Sample records for carbon dioxide laser

  1. Carbon Dioxide Laser Fiber Optics In Endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Terry A.

    1982-12-01

    Carbon dioxide laser surgery has been limited to a great extent to surgical application on the integument and accessible cavities such as the cervix, vagina, oral cavities, etc. This limitation has been due to the rigid delivery systems available to all carbon dioxide lasers. Articulating arms (series of hollow tubes connected by articulating mirrors) have provided an effective means of delivery of laser energy to the patient as long as the lesion was within the direct line of sight. Even direct line-of-sight applications were restricted to physical dimension of the articulating arm or associated hand probes, manipulators and hollow tubes. The many attempts at providing straight endoscopic systems to the laser only stressed the need for a fiber optic capable of carrying the carbon dioxide laser wavelength. Rectangular and circular hollow metal waveguides, hollow dielectric waveguides have proven ineffective to the stringent requirements of a flexible surgical delivery system. One large diameter (1 cm) fiber optic delivery system, incorporates a toxic thalliumAbased fiber optic material. The device is an effective alternative to an articulating arm for external or conventional laser surgery, but is too large and stiff to use as a flexible endoscopic tool. The author describes the first highly flexible inexpensive series of fiber optic systems suitable for either conventional or endoscopic carbon dioxide laser surgery. One system (IRFLEX 3) has been manufactured by Medlase, Inc. for surgical uses capable of delivering 2000w, 100 mJ pulsed energy and 15w continuous wave. The system diameter is 0.035 inches in diameter. Surgically suitable fibers as small as 120 um have been manufactured. Other fibers (IRFLEX 142,447) have a variety of transmission characteristics, bend radii, etc.

  2. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. 874.4500 Section 874.4500 Food...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. 874.4500 Section 874.4500 Food...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. 874.4500 Section 874.4500 Food...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. 874.4500 Section 874.4500 Food...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. 874.4500 Section 874.4500 Food...and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the...

  7. New Trends In Carbon Dioxide Laser Microsurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. R.; Miller, James B.

    1981-05-01

    The carbon dioxide laser has been used for cutting and cauterizing tissue in a variety of surgical procedures by means of a dry-field air/tissue interface approach. Recently, a new wet-field CO2 laser technique has been developed and is being used successfully in humans to seal intraocular fibrovascular fronds and retinal tears at the time of vitrectomy, to close rubeotic vessels in the iris, and to excise fibrovascular fronds and epiretinal membranes in cases of severe diabetic retinopathy. Specialized wet-field CO2 photosurgical probes for use in gynecologic microsurgery have been developed and are being studied experimentally. Other potential applications include otolaryngologic micro-surgery, neurosurgery, and gastrointestinal and urologic wet-field surgery.

  8. Endoscopic Carbon Dioxide Laser Photocoagulation Of Bleeding Canine Gastric Ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Dov; Ron, Nimrod; Orgad, Uri; Katzir, Abraham

    1987-04-01

    This is the first report which describes carbon dioxide laser photocoagulation of upper gastrointestinal bleeding via a flexible endoscope, using an infrared transmitting siver nalide fiber. Various laser parameters were checked to determine the optimal conditions for hemostasis. Both the acute effects of laser irradiation on tissue and the chronic effects on healing process were examined. Preliminary results indicate that carbon dioxide laser beam can successfully photocoagulate moderately bleeding ulcers.

  9. Carbon dioxide laser oral safety parameters for teeth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lynn Powell; Brian K. Whisenant; Thomas H. Morton

    1990-01-01

    The carbon dioxide laser is used in the oral cavity for a variety of procedures. Although the procedures may not involve the teeth directly, precaution should be exercised to preserve their integrity. The results of this study indicate that the most limiting parameter for oral use of the CO laser is damage to the enamel surface, which could be inflicted

  10. Carbon dioxide laser delivery systems in functional paranasal sinus surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoermann, Karl; Stasche, Norbert; Baker-Schreyer, Antonio; Christ, Matthias; Goedert, Paul; Foth, Hans-Jochen

    1994-02-01

    In a limited series of patients, different types of delivery systems for the carbon dioxide laser were evaluated for their clinical efficiency and practicability. The spectrum of disease submitted to laser surgery ranged from recurrent paranasal sinus polyposis to M. Osler. The systems used were an operation microscope with micromanipulator, a handpiece, two rigid, tubular waveguides and one recently developed flexible waveguide. The characteristics of each instrument are discussed, and so are the indications for endonasal laser surgery.

  11. 21 CFR 179.43 - Carbon dioxide laser for etching food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. 179.43 Section 179...Radiation Sources 179.43 Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. Carbon dioxide laser light may be safely used for etching...

  12. 21 CFR 179.43 - Carbon dioxide laser for etching food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. 179.43 Section 179...Radiation Sources 179.43 Carbon dioxide laser for etching food. Carbon dioxide laser light may be safely used for etching...

  13. Treatment of chronic lip fissures with carbon dioxide laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Combes; Timothy K. Mellor

    2009-01-01

    Resurfacing of cutaneous tissue with carbon dioxide laser increases the amount and quality of collagen and elastin subepithelially. We used this technique to ablate 12 chronic lip fissures in one woman and 10 men. Five patients fissures had persisted for durations ranging from several months to seven years; the other six had fissures that split between one and five times

  14. Syneresis of Vitreous by Carbon Dioxide Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, T. J.; Patel, C. K. N.; Strnad, A. R.; Wood, O. R.; Brewer, E. S.; Karlin, D. B.

    1983-03-01

    In carbon dioxide laser surgery of the vitreous a process of vaporization has been advocated. In this report syneresis, a thermal liquefaction of gel, is shown to be over ten times more efficient on an energy basis than vaporization. Syneresis of vitreous is experimentally shown to be a first-order kinetic process with an activation energy of 41 0.5 kilocalories per mole. A theory of laser surgery in which this figure is used agrees closely with results from laser experiments on human eye-bank vitreous. The syneresis of vitreous by carbon dioxide laser radiation could lead to a more delicate form of ocular microsurgery, and application to other biological systems may be possible.

  15. Superpulsed carbon dioxide laser: an update on cutaneous surgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeland, Ronald G.

    1990-06-01

    Superpulsing the carbon dioxide laser allows delivery of high energy pulses separated by short pauses during which tissue cooling can occur.1 This new technology can provide several important advantages in cutaneous surgery over similar procedures performed with conventional continuous discharge carbon dioxide laser systems. In the excisional mode, there is a two-thirds reduction in thermal necrosis of the wound edge.2 This should translate into more rapid healing3 and increased rate of gain in tensile strength. In the vaporizational mode, precise, superficial and bloodless ablation of multiple benign appendigeal tumors is possible with less thermal damage yielding excellent cosmetic results. The establishment through additional research of accurate laser parameters, pulse duration, peak energy levels, and frequency of pulses, will help improve the specificity of the laser-tissue interaction to provide even better surgical results.

  16. Management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Baggish, M S

    1982-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1981, 412 women with biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were treated by means of the carbon dioxide laser. A previous publication reported the author's initial therapeutic results with laser surgery for CIN, carried out between 1976 and 1978. This report includes data on 297 patients who were followed for 6 months to 5 years after laser vaporization and on 55 women treated by laser excisional cone. Major improvements in the technique of carbon dioxide laser vaporization evolved as experience was gained, and related to elimination of the entire squamocolumnar junction, to destruction of neoplastic tissue to a depth of 5 to 7 mm, and to utilization of power densities greater than 1000 watts/cm2. Cures were achieved in 285 of the 297 patients treated by vaporization, ie, the failure rate was 4% (52 of 55 women treated by excisional cone). Complications during this study were minor and usually correlated with delayed bleeding. One patient developed cervical stenosis following laser excisional cone. No patient was found to have invasive carcinoma after laser surgery to the cervix. Because laser vaporization and laser excisional cone are best adapted for the outpatient setting, financial savings accruing to the patient are considerable. Rapid healing, minimal pain, and a general absence of noxious symptomatology also promote early return to work and daily routines. PMID:6811983

  17. Transoral robot- assisted carbon dioxide laser surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kucur, Cuneyt; Durmus, Kasim; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Ozer, Enver

    2014-09-15

    Background: Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used as a novel procedure for the resection of laryngopharyngeal cancers with promising outcomes. There are several studies proposing the benefit of combining TORS with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser in resecting upper aerodigestive tract tumors. The aim of this study was to illustrate transoral robot- assisted carbon dioxide laser surgery (TORS-L) for hypopharyngeal cancers. Methods: A 59 year-old patient with a T1N0M0 cancer at the lateral hypopharyngeal wall was selected for TORS-L. Results: Tumor was excised in one piece with adequate surgical margins. There was no perioperative complication. The patient was extubated immediately after surgery. Oral diet was initiated within the first 24 hours. No gastrostomy or tracheostomy tube placement was required. A video demonstration of TORS-L is included. Conclusions: TORS-L hypopharyngectomy is a safe and feasible procedure for the resection of selected hypopharyngeal tumors. Head Neck, 2014. PMID:25224300

  18. Study of a carbon dioxide ring laser gyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Dennis; J.-C. Diels; M. Mohebi

    1992-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated a basic ring laser gyroscope (RLG) with carbon dioxide gain, and studied the prospects of developing a practical CO2 RLG. Rotation sensing was demonstrated on a number of transitions in the 9.4 m and 10.4 m vibration-rotation bands. Gyro response is discussed with regard to lock-in, bias, homogeneous broadening effects, and high power operation. We show

  19. Solar pumped continuous wave carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to demonstrate the feasibility of a solar pumped laser concept, gain has been measured in a CO2-He laser medium optically pumped by blackbody radiation. Various gas mixtures of CO2 and He have been pumped by blackbody radiation emitted from an electrically heated oven. Using a CO2 laser as a probe, an optical gain coefficient of 1.8 x 10 to the -3rd/cm has been measured at 10.6 microns for a 9:1 CO2-He mixture at an oven temperature of about 1500 K, a gas temperature of about 400 K and a pressure of about 1 torr. This corresponds to a small signal gain coefficient when allowance is made for saturation effects due to the probe beam, in reasonable agreement with a theoretical value.

  20. Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Column via Space Borne Laser Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, WIlliam S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to better understand the budget of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere it is necessary to develop a global high precision understanding of the carbon dioxide column. In order to uncover the 'missing sink that is responsible for the large discrepancies in the budget as we presently understand it calculation has indicated that measurement accuracy on the order of 1 ppm is necessary. Because typical column average CO2 has now reached 380 ppm this represents a precision on the order of .25% for these column measurements. No species has ever been measured from space at such a precision. In recognition of the importance of understanding the CO2 budget in order to evaluate its impact on global warming the National Research Council in its decadal survey report to NASA recommended planning for a laser based total CO2 mapping mission in the near future. The extreme measurement accuracy requirements on this mission places very strong requirements on the laser system used for the measurement. This work presents an analysis of the characteristics necessary in a laser system used to make this measurement. Consideration is given to the temperature dependence, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of the CO2 lines themselves and how these impact the laser system characteristics Several systems for meeting these requirements that are under investigation at various institutions in the US as well as Europe will be discussed.

  1. Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames

    E-print Network

    Lee, Tonghun

    Carbon dioxide UV laser-induced fluorescence in high-pressure flames W.G. Bessler a , C. Schulz a; in final form 16 May 2003 Published online 10 June 2003 Abstract Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of carbon dioxide is investigated with excitation between 215 and 255 nm with spectrally resolved detection in 5

  2. Study of a carbon dioxide ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, M. L.; Diels, J.-C.; Mohebi, M.

    1992-04-01

    We have experimentally investigated a basic ring laser gyroscope (RLG) with carbon dioxide gain, and studied the prospects of developing a practical CO2 RLG. Rotation sensing was demonstrated on a number of transitions in the 9.4 microns and 10.4 microns vibration-rotation bands. Gyro response is discussed with regard to lock-in, bias, homogeneous broadening effects, and high power operation. We show that such a system may offer important advantages over standard helium-neon RLGs, including reduced quantum limit and backscattering. The prospects and possible approaches for developing a practical high power CO2 RLG are discussed, and a method of eliminating cross-saturation at high pressure is proposed and analyzed.

  3. Study of a carbon dioxide ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, M. L.; Diels, J.-C.; Mohebi, M.

    1992-04-01

    We have experimentally investigated a basic ring laser gyroscope (RLG) with carbon dioxide gain, and studied the prospects of developing a practical CO2 RLG. Rotation sensing was demonstrated on a number of transitions in the 9.4 ?m and 10.4 ?m vibration-rotation bands. Gyro response is discussed with regard to lock-in, bias, homogeneous broadening effects, and high power operation. We show that such a system may offer important advantages over standard helium-neon RLGs, including reduced quantum limit and backscattering. The prospects and possible approaches for developing a practical high power CO2 RLG are discussed, and a method of eliminating cross-saturation at high pressure is proposed and analyzed.

  4. Recent Results From, and Future Plans for the JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Spiers; R. Menzies; S. Geier; M. Phillips

    2009-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) is an aircraft based Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Spectrometer operating in the 2 micron wavelength range that we have been developing at JPL to evaluate the measurement of the column integrated carbon dioxide concentration beneath the aircraft. The IPDA measurement technique is based on an approach first used for the measurement of

  5. Low-fluence carbon dioxide laser irradiation of lentigines

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, J.S.; Smoller, B.R.; Stern, R.S.; Rosen, S.; Arndt, K.A.

    1988-08-01

    Low-fluence carbon dioxide (CO2) laser irradiation of skin has previously been shown to induce damage limited primarily to the epidermis. To evaluate whether this technique was therapeutically effective for pigmented epidermal lesions, ten lentigines caused by methoxsalen and ultraviolet light therapy were treated in one patient using the CO2 laser at fluences ranging from 3.0 to 7.7 J/cm2 for 0.1-s exposures with 4.5-mm spot size. Based on substantial clearing in seven of ten lesions treated, 146 solar lentigines were treated in five patients at fluences of 3.0, 3.7, or 4.4 J/cm2. Biopsies were performed on a total of 30 lesions immediately and 24 hours, seven days, and six weeks after irradiation. Of 125 lesions followed up clinically for six weeks, 12 cleared completely, 81 lightened substantially, and 28 remained unchanged. Only two demonstrated atrophic change. Hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation did not occur. All lesions that improved had been treated at 3.7 or 4.4 J/cm2. Immediate histologic injury consisted of vacuolar and spindly change and subsequent vesiculation limited to the basilar epidermis. Twenty-four hours later there was epidermal necrosis with regeneration, 0.1 mm of dermal basophilia and stromal condensation, and a mild inflammatory infiltrate. These alterations were dose-dependent, with near complete epidermal necrosis and superficial dermal involvement at the highest fluence, and only focal epidermal necrosis at the lowest. At seven days, epidermal regeneration was complete with traces of melanin remaining in keratinocytes. Melanophages first appeared at seven days and persisted at six weeks, by which time the inflammatory infiltrate had cleared. No lentiginous proliferation was evident and epidermal pigmentation had become normal. Low-fluence CO2 laser irradiation is an effective means of damaging the epidermis with only minimal dermal change.

  6. Development of a laser for differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Iain; Jack, James W.; Rae, Cameron F.; Moncrieff, John B.

    2014-10-01

    In the quest for a better understanding of climate change, greater importance is attached to monitoring the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to gain an improved knowledge of sources and sinks. Remote sensing is a critical tool in this research area and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is one important technique. The laser is the critical component of a DIAL instrument. This paper describes the development of a laser source for the detection and measurement of carbon dioxide.

  7. Recent Results From the JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Spiers; S. Geier; M. W. Phillips; R. T. Menzies

    2007-01-01

    Active optical sensing of atmospheric molecular species relies on measuring the differential absorption between a number of different wavelengths to determine changes in concentration of the species of interest. At JPL we have been developing an aircraft instrument that uses an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) approach in the 2-micron spectral region for high-precision measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide mixing

  8. LASCAT - DESIGN OF CATALYTIC MONOLITHS FOR CLOSED-CYCLE CARBON DIOXIDE LASERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, K.

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed carbon dioxide lasers are useful in many areas, including aeronautics, space research, and weather monitoring. Most applications require a closed-cycle carbon dioxide laser, which is more portable and self-sustaining than an open-cycle system. Without a fresh carbon dioxide supply and provisions for byproduct disposal, the closed-cycle laser must recycle the carbon monoxide and oxygen gas produced by the lasing of carbon dioxide. The recombination of the carbon monoxide and oxygen gas byproducts to form a constant supply of carbon dioxide requires an active catalyst, which must be carefully designed to optimize laser performance in accordance with design requirements specific to the laser's application. LASCAT (Design of Catalytic Monoliths for Closed-Cycle Carbon Dioxide Lasers) aids in the design of the monolith catalyst by simulating the results of design decisions on the performance of the laser. In portable laser systems, considerations of size, weight, and cost are critical. LASCAT provides the opportunity for the designer to explore trade-offs between the catalyst activity, catalyst dimensions, monolith dimensions, pressure drop (a result of gas flow through the monolith), Oxygen gas conversion, and other variables. The program uses a flexible, simplified model of the monolith catalyst designed to determine the bulk-avarage gas temperature, composition, and pressure along its length. The user specifies values for the several parameters which define the catalyst's operating conditions, including monolith dimensions, gas inlet properties, thermal operation properties, and catalyst properties. LASCAT provides results which indicate whether the experimental design meets user-defined constraints such as limits on conversion rate, maximum gas temperature, and monolith weight. LASCAT is written in FORTRAN 77 and is designed for use with any text or character-based terminal or computer display. The program requires roughly 40 KB memory. LASCAT was developed in 1989. LASCAT is restricted for use by United States citizens only.

  9. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment of cutaneous papillomas in a common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    PubMed

    Raiti, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was used to treat multiple cutaneous papillomas on an adult female common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina serpentina. A combination of excisional and ablative techniques provided excellent intraoperative visibility and postoperative results due to the laser's unique ability to incise and vaporize soft tissue. PMID:18634218

  10. Airborne Validation of Laser Remote Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Dobler, Jeremy; Kooi, Susan A.; Choi, Yonghoon; Harrison, F. Wallace; Moore, Berrien, III; Zaccheo, T. Scott

    2010-05-01

    Future space missions to globally map atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at all latitudes during the day and night, such as the ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Day, and Seasons) mission, will require high-precision laser measurements of CO2 columns across the troposphere from low Earth orbit. This paper discusses the development and measurement validation of a unique, multi-frequency, single-beam, laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates at 1.57 ?m, which has been developed for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of regional-scale CO2 sources and sinks. A prototype of this space-based LAS system was developed by ITT, and it has been flight tested in eight airborne campaigns conducted over the last five years in Oklahoma, Michigan, New Hampshire, and Virginia under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. This paper focuses on the results obtained during the last two years of flight testing where the remote LAS measurements of CO2 were evaluated against high-quality airborne in situ CO2 measurements made on spirals near the center of the LAS flight tracks. Flight tests over various land and water regions of Virginia in October 2007 showed the high correlation (R2 = 0.995) of the LAS-measured CO2 optical depths (ODs) with altitude, and a high correlation (R2 = 0.996) between the remote and in situ-derived (modeled) CO2 ODs. The average difference between measured and modeled ODs was less than 0.33% or the equivalent of about 1.25 ppmv of CO2. The LAS measurement precision for a 10-s (1 km) average over land was found to be better than 0.7 ppmv and over water was better than 1.4 ppmv. During the flight tests in September-October 2008, improvements in the in situ sampling strategy were implemented, and the average difference between the measured and modeled CO2 ODs was found to be 0.11% or 0.42 ppmv. A comprehensive multiple-aircraft flight test program was conducted over Oklahoma and Virginia in July-August 2009, and this resulted in an average difference between the remote and in situ CO2 ODs for all six flights at all altitudes of 0.10% or 0.40 ppmv with a standard deviation of the results of 0.64% or 2.5 ppmv. LAS instrument improvements also led to a 10-s CO2 measurement precision over land of better than 0.2 ppmv and over water of better than 0.3 ppmv. These high-precision, high-accuracy active remote CO2 measurements represent a major step towards the realization of the needed capability for space-based laser measurements of the global distribution of CO2. Details of the LAS flight tests and comparisons of the observed and modeled CO2 measurements are discussed in this paper.

  11. Identifying isomers of carbon-dioxide clusters by laser-driven Coulomb explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiguo; Wu, Cong; Liu, Yirong; Huang, Wei; Deng, Yongkai; Liu, Yunquan; Gong, Qihuang; Wu, Chengyin

    2014-09-01

    Clusters usually exhibit unique structures as an intermediate form of matter. However, their structures are still difficult to be determined with available experimental techniques. There are many structure distinct isomers for carbon-dioxide clusters. Here we report an experimental and theoretical joint study to determine the structures of the lowest-energy isomers. In the experiment, we exploded carbon-dioxide clusters by laser-driven multiple ionization and obtained precise momentum vectors of explosion fragments for each explosion channel. In the theory, we calculated low-energy structures of carbon-dioxide clusters and simulated their explosion dynamics. In comparison with the momentum vectors of explosion fragments, the lowest-energy isomers were identified for carbon-dioxide dimers, trimers, and tetramers.

  12. Carbon dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arie Melamed-Katz (None; )

    2007-06-19

    Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

  13. Treatment of hyperkeratosis areolae mammae naeviformis with the carbon dioxide laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Busse; Manfred Peschen; Erwin Schpf; Wolfgang Vanscheidt

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola is a rare mamma condition. Typical lesions are characterized by persistent verrucous thickening and dark pigmentation of the nipple or areola (or both) and may occur unilaterally or bilaterally in both sexes. We report what we believe to be the first therapeutic trial with carbon dioxide laser in a patient with hyperkeratosis areolae mammae

  14. Papillomavirus in the vapor of carbon dioxide laser-treated verrucae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Garden; M K OBanion; L S Shelnitz; K S Pinski; A D Bakus; M E Reichmann; J P Sundberg

    1988-01-01

    Vapor produced by the carbon dioxide laser during the vaporization of papillomavirus-infected verrucae was analyzed for viral DNA content. Two models were used for evaluation: an in vitro cutaneous bovine fibropapilloma and an in vivo human verruca model. Four bovine fibropapillomas were exposed to various laser parameters with power densities of 38,200 to 130 W\\/cm2 and energy fluences of 3820

  15. Discovery of natural gain amplification in the 10-micrometer carbon dioxide laser bands on Mars - A natural laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.; Buhl, D.; Chin, G.; Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Kostiuk, T.; Zipoy, D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully resolved intensity profiles of various lines in the carbon dioxide band at 10.4 micrometers have been measured on Mars with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer. Analysis of the line shapes shows that the Mars atmosphere exhibits positive gain in these lines. The detection of natural optical gain amplification enables identification of these lines as a definite natural laser.

  16. First Airborne Laser Remote Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide for Future Active Sensing of Carbon Dioxide from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browell, E. V.; Dobbs, M. E.; Dobler, J.; Kooi, S. A.; Choi, Y.; Harrison, F. W.; Moore, B., III; Zaccheo, T. S.

    2009-04-01

    Future space missions to globally map atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at all latitudes during the day and night, such as the ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Day, and Seasons) mission, will require high-precision laser measurements of CO2 columns across the troposphere from low Earth orbit. This paper discusses the development and flight demonstration of a unique, multi-frequency, single-beam, laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) that operates at 1.57 ?m, which has been developed for a future space-based mission to determine the global distribution of regional-scale CO2 sources and sinks. A prototype of this space-based LAS system was developed by ITT, and it has been successfully flight tested in six airborne campaigns conducted in different geographic regions over the last four years. Flight tests were conducted over Oklahoma, Michigan, New Hampshire, and Virginia under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Remote LAS measurements were compared to high-quality in situ measurements obtained from instrumentation on the same aircraft on spirals at the center of the LAS ground tracks. LAS flights were conducted over a wide range of land and water reflectances and in the presence of scattered clouds. The LAS flight tests resulted in the first demonstration of high-precision, high-accuracy, remote laser measurements of CO2 made from an airborne platform. The LAS CO2 column measurements were found to have a precision of better than 2 ppm for a 100-m horizontal average over land and a 1-km average over water. Absolute comparisons of CO2 remote and in situ measurements showed agreement to better than 0.75 percent (

  17. Use of a carbon dioxide laser to treat ceruminous gland hyperplasia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Lorraine Ann

    2012-06-01

    This case report describes the skin condition ceruminous gland hyperplasia of the ears of a cat. The diagnosis was made through histopathology. Treatment consisted of carbon dioxide laser ablation of the cystic structures and postoperative care associated with the surgery, as well as a hydrolyzed protein diet, weekly ear cleaning and intermittent topical corticosteroid drops in the ears to minimize the reoccurrence of the cysts. PMID:22328586

  18. JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer Data Processing Results for the 2010 Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzie, Robert T.; Christensen, Lance E.

