans, and the terrestrial

Jain, Atul K.

210

Molecular Structure of Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carbon dioxide was first described in the 17th century by Jan Baptist van Helmont, a Belgium chemist. The chemical CO2 is released into the atmosphere when carbon-containing fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal are burned in air. It is also produced by various microorganisms in fermentation and is breathed out by animals. Plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, using both the carbon and the oxygen to construct carbohydrates. Every year the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing. CO2 build-up in the atmosphere is caused by deforestation, therefore reducing the number of trees available to absorb CO2. Excess CO2 in the environment causes Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect. It is also toxic to humans since inhalation of large amounts of CO2 can cause suffocation. Some beverages, such as beer and sparkling wine contain carbon dioxide as a result of fermentation.

2002-08-15

211

Uptake of carbon dioxide from flue gas by microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology under development seeks to provide affordable, and efficient methods for reducing carbon dioxide and other emissions from coal-fired electricity generation based on biological assimilation. Photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae, when grown in large outdoor ponds could use carbon dioxide from flue gas directly injected into the culture. This process requires land, water, sunlight and other nutrients. Currently, commercial

Lewis M. Brown

1996-01-01

212

The Hestia Project: High Spatial Resolution Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Quantification at Hourly Scale in Indianapolis, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface and contribute to sound, quantitatively-based U.S. climate change policy interests, quantification of greenhouse gases emissions drivers at fine spatial and temporal scales is essential. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the primary greenhouse gases, has become a key component to cost-effective CO2 emissions mitigation options and

Y. Zhou; K. R. Gurney

2009-01-01

213

Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

2009-04-30

214

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

215

Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organized by NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory (CMDL), the Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference is planned September 25-30 in Broomfield, Colo. At this website, scientists involved in various aspects of the global carbon cycle, especially the current increases of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, are encouraged to attend. Users can read the preliminary announcement and can learn about the themes of the conference. Researchers can learn about abstract submissions and accommodations. The Brief Conference History link offers a nice synopsis of the accomplishments of past conferences.

216

Combining power plant water needs and carbon dioxide storage using saline formations: Implications for carbon dioxide and water management policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research involving management of carbon dioxide has increased markedly over the last decade as it relates to concerns over climate change. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations is one of many proposed methods to manage, and likely reduce, CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Saline formations represent a vast storage resource, and the

Peter H. Kobos; Malynda A. Cappelle; Jim L. Krumhansl; Thomas A. Dewers; Andrea McNemar; David J. Borns

2011-01-01

217

Inter-annual Variability in Net Ecosystem Exchange of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions in a Temperate Freshwater Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists very little information on greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in marsh wetlands, especially in temperate climates. Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes were made from May 2005 to June 2008 in a temperate freshwater cattail marsh in Eastern Ontario, Canada. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 was measured continuously using the eddy covariance technique, and closed chambers were used to measure CH4 emissions from open water, soil, and vegetated portions of the marsh. Based on NEE, we found that the marsh accumulated 264 g C m-2 from May 2005 to April 2006 and 185 g C m-2 and 308 g C m-2 in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008, respectively. Lower spring temperature in 2005 seems to have delayed the initial growth of cattails and therefore led to a later switchover time from a net CO2 source to a net CO2 sink compared to spring 2006 and 2007. The lower cumulative NEE measured in 2006-2007 is mainly due to the cloudy conditions (i.e. low average incoming photosynthetically active radiation) that occurred through late summer and early fall 2006, which greatly decreased cattail photosynthesis and induced an earlier death of the pants, which in turn resulted in a lower average CO2 uptake compared to the other years. During the 2005, 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, the carbon uptake period was 109, 104, and 116 days in length, which is consistent with the inter-annual variability in NEE observed. The results suggest that the timing of the fall switchover from a net CO2 sink to a net CO2 source is probably the main factor influencing the annual CO2 accumulation. The average CH4 flux measured from open water was 658 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2005, 381 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2006, and 352 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2008. The average CH4 flux from vegetation was 1001 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2005, 1640 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2006, and 1260 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in 2008. The CH4 flux from soil was only measured in 2006 (255 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) and 2008 (224 mg CH4 m-2 d-1). It is known that the presence of the aerenchyma tissue that runs through the cattail's roots, stem and leaves facilitates the transport of gases such as CH4 from the production site (i.e. soil) to the atmosphere, which explains the higher fluxes measured from vegetated portions of the marsh. Knowing that CH4 is produced under anaerobic waterlogged conditions, the higher CH4 fluxes measured from plants in 2006 may be related to the higher rainfall observed during that year. This long-term record of CO2 and CH4 fluxes combined with continuous measurements of meteorological and ecosystem properties allows us to investigate the overall carbon budget of this marsh wetland as well as the major controls on the GHG fluxes for this type of ecosystem. This study provides valuable knowledge that can complement the existing information on other wetlands types and may be useful for predicting the impacts of climate change on CO2 and CH4 fluxes and for estimating national carbon stocks.

Bonneville, M.; Strachan, I.

2009-05-01

218

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution  

SciTech Connect

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

1994-10-01

219

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................................. 30 3.1 Using coke oven gas in a blast furnace in steel making plant .......................... 30 3 ...............................................................................................................26 Table 3.1 Using Coke Oven Gas in a Blast Furnace at Mon Valley Steel Works.............30 Table 3

Delaware, University of

220

Carbon Dioxide - Our Common "Enemy"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Health effects of brief and prolonged exposure to carbon dioxide continue to be a concern for those of us who manage this pollutant in closed volumes, such as in spacecraft and submarines. In both examples, considerable resources are required to scrub the atmosphere to levels that are considered totally safe for maintenance of crew health and performance. Defining safe levels is not a simple task because of many confounding factors, including: lack of a robust database on human exposures, suspected significant variations in individual susceptibility, variations in the endpoints used to assess potentially adverse effects, the added effects of stress, and the fluid shifts associated with micro-gravity (astronauts only). In 2007 the National Research Council proposed revised Continuous Exposure Guidelines (CEGLs) and Emergency Exposure Guidelines (EEGLs) to the U.S. Navy. Similarly, in 2008 the NASA Toxicology Group, in cooperation with another subcommittee of the National Research Council, revised Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). In addition, a 1000-day exposure limit was set for long-duration spaceflights to celestial bodies. Herein we examine the rationale for the levels proposed to the U.S. Navy and compare this rationale with the one used by NASA to set its limits. We include a critical review of previous studies on the effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and attempt to dissect out the challenges associated with setting fully-defensible limits. We also describe recent experiences with management of carbon dioxide aboard the International Space Station with 13 persons aboard. This includes the tandem operations of the Russian Vozduk and the U.S. Carbon Dioxide Removal System. A third removal system is present while the station is docked to the Shuttle spacecraft, so our experience includes the lithium hydroxide system aboard Shuttle for the removal of carbon dioxide. We discuss strategies for highly-efficient, regenerable removal of carbon dioxide that could meet the 1000-day SMAC of 0.5%, which would apply to long-duration voyages to Mars.

James, John T.; Macatangay, Ariel

2009-01-01

221

Carbon Dioxide Measurement and Tracking We are combining our expertise in remote sensing, measurement,  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Measurement and Tracking We are combining our expertise in remote sensing, measurement, experimentation, and modeling to track and quantify CO2. 7 08 FACT SHEET Carbon Dioxide." Among the proposed solutions are carbon sequestration (storing carbon dioxide emissions in geologic

222

OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE  

E-print Network

OPERATIONAL NOTE A SIMPLIFIED TRIPOD SUPPORT FOR USE WITH CARBON DIOXIDE­ BAITED VECTOR surveillance trap support was designed as a tripod of polyvinyl chloride pipes to suspend carbon dioxide, vector surveillance, hanging traps, carbon dioxide, mosquito trap Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is common

223

Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

224

Evidence That Light, Carbon Dioxide, and Oxygen Dependencies of Leaf Isoprene Emission Are Driven by Energy Status in Hybrid Aspen1  

PubMed Central

Leaf isoprene emission scales positively with light intensity, is inhibited by high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and may be enhanced or inhibited by low oxygen (O2) concentrations, but the mechanisms of environmental regulation of isoprene emission are still not fully understood. Emission controls by isoprene synthase, availability of carbon intermediates, or energetic cofactors have been suggested previously. In this study, we asked whether the short-term (tens of minutes) environmental control of isoprene synthesis results from alterations in the immediate isoprene precursor dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP) pool size, and to what extent DMADP concentrations are affected by the supply of carbon and energetic metabolites. A novel in vivo method based on postillumination isoprene release was employed to measure the pool size of DMADP simultaneously with the rates of isoprene emission and net assimilation at different light intensities and CO2 and O2 concentrations. Both net assimilation and isoprene emission rates increased hyperbolically with light intensity. The photosynthetic response to CO2 concentration was also hyperbolic, while the CO2 response curve of isoprene emission exhibited a maximum at close to CO2 compensation point. Low O2 positively affected both net assimilation and isoprene emission. In all cases, the variation in isoprene emission was matched with changes in DMADP pool size. The results of these experiments suggest that DMADP pool size controls the response of isoprene emission to light intensity and to CO2 and O2 concentrations and that the pool size is determined by the level of energetic metabolites generated in photosynthesis. PMID:19587097

Rasulov, Bahtijor; Huve, Katja; Valbe, Mikk; Laisk, Agu; Niinemets, Ulo

2009-01-01

225

Effect of Bacterial and Fungal Abundance in Soil on the Emission of Carbon Dioxide from Soil in Semi-arid Climate in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Carbon dioxide concentration in atmosphere is actively increasing since industrial revolution (1800) from 285 ppmv to 378\\u000a ppmv in 2005. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil due to floral and faunal respiration in soil, called soil respiration, is the\\u000a second largest source of increasing concentration of CO2 in atmosphere. Soil respiration produces almost 11 times more carbon dioxide in atmosphere than

Rashmi Kant; Chirashree Ghosh; Lokendra Singh; Neelam Tripathi

226

Enthalpies of dissociation of clathrate hydrates of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, (carbon dioxide + nitrogen), and (carbon dioxide + nitrogen + tetrahydrofuran)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calorimetric technique is described for measuring the enthalpy of dissociation liberated from solid hydrates. In this study, the enthalpies of dissociation were determined at T= 273.65 K andp= 0.1 MPa for simple and mixed hydrates of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, (carbon dioxide + nitrogen), and (carbon dioxide + nitrogen + tetrahydrofuran) using an isothermal microcalorimeter. The addition of tetrahydrofuran (THF)

B.-J. Ryu

2001-01-01

227

Carbon dioxide transport over complex terrain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nocturnal transport of carbon dioxide over complex terrain was investigated. The high carbon dioxide under very stable conditions flows to local low-ground. The regional drainage flow dominates the carbon dioxide transport at the 6 m above the ground and carbon dioxide was transported to the regional low ground. The results show that the local drainage flow was sensitive to turbulent mixing associated with local wind shear.

Sun, J.; Burns, S. P.; Delany, A. C.; Oncley, S. P.; Turnipseed, A.; Stephens, B.; Guenther, A.; Anderson, D. E.; Monson, R.

2004-01-01

228

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Song1, Igor Razlivano1, Kevin R. Gurney1, and Preeti Rao2  

E-print Network

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Hestia city is Indianapolis, which is situated within Marion County, IN. We have quantified the annual CO2 emissions hour-by-hour for this city as well as the Marion County. The methodologies used

Hall, Sharon J.

229

II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17  

E-print Network

15 II. Greenhouse gas markets, carbon dioxide credits and biofuels17 The previous chapter analysed biofuels production. GHG policies18 that create a carbon price either through an emissions trading system or directly by taxing GHG emissions also generate increased demand for biofuels. They do so by raising

230

2, 18491865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in  

E-print Network

BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern Poland L. Chmura et al. Title Page Abstract is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 1849 #12;BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern urban environment with numerous local sources of carbon dioxide. Despite of relative proximity of those

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW  

E-print Network

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

Santos, Juan

232

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW  

E-print Network

SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1 1 Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, USA Purdue University, March 1rst, 2013 SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12 (North Sea). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated

Santos, Juan

233

7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve,  

E-print Network

7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve, shown to the left, shows the variation in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1958-1974. It is based on continuous measurements taken of rapidly increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working

234

21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and Drugs...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2 , CAS Reg. No....

2014-04-01

235

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Capacity of the Mt Simon Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique has been developed to better predict the quantity of carbon dioxide that can be sequestered in a formation through solubility or free phase trapping. The technique is being improved to incorporate the potential for carbonate mineral precipitation. The current study evaluates the extent to which the Mt. Simon formation can serve as a trapping reservoir. The Mt. Simon formation was selected for this study because it meets many of the criteria required for sequestration. To determine the capacity of the Mt. Simon formation to trap carbon dioxide as a soluble component, an experiment was conducted in natural Mt. Simon formation brine. The experiment was conducted at 55 degrees Celsius and pressures from 50 to 350 bars, conditions that fall within the range expected for the entire formation. The data collected compare well to existing models that only account for carbon dioxide solubility. Thus, the solubility model can be reliably used to predict dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations for the range of temperatures and pressures expected to be encountered. The capacity of the Mt. Simon formation to sequester dissolved carbon dioxide was calculated using results of the solubility model, estimation of the density of carbon dioxide saturated brine, estimation of the formation porosity, and geographic information system data on the extent of the formation. Results indicate that the Mt. Simon formation can sequester as much as 26 Gt of dissolved carbon dioxide or 255 Gt of free phase carbon dioxide depending on the efficiency of the system. The current estimated annual production of carbon dioxide from power plant emissions of IL, IA and MI is 0.24 Gt. This indicates that the basin could accept the annual emissions of these power plants for approximately 100 years or more if current carbon dioxide production does not increase.