    2011-01-01

    As a precursor to and validation of the core technology necessary for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days,and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission, we flew JPL's Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) in a campaign of five flights onboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in July 2010. This is the latest in a series of annual flight campaigns that began in 2006, and our first on the DC-8 aircraft.

  19. Design of catalytic monoliths for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1988-01-01

    A computer program was written that allows the design of catalytic monoliths for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers. Using design parameters obtained from workers at NASA Langley Research Center and from the literature, several specific monoliths were designed and the results were communicated to the research group working on this project at Langley. Two oral presentations were made at NASA-sponsored workshops - at Langley in January 1988 and in Gainesville, Florida in May 1988.

  20. Selective removal of dental composite using a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Dental restorative materials are color matched to the tooth and are difficult to remove by mechanical means without excessive removal or damage to peripheral enamel and dentin. Lasers are ideally suited for selective ablation to minimize healthy tissue loss when replacing existing restorations, sealants or removing composite adhesives such as residual composite left after debonding orthodontic brackets. In this study a carbon dioxide laser operating at high laser pulse repetition rates integrated with a galvanometer based scanner was used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces. A diode array spectrometer was used to measure the plume emission after each laser pulse and determine if the ablated material was tooth mineral or composite. The composite was placed on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces and the carbon dioxide laser was scanned across the surface to selectively remove the composite without excessive damage to the underlying sound enamel. The residual composite and the damage to the underlying enamel was evaluated using optical microscopy. The laser was able to rapidly remove the composites rapidly from both surfaces with minimal damage to the underlying sound enamel.

  1. Surgical Coagulator With Carbon Dioxide Laser For Gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolinski, Wieslaw; Kazmirowski, Antoni; Korobowicz, Witold; Olborski, Zbigniew

    1987-10-01

    The technical data and parameters of the CO2 surgical laser for gynecology are given. Coagulator was designed and constructed in Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Warsaw Technical University.

  2. Nanosecond Pulsed Laser Ablation of Copper in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yutaka; Saito, Takashi; Haba, Minori; Iwanaga, Tomoki; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2009-04-01

    A copper target in supercritical CO2 was ablated using nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses for a variety of different laser irradiation times, temperatures and pressures. The irradiated copper surface was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and laser microscopy. Experiments were also conducted in atmospheric conditions with air and liquid hexane to evaluate the environmental dependence of ablation. The results demonstrated that laser ablation of a metal target in high pressure was affected by the pressure and the surrounding environment. An ablation crater with a depth of 6.9 m was produced by ablating at a temperature of 40 C, a pressure of 25 MPa, and an irradiation time of 500 s.

  3. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment of bovine penile persistent frenulum and fibropapillomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.

    1995-05-01

    Persistent Frenulum and Fibropapillomas are commonly encountered diseases of young bulls. Both are amenable to simple resection with ligation of bleeders followed by mucosa suturing. Sexual rest for several weeks is generally required. Carbon dioxide laser was applied in resection of both these two maladies in six bulls (2 Persistent Frenulum, 4 with fibropapillomas) without the need for ligation of bleeders or mucosal suturing. No immediate postsurgery complications occurred related to the laser being used and potential recurrence of fibropapilloma neoplasia did not occur. The CO2 laser, compared to the steel scalpel, provided better visibility and improved hemostatic capabilities for performing the resection. The CO2 laser incisions healed completely by two weeks postirradiation, and the bulls required only one week sexual rest to allow healing to progress prior to entering an active breeding program.

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE LASER SYSTEM TO MEASURE GASEOUS POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report concerns the continuation of work in the development of a gas laser system for air pollution monitoring over long paths, a kilometer or more, using infrared absorption. Modifications to a bread-board system for simultaneous detection of O3, NH3, C2H4 and the addition o...

  5. Optically pumped carbon dioxide laser mixtures. [using solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yesil, O.; Christiansen, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    This work explores the concept of blackbody radiation pumping of CO2 gas as a step toward utilization of solar radiation as a pumping source for laser action. To demonstrate this concept, an experiment was performed in which laser gas mixtures were exposed to 1500 K thermal radiation for brief periods of time. A gain of 2.8 x 10 to the -3rd reciprocal centimeters has been measured at 10.6 microns in a CO2-He gas mixture of 1 Torr pressure. A simple analytical model is used to describe the rate of change of energy of the vibrational modes of CO2 and to predict the gain. Agreement between the prediction and experiment is good.

  6. Selective Removal of Demineralization Using Near Infrared Cross Polarization Reflectance and a Carbon Dioxide Laser

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Lasers can ablate/remove tissue in a non-contact mode of operation and a pulsed laser beam does not interfere with the ability to image the tooth surface, therefore lasers are ideally suited for integration with imaging devices for image-guided ablation. Laser energy can be rapidly and efficiently delivered to tooth surfaces using a digitally controlled laser beam scanning system for precise and selective laser ablation with minimal loss of healthy tissues. Under the appropriate irradiation conditions such laser energy can induce beneficial chemical and morphological changes in the walls of the drilled cavity that can increase resistance to further dental decay and produce surfaces with enhanced adhesive properties to restorative materials. Previous studies have shown that images acquired using near-IR transillumination, optical coherence tomography and fluorescence can be used to guide the laser for selective removal of demineralized enamel. Recent studies have shown that NIR reflectance measurements at 1470-nm can be used to obtain images of enamel demineralization with very high contrast. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that image guided ablation of occlusal lesions can be successfully carried out using a NIR reflectance imaging system coupled with a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-?m with high pulse repetition rates. PMID:24357906

  7. Carbon dioxide sequestration monitoring and verification via laser based detection system in the 2 mum band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Seth David

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a known contributor to the green house gas effect. Emissions of CO2 are rising as the global demand for inexpensive energy is placated through the consumption and combustion of fossil fuels. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) may provide a method to prevent CO2 from being exhausted to the atmosphere. The carbon may be captured after fossil fuel combustion in a power plant and then stored in a long term facility such as a deep geologic feature. The ability to verify the integrity of carbon storage at a location is key to the success of all CCS projects. A laser-based instrument has been built and tested at Montana State University (MSU) to measure CO2 concentrations above a carbon storage location. The CO2 Detection by Differential Absorption (CODDA) Instrument uses a temperature-tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode that is capable of accessing a spectral region, 2.0027 to 2.0042 mum, that contains three CO2 absorption lines and a water vapor absorption line. This instrument laser is aimed over an open-air, two-way path of about 100 m, allowing measurements of CO2 concentrations to be made directly above a carbon dioxide release test site. The performance of the instrument for carbon sequestration site monitoring is studied using a newly developed CO2 controlled release facility. The field and CO2 releases are managed by the Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) group at MSU. Two test injections were carried out through vertical wells simulating seepage up well paths. Three test injections were done as CO2 escaped up through a slotted horizontal pipe simulating seepage up through geologic fault zones. The results from these 5 separate controlled release experiments over the course of three summers show that the CODDA Instrument is clearly capable of verifying the integrity of full-scale CO2 storage operations.

  8. Carbon dioxide laser irradiation of bacterial targets in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, P.O.; Sisson, P.R.; Oliver, P.D.; Ingham, H.R.

    1987-05-01

    Agar targets seeded with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in roll tubes simulating the vaginal vault were irradiated with a CO/sub 2/ laser at various power densities and durations. Viable bacteria were detected in the plume emissions in all instances. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be more resistant to the thermal effects of lasing than E. coli. This suggests that CO/sub 2/ irradiation of cervical lesions could disseminate viable particles which may be a hazard for patients and operators.

  9. Dissociation phenomena in electron-beam sustained carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael R.; Willetts, David V.

    1990-01-01

    A number of applications are emerging requiring efficient, long pulse, long-life sealed CO2 lasers. Examples include the proposed NASA and ESA wind lidars. Electron-beam sustained discharge devices are strong contenders. Unlike self-sustained discharges, e-beam sustenance readily provides efficient performance from large volume discharges and offers pulse lengths well in excess of the microsecond or so generally associated with self-sustained devices. In the case of the e-beam sustained laser, since the plasma is externally maintained and operated at electric field strengths less than that associated with the glow to arc transition, the discharges can be run even in the presence of strongly attacking species such as O2. Build up of large levels of attacking contaminants is nevertheless undesirable as their presence reduces the current drawn by the plasma and thus the pumping rate to the upper laser level. The impedance rise leads to a mismatch of the pulse forming network with a consequent loss of control over energy deposition, operating E/N, and gain. Clearly CO2 dissociation rates, the influence of dissociation products on the discharge and gain, and tolerance of the discharge to these products need to be determined. This information can then be used to assess co-oxidation catalyst requirements for sealed operation.

  10. Monolith catalysts for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1994-01-01

    The general subject area of the project involved the development of solid catalysts that have high activity at low temperature for the oxidation of gases such as CO. The original application considered was CO oxidation in closed-cycle CO2 lasers. The scope of the project was subsequently extended to include oxidation of gases in addition to CO and applications such as air purification and exhaust gas emission control. The primary objective of the final phase grant was to develop design criteria for the formulation of new low-temperature oxidation catalysts utilizing Monte Carlo simulations of reaction over NASA-developed catalysts.

  11. Hollow Dielectric Waveguides for Carbon Dioxide Laser Power Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Christopher Carter

    1992-01-01

    The present work is an investigation of the optical and mechanical properties of waveguides for the delivery of CO_2 laser radiation with particular emphasis being placed on hollow waveguides. The attenuation, near field output intensity distribution, polarization maintaining ability, and power threshold of several types of hollow waveguides were measured. Theoretical approximations of the attenuation in hollow waveguides are compared with numerical solutions. The use of these waveguides in neurosurgical applications was investigated. The limits of the validity of an approximation of the characteristic equation were investigated by comparing them to a numerical solution of the equation. The approximation of the attenuation of the HE_{11} mode was found to be accurate for low index hollow waveguides. The optical properties of five types of round hollow waveguide were measured. The lowest attenuations of PbF_2 coated aluminum and AgI coated silver waveguides were 0.6 and 0.3 dB/m respectively when straight. These waveguides were highly multi-mode and unable to preserve the polarization of the light propagating within them. The lowest attenuations of Ge coated silver and hollow sapphire waveguides were about 1 and 0.6 dB/m respectively for a 1 mm bore size. The output intensity distributions of these waveguides were close to single mode and they were capable of preserving the polarization of the propagating light. The measured losses of the sapphire are more than twice the predicted losses. The excess attenuation of the sapphire waveguides correlates exactly with losses expected from the measured roughness of the inside surface of the sapphire proving surface quality is the limiting factor in present waveguide transmission. The high power capabilities of the sapphire waveguides were found to be in excess of 1500 W. The power limit of the sapphire was determined by flaws in the material and a thermal expansion mismatch between the sapphire and the positioning mount. The effect of laser light delivered to human disc and rat brain tissue through a sapphire waveguide was found to be equivalent to laser light delivered by conventional means.

  12. Airborne Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer for IPDA Measurements of Tropospheric CO2: Recent Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The National Research Council's decadal survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space[1] recommended the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission for launch in 2013-2016 as a logical follow-on to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) which is scheduled for launch in late 2008 [2]. The use of a laser absorption measurement technique provides the required ability to make day and night measurements of CO2 over all latitudes and seasons. As a demonstrator for an approach to meeting the instrument needs for the ASCENDS mission we have developed the airborne Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) which uses the Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Spectrometer [3] technique operating in the 2 micron wavelength region.. During 2006 a short engineering checkout flight of the CO2LAS was conducted and the results presented previously [4]. Several short flight campaigns were conducted during 2007 and we report results from these campaigns.

  13. Laser therapy for the treatment of Hailey-Hailey disease: a systematic review with focus on carbon dioxide laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Falto-Aizpurua, L A; Griffith, R D; Yazdani Abyaneh, M A; Nouri, K

    2014-11-21

    Benign familial chronic pemphigus, or Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD), is a recurrent bullous dermatitis that tends to have a chronic course with frequent relapses. Long-term treatment options include surgery with skin grafting or dermabrasion. Both are highly invasive and carry significant risks and complications. More recently, 'laser-abrasion' has been described as a less invasive option with a better side-effect profile. In this article, we systematically review the safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide laser therapy as a long-term treatment option for HHD, as well as provide a review of other lasers that have been reported with this goal. A total of 23 patients who had been treated with a carbon dioxide laser were identified. After treatment, 10 patients (43%) had had no recurrence, 10 (43%) had greater than 50% improvement, 2 (8%) had less than 50% improvement and 1 (4%) patient had no improvement at all (follow-up period ranged from 4 to 144months). Laser parameter variability was wide and adverse effects were minimal, including dyspigmentation and scarring. Reviewed evidence indicates this therapy offers a safe, effective treatment alternative for HHD with minimal risk of side-effects. Larger, well-designed studies are necessary to determine the optimal treatment parameters. PMID:25418614

  14. Enamel fusion using a carbon dioxide laser: A technique for sealing pits and fissures

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, L.J.; Perham, S.J. (University of Queensland Dental School, Brisbane (England))

    1991-05-01

    The well-established enhanced resistance of lased enamel to demineralization is the basis for clinical application of the carbon dioxide laser to caries prevention. This in vitro study examined the effect of focused infrared laser radiation on sound enamel and early pit and fissure caries. Low power levels (2-5 W) induced localized melting and resolidification of enamel with little surface destruction. For sound fissures, fusion of enamel from the lateral walls of the fissure eliminated the fissure space, providing a sealant effect; while in carious fissures, carious enamel was vaporized and adjacent sound enamel fused to partially eliminate the defect. The technique for enamel fusion using CO2 lasers has potential application for sealing pits and fissures and producing physicochemical alterations in enamel which may have preventive benefits.

  15. Monolith catalysts for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.; Badlani, Ajay

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to explore ways of making a monolithic form of catalyst for CO2 lasers. The approach chosen was to pelletize the catalyst material, Au/MnO2 powder, and epoxy the pellets to stainless steel sheets as structural supports. The CO oxidation reaction over Au/MnO2 powder was found to be first overall, and the reaction rate constant at room temperature was 4.4 +/- 0.3 cc/(g x sec). The activation energy was 5.7 kcal/mol. The BET surface area of the pellets was found to vary from 125 to 140 sq m/g between different batches of catalyst. Pellets epoxied to stainless steel strips showed no sign of fracture or dusting when subjected to thermal tests. Pellets can be dropped onto hard surfaces with chipping of edges but no breakage of the pellets. Mechanical strength tests performed on the pellets showed that the crush strength is roughly one-fourth of the pelletizing force. The apparent activity and activation energy over the pellets were found to be less than over the powdered form of the catalyst. The lower apparent activity and activation energy of the pellets are due to the fact that the internal surface area of a pellet is not exposed to the reactant concentration present in the flowing gas as a result of intrapellet diffusion resistance. Effectiveness factors varied from 0.44, for pellets having thickness of 2 mm and attached with epoxy to a stainless steel strip. The epoxy and the stainless steel strip were found to simply block off one of the circular faces of the pellets. The epoxy did not penetrate the pellets and block the active sites. The values of the effective diffusivities were estimated to be between 2.3 x 10(exp -3) and 4.9 x 10(exp -3) sq cm/s. With measurements performed on one powder sample and one pellet configuration, reasonable accurate predictions can be made of conversions that would be obtained with other pellet thickness and configurations.

  16. Design of catalytic monoliths for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, R. K.; Guinn, K.; Goldblum, S.; Noskowski, E.

    1989-01-01

    Pulsed carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers have many applications in aeronautics, space research, weather monitoring and other areas. Full exploitation of the potential of these lasers in hampered by the dissociation of CO2 that occurs during laser operation. The development of closed-cycle CO2 lasers requires active CO-O2 recombination (CO oxidation) catalyst and design methods for implementation of catalysts in CO2 laser systems. A monolith catalyst section model and associated design computer program, LASCAT, are presented to assist in the design of a monolith catalyst section of a closed cycle CO2 laser system. Using LASCAT,the designer is able to specify a number of system parameters and determine the monolith section performance. Trade-offs between the catalyst activity, catalyst dimensions, monolith dimensions, pressure drop, O2 conversion, and other variables can be explored and adjusted to meet system design specifications. An introduction describes a typical closed-cycle CO2 system, and indicates some advantages of a closed cycle laser system over an open cycle system and some advantages of monolith support over other types of supports. The development and use of a monolith catalyst model is presented. The results of a design study and a discussion of general design rules are given.

  17. Comparison of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet and carbon dioxide lasers for in vitro bone and cartilage ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.; van de Merwe, W.P.; Smith, M.; Reinisch, L. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro bone- and cartilage-ablation characteristics of the solid-state erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser were compared to those of the carbon dioxide laser. Ablations of fresh, frozen cadaver septal cartilage and maxillary sinus bone were performed using total energies between 1 and 6 J. Specimens were studied using hematoxylin and eosin stain and digitized, computer-assisted measurements of 35-mm photographs. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated bone averaged 5 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 67 microns with carbon dioxide-ablated bone. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated cartilage averaged 2 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 21 microns with the carbon dioxide-ablated cartilage. The tissue-ablation characteristics of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser are promising for future otolaryngologic applications.

  18. The carbon dioxide surgical laser in neurological surgery, decubitus ulcers, and burns.

    PubMed

    Stellar, S

    1980-01-01

    Laser surgery has become an established part of general and specialty surgical techniques. Of all the lasers available today, the carbon dioxide laser possesses the physical and biological-surgical properties of most value to the surgeon. The CO2 laser puts out a spatially and temporally coherent beam of high intensity, infrared radiation at 10.6 micrometers, a wavelength nearly 100% absorbed by tissue. Its action is dependent on heat, and it has the ability to vaporize, cut, and excise all tissue hemostatically, sterilizing as it proceeds. Experimental work in animal patients and man has laid the groundwork for clinical application. The CO2 laser's value as a surgical tool has been clearly shown in the treatment of cancers and other neoplasms in brain, thoracic, and abdominal viscera; larynx; pharynx; nasal and sinus cavities; rectum; vulva, vagina; and uterus, for palliation and, at times, cure. It has been found of undoubted value in the debridement of decubitus ulcers and burns and has great potential for orthopedic surgery and breast surgery. The surgical laser is safe for patient and operating personnel, relatively simple to use, rapid in its action and without untoward impact on tissue locally or at a distance. PMID:6801403

  19. Screen for Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents a set of laboratory experiments that can assist students in the detection of carbon dioxide. Offers a variation of the supported drop method of carbon dioxide detection that provides readily visible positive results. Includes background information on carbon dioxide. (ML)

  20. Histologic evaluation of the width of soft tissue necrosis adjacent to carbon dioxide laser incisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pogrel, M.A.; McCracken, K.J.; Daniels, T.E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-11-01

    This study evaluated the width of tissue necrosis lateral to carbon dioxide laser incisions on human intraoral excisional biopsy specimens. Measurements were made on specimens including epithelium, muscle, dense and loose connective tissue, and salivary gland. Results showed a mean width of tissue necrosis of 86 microns in epithelium, 85 microns in muscle, 51 microns in loose connective tissue, 96 microns in dense connective tissue, and 41 microns in salivary gland. The range of thermal necrosis in different tissue types is probably based on the water content within each type. A cellular partially homogenized zone of reversible thermal damage up to 500 microns in width was visible adjacent to the zone of thermal necrosis. The relatively narrow width of tissue necrosis with this technique may account for the claimed superior properties of laser-induced wounds compared with those created by electrosurgery.

  1. Treatment of nodular facial angiofibromas in tuberous sclerosis, using ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Biondo, G; Greco, S; Mavilia, L; Mercuri, S R

    2014-08-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a genodermatosis characterized by facial angiofibromas (FAs). These tumours cause aesthetic disfigurement and obstruction of vision, and haemorrhage when traumatized, which can lead to emotional distress and relationship difficulties. We report the case of a 35-year-old patient with extensive TS-associated FAs that were treated with an ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser (UPCDL). UPCDL laser seems to be a easy, useful and convenient tool for the treatment of nodular FAs, which provides good aesthetic results, and a positive response from patients, who report high levels of satisfaction with the results. Minimal recurrence of the tumours occurred during long-term follow-up, and these were successfully treated with UPCDL. It is not yet possible to correct the genetic alterations underlying TS, but UPCDL treatment is a convenient tool to improve the facial appearance of patients with severe FAs. PMID:24890518

  2. Selective Removal of Residual Orthodontic Composite Using a Rapidly Scanned Carbon Dioxide Laser with Spectral Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasuna, Krista

    Background and Objective: Excessive heat accumulation within the tooth, incomplete removal of composite, and variable damage to the enamel are shortcomings of using conventional burs to remove residual orthodontic composite after debonding fixed appliances. The objective of this study was to determine if composite could be selectively removed from the enamel surface using a rapidly scanned carbon dioxide laser controlled by spectral feedback. Materials and Methods: A carbon dioxide laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3 microm with a pulse duration of 10-15 micros and a pulse repetition rate of 200 Hz was used to selectively remove composite from the buccal surfaces of 21 extracted teeth. GrenGloo(TM) composite was used to better visualize residual composite and the amount of enamel lost was measured with optical microscopy. A spectral feedback system utilizing a miniature spectrometer was used to control the laser scanning system. Pulpal temperature measurements were performed during composite removal to determine if there was excessive heat accumulation. Results: The amount of enamel lost averaged 22.7microm +/- 8.9 and 25.3 microm +/- 9.4 for removal at 3.8 and 4.2 J/cm2, respectively. An average maximum temperature rise of 1.9C +/- 1.5 was recorded, with no teeth approaching the critical value of 5.5C. The average time of composite removal was 19.3 +/- 4.1 seconds. Conclusions: Residual orthodontic composite can be rapidly removed from the tooth surface using a rapidly scanned CO2 laser with spectral feedback, with minimal temperature rise within the pulp and with minimal damage to the underlying enamel surface.

  3. Proximal gastric vagotomy with carbon dioxide laser: Experimental studies in animals

    SciTech Connect

    Kadota, T.; Mimura, K.; Kanabe, S.; Ohsaki, Y.; Tamakuma, S. (National Defense Medical College, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy has been widely used as a surgical treatment for peptic ulcer disease. However, it is technically complex and time-consuming. Moreover, it may cause circulatory problems in the gastric mucosa. We have reported a new method of blood flow-preserving vagotomy with a carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser vagotomy) developed in our laboratory. To assess its efficacy, we used cysteamine-induced ulcer and measured gastric mucosal blood flow in rats. The incidence of cysteamine-induced ulcer formation was reduced significantly in the group that underwent CO{sub 2} laser vagotomy compared with a group treated with proximal gastric vagotomy. Gastric mucosal blood flow was significantly better in the CO{sub 2} laser vagotomy group. Long-term follow-up of acid reduction was evaluated in dogs by the pentagastrin-stimulation test. Acid reduction in dogs was satisfactory during the 12 months of this study. CO{sub 2} laser vagotomy is a new, easy, time-saving, and circulatory-preserving technique for peptic ulcer disease.

  4. Development of the reliable high power pulsed carbon dioxide laser system for LPP EUV light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takeshi; Nowak, Krzysztof M.; Suganuma, Takashi; Kameda, Hidenobu; Moriya, Masato; Yokoduka, Toshio; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2012-03-01

    Laser Produced Plasma (LPP) Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) light source is expected to be used for next generation lithography. To realize such performance for industrial use, the main driver laser is one of the key components. Our source uses a high power pulsed carbon dioxide (CO2) laser as a plasma driver. A master oscillator and a power amplifier (MOPA) system based on a new configuration of an RF-excited CO2 laser is the key to high efficiency. And multiline amplification of CO2 laser is efficient to increase the extraction efficiency in the case of short pulse amplification like this amplification. Numerical result shows the amplification enhancement as 1.3 times higher than the single line amplification. This report shows its initial performance. Multiline configuration is applied to the master oscillator and the efficiency of multiline amplification is verified in our experimental amplifier system. We have achieved 10% energy extraction improvement using 2 lines (P20+P22) as compared to single line (P20).