Allen, D. E.; Dilmore, B.; Hedges, S.; Soong, Y.

2008-12-01

236

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer–Tropsch synthesis of liquid fuels from coal to minimize carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis gas (syngas) produced from coal typically has hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios in the range of approximately 0.7–1.1, depending on the gasification method. In order to produce liquid fuels from this syngas by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS), these ratios must be raised to 2.0 or higher. If this is accomplished by the water–gas shift reaction, the traditional method, large emissions

Gerald P. Huffman

2011-01-01

237

Turning carbon dioxide into fuel.  

PubMed

Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO2). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies develop, future demands now ensure that energy will be one of the defining issues of this century. This unique set of (coupled) challenges also means that science and engineering have a unique opportunity-and a burgeoning challenge-to apply their understanding to provide sustainable energy solutions. Integrated carbon capture and subsequent sequestration is generally advanced as the most promising option to tackle greenhouse gases in the short to medium term. Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO2, to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. Basically, the approach centres on the concept of the large-scale re-use of CO2 released by human activity to produce synthetic fuels, and how this challenging approach could assume an important role in tackling the issue of global CO2 emissions. We highlight three possible strategies involving CO2 conversion by physico-chemical approaches: sustainable (or renewable) synthetic methanol, syngas production derived from flue gases from coal-, gas- or oil-fired electric power stations, and photochemical production of synthetic fuels. The use of CO2 to synthesize commodity chemicals is covered elsewhere (Arakawa et al. 2001 Chem. Rev. 101, 953-996); this review is focused on the possibilities for the conversion of CO2 to fuels. Although these three prototypical areas differ in their ultimate applications, the underpinning thermodynamic considerations centre on the conversion-and hence the utilization-of CO2. Here, we hope to illustrate that advances in the science and engineering of materials are critical for these new energy technologies, and specific examples are given for all three examples. With sufficient advances, and institutional and political support, such scientific and technological innovations could help to regulate/stabilize the CO2 levels in the atmosphere and thereby extend the use of fossil-fuel-derived feedstocks. PMID:20566515

Jiang, Z; Xiao, T; Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

2010-07-28

238

Historical changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in the eutrophied Southern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic activities after the Second World War have severely increased river nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] loads to European coastal areas. The resulting N: P: Si imbalance (compared to phytoplankton requirements) stimulated in the Southern North Sea the growth of Phaeocystis colonies modifying the functioning of the ecosystem and, therefore, the carbon but also the biogenic sulphur cycles. Phaeocystis is a significant producer of DMSP (dimethylsulphide propionate), the precursor of DMS. When emitted to the atmosphere the DMS has a cooling effect on the climate contrarily to the CO2 greenhouse gas. Since the late 1990's specific nutrient reduction policies have however considerably reduced P loads while N is maintained. In this application we explore, with a mathematical tool, the effects of changing N and P loads on air-sea CO2 exchanges and DMS marine emissions. The chosen model is the MIRO-CO2-DMS, a complex biogeochemical model describing carbon, biogenic sulphur and nutrient cycles in the marine domain. Model simulations are performed for the contemporary period since 1950, using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER model simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Results are discussing the importance of human activities and river inputs of carbon and nutrients on the eutrophication of coastal areas, their ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 and the importance of DMS emissions associated with phytoplankton blooms, especially Phaeocystis.

Gypens, N.; Borges, A. V.; Lancelot, C.

2012-04-01

239

The Impact of Carbon Dioxide on Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between climatic change and carbon dioxide from the historical perspective; details the contributions of carbon-based fuels to increasing carbon dioxide concentrations; and using global circulation models, discusses the future impact of the heavy reliance of our society on carbon-based fuels on climatic change. (BT)

MacDonald, Gordon J.

1979-01-01

240

Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

2012-01-01

241

A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions is paramount to carbon cycle studies, but the use of atmospheric inverse modeling approaches for this purpose has been limited by the highly heterogeneous and non-Gaussian spatiotemporal variability of emissions. Here we explore the feasibility of capturing this variability using a low-dimensional parameterization that can be implemented within the context of atmospheric CO2 inverse problems aimed at constraining regional-scale emissions. We construct a multiresolution (i.e., wavelet-based) spatial parameterization for ffCO2 emissions using the Vulcan inventory, and examine whether such a parameterization can capture a realistic representation of the expected spatial variability of actual emissions. We then explore whether sub-selecting wavelets using two easily available proxies of human activity (images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas) yields a low-dimensional alternative. We finally implement this low-dimensional parameterization within an inversion, where a sparse reconstruction algorithm, an extension of Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP), is used to identify the wavelet coefficients. We find that (i) the spatial variability of fossil fuel emission can indeed be represented using a low-dimensional wavelet-based parameterization, (ii) that images of lights at night can be used as a proxy for sub-selecting wavelets for such analysis, and (iii) that implementing this parameterization within the described inversion framework makes it possible to quantify fossil fuel emissions at regional scales under some simplifying conditions.

Ray, J.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.; McKenna, S. A.

2014-02-01

242

A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of fossil-fuel CO2 (ffCO2) emissions is paramount to carbon cycle studies, but the use of atmospheric inverse modeling approaches for this purpose has been limited by the highly heterogeneous and non-Gaussian spatiotemporal variability of emissions. Here we explore the feasibility of capturing this variability using a low-dimensional parameterization that can be implemented within the context of atmospheric CO2 inverse problems aimed at constraining regional-scale emissions. We construct a multiresolution (i.e., wavelet-based) spatial parameterization for ffCO2 emissions using the Vulcan inventory, and examine whether such a~parameterization can capture a realistic representation of the expected spatial variability of actual emissions. We then explore whether sub-selecting wavelets using two easily available proxies of human activity (images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas) yields a low-dimensional alternative. We finally implement this low-dimensional parameterization within an idealized inversion, where a sparse reconstruction algorithm, an extension of stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), is used to identify the wavelet coefficients. We find that (i) the spatial variability of fossil-fuel emission can indeed be represented using a low-dimensional wavelet-based parameterization, (ii) that images of lights at night can be used as a proxy for sub-selecting wavelets for such analysis, and (iii) that implementing this parameterization within the described inversion framework makes it possible to quantify fossil-fuel emissions at regional scales if fossil-fuel-only CO2 observations are available.

Ray, J.; Yadav, V.; Michalak, A. M.; van Bloemen Waanders, B.; McKenna, S. A.

2014-09-01

243

Formation of DNA adducts in rat lung following chronic inhalation of diesel emissions, carbon black and titanium dioxide particles.  

PubMed

Exposure of rats to diesel emissions results in the development of lung tumors. The objective of this study was to determine whether the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs or other polycyclic organic matter adsorbed to diesel particles induces the formation of DNA adducts in the lung when compared to particles with little or no adsorbed organic matter. Rats were exposed to diesel emissions containing particles with over 30% solvent-extractable adsorbed organic matter and to particles with < 0.1% adsorbed organic matter (carbon black particles and TiO2). Wistar rats were exposed to diesel emissions (7.5 mg/m3) for 2 months, 6 months and 2 years and for 2 years to carbon black (11.3 mg/m3) and TiO2 particles (10.4 mg/m3) to compare tumorigenic response and DNA adduct formation in the lung. Two versions of the 32P-postlabeling assay for the detection of DNA adducts were used to tentatively identify nitrated-amine or arylamine adducts formed relative to other nitro PAH based on the demonstrated sensitivity of these adducts to nuclease P1 treatment. Total adduct levels were determined for peripheral lung tissue DNA as detected in a diagonal radioactive zone. One major adduct which migrated outside this region (adduct 1) and a nuclease P1-sensitive adduct (adduct 2) were quantitated separately. Adduct 1 increased significantly over time in the filtered air exposed animals but decreased markedly at the 2 year time points regardless of particle type, presumably as a result of adduct dilution through de novo cell synthesis or cell proliferation invoked in response to particle loading and/or effect on the endogenous synthesis or degradation of DNA reactive moieties. The nuclease sensitive adduct (adduct 2), possibly resulting from exposure to nitro-PAHs, was detected in diesel-exposed rats but was not detected in the rats exposed to TiO2 and carbon black. No significant elevation in PAH-derived adducts, relative to the filtered air controls, was observed in the rodents exposed to diesel emission. Our data suggest that long-term contact with these particles may result in a cell proliferative response, enhanced degradation of I-compounds not related to cell proliferation, and/or synthesis of I-compounds, irrespective of the differences in organic content associated with the three particle types. This response may be an important factor in explaining the reported similarity in tumorigenic response in rodents exposed to diesel emissions, carbon black and TiO2 particles. PMID:7518360

Gallagher, J; Heinrich, U; George, M; Hendee, L; Phillips, D H; Lewtas, J

1994-07-01

244

Sonochemical reduction of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonolysis of carbon dioxide dissolved in water was performed from a standpoint of reducing this material in atmosphere. During one hour of sonication, the amount of CO2 decreased to about half at 5°C under CO2–Ar atmosphere. The decreasing rate for CO2 followed the order Ar>He>H2>N2 and it was down with increasing temperature in the range of 5–45°C. The most favorable

Hisashi Harada

1998-01-01

245

Interpreting recent carbon dioxide data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using web-accessed climate data, students will examine the latitudinal distribution of CO2 and explain how (and why) that has changed over (recent) time. They will then work in groups of two or three to download, graph, and interpret carbon dioxide concentration data from one individual location (different groups will be assigned a different site). Each student will complete a series of questions to ensure their understanding of the concepts outlined above.

Gordon, Elizabeth

246

Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO2 emissions, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO2 emissions. Methods 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 emissions. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO2 emissions. Results CO2 emissions were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight). Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO2 emissions, while active travel was associated with lower CO2 emissions. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO2 emissions. Conclusions Establishing the direction of causality between weight status and travel behaviour requires longitudinal data, but the association with engine size suggests that there may be at least some causal effect of obesity on CO2 emissions. More generally, transport CO2 emissions are associated in different ways with different health-related characteristics. These include associations between health goods and environmental harms (recreational physical activity and high emissions), indicating that environment-health ‘co-benefits’ cannot be assumed. Instead, attention should also be paid to identifying and mitigating potential areas of tension, for example by promoting low-carbon recreational physical activity. PMID:22862811

2012-01-01

247

Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2011-01-01

248

Carbon dioxide transport in crustal magmatic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile chemistry of juvenile volcanic glasses has suggested that shallow-stored crustal magmas often suffer the open-system addition of a carbon-dioxide-rich fluid from below, probably from a mantle-derived basaltic source ("carbon dioxide fluxing"). However, the actual mechanism of such a fluid transport is poorly understood. To constrain the volatile transport mechanism, we formulated this phenomenon as a reactive transport process and clarified the fundamental characteristics of chemical exchange in the system. The model assumes that a carbon-dioxide-rich fluid is introduced into a water-rich rhyolitic magma column from below and ascends at a constant velocity whilst a volatile exchange takes place between the fluid and melt. Two types of exchange modes were examined. One is the equilibrium mode where the volatile exchange is instantaneously achieved at all column depths. The second is the diffusive mode where the volatile exchange is rate limited by diffusion. In the equilibrium mode, the extent of re-equilibration of the entire column is controlled solely by the mass ratio of the integrated fluid to the melt. In the diffusive mode, the extent of re-equilibration is controlled by the Damköhler number, a dimensionless parameter representing the ratio of the advection time to the diffusion time. When the Damköhler number for carbon dioxide exceeds 10, the diffusive exchange becomes indistinguishable from the equilibrium exchange. Both exchange modes produce a negative correlation between the concentrations of carbon dioxide and water in the melt, which cannot be explained by conventional degassing models without significant crystallisation. The fluid emitted from the column as a volcanic gas changes its composition from carbon dioxide rich to water rich, and the emission rate decreases monotonically during fluxing. The simulation enables us to constrain the mechanism of fluid transport. For the melt inclusion data from the Bishop Tuff (Wallace et al., 1999; Anderson et al., 2000), fluid velocity in this magma was estimated to be 10 - 6 -10 - 7 m/s. The corresponding mechanism of fluid transport may include permeable flow with a permeability of ~ 10 - 15 m 2 or a buoyant ascent of individual bubbles with a radius of 4-7 mm.

Yoshimura, Shumpei; Nakamura, Michihiko

2011-07-01

249

Photodissociation of carbon dioxide in the Mars upper atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculation of the intensity of two of the emissions produced during the dissociative excitation of carbon dioxide in the upper atmosphere of Mars by solar ultraviolet radiation. The calculation tangential column emission rates of the atomic oxygen 2972-A line and the carbon monoxide Cameron bands produced by the photodissociative mechanism are found to be factors of 3 and 10, respectively, smaller than the emission rates observed by Mariner ultraviolet spectrometers.

Barth, C. A.

1974-01-01

250

Carbon Dioxide Emissions as Affected by Alternative Long-Term Irrigation and Tillage Management Practices in the Lower Mississippi River Valley  

PubMed Central

Ensuring the sustainability of cultivated soils is an ever-increasing priority for producers in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV). As groundwater sources become depleted and environmental regulations become more strict, producers will look to alternative management practices that will ensure the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of their production systems. This study was conducted to assess the long-term (>7?years) effects of irrigation (i.e., irrigated and dryland production) and tillage (conventional and no-tillage) on estimated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil respiration during two soybean (Glycine max L.) growing seasons from a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.-) soybean, double-cropped production system in the LMRV region of eastern Arkansas. Soil surface CO2 fluxes were measured approximately every two weeks during two soybean growing seasons. Estimated season-long CO2 emissions were unaffected by irrigation in 2011 (P > 0.05); however, during the unusually dry 2012 growing season, season-long CO2 emissions were 87.6% greater (P = 0.044) under irrigated (21.9?Mg CO2 ha?1) than under dryland management (11.7?Mg CO2 ha?1). Contrary to what was expected, there was no interactive effect of irrigation and tillage on estimated season-long CO2 emissions. Understanding how long-term agricultural management practices affect soil respiration can help improve policies for soil and environmental sustainability. PMID:25371912

Smith, S. F.; Brye, K. R.

2014-01-01

251

Thermodynamic Promotion of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Formation by  

E-print Network

Thermodynamic Promotion of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Formation by Tetrahydrofuran, Cyclopentane)-vapour (V) equilibrium pressures for the ternary system composed of water, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and carbon and carbon dioxide. Keywords: Gas Hydrates, carbon dioxide capture, tetrahydrofuran, cyclopentane

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

E-print Network

- 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

253

Carbon Cycle: Exchanging Carbon Dioxide between the Atmosphere and Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab investigates the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the ocean's surface. It is based on the fact that carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean and provides the source of that plants and plankton living in the ocean rely on for photosynthesis. Students will discover that the amount of carbon dioxide the ocean can contain depends on the temperature of the water and its salinity (whether it is sea water or fresh water) and that cold water can hold more carbon dioxide in solution than warm water. They will observe that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid which makes the water acidic, and they will test for the acidity caused by the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide using Universal Indicator, which turns yellow when the solution is acidic. This activity tests whether sea water or fresh water absorbs more carbon dioxide.

254

Wood-based building materials and atmospheric carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the global impact of wood as a building material by considering emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Wood is compared with other materials in terms of stored carbon and emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel energy used in manufacturing. An analysis of typical forms of building construction shows that wood buildings require much lower process

Andrew H Buchanan; S. Bry Levine

1999-01-01

255

Ethanol as Fuel: Energy, Carbon Dioxide Balances, and Ecological Footprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major amtrihtitor to global wanning is considered to he the high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide (COJ, caused by the burtiing of fossil fuel. Thus, to mitigate CO^ emissions, renewable energy sources such as ethanol have been seen as a promising alternative to fossil fuel consumption. Brazil was the world's first nation to run a large-scale

MARCELO E. DIAS DE OLIVEIRA; BURTON E. VAUGHAN; EDWARD J. RYKIEL JR

2005-01-01

256

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"  

E-print Network

demonstrates the connections between fossil fuel emissions, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations coupling that warming to global fossil fuel CO2 emissions. 1 #12;2 B. W. Rust Figure 1: Michael Crichton and Statistics, Vol. 37. Abstract In his recent novel, State of Fear (HarperCollins, 2004), Michael Crichton ques

Rust, Bert W.

257

Carbon dioxide separation from high temperature fuel cell power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature fuel cell technologies, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), are considered for their potential application to carbon dioxide emission control. Both technologies feature electrochemical oxidisation of natural gas reformed fuels, avoiding the mixture of air and fuel flows and dilution with nitrogen and oxygen of the oxidised products; a preliminary analysis shows how

Stefano Campanari

2002-01-01

258

Effect of Carbon Dioxide Variations on Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide cause temperature changes sufficiently large to influence the climate. If the atmospheric carbon dioxide doubles, the surface temperature rises 3.6°C if it is cut in half, the surface temperature falls 3.8°C. Some of the factors that can be explained by the carbon dioxide theory are: during a single glacial epoch, the climate

Gilbert N. Plass

1956-01-01

259

CARBON DIOXIDE HYDRATES CRYSTALLISATION IN EMULSION Aurlie Galfr, Amara Fezoua, Yamina Ouabbas, Ana Cameirao, Jean Michel Herri  

E-print Network

CARBON DIOXIDE HYDRATES CRYSTALLISATION IN EMULSION Aurélie Galfré, Amara Fezoua, Yamina Ouabbas de SAINT-ETIENNE FRANCE ABSTRACT Greenhouse gases emissions, like carbon dioxide, have been identified as major sources responsible for global warming. To reduce carbon dioxide emissions, capture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

The effects of carbon cycle model error in calculating future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical investigations have indicated that projections of future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of a quality\\u000a quite adequate for practical questions regarding the environmental threat of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and its\\u000a relationship to energy use policy could be made with the simple assumption that a constant fraction of these emissions would\\u000a be retained by the atmosphere. By analysis of the

J. A. Laurmann; J. R. Spreiter

1983-01-01

261

Mechanism of oxidative carbon dioxide production during Renilla reniformis bioluminescence.  

PubMed

The oxidation of luciferin catalyzed by sea pansy luciferase results in the emission of light. Molecular oxygen is required and carbon dioxide is produced. When the reaction occurs in the presence of H(2) (18)O, both of the oxygens of the carbon dioxide are labeled. One of the oxygens arises from the nonenzymic exchange of the ketone group of the substrate; the other oxygen is incorporated during the enzymic oxidation of the luciferin. When the reaction is carried out in the presence of (18)O(2), neither of the oxygens of the carbon dioxide is labeled. Thus the source of oxygen in the carbon dioxide is water. A mechanism for the oxidative reaction is proposed. PMID:4397765

DeLuca, M; Dempsey, M E; Hori, K; Wampler, J E; Cormier, M J

1971-07-01

262

Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0[sup 2] include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO[sup 2] and total concentration of dissolved C0[sup 2], sea-air pCO[sup 2] difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0[sup 2] uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0[sup 2] from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0[sup 2] fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks.

Peng, Tsung-Hung (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Takahashi, Taro (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory)

1993-01-01

263

Carbon dioxide sequestration as stable carbonate minerals - environmental barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the major environmental impacts associated with industrial-scale carbon dioxide sequestration as stable carbonate minerals, material resulting from a study undertaken by CSMA Consultants Ltd. in 1999. The chemical bonding of carbon dioxide, through reaction of two or more products to produce magnesium or calcium carbonate has been suggested as a means to mitigate CO2 from fossil fuel

H. Haywood; J. Eyre; H. Scholes

2001-01-01

264

Carbon dioxide–nitrogen separation through adsorption on activated carbon in a fixed bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of carbon dioxide emissions from flue gases can be achieved using post-combustion capture technologies such as adsorption. In this paper, we report experimental data for the fixed-bed adsorption of carbon dioxide and nitrogen on activated carbon. The breakthrough curves were obtained at different temperatures – 301–306, 323, 373 and 423K – using CO2\\/N2 mixtures. XPS and FTIR measurements

Tirzhá L. P. Dantas; Francisco Murilo T. Luna; Ivanildo J. Silva Jr.; Diana C. S. de Azevedo; Carlos A. Grande; Alírio E. Rodrigues; Regina F. P. M. Moreira

2011-01-01

265

World fossil fuel subsidies and global carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larsen and Shah present evidence on the level of fossil fuel subsidies and their implications for carbon dioxide emissions. They conclude that substantial fossil fuel subsidies prevail in a handful of large, carbon-emitting countries. Removing such subsidies could substantially reduce national carbon emissions in some countries. Global carbon emissions could be reduced by 9 percent, assuming no change in world

Bjorn Larsen; Anwar Shah

1992-01-01

266

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected...

2013-10-01

267

46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2013-10-01

268

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2012-04-01

269

46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2011-10-01

270

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

2010-10-01

271

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to...

2012-04-01

272

46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2011-10-01

273

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for...

2014-04-01

274

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.524-78...Procedures § 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated:...

2014-07-01

275

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2014-04-01

276

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section 868...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to...

2013-04-01

277

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section...and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2013-10-01

278

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section...Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2011-10-01

279

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section...Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2012-10-01

280

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

2011-10-01

281

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for...

2013-04-01

282

46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2013-10-01

283

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section...Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2013-10-01

284

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431 Section...Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2010-10-01

285

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2011-04-01

286

46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 Section...and Instructions § 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2012-10-01

287

46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 76.15-20 Section 76...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2012-10-01

288

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for...

2012-04-01

289

46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 95.15-20 Section 95...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2012-10-01

290

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device intended for...

2011-04-01

291

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2013-04-01

292

46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section 193...VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a) Except as...

2011-10-01

293

46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169.565...Firefighting Equipment § 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space protected...

2012-10-01

294

Carbon Dioxide for pH Control  

SciTech Connect

Cardox, the major supplier of carbon dioxide, has developed a diffuser to introduce carbon dioxide into a water volume as small bubbles to minimize reagent loss to the atmosphere. This unit is integral to several configurations suggested for treatment to control alkalinity in water streams.

Wagonner, R.C.

2001-08-16

295

A new look at atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere and is of considerable concern in global climate change because of its greenhouse gas warming potential. The rate of increase has accelerated since measurements began at Mauna Loa Observatory in 1958 where carbon dioxide increased from less than 1 part per million per year (ppmyr?1) prior to 1970 to more than 2ppmyr?1 in

David J. Hofmann; James H. Butler; Pieter P. Tans

2009-01-01

296

Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

Marsh, Gerald E

2010-01-01

297

Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

Gerald E. Marsh

2010-02-02

298

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18

299

Formation of DNA adducts in rat lung following chronic inhalation of diesel emissions, carbon black and titanium dioxide particles  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine whether the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH or other polycyclic organic matter adsorbed to diesel particles induces the formation of DNA adducts in the lung when compared to particles with little or no adsorbed organic matter in conjunction with a chronic inhalation cancer study. Wistar rats were exposed to diesel emissions (7.5 mg/cu m) for 2 months, 6 months and 2 years time points and 2 years to carbon black (11.3 mg/cu m) and TiO2 particles (10.4 mg/cu m) to compare tumorigenic response and DNA adduct formation in the lung. Two versions of the (32)P-postlabeling assay for the detection of DNA adducts were used to identify nirated- or aryl- amine adducts formed relative to other PAH adducts based on the demonstrated sensitivity of these adducts to nuclease P1 treatment. Total adduct levels were determined as well as two specific individual adducts, one major adduct (1) which migrated outside the zone and a nuclease P1 sensitive adduct (2) detected inside the zone. Adduct 1 increased significantly over time in the controls but decreased markedly at the two year time points regardless of particle type. These data suggest that long term contact with these particles may result in a cell of proliferative response, enhanced degradation of I-compounds not related to cell proliferation, and or synthesis of I-compounds, irrespective of the differences in organic content associated with the three particle types.

Gallagher, J.; Heinrich, U.; George, M.; Hendee, L.; Phillips, D.H.

1994-01-01

300

Microfluidic studies of carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, storage and recycling will greatly benefit from comprehensive studies of physical and chemical gas-liquid processes involving CO2. Over the past five years, microfluidics emerged as a valuable tool in CO2-related research, due to superior mass and heat transfer, reduced axial dispersion, well-defined gas-liquid interfacial areas and the ability to vary reagent concentrations in a high-throughput manner. This Minireview highlights recent progress in microfluidic studies of CO2-related processes, including dissolution of CO2 in physical solvents, CO2 reactions, the utilization of CO2 in materials science, and the use of supercritical CO2 as a "green" solvent. PMID:24961230

Abolhasani, Milad; Günther, Axel; Kumacheva, Eugenia

2014-07-28

301

Multi-scale Measurements and Modeling to Verify and Attribute Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Four Corners Power Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Four Corners region of New Mexico contains two large coal-fired power plants with real-time in-stack CO2 and pollutant monitors, in a semi-arid region with a feeble natural carbon cycle, making it an ideal site to evaluate remote sensing top-down verification methods. LANL has developed a test-bed site that includes a high-resolution solar tracking Fourier Transform Spectrometer (Bruker 125 HR) to monitor column abundance of greenhouse gases and pollutants (CO2, CH4, N2O and CO), and in situ cavity ring-down (CRDS, Picarro) and standard EPA sensors that measure CO2, CH4, CO, NOx, SO2 and particulates. We also have deployed a meteorological station, a ceilometer to measure boundary layer heights and an AERONET system to measure aerosol optical depths. We have been making continuous measurements since 11 March 2011. Our system's retrievals were validated against airborne in situ vertical gas profiles measured by NCAR's HIPPO system on 7 June 2011. We report observed power-plant signals, their diurnal cycles, and how they depend on local meteorology. Typically, the total-column FTS data show 2 to 8 ppm increases in CO2 when a power-plant plume is blowing towards our site, while the in situ CRDS sensor measures increases of 10 to 50 ppm. In situ CH4 measurements reveal large nocturnal increases of 4-5 ppm that could be from extensive gas and coal mining activities in the region. In contrast, in situ CO2 increases at night are small, likely because the power plant stacks are higher than the nocturnal boundary layer. Furthermore, our site sampled long range transport of pollutants from the Wallow fire that we distinguish from power plant emissions. To analyze our observations, we have developed a customized ultra-high-resolution plume model (HIGRAD) and coupled it with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) in the Four Corners area. Hourly real-time emissions are taken from EPA's in-stack monitors and other spatio-temporally resolved inventories like Vulcan. WRF-Chem employs multiple nested grids and high resolution topography to simulate atmospheric variability ranging from synoptic scales to micro-scales (~200 m), while including locally developed flows influenced by the nearby complex terrain of the San Juan Mountains. The simulated local atmospheric dynamics are provided to force the HIGRAD plume model, which links meso-scale atmospheric variability to the small-scale simulation of the power plant plumes (~10m). Our multi-scale forward modeling simulations are compared with our column and in situ observations of CO2, other greenhouse gases and pollutants for specific days. We use this to quantify the current ability of remote and in situ sensing measurements to quantify emissions in a relatively simple environment. Finally, we examine satellite data (CO2 and CH4 from GOSAT and NO2 from OMI) for signals over Four Corners and assess the value added for longer-term trend analysis. We gratefully acknowledge members of the TCCON (D. Wunch and P. Wennberg) and HIPPO (S. Wofsy and B. Stephens) teams for their input and guidance.