  5. Use of the carbon dioxide laser in guided tissue regeneration wound healing in the beagle dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Jeffrey A.; Parlar, Ates; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled A.; El-Khouli, Amr M.; Israel, Michael

    1996-04-01

    The concept of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) allowing cells from the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone to repopulate the treated root surface has shown the ability to obtain periodontal new attachment. Healing studies have also shown that conventional GTR therapy still does not exclude all the epithelium. This epithelial proliferation apically interferes with the establishment of the new connective tissue attachment to the root surface. The objective of this research study was to examine whether controlled de-epithelialization with the carbon dioxide laser during the healing phase after periodontal surgery, would retard the apical migration of the epithelium and thereby enhance the results obtained through guided tissue regeneration. Eight beagle dogs were used, the experimental side received de-epithelialization with the CO2 laser in conjunction with flap reflection and surgically created buccal osseous defects. Selected defects on each side were treated with ePTFE periodontal membranes. The laser de-epithelialization was repeated every 10 days until removal of the membranes. The control side received the same surgical treatment without laser application. This experimental design allowed histologic study of the new attachment obtained in defects treated with flap debridement with or without laser de-epithelialization and with or without ePTFE membranes. A statistical analysis was performed on the histometric data from 48 teeth in the 8 dogs after 4 months of healing. The results showed significant amounts of new attachment obtained from all four treatment modalities with no statistically significant differences for any one treatment. However, the trend towards enhanced regeneration with the combined treatment of laser and membrane vs. membrane alone or debridement alone was evident. The histologic analysis revealed a significant amount of newly formed `fat cementum' seen only on the laser treated teeth. This feature was the most remarkable finding of the study and warrants further research to understand the origin of this phenomenon.

  6. Ellipticity-dependent ionization/dissociation of carbon dioxide in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun-Feng; Ma, Ri; Zuo, Wan-Long; Lv, Hang; Huang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Hai-Feng; Jin, Ming-Xing; Ding, Da-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Ionization and dissociation of linear triatomic molecules, carbon dioxide, are studied in 50-fs 800-nm strong laser fields using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The yields of double charged ions and various fragment ions (CO+, On+, and Cn+ (n = 1, 2)) are measured as a function of ellipticity of laser polarization in the intensity range from 5.0 1013 W/cm2 to 6.0 1014 W/cm2. The results demonstrate that non-sequential double ionization, which is induced by laser-driven electron recollision, dominates double ionization of CO2 in the strong IR laser field with intensity lower than 2.0 1014 W/cm2. The electron recollision could also have contribution in strong-field multiple ionization and formation of fragments of CO2 molecules. The present study indicates that the intensity and ellipticity dependence of ions yields can be used to probe the complex dynamics of strong-field ionization/dissociation of polyatomic molecules. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No.2013CB922200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.11034003 and 11274140).

  7. Effect of carbon dioxide laser treatment on lesion progression in an intraoral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Featherstone, John D. B.; Fried, Daniel; Gansky, Stuart A.; Stookey, George K.; Dunipace, Ann J.

    2001-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that pretreatment of dental enamel by specific carbon dioxide laser conditions inhibited subsequent progression of caries-like lesions in vitro. The aim of the present study was to use an intra-oral model to determine whether similar inhibition is observed in the human mouth. A cross over study with 23 subjects and three regimens was used. Pre-formed varies-like lesions were made in extracted human enamel and exposed intra-orally in partial dentures in each subject to A) placebo dentifrice and no laser treatment, B) placebo dentifrice following laser pretreatment, or C) sodium fluoride dentifrice and no laser treatment during each of three study periods. Samples were assessed by micro radiography to compare the mineral loss before and after each treatment and drive a net change in mineral value. Overall P was not significantly different form L but both P and L were different from F. For those subjects who demineralized in P, L and F were significantly better than P, with L showing an 84 percent inhibition of further demineralization, but no enhancement of demineralization.

  8. Interaction of carbon dioxide laser radiation with a nanotube array in the presence of a constant electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Sadykov, N. R., E-mail: n.r.sadykov@rambler.ru [Branch of South Ural State University (Russian Federation); Scorkin, N. A. [Snezhinsk Physics and Technology Institute of the National Research Nuclear University 'MEPhI' (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    The dependence of the current density on the leading edge width of the alternating (high-frequency) field amplitude is studied at various constant (or unsteady) fields. The dependence of amplified microwaves in the two-millimeter range on a longitudinal coordinate is determined. The problem of submillimeter radiation generation in a system of parallel carbon nanotubes exposed to two-frequency carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} laser) laser radiation in the presence of a constant (or unsteady) field is studied. The possibility of using freely oriented carbon nanotubes parallel to each other is shown.

  9. The carbon dioxide cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature VS Carbon Dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students examine the relationship between carbon dioxide levels and global temperature change by studying a graph of these two variables. They will discover that by using data from ice cores, scientists can determine temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the air as far back as a hundred thousand years in the past. The students try to predict which variable is the independent one and then make a graph of temperature change and carbon dioxide levels. After making their graph, students describe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to determine if their predictions were correct.

  11. Feasibility and clinical outcomes of transoral robotic surgery and transoral robot-assisted carbon dioxide laser for hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Kasim; Kucur, Cuneyt; Uysal, Ismail O; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Ozer, Enver

    2015-01-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used as a novel procedure for squamous cell carcinoma of the laryngopharyngeal cancers with encouraging outcomes. The safety, feasibility, and efficacy regarding this approach have previously been demonstrated. There are several studies proposing the benefit of combining TORS with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in resecting upper aerodigestive tract tumors. We report a series of patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma treated with primary TORS with or without the flexible carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. All TORS resections were completed without any intraoperative complication. None required conversion to an open procedure. Clinical outcomes in this preliminary analysis indicate that magnified view, 3D visualization with the wristed instruments and tremor reduction technology of robotic experience, allow en bloc resection of early stage hypopharyngeal cancers. TORS with CO2 laser is a promising, minimally invasive surgical alternative for the treatment of hypopharyngeal tumors with comparable oncologic outcomes. PMID:25478973

  12. Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Serati, Maurizio; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Iannitti, Tommaso; Salvatore, Stefano; Marotta, Francesco; Calligaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy occurring during menopause is closely related to the dramatic decrease in ovarian estrogens due to the loss of follicular activity. Particularly, significant changes occur in the structure of the vaginal mucosa, with consequent impairment of many physiological functions. In this study, carried out on bioptic vaginal mucosa samples from postmenopausal, nonestrogenized women, we present microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of vaginal mucosa following fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment. We observed the restoration of the vaginal thick squamous stratified epithelium with a significant storage of glycogen in the epithelial cells and a high degree of glycogen-rich shedding cells at the epithelial surface. Moreover, in the connective tissue constituting the lamina propria, active fibroblasts synthesized new components of the extracellular matrix including collagen and ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix) molecules. Differently from atrophic mucosa, newly-formed papillae of connective tissue indented in the epithelium and typical blood capillaries penetrating inside the papillae, were also observed. Our morphological findings support the effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser application for the restoration of vaginal mucosa structure and related physiological trophism. These findings clearly coupled with striking clinical relief from symptoms suffered by the patients before treatment. PMID:25410301

  13. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)

  14. Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides this new data on carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring in 1995. Data for one degree grid cells can be downloaded from the site in addition to code for analysis of the data.

  15. Production of Carbon Dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Science House

    2014-01-28

    In this chemistry activity, learners use common chemicals to produce carbon dioxide and observe its properties. This resource includes brief questions for learners to answer after the experiment. Use this activity to introduce learners to carbon dioxide and its use as a fire extinguisher. Note: this activity involves an open flame.

  16. Progress on High-Energy 2-micron Solid State Laser for NASA Space-Based Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in significant advancement of a 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, air and space-borne platforms. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  17. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  18. Carbon dioxide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  19. Comparison of the effect of the carbon dioxide laser and the bipolar coagulator on the cat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzens, J.W.; Cerullo, L.J.

    1985-04-01

    The carbon dioxide laser has recently received clinical acceptance in neurosurgical practice. There are, however, few studies reported in the neurosurgical literature, either clinical or experimental, concerning its safety or efficacy on a physiological level by comparison to a more conventional tool. This study is not a description of a surgical technique, but is rather a basic physiological comparison of two surgical instruments. In this study, 11 cats were pretreated with the protein-bound dye, Evans blue. A corticotomy was performed in one hemisphere with the carbon dioxide laser and in the other with a microbipolar coagulator and a sharp blade. The subsequent extravasation of dye was presumed to be proportional to the amount of blood-brain barrier disruption associated with each lesion. When effective power settings for the two devices were compared, the laser lesions had significantly less extravasation of blue dye. This indicated that there was less damage to the blood-brain barrier surrounding laser corticotomy than surrounding conventional bipolar coagulation and sharp dissection at comparable power settings for each modality.

  20. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the ?Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  1. Carbon Dioxide Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Randy Richardson

    In this activity, students work in groups, plotting carbon dioxide concentrations over time on overheads and estimating the rate of change over five years. Stacked together, the overheads for the whole class show an increase on carbon dioxide over five years and annual variation driven by photosynthesis. This exercise enables students to practice basic quantitative skills and understand how important sampling intervals can be when studying changes over time. A goal is to see how small sample size may give incomplete picture of data.

  2. Modeling of carbon monoxide oxidation kinetics over NASA carbon dioxide laser catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    The recombination of CO and O2 formed by the dissociation of CO2 in a sealed CO2 laser discharge zone is examined. Conventional base-metal-oxide catalysts and conventional noble-metal catalysts are not effective in recombining the low O2/CO ratio at the low temperatures used by the lasers. The use of Pt/SnO2 as the noble-metal reducible-oxide (NMRO), or other related materials from Group VIIIA and IB and SnO2 interact synergistically to produce a catalytic activity that is substantially higher than either componet separately. The Pt/SnO2 and Pd/SnO2 were reported to have significant reaction rates at temperatures as low as -27 C, conditions under which conventional catalysts are inactive. The gas temperature range of lasers is 0 + or - 40 C. There are three general ways in which the NMRO composite materials can interact synergistically: one component altering the properties of another component; the two components each providing independent catalytic functions in a complex reaction mechanism; and the formation of catalytic sites through the combination of two components at the atomic level. All three of these interactions may be important in low temperature CO oxidation over NMRO catalysts. The effect of the noble metal on the oxide is discussed first, followed by the effect of the oxide on the noble metal, the interaction of the noble metal and oxide to form catalytic sites, and the possible ways in which the CO oxidation reaction is catalyzed by the NMRO materials.

  3. Synergistic effects of sequential carbon dioxide and neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser injuries. Experimental observations and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Primrose, W.J.; McDonald, G.A.; O'Brien, M.J.; Vaughan, C.W.; Strong, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The carbon dioxide and neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet lasers have well documented but characteristically different biological effects, yet little is known about their cumulative, synergistic, or paradoxical effects when used sequentially on living tissue. Using a Merrimack ML 880 laser, a series of superimposed CO/sub 2/ and Nd:YAG lesions in various combinations were produced on the undersurface of dog tongues. Therapeutic time and power settings were chosen and the number of applications varied, with suitable controls. Observations and measurements were made on acute, healing, and healed lesions. All lesions were excised and submitted for routine hematoxylin and eosin histology. Acute lesions were also assessed for cell viability using rhodamine 123 as a supravital marker. The results show that, even though all the lesions eventually heal, the actual cell damage produced by the Nd:YAG laser is much more than is suggested by the size of the acute lesion. This cell damage can be reduced by the surface carbonization produced by initial application of the CO/sub 2/ laser. Higher surface temperatures are reached in this combination with less fibrosis and scarring than equal energy counterparts where the Nd:YAG laser was applied first. The knowledge of these synergistic effects can be used to advantage in the clinical setting. The rhodamine 123 technique also appears to be a valid measure of acute thermal tissue injury.

  4. Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CARBON DIOXIDE

    E-print Network

    i Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CARBON DIOXIDE ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID, Afzal Siddiqui, and Judy Lai. 2011. The Carbon Dioxide Abatement Potential of California's Mid/Agricultural/Water EndUse Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies · Transportation The Carbon Dioxide

  5. 8, 73157337, 2008 Carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide distributions over Europe C. Gurk et al. Title Page Abstract distributions of carbon dioxide over Europe C. Gurk1 , H. Fischer1 , P. Hoor1 , M.G. Lawrence1 , J. Lelieveld1 Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 7315 #12;ACPD 8, 7315­7337, 2008 Carbon dioxide

  6. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert A. Rohde

    This figure, the famous Keeling Curve, shows the history of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations as directly measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. This curve is an essential piece of evidence that shows the increased greenhouse gases that cause recent increases in global temperatures.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Increases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this problem set, learners will analyze the Keeling Curve showing carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere since 1985 to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  8. A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    Saleska, Scott

    A high precision pulsed quantum cascade laser spectrometer for measurements of stable isotopes for precise measurement of stable carbon (13 C/12 C) isotopologue ratios in atmospheric CO2. Using novel of analysis time. The standard deviation of 0.18ø for individual 30 s measurements shows that this prototype

  9. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  10. Carbon dioxide adsorbent study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    A study was initiated on the feasibility of using the alkali metal carbonate - bi-carbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of an EVA life support system. The program successfully demonstrates that carbon dioxide concentrations could be maintained below 0.1 mole per cent using this chemistry. Further a practical method for distributing the carbonates in a coherent sheet form capable of repeated regeneration (50 cycles) at modest temperatures (423 K), without loss in activity was also demonstrated. Sufficiently high reaction rates were shown to be possible with the carbonate - bi-carbonate system such that EVA hardware could be readily designed. Experimental and design data were presented on the basis of which two practical units were designed. In addition to conventional thermally regenerative systems very compact units using ambient temperature cyclic vacuum regeneration may also be feasible. For a one man - 8 hour EVA unit regenerated thermally at the base ship a system volume of 14 liters is estimated.

  11. Surface and mineral changes of enamel with different remineralizing agents in conjunction with carbon-dioxide laser

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ajit George; Ebenezar, A. V. Rajesh; Ghani, Mohamed Fayas; Martina, Leena; Narayanan, Ashwin; Mony, Bejoy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface/mineral changes on enamel before and after the application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel, fluoride enhanced hydroxyapatite gel and propolis in conjunction with carbon-dioxide (CO2) laser. Materials and Methods: Crowns of 40 human maxillary central incisors were collected and were divided into four groups of 10 each: Topical fluoride application only, topical fluoride application followed by CO2 laser irradiation, CO2 laser irradiation followed by topical fluoride application and CO2 laser irradiation before and after topical fluoride application. The 10 crowns in each group was again sectioned into four equal parts of mesio-incisal, disto-incisal, mesio-cervical and disto-cervical sections rendering 40 samples in each group. Each group was again subdivided into four subgroups: Subgroup C - untreated enamel surface (control). Subgroup A - APF gel application, subgroup R - fluoride enhanced hydroxyapatite gel application and subgroup P - propolis application. The surface morphology of the test samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and mineral changes by energy dispersion X-ray spectrophotometer. Results: Total mineral content is maximum in Group 4A (CO2 laser irradiation before and after APF gel application) and calcium/phosphate ratio is highest in Group 4R (CO2 laser irradiation before and after Remin-Pro application). Group 2A (APF gel application followed by CO2 laser irradiation) has the maximum fluoride retention. Conclusion: Laser irradiation of enamel through a topically applied APF gel is effective in the prophylaxis and management of dental caries. PMID:24966758

  12. Carbon Dioxide Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of some of the widely-varied terrain of the martian south polar residual cap. The landforms here are composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each year since MGS arrived in 1997, the scarps that bound each butte and mesa, or line the edges of each pit, in the south polar region, have changed a little bit as carbon dioxide is sublimed away. The scarps retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year. Most of the change occurs during each southern summer.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 9.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  13. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  14. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  15. Carbon Dioxide Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 March 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is mostly made of frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that a person can go to see the landforms that would be produced by erosion and sublimation of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometers of carbon dioxide. Thus, the south polar cap of Mars is as alien as alien can get. This image, acquired in February 2004 by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows how the cap appears in summer as carbon dioxide is subliming away, creating a wild pattern of pits, mesas, and buttes. Darker surfaces may be areas where the ice contains impurities, such as dust, or where the surface has been roughened by the removal of ice. This image is located near 86.3oS, 0.8oW. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

  16. Transendoscopic and freehand use of flexible hollow fibers for carbon dioxide laser surgery in the upper airway of the horse: a preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Scott E.

    1991-05-01

    Hollow plastic fibers lined with metal and dielectric films that transmit carbon dioxide laser energy were evaluated for clinical use in upper airway surgery of the horse. These flexible waveguides were used both freehand and through the biopsy channel of an endoscope to incise, coagulate and vaporize tissues in the pharynx and larynx of 4 horses.

  17. Differential laser absorption spectrometry for global profiling of tropospheric carbon dioxide: selection of optimum sounding frequencies for high-precision measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert T. Menzies; David M. Tratt

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the spectroscopic requirements for a laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) approach to high-precision carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements in the troposphere. Global-scale, high-precision CO2 measurements are highly desirable in an effort to improve understanding and quantification of the CO2 sources and sinks and their impact on global climate. We present differential absorption sounding characteristics for selected LAS transmitter laser wavelengths,

  18. Nature-Like Photosynthesis of Water and Carbon Dioxide with Femtosecond Laser Induced Self-Assembled Metal Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Shen, Mengyan; Huo, Haibin; Ren, Haizhou; Yan, Fadong; Johnson, Michael

    Large-scale replication of the natural process of photosynthesis is a crucial subject of storing solar energy and saving our environment. Here, we report femtosecond laser induced self-assembled metal nanostructure arrays, which are easily mass producible on earth-abundant metals, can directly synthesize liquid and solid hydrocarbon compounds from carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight at a production rate of more than 1 105 ?L/(gh) that is significantly (103-106 times) higher than those in previous studies.1,2 The efficiency for storing solar energy of the photosynthesis is about 10% in the present simple experimental setup which can be further improved. Moreover, different from previous artificial photosynthesis works, this phenomenon presents a new mechanism that, through a surface-enhanced photodissociation process, nature-like photosynthesis can be performed artificially.

  19. Carbon dioxide affects global ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene K. Peterson

    1969-01-01

    Man's activities are changing the carbon dioxide and oxygen content of the entire atmosphere. These changes may, in turn, affect worldwide weather and the growth of plants. Under normal conditions, the amounts of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere remain approximately in equilibrium on a year-to-year basis. The atmosphere today contains about 21% oxygen and about 0.032% carbon dioxide

  20. Comparative and quantitative study of neutral debris emanated from tin plasmas produced by neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet and carbon dioxide laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Yuji; Nakai, Yuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Maeda, Shinsuke; Shimomura, Masashi; Shimada, Yoshinori; Sunahara, Atsushi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Minoru

    2010-09-01

    Amount of neutral debris emanated from extreme ultraviolet light source must be minimized to maximize its lifetime. Emanation of neutral atomic debris was experimentally investigated using laser-induced-fluorescence technique for carbon dioxide (CO2, 10.6 ?m in wavelength) and Nd-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG, 1.064 ?m) lasers irradiated tin foils. Total number of neutral atomic debris from CO2 laser-irradiated tin foils was 1/100 times smaller than that from Nd:YAG irradiated ones. Competitiveness of CO2 laser was revealed in terms of debris mitigation.

  1. Comparative and quantitative study of neutral debris emanated from tin plasmas produced by neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet and carbon dioxide laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Yuji; Nakai, Yuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Maeda, Shinsuke; Shimomura, Masashi; Nishimura, Hiroaki [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shimada, Yoshinori; Sunahara, Atsushi [Institute for Laser Technology, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-Oka, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Minoru [Department of Electronics and Electronic Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2010-09-13

    Amount of neutral debris emanated from extreme ultraviolet light source must be minimized to maximize its lifetime. Emanation of neutral atomic debris was experimentally investigated using laser-induced-fluorescence technique for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}, 10.6 {mu}m in wavelength) and Nd-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG, 1.064 {mu}m) lasers irradiated tin foils. Total number of neutral atomic debris from CO{sub 2} laser-irradiated tin foils was 1/100 times smaller than that from Nd:YAG irradiated ones. Competitiveness of CO{sub 2} laser was revealed in terms of debris mitigation.

  2. Use of Zernike polynomials and interferometry in the optical design and assembly of large carbon-dioxide laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the need for non-raytracing schemes in the optical design and analysis of large carbon-dioxide lasers like the Gigawatt, Gemini, and Helios lasers currently operational at Los Alamos, and the Antares laser fusion system under construction. The scheme currently used at Los Alamos involves characterizing the various optical components with a Zernike polynomial set obtained by the digitization of experimentally produced interferograms of the components. A Fast Fourier Transform code then propagates the complex amplitude and phase of the beam through the whole system and computes the optical parameters of interest. The analysis scheme is illustrated through examples of the Gigawatt, Gemini, and Helios systems. A possible way of using the Zernike polynomials in optical design problems of this type is discussed. Comparisons between the computed values and experimentally obtained results are made and it is concluded that this appears to be a valid approach. As this is a review article, some previously published results are also used where relevant.

  3. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. J. Huijgen; R. N. J. Comans

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals

  4. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2 , CAS...

  5. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  6. Simultaneous Measurements of Leaf and Soil Carbon Dioxide Flux Using a Tunable Diode Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, J. E.; Barbour, M. M.

    2007-12-01

    A portable photosynthesis system (Li-6400, Li-Cor, NE) and a through-flow soil chamber were used to continuously measure the gas exchange of leaf and below ground components in pots containing corn, Triticale and a non-planted control. Temperature was kept constant through-out the experiment, and measurements were made at 4 min intervals over a full diurnal light cycle. A tunable diode laser (TGA100A, Campbell Scientific, UT) was used to measure the concentration and stable isotopic composition (?13C and ?18O) of the air entering and exiting both chambers. End-member isotope values were determined by short-term incubation of component parts in Tedlar bags, and the evolved gas was measured with the laser. These data were used to determine the isotopic signature of CO2 derived from root respiration, microbial respiration of plant derived exudates and soil organic matter (SOM) to allow the partitioning of the total flux into component parts. The ?13C of SOM respiration was identical when measured with the soil chamber on the control pots and when using incubated samples from the same pots. However, incubation of the potting mix in the other treatments was more enriched (corn) and more depleted (Triticale) than the control, indicating that end-member determination of the original SOM was confounded by exudates from the plants. Using a mixing model to partition the soil respiration, and the ?13C of SOM from the control pots, corn roots contributed 25% and Triticale 72% of the below-ground respiration. Incubation of soil with the roots removed allowed non-root respiration to be partitioned into contributions from pre-existing SOM and more recent plant derived exudates for corn (23% recent carbon) and Triticale (36% recent carbon).

  7. Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Koch; H. A. Mooney

    1996-01-01

    This book is a summary of the current research which addresses the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on terrestrial ecosystems and an identification of significant unresolved issues. Chapters address the carbon dioxide effects on trees and forests, unmanaged herbaceous ecosystems, and crops. Included are experimental studies, conceptual models, general mathematical models, dynamic simulation models.

  8. Effect of smoke evacuation on limiting thermal damage when using the carbon dioxide laser for cutaneous surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Ruth A.; Thomas, J. M.; Clement, Marc; Davies, S.

    1990-06-01

    We have conducted a study of the use of the carbon dioxide (C02) laser for ablation of multiple cutaneous recurrences of melanoma. Lesions of primary malignant melanoma are usually widely excised to try and prevent local recurrence. Despite this, recurrent cutaneous lesions do occur. These lesions may be small and numerous making local excision impractical. Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion has shown some success in controlling the local disease but this procedure has a significant morbidty, some patients show only a limited response and post-perfusion recurrences are common.1 Also, in some patients, thelesions will not be confined to a limb. No other method of local control has provided an ideal solution and amputation has sometimes been a last resort. We have therefore selected patients for laser ablation if they have had lesions too numerous for local excision, or have had recurrences following perfusion or were otherwise suitable for perfusion. The lesions were vaporized under local or general anaesthesia according to their size and number. The wounds were then left to heal by secondary intention. Simple dry dressings were applied and all patients were discharged home within 24 hours. In total we have treated over 1,500 lesions in 30 patients. The results of the initial study have been very encouraging. The procedure is quick and simple with absent or minimal post-operative pain. Although the incidence of recurrent tumour at a previously lasered site is less than 1%, new tumours may develop at other sites. These are amenable to further laser treatment.