Dubey, M. K.; Love, S. P.; Henderson, B. G.; Lee, S.; Costigan, K. R.; Reisner, J.; Flowers, B. A.; Chylek, P.

2011-12-01

302

Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy, which releases nearly six billion tons of carbon per year into the atmosphere. These fuels will continue development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide

303

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOEpatents

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14

304

14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

emissions is through increased carbon sequestration into forests. In a large-scale assessment, Birdsey- ing carbon sequestration in southern forests. Carbon sequestration via southern pine forests may policy commitments. Keywords: carbon sequestration; southern pine forests ABSTRACT MEETING GLOBAL POLICY

Teskey, Robert O.

305

Joint implementation for cost-effective carbon dioxide emission-reductions: An analysis of options in eastern Europe  

SciTech Connect

The costs of greenhouse gas emission-reductions vary among countries depending on emission levels, technologies used, past emission-reduction achievements, path of economic development, fuel mix, and initial endowment of hydrocarbon resources. The criterion of cost-effectiveness therefore suggests that the ways should be found to encourage emission reductions in the countries where the required costs of reduction of additional unit of emissions are the lowest. These countries usually face crucial capital constraints and have other development priorities than investing in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Developed countries could invest their resources in the former Soviet Union and the east European countries to achieve the same level of reduction of greenhouse gases with lower costs than they could in their own countries.

Krutilla, K.; Dolsak, N.

1996-12-31

306

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

307

DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

308

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India  

E-print Network

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

Dickerson, Russell R.

309

Strategies for carbon dioxide emissions reductions: Residential natural gas efficiency, economic, and ancillary health impacts in Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of its commitments to the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the State of Maryland, USA, auctions emission permits to electric utilities, creating revenue that can be used to benefit consumers and the environment. This paper explores the CO2 emissions reductions that may be possible by allocating some of that revenue to foster efficiency improvements in the residential sector’s

Matthias Ruth; Andrew Blohm; Joanna Mauer; Steven A. Gabriel; Vijay G. Kesana; Yihsu Chen; Benjamin F. Hobbs; Daraius Irani

2010-01-01

310

Carbon dioxide emission rate of Ki??lauea Volcano: Implications for primary magma and the summit reservoir  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report a CO2 emission rate of 8500 metric tons per day (t d-1) for the summit of Kilauea Volcano, several times larger than previous estimates. It is based on three sets of measurements over 4 years of synchronous SO2 emission rates and volcanic CO2/SO2 concentration ratios for the summit correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) traverse. Volcanic CO2/SO2 for the traverse is representative of the global ratio for summit emissions. The summit CO2 emission rate is nearly constant, despite large temporal variations in summit CO2/SO2 and SO2 emission rates. Summit CO2 emissions comprise most of Ki??lauea's total CO2 output (??? 9000 t d-1). The bulk CO2 content of primary magma determined from CO2 emission and magma supply rate data is ???0.70 wt %. Most of the CO2 is present as exsolved vapor at summit reservoir depths, making the primary magma strongly buoyant. Turbulent mixing with resident reservoir magma, however, prevents frequent eruptions of buoyant primary magma in the summit region. CO2 emissions confirm that the magma supply enters the edifice through the summit reservoir. A persistent several hundred parts per million CO2 anomaly arises from the entry of magma into the summit reservoir beneath a square kilometer area east of Halemaumau pit crater. Since most of the CO2 in primary magma is degassed in the summit, the summit CO2 emission rate is an effective proxy for the magma supply rate. Both scrubbing of SO2 and solubility controls on CO2 and S in basaltic melt cause high CO2/SO2 in summit emissions and spatially uncorrelated distributions of CO2 and SO2 in the summit plume.

Gerlach, T.M.; McGee, K.A.; Elias, T.; Sutton, A.J.; Doukas, M.P.

2002-01-01

311

2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon  

E-print Network

that are associated with a reduction in blood lipids, cholesterol and platelet activity2 , onion release a variety2004-01-2299 Elevated Carbon Dioxide Alters Hydrocarbon Emissions and Flavor in Onion P. W. Paré, R are grown at elevated CO2 compared to controls grown at ambient CO2 levels. Sensory panel taste testing has

Paré, Paul W.

312

Role of carbon dioxide in cooling planetary thermospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new value of the rate coefficient for the deactivation of the bending mode of carbon dioxide by atomic oxygen at low temperatures is derived from the observation of 15-micron emission from the atmosphere of the earth. This new value gives a cooling rate for the lower thermosphere that is two to three times the rate previously calculated, and it

Ramesh D. Sharma; Peter P. Wintersteiner

1990-01-01

313

Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in the Gas Phase  

E-print Network

Effects of Various Membrane Electrode Assemblies on the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming, it is necessary to find are primarily responsible for the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations and therefore a main cause

Petta, Jason

314

Photolytical Generation of Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide has been found by Cassini VIMS throughout the Saturnian system in locations such as Iapetus' equator where the temperature is too high for it to remain as free ice for more than a few hundred years. We suggest that the 4.26 micron absorption feature found on Iapetus and Hyperion (that has been attributed to complexed CO2) is the result of either UV photolysis or ion bombardment driving chemistry between the carbon rich layer and the water ice regolith. We conducted experiments to simulate the generation of CO2 by UV radiation under conditions similar to those on the surface of Iapetus. A simulated icy regolith was created in an argon atmosphere using flash-frozen, degassed water crushed into sub-millimeter sized particles. Isotopically labeled amorphous carbon (13C), which was ground into a fine dust, was mixed into the regolith allowing for extensive grain contact. This sample was placed in a vacuum chamber and cooled to temperatures as low at 60K. The sample was irradiated with UV light, and the products were measured using both a mass spectrometer to identify free molecules and an IR spectrometer for molecules that remained trapped on and in the simulated regolith. We report on the production and reaction rates of CO2 and CO, as well as the generation of free hydrogen and oxygen as detected by a SRS-100 mass spectrometer. We also identify residual products that either freeze on the surface or become entrained by or adsorbed onto the ice grains. We attempt to match the CO2 absorption feature found on Iapetus with that seen in our simulation, perhaps identifying a possible source of CO2 in the Saturnian system. Finally, we estimate the time required for these reactions to occur on Iapetus to see if UV photolysis would be effective.

Palmer, E. E.; Brown, R. H.

2008-12-01

315

Pulsed-discharge carbon dioxide lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to attempt a general introduction to pulsed carbon dioxide lasers of the kind used or proposed for laser radar applications. Laser physics is an excellent example of a cross-disciplinary topic, and the molecular spectroscopy, energy transfer, and plasma kinetics of the devices are explored. The concept of stimulated emission and population inversions is introduced, leading on to the molecular spectroscopy of the CO2 molecule. This is followed by a consideration of electron-impact pumping, and the pertinent energy transfer and relaxation processes which go on. Since the devices are plasma pumped, it is necessary to introduce a complex subject, but this is restricted to appropriate physics of glow discharges. Examples of representative devices are shown. The implications of the foregoing to plasma chemistry and gas life are discussed.

Willetts, David V.

1990-01-01

316

The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans are faced with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually into the atmosphere. A possible way to mitigate the effects is to store CO2 in large porous reservoirs within the Earth. Fluid mechanics plays a key role in determining both the feasibility and risks involved in this geological sequestration. We review current research efforts looking at the propagation of CO2 within the subsurface, the possible rates of leakage, the mechanisms that act to stably trap CO2, and the geomechanical response of the crust to large-scale CO2 injection. We conclude with an outline for future research.

Huppert, Herbert E.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

2014-01-01

317

Carbon dioxide sequestration as stable carbonate minerals - environmental barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the major environmental impacts associated with industrial-scale carbon dioxide sequestration as stable carbonate minerals, material resulting from a study undertaken by CSMA Consultants Ltd. in 1999. The chemical bonding of carbon dioxide, through reaction of two or more products to produce magnesium or calcium carbonate has been suggested as a means to mitigate CO2 from fossil fuel power plants. The study considered six potential methods for sequestering carbon dioxide, notionally captured from fossil fuel burning power stations, as stable mineral carbonates, i.e. magnesite and limestone (calcium carbonate) and as sodium bicarbonate. Four methods were eliminated in the initial screening and two were selected for further detailed consideration. Following this stage the overall environmental costs, including environmental impacts, energy and carbon dioxide balances, meant that all the current technologies amenable to reasoned consideration had to be discarded as currently environmentally unacceptable.

Haywood, H.; Eyre, J.; Scholes, H.

2001-11-01

318

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere 0084-6597/09/0530-0117$20.00 Key Words climate, warming, ocean chemistry, carbon cycle Abstract CO2

Scherer, Norbert F.

319

Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO capture is reversible

Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

2009-01-01

320

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01

321

Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage  

E-print Network

This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

De Figueiredo, Mark A.

2007-01-01

322

Role of activated carbon pellets in carbon dioxide removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of carbon dioxide from gas\\/air streams is more often becoming necessary in many industries for different purposes. In cryogenic air separation plant, air has to be free from carbon dioxide before its liquefaction otherwise blockage due to freezing of heat exchange equipment would result. Enrichment of methane in biogas to have fuel of higher calorific value can be

S. C Sarkar; A Bose

1997-01-01

323

Formation of DNA adducts in rat lung following chronic inhalation of diesel emissions, carbon black and titanium dioxide particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine whether the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH or other polycyclic organic matter adsorbed to diesel particles induces the formation of DNA adducts in the lung when compared to particles with little or no adsorbed organic matter in conjunction with a chronic inhalation cancer study. Wistar rats were exposed to diesel emissions (7.5

J. Gallagher; U. Heinrich; M. George; L. Hendee; D. H. Phillips; J. Lewtas

1994-01-01

324

Seasonal greenhouse gas emissions (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide) from engineered landfills: daily, intermediate, and final California cover soils.  

PubMed

Compared with natural ecosystems and managed agricultural systems, engineered landfills represent a highly managed soil system for which there has been no systematic quantification of emissions from coexisting daily, intermediate, and final cover materials. We quantified the seasonal variability of CH, CO, and NO emissions from fresh refuse (no cover) and daily, intermediate, and final cover materials at northern and southern California landfill sites with engineered gas extraction systems. Fresh refuse fluxes (g m d [± SD]) averaged CH 0.053 (± 0.03), CO 135 (± 117), and NO 0.063 (± 0.059). Average CH emissions across all cover types and wet/dry seasons ranged over more than four orders of magnitude (<0.01-100 g m d) with most cover types, including both final covers, averaging <0.1 g m d with 10 to 40% of surface areas characterized by negative fluxes (uptake of atmospheric CH). The northern California intermediate cover (50 cm) had the highest CH fluxes. For both the intermediate (50-100 cm) and final (>200 cm) cover materials, below which methanogenesis was well established, the variability in gaseous fluxes was attributable to cover thickness, texture, density, and seasonally variable soil moisture and temperature at suboptimal conditions for CH oxidation. Thin daily covers (30 cm local soil) and fresh refuse generally had the highest CO and NO fluxes, indicating rapid onset of aerobic and semi-aerobic processes in recently buried refuse, with rates similar to soil ecosystems and windrow composting of organic waste. This study has emphasized the need for more systematic field quantification of seasonal emissions from multiple types of engineered covers. PMID:21546687

Bogner, Jean E; Spokas, Kurt A; Chanton, Jeffrey P

2011-01-01

325

Introduction Overview: World Energy Resources and the Need for Biomass for Energy and Lower Fossil Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most of the world’s petroleum is located in politically unstable regions, while the United States’ production has continued\\u000a to decline since 1970 as its reserves are depleted. The resulting large petroleum imports have significant strategic and economic\\u000a consequences, and fossil fuels contribute most to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, development and commercialization\\u000a of sustainable energy technologies are critical to (1)

Charles E. Wyman

326

Economics of Pricing the Cost of Carbon Dioxide Restrictions in the Production of Electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the cost of a carbon dioxide constraint in the production of electricity by modeling the replacement of coal generators with natural gas generators. We find: First, replacing coal generators with natural gas generators is the most economical way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. Second, replacing existing coal generation capacity with modern coal generation plants can

Dagobert L. Brito; Robert F. Curl

2011-01-01

327

October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 BioScience 895 Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2  

E-print Network

October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 · BioScience 895 Articles Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 reduce the concen- tration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Understanding biological and edaphic processes in fossil fuel burning and associated CO2 emissions is expected to continue for the foreseeable future

Post, Wilfred M.

328

Role of sea ice in the formation of annual carbon dioxide cycle in the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the ocean, which absorbs 25?50% of carbon dioxide released during fuel combustion, plays an important role in the global CO 2 cycle [1, 2]. At present, it has been established that absorption or emission of CO 2 by the World Ocean is irregular in space and variable in different seasons and years

G. V. Alekseev; A. P. Nagurny

2007-01-01

329

Comparison of life cycle carbon dioxide emissions and embodied energy in four renewable electricity generation technologies in New Zealand.  

PubMed

In order to make the best choice between renewable energy technologies, it is important to be able to compare these technologies on the basis of their sustainability, which may include a variety of social, environmental, and economic indicators. This study examined the comparative sustainability of four renewable electricity technologies in terms of their life cycle CO2 emissions and embodied energy, from construction to decommissioning and including maintenance (periodic component replacement plus machinery use), using life cycle analysis. The models developed were based on case studies of power plants in New Zealand, comprising geothermal, large-scale hydroelectric, tidal (a proposed scheme), and wind-farm electricity generation. The comparative results showed that tidal power generation was associated with 1.8 g of CO2/kWh, wind with 3.0 g of CO2/kWh, hydroelectric with 4.6 g of CO2/kWh, and geothermal with 5.6 g of CO2/kWh (not including fugitive emissions), and that tidal power generation was associated with 42.3 kJ/kWh, wind with 70.2 kJ/kWh, hydroelectric with 55.0 kJ/kWh, and geothermal with 94.6 kJ/kWh. Other environmental indicators, as well as social and economic indicators, should be applied to gain a complete picture of the technologies studied. PMID:19746744

Rule, Bridget M; Worth, Zeb J; Boyle, Carol A

2009-08-15

330

Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide  

E-print Network

The zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, which is one of the promising reactions for the utilization of carbon dioxide, has been investigated from various aspects. Above all, considering that supercritical carbon...

Katsurao, Takumi

2012-06-07

331

Photoacoustic study of ethylene emission and respiration rate of carbon dioxide from insulin germinated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic (PA) technique was used to study ethylene and CO2 respiration emission rates from germinating bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) seeds. The concentration of ethylene was measured at 10P(12) and 10P(14) lines of the CO2 laser with the PA cell in the intracavity configuration. On the other hand, the respiration rate of CO2 was deduced (precision 1 ppm) from the concentration data measured by the commercial PA analyser operating in the infrared range. The objective of this study was to obtain better understanding of insulin signalling in the germinating seeds. The experiments were performed with seeds imbibed either in water or in aqueous solution of insulin (0,9 ?g.mL-1 H2O).

Baptista-Filho, M.; Corrêa, S. F.; da Silva, L. B.; Xavier-Filho, J.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Vargas, H.

2005-06-01

332

VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM  

E-print Network

(for water: the SPC-, SPC/E-, and TIP4P-potential models; for carbon dioxide: the EPM2 potential model. The interactions between carbon dioxide and water were estimated from the pair potentials of the pure components of intermolecular pair potentials for various substances is documented. Especially water has been the subject

333

The Value of Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in a World with Uncertain Greenhouse Gas Emissions Constraints  

SciTech Connect

By analyzing how the largest CO2 emitting electricity generating region in the United States, the East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR), responds to hypothetical constraints on greenhouse gas emissions, the authors demonstrate that there is an enduring role for post combustion CO2 capture technologies. The utilization of pulverized coal with carbon dioxide capture and storage (PC+CCS) technologies is particularly significant in a world where there is significant uncertainty about the future evolution of climate policy and in particular uncertainty about the rate at which the climate policy will become more stringent. The paper’s analysis shows that within this one large, heavily coal-dominated electricity generating region, as much as 20-40 GW of PC+CCS could be in operation before the middle of this century. Depending upon the state of PC+CCS technology development and the evolution of future climate policy, the analysis shows that these CCS systems could be mated to either already existing PC units or PC units that are currently under construction, announced and planned units, as well as PC units that could continue to be built for a number of decades even in the face of a climate policy. In nearly all the cases analyzed here, these PC+CCS generation units are compliments to a much larger deployment of CCS-enabled coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. The analysis presented here shows that the combined deployment of PC+CCS and IGCC+CCS units within this one region of the U.S. could result in the potential capture and storage of between 3.2 and 4.9 billion tones of CO2 before the middle of this century in the region’s deep geologic storage formations.

Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.

2009-01-01

334

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

E-print Network

PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report (Jan 2004) 2 ABSTRACT A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one

Hultman, Nathan E.

335

Carbon Dioxide- Where Does it All Go?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will use a diagram of carbon fluxes, which shows the sources that contribute to current atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

336

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

Matsumoto, Katsumi

337

Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

None

1982-03-01

338

Where in the World is Carbon Dioxide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part activity has students set up experiments to help them better understand the atmospheric portion of the carbon cycle. From this activity, they will be able to explain the concept of sources and sinks as they relate to carbon dioxide, the use of indicator solution bromothymol blue (BTB) to reveal the presence of carbon dioxide, and the qualitative differences between animal and fossil fuel sources of global carbon dioxide. The student guide has an overall description of all three parts of the activity, lists of materials, the procedure and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

339

Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and\\/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant, carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant, and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold

Norman H. Hagedorn

1991-01-01

340

Alkali metal carbon dioxide electrochemical system for energy storage and\\/or conversion of carbon dioxide to oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkali metal, such as lithium, is the anodic reactant; carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is the cathodic reactant; and carbonate of the alkali metal is the electrolyte in an electrochemical cell for the storage and delivery of electrical energy. Additionally, alkali metal-carbon dioxide battery systems include a plurality of such electrochemical cells. Gold

Norman H. Hagedorn

1993-01-01

341

Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-10

342

Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2010-02-02

343

Methane and carbon dioxide emission in a two-phase olive oil mill sludge windrow pile during composting.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to make some preliminary evaluations on CO(2) and CH(4) emissions during composting of two-phase olive oil mill sludge (OOMS). OOMS, olive tree leaves (OTL) and shredded olive tree branches (OTB) were used as feedstock for Pile I and Pile II with a 1:1:1 and 1:1:2v/v ratio, respectively. Each pile was originally 1.2m high, 2.0m wide and approximately 15.0m long. Four 500 ml volume glass funnels were inverted and introduced in each pile, two in the core (buried 50-60 cm from the surface) and two near the surface under a thin 10-15 cm layer of the mixture. Thin (0.5 cm diameter) plastic, 80 cm long tubes were connected to the funnels. A mobile gas analyser (GA2000) was used to measure the composition (by volume) of O2, CO2 and CH4 on a daily basis. The funnels were removed prior to each turning and reinserted afterwards. From each pair of funnels (core and surface) of both piles, one was kept closed between samplings. Two way ANOVA was used to test differences between piles and among the tubes. Post hoc Tukey tests were also used to further investigate these differences. There was a significant difference (at p<0.001) in the two piles for all three gases. The average concentrations of O2, CO2 and CH4 in Pile I, from all four funnels was 16.86%, 3.89% and 0.25%, respectively, where for Pile II the average values were 18.07%, 2.38% and 0.04%, respectively. The presence of OOMS in larger amounts in Pile I (resulting in more intense decomposing phenomena), and the larger particle size of OTB in Pile II (resulting in increasing porosity) are the probable causes of these significant differences. Samples from open funnels presented lower, but not significantly lower, O2 composition (higher for CO2 and CH4) in comparison with closed funnels in both depths and both piles. Not significant were also the different mean gas compositions between core and surface funnels in the same pile. PMID:16904884

Manios, Thrassyvoulos; Maniadakis, Konstantinos; Boutzakis, Panagiotis; Naziridis, Yiannis; Lasaridi, Katia; Markakis, George; Stentiford, Edward I

2007-01-01

344

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2003-03-10

345

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30

346

Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Global Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is one of the key variables of the ‘Earth system’ — the web of interactions between\\u000a the atmosphere, oceans, soils and living things that determines conditions at the Earth surface. Atmospheric CO2 plays several roles in this system. For example, it is the carbon source for nearly all terrestrial green plants, and the\\u000a source of carbonic

Andrew J. Watson; James C. Orr

347

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10¹⁵ and 228 X 10¹⁵ grams. Between 1.8 X 10¹⁵ and 4.7 X 10¹⁵ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

348

Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture  

PubMed Central

New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 °C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

2014-01-01

349

Regional carbon dioxide implications of forest bioenergy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include substitution of fossil fuel with bioenergy from forests, where carbon emitted is expected to be recaptured in the growth of new biomass to achieve zero net emissions, and forest thinning to reduce wildfire emissions. Here, we use forest inventory data to show that fire prevention measures and large-scale bioenergy harvest in US West Coast forests lead to 2-14% (46-405TgC) higher emissions compared with current management practices over the next 20 years. We studied 80 forest types in 19 ecoregions, and found that the current carbon sink in 16 of these ecoregions is sufficiently strong that it cannot be matched or exceeded through substitution of fossil fuels by forest bioenergy. If the sink in these ecoregions weakens below its current level by 30-60gCm-2yr-1 owing to insect infestations, increased fire emissions or reduced primary production, management schemes including bioenergy production may succeed in jointly reducing fire risk and carbon emissions. In the remaining three ecoregions, immediate implementation of fire prevention and biofuel policies may yield net emission savings. Hence, forest policy should consider current forest carbon balance, local forest conditions and ecosystem sustainability in establishing how to decrease emissions.

Hudiburg, Tara W.; Law, Beverly E.; Wirth, Christian; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

2011-11-01

350

Carbon dioxide hydrate and floods on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground ice on Mars probably consists largely of carbon dioxide hydrate. This hydrate dissociates upon release of pressure at temperatures between 0 and 10 C. The heat capacity of the ground would be sufficient to produce up to 4% (by volume) of water at a rate equal to that at which it can be drained away. Catastrophic dissociation of carbon dioxide hydrate during some past epoch when the near-surface temperature was in this range would have produced chaotic terrain and flood channels.

Milton, D. J.

1974-01-01

351

Carbon dioxide opacity of the Venus' atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus' atmosphere consists of about 95% of carbon dioxide, which accounts for most of the absorption of the radiation emitted by its hot surface. The large densities and high temperatures of Venus' atmosphere make the absorption much more complex than for low density atmospheres such as Earth or Mars. Available experimental data are at present insufficient and theoretical models inadequate to describe complex absorption line shapes and collision-induced phenomena. Here we present a survey of all absorption and scattering processes which influence the transparency of Venus' atmosphere for what concerns carbon dioxide.

Snels, Marcel; Stefani, Stefania; Grassi, Davide; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Adriani, Alberto

2014-11-01

352

Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Cultured Animal Cells  

E-print Network

H the activity of adenosine tri­ phosphatase was Increased by carbon dioxide. Also, the same investigators found that increasing the carbon dioxide concentration from 10 to 1*0 mM at constant pH stimulated the conversion of acetate into fatty acids four to six... and Cortisol were present to­ gether (I9li, 70 ) . Paradoxically, tryptophan and quinolinic acid increased the in vitro assayable activity of PEP-CK (259, 68). Upon extraction, the inhibition appears to dissociate from the enzyme, leaving it in a metal...

Kyner, David Smith

1969-01-01

353

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

1983-12-09

354

Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990  

SciTech Connect

Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO{sub 2} emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional and national annual estimates for 1950 through 1992 were published previously. Those national, annual CO{sub 2} emission estimates were based on statistics on fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty. The national annual estimates were combined with gridded one-degree data on political units and 1984 human populations to create the new gridded CO{sub 2} emission data sets. The same population distribution was used for each of the years as proxy for the emission distribution within each country. The implied assumption for that procedure was that per capita energy use and fuel mix is uniform over a political unit. The consequence of this first-order procedure is that the spatial changes observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption and nation-based fuel mix. Increases in emissions over time are apparent for most areas.

Brenkert, A.L. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Andres, R.J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Fung, I. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Matthews, E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

1997-03-01

355

Reduction of Atmospheric Radiocarbon Concentration by Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide and the Mean Life of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that the combustion of fossil fuels over the period 1860 to 1954 has produced an amount of carbon dioxide, containing no radiocarbon, that is equal to approximately 13% of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The addition of this 'old' carbon dioxide to the atmosphere has observably disturbed the steady-state distribution of carbon-14 in nature. In

G. J. Fergusson

1958-01-01

356

Electroreduction of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions at metal electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantities of carbon stored in the form of atmospheric carbon dioxide, COâ in the hydrosphere and carbonates in the terrestrial environment substantially exceed those of fossil fuels. In spite of this the industrial use of carbon dioxide as a source of chemical carbon is presently limited to preparation of urea and certain carboxylic acids as well as organic carbonates

J. Augustynski; B. Jermann; P. Kedzierzawski

1996-01-01

357

Role of carbon dioxide in cooling planetary thermospheres  

SciTech Connect

A new value of the rate coefficient for the deactivation of the bending mode of carbon dioxide by atomic oxygen at low temperatures is derived from the observation of 15 micrometer emission from the atmosphere of the Earth. This new value gives a cooling rate for the lower thermosphere that is two to three times the rate previously calculated, and it may resolve a long-standing problem in the Mars-Venus aeronomy.

Sharma, R.D.; Wintersteiner, P.P.