  9. Ex vivo investigations of laser auricular cartilage reshaping with carbon dioxide spray cooling in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Edward C.; Sun, Victor; Manuel, Cyrus T.; Protsenko, Dmitriy E.; Jia, Wangcun; Nelson, J. Stuart; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Laser cartilage reshaping (LCR) with cryogen spray cooling is a promising modality for producing cartilage shape change while reducing cutaneous thermal injury. However, LCR in thicker tissues, such as auricular cartilage, requires higher laser power, thus increasing cooling requirements. To eliminate the risks of freeze injury characteristic of high cryogen spray pulse rates, a carbon dioxide (CO2) spray, which evaporates rapidly from the skin, has been proposed as the cooling medium. This study aims to identify parameter sets which produce clinically significant reshaping while producing minimal skin thermal injury in LCR with CO2 spray cooling in ex vivo rabbit auricular cartilage. Excised whole rabbit ears were mechanically deformed around a cylindrical jig and irradiated with a 1.45-?m wavelength diode laser (fluence 1214 J/cm2 per pulse, four to six pulse cycles per irradiation site, five to six irradiation sites per row for four rows on each sample) with concomitant application of CO2 spray (pulse duration 3385 ms) to the skin surface. Bend angle measurements were performed before and after irradiation, and the change quantified. Surface temperature distributions were measured during irradiation/cooling. Maximum skin surface temperature ranged between 49.0 to 97.6 C following four heating/cooling cycles. Significant reshaping was achieved with all laser dosimetry values with a 5070 C difference noted between controls (no cooling) and irradiated ears. Increasing cooling pulse duration yielded progressively improved gross skin protection during irradiation. CO2 spray cooling may potentially serve as an alternative to traditional cryogen spray cooling in LCR and may be the preferred cooling medium for thicker tissues. Future studies evaluating preclinical efficacy in an in vivo rabbit model are in progress. PMID:23307439

  10. Use of a carbon dioxide laser for surgical management of cutaneous masses in horses: 65 cases (1993-2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Jan F.; McCauley, Charles T.

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of horses treated for cutaneous masses with the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. The records of 65 horses were examined. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia or standing under sedation and local anesthesia. Excision was performed freehand using a focused beam with power settings ranging from 10 to 32 Watts in a continuous mode. Following en bloc removal of masses the subcutaneous tissue and wound margins were photovaporized using a defocused beam. Follow-up information was obtained via telephone interview with owners or referring veterinarians Cutaneous masses were divided into three groups: sarcoid (29), neoplasia including squamous cell carcinoma (15), melanoma (6), schwanoma (2), fibroma (1), and fibrosarcoma (1), and non-neoplastic masses (11). Mass reoccurrence developed in 8 of 29 (28%) sarcoids and 4 of 14 (29%) squamous cell carcinoma. No reoccurrence was reported for horses diagnosed with melanoma, schwanoma, fibrosarcoma, fibroma, or any of the non-neoplastic masses. Sixty of 63 owners (95%) reported that they were satisfied with the outcome of the procedure. This study demonstrates that the CO2 laser is an effective means of treating cutaneous masses in horses.

  11. Sampling Carbon Dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-28

    In this lab activity, student teams hypothesize which source has a greater becomes CO concentration: their breath, auto exhaust, or air in the classroom. They test gas samples from each of these sources, plot data, and hypothesize about the respective role engine exhaust and animal respiration play in contemporary climate change. The lab procedures require Bromthymol Blue indicator solution (BTB), household ammonia, vinegar, and balloons. Links to videos supporting the investigations are provided. This activity is supported by a textbook chapter, "How is Carbon Dioxide Measured?," part of the unit, Climate Change, in Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of the south polar residual cap at full MOC resolution, 1.5 m (5 ft) per pixel. During each of the three summers since the start of the MGS mapping mission in March 1999, the scarps that form mesas and pits in the 'Swiss cheese'-like south polar terrain have retreated an average of about 3 meters (1 yard). The material is frozen carbon dioxide; another 3 meters or so of each scarp is expected to be removed during the next summer, in late 2005. This image is located near 86.0oS, 350.8oW, and covers an area about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

  13. Safe and Effective One-Session Fractional Skin Resurfacing Using a Carbon Dioxide Laser Device in Super-Pulse Mode: A Clinical and Histologic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario A. Trelles; Michael Shohat; Fernando Urdiales

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser ablative fractional resurfacing produces skin damage, with removal of the epidermis and variable portions of the dermis\\u000a as well as associated residual heating, resulting in new collagen formation and skin tightening. The nonresurfaced epidermis\\u000a helps tissue to heal rapidly, with short-term postoperative erythema. The results for 40 patients (8 men and 32 women) after\\u000a a single

  14. NASA Satellite Sees Carbon Dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this problem set, learners will analyze a map of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from satellite data. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  15. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  16. Carbon Dioxide and Ocean Acidification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chris Lewis

    Demonstrates the affect of increased dissolved carbon dioxide on water pH using a cheap, non-toxic acid/base indicator. Students bubble breath through a straw into red cabbage juice and note the color change.

  17. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: treatment by carbon dioxide laser and risk factors for failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer T Yalcin; Thomas J Rutherford; Setsuko K Chambers; Joseph T Chambers; Peter E Schwartz

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 laser ablation of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) and to define prognostic factors. Study Design: Medical records of 24 patients with VAIN II or III, treated by CO2 laser ablation from 1990 to 1998 were reviewed. The grade, location, and focality of the lesions, the age, follow-up period and menopausal status of the patients,

  18. Optogalvanic stabilization and offset tuning of a carbon dioxide waveguide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J.; Menzies, R. T.; Oppenheim, U. P.

    1982-01-01

    A feedback loop employing the change in discharge impedance with output power is used to stabilize the frequency of a CO2 waveguide laser. The relatively high operating pressure of the laser combined with a zero offset feature in the feedback loop allows continuous tuning of the stabilized frequency over a 300-400 MHz range.

  19. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  20. Carbon dioxide laser turbinectomy versus submucosal diathermy of hypertrophied turbinates. Histopathological prospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed Bofares, Khalid

    2010-05-01

    Aim: To assess suspected turbinate mucosal distractive changes of CO2 laser partial turbinectomy as compared to submucosal diathermy technique of hypertrophied inferior turbinates and thus risk of appearance of mucosal atrophic changes. Introduction: CO2 laser turbinotomy or turbinectomy has become an established well documented line of treatment of hypertrophied inferior turbinates not responding to medical treatment. Although there have been several reports discussing the clinical aspects of laser turbinectomy, but exact pathological changes that take place following laser application to the turbinate have not been described completely and clearly. For this reason this study was conducted to confirm these possible histopathological changes and compared with those following submucosal diathermy technique. Patients and methods: Twenty patients with chronic hypertrophied inferior turbinates and presenting mainly with nasal obstruction, ten out of them were subjected to CO2 laser turbinectomy while other half underwent to submucosal diathermy technique. Tiny biopsies were taken immediately after surgery (within one week after surgery ), as well as 4-6 weeks later and processed for further histopathological evaluation. Results: By 100%, the all patients of two groups showed areas of epithelial loss were observed immediately after both techniques. 4-6 weeks after laser application 60% of patients showed normal epithelial areas as compared to second group where 20% of patients who showed normal epithelial picture. Conclusion: CO2 laser turbinectomy can be considered as more preservative technique for nasal mucosa as well as the function of the nose as compared to submucosal diathermy technique.

  1. Transdermal delivery of three vitamin C derivatives by Er:YAG and carbon dioxide laser pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hsun; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Hu, Sindy; Ko, Yu-Shien

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of two lasers (Er:YAG and CO2) in enhancing skin permeation of three vitamin C derivatives, L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium salt (MAP-1), magnesium L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (MAP-2), and 2-phospho-L-ascorbic acid trisodium salt (SAP). Dorsal skin of 1-week-old pathogen-free pigs was used for this in vitro study. Changes in permeation in laser-treated skin treated by the lasers were examined by confocal scanning electron microscopy. Transdermal flux of vitamin C derivatives was examined with a Franz diffusion cell. Fluxes of MAP-1, MAP-2, and SAP across Er:YAG laser-treated skin were 15-27-fold, 48-123-fold, and 22-56-fold higher, respectively, than their fluxes across intact skin. The fluxes of MAP-1, MAP-2, and SAP across CO2 laser-treated skin were 28-36-fold, 116-156-fold, and 79-102-fold higher, respectively, than their fluxes across intact skin. Optimal fluency for the Er:YAG laser was 3.8 J/cm(2) for MAP-1 and 5 J/cm(2) for MAP-2 and SAP. Optimal fluency for the CO2 laser was 5 W for all three derivatives. In conclusion, optimal fluency for all derivatives was 5 W for the CO2 laser and 3.8 to 5 J/cm(2) for the Er:YAG laser. PMID:22825318

  2. Carbon dioxide laser ablation with immediate autografting in a full-thickness porcine burn model.

    PubMed Central

    Glatter, R D; Goldberg, J S; Schomacker, K T; Compton, C C; Flotte, T J; Bua, D P; Greaves, K W; Nishioka, N S; Sheridan, R L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term clinical and histologic outcome of immediate autografting of full-thickness burn wounds ablated with a high-power continuous-wave CO2 laser to sharply dbrided wounds in a porcine model. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Continuous-wave CO2 lasers have performed poorly as tools for burn excision because the large amount of thermal damage to viable subeschar tissues precluded successful autografting. However, a new technique, in which a high-power laser is rapidly scanned over the eschar, results in eschar vaporization without significant damage to underlying viable tissues, allowing successful immediate autografting. METHODS: Full-thickness paravertebral burn wounds measuring 36 cm2 were created on 11 farm swine. Wounds were ablated to adipose tissue 48 hours later using either a surgical blade or a 150-Watt continuous-wave CO2 laser deflected by an x-y galvanometric scanner that translated the beam over the tissue surface, removing 200 microm of tissue per scan. Both sites were immediately autografted and serially evaluated clinically and histologically for 180 days. RESULTS: The laser-treated sites were nearly bloodless. The mean residual thermal damage was 0.18+/-0.05 mm. The mean graft take was 96+/-11% in manual sites and 93+/-8% in laser sites. On postoperative day 7, the thickness of granulation tissue at the graft-wound bed interface was greater in laser-debrided sites. By postoperative day 180, the manual and laser sites were histologically identical. Vancouver scar assessment revealed no differences in scarring at postoperative day 180. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term scarring, based on Vancouver scar assessments and histologic evaluation, was equivalent at 6 months in laser-ablated and sharply excised sites. Should this technology become practical, the potential clinical implications include a reduction in surgical blood loss without sacrifice of immediate engraftment rates or long-term outcome. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9712572

  3. Spectrophone stabilization and offset tuning of a carbon dioxide waveguide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J.; Menzies, R. T.; Oppenheim, U. P.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive spectrophone containing CO2 gas is incorporated into a feedback loop to stabilize the frequency of a CO2 waveguide laser. First or second harmonic detection combined with a zero offset feature and the relatively high operating pressure of the laser allows continuous tuning of the stabilized frequency over a 400 MHz range. Frequency stability of better than + or - 1 MHz is achieved.

  4. Ionization of Heavy Water Vapour by Intense Carbon Dioxide Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Jennifer Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this study was the optimisation and stabilisation of a high-power CO_2 laser oscillator-amplifiers system for its efficient utilisation in intense CO_2 laser-matter interaction experiments, and its application. One such study, namely the investigation of the fundamental processes involved in the ionisation of molecules, is presented. The ionisation of heavy water vapour by intense nanosecond CO _2 laser pulses, in the neighborhood of 10 mum, was observed. The wavelength and intensity of these laser pulses allow the observation of ionisation in the tunnelling regime. A qualitative model explaining the experimental results is presented. Following the improvements to the laser system, the laser chain produces pulses in excess of 1 GW on a routine daily basis with minimal adjustments. The laser chain also includes a simple provision against amplified retroreflections, which has been developed in order to reduce potential damage to the system. Our experiments involve the measurement of ions emanating from the region of interaction of the focused, intense laser beam with heavy water vapour. Data are taken at two different laser wavelengths. The ionisation of the heavy water molecule occurs at a lower laser intensity than that which would be expected for an atom of the same ionisation potential. Mercury vapour has also been used in our experiment. The latter results are shown to be in good agreement with the tunnelling theory of Ammosov, Delone and Krainov (1986) (ADK). A qualitative model explaining the observation of D_2O^+ and (D_2O)_sp{2 }{+} resulting from the heavy water vapour ionisation is presented. The characteristics of the heavy water vapour ionisation experiment are such that it is performed largely within the tunnel ionisation regime. The model explaining our results is based on tunnel ionisation from the molecule which is in an electronically excited state. In comparing the experimental data for D _2O^+ and (D _2O)_sp{2}{+ } with ADK theory, the probability of attaining the electronically excited state prior to ionisation is estimated. Ionisation processes in (D_2 O)_2 and Hg_2 are also briefly discussed.

  5. Molecular Structure of Carbon Dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    Carbon dioxide was first described in the 17th century by Jan Baptist van Helmont, a Belgium chemist. The chemical CO2 is released into the atmosphere when carbon-containing fossil fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal are burned in air. It is also produced by various microorganisms in fermentation and is breathed out by animals. Plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, using both the carbon and the oxygen to construct carbohydrates. Every year the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing. CO2 build-up in the atmosphere is caused by deforestation, therefore reducing the number of trees available to absorb CO2. Excess CO2 in the environment causes Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect. It is also toxic to humans since inhalation of large amounts of CO2 can cause suffocation. Some beverages, such as beer and sparkling wine contain carbon dioxide as a result of fermentation.

  6. Two-wavelength carbon dioxide laser application for in-vitro blood glucose measurements.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Martina; Mller, Gehard; Albrecht, Hansjrg; Antoniou, Christina; Richter, Heike; Lademann, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    To develop a fast and easy clinical method for glucose measurements on whole blood samples, changes in glucose spectra are investigated varying temperature, glucose concentration, and solvent using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR- FTIR) measurements. The results show a stability of the spectra at different temperatures and wavelength shifts of the absorption bands when water is replaced by blood. Because the ATR measurements are influenced by sedimentation of the red blood cells, a two-wavelength CO2 laser is used to determine the glucose concentration in whole blood samples. For this purpose, the first laser wavelength lambda(1) is tuned to the maximum of the glucose absorption band in blood at 1080 cm(-1), and the second laser wavelength lambda 2 is tuned to 950 cm(-1) for background measurements. The transmitted laser power through the optical cell containing the whole blood sample at lambda 1 and lambda 2 is used to determine the ratio. This signal correlates well with the glucose concentration in the whole blood samples. The CO2 laser measurement is too fast to be influenced by the red blood cell sedimentation, and will be a suitable method for glucose determination in whole blood. PMID:18315379

  7. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-print Network

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide of a coal gasification power plant. The separated carbon dioxide can be compressed and transported dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from

  8. Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Organized by NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory (CMDL), the Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference is planned September 25-30 in Broomfield, Colo. At this website, scientists involved in various aspects of the global carbon cycle, especially the current increases of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, are encouraged to attend. Users can read the preliminary announcement and can learn about the themes of the conference. Researchers can learn about abstract submissions and accommodations. The Brief Conference History link offers a nice synopsis of the accomplishments of past conferences.

  9. Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

  10. Treatment of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia with the carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Kaur, T; Sandhu, K; Gupta, S; Kanwar, A J; Kumar, B

    2004-09-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon, idiopathic condition that presents with isolated or grouped plaques or nodules in the periauricular region, forehead, or scalp. ALHE is marked by a proliferation of blood vessels with distinctive large endothelial cells accompanied by a characteristic inflammatory infiltrate that includes eosinophils. The lesion is benign but may be persistent and difficult to eradicate. Various therapeutic modalities that have been tried for its treatment include intralesional and oral corticosteroids, cryotherapy, oral retinoids, vinblastine, surgical excision, laser therapy, and INFalpha2a. We report two cases with this rare condition: one patient, treated with cryotherapy, did not improve, while the second patient was successfully treated with the CO(2) laser. PMID:15370402

  11. In vivo study of necrosis on the liver tissue of Wistar rats: a combination of photodynamic therapy and carbon dioxide laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, R. F.; Nicolodelli, G.; Araujo, M. T.; Tirapelli, L. F.; Araujo-Moreira, F. M.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2013-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is known to be limited to applications in large volume tumors due to its limited penetration. Therefore, a combination of PDT and carbon dioxide (CO2) laser ablation may constitute a potential protocol to destroy bulk tumors because it involves an association of these two techniques allowing the removal of visible lesions with a high selectivity of destruction of remnant tumors. The main aim of this study is to investigate the most appropriate procedure to combine use of a CO2 laser and PDT on livers of healthy rats, and to analyze different techniques of this treatment using three types of photosensitizers (PSs). Forty eight animals were separated to form six groups: (1) only CO2 laser ablation, (2) drug and CO2 laser ablation, (3) only PDT, (4) drug and light (PDT) followed by CO2 laser ablation, (5) ablated with CO2 laser followed by PDT, and (6) drug followed by CO2 laser ablation and light. For each group, three types of photosensitization were used: topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), intravenous ALA and intravenous Photogem. Thirty hours after the treatments, the animals were sacrificed and the livers removed. The depth of necrosis was analyzed and measured, considering microscopic and macroscopic aspects. The results show that the effects of the PDT were considerably enhanced when combined with CO2 laser ablation, especially when the PDT was performed before the CO2 laser ablation.

  12. Ultrafast Switching of Carbon Dioxide Laser Pulses by Optically-Induced Plasma Reflection in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elezzabi, Abdulhakem Youssef

    1995-01-01

    Ultrafast mid-infrared laser pulse generation using optical semiconductor switching is investigated experimentally for application to subpicosecond CO_2 laser pulse generation at 10.6 mum. Time -resolved infrared measurements, which are based on cross -correlation and reflection-reflection correlation techniques, are used to determine the duration of the reflected infrared pulses from a GaAs infrared reflection switch. These time -resolved measurements together with time-integrated measurements are used to derive a model describing the behaviour of the GaAs infrared reflection switch. It is found that diffusion and two-body recombinations whose rate is taken to be density-dependent, can accurately describe the ultrafast infrared reflectivity switching process in GaAs. We have also investigated some novel semiconductor materials with ultrafast recombination lifetimes for ultrafast semiconductor switching application. A molecular beam epitaxy low temperature grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) and radiation damaged GaAs (RD-GaAs) are successfully used to switch out ultrashort CO _2 laser pulses. Application of the time -resolved cross-correlation technique to nonequilibrium carrier lifetime measurements in highly excited LT-GaAs, RD-GaAs, and In_{0.85}Ga _{0.15}As/GaAs relaxed superlattice structure are found to be in good agreement with other reported techniques. As an application to semiconductor probing, ultrafast infrared transmission experiments are conducted to determine the absorption of infrared pulses in Si of various dopings after free carriers have been generated by absorption of a subpicosecond laser pulse of above band gap photon energy. By fitting the experimental data to a theoretical model, the free-carrier absorption cross-sections and the momentum relaxation times are calculated.

  13. Photodynamic Therapy with Ablative Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser for Treating Bowen Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sue Kyung; Park, Ji-Youn; Song, Hyo Sang; Kim, You-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Background Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been increasingly used to treat malignant skin tumors including the Bowen disease. However, patients could be displeased with the long incubation time required for conventional PDT. Objective We evaluated the efficacy and safety of PDT with a short incubation time of ablative CO2 fractional laser pretreatment for treating Bowen disease. Methods Ten patients were included. Just before applying the topical photosensitizer, all lesions were treated with ablative CO2 fractional laser, following the application of methyl aminolevulinate and irradiation with red light (Aktilite CL 128). Histological confirmation, rebiopsy, and clinical assessments were performed. Adverse events were also recorded. Results Five of the ten (50%) lesions showed a complete response (CR) within three PDT sessions. After four treatment sessions, all lesions except one penile shaft lesion (90%) achieved clinical and histological CR or clinical CR only. The average number of treatments to CR was 3.701.70. The treatments showed favorable cosmetic outcomes and no serious adverse events. Conclusion The results suggest that pretreatment with an ablative fractional CO2 laser before PDT has similar treatment efficacy and requires a shorter photosensitizer incubation time compared with the conventional PDT method. PMID:24003277

  14. Mitigation of Laser Damage Growth in Fused Silica NIF Optics with a Galvanometer Scanned Carbon Dioxide Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, I L; Draggoo, V; Guss, G M; Hackel, R P; Norton, M A

    2006-04-06

    Economic operation of the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory depends on controlling growth of laser damage in the large, high cost optics exposed to UV light at 351 nm. Mitigation of the growth of damage sites on fused silica surfaces greater than several hundred microns in diameter has been previously reported by us using galvanometer scanning of a tightly focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot over an area encompassing the laser damage. Further investigation revealed that fused silica vapor re-deposited on the surface as ''debris'' led to laser damage at unexpectedly low fluences when exposed to multiple laser shots at 351 nm. Additionally, laser power and spatial mode fluctuations in the mitigation laser led to poor repeatability of the process. We also found that the shape of the mitigation pit could produce downstream intensification that could damage other NIF optics. Modifications were made to both the laser system and the mitigation process in order to address these issues. Debris was completely eliminated by these changes, but repeatability and downstream intensification issues still persist.

  15. Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt

    E-print Network

    Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts of power stations and from other

  16. Experiment and modeling: Ignition of aluminum particles with a carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Salil

    Aluminum is a promising ingredient for high energy density compositions used in propulsion systems, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Aluminum powder fuel additives enable one to achieve higher combustion enthalpies and reaction temperatures. Therefore, to develop aluminum based novel and customized high density energetic materials, understanding of ignition and combustion kinetics of aluminum powders is required. In most practical systems, metal ignition and combustion occur in environments with rapidly changing temperatures and gas compositions. The kinetics of exothermic reactions in related energetic materials is commonly characterized by thermal analysis, where the heating rates are very low, on the order of 1--50 K/min. The extrapolation of the identified kinetics to the high heating rates is difficult and requires direct experimental verification. This difficulty led to development of new experimental approaches to directly characterize ignition kinetics for the heating rates in the range of 103--104 K/s. However, the practically interesting heating rates of 106 K/s range have not been achieved. This work is directed at development of an experimental technique and respective heat transfer model for studying ignition of aluminum and other micron-sized metallic particles at heating rates varied around 106 K/s. The experimental setup uses a focused CO2 laser as a heating source and a plate capacitor aerosolizer to feed the aluminum particles into the laser beam. The setup allows using different environment for particle aerosolization. The velocities of particles in the jet are in the range of 0.1 --0 3 m/s. For each selected jet velocity, the laser power is increased until the particles are observed to ignite. The ignition is detected optically using a digital camera and a photomultiplier. The ignition thresholds for spherical aluminum powder were measured at three different particle jet velocities, in air environment. A single particle heat transfer model was developed to describe the experiments. Experiments with different jet velocities in air environment were performed to validate the model. The interaction of the laser beam with particles is particle size dependent and a narrow range of particle sizes (around 3.4 microm) is heated most effectively. Therefore, the heat transfer model needs to be analyzed only for the particles with this specific size, which greatly simplifies the interpretation of experiments. Describing heating of a micron sized metal particle involves the transition regime heat transfer. A modified Fuchs model was used to describe the heat transfer in this study. In addition to dry air environment, the experimental technique was also used with other oxidizing environments, including O2, H2O, CO2 and mixtures thereof. It was observed that particle size capable of maintaining a vapor phase flame is a function of the environment. Arrhenius model kinetics parameters for Al ignition in O2, CO2 and H2O environments were determined.

  17. Carbon Dioxide - Our Common "Enemy"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.; Macatangay, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Health effects of brief and prolonged exposure to carbon dioxide continue to be a concern for those of us who manage this pollutant in closed volumes, such as in spacecraft and submarines. In both examples, considerable resources are required to scrub the atmosphere to levels that are considered totally safe for maintenance of crew health and performance. Defining safe levels is not a simple task because of many confounding factors, including: lack of a robust database on human exposures, suspected significant variations in individual susceptibility, variations in the endpoints used to assess potentially adverse effects, the added effects of stress, and the fluid shifts associated with micro-gravity (astronauts only). In 2007 the National Research Council proposed revised Continuous Exposure Guidelines (CEGLs) and Emergency Exposure Guidelines (EEGLs) to the U.S. Navy. Similarly, in 2008 the NASA Toxicology Group, in cooperation with another subcommittee of the National Research Council, revised Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). In addition, a 1000-day exposure limit was set for long-duration spaceflights to celestial bodies. Herein we examine the rationale for the levels proposed to the U.S. Navy and compare this rationale with the one used by NASA to set its limits. We include a critical review of previous studies on the effects of exposure to carbon dioxide and attempt to dissect out the challenges associated with setting fully-defensible limits. We also describe recent experiences with management of carbon dioxide aboard the International Space Station with 13 persons aboard. This includes the tandem operations of the Russian Vozduk and the U.S. Carbon Dioxide Removal System. A third removal system is present while the station is docked to the Shuttle spacecraft, so our experience includes the lithium hydroxide system aboard Shuttle for the removal of carbon dioxide. We discuss strategies for highly-efficient, regenerable removal of carbon dioxide that could meet the 1000-day SMAC of 0.5%, which would apply to long-duration voyages to Mars.