1990-11-01

358

Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide via zero emissions--An alternative way to a stable global environment. Part 2: A practical zero-emissions scenario  

PubMed Central

Following Part 1, a comparison of CO2-emissions pathways between “zero-emissions stabilization (Z-stabilization)” and traditional stabilization is made under more realistic conditions that take into account the radiative forcings of other greenhouse gases and aerosols with the constraint that the temperature rise must not exceed 2 ? above the preindustrial level. It is shown that the findings in Part 1 on the merits of Z-stabilization hold under the more realistic conditions. The results clarify the scientific basis of the policy claim of 50% reduction of the world CO2 emissions by 2050. Since the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and temperature occur only temporarily in Z-stabilization pathways, we may slightly relax the upper limit of the temperature rise. We can then search for a scenario with larger emissions in the 21st century; such a scenario may have potential for practical application. It is suggested that in this Z-stabilization pathway, larger emissions in the near future may be important from a socioeconomic viewpoint. PMID:22850728

MATSUNO, Taroh; MARUYAMA, Koki; TSUTSUI, Junichi

2012-01-01

359

Noninvasive quantification of regional myocardial blood flow in coronary artery disease with oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide inhalation and positron emission tomography  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen-15-labeled water is a diffusible, metabolically inert myocardial blood flow tracer with a short half-life (2 minutes) that can be used quantitatively with positron emission tomography (PET). The purpose of this study was to validate a new technique to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) in animals and to assess its application in patients. The technique involves the administration of 15O-labeled carbon dioxide (C15O2) and rapid dynamic scanning. Arterial and myocardial time activity curves were fitted to a single tissue compartment tracer kinetic model to estimate MBF in each myocardial region. Validation studies consisted of 52 simultaneous measurements of MBF with PET and gamma-labeled microspheres in nine closed-chest dogs over a flow range of 0.5-6.1 ml/g/min. A good correlation between the two methods was obtained (y = 0.36 + 1.0x, r = 0.91). Human studies consisted of 11 normal volunteers and eight patients with chronic stable angina and single-vessel disease, before and after intravenous dipyridamole infusion. In the normal group, MBF was homogeneous throughout the left ventricle both at rest and after administration of dipyridamole (0.88 +/- 0.08 ml/g/min and 3.52 +/- 1.12 ml/g/min, respectively; p less than or equal to 0.001). In patients, resting MBF was similar in the distribution of the normal and stenotic arteries (1.03 +/- 0.23 and 0.93 +/- 0.21 ml/g/min, respectively). After dipyridamole infusion, MBF in normally perfused areas increased to 2.86 +/- 0.83 ml/g/min, whereas in the regions supplied by stenotic arteries it increased to only 1.32 +/- 0.27 ml/g/min (p less than or equal to 0.001). PET with C15O2 inhalation provides an accurate noninvasive quantitative method for measuring regional myocardial blood flow in patients.

Araujo, L.I.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Rhodes, C.G.; McFalls, E.O.; Iida, H.; Rechavia, E.; Galassi, A.; De Silva, R.; Jones, T.; Maseri, A. (MRC Cyclotron Unit, London (England))

1991-03-01

360

Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1993-01-01

361

Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

1991-01-01

362

Gas diffusion cell removes carbon dioxide from occupied airtight enclosures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small, lightweight permeable cell package separates and removes carbon dioxide from respiratory gas mixtures. The cell is regenerative while chemically inert in the presence of carbon dioxide so that only adsorption takes place.

1964-01-01

363

International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

Knox, James C.

2000-01-01

364

Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide-Based Industrial Laundry Machine  

E-print Network

Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide- Based Industrial Laundry Machine Industrial cleaning and disinfection machine must be demonstrated with independent verification commercial supercritical-carbon dioxide textile cleaning machine to document and validate: Real

365

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

2014-07-01

366

Carbon Dioxide Production at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will consider the "Carbon Footprint" of a family of four in a given context, as well as the US and global averages, and compare that with their own to answer a series of questions. They will use an online Carbon Footprint calculator to determine their own per-capita carbon production. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

367

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

368

DIETHANOLAMINE-CARBON DIOXIDE BUFFER PRODUCES ETHYLENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Carbon dioxide concentrates in containers are frequently controlled by using a diethanolamine-bicarbonate buffer. Current studies show that this buffer produces ethylene and that the production increases with increasing pH and/or time in the incubation vessel. Ethylene is not pro...

369

Recent Events: a Perspective on Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will compare the carbon dioxide produced as a result of two 2010 events: the eruption of the Eyjafjalla Volcano and the burning of oil on the ocean surface to address the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

370

Carbon dioxide enhances fragility of ice crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice caps and glaciers cover 7% of the Earth, greater than the land area of Europe and North America combined, and play an important role in global climate. The small-scale failure mechanisms of ice fracture, however, remain largely elusive. In particular, little understanding exists about how the presence and concentration of carbon dioxide molecules, a significant component in the atmosphere, affects the propensity of ice to fracture. Here we use atomic simulations with the first-principles based ReaxFF force field capable of describing the details of chemical reactions at the tip of a crack, applied to investigate the effects of the presence of carbon dioxide molecules on ice fracture. Our result shows that increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide molecules significantly decrease the fracture toughness of the ice crystal, making it more fragile. Using enhanced molecular sampling with metadynamics we reconstruct the free energy landscape in varied chemical microenvironments and find that carbon dioxide molecules affect the bonds between water molecules at the crack tip and decrease their strength by altering the dissociation energy of hydrogen bonds. In the context of glacier dynamics our findings may provide a novel viewpoint that could aid in understanding the breakdown and melting of glaciers, suggesting that the chemical composition of the atmosphere can be critical to mediate the large-scale motion of large volumes of ice.

Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

2012-11-01

371

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.Depending on the source, 39 or 72 percent more CO2 would be produced per unit of energy if synthetic fuels were

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01

372

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2. Depending on the source, 39 or 72 percent more CO2 would be produced per unit of energy if synthetic fuels

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01

373

Enriched oil recovery using carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single cell protein plant is operated to produce high density cell growth and a substantially pure stream of generally high pressure carbon dioxide for further use, for example, in enhanced oil recovery operations. The plant employs an air separator producing substantially pure streams of oxygen and nitrogen. The oxygen stream is used to enrich a carrier fluid and used

Hitzman

1981-01-01

374

Carbon Dioxide Separation Using Thermally Optimized Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project is to develop polymeric-metallic membranes for carbon dioxide separations that operate under a broad range of industrially relevant conditions not accessible with present membrane units. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of polymer membranes as an effective, economic and flexible tool for many commercial gas separations including air separation, the

J. S. Young; B. S. Jorgensen; B. F. Espinoza; M. W. Weimer; G. D. Jarvinen; A. Greenberg; V. Khare; C. J. Orme; A. K. Wertsching; E. S. Peterson; S. D. Hopkins; J. Acquaviva

2002-01-01

375

Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from Mauna Loa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Scripps Institute of Oceanography has released these data consisting of monthly carbon dioxide concentrations at Mauna Loa 1958-1999. Measurements were made using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. The data are available as graphs or tables. The text includes a brief overview of the methods and a reference list.

376

World Electricity Consumption and Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will analyze a table of global electricity consumption to answer a series of questions and consider the production of carbon dioxide associated with that consumption. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

377

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01

378

Carbon dioxide hydrationand dehydration kinetics in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate constants for the hydration and dehydration reactions of carbon dioxide with water and with hydroxyl ion were measured in seawater by a pH-stat method at salinities (X lO:l) from 3.4 to 37.06 at 25°C and from 5\\

Kenneth S. Johnson

1982-01-01

379

Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the

Halil Berberoglu

2008-01-01

380

Carbon dioxide on the early earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses arguments of geochemical mass balance to arrive at an estimate of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the terrestrial atmosphere very early in earth history. It appears that this partial pressure could have been as large as 10 bars. This large estimate depends on two key considerations. First, volatiles were driven out of the interior of

J. C. G. Walker

1985-01-01

381

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2011-07-01

382

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2010-07-01

383

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to

David W. Holladay; Gary L. Haag

1979-01-01

384

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention comprises a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to

D. W. Holladay; G. L. Haag

1979-01-01

385

Inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis by high concentrations of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of carbon dioxide inhibit the greening of etiolated plants. In the presence of 20% oxygen, concentrations of carbon dioxide of 10% and above inhibited the production of chlorophyll in etiolated leaves of barley, wheat, and dwarf French bean. On return to air, recovery from this inhibition took place rapidly. High concentrations of carbon dioxide were also inhibitory when

B. T. Steer; D. A. Walker

1964-01-01

386

ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and  

E-print Network

ORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (423) 574-3645 Oak Ridge National Laboratory URL: http 37831-6335 FTP: cdiac.esd.ornl.gov #12;ORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

387

Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in  

E-print Network

Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

Rochelle, Gary T.

388

High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide  

E-print Network

High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide S�ren H�jgaard Jensen+,#, Jens V. T. H (ASR) #12;Electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam CO2 + H2O H2 + CO + 3/2 O2 Interesting because of electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide Picture taken from J. R. Rostrup, Steam Reforming and Catalysts

389

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2013-10-01

390

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 CREDIT CanWe Bury GLOBAL WARMING? Pumping carbon dioxide his lungs were carbon dioxide. Each time you draw breath today, 380 mole- cules per million are carbon dioxide. That portion climbs about two mole- cules every year. No one knows the exact consequenc- es

O'Donnell, Tom

391

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.124-78...Procedures § 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated:...

2014-07-01

392

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2012-10-01

393

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2012-10-01

394

49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered for...

2014-10-01

395

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89.322 Section...Equipment Provisions § 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated on...

2014-07-01

396

46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8 Section...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2013-10-01

397

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91.320 Section...Equipment Provisions § 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1)...

2014-07-01

398

46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2013-10-01

399

46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space protected by...

2012-10-01

400

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90.320 Section...Equipment Provisions § 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows: (1)...

2014-07-01

401

Catalyst cartridge for carbon dioxide reduction unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a base plate closing one end of the cartridge, and a cover plate closing the other end of the cartridge. The cover plate has a central aperture through which a supply line with a heater feeds a gaseous reaction mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon dioxide at a temperature from about 1000 to about 1400 F. The outer surfaces of the internal wall and the inner surfaces of the outer wall are lined with a ceramic fiber batting material of sufficient thickness to prevent carbon formed in the reaction from passing through it. The portion of the surfaces of the base and cover plates defined within the inner and outer walls are also lined with ceramic batting. The heated reaction mixture passes outwardly through the inner perforated wall and ceramic batting and over the catalyst. The solid carbon product formes is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The solid carbon product formed is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The water vapor and unreacted carbon dioxide and any intermediate products pass through the perforations of the outer wall.

Holmes, R. F. (inventor)

1973-01-01

402

Somewhere beyond the sea? The oceanic - carbon dioxide - reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In correlation to climate change and CO2 emission different campaigns highlight the importance of forests and trees to regulate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earths' atmosphere. Seeing millions of square miles of rainforest cut down every day, this is truly a valid point. Nevertheless, we often tend to forget what scientists like Spokes try to raise awareness for: The oceans - and foremost deep sea sections - resemble the second biggest deposit of carbon dioxide. Here carbon is mainly found in form of carbonate and hydrogen carbonate. The carbonates are needed by corals and other sea organisms to maintain their skeletal structure and thereby to remain vital. To raise awareness for the protection of this fragile ecosystem in schools is part of our approach. Awareness is achieved best through understanding. Therefore, our approach is a hands-on activity that aims at showing students how the carbon dioxide absorption changes in relation to the water temperature - in times of global warming a truly sensitive topic. The students use standard syringes filled with water (25 ml) at different temperatures (i.e. 10°C, 20°C, 40°C). Through a connector students inject carbon dioxide (25ml) into the different samples. After a fixed period of time, students can read of the remaining amount of carbon dioxide in relation to the given water temperature. Just as with every scientific project, students need to closely monitor their experiments and alter their setups (e.g. water temperature or acidity) according to their initial planning. A digital template (Excel-based) supports the analysis of students' experiments. Overview: What: hands-on, minds -on activity using standard syringes to exemplify carbon dioxide absorption in relation to the water temperature (Le Chatelier's principle) For whom: adjustable from German form 11-13 (age: 16-19 years) Time: depending on the prior knowledge 45-60 min. Sources (extract): Spokes, L.: Wie Ozeane CO2 aufnehmen. Environmental Sciences. University of East Anglia, Norwich 2007. Von Borstel, G. und Böhm, A.: Le Chatelier einmal anders, Gleichgewichtsverschiebungen am Kontext Sprudelwasser. Naturwissenschaft im Unterricht Chemie 6 (2006) H. 96, S. 34-37

Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

2014-05-01

403

Monthly estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in Brazil during the late 1990s and early 2000s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed understanding of global carbon cycling requires estimates of CO2 emissions on temporal and spatial scales finer than annual and country. This is the first attempt to derive such estimates for a large, developing, Southern Hemisphere country. Though data on energy use are not complete in terms of time and geography, there are enough data available on the sale or

London M Losey; Robert Joseph Andres; Gregg Marland

2006-01-01

404

Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage  

E-print Network

Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage Mike dioxide; Viscous flow; Gravity flow 1. Introduction Disposal of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs;questions about the environmental benefits of this process concern the fate of the carbon dioxide over

Huppert, Herbert

405

Carioca buoy: Carbon dioxide monitor - multiple-sensor autonomous system monitors carbon dioxide concentration at the ocean sea-air interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are increasing largely because of fossil-fuel combustion, but the rate of increase is only about half of the total emission rate. The balance of the carbon must be taken up in the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere, but the relative importance of each of these sinks - as well as their geographic distribution

L. Merlivat; P. Brault

1995-01-01

406

The characteristics of time series of carbon dioxide and the relationship between air temperature and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of the carbon dioxide concentration is the problem that is important for the global warming. Carbon dioxide concentration is gradually increasing for the rapid production activity in agriculture and industry from the latter half in the eighteenth century, in which industrial revolution began in the United Kingdom. The increase of carbon dioxide concentration seems to be mainly caused

M. Hasebe; Y. Suzuki

2003-01-01

407

Carbon dioxide sequestration monitoring and verification via laser based detection system in the 2 mum band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a known contributor to the green house gas effect. Emissions of CO2 are rising as the global demand for inexpensive energy is placated through the consumption and combustion of fossil fuels. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) may provide a method to prevent CO2 from being exhausted to the atmosphere. The carbon may be captured after fossil

Seth David Humphries

2008-01-01

408

Carbon Emission Capstone (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are two ways to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide: limit how much carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere as we burn fossil fuels, or increase the rate at which it is absorbed. In this lesson, discussion topics include the Kyoto Protocol and the use of carbon credits to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Students can listen to a National Public Radio show that reports on new research that both illuminates and further complicates the picture of how the Earth is warming. The lesson includes an activity in which students examine their personal annual carbon emissions (calculated in the previous exercise) and determine how many trees it would take to sequester these emissions. They will then extrapolate this number to the populations of their school campus and their county.