  18. Solid-State 2-Micron Laser Transmitter Advancement for Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements From Ground, Airborne, and Space-Based Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Ismail, Syed

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing 2-micron lidar technologies over a decade for wind measurements, utilizing coherent Doppler wind lidar technique and carbon dioxide measurements, utilizing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. Significant advancements have been made towards developing state-of-the-art technologies towards laser transmitters, detectors, and receiver systems. These efforts have led to the development of solid-state lasers with high pulse energy, tunablility, wavelength-stability, and double-pulsed operation. This paper will present a review of these technological developments along with examples of high resolution wind and high precision CO2 DIAL measurements in the atmosphere. Plans for the development of compact high power lasers for applications in airborne and future space platforms for wind and regional to global scale measurement of atmospheric CO2 will also be discussed.

  19. Solid-state 2-micron laser transmitter advancement for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, airborne, and space-based lidar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Ismail, Syed

    2008-10-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing 2-micron lidar technologies over a decade for wind measurements, utilizing coherent Doppler wind lidar technique and carbon dioxide measurements, utilizing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. Significant advancements have been made towards developing state-of-the-art technologies towards laser transmitters, detectors, and receiver systems. These efforts have led to the development of solid-state lasers with high pulse energy, tunablility, wavelength-stability, and double-pulsed operation. This paper will present a review of these technological developments along with examples of high resolution wind and high precision CO2 measurements in the atmosphere. Plans for the development of compact high power lasers for applications in airborne and future space platforms for wind and regional to global scale measurement of atmospheric CO2 will also be discussed.

  20. Sorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Sodium Carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    Sodium carbonate was used as a sorbent to capture CO2 from a gaseous stream of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and moisture. The breakthrough data of CO2 were measured in a fixed bed to observe the reaction kinetics of CO2?carbonate reaction. Several models such as the shrinking?core model, the homogeneous model, and the deactivation model in the non?catalytic heterogeneous reaction systems were

  1. Recent progress in development of infrared laser based instruments for real-time ambient measurements of isotopologues of carbon dioxide, water, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David; McManus, Barry; Shorter, Joanne; Zahniser, Mark; Ono, Shuhei

    2014-05-01

    The capacity for real time precise in situ measurements of isotopic ratios of a variety of trace gases at ambient concentrations continues to create new opportunities for the study of the exchanges and fluxes of gases in the environment. Aerodyne Research has made rapid progress in laser based instruments since our introduction in 2007 of the first truly field worthy instrument for real time measurements of isotopologues of carbon dioxide. We have focused on two instrument design platforms, with either one or two lasers. Absorption cells with more than 200 meters path length allow precise measurements of trace gases with low ambient concentrations. Most of our systems employ mid infrared quantum cascade lasers. However, recently available 3 micron antimonide based diode lasers are also proving useful for isotopic measurements. By substituting different lasers and detectors, we can simultaneously measure the isotopic composition of a variety of gases, including: H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O and CO. Our newest instrument for true simultaneous measurement of isotopologues of CO2 (12CO2, 13CO2, 12C18O16O) has (1 s) precision better than 0.1 per mil for both ratios. The availability of 10 Hz measurements allows measurement of isotopic fluxes via eddy correlation. The single laser instrument fits in a 19 inch rack and is only 25 cm tall. A two laser instrument is larger, but with that instrument we can also measure clumped isotopes of CO2, with 1 second precisions of: 2.3 per mil for 13C18O16O, and 6.7 per mil for 13C17O16O. The sample size for such a measurement corresponds to 0.2 micromole of pure CO2. Another variation on the two laser instrument simultaneously measures isotopologues of CO2 (12CO2, 13CO2, 12C18O16O) and H2O (H216O, H218O, HD16O). Preliminary results for water ratio precisions (in 1s) are 0.1 per mil for H218O and 0.3 per mil for HD16O, simultaneous (1 s) precisions for isotopologues of CO2 of ~0.1 per mil. Methane, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide have such low ambient concentrations that real-time isotopologue measurements are a serious challenge. For these gases, we typically use our 200 m absorption cell. Several of these instruments have already been used for long term field measurements of isotopologues of methane, (12CH4, 13CH4), with a demonstrated (1 s) precision of 1.5 per mil. A new version of this instrument operating near 3.3 microns has recently been developed to quantify 13CH4 and CH3D simultaneously. In separate experiments at MIT, using trapped concentrated samples, we have made highly precise measurements of the abundance of the clumped isotope of methane: 13CH3D. We are also developing methods to monitor the isotopic abundance of the isotopes of CO and N2O. We have achieved a measurement precision for ambient 13CO (1 s) of 1.9 per mil. For the isotopologues of N2O (14N216O, 14N15N 16O, 15N14N 16O, 14N218O), we have demonstrated (1 s) precision at ambient levels (320 ppb) of ~3 per mil. For N2O, a quasi continuous preconcentrator has been used to give even better precisions (<0.1 per mil) and one is being developed for CO.

  2. VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE FROM

    E-print Network

    VAPOR + LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER, CARBON DIOXIDE, AND THE BINARY SYSTEM WATER + CARBON DIOXIDE the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water (between 323 and 573 K), carbon dioxide (between 230 and 290 K) and their binary mixtures (between 348 and 393 K). The properties of supercritical carbon dioxide were determined

  3. Carbon dioxide adsorption on nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galhotra, Pragati

    In this study, CO2 adsorption in the presence and absence of co-adsorbed H2O was investigated on different nanomaterials including nanocrystalline NaY zeolite (nano NaY), ZnO, MgO and gamma-Al 2O3 nanoparticles as well as mixed phase aluminum nanowhiskers. In the case of nano NaY, FTIR spectra show that a majority of CO2 adsorbs in the pores of these zeolites in a linear complex with the exchangeable cation. Most interesting is the formation of carbonate and bicarbonate on the external surface of nano NaY zeolites, suggesting unique sites for CO 2 adsorption on the surface of these small nanomaterials. Adsorption of 18O-labeled carbon dioxide and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirms the assignment of these different species. For aluminum oxyhydroxide nanowhiskers and gamma alumina in the absence of co-adsorbed water, CO2 reacts with surface hydroxyl groups to yield adsorbed bicarbonate as well as some carbonate. C18O2 adsorption confirms these assignments. In the case of nanoparticulate ZnO, CO2 adsorption under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate, bicarbonates as well as carboxylates. However, in the presence of co-adsorbed water, only carbonate species is formed. 18O-labeled carbon dioxide adsorption and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirm the vibrational assignment for these different species. Mixed isotope studies with H2 16O + C18O2 and H2 18O + C16O2 suggest that there is extensive exchange between oxygen in adsorbed water and oxygen atoms in gas-phase carbon dioxide. CO2 adsorption on MgO surfaces, under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate and bicarbonates. Implications for the use of these nanomaterials in carbon dioxide uptake and storage are discussed.

  4. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  5. Carbon dioxide transport over complex terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, J.; Burns, S.P.; Delany, A.C.; Oncley, S.P.; Turnipseed, A.; Stephens, B.; Guenther, A.; Anderson, D.E.; Monson, R.

    2004-01-01

    The nocturnal transport of carbon dioxide over complex terrain was investigated. The high carbon dioxide under very stable conditions flows to local low-ground. The regional drainage flow dominates the carbon dioxide transport at the 6 m above the ground and carbon dioxide was transported to the regional low ground. The results show that the local drainage flow was sensitive to turbulent mixing associated with local wind shear.

  6. 7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve,

    E-print Network

    7Carbon Dioxide Increases The Keeling Curve, shown to the left, shows the variation in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1958-1974. It is based on continuous measurements taken of rapidly increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working

  7. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-print Network

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1 1 Department of Mathematics, Purdue University, USA Purdue University, March 1rst, 2013 SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12 (North Sea). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated

  8. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2 , CAS Reg....

  9. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-print Network

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  10. 2, 18491865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern Poland L. Chmura et al. Title Page Abstract is licensed under a Creative Commons License. 1849 #12;BGD 2, 1849­1865, 2005 Carbon dioxide in southern urban environment with numerous local sources of carbon dioxide. Despite of relative proximity of those

  11. Fluoropolymer-based capacitive carbon dioxide sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul L. Kebabian; Andrew Freedman

    2006-01-01

    We describe a thin film sensor of carbon dioxide which relies on the change in capacitance of a fluoropolymer thin film caused by the difference in dielectric constants between air and carbon dioxide and by the preferred adsorption by the polymer of carbon dioxide compared to that of air. The fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 2400, selectively adsorbs large quantities of CO2

  12. Carbon Dioxide - Sources and Sinks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Windows to the Universe

    In this lab activity, students use a chemical indicator (bromothymol blue) to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in animal and plant respiration and in the burning of fossil fuels and its absence in the products of plant photosynthesis. After completing the five parts of this activity, students compare the colors of the chemical indicator in each part and interpret the results in terms of the qualitative importance of carbon sinks and sources.

  13. Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models

  14. Electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, R. R.; Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary designs were generated for two electrochemically regenerable carbon dioxide absorber concepts. Initially, an electrochemically regenerable absorption bed concept was designed. This concept incorporated the required electrochemical regeneration components in the absorber design, permitting the absorbent to be regenerated within the absorption bed. This hardware was identified as the electrochemical absorber hardware. The second hardware concept separated the functional components of the regeneration and absorption process. This design approach minimized the extravehicular activity component volume by eliminating regeneration hardware components within the absorber. The electrochemical absorber hardware was extensively characterized for major operating parameters such as inlet carbon dioxide partial pressure, process air flow rate, operational pressure, inlet relative humidity, regeneration current density and absorption/regeneration cycle endurance testing.

  15. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Removal via Passive Thermal Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Michael; Hanford, Anthony; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes a regenerable approach to separate carbon dioxide from other cabin gases by means of cooling until the carbon dioxide forms carbon dioxide ice on the walls of the physical device. Currently, NASA space vehicles remove carbon dioxide by reaction with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or by adsorption to an amine, a zeolite, or other sorbent. Use of lithium hydroxide, though reliable and well-understood, requires significant mass for all but the shortest missions in the form of lithium hydroxide pellets, because the reaction of carbon dioxide with lithium hydroxide is essentially irreversible. This approach is regenerable, uses less power than other historical approaches, and it is almost entirely passive, so it is more economical to operate and potentially maintenance- free for long-duration missions. In carbon dioxide removal mode, this approach passes a bone-dry stream of crew cabin atmospheric gas through a metal channel in thermal contact with a radiator. The radiator is pointed to reject thermal loads only to space. Within the channel, the working stream is cooled to the sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide at the prevailing cabin pressure, leading to formation of carbon dioxide ice on the channel walls. After a prescribed time or accumulation of carbon dioxide ice, for regeneration of the device, the channel is closed off from the crew cabin and the carbon dioxide ice is sublimed and either vented to the environment or accumulated for recovery of oxygen in a fully regenerative life support system.

  17. Synthesis of fluoropolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Z.; Combes, J.R.; Elsbernd, C.S.; DeSimone, J.M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The authors` research is focus on the synthesis of fluopolymers is supercritical carbon dioxide. The authors reported earlier the successful homogenous free radical polymerization of a series of highly fluorinated acrylic type monomers in supercritical carbon dioxide. Now it is found that a highly fluorinated styrenic polymer also exhibits very high solubility in carbon dioxide. The fluorinated styrenic polymer was synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide using homogenous free radical polymerization and was characterized by {sup 1}HNMR, FTIR etc. Some semicrystalline fluoropolymers were also synthesized in supercritical carbon but the polymerization were heterogenous under the condition used. Various conventional nonfluorinated monomers were copolymerized with the fluorinated monomers and the copolymerizations were homogenous at very high nonfluorinated monomer feed ratio. The incorporation of nonfluorinated units onto the fluoropolymer chains increases their solubility greatly in organic solvents. The polymers synthesized in carbon dioxide will be furtherly characterized and the authors will continue the efforts on synthesizing polymers using carbon dioxide as polymerization medium.

  18. Management practices affects soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural practices contribute about 25% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Soil can act both as sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide fixed in plant biomass through photosynthesis can be stored in soil as organi...

  19. Enhanced carbon dioxide adsorption through carbon nanoscrolls.

    PubMed

    Mantzalis, Dimitrios; Asproulis, Nikolaos; Drikakis, Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Over the last few years, significant efforts have been devoted to exploring the capabilities of carbon based structures for gas separation and filtration. In the present study the layering behavior of carbon dioxide transported through carbon nanoscrolls is examined through molecular dynamics simulations. The layering arrangements are investigated for carbon nanoscrolls with intralayer distances spanning from 4.2 to 8.3 at temperature of 300 K and pressures ranging from 5 to 20 bars. Characteristic layering structures are developed around the internal and external surfaces of the nanoscroll for all the examined cases. It is shown that the number of layers, their relative strength, and the starting point of bifurcation phenomena vary as a function of the nanoscrolls' intralayer distance, scroll's core radius, CO2 density, and gas structure interactions. It is also shown that the number of carbon dioxide molecules adsorbed per scroll's carbon particles is a function of the scroll's surface-to-volume ratio and is maximized under certain structural configurations. PMID:22304187

  20. The Change in Carbon Dioxide Levels

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson students discover that ice cores can help us learn not only the temperature of the Earth in times past, but also the amount of Carbon Dioxide trapped in the air bubbles in the ice. This activity uses as source data a plot of each versus time, and asks the students to plot the Temperature variable versus the other variable which is the Carbon Dioxide content. Students can fit the data to a line y = mx + b to see how changes in Temperature and related to changes in Carbon Dioxide. After they make a graph of Carbon Dioxide concentration as a function of time, they will learn about linear trends in the data, as well as the annual variation of Carbon Dioxide and will then predict the level of Carbon Dioxide in a future year from the data.

  1. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  2. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Pat; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity measuring the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in carbonated water at different temperatures. The amount of carbon dioxide is measured by the amount of dilute ammonia solution needed to produce a pH indicator color change. (PR)

  3. Carbon Cycle: Exchanging Carbon Dioxide between the Atmosphere and Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lab investigates the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the ocean's surface. It is based on the fact that carbon dioxide dissolves in the ocean and provides the source of that plants and plankton living in the ocean rely on for photosynthesis. Students will discover that the amount of carbon dioxide the ocean can contain depends on the temperature of the water and its salinity (whether it is sea water or fresh water) and that cold water can hold more carbon dioxide in solution than warm water. They will observe that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid which makes the water acidic, and they will test for the acidity caused by the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide using Universal Indicator, which turns yellow when the solution is acidic. This activity tests whether sea water or fresh water absorbs more carbon dioxide.

  4. Climate models should include carbon dioxide increases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Narisma et al.

    The specific impacts of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Australian summer were examined. It was found that plant response to increased carbon dioxide influences atmospheric temperatures and the climate in ways that are not currently captured by climate models. The authors suggest that local and global climate models should include a measure of vegetation response to natural and man-made carbon dioxide increases to accurately account for biospheric feedback.

  5. Sequestering Naturally Occurring Liquid Carbon Dioxide in the Deep Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Capron

    2008-01-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide has been found as shallow as 1,500 meters in seafloor ooze. Did the liquid carbon dioxide originate from volcanic activity? Or did bacteria convert organic matter, which started as atmospheric carbon dioxide, into methane and liquid carbon dioxide? At typical ocean temperatures carbon dioxide coming out of solution below 600 meters will be liquid. Therefore, one likely

  6. Experimental carbon dioxide laser brain lesions and intracranial dynamics. Part 2. Effect on brain water content and its response to acute therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tiznado, E.G.; James, H.E.; Moore, S.

    1985-04-01

    Experimental brain lesions were created over the left parietooccipital cortex of the albino rabbit through the intact dura mater with high radiating carbon dioxide laser energy. The brain water content was studied 2, 6, and 24 hours after the insult. Another two groups of animals received acute therapy with either dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or furosemide (1 mg/kg). In all groups, Evans blue extravasation uniformly extended from the impact crater into the surrounding white matter. The brain water content in the gray matter was elevated from the control value by 2 hours after impact and remained elevated at 6 and 24 hours. The white matter brain water content did not increase until 6 hours after impact and remained elevated in the 24-hour group. After dexamethasone treatment, there was a significant decrease of water in the gray matter, but not in the white matter. With furosemide therapy, there was no reduction of gray or white matter brain water.

  7. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

  8. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

  9. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

  10. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. 86...316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made...

  11. Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Auxon Corp., (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

  12. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

  16. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

  17. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

  19. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  20. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  1. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  2. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  3. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  4. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  6. 46 CFR 108.626 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 108.626 ...Markings and Instructions 108.626 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  7. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 78.47-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  9. 46 CFR 196.37-8 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 196.37-8...Emergency Equipment, etc. 196.37-8 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-11 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 97.37-11...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-11 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  11. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  12. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  13. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  14. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  15. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  16. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  17. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  18. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

  20. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  1. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

  2. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

  3. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

  4. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

  6. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

  7. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

  8. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  9. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  10. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  11. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  12. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  13. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  14. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  15. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

  16. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  17. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  18. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  19. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

  20. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  1. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

  3. 40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  4. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  6. Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide-Based Industrial Laundry Machine

    E-print Network

    Demonstration of a Carbon Dioxide- Based Industrial Laundry Machine Industrial developed a commercial prototype supercritical carbon dioxide-based laundry system acceptance, the technical and commercial feasibility of a supercritical-carbon dioxide textile

  7. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

  8. 40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  9. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  10. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

  11. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be calibrated...

  13. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  14. 49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179...and 120) 179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must...

  15. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  16. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  17. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping...Equipment Markings and Instructions 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking:...

  18. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  19. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  20. 46 CFR 131.817 - Carbon dioxide warning signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide warning signs. 131.817 ...Emergency Equipment 131.817 Carbon dioxide warning signs. Each entrance to a space storing carbon dioxide cylinders, a space...

  1. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

  2. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  3. 27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  4. 46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide storage. 193.15-20 Section... FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details 193.15-20 Carbon dioxide storage. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  6. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping...Equipment Markings and Instructions 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking:...

  7. 40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86...Procedures 86.524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a...and monthly thereafter the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

  8. 27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  9. 40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

  10. 9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

  11. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

  14. 46 CFR 169.565 - Fixed carbon dioxide system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed carbon dioxide system. 169.565 Section 169...Firefighting Equipment 169.565 Fixed carbon dioxide system. (a) The number of pounds of carbon dioxide required for each space...

  15. 21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

  19. 46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Cultured Animal Cells

    E-print Network

    Kyner, David Smith

    1969-01-01

    Dioxide Fixation Iii Effects of Olucose 15 Effects of Tryptophan 17 Effects of Insulin 18 Effects of Glucagon and Catecholamines 19 Effects of Glucocorticoids 20 Other Metabolic Pathways 25 Carbon Dioxide Fixing Enzymes 26 Beta-Me thyl... phosphate (101) to catalyze the formation of PEP from pyruvate. Oluconeogenesis will be discussed under the following headings* control of gluconeogenesis; gluconeogenesis and carbon dioxide fixation; effects of glucose, tryptophan, insulin, glucagon...

  1. Interglacials, Milankovitch Cycles, and Carbon Dioxide

    E-print Network

    Gerald E. Marsh

    2010-02-11

    The existing understanding of interglacial periods is that they are initiated by Milankovitch cycles enhanced by rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. During interglacials, global temperature is also believed to be primarily controlled by carbon dioxide concentrations, modulated by internal processes such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Recent work challenges the fundamental basis of these conceptions.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE IN PENNSYLVANIA PASTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global warming, caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, is increasingly being recognized as a concern for the wellbeing of the planet. Agricultural practices that increase carbon dioxide storage in soil organ...

  3. Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Synthesis of Erythromycin

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Claude H.

    1974-01-01

    Erythromycin synthesis was markedly impaired in submerged cultures under high carbon dioxide tensions. Growth of Streptomyces erythreus, however, was unaltered by increased carbon dioxide. PMID:4462468

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    DEVELOPMENT AND INTEGRATION OF NEW PROCESSES CONSUMING CARBON DIOXIDE IN MULTI-PLANT CHEMICAL........................................................ 8 C. Carbon Dioxide ­ A Greenhouse Gas................................................ 9 1. Sources

  5. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vericella, John J.; Baker, Sarah E.; Stolaroff, Joshuah K.; Duoss, Eric B.; Hardin, James O.; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C.; Valdez, Carlos A.; Smith, William L.; Satcher, Joe H.; Bourcier, William L.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Lewis, Jennifer A.; Aines, Roger D.

    2015-02-01

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture.

  6. Encapsulated liquid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Vericella, John J; Baker, Sarah E; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Duoss, Eric B; Hardin, James O; Lewicki, James; Glogowski, Elizabeth; Floyd, William C; Valdez, Carlos A; Smith, William L; Satcher, Joe H; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewis, Jennifer A; Aines, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    Drawbacks of current carbon dioxide capture methods include corrosivity, evaporative losses and fouling. Separating the capture solvent from infrastructure and effluent gases via microencapsulation provides possible solutions to these issues. Here we report carbon capture materials that may enable low-cost and energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymer microcapsules composed of liquid carbonate cores and highly permeable silicone shells are produced by microfluidic assembly. This motif couples the capacity and selectivity of liquid sorbents with high surface area to facilitate rapid and controlled carbon dioxide uptake and release over repeated cycles. While mass transport across the capsule shell is slightly lower relative to neat liquid sorbents, the surface area enhancement gained via encapsulation provides an order-of-magnitude increase in carbon dioxide absorption rates for a given sorbent mass. The microcapsules are stable under typical industrial operating conditions and may be used in supported packing and fluidized beds for large-scale carbon capture. PMID:25652243

  7. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin David C.; O'Connor William K.; Penner Larry R.

    2003-11-01

    Concerns about global warming caused by the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earths atmosphere have resulted in the need for research to reduce or eliminate emissions of these gases. Carbonation of magnesium and calcium silicate minerals is one possible method to achieve this reduction. It is possible to carry out these reactions either in situ (storage underground and subsequent reaction with the host rock to trap CO2 as carbonate minerals) or ex situ (above ground in a more traditional chemical processing plant). Research at the Department of Energys Albany Research Center has explored both of these routes. This paper will explore parameters that affect the direct carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals serpentine (Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and olivine (Mg2SiO4) to produce magnesite (MgCO3), as well as the calcium silicate mineral, wollastonite (CaSiO3), to form calcite (CaCO3). The Columbia River Basalt Group is a multi-layered basaltic lava plateau that has favorable mineralogy and structure for storage of CO2. Up to 25% combined concentration of Ca, Fe2+, and Mg cations could react to form carbonates and thus sequester large quantities of CO2. Core samples from the Columbia River Basalt Group were reacted in an autoclave for up to 2000 hours at temperatures and pressures to simulate in situ conditions. Changes in core porosity, secondary minerals, and solution chemistry were measured.