Pratte, John

409

Monthly estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in Brazil during the late 1990s and early 2000s  

SciTech Connect

Detailed understanding of global carbon cycling requires estimates of CO2 emissions on temporal and spatial scales finer than annual and country. This is the first attempt to derive such estimates for a large, developing, Southern Hemisphere country. Though data on energy use are not complete in terms of time and geography, there are enough data available on the sale or consumption of fuels in Brazil to reasonably approximate the temporal and spatial patterns of fuel use and CO2 emissions. Given the available data, a strong annual cycle in emissions from Brazil is not apparent. CO2 emissions are unevenly distributed within Brazil as the population density and level of development both vary widely.

Losey, London M [ORNL; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2006-12-01

410

Measuring global sulfur dioxide emissions with satellite sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric sulfur dioxide affects the weather by enhancing cloud formation, and long-term shifts in emissions can change the climate by increasing the amount of solar radiation scattered back into space. Sulfur dioxide emissions are the basis for acid rain, and the gas itself can cause respiratory problems. Despite the compound's importance to climate, the difficulties associated with accurately measuring sulfur dioxide mean that rates of emissions are generally not well understood.

Schultz, Colin

2013-11-01

411

Future atmospheric carbon dioxide scenarios and limitation strategies  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses various climatic scenarios relating to the future buildup of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, as well as various options and limitations strategies for controlling or slowing the concentrations of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Although projections for future CO/sub 2/ concentrations in the atmosphere are fairly straightforward, depending upon the figure used for energy growth rates based on fossil fuels, there are other factors that make predictability very uncertain. For example: the extent that nonfossil fuels will be utilized; the extent of future deforestation and land clearing; a determination of how emissions will be partitioned among the atmosphere, the oceans, and the biosphere; the effects on climate of other gases released from industrial activities; etc. The book is presented in six parts, which consider the CO/sub 2/ problem from varying aspects.

Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.; Rind, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Palutikof, J.P.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Lough, J.M.; Seidel, S.; Keyes, D.; Steinberg, M.; Trabalka

1986-01-01

412

Assessment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic trace gas emissions from airborne measurements over Sacramento, California in spring 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct quantification of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) in atmospheric samples can be used to examine several carbon cycle and air quality questions. We collected in situ CO2, CO, and CH4 measurements and flask samples in the boundary layer and free troposphere over Sacramento, California, USA, during two aircraft flights over and downwind of this urban area during spring of 2009. The flask samples were analyzed for ?14CO2 and CO2 to determine the recently added CO2ff mole fraction. A suite of greenhouse and other trace gases, including hydrocarbons and halocarbons, were measured in the same samples. Strong correlations were observed between CO2ff and numerous trace gases associated with urban emissions. From these correlations we estimate emission ratios between CO2ff and these species, and compare these with bottom-up inventory-derived estimates. Recent county level inventory estimates for carbon monoxide (CO) and benzene from the California Air Resources Board CEPAM database are in good agreement with our measured emission ratios, whereas older emissions inventories appear to overestimate emissions of these gases by a factor of two. For most other trace species, there are substantial differences (200-500%) between our measured emission ratios and those derived from available emission inventories. For the first flight, we combine in situ CO measurements with the measured CO:CO2ff emission ratio of 14 ± 2 ppbCO/ppmCO2 to derive an estimate of CO2ff mole fraction throughout this flight, and also estimate the biospheric CO2 mixing ratio (CO2bio) from the difference of total and fossil CO2. The resulting CO2bio varies dramatically from up to 8 ± 2 ppm in the urban plume to -6 ± 1 ppm in the surrounding boundary layer air. Finally, we use the in situ estimates of CO2ff mole fraction to infer total fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the Sacramento region, using a mass balance approach. The resulting emissions are uncertain to within a factor of two due to uncertainties in wind speed and boundary layer height. Nevertheless, this first attempt to estimate urban-scale CO2ff from atmospheric radiocarbon measurements shows that CO2ff can be used to verify and improve emission inventories for many poorly known anthropogenic species, separate biospheric CO2, and indicates the potential to constrain CO2ff emissions if transport uncertainties are reduced.

Turnbull, J. C.; Karion, A.; Fischer, M. L.; Faloona, I.; Guilderson, T.; Lehman, S. J.; Miller, B. R.; Miller, J. B.; Montzka, S.; Sherwood, T.; Saripalli, S.; Sweeney, C.; Tans, P. P.

2011-01-01

413

Carbon Dioxide: Production and Sequestration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem set, learners will refer to a satellite image to calculate the rate of carbon sequestration in the areas of bare land and forested lawn shown to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

414

Effect of swine manure dilution on ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide releases.  

PubMed

Animal manure is a significant source of environmental pollution and manure dilution in barn cleaning and slurry storage is a common practice in animal agriculture. The effect of swine manure dilution on releases of four pollutant gases was studied in a 30-day experiment using eight manure reactors divided into two groups. One group was treated with swine manure of 6.71% dry matter and another with manure diluted with water to 3.73% dry matter. Ammonia release from the diluted manure was 3.32 mg min(-1)m(-2) and was 71.0% of the 4.67 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Because the ammonia release reduction ratio was lower than the manure dilution ratio, dilution could increase the total ammonia emissions from swine manure, especially in lagoons with large liquid surface areas. Carbon dioxide release of 87.3 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the diluted manure was 56.4% of the 154.8 mg min(-1)m(-2) from the undiluted manure (P<0.01). Manure dry matter was an important factor for carbon dioxide release from manure. No differences were observed between the treatments (P>0.05) for both hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide releases. Therefore, dilution could also significantly increase the total releases of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide to the environment because dilution adds to the total manure volume and usually also increases the total gas release surface area. PMID:20850169

Ni, Ji-Qin; Heber, Albert J; Sutton, Alan L; Kelly, Dan T; Patterson, John A; Kim, Sun-Tae

2010-11-01

415

Estimation of carbon dioxide emissions per urban center link unit using data collected by the Advanced Traffic Information System in Daejeon, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 emissions on roads in urban centers substantially affect global warming. It is important to quantify CO2 emissions in terms of the link unit in order to reduce these emissions on the roads. Therefore, in this study, we utilized real-time traffic data and attempted to develop a methodology for estimating CO2 emissions per link unit. Because of the recent development of the vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication technology, data from probe vehicles (PVs) can be collected and speed per link unit can be calculated. Among the existing emission calculation methodologies, mesoscale modeling, which is a representative modeling measurement technique, requires speed and traffic data per link unit. As it is not feasible to install fixed detectors at every link for traffic data collection, in this study, we developed a model for traffic volume estimation by utilizing the number of PVs that can be additionally collected when the PV data are collected. Multiple linear regression and an artificial neural network (ANN) were used for estimating the traffic volume. The independent variables and input data for each model are the number of PVs, travel time index (TTI), the number of lanes, and time slots. The result from the traffic volume estimate model shows that the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the ANN is 18.67%, thus proving that it is more effective. The ANN-based traffic volume estimation served as the basis for the calculation of emissions per link unit. The daily average emissions for Daejeon, where this study was based, were 2210.19 ton/day. By vehicle type, passenger cars accounted for 71.28% of the total emissions. By road, Gyeryongro emitted 125.48 ton/day, accounting for 5.68% of the total emission, the highest percentage of all roads. In terms of emissions per kilometer, Hanbatdaero had the highest emission volume, with 7.26 ton/day/km on average. This study proves that real-time traffic data allow an emissions estimate in terms of the link unit. Furthermore, an analysis of CO2 emissions can support traffic management to make decisions related to the reduction of carbon emissions.

Ryu, B. Y.; Jung, H. J.; Bae, S. H.; Choi, C. U.

2013-12-01

416

Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide ices  

E-print Network

Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer, CO3(X 1 A1), in carbon-dioxide-rich extraterrestrial ices and in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Carbon dioxide ices were

Kaiser, Ralf I.

417

Modeling the selectivity of activated carbons for efficient separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide  

E-print Network

the separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide via adsorption in activated carbons. In the simulations, both hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules are modeled as Lennard-Jones spheres, and the activated carbons essentially no preference over the two gases and the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to hydrogen falls

Wu, Jianzhong

418

Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The global temperature rose by 0.2/sup 0/C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4/sup 0/C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about the mean trend of increasing temperature. It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980's. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage.

Hansen, J.; Johnson, D.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Lee, P.; Rind, D.; Russell, G.

1981-08-28

419

Heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important classes of heterogeneous catalytic reactions involving CO2 are examined: the incorporation of CO2 in the C-C, C-H, and C-N bonds with formation of carbonyl- and carboxyl-containing compounds and oxidation of other compounds by CO2. Reactions of the second class are more promising from the standpoint of the utilisation of carbon dioxide as a chemical raw material and from the standpoint of the solution of the ecological problems involving its utilisation from the gaseous waste discharged into the atmosphere. The reactions involving the oxidation of C1-C7 hydrocarbons and C1-C2 alcohols by carbon dioxide, which have been investigated by the authors of this review, are examined in detail. Catalysts based on manganese oxides are most effective in these reactions. The bibliography includes 231 references.

Krylov, Oleg V.; Mamedov, A. Kh

1995-09-01

420

The direct carbon dioxide effect on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide may affect plants by changing the climate, but it can have another more subtle and quite separate influence,\\u000a through its direct effects on plant physiology. Since CO2 is fundamental to photosynthesis, it makes sense that increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will tend to allow plants to photosynthesize faster. This then is one-half of the direct

Jonathan Adams

421

Carbon dioxide separation from hydrogen and nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2-selective membranes that obtain high CO2 permeabilities accompanied with high CO2\\/H2 and CO2\\/N2 separation factors at industrial temperatures and pressures are applicable to fuel cell operations and flue gas purification. This paper describes the separation of carbon dioxide from a mixed gas stream of hydrogen and nitrogen by a chitosan membrane containing 40wt% sodium arginate. Continuous membrane separations were done

Louei A. El-Azzami; Eric A. Grulke

2009-01-01

422

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However,\\u000a its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We\\u000a performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

423

Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component in technological portfolios for managing anthropogenic climate change,\\u000a since it may provide a faster and cheaper route to significant reductions in atmospheric CO2 concentrations than abating CO2 production. However, CO2 sequestration is not a perfect substitute for CO2 abatement because CO2 may leak back into the atmosphere (thus imposing

Klaus Keller; David McInerney; David F. Bradford

2008-01-01

424

Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator: Math model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A steady state computer simulation model of an Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC) has been developed. The mathematical model combines EDC heat and mass balance equations with empirical correlations derived from experimental data to describe EDC performance as a function of the operating parameters involved. The model is capable of accurately predicting performance over EDC operating ranges. Model simulation results agree with the experimental data obtained over the prediction range.

Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Carlson, J. N.

1973-01-01

425

Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A comparative assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) and radioactive waste transport systems associated with electricity generation was undertaken on the basis of 15 criteria\\u000a grouped under three areas, namely the transport chain, policy aspects and state of the technology. For CO2, we considered exclusively the transport that would take place under a future large-scale capture and storage infrastructure.\\u000a Our study

Darío R. Gómez; Michael Tyacke

426

Experimental observation of carbon dioxide reduction in exhaust gas from hydrocarbon fuel burning  

SciTech Connect

A high-negative voltage at the cathode initiates a dark discharge, resulting in a reduction of the carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust gas from the burning of hydrocarbon fuel. An experiment indicated that nearly 44% of the carbon dioxide in exhaust gas disappears after a high-voltage application to the cathode. The energy needed for the endothermic reaction of the carbon dioxide dissociation corresponding to this concentration reduction is provided mainly by the internal energy reduction of the discharge gas, which is nearly 20 times the electrical energy for electron emission.