  8. Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hoeller; Markku Wallin

    1991-01-01

    Taxes levied on the carbon content of fuels (carbon taxes) are being considered in many OECD countries as a possible policy instrument to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper first reviews the policy response in Member countries to the threat of global warming. It then discusses the link between carbon emission intensities and current energy prices, touching also on the

  9. How Is Carbon Dioxide Measured?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this textbook chapter, scientists studying the concentration of becomes CO in the atmosphere are profiled. The techniques for measuring and recording carbon dioxide concentrations at the Mauna Loa Observatory are described. A link to a video clip of an interview with NOAA scientist Dr. Pieter Tans is included. This is the fifth chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource includes three classroom investigations, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre and post unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. The resource is part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

  10. Electrochemical processing of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Oloman, Colin; Li, Hui

    2008-01-01

    With respect to the negative role of carbon dioxide on our climate, it is clear that the time is ripe for the development of processes that convert CO(2) into useful products. The electroreduction of CO(2) is a prime candidate here, as the reaction at near-ambient conditions can yield organics such as formic acid, methanol, and methane. Recent laboratory work on the 100 A scale has shown that reduction of CO(2) to formate (HCO(2)(-)) may be carried out in a trickle-bed continuous electrochemical reactor under industrially viable conditions. Presuming the problems of cathode stability and formate crossover can be overcome, this type of reactor is proposed as the basis for a commercial operation. The viability of corresponding processes for electrosynthesis of formate salts and/or formic acid from CO(2) is examined here through conceptual flowsheets for two process options, each converting CO(2) at the rate of 100 tonnes per day. PMID:18702129

  11. Field-based stable isotope analysis of carbon dioxide by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy for carbon capture and storage monitoring.

    PubMed

    van Geldern, Robert; Nowak, Martin E; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra; Myrttinen, Anssi; Barth, Johannes A C; Jost, Hans-Jrg

    2014-12-16

    A newly developed isotope ratio laser spectrometer for CO2 analyses has been tested during a tracer experiment at the Ketzin pilot site (northern Germany) for CO2 storage. For the experiment, 500 tons of CO2 from a natural CO2 reservoir was injected in supercritical state into the reservoir. The carbon stable isotope value (?(13)C) of injected CO2 was significantly different from background values. In order to observe the breakthrough of the isotope tracer continuously, the new instruments were connected to a stainless steel riser tube that was installed in an observation well. The laser instrument is based on tunable laser direct absorption in the mid-infrared. The instrument recorded a continuous 10 day carbon stable isotope data set with 30 min resolution directly on-site in a field-based laboratory container during a tracer experiment. To test the instruments performance and accuracy the monitoring campaign was accompanied by daily CO2 sampling for laboratory analyses with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The carbon stable isotope ratios measured by conventional IRMS technique and by the new mid-infrared laser spectrometer agree remarkably well within analytical precision. This proves the capability of the new mid-infrared direct absorption technique to measure high precision and accurate real-time stable isotope data directly in the field. The laser spectroscopy data revealed for the first time a prior to this experiment unknown, intensive dynamic with fast changing ?(13)C values. The arrival pattern of the tracer suggest that the observed fluctuations were probably caused by migration along separate and distinct preferential flow paths between injection well and observation well. The short-term variances as observed in this study might have been missed during previous works that applied laboratory-based IRMS analysis. The new technique could contribute to a better tracing of the migration of the underground CO2 plume and help to ensure the long-term integrity of the reservoir. PMID:25375020

  12. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  13. A new look at atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, David J.; Butler, James H.; Tans, Pieter P.

    Carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere and is of considerable concern in global climate change because of its greenhouse gas warming potential. The rate of increase has accelerated since measurements began at Mauna Loa Observatory in 1958 where carbon dioxide increased from less than 1 part per million per year (ppm yr -1) prior to 1970 to more than 2 ppm yr -1 in recent years. Here we show that the anthropogenic component (atmospheric value reduced by the pre-industrial value of 280 ppm) of atmospheric carbon dioxide has been increasing exponentially with a doubling time of about 30 years since the beginning of the industrial revolution (1800). Even during the 1970s, when fossil fuel emissions dropped sharply in response to the "oil crisis" of 1973, the anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide level continued increasing exponentially at Mauna Loa Observatory. Since the growth rate (time derivative) of an exponential has the same characteristic lifetime as the function itself, the carbon dioxide growth rate is also doubling at the same rate. This explains the observation that the linear growth rate of carbon dioxide has more than doubled in the past 40 years. The accelerating growth rate is simply the outcome of exponential growth in carbon dioxide with a nearly constant doubling time of about 30 years (about 2%/yr) and appears to have tracked human population since the pre-industrial era.

  14. Fractional carbon dioxide laser-assisted drug delivery of topical timolol solution for the treatment of deep infantile hemangioma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gang; Wu, Pinru; Lin, Xiaoxi; Chen, Hui; Hu, Xiaojie; Jin, Yunbo; Qiu, Yajing

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are benign vascular tumors of infancy. Topical timolol has recently been reported to be an effective treatment for superficial IHs, although it failed to have an effect on deep IHs. This prospective study was aimed at evaluating the feasibility of ablative fractional laser-assisted drug delivery for enhancing topical timolol permeation into deep IHs. Nine patients ages 1 to 6 months with deep IHs were enrolled. A fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser system was applied to the skin surface of deep IHs using the DeepFx mode (25-30 mJ/pulse, 5% density, single pulse) at 1-week intervals. Topical timolol maleate 0.5% ophthalmic solution was applied under occlusion for 30 minutes four to five times per day for an average treatment duration of 14.2 weeks. Clinical improvement was evaluated according to a global score and the Hemangioma Activity Score (HAS). Four patients (44.4%) demonstrated excellent regression, four (44.4%) showed good response, and one (11.1%) experienced moderate regression. The HAS declined from 4.1 0.7 at baseline to 1.7 0.7 at 1 week (p < 0.001) and 1.4 0.7 at 3 months (p = 0.03) after the last treatment procedure. Plasma timolol concentration was not detected in any of the patients after the first administration of topical timolol. No systemic complication or skin side effects were observed in any of the patients. Ablative fractional laser-assisted transdermal delivery of topical timolol is a safe and effective method for the treatment of deep IHs. PMID:24602019

  15. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2001-06-15

    During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

  16. The Application Of The High-Energy Yield Carbon Dioxide Laser In The Surgery Of Head And Neck Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banhidy, F. G.; Kasler, M.

    1985-01-01

    The inventions of science and technology are being rapidly introduced in the sphere of medicine, too. With the discovery of laser and later on the medical laser a new hopeful method of treatment appeared.

  17. Silver oxide sorbent for carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1974-01-01

    Material can be regenerated at least 20 times by heating at 250 C. Sorbent is compatible with environment of high humidity; up to 20% by weight of carbon dioxide can be absorbed. Material is prepared from silver carbonate, potassium hydroxide or carbonate, and sodium silicate.

  18. LIFETIME OF EXCESS ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We explore the effects of a changing terrestrial biosphere on the atmospheric residende time of carbon dioxide using three simple ocean carbon cycling models and a model of global terrestrial carbon cycling. e find differences in model behavior associated with the assumption of a...

  19. Global Deforestation: Contribution to Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

    1983-01-01

    A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1860 and 1980 was between 135 1015 and 228 1015 grams. Between 1.8 1015 and 4.7 1015 grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

  20. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  1. Carbon dioxide dynamics in Kelud volcanic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudron, C.; Mazot, A.; Bernard, A.

    2012-05-01

    In November 2007, the extrusion of a new lava dome evaporated Kelud volcanic lake in Java, Indonesia. Four months before a detailed echo sounding survey of the volcanic lake coupled to floating accumulation chamber measurements detected abnormally high carbon dioxide emissions. It constituted the earliest sign of the volcanic unrest; well before any other monitored parameter. CO2 flux is quantified using an empirical equation based on the volume of bubbles backscattered in the water column. Its comparison with the fluxes retrieved from the floating chamber method better constrain carbon dioxide dynamics in the volcanic lake. It reveals that 70% of the carbon dioxide enters the lake in a dissolved form, while the remaining 30% is supplied to the lake on a gaseous state. Almost three-quarter of the ascending bubbles dissolve in the water column leaving the majority of the 330 Tons day-1 of carbon dioxide diffusing at the air-water interface.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    EIA Publications

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  3. Role of activated carbon pellets in carbon dioxide removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C Sarkar; A Bose

    1997-01-01

    The removal of carbon dioxide from gas\\/air streams is more often becoming necessary in many industries for different purposes. In cryogenic air separation plant, air has to be free from carbon dioxide before its liquefaction otherwise blockage due to freezing of heat exchange equipment would result. Enrichment of methane in biogas to have fuel of higher calorific value can be

  4. Innovative polymer processing in carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Farncomb; G. W. Nauflett

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide was used as the solvent in two innovative polymer processes, the preparation of energetic polymers and a Viton based pyrotechnic. The energetic polymer prepared was poly-3-nitratomethyl-3-methyl oxetane and the pyrotechnic was a magnesium, Teflon and Viton (MTV) crumb. Liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) at 140 atm and 0C replaces methylene chloride as the solvent in the two step energetic

  5. Climate and Carbon Dioxide: Analyzing Their Relationship

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Through this activity, students learn about atmospheric carbon dioxide and its role in the greenhouse effect. They can identify the leading producers of carbon dioxide emissions and read about the global climate conference that was held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997 to set international limits on these emissions. The material provides information to increase students' understanding of the implications and processes of possible changes in the world's climate.

  6. Two stage carbon dioxide and methane separation

    SciTech Connect

    Styring, R.E. Jr.

    1982-09-28

    Arco's process separates and recovers ethane from a carbon dioxide-ethane stream produced during natural gas processing. After methane separation, some of the ethane follows the carbon dioxide stream because the two compounds form an azeotrope. The process separates the two by means of two distillation columns operated at pressures that differ by at least 150 psia. This pressure difference shifts the azeotropic point enough to allow the separation.

  7. Uncertainty analysis for the miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer (mini-LHR) for the measurement of carbon dioxide in the atmospheric column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, G. B.; Wilson, E. L.; Miller, J. H.; Melroy, H. R.

    2014-05-01

    Presented here is a sensitivity analysis for the miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer. This passive, ground-based instrument measures carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric column and has been under development at NASA/GSFC since 2009. The goal of this development is to produce a low-cost, easily-deployable instrument that can extend current ground measurement networks in order to (1) validate column satellite observations, (2) provide coverage in regions of limited satellite observations, (3) target regions of interest such as thawing permafrost, and (4) support the continuity of a long-term climate record. In this paper an uncertainty analysis of the instrument performance is presented and compared with results from three sets of field measurements. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and corresponding maximum uncertainty for a single scan are calculated to be 329.4 1.3 by deploying error propagation through the equation governing the SNR. Reported is an absorbance noise of 0.0024 for six averaged scans of field data, for an instrument precision of 0.14 ppmv for CO2.

  8. Monitoring annealing via carbon dioxide laser heating of defect populations in fused silica surfaces using photoluminescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R N; Matthews, M J; Adams, J J; Demos, S G

    2010-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and spectroscopy under 266 nm and 355 nm laser excitation are explored as a means of monitoring defect populations in laser-modified sites on the surface of fused silica and their subsequent response to heating to different temperatures via exposure to a CO{sub 2} laser beam. Laser-induced temperature changes were estimated using an analytic solution to the heat flow equation and compared to changes in the PL emission intensity. The results indicate that the defect concentrations decrease significantly with increasing CO{sub 2} laser exposure and are nearly eliminated when the peak surface temperature exceeds the softening point of fused silica ({approx}1900K), suggesting that this method might be suitable for in situ monitoring of repair of defective sites in fused silica optical components.

  9. Development and Metrological Characterization of a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) Spectrometer for Simultaneous Absolute Measurement of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor.

    PubMed

    Pogny, Andrea; Wagner, Steven; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2015-02-01

    Simultaneous detection of two analytes, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O), has been realized using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) with a single distributed feedback diode laser at 2.7 ?m. The dynamic range of the spectrometer is extended from the low parts per million to the percentage range using two gas cells, a single-pass cell with 0.77 m, and a Herriott-type multipass cell with 76 m path length. Absolute measurements were carried out, i.e., amount fractions of the analytes were calculated based on previously determined spectral line parameters, without the need for an instrument calibration using gas standards. A thorough metrological characterization of the spectrometer is presented. We discuss traceability of all parameters used for amount fraction determination and provide a comprehensive uncertainty assessment. Relative expanded uncertainties (k = 2, 95% confidence level) of the measured amount fractions are shown to be in the 2-3% range for both analytes. Minimum detectable amount fractions are 0.16 ?mol/mol for CO2 and 1.1 ?mol/mol for H2O for 76 m path length and 5 s averaging time. This corresponds to normalized detection limits of 27 ?mol/mol m Hz(-1/2) for CO2 and 221 ?mol/mol m Hz(-1/2) for H2O. Precision of the spectrometer, determined using Allan variance analysis, is 3.3 nmol/mol for CO2 and 21 nmol/mol for H2O. The spectrometer has been validated using reference gas mixtures with known CO2 and H2O amount fractions. An application example of the absolute TDLAS spectrometer as a reference instrument to validate other sensors is also presented. PMID:25658222

  10. Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

  11. Infrared heterodyne spectrometer measurements of vertical profile of tropospheric ammonia and ozone. [using dual carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peyton, B. J.; Lange, R. A.; Savage, M. G.; Seals, R. K.; Allario, F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing of the concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric gases has been carried out using a dual CO2 laser multichannel infrared heterodyne spectrometer (IHS). The high specificity and nearly quantum-noise-limited sensitivity of the IHS provide the capability of scanning individual signature lines of selected atmospheric constituents in the 9 to 11 micron region. A comprehensive investigation of the spectral overlap between CO2 laser local oscillator transitions and selected atmospheric constituents was performed; measurements of the atmospheric absorption of solar radiation from the ground were carried out at selected laser transitions for ammonia and ozone.

  12. Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    65 Education, Convergence and Carbon Dioxide Growth per Capita Kinda Somlanare Romuald Abstract dioxide emissions around the world, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide emissions growth, there is no convergence, and that education is not a factor in carbon dioxide growth. In developed countries, we find

  13. Turning carbon dioxide into fuel.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Xiao, T; Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

    2010-07-28

    Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO2). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies develop, future demands now ensure that energy will be one of the defining issues of this century. This unique set of (coupled) challenges also means that science and engineering have a unique opportunity-and a burgeoning challenge-to apply their understanding to provide sustainable energy solutions. Integrated carbon capture and subsequent sequestration is generally advanced as the most promising option to tackle greenhouse gases in the short to medium term. Here, we provide a brief overview of an alternative mid- to long-term option, namely, the capture and conversion of CO2, to produce sustainable, synthetic hydrocarbon or carbonaceous fuels, most notably for transportation purposes. Basically, the approach centres on the concept of the large-scale re-use of CO2 released by human activity to produce synthetic fuels, and how this challenging approach could assume an important role in tackling the issue of global CO2 emissions. We highlight three possible strategies involving CO2 conversion by physico-chemical approaches: sustainable (or renewable) synthetic methanol, syngas production derived from flue gases from coal-, gas- or oil-fired electric power stations, and photochemical production of synthetic fuels. The use of CO2 to synthesize commodity chemicals is covered elsewhere (Arakawa et al. 2001 Chem. Rev. 101, 953-996); this review is focused on the possibilities for the conversion of CO2 to fuels. Although these three prototypical areas differ in their ultimate applications, the underpinning thermodynamic considerations centre on the conversion-and hence the utilization-of CO2. Here, we hope to illustrate that advances in the science and engineering of materials are critical for these new energy technologies, and specific examples are given for all three examples. With sufficient advances, and institutional and political support, such scientific and technological innovations could help to regulate/stabilize the CO2 levels in the atmosphere and thereby extend the use of fossil-fuel-derived feedstocks. PMID:20566515

  14. Greater surgical precision of a flexible carbon dioxide laser fiber compared to monopolar electrosurgery in porcine myometrium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amelia P; Lancerotto, Luca; Gridley, Chad; Orgill, Dennis P; Nguyen, Hiep; Pescarini, Elena; Lago, Gianluigi; Gargiulo, Antonio R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experimental animal study was to compare the surgical precision of a flexible CO2 laser fiber with that of monopolar electrosurgery in porcine myometrium. The subjects were 6 live adult non-pregnant female pigs. Linear injury to the uterine horns was created using a flexible CO2 laser fiber at 5W, 10W, and 15W and with monopolar electrosurgery at 10W, 20W, 30W, and 40W in both cut and coagulation modes. Hysterectomy was then performed in the live animals. Cross-sections of the tissue were processed and stained using Masson trichrome to differentiate damaged from undamaged myometrium. Measurement means were compared using analysis of variance with Tukey honest significant difference correction; p <.05 indicated significance. Incision width of the laser at 5W and 10W was significantly less than both monopolar coagulation at all power settings and monopolar cut at 30W and 40W (all p <.01), at 5W was also significantly less than monopolar cut at 10W (p = .03), and at 15W was significantly less than monopolar coagulation at 40W (p = .001). Incision depth of the laser at 5W was significantly less than monopolar coagulation at 40W and laser at 15W (both p = .01), at 15W was significantly greater than monopolar coagulation at 10W and monopolar cut at 10, 20, and 30W (p ?.01), and increased proportional to power for all 3 energy types. Collateral thermal damage width at all laser power settings was significantly less than at all monopolar coagulation power settings (p ?.04) with the exception of the laser at 15W compared with monopolar coagulation at 10W (p = .30), and at all laser power settings was significantly less than at all monopolar coagulation power settings (p <.001). Collateral thermal damage depth of the laser at 5W and 10W was significantly less than monopolar cut at 30W (p ?.002) and increased proportional to power in monopolar coagulation mode but remained constant with the laser. Incising efficiency of the laser at 5W was significantly greater than monopolar coagulation at 10W (p = .04), at 10W was significantly greater than at all monopolar power settings (p ?.007) except cut at 40W (p = .29), and at 15W was significantly greater than that of every other energy type and power setting tested (p ?.04). These findings support the hypothesis that CO2 laser energy delivered via a flexible fiber system would exhibit greater surgical precision than monopolar electrosurgery, in both cut and coagulation modes, as defined by 3 parameters: incising efficiency, changes in incision depth compared with width as power increases, and variability in the resulting incision measurements. Because increased thermal damage has been associated with delayed tissue necrosis and adhesion formation, these findings prompt the design of a comparative survival animal study to assess additional clinically relevant parameters. PMID:24858988

  15. Carbon dioxide laser-assisted nerve repair: effect of solder and suture material on nerve regeneration in rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Menovsky, Tomas; Beek, Johan F

    2003-01-01

    In order to further improve and explore the role of lasers for nerve reconstruction, this study was designed to investigate regeneration of sharply transected peripheral nerves repaired with a CO(2) milliwatt laser in combination with three different suture materials and a bovine albumin protein solder as an adjunct to the welding process. Unilateral sciatic nerve repair was performed in 44 rats. In the laser group, nerves were gently apposed, and two stay sutures (10-0 nylon, 10-0 polyglycolic acid, or 25 microm stainless steel) were placed epi/perineurially. Thereafter, the repair site was fused at 100 mW with pulses of 1.0 s. In the subgroup of laser-assisted nerve repair (LANR), albumen was used as a soldering agent to further reinforce the repair site. The control group consisted of nerves repaired by conventional microsurgical suture repair (CMSR), using 4-6 10-0 nylon sutures. Evaluation was performed at 1 and 6 weeks after surgery, and included qualitative and semiquantitative light microscopy. LANR performed with a protein solder results in a good early peripheral nerve regeneration, with an optimal alignment of nerve fibers and minimal connective tissue proliferation at the repair site. All three suture materials produced a foreign body reaction; the least severe was with polyglycolic acid sutures. CMSR resulted in more pronounced foreign-body granulomas at the repair site, with more connective-tissue proliferation and axonal misalignment. Furthermore, axonal regeneration in the distal nerve segment was better in the laser groups. Based on these results, CO(2) laser-assisted nerve repair with soldering in combination with absorbable sutures has the potential of allowing healing to occur with the least foreign-body reaction at the repair site. Further experiments using this combination are in progress. PMID:12740882

  16. A wide angle search technique for a 10.6 micron ladar. [scanning radar using Q switched carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.; Adelman, S.; Lowrey, D. O.

    1975-01-01

    A ladar (laser radar) sensor designed around a pulsed passively Q-switched CO2 laser, capable of a efficient and rapid scans with a narrow beam over a wide field of view, is considered for surveillance and tracking applications in space. The output is a train of narrow pulses with a controllable pulse repetition rate. A resonant vibrating mirror in back of a classical Gregorian telescope, and a plane pointing mirror in front for beam steering, are used in scanning. Scan pulse sequences are described and illustrated. The 10.6 micron ladar set is under consideration as baseline sensor for various space rendezvous and docking applications.

  17. Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are even higher than the ones from thermo-power plantsHydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy

  18. NASA launches carbon dioxide research satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    Last week NASA launched a new satellite to study atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Once in orbit, the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, will take more than 100,000 individual measurements of atmospheric CO2 per day.

  19. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-print Network

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  20. Carbon Dioxide- Where Does it All Go?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this problem set, learners will use a diagram of carbon fluxes, which shows the sources that contribute to current atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  1. Where in the World is Carbon Dioxide?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This three part activity has students set up experiments to help them better understand the atmospheric portion of the carbon cycle. From this activity, they will be able to explain the concept of sources and sinks as they relate to carbon dioxide, the use of indicator solution bromothymol blue (BTB) to reveal the presence of carbon dioxide, and the qualitative differences between animal and fossil fuel sources of global carbon dioxide. The student guide has an overall description of all three parts of the activity, lists of materials, the procedure and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

  2. In situ high P-T Raman spectroscopy and laser heating of carbon dioxide Mario Santoro,a)

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    absorb the incoming Nd:YLF laser and heat the sample. The average sample temperature was accurately of the absorber determined by fitting the thermal radiation spectrum to the Planck radiation law to planetary science. Shock wave techniques provide methods for access- ing extreme high P-T conditions

  3. Preliminary Study on Pain Reduction of Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Knee Osteoarthritis in Rats by Carbon Dioxide Laser Moxibustion

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Zhang, Ruixing; Shen, Xueyong; Lao, Lixing

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the effects of CO2 laser moxibustion on the pain and inflammatory cytokine expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced knee osteoarthritis (KOA), we designed an experiment by randomly assigning 8 SD rats into 3 groups, namely, a CO2 laser moxibustion group, a sham treatment group, and a blank control group. The treatment group received a laser moxibustion on acupoint Dubi (ST 35; 5?min/treatment, 1 treatment/day) for 8 days, and after treatment, the rats exhibited significantly increased interhindpaw differences compared with their preinduction values. Meanwhile, cytokine microarray analysis showed that one cytokine (TIMP-1) was significantly upregulated and two cytokines (Agrin and MMP-8) were significantly downregulated in treatment group. The present study suggested that CO2 laser moxibustion created certain pain reduction in the rats with MIA-induced KOA and significantly inhibited the expression of most inflammatory cytokines in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. PMID:25013448

  4. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  5. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  6. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  7. Safe and effective one-session fractional skin resurfacing using a carbon dioxide laser device in super-pulse mode: a clinical and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Shohat, Michael; Urdiales, Fernando

    2011-02-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser ablative fractional resurfacing produces skin damage, with removal of the epidermis and variable portions of the dermis as well as associated residual heating, resulting in new collagen formation and skin tightening. The nonresurfaced epidermis helps tissue to heal rapidly, with short-term postoperative erythema. The results for 40 patients (8 men and 32 women) after a single session of a fractional CO(2) resurfacing mode were studied. The treatments included resurfacing of the full face, periocular upper lip, and residual acne scars. The patients had skin prototypes 2 to 4 and wrinkle degrees 1 to 3. The histologic effects, efficacy, and treatment safety in various clinical conditions and for different phototypes are discussed. The CO(2) laser for fractional treatment is used in super-pulse mode. The beam is split by a lens into several microbeams, and super-pulse repetition is limited by the pulse width. The laser needs a power adaptation to meet the set fluence per microbeam. Laser pulsing can operate repeatedly on the same spot or be moved randomly over the skin, using several passes to achieve a desired residual thermal effect. Low, medium, and high settings are preprogrammed in the device, and they indicate the strength of resurfacing. A single treatment was given with the patient under topical anesthesia. However, the anesthesia was injected on areas of scar tissue. Medium settings (2Hz, 30W, 60mJ) were used, and two passes were made for dark skins and degree 1 wrinkles. High settings (2Hz, 60W, 120mJ) were used, and three passes were made for degree 3 wrinkles and scar tissue. Postoperatively, resurfaced areas were treated with an ointment of gentamycin, Retinol Palmitate, and DL-methionine (Novartis; Farmaceutics, S.A., Barcelona, Spain). Once epithelialization was achieved, antipigment and sun protection agents were recommended. Evaluations were performed 15days and 2months after treatment by both patients and clinicians. Treatment improved wrinkle aspect and scar condition, and no patient reported adverse effects or complications, irrespective of skin type, except for plaques of erythema in areas that received extra laser passes, which were not seen at the 2-month assessment. The results evaluated by clinicians were very much in correlation with those of patients. Immediately after treatment, vaporization was produced by stacked pulses, with clear ablation and collateral heat coagulation. An increased number of random pulses removed more epidermis, and with denser pulses per area, a thermal deposit was noted histologically. At 2months, a thicker, multicelluar epidermis and an evident increase in collagen were observed. Fractional CO(2) laser permits a variety of resurfacing settings that obtain safe, effective skin rejuvenation and correct scar tissue in a single treatment. PMID:20814788

  8. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-01-01

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

  9. Designed amyloid fibers as materials for selective carbon dioxide capture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Deng, Hexiang; Liu, Cong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    New materials capable of binding carbon dioxide are essential for addressing climate change. Here, we demonstrate that amyloids, self-assembling protein fibers, are effective for selective carbon dioxide capture. Solid-state NMR proves that amyloid fibers containing alkylamine groups reversibly bind carbon dioxide via carbamate formation. Thermodynamic and kinetic capture-and-release tests show the carbamate formation rate is fast enough to capture carbon dioxide by dynamic separation, undiminished by the presence of water, in both a natural amyloid and designed amyloids having increased carbon dioxide capacity. Heating to 100 C regenerates the material. These results demonstrate the potential of amyloid fibers for environmental carbon dioxide capture. PMID:24367077

  10. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  11. www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Tom

    www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 CREDIT CanWe Bury GLOBAL WARMING? Pumping carbon dioxide his lungs were carbon dioxide. Each time you draw breath today, 380 mole- cules per million are carbon of this upsurge in the atmosphere's carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration nor the effects that lie ahead as more

  12. Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya

    E-print Network

    Derry, Louis A.

    Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya Matthew J. Evans Chemistry, 7 figures, 4 tables. Keywords: metamorphic carbon dioxide; Himalaya; hot springs; carbon cycle, M. J., L. A. Derry, and C. France-Lanord (2008), Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from

  13. Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

    1983-01-01

    A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10¹⁵ and 228 X 10¹⁵ grams. Between 1.8 X 10¹⁵ and 4.7 X 10¹⁵ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

  14. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  15. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

    2003-03-10

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  16. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  17. Do Plants Really Use Carbon Dioxide?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-20

    This experiment demonstrates that plants use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Four Teaching Tanks (commercially available, narrow tanks) are filled with water and bromthymol blue indicator, and Elodea plants are added to two of the tanks. Blowing through a straw into each tank dissolves carbon dioxide into the water and turns the indicator yellow. The tanks are sealed with clay, and a pair of tanksone tank with Elodea and one withoutis put in sunlight, while the other pair is put in darkness. After an hour, the tank with Elodea in sunlight will have returned to blue color. Learners can infer that the carbon dioxide in that tank has been used by the Elodea, since the water in "control" tanks remains yellow. Though designed as a demonstration, this activity could be adapted to allow varying degrees of learner hands-on involvement, and higher grade learners could potentially do all the steps without a demonstrator.

  18. Progress in Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Using a Broadband Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to better understand the budget of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere it is necessary to develop a global high precision understanding of the carbon dioxide column. In order to uncover the 'missing sink" that is responsible for the large discrepancies in the budget as we presently understand it calculation has indicated that measurement accuracy on the order of 1 ppm is necessary. Because typical column average CO2 has now reached 380 ppm this represents a precision on the order of .25% for these column measurements. No species has ever been measured from space at such a precision. In recognition of the importance of understanding the CO2 budget in order to evaluate its impact on global warming the National Research Council in its decadal survey report to NASA recommended planning for a laser based total CO2 mapping mission in the near future. The extreme measurement accuracy requirements on this mission places very strong requirements on the laser system used for the measurement. This work presents an overview of the characteristics necessary in a laser system used to make this measurement. Consideration is given to the temperature dependence, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of the CO2 lines themselves and how these impact the laser system characteristics We have been examining the possibility of making precise measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using broad band source of radiation. This means that many of the difficulties in wavelength control can be treated in the detector portion of the system rather than the laser source. It also greatly reduces the number of individual lasers required to make a measurement. Simplifications such as these are extremely desirable for systems designed to operate from space.

  19. Micron-sized droplets irradiated with a pulsed carbon dioxide laser: Measurement of explosion and breakdown thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. L.; Biswas, A.; Pinnick, R. G.; Pendleton, J. D.

    1995-03-01

    We present the results of measurements of explosive vaporization and plasma breakdown thresholds of micron-sized droplets irradiated by a pulsed CO2 laser operating at 10.6 microns. Well-defined explosion and breakdown patterns are observed when the incident laser intensity exceeds the threshold value. In the infrared region, the breakdown threshold is larger than the vaporization threshold by a factor of approximately 10(exp 2). Although, to the authors knowledge, no analogous measurements of vaporization and breakdown thresholds of individual aerosol particles exist in the microwave region, scaling of our infrared measurements to deduce the corresponding microwave properties is possible using available theoretical models. When this scaling is performed, it suggests that a dramatic reversal of explosion and breakdown thresholds occurs in the microwave region. In this region, the microwave vaporization threshold is larger than the corresponding breakdown threshold by a factor of greater than 10(exp 4). Recent measurements of breakdown thresholds in aerosol-laden air provide indirect evidence that this reversal has, in fact, taken place.

  20. Retrieval and validation of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor for the Canary Islands IR-laser occultation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proschek, V.; Kirchengast, G.; Schweitzer, S.; Brooke, J. S. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Thomas, C. B.; Wang, J.-G.; Tereszchuk, K. A.; Gonzlez Abad, G.; Hargreaves, R. J.; Beale, C. A.; Harrison, J. J.; Martin, P. A.; Kasyutich, V. L.; Gerbig, C.; Kolle, O.; Loescher, A.

    2014-11-01

    The first ground-based experiment to prove the concept of a novel space-based observation technique for microwave and infrared-laser occultation between Low Earth Orbit satellites (LMIO) was performed in the Canary Islands between La Palma and Tenerife in July 2011. This experiment aimed to demonstrate the infrared-laser differential transmission principle for the measurement of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the free atmosphere. Such global and long-term stable measurements of GHGs, accompanied also by measurements of thermodynamic parameters and line-of-sight wind in a self-calibrating way, have become very important for climate change monitoring. The experiment delivered promising initial data for demonstrating the new observation concept by retrieving volume mixing ratios of GHGs along a ~ 144 km signal path at altitudes of ~ 2.4 km. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the measurements, following a recent publication that introduced the experiment's technical setup and first results for an example retrieval of CO2. We present the observational and validation datasets, the latter simultaneously measured at the transmitter and receiver sites, the measurement data handling, and the differential transmission retrieval procedure. We also determine the individual and combined uncertainties influencing the results and present the retrieval results for 12CO2, 13CO2, C18OO, H2O and CH4. The new method is found to have a reliable basis for monitoring of greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4, and H2O in the free atmosphere.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based at Oak Ridge National Laboratories in Tennessee, this Website is the US Department of Energy's "primary global-change data and information analysis center" and is a central source for many Carbon Dioxide-related resources. Among those resources are several we have reviewed, for example, the Catalog of Databases and Reports (reviewed in the June 24, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) and Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates (reviewed in the March 4, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). The CDIAC site offers a wealth of information, including "records of the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level." To get a feel for the research summaries and data available at the CDIAC site, see the Products section (describes the research projects associated with CDIAC as well as links to those data sets); the New section (offers a hyperlinked list of new data products); the Top 10 section (offers a hyperlinked list of Frequently Requested Global Change Products); or any of the specific project sections: FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment), NARSTO (a non-binding, tri-national, public/private alliance), OCEANS (Survey of CO2 in the Oceans), or AmeriFlux (long-term CO2 flux measurements of the Americas). This is an outstanding resource for those seeking global data (or research summaries) on the status of carbon dioxide in several components of the earth's ecosystems.

  2. Synthesis of fluoropolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Desimone, J M; Guan, Z; Elsbernd, C S

    1992-08-14

    Fluoropolymers are used in many technologically demanding applications because of their balance of high-performance properties. A significant impediment to the synthesis of variants of commercially available amorphous fluoropolymers is their general insolubility in most solvents except chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The environmental concerns about CFCs can be circumvented by preparing these technologically important materials in supercritical fluids. The homogeneous solution polymerization of highly fluorinated acrylic monomers can be achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide by using free radical methods. In addition, detailed decomposition rates and efficiency factors were measured for azobisisobutyronitrile in supercritical carbon dioxide and were compared to those obtained with conventional liquid solvents. PMID:17789638

  3. Carbon dioxide opacity of the Venus' atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snels, Marcel; Stefani, Stefania; Grassi, Davide; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Adriani, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Venus' atmosphere consists of about 95% of carbon dioxide, which accounts for most of the absorption of the radiation emitted by its hot surface. The large densities and high temperatures of Venus' atmosphere make the absorption much more complex than for low density atmospheres such as Earth or Mars. Available experimental data are at present insufficient and theoretical models inadequate to describe complex absorption line shapes and collision-induced phenomena. Here we present a survey of all absorption and scattering processes which influence the transparency of Venus' atmosphere for what concerns carbon dioxide.

  4. Continuous measurements of nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide in the surface ocean with novel laser-absorption analysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jan; Grefe, Imke; Wager, Natalie; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Lee, Gareth A.

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, improvements in spectroscopic technology have revolutionised atmospheric trace gas research. In particular, cavity-based optical absorption analysers allow determination of gas concentrations with high frequency, repeatability, reproducibility and long-term stability. These qualities make them particularly suitable for autonomous measurements on voluntary observing ships (VOS). Here, we present results from three of the first deployments of such analysers on research ships, as a first step towards VOS installations. Los Gatos off-axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) analysers were used to measure nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in ocean surface water during research cruises in 2010, 2011 and 2012. The analysers were coupled to an equilibrator fed by the scientific seawater supply in the ship's laboratories. The equilibrator measurements were alternated with regular measurements of marine air and calibrated standard gases. Short-term precision for 10 s-average N2O mole fractions at an acquisition rate of 1 Hz was better than 0.2 nmol mol-1. The same value was achieved for duplicate measurements of a standard gas analysed within 1 hour of each other. The response time to concentration changes in water was 142-203 s, depending on the headspace flow rate. During the first deployment on the AMT20 cruise (Atlantic Meridional Transect, Southampton to Punta Arenas, 12 October to 25 November 2010), we unexpectedly found the subtropical gyres to be slightly undersaturated in N2O, implying that this region acted as a sink for this greenhouse gas. In contrast, the equatorial region was supersaturated and a source of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Mean sea-to-air fluxes were overall small and ranged between -1.6 and 0.11 ?mol m-2 d-1 (negative fluxes imply an net uptake by the ocean). Despite the good short-term repeatability, significant calibration drift occurred between the six-hourly calibration intervals. We have therefore repeated the observations during the AMT22 cruise (Southampton to Punta Arenas, 10 October to 24 November 2012) and will present the results together with the 2010 data. The second deployment during the D366 Round Britain ocean acidification cruise (6 June to 9 July 2011) showed virtually no day-to-day drift, based on the calibration gases and marine air analyses. Preliminary analyses of the data show that CH4 and N2O were supersaturated in the Skagerrak region, presumably due to the influence of Baltic Sea water, and in coastal areas. Phytoplankton blooms show evidence of CO2 draw-down. CO is extremely supersaturated (up to 50 times), which can be attributed to photochemical breakdown of dissolved organic carbon compounds. For the more recent deployments, a CO2/CH4 and an N2O/CO analyser were successfully operated in series, off of a single equilibrator feed. No leaks or other problems occurred during these deployments, which shows that such a configuration would be ideal for VOS installations as part of the ICOS observational network.

  5. Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

    1983-12-09

    A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

  6. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  7. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  8. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86...Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of ...

  9. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86...Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of ...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

  11. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86...Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of ...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

  14. 40 CFR 86.224-94 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.224-94 Section 86...Cold Temperature Test Procedures 86.224-94 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. The provisions of ...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524...Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration...

  17. International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.

    2000-01-01

    Performance testing of the International Space Station Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly flight hardware in the United States Laboratory during 1999 is described. The CDRA exceeded carbon dioxide performance specifications and operated flawlessly. Data from this test is presented.

  18. Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records

    E-print Network

    Jain, Atul K.

    Model-based estimation of the global carbon budget and its uncertainty from carbon dioxide and the terrestrial biosphere based on carbon dioxide and carbon isotope records, and prior information on model of carbon dioxide and the resulting atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide determined from the behavior

  19. Rapid vibrational and rotational energy-transfer rates in heated carbon dioxide collisions by double-resonance laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomason, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Rates for resonant vibrational and rotational energy transfer from the 001 state by CO/sub 2/ + CO/sub 2/ collisions have been measured. All data were obtained by double resonance spectroscopy with CO/sub 2/ lasers in a 2.5 meter absorption cell at 700/sup 0/K. Results for rotation transfer include pumped-level relaxation and the response of other 001 levels with ..delta..J up to 18. These data are compared to four relevant collision models via a 35-level rate equation analysis. Sequence-band (002 ..-->.. 101) and hot-band (011 ..-->.. 110) lasting have been used to observe resonant nu/sub 3/-transfer relaxation involving 001 + 001 reversible 002 + 000, 001 + 100 reversible 101 + 000, and 001 + 010 reversible 011 + 000. A multilevel rate analysis has been utilized to determine the rate coefficients for 001 going to the 002, the 101, and the 011 levels. Part of the hot-band data has been interpreted as due to 110 + 000 reversible 100 + 010, and the associated rate constant has been estimated. The results of the study are compared to the theory and to other experiments.

  20. Discussion of Refrigeration Cycle Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Amin; Sun, Miming; Li, Jie; Yin, Gang; Cheng, Keyong; Zhen, Bing; Sun, Ying

    Nowadays, the problem of the environment goes worse, it urges people to research and study new energy-saving and environment-friendly refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide, at present, people do research on carbon dioxide at home and abroad. This paper introduces the property of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant, sums up and analyses carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles, and points out the development and research direction in the future.

  1. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    U.S. Energy Information Administration releases its online analysis of 2012 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions today. It indicates U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels were 5,290 million metric tons carbon dioxide in 2012, a decrease of almost 4% from the 2011 level. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions have declined in five of the last seven years and are the lowest they have been since 1994.

  2. The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

    1998-09-01

    The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

  3. Spectral estimation of wetland carbon dioxide exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnicki, B. H.

    2013-01-01

    The simultaneous measurements of broadband normalized difference vegetation index and net ecosystem production were carried out at Rzecin wetland in 2009. Additionally, carbon fluxes, ecosystem respiration and gross ecosystem production were estimated on the basis of measured net ecosystem production values. The maximum broadband normalized difference vegetation index value (0.73) was measured on the 6th of July. The minimum broadband normalized difference vegetation index value measured before and after the vegetation period was 0.40. The annual dynamics of carbon fluxes and broadband normalized difference vegetation index runs were different from each other. During the second half of vegetation period greenness of plants decreases more slowly than plants carbon dioxide uptake capacity. These differences are likely to be determined by plants aging. The results presented in this paper show potential applicability of broadband normalized difference vegetation index for the estimation of carbon dioxide exchange in wetlands.

  4. Ocean Surface Carbon Dioxide Fugacity and Flux From Space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Liu; X. Xie

    2010-01-01

    The ocean as the source and sink of carbon dioxide is important to global warming and ecology. We estimate the ocean-atmosphere exchanges in carbon dioxide through turbulence parameterization, which requires the difference in fugacity of carbon dioxide between sea and air, and a transfer velocity. There have been many studies on the parameterization of the transfer velocity in term of

  5. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

  6. High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide

    E-print Network

    High Temperature Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide Søren Højgaard Jensen+,#, Jens V. T. Høgh (ASR) #12;Electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam CO2 + H2O H2 + CO + 3/2 O2 Interesting because of electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide Picture taken from J. R. Rostrup, Steam Reforming and Catalysts

  7. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions Susan Solomona,1 , Gian in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely

  8. Identifying and Developing New, Carbon Dioxide Consuming Processes , Sudheer Indalaa

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    408b Identifying and Developing New, Carbon Dioxide Consuming Processes Aimin Xua , Sudheer Indalaa@hal.lamar.edu, yawscl@hal.lamar.edu Key words; Carbon Dioxide Processes, Greenhouse Gases, Chemical Complex, Sustainable acceptable, catalytic processes have been identified that can use excess high purity carbon dioxide as a raw

  9. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

  10. Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Paleoclimatic warming increased carbon dioxide concentrations D. M. Lemoine1 Received 6 July 2010 feedbacks are positive, then warming causes changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) sources and sinks that increase increased carbon dioxide concentrations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22122, doi:10.1029/2010JD014725. 1

  11. Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Electrostatic Stabilization of Colloids in Carbon Dioxide: Electrophoresis and Dielectrophoresis in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (scCO2). Herein we demonstrate that colloids may also be stabilized in CO2 the behavior of steric stabilization in compressed supercritical fluids1-3 including carbon dioxide,4

  12. Thermodynamic Promotion of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Formation by

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Thermodynamic Promotion of Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Formation by Tetrahydrofuran, Cyclopentane;______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2 Abstract Gas clathrate hydrate dissociation pressures are reported for mixtures of carbon dioxide) equilibrium data are presented for the ternary system of water-cyclopentane-carbon dioxide at temperatures

  13. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

  14. Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations

    E-print Network

    Lisal, Martin

    Thermal Properties of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide by Monte Carlo Simulations C.M. COLINAa,b, *, C and speed of sound for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the supercritical region, using the fluctuation method based: Fluctuations; Carbon dioxide; 2CLJQ; Joule­Thomson coefficient; Speed of sound INTRODUCTION Simulation methods

  15. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

  16. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-print Network

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  17. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

  18. Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Olver, Peter

    Thermal Infrared Radiation and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Bill Satzer 3M Company #12;Outline,840 · Oxygen (O2) 209,460 · Argon (Ar) 9340 · Carbon dioxide (CO2) 394 · Methane (CH4) 1.79 · Ozone (O3) 0 wavelength of interest is about 400 times the size of a carbon dioxide molecule. Interaction is via

  19. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

  20. ORNL/CDIAC-34 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and

    E-print Network

    ORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (423) 574-3645 Oak Ridge National Laboratory URL: http 37831-6335 FTP: cdiac.esd.ornl.gov #12;ORNL/CDIAC-34 May 1999 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

  1. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

  2. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

  3. 27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

  4. 49 CFR 173.217 - Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 173.217 Section...Than Class 1 and Class 7 173.217 Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). (a) Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice), when offered...

  5. Potassium intercalation of carbon onions opened by carbon dioxide treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. V. Butenko; Amit K. Chakraborty; N. Peltekis; S. Krishnamurthy; V. R. Dhanak; M. R. C. Hunt; L. iller

    2008-01-01

    The potassium intercalation of onion-like carbon (OLC) samples consisting of aggregates of carbon onions is studied with photoemission spectroscopy. OLC samples were initially prepared by annealing nanodiamonds (320nm in diameter) at 1800K in vacuum. The resulting OLC consists of closed fullerene-like shells. The closed OLC was subsequently treated with carbon dioxide at 1020K in order to open the carbon shells

  6. A Simple Model for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this problem set, learners will create and use a differential equation of rate-of-change of atmospheric carbon dioxide. They will refer to the "Keeling Curve" graph and information on the sources and sinks of carbon on Earth to create the equation and apply it to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  7. Spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor for automotive applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Arndt; Maximilian Sauer

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor designed for automotive applications. The sensor is based on the well known infrared measurement principle. It includes a new robust infrared gas-detector and a corresponding, newly developed, ASIC. First application studies show its suitability for automatic vehicle ventilation systems and for leak detection in R744 air conditioning systems.

  8. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the earth's atmosphere and its potential effect on atmospheric temperature is a major concern. Changes in global environment will have major effects for natural and agricultural ecosystems. Plants have been directly affected by rising atmospheric CO2...

  9. DIETHANOLAMINE-CARBON DIOXIDE BUFFER PRODUCES ETHYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon dioxide concentrates in containers are frequently controlled by using a diethanolamine-bicarbonate buffer. Current studies show that this buffer produces ethylene and that the production increases with increasing pH and/or time in the incubation vessel. Ethylene is not pro...

  10. Ocean Acidification: The Other Carbon Dioxide Problem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOAA

    This NOAA video discusses how the ocean absorbs the increased amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere, thereby changing the pH and buffering action of the ocean. These changes in pH are impacting calcifying organisms, such as corals and shellfish, and related food chains and ecosystems.

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Sovov; Jaromr Jez; Milena Brtlov; Jitka St'astov

    1995-01-01

    Oleoresin was extracted from ground black pepper with carbon dioxide at 28 MPa and 24 to 60 C. The yield and contents of piperine in the extract were determined as a function of extraction time and the solvent amount. The concentration profile of piperine inside the fixed bed of pepper was also measured. The total extract contained piperine and essential

  12. Carbon dioxide on the early earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. G. Walker

    1985-01-01

    This paper uses arguments of geochemical mass balance to arrive at an estimate of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the terrestrial atmosphere very early in earth history. It appears that this partial pressure could have been as large as 10 bars. This large estimate depends on two key considerations. First, volatiles were driven out of the interior of

  13. Searching for Clues to Ancient Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Appenzeller

    1993-01-01

    Something on Earth just won't stop fiddling with the thermostat. In the past 500 million years, the planet has shivered through ice ages lasting millions of years and sweltered through episodes of global warmth. Climatologists, eager to know what keeps jiggling the planet's temperature setting, have focused their suspicions on carbon dioxide, the same heat-trapping gas expected to drive up

  14. CDIAC: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is the homepage of the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) which includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC responds to data and information requests from users from all over the world who are concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change. CDIAC's data holdings include records of the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. In operation since 1982, CDIAC: obtains, evaluates, and archives data, compiles and distributes digital numeric data packages and computer model packages, provides data management support to global-change related scientific projects, distributes related reports, produces the newsletter, CDIAC Communications, and in general acts as the information focus for the U.S. DOE Global Change Research Program. CDIAC is supported by DOE's Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-print Network

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  16. Theoretical Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunho Hwang; Reinhard Radermacher

    1998-01-01

    Concerns of ozone depletion and global warming call for investigation of natural refrigerants. In this study the performance potential of the carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle is investigated theoretically. For this purpose, two cycle simulation models were developed. One is an Evans-Perkins cycle model for R-22, and the other is a transcritical cycle model for CO2. By using these models, the

  17. RISING CARBON DIOXIDE AND WEED ECOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Documented and projected changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] and other gases suggest potential changes in climate stability which could negatively impact human systems. One such system would involve negative impacts on agricultural crops and associated weeds. Climatic o...

  18. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  19. Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from Mauna Loa

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Scripps Institute of Oceanography has released these data consisting of monthly carbon dioxide concentrations at Mauna Loa 1958-1999. Measurements were made using a nondispersive infrared gas analyzer with a water vapor freeze trap. The data are available as graphs or tables. The text includes a brief overview of the methods and a reference list.

  20. World Electricity Consumption and Carbon Dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this problem set, learners will analyze a table of global electricity consumption to answer a series of questions and consider the production of carbon dioxide associated with that consumption. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  1. Recent Events: a Perspective on Carbon Dioxide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this problem set, learners will compare the carbon dioxide produced as a result of two 2010 events: the eruption of the Eyjafjalla Volcano and the burning of oil on the ocean surface to address the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions and global GDP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Tucker

    1995-01-01

    A positive relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) implicated in global warming, and GDP is shown in this paper, examining per capita income and CO2 emissions of 137 countries across 21 years. It also appears that as per capita incomes accelerate across countries emissions increases, for the most part, tend to decelerate. It could be

  3. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    E-print Network

    Huppert, Herbert

    , 2013 The Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics is online at fluid.annualreviews.org This article's doi: 10The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Herbert E. Huppert1-3 and Jerome A. Neufeld4 1 reservoirs within the Earth. Fluid mechanics plays a key role in determining both the feasibility and risks

  4. Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage

    E-print Network

    Huppert, Herbert

    Modelling carbon dioxide accumulation at Sleipner: Implications for underground carbon storage Mike dioxide; Viscous flow; Gravity flow 1. Introduction Disposal of carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs;questions about the environmental benefits of this process concern the fate of the carbon dioxide over

  5. Carbon Dioxide Snow Storms During the Polar Night on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Colaprete, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) detected clouds associated with topographic features during the polar night on Mars. While uplift generated from flow over mountains initiates clouds on both Earth and Mars, we suggest that the Martian clouds differ greatly from terrestrial mountain wave clouds. Terrestrial wave clouds are generally compact features with sharp edges due to the relatively small particles in them. However, we find that the large mass of condensible carbon dioxide on Mars leads to clouds with snow tails that may extend many kilometers down wind from the mountain and even reach the surface. Both the observations and the simulations suggest substantial carbon dioxide snow precipitation in association with the underlying topography. This precipitation deposits CO2, dust and water ice to the polar caps, and may lead to propagating geologic features in the Martian polar regions.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Production at Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this problem set, learners will consider the "Carbon Footprint" of a family of four in a given context, as well as the US and global averages, and compare that with their own to answer a series of questions. They will use an online Carbon Footprint calculator to determine their own per-capita carbon production. Answer key is provided. This problem is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  7. Personal Carbon Dioxide Impact (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Pratte

    The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing for many decades now, mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels by mankind. In this exercise, students will track their daily activities, and and estimate how much carbon dioxide they are responsible for emitting with the use of an online Personal Greenhouse Gas Calculator developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The calculator sums the carbon dioxide produced by driving, electricity use, and waste disposal, and provides an estimate of annual carbon dioxide emissions. It also allows users to see how changes in lifestyle could reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Links to websites with additional information are also provided.

  8. New Method for Isotopic Ratio Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using a 4.3 m Pulsed Quantum Cascade

    E-print Network

    Saleska, Scott

    1 New Method for Isotopic Ratio Measurements of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using a 4.3 µm Pulsed@aerodyne.com, bela.tuzson@empa.ch, lukas.emmenegger@empa.ch Abstract We present a new approach to the measurement of stable isotopic ratios of carbon dioxide using a near room temperature pulsed quantum cascade laser

  9. Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3)

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistical studies on the formation and destruction of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and molecular oxygen (O2) with varying carbon-to-oxygen ratios from 1 and destruction pathways of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon trioxide (CO3

  10. Modeling the selectivity of activated carbons for efficient separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jianzhong

    the separation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide via adsorption in activated carbons. In the simulations, both hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules are modeled as Lennard-Jones spheres, and the activated carbons essentially no preference over the two gases and the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to hydrogen falls

  11. Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes

    E-print Network

    Follows, Mick

    Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes), Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB3030, doi:10.1029/2008GB003184. 1. Introduction [2] Atmospheric carbon dioxide

  12. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce, compressive strength and carbon dioxide uptake seem to follow a similar trend. Vacuum-Carbonation yielded

  13. Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide ices

    E-print Network

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Untangling the formation of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer in low temperature carbon dioxide of the cyclic carbon trioxide isomer, CO3(X 1 A1), in carbon-dioxide-rich extraterrestrial ices and in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Carbon dioxide ices were

  14. Carbon Dioxide: Production and Sequestration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this problem set, learners will refer to a satellite image to calculate the rate of carbon sequestration in the areas of bare land and forested lawn shown to answer a series of questions. Answer key is provided. This is part of Earth Math: A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

  15. Separating carbon dioxide and ethane by liquid-liquid extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Styring; R. E. Jr

    1982-01-01

    A mixture of carbon dioxide and ethane derived from a prior separation stage or recovery process is separated by liquid-liquid extraction. One of the liquids is a liquid azeotrope of carbon dioxide and ethane. The extraction liquid is a liquid hydrocarbon with more carbon atoms than ethane, that is, a hydrocarbon having at least 3 carbon atoms. In the extraction

  16. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Nilsen, D.N.; Walters, R.P.; Turner, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite and member (mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4})], or serpentine [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The CO{sub 2} is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The H{sup +} reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg{sup 2+} cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185 C and a partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine and 84% conversion of olivine to the carbonate in 6 hours. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, or some combination of the two. Future tests are intended to examine a broader pressure/temperature regime, various pretreatment options, as well as other mineral groups.

  17. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine and 84% conversion of olivine to the carbonate in 6 hours. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, or some combination of the two. Future tests are intended to examine a broader pressure/temperature regime, various pretreatment options, as well as other mineral groups.

  18. Sequestering ADM ethanol plant carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, R.J.; Riddle, D.

    2008-01-01

    Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) and the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) are collaborating on a project in confirming that a rock formation can store carbon dioxide from the plant in its pores. The project aimed to sequester the gas underground permanently to minimize release of the greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. It is also designed to store one million tons of carbon dioxide over a three-year period. The project is worth $84.3M, funded by $66.7M from the US Department Energy, supplemented by co-funding from ADM and other corporate and state resources. The project will start drilling of wells to an expected depth over 6500 feet into the Mount Simon Sandstone formation.

  19. LASER SPECTROSCOPY: Measurement of the concentration ratio for 13 and 12 isotopes at atmospheric pressure by carbon dioxide absorption of diode laser radiation at ~2 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironchuk, E. S.; Nikolaev, I. V.; Ochkin, Vladimir N.; Rodionova, S. S.; Spiridonov, Maksim V.; Tskhai, Sergei N.

    2009-04-01

    The ratio of 12O2 and 13CO2 concentrations in the human exhaled air is measured by the method of diode laser spectroscopy using a three-channel optical scheme and multipass cell. Unlike the previous measurements in the spectral range of ~4.3 ?m with a resolved rotational structure at low pressure of selected samples, the present measurements are performed in the range of ~2 ?m, in which weaker absorption bands of CO2 reside. In this case, it is possible to employ lasers and photodetectors operating at room temperature. The thorough simulation of the spectrum with collisional broadening of lines and employment of regression analysis allow one to take measurements at atmospheric pressure with the accuracy of ~0.04%, which satisfies the requirements to medical diagnostics of ulcers.

  20. Transport of Carbon Dioxide and Radioactive Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daro R. Gmez; Michael Tyacke

    \\u000a A comparative assessment of carbon dioxide (CO2) and radioactive waste transport systems associated with electricity generation was undertaken on the basis of 15 criteria\\u000a grouped under three areas, namely the transport chain, policy aspects and state of the technology. For CO2, we considered exclusively the transport that would take place under a future large-scale capture and storage infrastructure.\\u000a Our study

  1. Carbon dioxide review: 1982. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, W.C. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Review: 1982 was organized by the Institute for Energy Analysis (IEA) of Oak Ridge Associated Universities as part of their contribution to the United States CO/sub 2/ program. This review aims to provide a forum for critical appraisal of current thinking on the CO/sub 2/ question, its implications, and the options for dealing with it. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 17 essays and papers in the review. (KRM)

  2. Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Carlson, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    A steady state computer simulation model of an Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC) has been developed. The mathematical model combines EDC heat and mass balance equations with empirical correlations derived from experimental data to describe EDC performance as a function of the operating parameters involved. The model is capable of accurately predicting performance over EDC operating ranges. Model simulation results agree with the experimental data obtained over the prediction range.

  3. Carbon dioxide capture with concentrated, aqueous piperazine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie A. Freeman; Ross Dugas; David H. Van Wagener; Thu Nguyen; Gary T. Rochelle

    2010-01-01

    Concentrated, aqueous piperazine (PZ) has been investigated as a novel amine solvent for carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption. The CO2 absorption rate of aqueous PZ is more than double that of 7m MEA and the amine volatility at 40C ranges from 11 to 21ppm. Thermal degradation is negligible in concentrated, aqueous PZ up to a temperature of 150C, a significant advantage

  4. Improved immobilized carbon dioxide capture sorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Gray; Y. Soong; K. J. Champagne; H. Pennline; J. P. Baltrus; R. W. Stevens Jr.; R. Khatri; S. S. C. Chuang; T. Filburn

    2005-01-01

    The capture of carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas streams has been achieved by using immobilized and aminated-SBA-15 solid sorbents. SBA-15, a mesoporous silica material with a uniform pore size of 21 nm and a surface area of 200?230 m2\\/g. The solid sorbents prepared in this study exhibit similar or improved capacities relative to those already used to control CO2

  5. Electron mobility in argon and carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Kucerovsky

    2006-01-01

    Electron drift velocities were determined in argon and in mixtures of argon with carbon dioxide, using media processed to yield a high degree of purity. The measurements were performed at a pressure of 760 torr and a temperature of 25degC. The medium was confined in a cylindrical measuring chamber made of polytetrafluorethylene (10-mm diameter, 10-mm length). The electrodes used to

  6. Carbon dioxide as a natural refrigerant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Cavallini; Claudio Zilio

    2007-01-01

    In the beginnings of mechanical refrigeration, at the end of the nineteenth century, carbon dioxide was one of the fi rst refrigerants to be used in compression-type refrigerating machines, later gaining widespread application mainly onboard refrigerated ships, but common in other sectors of refrigeration as well. It was only immediately after World War II that CO2<\\/sub> was rapidly eclipsed as

  7. Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Keller; David McInerney; David F. Bradford

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component in technological portfolios for managing anthropogenic climate change,\\u000a since it may provide a faster and cheaper route to significant reductions in atmospheric CO2 concentrations than abating CO2 production. However, CO2 sequestration is not a perfect substitute for CO2 abatement because CO2 may leak back into the atmosphere (thus imposing

  8. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950-2050

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Schmalensee; Thomas M. Stoker; Ruth A. Judson

    1998-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced-form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period of 1950-1990. Using the same set of income and population growth assumptions as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), we find that the IPCC's widely used emissions

  9. Climate Impact of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hansen; D. Johnson; A. Lacis; S. Lebedeff; P. Lee; D. Rind; G. Russell

    1981-01-01

    The global temperature rose by 0.2 degrees C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4 degrees C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about

  10. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  11. Bench-to-bedside review: carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Curley, Gerard; Laffey, John G; Kavanagh, Brian P

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a waste product of aerobic cellular respiration in all aerobic life forms. PaCO2 represents the balance between the carbon dioxide produced and that eliminated. Hypocapnia remains a common - and generally underappreciated - component of many disease states, including early asthma, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and acute lung injury. Induction of hypocapnia remains a common, if controversial, practice in both adults and children with acute brain injury. In contrast, hypercapnia has traditionally been avoided in order to keep parameters normal. More recently, advances in our understanding of the role of excessive tidal volume has prompted clinicians to use ventilation strategies that result in hypercapnia. Consequently, hypercapnia has become increasingly prevalent in the critically ill patient. Hypercapnia may play a beneficial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and tissue injury, but may hinder the host response to sepsis and reduce repair. In contrast, hypocapnia may be a pathogenic entity in the setting of critical illness. The present paper reviews the current clinical status of low and high PaCO2 in the critically ill patient, discusses the insights gained to date from studies of carbon dioxide, identifies key concerns regarding hypocapnia and hypercapnia, and considers the potential clinical implications for the management of patients with acute lung injury. PMID:20497620

  12. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Jastrow, Julie D [ORNL; Miller, Michael R [ORNL; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University; Rice, Charles W [ORNL; Owensby, Clenton E [Kansas State University

    2005-01-01

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

  13. Carbon dioxide solubility and carbon isotope fractionation in basaltic melt

    SciTech Connect

    Mattey, D.P. (Univ. of London, Egham Hill (United Kingdom) Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia))

    1991-11-01

    Carbon dioxide solubility and isotope fractionation data for a MORB composition at 1,200-1,400C and 5-20 kbar have been obtained using piston-cylinder apparatus and stepped-heating mass spectrometry. Carbon dioxide solubility in basalt melt at 5, 10 and 20 kbar is 0.15-0.17%, 0.45-0.51%, and 1.49%, respectively. Values for {Delta}Co{sub 2}(vap) - CO 2/3{sup {minus}} (basalt melt), obtained from the difference between the isotopic compositions for coexisting vapor and melt, vary from 1.8% to 2.2%. A review of measured and estimated values for carbon isotope fractionation between CO{sub 2} vapor and carbon dissolved in basic melts shows variation from 1.8% to 4.6%. Results of this study and other considerations favor relatively small equilibrium CO{sub 2} vapor melt fractionation factors around 2%.

  14. Plasma dynamics in double-pulse LIBS on dicarboxylic acids using combined 532 nm Nd:YAG and carbon dioxide laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Brown, Staci R; Akpovo, Charlemagne A; Martinez, Jorge; Johnson, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used as a method to monitor the evolution of C, hydrogen-?, carbon-carbon, and carbon-nitrogen spectral emissions from atmospheric recombination in a specific set of organic materials. Ablated samples were composed of a series of linear chain dicarboxylic acids with two to seven C atoms. Accumulated pulses of a focused neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) Q-switched laser beam operated at 532 nm generate a plasma in air at the sample surface. In this work, a dual-pulse LIBS technique was used to improve signal strength by enhancing the nanosecond LIBS plasma with CO2 transverse-excited breakdown in atmosphere laser pulses with an operating wavelength of 10.6 ?m. Through a time-resolved analysis, we demonstrate the correlation between the signal strength of selected emissions and the number of C atoms in the linear chain. We also illustrate the effects that these constraints, along with the presence of a chiral C in the chain, have on the peak intensities of the individual lines with respect to each other by comparing the increase or nonexistence of certain spectral lines as we increase the number of C atoms in the linear chain. PMID:25226259

  15. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Reservoir Changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minze Stuiver

    1978-01-01

    The net release of CO2 from the biosphere to the atmosphere between 1850 and 1950 is estimated to amount to 1.2 109 tons of carbon per year. During this interval, changes in land use reduced the total terrestrial biomass by 7 percent. There has been a smaller reduction in biomass over the last few decades. In the middle 19th

  16. Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.

    1991-01-01

    Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

  17. Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene

    SciTech Connect

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

  18. Effects of carbon dioxide on Penicillium chrysogenum: an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A.G.; Ho, C.S.

    1988-06-20

    Previous research has shown that dissolved carbon dioxide causes significant changes in submerged penicillin fermentations, such as stunted, swollen hyphae, increased branching, lower growth rates, and lower penicillin productivity. Influent carbon dioxide levels of 5 and 10% were shown through the use of autoradiography to cause an increase in chitin synthesis in submerged cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum. At an influent 5% carbon dioxide level, chitin synthesis is ca. 100% greater in the subapical region of P. chrysogenum hyphae than that of the control, in which there was no influent carbon dioxide. Influent carbon dioxide of 10% caused an increase of 200% in chitin synthesis. It is believed that the cell wall must be plasticized before branching can occur and that high amounts of dissolved carbon dioxide cause the cell to lose control of the plasticizing effect, thus the severe morphological changes occur.

  19. Copolymerization of carbon dioxide and butadiene via a lactone intermediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Ryo; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2014-04-01

    Although carbon dioxide has attracted broad interest as a renewable carbon feedstock, its use as a monomer in copolymerization with olefins has long been an elusive endeavour. A major obstacle for this process is that the propagation step involving carbon dioxide is endothermic; typically, attempted reactions between carbon dioxide and an olefin preferentially yield olefin homopolymerization. Here we report a strategy to circumvent the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for copolymerizations of carbon dioxide and olefins by using a metastable lactone intermediate, 3-ethylidene-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, which is formed by the palladium-catalysed condensation of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene. Subsequent free-radical polymerization of the lactone intermediate afforded polymers of high molecular weight with a carbon dioxide content of 33 mol% (29 wt%). Furthermore, the protocol was applied successfully to a one-pot copolymerization of carbon dioxide and 1,3-butadiene, and one-pot terpolymerizations of carbon dioxide, butadiene and another 1,3-diene. This copolymerization technique provides access to a new class of polymeric materials made from carbon dioxide.

  20. Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the success

  1. Carbon Dioxide Production in the Oxidation of Organic

    E-print Network

    Steinbock, Oliver

    Carbon Dioxide Production in the Oxidation of Organic Acids by Cerium(IV) under Aerobic are oxidized to carbon dioxide. Hence, the determination of the stoichiometry between produced CO2 and reduced The study of oxidation of relatively low molecular weight carbonic acids by metal ions has been an active

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system,

  3. Carbon Dioxide Transport through Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Missner, Andreas; Kgler, Philipp; Saparov, Sapar M.; Sommer, Klaus; Mathai, John C.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Pohl, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Several membrane channels, like aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the RhAG protein of the rhesus complex, were hypothesized to be of physiological relevance for CO2 transport. However, the underlying assumption that the lipid matrix imposes a significant barrier to CO2 diffusion was never confirmed experimentally. Here we have monitored transmembrane CO2 flux (JCO2) by imposing a CO2 concentration gradient across planar lipid bilayers and detecting the resulting small pH shift in the immediate membrane vicinity. An analytical model, which accounts for the presence of both carbonic anhydrase and buffer molecules, was fitted to the experimental pH profiles using inverse problems techniques. At pH 7.4, the model revealed that JCO2 was entirely rate-limited by near-membrane unstirred layers (USL), which act as diffusional barriers in series with the membrane. Membrane tightening by sphingomyelin and cholesterol did not alter JCO2 confirming that membrane resistance was comparatively small. In contrast, a pH-induced shift of the CO2 hydration-dehydration equilibrium resulted in a relative membrane contribution of about 15% to the total resistance (pH 9.6). Under these conditions, a membrane CO2 permeability (3.2 1.6 cm/s) was estimated. It indicates that cellular CO2 uptake (pH 7.4) is always USL-limited, because the USL size always exceeds 1 ?m. Consequently, facilitation of CO2 transport by AQP1, RhAG, or any other protein is highly unlikely. The conclusion was confirmed by the observation that CO2 permeability of epithelial cell monolayers was always the same whether AQP1 was overexpressed in both the apical and basolateral membranes or not. PMID:18617525

  4. Supercritical carbon dioxide: a solvent like no other

    PubMed Central

    Peach, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Summary Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) could be one aspect of a significant and necessary movement towards green chemistry, being a potential replacement for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Unfortunately, carbon dioxide has a notoriously poor solubilising power and is famously difficult to handle. This review examines attempts and breakthroughs in enhancing the physicochemical properties of carbon dioxide, focusing primarily on factors that impact solubility of polar and ionic species and attempts to enhance scCO2 viscosity. PMID:25246947

  5. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor); England, Christopher (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Mixing of carbon in the form of high sulfur coal with sulfuric acid reduces the temperature of sulfuric acid decomposition from 830.degree. C. to between 300.degree. C. and 400.degree. C. The low temperature sulfuric acid decomposition is particularly useful in thermal chemical cycles for splitting water to produce hydrogen. Carbon dioxide is produced as a commercially desirable byproduct. Lowering of the temperature for the sulfuric acid decomposition or oxygen release step simplifies equipment requirements, lowers thermal energy input and reduces corrosion problems presented by sulfuric acid at conventional cracking temperatures. Use of high sulfur coal as the source of carbon for the sulfuric acid decomposition provides an environmentally safe and energy efficient utilization of this normally polluting fuel.

  6. A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

  7. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  8. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Teir; Sanni Eloneva; Ron Zevenhoven

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating

  9. A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

    2001-05-01

    Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

  10. Carbon dioxide measurements in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Finstad, R.

    1980-01-01

    A mass spectrometer experiment for the analysis of minor constituents in the stratosphere has been flown successfully four times from Palestine, Texas on board a balloon gondola. The carbon dioxide mixing ratio, which shows unexpectedly large variations in the stratosphere, reached 400 ppm in one particular night flight. This is about 20% higher than the ground value. Evidence is presented that the experiment performed well during each of the balloon flights. The isotopic ratio C-12/C-13 was measured and found in good agreement with previous air analyses showing a depletion of C-13.

  11. Cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology is developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware and is used to predict the costs of three carbon dioxide concentration systems. The cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other programs are utilized as a basis for establishing the cost estimating relationships. The concentration systems analyzed are the molecular sieves C02 concentrator, the hydrogen-depolarized concentrator, and the regenerable solid desiccant concentrator. Besides the cost estimates for each system, their comparative criteria including relative characteristics, operational differences, and development status are considered.

  12. Searching for clues to ancient carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Appenzeller, T.

    1993-02-12

    Something on Earth just won't stop fiddling with the thermostat. In the past 500 million years, the planet has shivered through ice ages lasting millions of years and sweltered through episodes of global warmth. Climatologists, eager to know what keeps jiggling the planet's temperature setting, have focused their suspicions on carbon dioxide, the same heat-trapping gas expected to drive up temperatures in coming decades. Catching this suspect in the act has been difficult, however; the atmospheres of millions of years ago are gone with the wind.

  13. Electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dahlausen, M. J.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    The fabrication of a one-person Electrochemical Depolarized Carbon Dioxide Concentrator subsystem incorporating advanced electrochemical, mechanical, and control and monitor instrumentation concepts is discussed. This subsystem included an advanced liquid cooled unitized core composite cell module and integrated electromechanical components. Over 1800 hours with the subsystem with removal efficiencies between 90%. and 100%; endurance tests with a Fluid Control Assembly which integrates 11 gas handling components of the subsystem; and endurance testing of a coolant control assembly which integrates a coolant pump, diverter valve and a liquid accumulator were completed.

  14. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  15. Monitoring urban carbon dioxide emissions on small spatial and time scales

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pataki et al.

    A tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer was used to measure carbon dioxide mixing ratios and associated carbon isotope compositions in the atmosphere over Salt Lake City, Utah, between 15 December 2004 and 20 January 2005. A pronounced diurnal pattern was found that reflected the contribution of gasoline versus natural gas combustion to atmospheric carbon dioxide. A brief warming period was also observed. These data show that for the first time, atmospheric measurements can be used to infer patterns of energy and fuel usage on hourly to daily time scales.

  16. The kinetics of binding carbon dioxide in magnesium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, D.P.; Lackner, K.S.; Wendt, C.H.; Vaidya, R.; Pile, D.L.; Park, Y.; Holesinger, T.; Harradine, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nomura, Koji [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.]|[Chichibu Onada Cement Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Humans currently consume about 6 Gigatons of carbon annually as fossil fuel. In some sense, the coal industry has a unique advantage over many other anthropogenic and natural emitters of CO{sub 2} in that it owns large point sources of CO{sub 2} from which this gas could be isolated and disposed of. If the increased energy demands of a growing world population are to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of sequestration technologies will likely be unavoidable. The authors` method of sequestration involves binding carbon dioxide as magnesium carbonate, a thermodynamically stable solid, for safe and permanent disposal, with minimal environmental impact. The technology is based on extracting magnesium hydroxide from common ultramafic rock for thermal carbonation and subsequent disposition. The economics of the method appear to be promising, however, many details of the proposed process have yet to be optimized. Realization of a cost effective method requires development of optimal technologies for efficient extraction and thermal carbonation.

  17. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements...Requirements 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section... 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  20. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section... 175.900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

  1. 27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a...42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  3. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements...Requirements 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

  4. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  8. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements...Requirements 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

  9. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  10. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 ...and Emergency Equipment 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  11. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

  12. 27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a...42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  13. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section... 175.900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

  14. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 ...Markings and Instructions 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  15. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

  16. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

  17. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

  18. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements...Requirements 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

  19. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

  20. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2 ) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

  1. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  2. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid...

  3. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

  4. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances 180.1049 Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the...

  6. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  7. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  9. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  10. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid...

  11. 21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

  12. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

  13. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing...Requirements 167.45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing...working spaces. Pipes for conveying carbon dioxide or other extinguishing...

  14. 27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a...42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section... 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  16. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances 180.1049 Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  19. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2 ) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

  20. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 ...Markings and Instructions 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  1. 27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a...42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

  2. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  3. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section... 175.900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

  4. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

  5. 46 CFR 167.45-45 - Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements...Requirements 167.45-45 Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system requirements. (a) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) smothering system...

  6. 21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

  7. 46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing...Requirements 167.45-1 Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing...working spaces. Pipes for conveying carbon dioxide or other extinguishing...

  8. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration...RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are...RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that...

  9. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

  10. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

  11. 46 CFR 147.65 - Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems...Particular Materials 147.65 Carbon dioxide and halon fire extinguishing systems. (a) Carbon dioxide or halon cylinders...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances 180.1049 Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section... 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances 180.1049 Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the...

  16. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4...transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid...

  17. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section... 175.900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...

  18. Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration and separation

    E-print Network

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Effects of carbon dioxide on peak mode isotachophoresis: Simultaneous preconcentration ions resulting from dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxid e to weakly disrupt isotachophoretic the hydration and carbamation reaction of dissolved atmospheric carbon dioxide, respectively. The width

  19. 40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances 180.1049 Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the...

  20. 49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). 175.900 Section... 175.900 Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when...