Uhm, Han S. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul H. [S and P Energy Co. Ltd., 286-10 Chujari, Opo-Eup, Gwangju-Si 464-909 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-11-15

427

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon  

SciTech Connect

In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Jastrow, Julie D [ORNL; Miller, Michael R [ORNL; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University; Rice, Charles W [ORNL; Owensby, Clenton E [Kansas State University

2005-01-01

428

Trade, transport, and sinks extend the carbon dioxide responsibility of countries: An editorial essay  

SciTech Connect

Globalization and the dynamics of ecosystem sinks need be considered in post-Kyoto climate negotiations as they increasingly affect the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Currently, the allocation of responsibility for greenhouse gas mitigation is based on territorial emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, process emissions and some land-use emissions. However, at least three additional factors can significantly alter a country's impact on climate from carbon dioxide emissions. First, international trade causes a separation of consumption from production, reducing domestic pollution at the expense of foreign producers, or vice versa. Second, international transportation emissions are not allocated to countries for the purpose of mitigation. Third, forest growth absorbs carbon dioxide and can contribute to both carbon sequestration and climate change protection. Here we quantify how these three factors change the carbon dioxide emissions allocated to China, Japan, Russia, USA, and European Union member countries. We show that international trade can change the carbon dioxide currently allocated to countries by up to 60% and that forest expansion can turn some countries into net carbon sinks. These factors are expected to become more dominant as fossil-fuel combustion and process emissions are mitigated and as international trade and forest sinks continue to grow. Emission inventories currently in wide-spread use help to understand the global carbon cycle, but for long-term climate change mitigation a deeper understanding of the interaction between the carbon cycle and society is needed. Restructuring international trade and investment flows to meet environmental objectives, together with the inclusion of forest sinks, are crucial issues that need consideration in the design of future climate policies. And even these additional issues do not capture the full impact of changes in the carbon cycle on the global climate system.

Peters, Glen P [Center for International Climate and Energy Research (CICERO), Oslo, Norway; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Saikku, Laura [University of Helsinki

2009-01-01

429

Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Congo Volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) detected a sulfur dioxide cloud associated with the January 2002 eruption of Nyiragongo as it flew over the region at around 11 a.m. local time (0900 UTC) on January 17. The sensor detected no significant amounts of ash in the eruption cloud. At the time of the TOMS overpass the cloud extended up to roughly 200 km (124 miles) northwest of Nyiragongo and was still attached to the volcano. This observation is consistent with nearly coincident MODIS imagery which shows an opaque cloud of gas and steam in the same location. The TOMS measurements show that the amount of sulfur dioxide in the Nyiragongo's plume range from about 10 to 30 kilotons. Please note that TOMS mass retrievals are dependent on the altitude of the cloud and may be adjusted as more information becomes available. Since the cloud may still have been developing at the time of the TOMS overpass, the final sulfur dioxide burden may have been greater. Wind trajectory data (courtesy of Leslie Lait, SSAI) suggest that part of the cloud may have reached at least mid- to upper-tropospheric altitudes of up to 12 km (7 miles), but scientists suspect no significant stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide as a result of this eruption since the gas was not visible over the Democratic Republic of the Congo region in subsequent TOMS data acquired on January 18. Production of sulfur dioxide without a significant ash cloud is commonly observed during effusive eruptions such as the Nyiragongo event. Although dense low-level ash may be produced during such eruptions, these particulates usually fall out fairly quickly and elude detection by satellite. The size of the January 17 Nyiragongo cloud and the estimated sulfur dioxide tonnage are fairly modest, and at least an order of magnitude smaller than values typically measured by TOMS during eruptions of nearby Nyamuragira during its frequent outbursts (e.g., on February 6, 2001). Sulfur dioxide column amounts (measured in Dobson Units) are much higher in the more extensive Nyamuragira cloud, which contained roughly 420 kilotons of sulfur dioxide. Although several factors could affect the size of the observed cloud in each case-such as the delay between the onset of the eruption and the TOMS overpass, and the volume of lava emitted and the lava composition-the TOMS data suggest that the Nyiragongo magma may have been largely degassed before eruption. One possible mechanism by which this could be achieved is the cyclic degassing of magma in the subaerial lava lakes that have been intermittently present in Nyiragongo's summit crater over the past few decades. Images courtesy Simon Cairn, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, University of Maryland-Baltimore County

2002-01-01

430

An Optimal Centralized Carbon Dioxide Repository for Florida, USA  

PubMed Central

For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at various sites around the globe, but none have identified the potential for a statewide system in Florida, USA. In 2005, 83% of Florida’s electrical energy was produced by natural gas, coal, or oil (e.g., fossil fuels), from power plants spread across the state. In addition, only limited research has been completed on evaluating optimal pipeline transportation networks to centralized carbon dioxide repositories. This paper describes the feasibility and preliminary locations for an optimal centralized Florida-wide carbon sequestration repository. Linear programming optimization modeling is used to plan and route an idealized pipeline network to existing Florida power plants. Further analysis of the subsurface geology in these general locations will provide insight into the suitability of the subsurface conditions and the available capacity for carbon sequestration at selected possible repository sites. The identification of the most favorable site(s) is also presented. PMID:21695024

Poiencot, Brandon; Brown, Christopher

2011-01-01

431

Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions  

SciTech Connect

A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

1981-03-01

432

Carbon dioxide sensitivity of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.  

PubMed

Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks of zinc, cobalt, and cadmium, including the framework ZIF-8 commercially sold as Basolite Z1200, exhibit surprising sensitivity to carbon dioxide under mild conditions. The frameworks chemically react with CO2 in the presence of moisture or liquid water to form carbonates. This effect, which has been previously not reported in metal-organic framework chemistry, provides an explanation for conflicting reports on ZIF-8 stability to water and is of outstanding significance for evaluating the potential applications of metal-organic frameworks, especially for CO2 sequestration. PMID:24889776

Mottillo, Cristina; Friš?i?, Tomislav

2014-07-14

433

Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a safe and permanent method of CO2 disposal based on combining CO2 chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. Substantial heat is liberated in the overall chemical reaction so that cost will be determined by the simplicity and speed of the reaction rather than the cost of energy. Preliminary investigations have been conducted on two

Klaus S. Lackner; Christopher H. Wendt; Darryl P. Butt; Edward L. Joyce; David H. Sharp

1995-01-01

434

Carbon dioxide solubility and carbon isotope fractionation in basaltic melt  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide solubility and isotope fractionation data for a MORB composition at 1,200-1,400C and 5-20 kbar have been obtained using piston-cylinder apparatus and stepped-heating mass spectrometry. Carbon dioxide solubility in basalt melt at 5, 10 and 20 kbar is 0.15-0.17%, 0.45-0.51%, and 1.49%, respectively. Values for {Delta}Co{sub 2}(vap) - CO 2/3{sup {minus}} (basalt melt), obtained from the difference between the isotopic compositions for coexisting vapor and melt, vary from 1.8% to 2.2%. A review of measured and estimated values for carbon isotope fractionation between CO{sub 2} vapor and carbon dissolved in basic melts shows variation from 1.8% to 4.6%. Results of this study and other considerations favor relatively small equilibrium CO{sub 2} vapor melt fractionation factors around 2%.

Mattey, D.P. (Univ. of London, Egham Hill (United Kingdom) Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia))

1991-11-01

435

Conversion of carbon dioxide to oxaloacetate using integrated carbonic anhydrase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase.  

PubMed

The development and implementation of strategies for CO2 mitigation are necessary to counteract the greenhouse gas effect of carbon dioxide emissions. To demonstrate the possibility of simultaneously capturing CO2 and utilizing four-carbon compounds, an integrated system using CA and PEPCase was developed, which mimics an in vivo carbon dioxide concentration mechanism. We first cloned the PEPCase 1 gene of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and produced a recombinant PtPEPCase 1. The affinity column purified PtPEPCase 1 exhibited specific enzymatic activity (5.89 U/mg). When the simultaneous and coordinated reactions of CA from Dunaliella sp. and the PtPEPCase 1 occurred, more OAA was produced than when only PEPCase was present. Therefore, this integrated CA-PEPCase system can be used not only to capture CO2 but also for a new technology to produce value-added four-carbon platform chemicals. PMID:23689757

Chang, Kwang Suk; Jeon, Hancheol; Gu, Man Bock; Pack, Seung Pil; Jin, EonSeon

2013-12-01

436

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12

437

40 CFR 77.6 - Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  

...Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 77.6 Section...Penalties for excess emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. (a)(1) If excess emissions of sulfur dioxide occur at the affected source...

2014-07-01

438

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-07-01

439

Carbon dioxide releases from fossil-fuel burning: Statement before the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussion of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is given. There are three kinds of human activity that are currently resulting in net release of carbon dioxide (COâ) to the atmosphere: burning fossil fuels, converting tropical forest area to other land use, and manufacturing cement. Although it is a comparatively small source of COâ, cement manufacture involves

Marland G; T. Boden

1989-01-01

440

Carbon Dioxide Separation Using Thermally Optimized Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project is to develop polymeric-metallic membranes for carbon dioxide separations that operate under a broad range of industrially relevant conditions not accessible with present membrane units. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of polymer membranes as an effective, economic and flexible tool for many commercial gas separations including air separation, the recovery of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane mixtures, and the removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas. In each of these applications, high fluxes and excellent selectivities have relied on glassy polymer membranes which separate gases based on both size and solubility differences. To date, however, this technology has focused on optimizing materials for near ambient conditions. The development of polymeric materials that achieve the important combination of high selectivity, high permeability, and mechanical stability at temperatures significantly above 25oC and pressures above 10 bar, respectively, has been largely ignored. Consequently, there is a compelling rationale for the exploration of a new realm of polymer membrane separations. Indeed, the development of high temperature polymeric-metallic composite membranes for carbon dioxide separation at temperatures of 100-450 oC and pressures of 10-150 bar would provide a pivotal contribution with both economic and environmental benefits. Progress to date includes the first ever fabrication of a polymeric-metallic membrane that is selective from room temperature to 370oC. This achievement represents the highest demonstrated operating temperature at which a polymeric based membrane has successfully functioned. Additionally, we have generated the first polybenzamidizole silicate molecular composites. Finally, we have developed a technique that has enabled the first-ever simultaneous measurements of gas permeation and membrane compaction at elevated temperatures. This technique provides a unique approach to the optimization of long-term membrane performance under challenging operating conditions.

Young, J. S.; Jorgensen, B. S.; Espinoza, B. F.; Weimer, M. W.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Greenberg, A.; Khare, V.; Orme, C. J.; Wertsching, A. K.; Peterson, E. S.; Hopkins, S. D.; Acquaviva, J.

2002-05-01

441

Robust carbon dioxide reduction on molybdenum disulphide edges.  

PubMed

Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide has been recognized as an efficient way to convert carbon dioxide to energy-rich products. Noble metals (for example, gold and silver) have been demonstrated to reduce carbon dioxide at moderate rates and low overpotentials. Nevertheless, the development of inexpensive systems with an efficient carbon dioxide reduction capability remains a challenge. Here we identify molybdenum disulphide as a promising cost-effective substitute for noble metal catalysts. We uncover that molybdenum disulphide shows superior carbon dioxide reduction performance compared with the noble metals with a high current density and low overpotential (54?mV) in an ionic liquid. Scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis and first principle modelling reveal that the molybdenum-terminated edges of molybdenum disulphide are mainly responsible for its catalytic performance due to their metallic character and a high d-electron density. This is further experimentally supported by the carbon dioxide reduction performance of vertically aligned molybdenum disulphide. PMID:25073814

Asadi, Mohammad; Kumar, Bijandra; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Rosen, Brian A; Baskin, Artem; Repnin, Nikita; Pisasale, Davide; Phillips, Patrick; Zhu, Wei; Haasch, Richard; Klie, Robert F; Král, Petr; Abiade, Jeremiah; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

2014-01-01

442

Enriching blast furnace gas by removing carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Blast furnace gas (BF gas) produced in the iron making process is an essential energy resource for a steel making work. As compared with coke oven gas, the caloric value of BF gas is too low to be used alone as fuel in hot stove because of its high concentrations of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. If the carbon dioxide in BF gas could be captured efficiently, it would meet the increasing need of high caloric BF gas, and develop methods to reusing and/or recycling the separated carbon dioxide further. Focused on this, investigations were done with simple evaluation on possible methods of removing carbon dioxide from BF gas and basic experiments on carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption. The experimental results showed that in 100 minutes, the maximum absorbed doses of carbon dioxide reached 20 g/100 g with ionic liquid as absorbent. PMID:25078829

Zhang, Chongmin; Sun, Zhimin; Chen, Shuwen; Wang, Baohai

2013-12-01

443

Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

E-print Network

interaction with infrared · Basic model and some results #12;#12;#12;Earth's emitted spectrum Ozone Carbon #12;Fine structure of carbon dioxide absorption spectrum near 15 micron wavelength #12Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline

Olver, Peter

444

Carbon Dioxide Production in the Oxidation of Organic  

E-print Network

Carbon Dioxide Production in the Oxidation of Organic Acids by Cerium(IV) under Aerobic are oxidized to carbon dioxide. Hence, the determination of the stoichiometry between produced CO2 and reduced The study of oxidation of relatively low molecular weight carbonic acids by metal ions has been an active

Steinbock, Oliver

445

National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: methodology implementation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one important method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and curb global climate change. This report provides updates and implementation details of the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) and describes the probabilistic model used to calculate potential storage resources in subsurface saline formations.

Blondes, Madalyn S.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Buursink, Marc L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Cahan, Steven M.; Corum, Margo D.; Cook, Troy A.; Craddo